WorldWideScience

Sample records for association fiber tracts

  1. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: I. Development of the lineage-associated fiber tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Ngo, Kathy T; Omoto, Jaison J; Wong, Darren C; Nguyen, Joseph D; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-12-15

    Neurons of the Drosophila central brain fall into approximately 100 paired groups, termed lineages. Each lineage is derived from a single asymmetrically-dividing neuroblast. Embryonic neuroblasts produce 1,500 primary neurons (per hemisphere) that make up the larval CNS followed by a second mitotic period in the larva that generates approximately 10,000 secondary, adult-specific neurons. Clonal analyses based on previous works using lineage-specific Gal4 drivers have established that such lineages form highly invariant morphological units. All neurons of a lineage project as one or a few axon tracts (secondary axon tracts, SATs) with characteristic trajectories, thereby representing unique hallmarks. In the neuropil, SATs assemble into larger fiber bundles (fascicles) which interconnect different neuropil compartments. We have analyzed the SATs and fascicles formed by lineages during larval, pupal, and adult stages using antibodies against membrane molecules (Neurotactin/Neuroglian) and synaptic proteins (Bruchpilot/N-Cadherin). The use of these markers allows one to identify fiber bundles of the adult brain and associate them with SATs and fascicles of the larval brain. This work lays the foundation for assigning the lineage identity of GFP-labeled MARCM clones on the basis of their close association with specific SATs and neuropil fascicles, as described in the accompanying paper (Wong et al., 2013. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones. Submitted.). PMID:23880429

  2. Associations between white matter hyperintensities and β amyloid on integrity of projection, association, and limbic fiber tracts measured with diffusion tensor MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L Chao

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between Aβ deposition and white matter pathology (i.e., white matter hyperintensities, WMH on microstructural integrity of the white matter. Fifty-seven participants (mean age: 78±7 years from an ongoing multi-site research program who spanned the spectrum of normal to mild cognitive impairment (Clinical dementia rating 0-0.5 and low to high risk factors for arteriosclerosis and WMH pathology (defined as WMH volume >0.5% total intracranial volume were assessed with positron emission tomography (PET with Pittsburg compound B (PiB and magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Multivariate analysis of covariance were used to investigate the relationship between Aβ deposition and WMH pathology on fractional anisotropy (FA from 9 tracts of interest (i.e., corona radiata, internal capsule, cingulum, parahippocampal white matter, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal, superior and inferior front-occipital fasciculi, and fornix. WMH pathology was associated with reduced FA in projection (i.e., internal capsule and corona radiate and association (i.e., superior longitudinal, superior and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi fiber tracts. Aβ deposition (i.e., PiB positivity was associated with reduced FA in the fornix and splenium of the corpus callosum. There were interactions between PiB and WMH pathology in the internal capsule and parahippocampal white matter, where Aβ deposition reduced FA more among subjects with WMH pathology than those without. However, accounting for apoE ε4 genotype rendered these interactions insignificant. Although this finding suggests that apoE4 may increase amyloid deposition, both in the parenchyma (resulting in PiB positivity and in blood vessels (resulting in amyloid angiopathy and WMH pathology, and that these two factors together may be associated with compromised white matter microstructural integrity in multiple brain regions, additional studies

  3. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila ventral nervous system: Neuroglian expression reveals the adult hemilineage associated fiber tracts in the adult thoracic neuromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, David; Harris, Robin; Williams, Darren W; Truman, James W

    2016-09-01

    During larval life most of the thoracic neuroblasts (NBs) in Drosophila undergo a second phase of neurogenesis to generate adult-specific neurons that remain in an immature, developmentally stalled state until pupation. Using a combination of MARCM and immunostaining with a neurotactin antibody, Truman et al. (2004; Development 131:5167-5184) identified 24 adult-specific NB lineages within each thoracic hemineuromere of the larval ventral nervous system (VNS), but because of the neurotactin labeling of lineage tracts disappearing early in metamorphosis, they were unable extend the identification of these lineages into the adult. Here we show that immunostaining with an antibody against the cell adhesion molecule neuroglian reveals the same larval secondary lineage projections through metamorphosis and bfy identifying each neuroglian-positive tract at selected stages we have traced the larval hemilineage tracts for all three thoracic neuromeres through metamorphosis into the adult. To validate tract identifications we used the genetic toolkit developed by Harris et al. (2015; Elife 4) to preserve hemilineage-specific GAL4 expression patterns from larval into the adult stage. The immortalized expression proved a powerful confirmation of the analysis of the neuroglian scaffold. This work has enabled us to directly link the secondary, larval NB lineages to their adult counterparts. The data provide an anatomical framework that 1) makes it possible to assign most neurons to their parent lineage and 2) allows more precise definitions of the neuronal organization of the adult VNS based in developmental units/rules. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2677-2695, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878258

  4. [Ketamine-associated urinary tract damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-hao; Guan, Zhi-chen

    2011-08-18

    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic during surgical procedures in both animals and humans. As its unique effects of inducing the dissociative hallucinatory,vivid dreams, out-of-body experiences, and delirium, it has diverted from legitimate uses to the illicit drug market, and abusing ketamine has become a serious social problem. The abusers may use ketamine alone or mixe it with other drugs to get an intense pleasure. There are case reports from all over the world in recent years that abusing ketamine may induce severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and a variety of anatomical and functional lesions can be found in the urinary tract if further examinations are administrated. There is no universally recognized treatment protocols for this syndrome. Ketamine cessation or even reduction is the most effective treatment to prevent deterioration of the urinary tract, and intravesical instillation of hyaluranic acid (cystitstat) and oral pentosan polysulphate (elmiron) may take effect. The pathogenesis of ketamine-associated urinary tract destruction is unclear, and further study is needed. PMID:21844983

  5. Automated atlas-based clustering of white matter fiber tracts from DTMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Mahnaz; Mewes, Andrea U J; Haker, Steven; Grimson, W Eric L; Warfield, Simon K

    2005-01-01

    A new framework is presented for clustering fiber tracts into anatomically known bundles. This work is motivated by medical applications in which variation analysis of known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain is desired. To include the anatomical knowledge in the clustering, we invoke an atlas of fiber tracts, labeled by the number of bundles of interest. In this work, we construct such an atlas and use it to cluster all fiber tracts in the white matter. To build the atlas, we start with a set of labeled ROIs specified by an expert and extract the fiber tracts initiating from each ROI. Affine registration is used to project the extracted fiber tracts of each subject to the atlas, whereas their B-spline representation is used to efficiently compare them to the fiber tracts in the atlas and assign cluster labels. Expert visual inspection of the result confirms that the proposed method is very promising and efficient in clustering of the known bundles of fiber tracts. PMID:16685845

  6. Delay discounting and frontostriatal fiber tracts: a combined DTI and MTR study on impulsive choices in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Mandl, René C W; Braams, Barbara R; de Water, Erik; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Crone, Eveline A

    2013-07-01

    Delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, has been associated with decreased control of the prefrontal cortex over striatum responses. The anatomical connectivity between both brain regions in delaying gratification remains unknown. Here, we investigate whether the quality of frontostriatal (FS) white matter tracts can predict individual differences in delay-discounting behavior. We use tract-based diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging to measure the microstructural properties of FS fiber tracts in 40 healthy young adults (from 18 to 25 years). We additionally explored whether internal sex hormone levels affect the integrity of FS tracts, based on the hypothesis that sex hormones modulate axonal density within prefrontal dopaminergic circuits. We calculated fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity, radial diffusivity (RD), and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), a putative measure of myelination, for the FS tract. Results showed that lower integrity within the FS tract (higher MD and RD and lower FA), predicts faster discounting in both sexes. MTR was unrelated to delay-discounting performance. In addition, testosterone levels in males were associated with a lower integrity (higher RD) within the FS tract. Our study provides support for the hypothesis that enhanced structural integrity of white matter fiber bundles between prefrontal and striatal brain areas is associated with better impulse control.

  7. In vivo tractography of fetal association fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mitter

    Full Text Available Association fibers connect different cortical areas within the same hemisphere and constitute an essential anatomical substrate for a diverse range of higher cognitive functions. So far a comprehensive description of the prenatal in vivo morphology of these functionally important pathways is lacking. In the present study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and tractography were used to visualize major association fiber tracts and the fornix in utero in preselected non-motion degraded DTI datasets of 24 living unsedated fetuses between 20 and 34 gestational weeks (GW. The uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were depicted as early as 20 GW, while in vivo 3D visualization of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum and fornix was successful in older fetuses during the third trimester. Provided optimal scanning conditions, in utero DTI and tractography have the potential to provide a more accurate anatomical definition of developing neuronal networks in the human fetal brain. Knowledge about the normal prenatal 3D association tract morphology may serve as reference for their assessment in common developmental diseases.

  8. Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18) learned to perform three short melodies on a piano keyboard in a pure audio-motor training condition (vision of their own fingers was occluded). Initial learning times ranged from 17 to 120 min (mean ± SD: 62 ± 29 min). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter microstructural arrangement. A correlation analysis revealed that higher FA values were associated with faster learning of piano melodies. These effects were observed in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, bundles of axons relevant for the execution of voluntary movements, and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract important for audio-motor transformations. These results suggest that the speed with which novel complex audio-motor skills can be acquired may be determined by variability in structural properties of white matter fiber tracts connecting brain areas functionally relevant for audio-motor learning.

  9. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans.

  10. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Noethlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quiros, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.; Werner, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellula

  11. Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, Volker; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Viktorin, Gudrun

    2015-10-01

    Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted. Our L1 neuro-anatomical atlas of lineages constitutes an essential step towards following morphologically defined lineages to the neuroblasts of the early embryo, which will ultimately make it possible to link the structure and connectivity of a lineage to the expression of genes in the particular neuroblast that gives rise to that lineage. Furthermore, the L1 atlas will be important for a host of ongoing work that attempts to reconstruct neuronal connectivity at the level of resolution of single neurons and their synapses. PMID:26141956

  12. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Nöthlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjønneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quirós, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sánchez, M. J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. Patients and methods The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case–control subset. Results Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17–1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55–0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52–0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23–1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37–0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Conclusions Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk. PMID:23123507

  13. Fiber tract-oriented statistics for quantitative diffusion tensor MRI analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Corouge, Isabelle; Fletcher, Thomas; Joshi, Sarang; Gilmore, John; Gerig, Guido

    2005-01-01

    International audience Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become the major modality to study properties of white matter and the geometry of fiber tracts of the human brain. Clinical studies mostly focus on regional statistics of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) derived from tensors. Existing analysis techniques do not sufficiently take into account that the measurements are tensors, and thus require proper interpolation and statistics based on tensors, and that regions ...

  14. [Association between chronic urinary tract infection and primary biliary cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, J B; Wang, S

    2016-06-01

    The etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains unclear, and at present, this disease is considered to be caused by the combined effect of genetic factors, infection, autoimmunity, and environmental factors. Since infection is the major cause for PBC, scholars have been focusing on the association between chronic microbial infection. Studies have shown that Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium for urinary tract infection (UTI), and recurrent UTI has been confirmed to be a risk factor for the development and progression of autoimmune liver diseases and is closely associated with PBC. This article investigates the association between UTI and PBC and possible mechanisms. PMID:27465958

  15. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection: antimicrobial sensitivity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Kelie Souza de Almeida Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive quantitative study aimed to analyze the prevalence of microorganisms and the antimicrobial sensitivity profile from urine cultures of patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection. We reviewed 394 medical records of adults hospitalized in the Intensive Care Units of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, from April to December 2011. The prevalence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection was of 34.0% (134 and 2.2% (3 of these patients developed sepsis. The most common microorganisms found in the urine cultures were Candida sp (44.4%, Acinetobacter baumannii (9.7% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.2%. This last one showed resistance of 86.7% to third-generation cephalosporins and the Acinetobacter baumannii showed resistance of 83.3% to carbapenems. Klebsiella pneumonia had 87.5% of resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and 75.0% to carbapenems. We concluded that bacterial resistance is frequent in catheter-associated urinary tract infection and that we should emphasize the control measures.

  16. Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uh, Jinsoo, E-mail: jinsoo.uh@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

  17. ASSOCIATION OF MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE WITH RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Mohammed Saed Abdul-Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of four most common species of organisms that are responsible for most clinically significant infections in humans. It is a frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in both children and adults. The organism can cause pharyngitis, otitis, tracheobronchitis, or community-acquired pneumonia, but patients may also remain totally asymptomatic. Aim of this prospective study for children, was to investigate the association of M. pneumoniae with respiratory tract infections in a Saudi population. This study was designed as a case-control study in which 90 patients (Mean age of the patients in case group was 5.94±2.73 and in control group was 6.51±2.26 of either sexes were included. These patients were classified into two groups: first group (case group, included 45 patients who had been admitted in hospital with diagnosis of respiratory tract infections and the second group (control group, included 45 healthy patients who had no history of respiratory tract infections. Both the groups were age and sex matched. Presence of IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was assessed by ELISA technique in both groups. In the case group, 4 (9% cases out of 45 children were positive for anti-mycoplasma antibody whereas in the control group, all children were negative. All positive case group patients had symptoms of acute pneumonia. 18 (40% of the patients were diagnosed with bronchial asthma (40% inclusive of all the four cases diagnosed with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The relative risk for the occurrence of mycoplasma infection was estimated to be 9 (95%C.I = 0.49-162.43. However, on comparing the case and control groups, the result was not found to be statistically significant. (Fischer Exact Test p = 0.0583. Children in Saudi Arabia are at a relatively higher risk of developing Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection especially those predisposed with underlying chronic respiratory illnesses such as asthma. This is a first

  18. Postoperative Morganella morganii endophthalmitis associated with subclinical urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanaktsidis, Gina; Agarwal, Smita A; Maloof, Anthony J; Chandra, Jay; Mitchell, Paul

    2003-05-01

    We report a case of Morganella morganii acute endophthalmitis following clear corneal phacoemulsification cataract surgery in which a coincident asymptomatic chronic urinary tract infection was detected postoperatively. Morganella morganii is a gram-negative bacillus that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract and is part of the normal fecal flora. It is an opportunistic pathogen usually encountered in postoperative and nosocomial settings, causing urinary tract and wound infections. Chronic urinary tract infection may be a risk factor for postoperative endophthalmitis. A dipstick urinalysis before elective cataract surgery in elderly patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections may be considered.

  19. ISOLATION AND LIGNOCELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF FIBER-DIGESTING BACTERIA FROM DIGESTIVE TRACT OF TERMITE (Cryptothermes sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I.M. Tampoebolon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to obtain the fiber-digesting bacteria isolates from termitedigestive tract and to determine the optimum conditions of growth and production of cellulase, xylanaseand ligninase enzyme of isolate. The first study was conducted to isolate and select the fiber-digestingbacteria from the digestive tract of termites based on the highest activity of cellulolytic (S, xylanolytic(X and lignolytic (L. The second study was optimation of the growth conditions of bacteria and theenzyme production due to effect of rice straw substrate and nitrogen. The material used were dry woodtermites, rice straw, and culture medium. The design used was a completely randomized factorial design,in which the first factor was rice straw substrate (1, 2, and 3% W/V, while the second factor wasnitrogen (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% W/V. Variables measured were cellulase, xylanase and ligninase activities.Results of the first sudy showed that the isolates obtained consisted of 3 types, those were cellulolyticbacteria (S1, S2, and S3, 3 types of bacteria xylanolytic (X1, X2, and X3 and 3 types of bacteria lignolytic(L1, L2, and L3. Meanwhile, results of the second study showed that isolates of S2, X3, and L1 had thehighest activity, those were 1.894 U/mL, 1.722 U/mL and 0.314 U/mL, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of 1% level of rice straw substrate and 0.3% of nitrogen showed the highest enzyme activity oncellulase, xylanase and ligninase.

  20. Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S.; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E.; Keysers, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18) le

  1. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Rutten, P.G.P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta

  2. Changes of the different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in the diabetic rat's alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Erzsébet; Batbayar, Bayarchimeg; Vér, Agota; Zelles, Tivadar

    2006-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, where neuropeptides and immunocells might play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this article we have quantified the different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat's alimentary tract (tongue, duodenum, colon) using immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers were found in all layers of the alimentary tract and their distribution pattern was similar in both control and diabetic groups. Mast cell-nerve fiber contacts were rarely found in the controls. However, after 4 weeks duration of diabetes the number of IR nerve fibers and the immunocompetent cells increased significantly (P cell-nerve fiber contacts was even more significantly increased (P cells were degranulated in the vicinity of nerve fibers. No immunocompetent cells were IR for any antisera in the control. However, after the streptozotocin treatment, a large number of the immunocompetent cells showed immunoreactivity for SP and NPY. Counting all immunocompetent cells in whole sections showed that 12.3% of them were IR for SP and 25.4% were IR for NPY. Increased number of SP-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in diabetes mellitus might be the reason for painful neuropathy and might amplify the inflammatory reaction in an axon reflex manner; the released histamine and leukotrienes, cytokines, and chemokines might cause inflammations and lesions of the mucosa. PMID:17151308

  3. Resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections to antibacterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaz Antonija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are the most common nosocomial infections. The worldwide data show the increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics among urinary tract pathogens. Aim. To evaluate the adequacy of initial antimicrobial therapy in relation to the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens responsible for CAUTI in Clinical Center of Banja Luka. Methods. A retrospective study on major causes of CAUTI, antibiotic resistance and treatment principles was conducted at four departments of the Clinical Center of Banja Luka from January 1st, 2000 to April 1st, 2003. Results. The results showed that 265 patients had developed CAUTI. The seven most commonly isolated microorganisms were, in descending order: E. coli (31.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.8%, Proteus mirabilis (12.9%, Gr. Klebsiella-Enterobacter (12.3%, Enterococcus spp. (5.2%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.3%, Serratia spp. (4.0%. The most common pathogens were highly resistant to ampicillin (64−100%, gentamycin (63−100%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68−100%, while some bacterias, like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia spp. showed rates of ciprofloxacin resistance as high as 42.8% and 72.7%, respectively. In 55.5% of the cases, the initial antibiotic therapy was inadequate, and was corrected latter on. There were no standard therapeutic protocols for this type of nosocomial infections. Conclusion. The results of this study emphasized an urgency of the prevention and introduction of clinical protocols for better management of CAUTI. Treatment principles should better correspond to the antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogens.

  4. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  5. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  6. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Dina; Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  7. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli. He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient’s urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors’ knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis.

  8. Neuronal fiber tracts connecting the brain and ventral nerve cord of the early Drosophila larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Albert; Larsen, Camilla; Hartenstein, Volker

    2009-08-01

    By using a combination of dye injections, clonal labeling, and molecular markers, we have reconstructed the axonal connections between brain and ventral nerve cord of the first-instar Drosophila larva. Out of the approximately 1,400 neurons that form the early larval brain hemisphere, less than 50 cells have axons descending into the ventral nerve cord. Descending neurons fall into four topologically defined clusters located in the anteromedial, anterolateral, dorsal, and basoposterior brain, respectively. The anterolateral cluster represents a lineage derived from a single neuroblast. Terminations of descending neurons are almost exclusively found in the anterior part of the ventral nerve cord, represented by the gnathal and thoracic neuromeres. This region also contains small numbers of neurons with axons ascending into the brain. Terminals of the ascending axons are found in the same basal brain regions that also contain descending neurons. We have mapped ascending and descending axons to the previously described scaffold of longitudinal fiber tracts that interconnect different neuromeres of the ventral nerve cord and the brain. This work provides a structural framework for functional and genetic studies addressing the control of Drosophila larval behavior by brain circuits. PMID:19459219

  9. Expression of GFAP immunoreactivity during development of long fiber tracts in the rat CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, K L; Jones, E G; Kane, S A

    1983-09-01

    Astrocyte maturation in the developing corpus callosum and dorsal columns of the spinal cord was studied immunocytochemically in the rat, using antiserum to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with a view to determining the relationships of astrocytes to the advancing axons of the corpus callosum and corticospinal tract. Between the eighteenth and nineteenth days of gestation, when the corpus callosum commences forming, most of the GFAP staining in the cerebral hemispheres is contained in radial processes, but some staining of glial cell bodies is also seen in the ventricular zone. At the region of interhemispheric fusion, where the corpus callosum will form, an accumulation of astrocytic processes demonstrable electron microscopically shows light immunocytochemical staining for GFAP. These processes do not adopt a stereotyped orientation. Rather, the overall impression as one moves towards the midline, is of radially disposed processes being disrupted and disoriented by the growing callosal axons at the fusion of the hemispheres. At no time can any orderly arrangement of GFAP-containing processes be seen which might indicate that the processes are serving to guide the growing axons across the midline. There is no immunoreactive staining of cell bodies or processes ventral to the corpus callosum, except in postnatal animals. Prior to the arrival of corticospinal axons in the spinal cord on the first postnatal day (PO)21, GFAP immunoreactivity is greatest in radial processes of the lateral funiculi and in the dorsal median septum. Oblique or vertical processes increase in the cuneate fasciculus from P0 tot P4 but do not appear in the gracile fasciculus until P4. Virtually no stained processes appear in the region to be traversed by the principal corticospinal tract, nor later in the tract itself until late in postnatal development. Only by 3 weeks postnatal is the adult pattern of GFAP staining observed in the corticospinal tract. These results also indicate that

  10. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  11. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions.

  12. Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Sun Ho; Charmaine You Mei Tan; Muhd Ashik Mohd Daud; Francis Seow-Choen

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of reducing dietary fiber on patients with idiopathic constipation.METHODS:Sixty-three cases of idiopathic constipation presenting between May 2008 and May 2010 were enrolled into the study after colonoscopy excluded an organic cause of the constipation.Patients with previous colon surgery or a medical cause of their constipation were excluded.All patients were given an explanation on the role of fiber in the gastrointestinal tract.They were then asked to go on a no fiber diet for 2 wk.Thereafter,they were asked to reduce the amount of dietary fiber intake to a level that they found acceptable.Dietary fiber intake,symptoms of constipation,difficulty in evacuation of stools,anal bleeding,abdominal bloating or abdominal pain were recorded at 1 and 6 mo.RESULTS:The median age of the patients (16 male,47 female) was 47 years (range,20-80 years).At 6 mo,41 patients remained on a no fiber diet,16 on a reduced fiber diet,and 6 resumed their high fiber diet for religious or personal reasons.Patients who stopped or reduced dietary fiber had significant improvement in their symptoms while those who continued on a high fiber diet had no change.Of those who stopped fiber completely,the bowel frequency increased from one motion in 3.75 d (± 1.59 d) to one motion in 1.0 d (± 0.0 d) (P < 0.001);those with reduced fiber intake had increased bowel frequency from a mean of one motion per 4.19 d (± 2.09 d)to one motion per 1.9 d (± 1.21 d) on a reduced fiber diet (P < 0.001); those who remained on a high fiber diet continued to have a mean of one motion per 6.83 d (± 1.03 d) before and after consultation.For no fiber,reduced fiber and high fiber groups,respectively,symptoms of bloating were present in 0%,31.3% and 100% (P < 0.001) and straining to pass stools occurred in 0%,43.8% and 100% (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION:Idiopathic constipation and its associated symptoms can be effectively reduced by stopping or even lowering the intake

  13. Bacteriological evaluation of the non-struvite nephrolithiasis and its association with urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the bacteriological features in non-struvite nephrolithiasis and in its associated urinary tract infection, and to establish the relationship between the two pathologies.

  14. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  15. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Xi; Carrascosa, José Manuel; Cabré, Eduard; Dern, Olga; Sumoy, Lauro; Requena, Gerard; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut). Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:27272720

  16. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia associated with gastrointestinal tract diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulas; D; Bayraktar; Soley; Bayraktar

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common site of bleeding that may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Treatment of IDA depends on severity and acuity of patients’ signs and symptoms. While red blood cell transfusions may be required in hemodynamically unstable patients, transfusions should be avoided in chronically anemic patients due to their potential side effects and cost. Iron studies need to be performed after episodes of GI bleeding and stores need to be replenished before anemia develops. Oral ...

  17. Conservative treatment of patients with periapical lesions associated with extraoral sinus tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Janir Alves; de Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes; Araújo, Gustavo Sivieri; de Pontes Lima, Regina K; Rodrigues, Vivian M Tellaroli; de Toledo Leonardo, Renato

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the clinical courses of three cases with extra-oral sinus tract formation, from diagnosis and treatment to short-term follow-up and evaluation. All teeth involved had periradicular radiolucent areas noted on radiographic examination and extra-oral sinus tracts appearing on the chin with exudation and unpleasant aesthetic appearance. The adopted treatment protocol included treating the sinus tract surface simultaneously with the root canal therapy. After root canal shaping using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution, calcium hydroxide-based pastes associated with different vehicles were inserted into the root canal for 4 months, and were changed monthly. All the sinus tracts healed in 7 to 10 days. The apical lesions were completely repaired in a maximum period of 24 months. The treatment adopted provided a complete healing of the periapical lesions in a short follow-up period. Surgical repair of the cutaneous sinus tract was therefore unnecessary.

  18. Unbiased group-wise image registration: applications in brain fiber tract atlas construction and functional connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Gu, Hong; Shin, Wanyong; Ross, Thomas J; Yang, Yihong

    2011-10-01

    We propose an unbiased implicit-reference group-wise (IRG) image registration method and demonstrate its applications in the construction of a brain white matter fiber tract atlas and the analysis of resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity. Most image registration techniques pair-wise align images to a selected reference image and group analyses are performed in the reference space, which may produce bias. The proposed method jointly estimates transformations, with an elastic deformation model, registering all images to an implicit reference corresponding to the group average. The unbiased registration is applied to build a fiber tract atlas by registering a group of diffusion tensor images. Compared to reference-based registration, the IRG registration improves the fiber track overlap within the group. After applying the method in the fMRI connectivity analysis, results suggest a general improvement in functional connectivity maps at a group level in terms of larger cluster size and higher average t-scores.

  19. A Sensitive and Automatic White Matter Fiber Tracts Model for Longitudinal Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Images in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Stamile

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a sensitive tool for the assessment of microstructural alterations in brain white matter (WM. We propose a new processing technique to detect, local and global longitudinal changes of diffusivity metrics, in homologous regions along WM fiber-bundles. To this end, a reliable and automatic processing pipeline was developed in three steps: 1 co-registration and diffusion metrics computation, 2 tractography, bundle extraction and processing, and 3 longitudinal fiber-bundle analysis. The last step was based on an original Gaussian mixture model providing a fine analysis of fiber-bundle cross-sections, and allowing a sensitive detection of longitudinal changes along fibers. This method was tested on simulated and clinical data. High levels of F-Measure were obtained on simulated data. Experiments on cortico-spinal tract and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi of five patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS included in a weekly follow-up protocol highlighted the greater sensitivity of this fiber scale approach to detect small longitudinal alterations.

  20. Association between diaphragm use and urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihn, S D; Latham, R H; Roberts, P; Running, K; Stamm, W E

    1985-07-12

    We conducted independent case-control and retrospective cohort investigations to assess the relationship between diaphragm use and urinary tract infection (UTI). In the former, we compared diaphragm use and vaginal flora among 114 women with acute UTI and 85 women with acute urinary tract symptoms and no UTI. In the latter study, we ascertained the incidence of UTI in 192 diaphragm users and 182 women taking oral contraceptives during a mean follow-up of 9.4 months. Both studies demonstrated a significantly increased risk of UTI in diaphragm users: relative odds were 2.0 in the case-control study and the relative risk was 2.5 in the retrospective cohort study. Vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli was significantly greater in diaphragm users. The incidence of UTI in the cohort study was 26.6 per 1,000 patient-months for diaphragm users and 8.9 per 1,000 patient-months for women taking oral contraceptives. The increased risk of UTI in diaphragm users could not be attributed to differences in age, parity, sexual activity, or previous UTI. PMID:3999367

  1. The changes of integrity of long association fiber tracts and cognitive function in remitted geriatric depression patients: a follow-up study%老年抑郁症恢复期患者白质长纤维束完整性与认知功能改变的随访研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯正华; 袁勇贵; 柏峰; 侯钢

    2014-01-01

    质长纤维束完整性受损可能损害患者认知功能.%Objective This study was aimed to investigate the association between integrity of long association fiber tracts changes and neuropsychological performance in patients with remitted geriatric depression (RGD).Methods Using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE),Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT),Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT),Trail Making Test-A&B (TMT-A&B),Digit Span Test (DST) to collect general clinical data and neuropsychological data.14 patients with RGD and 19 healthy volunteers as control were recruited in this follow-up study.Subjects were scanned using a General Electric 1.5 Tesla scanner to acquire diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images.Using the DTI studio software to calculate the fraction anisotropy (FA) value of region of interesting (ROI) in 13 RGD patients and 19 controls.Results (1) At baseline,RGD patients showed significant poorer performance in some specific domain of cognitive function,such as AVLT,SDMT,TMT A&B and DST than controls [RGD patients:5.93±2.56,25.00 ± 15.04,133.50 ±96.66,237.71 ± 138.42,11.79 ±2.08; controls:8.16 ± 1.83,34.95 ± 8.89,69.58 ± 27.92,139.74 ± 38.11,13.16 ± 1.74.At follow-up,the score of MMSE,AVLT,DST in RGD patients showed some degrees of decline (27.79 ±3.97,5.00 ±2.83,11.71 ±2.13,SDMT,TMT-A&B exhibited increased score 27.07 ± 15.78,70.43 ±25.52,157.71 ±36.92,but only the change of TMT-A and B was statistically significant (P =0.038,0.032).After follow-up,the RGD patients exhibited lower scores of DST than controls [(11.71 ±2.13) vs.(14.05 ±2.72),P <0.01].(2) At baseline,the FA value of left cingulate fasciculus (posterior) in RGD patients was lower than controls [(0.50 ± 0.08) vs.(0.57 ±0.05),P =0.015].At follow-up,the FA value of right frontooccipital fasciculus in RGD patients was lower compared to controls [(0.50 ± 0.03) vs.(0.54 ± 0.06),P =0.025],the FA value of corpus callosum (splenium) was decreased significantly in RGD

  2. Identifying preoperative language tracts and predicting postoperative functional recovery using HARDI q-ball fiber tractography in patients with gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Jordan, Kesshi M; Lobach, Iryna V; Li, Jing; Panara, Valentina; Racine, Caroline A; Sankaranarayanan, Vanitha; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Papinutto, Nico; Berger, Mitchel S; Henry, Roland G

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Diffusion MRI has uniquely enabled in vivo delineation of white matter tracts, which has been applied to the segmentation of eloquent pathways for intraoperative mapping. The last decade has also seen the development from earlier diffusion tensor models to higher-order models, which take advantage of high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) techniques. However, these advanced methods have not been widely implemented for routine preoperative and intraoperative mapping. The authors report on the application of residual bootstrap q-ball fiber tracking for routine mapping of potentially functional language pathways, the development of a system for rating tract injury to evaluate the impact on clinically assessed language function, and initial results predicting long-term language deficits following glioma resection. METHODS The authors have developed methods for the segmentation of 8 putative language pathways including dorsal phonological pathways and ventral semantic streams using residual bootstrap q-ball fiber tracking. Furthermore, they have implemented clinically feasible preoperative acquisition and processing of HARDI data to delineate these pathways for neurosurgical application. They have also developed a rating scale based on the altered fiber tract density to estimate the degree of pathway injury, applying these ratings to a subset of 35 patients with pre- and postoperative fiber tracking. The relationships between specific pathways and clinical language deficits were assessed to determine which pathways are predictive of long-term language deficits following surgery. RESULTS This tracking methodology has been routinely implemented for preoperative mapping in patients with brain gliomas who have undergone awake brain tumor resection at the University of California, San Francisco (more than 300 patients to date). In this particular study the authors investigated the white matter structure status and language correlation in a

  3. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  4. A sex-specific association between a 15q25 variant and upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chen, Dan

    2011-04-01

    Sequence variants located at 15q25 have been associated with lung cancer and propensity to smoke. We recently reported an association between rs16969968 and risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and esophagus) in women (OR = 1.24, P = 0.003) with little effect in men (OR = 1.04, P = 0.35).

  5. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described i...

  6. Prospective association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Maria del Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. [br/] Objective: The objective was to investigate the prospective rela...

  7. Reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in a neuro-spine intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Kimberly; Palamone, Janet; Thomas, Kathryn; Naidech, Andrew; Silkaitis, Christina; Henry, Jennifer; Bolon, Maureen; Zembower, Teresa R

    2015-08-01

    A collaborative effort reduced catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the neuro-spine intensive care unit where the majority of infections occurred at our institution. Our stepwise approach included retrospective data review, daily rounding with clinicians, developing and implementing an action plan, conducting practice audits, and sharing of real-time data outcomes. The catheter-associated urinary tract infection rate was reduced from 8.18 to 0.93 per 1,000 catheter-days and standardized infection ratio decreased from 2.16 to 0.37.

  8. Predominant association of Raoultella bacteremia with diseases of the biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Eefje; Erkens-Hulshof, Sandra; van der Velden, Lieven B J; Voss, Andreas; Bosboom, Ron; Hodiamont, Caspar J; Wever, Peter C; Rentenaar, Rob J; Sturm, Patrick D

    2014-02-01

    A case series of 14 patients with Raoultella bacteremia was compared with 28 Klebsiella oxytoca and 28 Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia cases. Forty-three percent of Raoultella bacteremia cases were associated with biliary tract disease, compared to 32% and 22% of patients with K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae bacteremia, respectively.

  9. Predominant association of Raoultella bacteremia with diseases of the biliary tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Eefje de; Erkens-Hulshof, S.; Velden, L.B. van der; Voss, A.; Bosboom, R.; Hodiamont, C.J.; Wever, P.C.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Sturm, P.D.J.

    2014-01-01

    A case series of 14 patients with Raoultella bacteremia was compared with 28 Klebsiella oxytoca and 28 Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia cases. Forty-three percent of Raoultella bacteremia cases were associated with biliary tract disease, compared to 32% and 22% of patients with K. oxytoca and K. pne

  10. Is well-being associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian; Iversen, Helle K.;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to assess self-reported well-being in a clinical sample of stroke patients and to identify possible associations with prevalence, severity and bother of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Material and methods. A cross-sectional, clinical survey was initiated whereby ...

  11. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in Clinical Center of Banja Luka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaz Antonija

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common nosocomial infections of the urinary tract, and among the most common nosocomial infections in general. The major problems of these infections include antibiotic resistance and enormous direct and indirect cost of treatment. Material and methods A retrospective study on major causes of infections and antibiotic resistance was conducted at four clinics of the Clinical Center of Banja Luka. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to nursing staff dealing with urinary catheters in order to get an overview of their clinical performance. Results The results showed that in 89% of cases (out of 198 patients with developed catheter-associated urinary tract infection infections were caused by gram-negative bacteria, in 7% by gram-positive bacteria and in 4% by Candida. The most common bacteria were: Escherichia coli (33.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.1%, Proteus mirabilis (13.3%, and Enterobacter (10.5%. Majority of bacteria presented with extremely high resistance (72-100% to ampicillin, gentamycin and cotrimoxazole, and in some cases a significant resistance to ciprofloxacine, nalidixic acid, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. The questionnaire showed that nursing staff did not follow guidelines for medical care of patients with urinary catheters. Conclusion It can be concluded that poor hygienic and epidemiological conditions, as well as irrational use of antibiotics contribute to uncontrolled development of urinary tract infections in catheterized patients.

  12. MICROBIAL FLORA AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CATHETER ASSOCIATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Catheter associated Urinary Tract Infection (UTI represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and is a major health concern due to its complications and frequent recurrence. Among the nosocomial infections UTI contributes a major part. About 80% of nosocomial UTI are associated with using indwelling urinary catheters and most of them are asymptomatic. Only 5% of them develop s symptomatic UTI which leads to development of complications like bacteremia & pyelonephritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In th e present study a random collection of 100 urine samples from different clinical “groups ˮ like surgery, urology, AMCU, Ob stetrics & Gynecology patients with indwelling urinary catheter of different durations of catheter stay. Organisms isolated in culture, biochemical c haracterization, and antibiotic susceptibility was done. RESULTS: Among the samples tested 41/100 (41% showed culture positivity. within them surgery patients were 40.90% (18/41 , Urology accounted for, 71.42 % (20/28, in AMCU patients 20% (2/10, with more than 3 days of duration of catheter stay and in Obs & Gyn department showed 0 culture positivity. The predominant organism isolated is pseudomonas aeruginosa (34.2%, followed by Escherichia coli (22%, enterococci (12.19%, Klebsiella (12.19% and Ca ndida 19.5%. Among GNB 90% showed ESBL production, 10% ß - lactam inhibitors resistance, 90% quinolones resistant, 50% resistant to amikacin, 100% to gentamycin was o bserved. CONCLUSION: Incidence of bacteriuria in patients with indwelling urinary catheters is 41 %. Onset of bacteriuria is as early as on 3 rd day of catheterization, and gradually increases with duration of stay, technique of insertion and daily catheter care done. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are common organisms isolated. Use o f prophylactic antibiotics without doing culture, and antibiotic susceptibility testing leads to development of drug resistant organisms. So, active

  13. Anterior limb of the internal capsule in schizotypal personality disorder: fiber-tract counting, volume, and anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A; Collazo, Tyson; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Entis, Jonathan J; Chu, King-Wai; Goldstein, Kim E; Roussos, Panos; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Hershowitz, Julian P; Siever, Larry J; Byne, William

    2012-11-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that white matter abnormalities and altered subcortical-cortical connectivity may be central to the pathology of schizophrenia (SZ). The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is an important thalamo-frontal white-matter tract shown to have volume reductions in SZ and to a lesser degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). While fractional anisotropy (FA) and connectivity abnormalities in the ALIC have been reported in SZ, they have not been examined in SPD. In the current study, magnetic resonance (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained in age- and sex-matched individuals with SPD (n=33) and healthy controls (HCs; n=38). The ALIC was traced bilaterally on five equally spaced dorsal-to-ventral axial slices from each participant's MRI scan and co-registered to DTI for the calculation of FA. Tractography was used to examine tracts between the ALIC and two key Brodmann areas (BAs; BA10, BA45) within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Compared with HCs, the SPD participants exhibited (a) smaller relative volume at the mid-ventral ALIC slice level but not the other levels; (b) normal FA within the ALIC; (c) fewer relative number of tracts between the most-dorsal ALIC levels and BA10 but not BA45 and (d) fewer dorsal ALIC-DLPFC tracts were associated with greater symptom severity in SPD. In contrast to prior SZ studies that report lower FA, individuals with SPD show sparing. Our findings are consistent with a pattern of milder thalamo-frontal dysconnectivity in SPD than schizophrenia.

  14. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed.

  15. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. PMID:22533980

  16. POTENCY OF LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BUFFALO AND HORSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ELEPHANT DUNG FOR FEED FIBER DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wahyudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is limiting factor for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in rumen. Isolation andselection bacteria from buffalo and horse gastrointestinal tract and elephant dung could be foundbacteria that have superiority to degrade lignin, xylan, and cellulose. Those animals were chosenbecause they were herbivores that consume low quality crude fiber as their main energy sources.Lignocellulose degrading bacteria were isolated by Hungate selective media, by using lignin (tannicacid, xylan, and cellulose as selective substrates. The morphological identification used an enrichmentmedia by measuring color, colony size, diffusion zone, clear zone, and biochemical identification usingproduction of ligninase, xylanase, and cellulase enzymes. The best lignocellulose degrading bacteriathen was determined by the morphological and biochemical character. This study showed thatlignocellulose degrading bacteria could be found in gastrointestinal tract of buffalo and horse, andelephant dung. Highest number colony was found in samples from buffalo's colon (376, followed byhorse's cecum (203, elephant’s dung (46, buffalo’s cecum (23, buffalo's rumen (9 and horse’s colon(7. The highest isolates activity of lignolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic were reached by buffalo’scecum (7.64, horse's cecum (6.27, and buffalo’s colon (2.48. Meanwhile the highest enzymesproductivities were: buffalo’s cecum (0.0400 µmol, horse’s cecum (1.3912 µmol and buffalo’s colon(0.1971 µmol. Based on morphologycal character and biochemical test, it could be concluded thatlignolytic from buffalo’s cecum, xylanolytic from horse’s cecum, and cellulolytic from buffalo’s colonwere the superior isolates and they were 99% analyzed as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarumspecies.

  17. Structural Fluctuations of the Chromatin Fiber within Topologically Associating Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiana, Guido; Amitai, Assaf; Pollex, Tim; Piolot, Tristan; Holcman, David; Heard, Edith; Giorgetti, Luca

    2016-03-29

    Experiments based on chromosome conformation capture have shown that mammalian genomes are partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs), within which the chromatin fiber preferentially interacts. TADs may provide three-dimensional scaffolds allowing genes to contact their appropriate distal regulatory DNA sequences (e.g., enhancers) and thus to be properly regulated. Understanding the cell-to-cell and temporal variability of the chromatin fiber within TADs, and what determines them, is thus of great importance to better understand transcriptional regulation. We recently described an equilibrium polymer model that can accurately predict cell-to-cell variation of chromosome conformation within single TADs, from chromosome conformation capture-based data. Here we further analyze the conformational and energetic properties of our model. We show that the chromatin fiber within TADs can easily fluctuate between several conformational states, which are hierarchically organized and are not separated by important free energy barriers, and that this is facilitated by the fact that the chromatin fiber within TADs is close to the onset of the coil-globule transition. We further show that in this dynamic state the properties of the chromatin fiber, and its contact probabilities in particular, are determined in a nontrivial manner not only by site-specific interactions between strongly interacting loci along the fiber, but also by nonlocal correlations between pairs of contacts. Finally, we use live-cell experiments to measure the dynamics of the chromatin fiber in mouse embryonic stem cells, in combination with dynamical simulations, and predict that conformational changes within one TAD are likely to occur on timescales that are much shorter than the duration of one cell cycle. This suggests that genes and their regulatory elements may come together and disassociate several times during a cell cycle. These results have important implications for transcriptional

  18. Ketamine-associated lower urinary tract destruction: a new radiological challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, K., E-mail: k.mason@doctors.org.u [Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cottrell, A.M. [North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol (United Kingdom); Corrigan, A.G. [Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Gillatt, D.A.; Mitchelmore, A.E. [North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: Ketamine is a short-acting dissociative anaesthetic whose hallucinogenic side effects have led to an increase in its illicit use amongst club and party goers. There is a general misconception amongst users that it is a safe drug with few long term side effects, however ketamine abuse is associated with severe urinary tract dysfunction. Presenting symptoms include urinary frequency, nocturia, dysuria, haematuria and incontinence. Materials and methods: We describe the radiological findings found in a series of 23 patients, all with a history of ketamine abuse, who presented with severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Imaging techniques used included ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography (IVU), and computed tomography (CT). These examinations were reviewed to identify common imaging findings. All patients with positive imaging findings had also undergone cystoscopy and bladder wall biopsies, which confirmed the diagnosis. The patients in this series have consented to the use of their data in the ongoing research into ketamine-induced bladder pathology. Results: Ultrasound demonstrated small bladder volume and wall thickening. CT revealed marked, generalized bladder wall thickening, mucosal enhancement, and perivesical inflammation. Ureteric wall thickening and enhancement were also observed. In advanced cases ureteric narrowing and strictures were identified using both CT and IVU. Correlation of clinical history, radiological and pathological findings was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Conclusion: This case series illustrates the harmful effects of ketamine on the urinary tract and the associated radiological findings. Delayed diagnosis can result in irreversible renal tract damage requiring surgical intervention. It is important that radiologists are aware of this emerging clinical entity as early diagnosis and treatment are essential for successful management.

  19. Modeling transcranial magnetic stimulation from the induced electric fields to the membrane potentials along tractography-based white matter fiber tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, Nele; Dupré, Luc; Crevecoeur, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising non-invasive tool for modulating the brain activity. Despite the widespread therapeutic and diagnostic use of TMS in neurology and psychiatry, its observed response remains hard to predict, limiting its further development and applications. Although the stimulation intensity is always maximum at the cortical surface near the coil, experiments reveal that TMS can affect deeper brain regions as well. Approach. The explanation of this spread might be found in the white matter fiber tracts, connecting cortical and subcortical structures. When applying an electric field on neurons, their membrane potential is altered. If this change is significant, more likely near the TMS coil, action potentials might be initiated and propagated along the fiber tracts towards deeper regions. In order to understand and apply TMS more effectively, it is important to capture and account for this interaction as accurately as possible. Therefore, we compute, next to the induced electric fields in the brain, the spatial distribution of the membrane potentials along the fiber tracts and its temporal dynamics. Main results. This paper introduces a computational TMS model in which electromagnetism and neurophysiology are combined. Realistic geometry and tissue anisotropy are included using magnetic resonance imaging and targeted white matter fiber tracts are traced using tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging. The position and orientation of the coil can directly be retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Incorporating these features warrants both patient- and case-specific results. Significance. The presented model gives insight in the activity propagation through the brain and can therefore explain the observed clinical responses to TMS and their inter- and/or intra-subject variability. We aspire to advance towards an accurate, flexible and personalized TMS model that helps to understand stimulation in the connected

  20. Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilizat...

  1. Association of lower genital tract inflammation with objective evidence of endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, J F; Ness, R B; Soper, D E; Bass, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the association between lower genital tract inflammation and objectively diagnosed endometritis. We analyzed the first 157 patients enrolled in the PEACH study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial designed to compare the effectiveness of outpatient and inpatient therapy for PID. Women less than 38 years of age, who presented with a history of pelvic discomfort for 30 days or less and who were found to have pelvic organ tenderness (uterine or adnexal tenderness) on bimanual examination, were initially invited to participate. After recruitment of the first 58 patients (group 1) we added the presence of leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated positive test for N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis to the inclusion criteria (group 2, N = 99). We compared rates of endometritis in the two groups and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and predicted values of the presence of white blood cells in the vaginal wet preparation. The rate of upper genital tract infection in group 1 was 46.5% (27/58) compared to 49.5% (49/99) in group 2. Microbiologic evidence of either N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis increased from 22.4% in group 1 to 38.3% in group 2. The presence of vaginal white blood cells or mucopus has a high sensitivity (88.9%), but a low specificity (19.4%) for the diagnosis of upper genital-tract infection. Assessment of the lower genital tract for evidence of infection or inflammation is a valuable component of the diagnostic evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease. The presence of either mucopus or vaginal white blood cells is a highly sensitive test for endometritis in patients with pelvic pain and tenderness. PMID:10805362

  2. Systematic Review of Factors Associated with Antibiotic Prescribing for Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Rachel; Mah, Allison; Law, Michael R; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Patrick, David M

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotic use is a modifiable driver of antibiotic resistance. In many circumstances, antibiotic use is overly broad or unnecessary. We systematically assessed factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTI). Studies were included if they used actual (not self-reported or intended) prescribing data, assessed factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for RTIs, and performed multivariable analysis of associations. We searched Medline, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts using keyword and MeSH (medical subject headings) search terms. Two authors reviewed each abstract and independently appraised all included texts. Data on factors affecting antibiotic prescribing were extracted. Our searches retrieved a total of 2,848 abstracts, with 97 included in full-text review and 28 meeting full inclusion criteria. Compared to other factors, diagnosis of acute bronchitis was associated with increased antibiotic prescribing (range of adjusted odds ratios [aOR], 1.56 to 15.9). Features on physical exam, such as fever, purulent sputum, abnormal respiratory exam, and tonsillar exudate, were also associated with higher odds of antibiotic prescribing. Patient desire for an antibiotic was not associated or was modestly associated with prescription (range of aORs, 0.61 to 9.87), in contrast to physician perception of patient desire for antibiotics, which showed a stronger association (range of aORs, 2.11 to 23.3). Physician's perception of patient desire for antibiotics was strongly associated with antibiotic prescribing. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should continue to expand in the outpatient setting and should emphasize clear and direct communication between patients and physicians, as well as signs and symptoms that do and do not predict bacterial etiology of upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:27139474

  3. Neonatal adrenal hematoma with urinary tract infection: Risk factor or a chance association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi M Habeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal adrenal hematoma is a rare finding that can be discovered incidentally or presents with various symptoms. However, urinary tract infection (UTI has not been reported in association with this condition. We report on a 4-week old child with massive unilateral adrenal hematoma discovered incidentally during a routine abdominal ultrasound scan for UTI. The mass resolved spontaneously after several months with no complications. The diagnosis and ma-nagement of infantile suprarenal mass and the possible link between this child′s UTI and the adrenal hematoma are discussed.

  4. Vesico-amniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction in a fetus with VACTERL association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasugi, Tomonobu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Haba, Gen; Sasaki, Yuri; Isurugi, Chizuko; Oyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-09-01

    Newborn cases of VACTERL association with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) are rare and there have been no reports on those patients undergoing fetal therapy in English literature. We successfully performed vesico-amniotic shunting in a fetus having LUTO caused by abnormality of the external genitalia at 16 weeks' gestation. Although fetal karyotype was normal 46XY, follow-up fetal ultrasound examinations revealed ventriculomegaly in the brain, a small stomach and a right multicystic dysplastic kidney. MRI at 31 weeks' gestation suggested lobar type holoprosencephaly. Diagnosis of VACTERL association was confirmed postnatally. We consider that vesico-amniotic shunting is indicated for a fetus of VACTERL association with LUTO if the parents wish the procedure after genetic counseling and explanations about the fetal conditions.

  5. Vesico-amniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction in a fetus with VACTERL association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasugi, Tomonobu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Haba, Gen; Sasaki, Yuri; Isurugi, Chizuko; Oyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-09-01

    Newborn cases of VACTERL association with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) are rare and there have been no reports on those patients undergoing fetal therapy in English literature. We successfully performed vesico-amniotic shunting in a fetus having LUTO caused by abnormality of the external genitalia at 16 weeks' gestation. Although fetal karyotype was normal 46XY, follow-up fetal ultrasound examinations revealed ventriculomegaly in the brain, a small stomach and a right multicystic dysplastic kidney. MRI at 31 weeks' gestation suggested lobar type holoprosencephaly. Diagnosis of VACTERL association was confirmed postnatally. We consider that vesico-amniotic shunting is indicated for a fetus of VACTERL association with LUTO if the parents wish the procedure after genetic counseling and explanations about the fetal conditions. PMID:27061706

  6. Naturally occurring and melengestrol acetate-associated reproductive tract lesions in zoo canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, A; Munson, L; Gardner, I A

    2009-11-01

    As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions in zoo felids, but effects in zoo canids have not been evaluated. This retrospective study documented spontaneously occurring lesions and investigated the impact of MGA on the reproductive health of zoo canids. Reproductive tracts from adult females were submitted by US zoos to the Association of Zoos & Aquariums' Wildlife Contraception Center Health Surveillance Program. Reproductive tracts were sampled and processed for histopathologic examination following standard protocols. Microscopic evaluations were performed without prior knowledge of MGA treatment status. Prevalence of uterine lesions was evaluated and compared between MGA-treated animals (n = 20) and control (untreated) animals (n = 61). Common lesions within the study population as a whole included endometrial hyperplasia (predominantly cystic) (53%), hydrometra (33%), and adenomyosis (25%). Treatment with MGA was a risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia, hydrometra, fibrosis, and adenomyosis. Uterine mineralization occurred exclusively in MGA-treated animals. Results indicate that MGA contraception can lead to lesions that may permanently impair the fertility of females. Therefore, if long-term contraception of zoo canids is necessary, the use of alternate methods of reproductive control such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs or GnRH vaccines that reduce gonadal hormone exposure should be pursued.

  7. The association between biliary tract inflammation and risk of digestive system cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Che-Chen; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Su, Wen-Pang; Lai, Shih-Wei; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lai, Hsueh-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between biliary tract inflammation (BTI) and digestive system cancers is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between BTI and the risks of digestive system cancers. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, information on a cohort of patients diagnosed with BTI (n = 4398) between 2000 and 2009 was collected. A comparison cohort of sex-, age-, and index year-matched persons without BTI (n = 17,592) was selected from the same database. The disease was defined by the ICD-9-CM. Both cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and incidences of digestive system cancers were calculated. The results revealed an increase in adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of biliary tract cancer (24.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.20–65.02), primary liver cancer (1.53; 95% CI: 1.07–2.18), and pancreatic cancer (3.10; 95% CI: 1.20–8.03) in patients with both gallbladder and BTI. The aHR of stomach cancer was also found to be increased (2.73; 95% CI: 1.28–5.81) in patients with gallbladder inflammation only. There were no differences in esophageal cancer (aHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.23–2.87) and colorectal cancer (aHR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.59–1.45). The aHR for digestive system cancers increased by 3.66 times (95% CI: 2.50–5.35) and 12.20 times (95% CI: 8.66–17.17) in BTI visits frequency averaged 2 to 4 visits per year and frequency averaged ≥5 visits per year, respectively. Patients with BTI have significantly higher risk of digestive system cancers, particularly biliary tract, pancreatic, and primary liver cancers, compared with those who are without it. PMID:27495065

  8. Kirishites—high-carbonaceous hairlike fibers associated with volkhovites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skublov, G. T.; Marin, Yu. B.; Skublov, S. G.; Vasil'Ev, E. V.; Gembitskaya, I. M.; Nechaeva, E. S.; Tarasenko, Yu. N.

    2009-12-01

    Kirishites are highly carbonaceous hairlike fibers 30-100 μm in thickness and 3-30 mm long, which jut out as bunches on the surface of cinder and shungite fragments associated with volkhovites (Holocene tectitelike glasses corresponding to the rocks of kimberlite-lamproite-carbonatite series in composition). Kirishite fibers are zonal. Their inner (axial) zone is composed of high-nitrogen proteinlike compounds, whereas the outer zone is essentially carbonaceous, with a high content of organoelemental complexes (Si, Fe) and numerous micrometer-sized anomalies of major, volatile, trace, and ore elements. Longitudinal zoning is established in aposhungite kirishites: the consecutive change of maximum concentrations—K, Na, Cl, C, Mn → C, S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn → S, N, Ba, Te, Pb, Bi, Nd—is traced from the roots of fibers to their ends. It is suggested that as volkhovites were forming, fragments of cinder and shungite underwent partial melting. The highly carbonaceous compounds released due decompression and explosion were squeezed out from fragments and solidified as fibers during fall of fragments on the Earth’s surface.

  9. Plasticity of left perisylvian white-matter tracts is associated with individual differences in math learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jolles, Dietsje; Wassermann, Demian; Chokhani, Ritika; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Bammer, Roland; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity of white matter tracts is thought to be essential for cognitive development and academic skill acquisition in children. However, a dearth of high-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data measuring longitudinal changes with learning, as well as methodological difficulties in multi-time point tract identification have limited our ability to investigate plasticity of specific white matter tracts. Here, we examine learning-related changes of white matter tracts innervating inferior ...

  10. Isolation and characterization of atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palerme, Jean-Sébastien; Pan, Po Ching; Parsons, Cameron T; Kathariou, Sophia; Ward, Todd J; Jacob, Megan E

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described in a diabetic dog. The serotype of the L. monocytogenes isolate was determined to be 1/2a (3a), with the multilocus genotyping pattern 2.72_1/2a. A nucleotide substitution (Gly145Asp) was detected at residue 145 in the promoter prfA region. This residue is within the critical helix-turn-helix motif of PrfA. The source of the L. monocytogenes strain remains unknown, and the dog recovered after a 4-week course of cephalexin (30 mg/kg orally twice daily). PMID:27493137

  11. Re: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Sexual Function with Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fwu C-W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study authors examine the cross-sectional associations between baseline characteristics and sexual function and the longitudinal associations between change in lower urinary tract symptoms and change in sexual function among men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The cross-sectional cohort included 2.916 men who completed Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI at baseline. The longitudinal cohort included 672 men who were randomized to placebo. Increased age, less education, obesity and severe lower urinary tract symptoms were found significantly associated poorer sexual drive, erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory function, sexual problem assessment and overall satisfaction. However, none of these baseline characteristics predicted change in sexual function in the longitudinal cohort. The decline in sexual dysfunction associated with worsening of lower urinary tract symptoms in men assigned to placebo was small.

  12. Electrophysiological abnormalities associated with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ann Tay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An observational case report of electrophysiological abnormalities in a patient with anisomyopic amblyopia as a result of unilateral extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MNFs is illustrated. The electrophysiological readings revealed an abnormal pattern electroretinogram (PERG but normal full-field electroretinogram readings in the affected eye. The visual-evoked potential was also undetectable in that eye. Our findings suggest that extensive MNFs can be associated with electrophysiological abnormalities, in particular the PERG, which can aid in diagnosing the cause of impaired vision when associated with amblyopia.

  13. Are coffee and tea consumption associated with urinary tract cancer risk : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Tan, F.E.S.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    Background. Narrative reviews have concluded that there is a small association between coffee consumption and an increased risk of urinary tract cancer, possibly due to confounding by smoking. No association for tea consumption has been indicated. This systematic review attempts to summarize and qua

  14. The Epidemiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prevalence and Incident Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kathryn Brigham

    2016-08-01

    This article assesses the reported prevalence and incidence rates for benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) by age, symptom severity, and race/ethnicity. BPH/LUTS prevalence and incidence rates increase with increasing age and vary by symptom severity. The BPH/LUTS relationship is complex due to several factors. This contributes to the range of reported estimates and difficulties in drawing epidemiologic comparisons. Cultural, psychosocial, economic, and/or disease awareness and diagnosis factors may influence medical care access, symptom reporting and help-seeking behaviors among men with BPH/LUTS. However, these factors and their epidemiologic association with BPH/LUTS have not been thoroughly investigated. PMID:27476122

  15. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection in a surgical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Because patients in intensive care units usually have an urinary catheter, the risk of urinary tract infection for these patients is higher than in other patients. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and causative microrganisms in patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU during a 6-year period. Methods. All data were collected during prospective surveillance conducted from 2006 to 2011 in the SICU, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Serbia. This case control study was performed in patients with nosocomial infections recorded during surveillance. The cases with CAUTIs were identified using the definition of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The control group consisted of patients with other nosocomial infections who did not fulfill criteria for CAUTIs according to case definition. Results. We surveyed 1,369 patients representing 13,761 patient days. There were a total of 226 patients with nosocomial infections in the SICU. Of these patients, 64 had CAUTIs as defined in this study, and 162 met the criteria for the control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified two risk factors independently associated to CAUTIs: the duration of having an indwelling catheter (OR = 1.014; 95% CI 1.005-1.024; p = 0.003 and female gender (OR = 2.377; 95%CI 1.278-4.421; p = 0.006. Overall 71 pathogens were isolated from the urine culture of 64 patients with CAUTIs. Candida spp. (28.2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.3% and Klebsiella spp. (15.5% were the most frequently isolated microorganisms. Conclusions. The risk factors and causative microrganisms considering CAUTIs in the SICU must be considered in of planning CAUTIs prevention in this setting.

  16. Airway CD8(+) T Cells Are Associated with Lung Injury during Infant Viral Respiratory Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Thomas J; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Bickham, Kara L; Gordon, Claire L; Zhang, Feifan; Levin, Bruce; Baird, John S; Farber, Donna L

    2016-06-01

    Infants and young children are disproportionately susceptible to severe complications from respiratory viruses, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Recent studies show that the T cell response in the lung is important for protective responses to respiratory infections, although details on the infant/pediatric respiratory immune response remain sparse. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the local versus systemic immune response in infants and young children with respiratory failure from viral respiratory tract infections and its association to disease severity. Daily airway secretions were sampled from infants and children 4 years of age and younger receiving mechanical ventilation owing to respiratory failure from viral infection or noninfectious causes. Samples were examined for immune cell composition and markers of T cell activation. These parameters were then correlated with clinical disease severity. Innate immune cells and total CD3(+) T cells were present in similar proportions in airway aspirates derived from infected and uninfected groups; however, the CD8:CD4 T cell ratio was markedly increased in the airways of patients with viral infection compared with uninfected patients, and specifically in infected infants with acute lung injury. T cells in the airways were phenotypically and functionally distinct from those in blood with activated/memory phenotypes and increased cytotoxic capacity. We identified a significant increase in airway cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in infants with lung injury from viral respiratory tract infection that was distinct from the T cell profile in circulation and associated with increasing disease severity. Airway sampling could therefore be diagnostically informative for assessing immune responses and lung damage. PMID:26618559

  17. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  18. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  19. NFIA haploinsufficiency is associated with a CNS malformation syndrome and urinary tract defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weining Lu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Complex central nervous system (CNS malformations frequently coexist with other developmental abnormalities, but whether the associated defects share a common genetic basis is often unclear. We describe five individuals who share phenotypically related CNS malformations and in some cases urinary tract defects, and also haploinsufficiency for the NFIA transcription factor gene due to chromosomal translocation or deletion. Two individuals have balanced translocations that disrupt NFIA. A third individual and two half-siblings in an unrelated family have interstitial microdeletions that include NFIA. All five individuals exhibit similar CNS malformations consisting of a thin, hypoplastic, or absent corpus callosum, and hydrocephalus or ventriculomegaly. The majority of these individuals also exhibit Chiari type I malformation, tethered spinal cord, and urinary tract defects that include vesicoureteral reflux. Other genes are also broken or deleted in all five individuals, and may contribute to the phenotype. However, the only common genetic defect is NFIA haploinsufficiency. In addition, previous analyses of Nfia(-/- knockout mice indicate that Nfia deficiency also results in hydrocephalus and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Further investigation of the mouse Nfia(+/- and Nfia(-/- phenotypes now reveals that, at reduced penetrance, Nfia is also required in a dosage-sensitive manner for ureteral and renal development. Nfia is expressed in the developing ureter and metanephric mesenchyme, and Nfia(+/- and Nfia(-/- mice exhibit abnormalities of the ureteropelvic and ureterovesical junctions, as well as bifid and megaureter. Collectively, the mouse Nfia mutant phenotype and the common features among these five human cases indicate that NFIA haploinsufficiency contributes to a novel human CNS malformation syndrome that can also include ureteral and renal defects.

  20. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fiber; Roughage; Bulk ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can help with ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 213. National Research Council. ... Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids ( ...

  1. Are lower urinary tract symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease in the Dutch general population? Results from the Krimpen study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Inge I.; Blanker, Marco H.; Schouten, Boris W. V.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Nijman, Rien J. M.; van der Heide, Wouter K.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), with adjustment for age and other confounders. We were specifically interested in the possible predictive value of LUTS to the incidence of CVD in the future in the general population.

  2. Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. associated with chronic and self-medicated urinary tract infections in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Louise

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI are one of the most common infections among women worldwide. E. coli often causes more than 75% of acute uncomplicated UTI, however, little is known about how recurrent UTIs and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials affect the aetiology of UTIs. This study aimed to establish the aetiology of UTI in a population of recurrent and self-medicated patients referred from pharmacies to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam and to describe genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of the associated bacterial pathogens. The aetiology of bacterial pathogens associated with UTI (defined as ≥ 104 CFU/ml urine was established by phenotypic and molecular methods. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were typed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Methods Urine samples from 276 patients suffering symptoms of urinary tract infection were collected and cultured on Flexicult agar® allowing for detection of the most common urine pathogens. Patients were interviewed about underlying diseases, duration of symptoms, earlier episodes of UTI, number of episodes diagnosed by doctors and treatment in relation to UTI. All tentative E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were identified to species level by PCR, 16S rRNA and partial sequencing of the groEL gene. E. faecalis isolates were further characterized by Multi Locus Sequence Typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results Mean age of 49 patients was 48 yrs (range was 11–86 yrs and included 94% women. On average, patients reported to have suffered from UTI for 348 days (range 3 days-10 years, and experienced 2.7 UTIs during the previous year. Cephalosporins were reported the second drug of choice in treatment of UTI at the hospital. E. faecalis (55.1%, E. coli (12.2% and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (8.2% were main bacterial pathogens. MIC testing of E. faecalis showed

  3. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( soybean oil on the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal. Fifty growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.36 ± 0.99 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 10 pigs per treatment. Two diets contained sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and either 0 or 8% of a synthetic source of fiber. Two additional diets contained fish meal, casein, corn, and either 1 or 7% soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was also used. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism crates and fecal samples were collected. Results indicated that fiber increased ( soybean oil. In agreement with the results of Exp. 1, the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the corn-based diet were greater ( soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the

  4. 导尿管相关尿路感染的监测%Monitoring Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡玉琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To search the condition and reasons of indwelling catheter patients with urinary tract infection in medical ward, and to provide a scientific basis for the effective prevention and control of infection. Methods: The catheter-related urinary tract infection of all patients with indwelling catheters who hospitalized in medical ward from January 2011 to June 2012 were investigated by proactive monitoring. Results : 335 cases of patients with indwelling catheter were monitored, and there were 15 cases with urinary tract infection, so the infection rate was 4.48%. The rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection was 2.5/ 1000 catheters per day. Conclusion: Understanding the occurrence of catheter associated urinary tract infection in a medical ward by targeted monitoring, it provides guidance for the effective control of urinary tract infections.%目的:了解内科病房留置尿管患者尿路感染发生状况及原因,为有效预防和控制感染提供科学依据.方法:采取主动监测方法,对2011年1月-2012年6月内科病房所有住院留置尿管患者发生导尿管相关尿路感染情况进行调查.结果:335例留置尿管患者,发生尿路感染15例,感染率为4.48%,导尿管相关尿路感染发生率为2.5/千导管日.结论:通过目标性监测,了解了内科病房导尿管相关尿路感染的发生状况,为有效控制尿路感染提供了指导.

  5. Catheter tract implantation metastases associated with percutaneous biliary drainage for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Sakata; Yoshio Shirai; Toshifumi Wakai; Tatsuya Nomura; Eiko Sakata; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the incidence of catheter tract implantation metastasis among patients undergoing percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and to provide data regarding the management of this unusual complication of PTBD by reviewing cases reported in the literature.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 67 consecutive patients who underwent PTBD before the resection of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was conducted. The median follow-up period after PTBD was 106 mo. The English language literature (PubMed, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA), from January 1966through December 2004, was reviewed.RESULTS: Catheter tract implantation metastasis developed in three patients. The cumulative incidence of implantation metastasis reached a plateau (6%)at 20 mo after PTBD. All of the three patients with implantation metastasis died of tumor progression at 3, 9, and 20 mo after the detection of this complication. Among the 10 reported patients with catheter tract implantation metastasis from extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (including our three patients), two survived for more than 5 years after the excision of isolated catheter tract metastases.CONCLUSION: Catheter tract implantation metastasis is not a rare complication following PTBD for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Although the prognosis for patients with this complication is generally poor, the excision of the catheter tract may enable survival in selected patients with isolated metastases along the catheter tract.

  6. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  7. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McKay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷. Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸ located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸ located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸; rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02. These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  8. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKay, James D

    2011-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  9. Metagenomic Sequencing of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Upper Bronchial Tract Microbiome Reveals Functional Changes Associated with Disease Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Simon J S; Keir E Lewis; Huws, Sharon A.; Wanchang Lin; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Lewis, Paul D.; Mur, Luis A. J.; Pachebat, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The microbiome associated with this disease may be an important component of the disease, though studies to date have been based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and have revealed unequivocal results. Here, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the upper bronchial tract (UBT) microbiome to allow for greater elucidation of its taxonomic composition, and revealing functional changes associate...

  10. Cutaneous Sinus Tract in Association with Traumatic Injury to the Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Rahul; Khan, Tayyeb Sultan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present case report is of trauma episode of the lower anterior teeth, causing pulpal necrosis with periradicular periodontitis, resulting in the occurrence of cutaneous sinus tracts (fistula). Previous misdiagnosis and inappropriate medical treatment were ineffective. Only when properly referred to dentists, the differential diagnosis was made. The guideline to diagnose cutaneous sinus tracts (fistula) is based mainly on accurate pulp sensitivity tests of the involved traumatized...

  11. Four country healthcare-associated infection prevalence survey: pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2010-03-01

    In 2006, the Hospital Infection Society was funded by the respective health services in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to conduct a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Here, we report the prevalence of pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection other than pneumonia (LRTIOP) in these four countries. The prevalence of all HCAIs was 7.59% (5743 out of 75 694). Nine hundred (15.7%) of these infections were pneumonia, and 402 (7.0%) were LRTIOP. The prevalence of both infections was higher for males than for females, and increased threefold from those aged <35 to those aged >85 years (P<0.001). At the time of the survey or in the preceding seven days, 23.7% and 18.2% of patients with pneumonia and LRTIOP, respectively, were mechanically ventilated compared to 5.2% of patients in the whole study population. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the cause of pneumonia and LRTIOP in 7.6% and 18.1% of patients, respectively (P<0.001). More patients with LRTIOP (4.2%) had concurrent diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile compared to patients with pneumonia (2.4%), but this did not reach statistical significance. Other HCAIs were present in 137 (15.2%) of patients with pneumonia and 66 (16.4%) of those with LRTIOP. The results suggest that reducing instrumentation, such as mechanical ventilation where possible, should help reduce infection. The higher prevalence of MRSA as a cause of LRTIOP suggests a lack of specificity in identifying the microbial cause and the association with C. difficile emphasises the need for better use of antibiotics.

  12. Role of phytotherapy associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in female patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Frumenzio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a phytotherapic which includes Solidago, Orthosiphon and Birch extract (Cistimev® in association with antibiotic prophylaxis in female patients affected by recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIr. Materials and methods: Patients affected by UTIr older than 18 years started a 3-months antibiotic prophylaxis (Prulifloxacin 600 mg, 1 cps/week or Phosphomicyn 1 cachet/week according to antibiogram after urine culture. The patients were divided in 2 groups: Group A: antibiotic prophylaxis plus phytotherapy (1 cps/die for 3 months and Group B: antibiotic prophylaxis alone. Results: 164 consecutive patients were studied: 107 were included in group A (mean age 59 ± 17.3 years and 57 (mean age 61 ± 15.7 in group B. During the treatment period the relapse frequencies between the two groups were not significantly different (p = 0.854: 12/107 (11.21% patients interrupted the treatment for UTIr in group A and 6/57 (10.52% in group B. In the long term follow-up the relapse UTI risk was significant different in the two groups with a relapse risk 2.5 greater in group B than in group A (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that in female patients affected by recurrent UTI, the association between antibiotic prophylaxis and of a phytotherapic which includes Solidago, Orthosiphon and Birch extract reduced the number of UTI in the 12 months following the end of prophylaxis and obtained a longer relapsing time, greatly improving the quality of life of the patients.

  13. Regional differences in practice patterns and associated outcomes for upper tract urothelial carcinoma in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Michael; Kassouf, Wassim; Rendon, Ricardo; Bell, David; Izawa, Jonathan; Chin, Joseph; Kapoor, Anil; Matsumoto, Edward; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Saad, Fred; Lacombe, Louis; Fradet, Yves; Fairey, Adrian; Jacobson, Niels-Eric; Drachenberg, Darryl; Cagiannos, Ilias; So, Alan; Black, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We delineated Canadian regional differences in practice patterns in the management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after nephroureterectomy and relate these to patient outcomes. Methods: A database was created with 1029 patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC between 1994 and 2009 at 10 Canadian centres. Demographic, clinical and pathological variables were collected from chart review. Practice pattern variables were defined as: open versus laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, management strategy for the distal ureter, performance of lymphadenectomy and administration of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The outcome measures were overall (OS), disease-specific (DSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The centres were divided into three regions (West, Central, East). Cox proportional multivariable linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between regional differences in practice patterns and clinical outcomes. Results: There was a significant difference in practice patterns between regions within Canada for: time from diagnosis to surgery (p = 0.001), type of surgery (open vs. laparoscopic, p < 0.01) and method of management of the distal ureter (p = 0.001). As well, there were significant differences in survival between regions across Canada: 5-year OS (West 70%, Central 81% and East 62%, p < 0.0001) and DSS (West=79%, Central=85%, East=75%, p = 0.007) were significantly different, but there was no difference in RFS (West 47%, Central 48%, East 46%, p = 0.88). Multivariable linear regression analysis demonstrated that the differences in survival were independent of region OS (p = 0.78), DSS (p = 0.30) or RFS (p = 0.43). Conclusion: There is significant disparity in practice patterns between regions within Canada, but these do not appear to have an effect on survival. We believe that the variability in practice is a reflection of the lack of standardized treatments for UTUC and underlines the need for

  14. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units at a university hospital in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Keten

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, urinary catheter utilization rates, the causative agents for catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI and their antimicrobial susceptibilities in intensive care units (ICUs in 2009 were investigated at Gazi university hospital. We aimed to determine the causative agents and risk factors for CAUTIs, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of the pathogens; and also sensitivities of Candida spp. to antifungal agents with Microdilution and E-test. The most common etiological agents of CAUTIs were Candida spp. (34.7%. The most frequently isolated Candida spp. was C.albicans  (52.4%. All C. albicans spp. were sensitive to fluconazole. Microdilution, used as a reference method to determine the sensitivity to antifungal agents, was compared with E test. E test was found to be sufficient to analyze sensitivity to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole, but inappropriate for itraconazole. E.coli and Klebsiella spp. were found to be causative agents for CAUTI in 20.6% and 9.9% of cases respectively. Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp.  were isolated in 14% and 8.2% of the cases, respectively. All E.coli and Klebsiella strains were found sensitive to carbapenems. Carbapenem sensitivity was found in 47.1% and 30% of the cases infected with Pseudomonas and  Acinetobacter  strains, respectively. According to our results, fluconazole therapy seems to be an appropriate choice for the treatment of CAUTIs caused by  C.albicans. Third and fourth generation cephalosporins should not be used for empirical treatment because of the high prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production among E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. 

  15. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units at a university hospital in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keten, Derya; Aktas, Firdevs; Guzel Tunccan, Ozlem; Dizbay, Murat; Kalkanci, Ayse; Biter, Gülsah; Keten, Hamit Sirri

    2014-01-01

    In this study, urinary catheter utilization rates, the causative agents for catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and their antimicrobial susceptibilities in intensive care units (ICUs) in 2009 were investigated at Gazi university hospital. We aimed to determine the causative agents and risk factors for CAUTIs, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of the pathogens; and also sensitivities of Candida spp. to antifungal agents with Microdilution and E-test. The most common etiological agents of CAUTIs were Candida spp. (34.7%). The most frequently isolated Candida spp. was C.albicans (52.4%). All C. albicans spp. were sensitive to fluconazole. Microdilution, used as a reference method to determine the sensitivity to antifungal agents, was compared with E test. E test was found to be sufficient to analyze sensitivity to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole, but inappropriate for itraconazole. E.coli and Klebsiella spp. were found to be causative agents for CAUTI in 20.6% and 9.9% of cases respectively. Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were isolated in 14% and 8.2% of the cases, respectively. All E.coli and Klebsiella strains were found sensitive to carbapenems. Carbapenem sensitivity was found in 47.1% and 30% of the cases infected with Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter strains, respectively. According to our results, fluconazole therapy seems to be an appropriate choice for the treatment of CAUTIs caused by C.albicans. Third and fourth generation cephalosporins should not be used for empirical treatment because of the high prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production among E.coli and Klebsiella isolates.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus associated lymphoproliferative disorder with fatal involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in an infant.

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, L X; P. Ramani; Diss, T. C.; Liang, L N; Isaacson, P G

    1995-01-01

    A case of fatal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disorder is reported in an 11 month old female. Heavy infiltrates of CD20 + and EBV EBER mRNA expressing lymphoid blasts were found to cause a series of ulcers along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract and there was an ileal perforation. Similar infiltrates were also found in lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Although blood phenotypic analysis performed shortly before her death revealed a severe decrease in T ly...

  17. Changes in perceptual speed and white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract are associated in very old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdén, Martin; Köhncke, Ylva; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Salami, Alireza; Li, Tie-Qiang; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2014-11-15

    The integrity of the brain's white matter is important for neural processing and displays age-related differences, but the contribution of changes in white matter to cognitive aging is unclear. We used latent change modeling to investigate this issue in a sample of very old adults (aged 81-103 years) assessed twice with a retest interval of 2.3 years. Using diffusion-tensor imaging, we probed white matter microstructure by quantifying mean fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of six major white matter tracts. Measures of perceptual speed, episodic memory, letter fluency, category fluency, and semantic memory were collected. Across time, alterations of white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract were associated with decreases of perceptual speed. This association remained significant after statistically controlling for changes in white matter microstructure in the entire brain, in the other demarcated tracts, and in the other cognitive abilities. Changes in brain volume also did not account for the association. We conclude that white matter microstructure is a potent correlate of changes in sensorimotor aspects of behavior in very old age, but that it is unclear whether its impact extends to higher-order cognition.

  18. Altered Cortical Thickness and Tract Integrity of the Mirror Neuron System and Associated Social Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hsiang-Yun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies using neural activity recording and neuroimaging techniques have reported functional deficits in the mirror neuron system (MNS) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, a few studies focusing on gray and white matter structures of the MNS have yielded inconsistent results. The current study recruited adolescents and young adults with ASD (aged 15-26 years) and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 14-25 years). The cortical thickness (CT) and microstructural integrity of the tracts connecting the regions forming the classical MNS were investigated. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and diffusion spectrum imaging were performed to quantify the CT and tract integrity, respectively. The structural covariance of the CT of the MNS regions revealed a weaker coordination of the MNS network in ASD. A strong correlation was found between the integrity of the right frontoparietal tracts and the social communication subscores measured by the Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire. The results showed that there were no significant mean differences in the CTs and tract integrity between the ASD and TD groups, but revealed a moderate or even reverse age effect on the frontal MNS structures in ASD. In conclusion, aberrant structural coordination may be an underlying factor affecting the function of the MNS in ASD patients. The association between the right frontoparietal tracts and social communication performance implies a neural correlate of communication processing in the autistic brain. This study provides evidence of abnormal MNS structures and their influence on social communication in individuals with ASD.

  19. Altered Cortical Thickness and Tract Integrity of the Mirror Neuron System and Associated Social Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hsiang-Yun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies using neural activity recording and neuroimaging techniques have reported functional deficits in the mirror neuron system (MNS) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, a few studies focusing on gray and white matter structures of the MNS have yielded inconsistent results. The current study recruited adolescents and young adults with ASD (aged 15-26 years) and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 14-25 years). The cortical thickness (CT) and microstructural integrity of the tracts connecting the regions forming the classical MNS were investigated. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and diffusion spectrum imaging were performed to quantify the CT and tract integrity, respectively. The structural covariance of the CT of the MNS regions revealed a weaker coordination of the MNS network in ASD. A strong correlation was found between the integrity of the right frontoparietal tracts and the social communication subscores measured by the Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire. The results showed that there were no significant mean differences in the CTs and tract integrity between the ASD and TD groups, but revealed a moderate or even reverse age effect on the frontal MNS structures in ASD. In conclusion, aberrant structural coordination may be an underlying factor affecting the function of the MNS in ASD patients. The association between the right frontoparietal tracts and social communication performance implies a neural correlate of communication processing in the autistic brain. This study provides evidence of abnormal MNS structures and their influence on social communication in individuals with ASD. PMID:25820746

  20. Association between respiratory tract diseases and secondhand smoke exposure among never smoking flight attendants: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murawski Judith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about long-term adverse health consequences experienced by flight attendants exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS during the time smoking was allowed on airplanes. We undertook this study to evaluate the association between accumulated flight time in smoky airplane cabins and respiratory tract diseases in a cohort of never smoking flight attendants. Methods We conducted a mailed survey in a cohort of flight attendants. Of 15,000 mailed questionnaires, 2053 (14% were completed and returned. We excluded respondents with a personal history of smoking (n = 748 and non smokers with a history of respiratory tract diseases before the age of 18 years (n = 298. The remaining 1007 respondents form the study sample. Results The overall study sample was predominantly white (86% and female (89%, with a mean age of 54 years. Overall, 69.7% of the respondents were diagnosed with at least one respiratory tract disease. Among these respondents, 43.4% reported a diagnosis of sinusitis, 40.3% allergies, 30.8% bronchitis, 23.2% middle ear infections, 13.6% asthma, 13.4% hay fever, 12.5% pneumonia, and 2.0% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. More hours in a smoky cabin were observed to be significantly associated with sinusitis (OR = 1.21; p = 0.024, middle ear infections (OR = 1.30; p = 0.006, and asthma (OR = 1.26; p = 0.042. Conclusion We observed a significant association between hours of smoky cabin exposure and self-reported reported sinusitis, middle ear infections, and asthma. Our findings suggest a dose-response between duration of SHS exposure and diseases of the respiratory tract. Our findings add additional evidence to the growing body of knowledge supporting the need for widespread implementation of clean indoor air policies to decrease the risk of adverse health consequences experienced by never smokers exposed to SHS.

  1. Ataxin-1 with an expanded glutamine tract alters nuclear matrix-associated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, P J; Koshy, B T; Cummings, C J;

    1997-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is one of several neurodegenerative disorders caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine tract. It is characterized by ataxia, progressive motor deterioration, and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. To understand the pathogenesis of SCA1, we examined the subcel...

  2. Socioeconomic factors associated with risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conway, D I

    2010-02-01

    In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

  3. Kocuria Kristinae in Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari, Rachna; Dudeja, Mridu; Das, Ayan K.; Nandy, Shyamasree

    2013-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a gram positive coccus of the family of Micrococcacae. It inhabits the skin and mucous membranes, but it has rarely been isolated from clinical specimens and is thus considered to be a non-pathogenic commensal. However, it may cause opportunistic infections in patients with indwelling devices and severe underlying diseases. We are reporting an unusual case of a Kocuria kristinae urinary tract infection in a catheterized, 20-years old male. To the best of our knowledge, th...

  4. Extended tracts of homozygosity identify novel candidate genes associated with late onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nalls, M A; Guerreiro, R.J.; Simon-Sanchez, J.; Bras, J. T.; Traynor, B.J.; Gibbs, J. R.; Launer, L.; Hardy, J.; Singleton, A B

    2009-01-01

    Large tracts of extended homozygosity are more prevalent in outbred populations than previously thought. With the advent of high-density genotyping platforms, regions of extended homozygosity can be accurately located allowing for the identification of rare recessive risk variants contributing to disease. We compared measures of extended homozygosity (greater than 1 megabase in length) in a population of 837 late onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) cases and 550 controls. In our analyses, we ide...

  5. Association of Lower Genital Tract Inflammation With Objective Evidence of Endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey F. Peipert

    2000-01-01

    of the first 58 patients (group 1 we added the presence of leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated positive test for N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis to the inclusion criteria (group 2, N = 99. We compared rates of endometritis in the two groups and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and predicted values of the presence of white blood cells in the vaginal wet preparation. The rate of upper genital tract infection in group 1 was 46.5% (27/58 compared to 49.5% (49/99 in group 2. Microbiologic evidence of either N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis increased from 22.4% in group 1 to 38.3% in group 2. The presence of Vaginal white blood cells or mueopus has a high sensitivity (88.9%, but a low specificity (19.4% for the diagnosis of upper genital-tract infection. Assessment of the lower genital tract for evidence of infection or inflammation is a valuable component of the diagnostic evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease. The presence of either mucopus or vaginal white blood cells is a highly sensitive test for endometritis in patients with pelvic pain and tenderness. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 8:83–87, 2000.

  6. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission. PMID:26979730

  7. Neuronal Nogo-A in New-born Retinal Ganglion Cells: Implication for the Formation of the Age-related Fiber Order in the Optic Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongqiang; Liu, Huaicun; Chan, Sun-On; Wang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Nogo-A is highly expressed in oligodendrocytes in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Recently it was found that Nogo-A is also expressed in some neuronal types during development. Here, we examined the expression pattern of Nogo-A in both the retina and optic tract (OT) of mouse embryos from E12 to E15. After perturbation of its function in the OT for 5 hr in the brain slice culture system using a Nogo-A specific antibody or antagonist of its receptor (NEP1-40), the optic nerve fibers and growth cones were traced with DiI. We showed that most Tuj-1 positive new-born neurons at E12 were Nogo-A positive. At E15, retinal neurons reduced the Nogo-A expression. It was worth noting that some projecting axons expressed Nogo-A along the retinofugal pathway. On the basis of their specific locations within the superficial half of the OT and the colocalization with GAP-43 (a marker for the newly born growth cones and axons), we concluded that those Nogo-A positive axons were the newly arrived retinal fibers. Blocking the function of Nogo-A with Nogo-A antibody or NEP1-40 resulted in the shift of DiI labeled axons and growth cones from the superficial half to the whole depth of the OT. These results indicate that Nogo-A in the newly born retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons are involved in sorting out the newly arrived axons to the subpial region of the OT. Anat Rec, 299:1027-1036, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27273864

  8. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of severe respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bo Zhang; Li-Juan Liu; Li-Ling Qian; Gao-Li Jiang; Chuan-Kai Wang; Pin Jia; Peng Shi; Jin Xu; Li-Bo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the clinical characteristics and analyze risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs). Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of infants with RSV-associated ALRIs between March 1st, 2011 and February 29th, 2012 was conducted. Subjects were followed up over the phone or by outpatient visit six and twelve months after discharge. Results: Among 913 RSV-associated ALRIs infants, 288 (31.5%) had severe infections, which accounted for 4.2% of hospitalized children. The hospital RSV mortality rate was 1.0%. The proportions of cases with tachypnea, apnea, cyanosis, and fine rales were significantly higher in the severe ALRIs group (all P Conclusions: Younger age, low birth weight and underlying disease are associated with severe RSVassociated ALRIs. Furthermore, severe RSV infections may be associated with a higher frequency of subsequent bronchitis, pneumonia and re-hospitalization in the following year.

  9. Specific selection for virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains during catheter-associated biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrieres, Lionel; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    microorganisms can attach. Urinary tract infectious (UTI) Escherichia coli range in pathogenicity and the damage they cause - from benign asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strains, which inflict no or few problems to the host, to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, which are virulent and often cause severe...... symptoms and complications. We have found that whereas ABU strains produce better biofilms on polystyrene and glass, UPEC strains have a clear competitive advantage during biofilm growth on catheter surfaces. Our results indicate that some silicone and silicone-latex catheters actually select...

  10. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Grit on Performance, Gastrointestinal Tract Development, Lipometabolism, and Grit Retention of Goslings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ling; GAO Yu-yun; YE Hui; WANG Wen-ce; LIN Zhen-ping; YANG Hui-yong; HUANG Song-bo; YANG Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary ifbre and grit on growth performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, serum indexes and grit retention of Sichuan white goslings in China. The experiment was a 3×2 factorial design consisting of dietary crude ifbre (CF) at 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0%levels by adding grass meal and with or without grit supplementation. A total of 720 1-d-old male goslings were randomly allocated into 36 pens of 20 goslings/pen (n=6 pens/treatment). At 21 d of age, GIT, blood samples and grit in gizzards were collected. Body weight (BW), empty BW (without GIT), average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were affected by CF levels and the medium (4.0%) had the highest value. Adding grit improved BW, empty BW, ADG and ADFI. CF affected relative weight or length of proventriculus, gizzard and duodenum. Increasing CF levels decreased jejunum villus height and affected caecal crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio. Higher CF levels decreased serum triglyceride. Adding grit increased relative weight of abdominal fat. Grit addition increased grit weight in gizzard and the ratio of grit in 0.45-1 and 1-2 mm while decreasing the ratio of grit<0.45 and 2-3 mm. In conclusion, moderate CF level and grit addition increased performance of goslings without interaction. Dietary CF levels affected the development of upper GIT and serum triglyceride. Grit needed by goslings should be less than 2 mm. Goslings’ gizzard would accumulate grit from feed when other grit could not be acquired.

  11. Association between green tea/coffee consumption and biliary tract cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ishihara, Junko; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Green tea and coffee consumption may decrease the risk of some types of cancers. However, their effects on biliary tract cancer (BTC) have been poorly understood. In this population-based prospective cohort study in Japan, we investigated the association of green tea (total green tea, Sencha, and Bancha/Genmaicha) and coffee consumption with the risk for BTC and its subtypes, gallbladder cancer, and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 89 555 people aged 45-74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999 and followed up for 1 138 623 person-years until 2010, during which 284 cases of BTC were identified. Consumption of >720 mL/day green tea was significantly associated with decreased risk compared with consumption of ≤120 mL/day (hazard ratio = 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.97]), and a non-significant trend of decreased risk associated with increased consumption was observed (P-trend = 0.095). In the analysis according to the location of the primary tumor, consuming >120 mL green tea tended to be associated with decreased risk of gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. When Sencha and Bancha/Genmaicha were analyzed separately, we observed a non-significant trend of decreased risk of BTC associated with Sencha but no association with Bancha/Genmaicha. For coffee, there was no clear association with biliary tract, gallbladder, or extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Our findings suggest that high green tea consumption may lower the risk of BTC, and the effect may be attributable to Sencha consumption.

  12. Associations between Dietary Fiber and Colorectal Polyp Risk Differ by Polyp Type and Smoking Status12

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smok...

  13. Decreased expression of neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 3 is associated with the outflow tract defect of human tetralogy of Fallot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Bo; LIU Ying-long; L(U) Xiao-dong

    2009-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanism of human tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is incompletely defined. Animal models have suggested that neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 3 (NTRK3) might be associated with the outflow tract defect, similar to that seen in human TOF, however, the expression pattern of NTRK3 in human TOF heart tissues has never been investigated. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect NTRK3 mRNA and protein levels in right ventricular outflow tract tissue samples of TOF patients, ventricular septal defect (VSD) patients and normal control infants (n=10 in each group). Results qRT-PCR analysis indicated that NTRK3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the TOF group compared to the VSD group (0.024±0.003 vs 0.085±0.004, P=0.022) and the normal control group (0.024±0.003 vs 0.091±0.002, P=0.006). Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that NTRK3 protein was mainly localized in the myocardium cytoplasm in all 3 groups. The immunoreactivity of NTRK3 protein was again significantly lower in the TOF group compared to the VSD group (1.42±0.62 vs 14.12±1.83, P=0.023) and the control group (1.42±0.62 VS 16.25±2.31, P=0.008). The expression of NTRK3 in the VSD group and in the control group showed no significant differences at both mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions Insufficient expression of NTRK3 is associated with the outflow tract defect of human tetralogy of Fallot and may contribute to the progression of this defect.

  14. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Wang

    Full Text Available Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA. Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development.

  15. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG, biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD, chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD, and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight with high FSPWQG (>50% distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS, gross domestic product (GDP, and population (POP. Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  16. The clinical presentation and diagnosis of ketamine-associated urinary tract dysfunction in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Jacklyn; Sundaram, Palaniappan; Aydin, Hakan; Kuo, Tricia; Ng, Lay Guat

    2015-12-01

    Ketamine is a short-acting anaesthetic agent that has gained popularity as a 'club drug' due to its hallucinogenic effects. Substance abuse should be considered in young adult patients who present with severe debilitating symptoms such as lower urinary tract symptoms, even though the use of controlled substances is rare in Singapore. Although the natural history of disease varies from person to person, a relationship between symptom severity and frequency/dosage of abuse has been established. It is important to be aware of this condition and have a high degree of clinical suspicion to enable early diagnosis and immediate initiation of multidisciplinary and holistic treatment. A delayed diagnosis can lead to irreversible pathological changes and increased morbidity among ketamine abusers.

  17. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection: implementation strategies of international guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Fonseca Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to describe strategies used by health professionals on the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for the prevention of urinary infection related to catheterism. Method systematic review on literature based on data from CINAHL(r, Nursing & Allied Health Collection, Cochrane Plus Collection, MedicLatina, MEDLINE(r, Academic Search Complete, ACS - American Chemical Society, Health Reference Center Academic, Nursing Reference Center, ScienceDirect Journals and Wiley Online Library. A sample of 13 articles was selected. Results studies have highlighted the decrease of urinary tract infection related to catheterism through reminder systems to decrease of people submitted to urinary catheterism, audits about nursing professionals practice and bundles expansion. Conclusion the present review systemizes the knowledge of used strategies by health professionals on introduction to international recommendations, describing a rate decrease of such infection in clinical practice.

  18. Clinical guidelines for male lower urinary tract symptoms associated with non-neurogenic overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this guideline is to direct urologists and patients regarding how to identify overactive bladder (OAB in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and to make an accurate diagnosis and establish treatment goals to improve the patients' quality of life (QoL. LUTS are commonly divided into storage, voiding, and postmicturition symptoms, and are highly prevalent in elderly men. LUTS can result from a complex interplay of pathophysiologic features that can include bladder dysfunction and bladder outlet dysfunction such as benign prostatic obstruction (BPO or poor relaxation of the urethral sphincter. Diagnosis of OAB in male LUTS leads to accurate diagnosis of pure OAB and bladder outlet-related OAB, and appropriate treatment in men with residual storage symptoms after treatment for LUTS.

  19. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Use whole-grain spaghetti and other ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Go easy on the ...

  20. Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Chajès, Veronique;

    2016-01-01

    fiber as a modifying factor of the association of alcohol and breast cancer using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This study included 334,850 women aged 35-70 years at baseline enrolled in the ten countries of the EPIC study and followed up for 11...... computed. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. For subjects with low intake of fiber (24.2 g/day) the risk of BC was 1.02 (0.......99-1.05) (test for interaction p=0.011). This modulating effect was stronger for fiber from vegetables. Our results suggest that fiber intake may modulate the positive association of alcohol intake and BC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  1. Association of extensive myelinated nerve fibers and high degree myopia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan Yalcın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral extensive myelination of the peripapillary nerve fibers may be associated with anisometropic myopia, strabismus, and reduced vision. Myelination of optic nerve fibers terminate at lamina cribrosa. Yet in some patients, myelination progresses into the peripapillary retinal nerve fibers and may affect the visual acuity. In this report, we described 4 patients. All patients presented extensive peripapillary myelinated nerve fibers associated with myopic anisometropia. After routine ophthalmic and orthoptic examinations, all patients underwent treatment for amblyopia through correction with spectacles, contact lenses, and the occlusion of the good eye. Corrected visual acuity improved in 1 patient, but 3 patients had no increase in visual acuity despite treatment with full cycloplegic refraction and appropriate patching. Probably because of structural abnormalies of the macula, visual results are often disappointing with appropriate correction of the refractive error and occlusion.

  2. Fimbriation, capsulation, and iron-scavenging systems of Klebsiella strains associated with human urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, A M; Allen, B L; Williams, P H; Kauppi, M; Haahtela, K; Siitonen, A; Orskov, I; Orskov, F; Clegg, S; Korhonen, T K

    1992-03-01

    Thirty-two strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and seven strains of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from urinary tract infections in elderly adults were analyzed for capsular antigens, iron-scavenging systems, and fimbriation. All strains were capsulated. Twenty-seven different K antigens were identified among the strains, with no particular antigen dominating. All strains produced the iron-scavenging system enterochelin as analyzed by bioassay and DNA hybridization. In contrast, the aerobactin iron-sequestering system was not detected in any of the strains. All strains caused hemagglutination of tannin-treated human erythrocytes and reacted with an anti-type 3 fimbriae antiserum as well as in DNA hybridization with a type 3 fimbria-specific probe, indicating that the Klebsiella strains possessed this fimbrial type. Possession of type 1 fimbriae was analyzed by agglutination tests and by hybridization with DNA probes from two distinct Klebsiella type 1 fimbria gene clusters. Phenotypic expression of the type 1 fimbriae was found in 29 of 32 K. pneumoniae strains, whereas 30 strains reacted with either of the two type 1 fimbrial cluster DNA probes. In K. oxytoca, however, only three of seven strains expressed type 1 fimbriae and reacted with the DNA probes. The type 3 fimbriae were found to bind to a fraction of epithelial cells exfoliated in normal human urine, whereas the type 1 fimbriae bound strongly to urinary slime. No inhibitors of type 3 fimbrial binding were detected in human urine.

  3. Assessment of degradation of the selected projectile, commissural and association brain fibers in patients with Alzheimers disease on diffusion tensor MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pathological examinations and the increasingly popular diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) show that in Alzheimers disease (AD), the pathology involves not only the cortical and hippocampal structures, but also the white matter of the brain. DTI is a well recognized technique for evaluation of the integrity of white matter fibers. The aim of this study was to assess with the use of DTI some selected brain tracts in patients with AD, as well as to analyze the severity and distribution of the identified changes. Material/Methods: Thirty-five patients with AD (mean age of 71.6 years, MMSE 17.6), and a control group of 15 healthy volunteers (mean age of 69.1 years, MMSE 29.8) were enrolled in the study. All patients were subjected to a thorough psychiatric examination and psychological tests. DTI examinations (TE 8500, TR 100) were performed using a 1.5 T MR scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in the selected areas of interest (ROI) of the white matter fibers were performed under the control of color FA maps. The following fibers were evaluated - the middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP), the inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF), inferior frontooccipital fasciculi (IFO), genu (GCC) and splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), posterior limbs of internal capsules (PLIC), superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLF) and posterior cingula (CG). Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in FA in patients with AD, comparing to the control group. It was particularly strongly expressed in both CG (P < 0.0001), followed by both ILF, right IFO, and left SLF. Less pronounced changes were found in GCC, SCC, and left IFO. In both PLICs and MCPs and in the right SLF, there was no significant change of FA. Conclusions: In Alzheimers disease, there is a significant decrease in FA, which suggests degradation of the majority of the assessed white matter tracts. Distribution of these changes is not uniform. They involve the selected association fibers mainly and

  4. Assessment of degradation of the selected projectile, commissural and association brain fibers in patients with Alzheimer’s disease on diffusion tensor MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Paweł; Zimny, Anna; Trypka, Elżbieta; Wojtyńska, Renata; Leszek, Jerzy; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Pathological examinations and the increasingly popular diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) show that in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the pathology involves not only the cortical and hippocampal structures, but also the white matter of the brain. DTI is a well recognized technique for evaluation of the integrity of white matter fibers. The aim of this study was to assess with the use of DTI some selected brain tracts in patients with AD, as well as to analyze the severity and distribution of the identified changes. Material/Methods: Thirty-five patients with AD (mean age of 71.6 years, MMSE 17.6), and a control group of 15 healthy volunteers (mean age of 69.1 years, MMSE 29.8) were enrolled in the study. All patients were subjected to a thorough psychiatric examination and psychological tests. DTI examinations (TE 8500, TR 100) were performed using a 1.5T MR scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in the selected areas of interest (ROI) of the white matter fibers were performed under the control of color FA maps. The following fibers were evaluated – the middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP), the inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF), inferior frontooccipital fasciculi (IFO), genu (GCC) and splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), posterior limbs of internal capsules (PLIC), superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLF) and posterior cingula (CG). Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in FA in patients with AD, comparing to the control group. It was particularly strongly expressed in both CG (P<0.0001), followed by both ILF, right IFO, and left SLF. Less pronounced changes were found in GCC, SCC, and left IFO. In both PLICs and MCPs and in the right SLF, there was no significant change of FA. Conclusions: In Alzheimer’s disease, there is a significant decrease in FA, which suggests degradation of the majority of the assessed white matter tracts. Distribution of these changes is not uniform. They involve the selected association fibers

  5. The association of pioglitazone and urinary tract disease in type 2 diabetic Taiwanese: bladder cancer and chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yueh Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although studies have shown an association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer, the associated factors have not been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that may link pioglitazone to bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 34,970 study subjects were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in 2003 with follow-up from 2005 to 2009. The demographic characteristics of patients who had used and had never used pioglitazone, including age, sex, diabetes duration, urinary tract disease, nephropathy, bladder cancer, and cumulative dose and duration of pioglitazone therapy, were analyzed using the χ2 test. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the independent effects of pioglitazone on bladder cancer and newly developed chronic kidney disease. RESULTS: Among 3,497 ever users and 31,473 never users of pioglitazone, the respective incident cases of bladder cancer were 12 (0.4% and 72 (0.2%, and for newly developed chronic kidney disease 245 (8.1% and 663 (2.3%, respectively. Ever use of pioglitazone [1.59(1.32-1.91], cumulative dose of pioglitazone 10,500 mg [1.34 (1.04-1.73], and duration of therapy 12 months [1.39 (1.09-1.76] were associated with the development of chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association of pioglitazone use with bladder cancer development, however, there was an association with an increased risk of newly developed chronic kidney disease.

  6. Study of the association between the BMP4 gene and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisilaine Soares dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of different phenotypes for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT in a Brazilian sample, and to evaluate the association between the CAKUT phenotypes and the BMP4 gene. METHODS: In this study, 457 Brazilian individuals were analyzed in an attempt to establish the association between the BMP4 gene and the CAKUT diagnosis. A case-control sample was genotyped for three BMP4 gene polymorphisms. RESULTS: Association data was established with CAKUT sample as a whole and with the three most important CAKUT phenotypes: multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MDK, ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. When the sample was segregated in these three phenotypes, associations between the BMP4 gene were observed with UPJO and with MDK. Conversely, VUR was not associated to the polymorphisms of the BMP4 gene. CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that Brazilian individuals with polymorphisms of the BMP4 gene have a higher risk to develop CAKUT, especially the malformations related to nephrogenesis and initial branching such as MDK and UPJO. Conversely, VUR appeared not to be related to BMP4 gene.

  7. Chasing Zero: A Nurse-Driven Process for Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Reduction In a Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Due to treatment costs and lack of reimbursement, community hospitals are charged with implementing innovative strategies that will reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). A nurse-driven system for decreasing the number of hospital-acquired CAUTI is effective and useful for a community hospital. One nurse with accountability for implementing a simple evidence-based protocol can dramatically decrease the total incidence of hospital-acquired CAUTI. The basis for the success of this initiative relied heavily on the ease of using the eight-point Question the Foley criteria, the availability of the electronic medical record, interdisciplinary collaboration, and support from nursing and physician administration. With collaboration and support from nursing leadership, the goals for patient safety by reducing hospital-acquired CAUTI can become a reality in a short period of time. PMID:27281867

  8. Association of dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus fibers in the deep parietal lobe with both reading and writing processes: a brain mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kazuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing.

  9. Exp2 polymorphisms associated with variation for fiber quality properties in cotton(Gossypium spp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daohua; He; Zhongping; Lei; Hongyi; Xing; Baoshan; Tang; Junxing; Zhao; Bixia; Lu

    2014-01-01

    Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins thought to affect the quality of cotton fibers. Previous expression profile analysis revealed that six Expansin A genes are present in cotton, of which two(GhExp1 and GhExp2) produce transcripts that are specific to the developing cotton fiber. To identify the phenotypic function of Exp2, and to determine whether nucleotide variation among alleles of Exp2 affects fiber quality, candidate gene association mapping was conducted. Gene-specific primers were designed to amplify the Exp2 gene. By amplicon sequencing, the nucleotide diversity of Exp2 was investigated across92 accessions(including 7 Gossypium arboreum, 74 Gossypium hirsutum, and 11 Gossypium barbadense accessions) with different fiber qualities. Twenty-six SNPs and seven InDels including 14 from the coding region of Exp2 were detected, forming twelve distinct haplotypes in the cotton collection. Among the 14 SNPs in the coding region, five were missense mutations and nine were synonymous nucleotide changes. The average SNP/InDel per nucleotide ratio was 2.61%(one SNP per 39 bp), with 1.81 and 3.87% occurring in coding and non-coding regions, respectively. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity across the entire Exp2 region was 0.00603(π) and 0.844, respectively, and diversity in non-coding regions was higher than that in coding regions. For linkage disequilibrium(LD), the mean r2 value for all polymorphism loci pairs was 0.48, and LD did not decay over 748 bp. Based on132 simple sequence repeat(SSR) loci evenly covering 26 chromosomes, the population structure was estimated, and the accessions were divided into seven groups that agreed well with their genomic origin and evolutionary history. A general linear model was used to calculate the Exp2-wide diversity–trait associations of 5 fiber quality traits, considering population structure(Q). Four SNPs in Exp2 were associated with at least one of the fiber quality traits, but

  10. Exp2 polymorphisms associated with variation for fiber quality properties in cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daohua He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins thought to affect the quality of cotton fibers. Previous expression profile analysis revealed that six Expansin A genes are present in cotton, of which two (GhExp1 and GhExp2 produce transcripts that are specific to the developing cotton fiber. To identify the phenotypic function of Exp2, and to determine whether nucleotide variation among alleles of Exp2 affects fiber quality, candidate gene association mapping was conducted. Gene-specific primers were designed to amplify the Exp2 gene. By amplicon sequencing, the nucleotide diversity of Exp2 was investigated across 92 accessions (including 7 Gossypium arboreum, 74 Gossypium hirsutum, and 11 Gossypium barbadense accessions with different fiber qualities. Twenty-six SNPs and seven InDels including 14 from the coding region of Exp2 were detected, forming twelve distinct haplotypes in the cotton collection. Among the 14 SNPs in the coding region, five were missense mutations and nine were synonymous nucleotide changes. The average SNP/InDel per nucleotide ratio was 2.61% (one SNP per 39 bp, with 1.81 and 3.87% occurring in coding and non-coding regions, respectively. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity across the entire Exp2 region was 0.00603 (π and 0.844, respectively, and diversity in non-coding regions was higher than that in coding regions. For linkage disequilibrium (LD, the mean r2 value for all polymorphism loci pairs was 0.48, and LD did not decay over 748 bp. Based on 132 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci evenly covering 26 chromosomes, the population structure was estimated, and the accessions were divided into seven groups that agreed well with their genomic origin and evolutionary history. A general linear model was used to calculate the Exp2-wide diversity–trait associations of 5 fiber quality traits, considering population structure (Q. Four SNPs in Exp2 were associated with at least one of the fiber quality traits, but not with

  11. Low-Dose Aspirin-Associated Upper and Mid Gastrointestinal Tract Damage and Gene Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Akiko; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    The risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is increased in association with the use of low-dose aspirin (LDA). There are few studies of the association between genetic polymorphisms and the risks of aspirin-induced ulcer or its complications. Individuals with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), A-842G and C50T, exhibit increased sensitivity to aspirin and lower prostaglandin synthesis capacity but the polymorphism lacked statistical significance in relation to an association with bleeding peptic ulcer. In our previous Japanese study, SLCO1B1 521TT genotype and the SLCO1B1 *1b haplotype were significantly associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding in patients taking LDA, especially in the patients with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), or statin co-treatment. Protonpump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended for patients who require antiplatelet therapy and have a history of upper GI bleeding. The interaction between PPIs and consequent impaired effectiveness of clopidogrel has caused concern regarding the effect of genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 which mediates conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The later recent genome-wide analysis of SNPs indicated the association of several SNPs with small bowel bleeding in Japanese patients taking LDA. The data are still lacking and further prospective studies are needed to identify the specific gene polymorphisms as risk or protective factors for GI bleeding associated with LDA. PMID:26369686

  12. Metagenomic Sequencing of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Upper Bronchial Tract Microbiome Reveals Functional Changes Associated with Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Simon J S; Lewis, Keir E; Huws, Sharon A; Lin, Wanchang; Hegarty, Matthew J; Lewis, Paul D; Mur, Luis A J; Pachebat, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The microbiome associated with this disease may be an important component of the disease, though studies to date have been based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and have revealed unequivocal results. Here, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the upper bronchial tract (UBT) microbiome to allow for greater elucidation of its taxonomic composition, and revealing functional changes associated with the disease. The bacterial metagenomes within sputum samples from eight COPD patients and ten 'healthy' smokers (Controls) were sequenced, and suggested significant changes in the abundance of bacterial species, particularly within the Streptococcus genus. The functional capacity of the COPD UBT microbiome indicated an increased capacity for bacterial growth, which could be an important feature in bacterial-associated acute exacerbations. Regression analyses correlated COPD severity (FEV1% of predicted) with differences in the abundance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and functional classifications related to a reduced capacity for bacterial sialic acid metabolism. This study suggests that the COPD UBT microbiome could be used in patient risk stratification and in identifying novel monitoring and treatment methods, but study of a longitudinal cohort will be required to unequivocally relate these features of the microbiome with COPD severity.

  13. Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurological conditions: Observations on a clinical sample of outpatients neurorehabilitation service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Torelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The overall aims of this study were to investigate the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS associated with neurological conditions and their prevalence and impact on a clinical sample of outpatients of a neurorehabilitation service. Materials and methods: We reviewed the files of 132 patients treated in our neurorehabilitation service from December 2012 to December 2013. Patients were divided into several subgroups based on the neurological diagnosis: Multiple Sclerosis (MS, other demyelinating diseases, Peripheral Neuropathy, neurovascular disorders (ND, neoplastic disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI, Parkinson and Parkinsonism, spinal cord injuries (SCI. Urinary status was based on medical evaluations of history of LUTS, type, degree, onset and duration of symptoms. We tried to analyze prevalence, kind of disorder, timing of presentation (if before or after the neurological onset and eventual persistence of urological disorders (in the main group and in all subgroups. Results: At the time of admission to our rehabilitation service, LUTS were observed in 14 out of 132 cases (11%. A high proportion of these outpatients (64.2% presented bothersome urinary symptoms such as incontinence, frequency and urgency (storage LUTS. The most frequent symptom was urinary urge incontinence (42.8%. This symptom was found to be prevalent in the multiple sclerosis and neurovascular disorders. In 93% the urinary symptoms arose as a result of neurologic conditions and 78.5% did not present a complete recovery of urological symptoms in spite of improved selfreported functional activity limitations. None of these patients performed urological rehabilitation. Conclusions: Neurological disorders are a significant issue in rehabilitation services and it can lead to lower tract dysfunction, which causes LUTS. Storage symptoms are more common, especially urge incontinence. Current literature reports that a further optimization of the rehabilitation potential

  14. Association of Circulating 25(OHD and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Four-Year Prospective Study among Elderly Chinese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Min Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in relation to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS remains inconclusive. This four-year longitudinal study aims to explore the association of circulating 25(OHD and LUTS in elderly Chinese men. Two thousand Chinese men aged 65 and older were recruited from a local community, of which 1998 (99.9% at baseline and 1564 (78.2% at four-year follow-up reported data on LUTS, and 988 of the randomly chosen subpopulation were assayed for serum 25(OHD by radioimmunoassay at baseline. LUTS were evaluated by a validated International Prostate Symptoms Scale (IPSS. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health, and medications were collected. Serum parathyroid and sex steroid hormones and genotypes of vitamin D receptors were assayed. The association of serum 25(OHD and LUTS was examined by using multivariable regression models. Serum 25(OHD was not significantly associated with the changes of IPSS or the risk of LUTS in overall participants. However, among men with 25(OHD ≤ 60 nmol/L, each 10 nmol/L increase of 25(OHD over 0 nmol/L was significantly associated with 1.3 lower points of IPSS or a 51.6% decreased risk for moderate/severe LUTS four years later. Adjustment for serum androstenedione (p = 0.019 and dehydropiandrosterone (p = 0.037 attenuated the associations. Our study suggested that among individuals with low vitamin D status, the increase of the 25(OHD level may be associated with a lowered risk of LUTS.

  15. Depression and Its Severity Are Strongly Associated with Both Storage and Voiding Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Independently of Prostate Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Min; Suh, Beomseok; Jang, Soo Hyun; Jin, Ho Seong; Kim, Nakhyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Depression is related to various functional medical conditions. Its association with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is also expected. We evaluated whether depression and its severity are associated with LUTS when LUTS risk factors including prostate volume (PV) are taken into account in a large population of Korean men. Study subjects included 10,275 men who underwent routine health check-ups at the Healthcare System Gangnam Center of Seoul National University Hospital. Depression was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory-II and LUTS using international prostate symptom score. PV was measured using transrectal ultrasonography by a radiologist. Effect sizes of depression severity on total, storage, and voiding symptoms were assessed. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, mild, moderate and severe depression were associated with total (adjusted odds ratio: aOR = 2.99, 3.86 and 8.99; all P < 0.001), voiding (aOR = 3.04, 3.28 and 5.58; all P < 0.001) and storage symptoms (aOR = 2.43, 3.43 and 2.89; all P < 0.05) showing dose response relationships (all P trend < 0.001). In a subgroup analysis for participants with PV data (n = 1,925), mild and moderate-severe depression were also associated with LUTS (aOR = 3.29, 2.84; P < 0.001 and 0.018, respectively). In conclusion, depression and its severity are strongly associated with total, voiding, and storage symptoms independently of PV state. PMID:26539010

  16. Genetic associations of 115 polymorphisms with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract across 10 European countries: the ARCAGE project.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canova, Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus and account for 6.4% of all new cancers in Europe. In the context of a multicenter case-control study conducted in 14 centers within 10 European countries and comprising 1,511 cases and 1,457 controls (ARCAGE study), 115 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 62 a priori-selected genes were studied in relation to UADT cancer. We found 11 SNPs that were statistically associated with UADT cancers overall (5.75 expected). Considering the possibility of false-positive results, we focused on SNPs in CYP2A6, MDM2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1 (GASC1), for which low P values for trend (P trend<0.01) were observed in the main effects analyses of UADT cancer overall or by subsite. The rare variant of CYP2A6 -47A>C (rs28399433), a phase I metabolism gene, was associated with reduced UADT cancer risk (P trend=0.01). Three SNPs in the MDM2 gene, involved in cell cycle control, were associated with UADT cancer. MDM2 IVS5+1285A>G (rs3730536) showed a strong codominant effect (P trend=0.007). The rare variants of two SNPs in the TNF gene were associated with a decreased risk; for TNF IVS1+123G>A (rs1800610), the P trend was 0.007. Variants in two SNPs of GASC1 were found to be strongly associated with increased UADT cancer risk (for both, P trend=0.008). This study is the largest genetic epidemiologic study on UADT cancers in Europe. Our analysis points to potentially relevant genes in various pathways.

  17. [HPV-associated carcinomas of the female genital tract. Molecular mechanisms of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, M; Vinokurova, S; von Knebel Doeberitz, M

    2011-11-01

    Infections with human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a common occurrence in both men and women. In contrast HPV-associated neoplasias are relatively rare and occur only in certain areas of the body. The virus has obviously developed efficient mechanisms for its persistence without inducing too much damage to the host. The formation of neoplasia seems to be more an exception. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of viral gene expression. Investigations have indicated that exactly the transition from the permissive infection stage to a transformation stage, where neoplastic alterations can occur due to expression of the viral oncogenes, is associated with certain methylation patterns of the viral genome which promote the expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. The transforming stage is seen as the actual carcinogenic event and can be immunohistochemically detected by the biomarker p16(INK4a).

  18. Fungal contamination of the respiratory tract and associated respiratory impairment among sawmill workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Adhikari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood processing workers are exposed to wood-associated microbiological contaminants, including fungi. Our aim was to study the potential association between sputum fungus and adverse respiratory effects in such workers. In a group of sawmill workers, we administered a respiratory questionnaire, performed lung function testing and quantified the proportions of leukocytes in spontaneously expectorated sputum samples. We identified fungal species by DNA sequencing. Of 54 sawmill workers, 19 yielded fungal positive sputum samples (mean age 42.5±10.4 years and 35 were negative for fungus (mean age 36.9±5.2 years. The fungus was identified as Candida sp. in all samples. Those with fungal-positive sputum, compared to others, reported more cough (26% versus 63% and haemoptysis (6% versus 37% (both p<0.05, manifested reduced forced midexpiratory flow rates (FEF25–75% (82.3±4.5 versus 69.2±9.9% predicted, p<0.001, and had higher sputum eosinophil counts (median 9.25 versus 3.25%, p<0.01. Reduction of FEF25–75% was associated both with fungus detection in sputum (−12.7%, 95% CI−8.5– −16.9% and sputum eosinophils (−2.1% per 1% increase in eosinophils, 95% CI −1.5– −2.8% (both p<0.001. In sawmill workers, Candida sp. detectable in sputum was associated with respiratory symptoms, sputum eosinophilia and reduced FEF25–75%.

  19. Association between common variable immunodeficiency and collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: A series of four patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaliya, Rohan; Burkart, Ashlie L; DiMarino, Anthony J; Rattan, Satish; Cohen, Sidney

    2016-03-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia/common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) may lead to disruption of the gut mucosal immune barrier. Collagenous infiltrative disorders of the intestinal tract (colitis, gastritis, sprue) constitute a relatively new spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders. Our aims were (1) to determine the association between immunoglobulin deficiency state like CVID and collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gut and (2) to study the clinic-pathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes in these patients. A retrospective search was conducted to identify cases with concurrence of these two conditions at an academic center from 2007 to 2013. Four such patients were identified from our database: three with collagenous colitis and one with collagenous gastritis. All patients with collagenous colitis had normal colonic mucosa while the patient with collagenous gastritis had nodular gastric mucosa. Only one patient out of four had decreased plasma cells in the submucosa as expected in low immunoglobulin states. All patients had improvement in their symptoms on immunoglobulin therapy with considerable remission on budesonide. Literature search revealed reporting of four similar patients. In conclusion, (1) the association between collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gut and CVID and its prompt response to immunoglobulins with effective maintenance with budesonide are novel findings. Our study also shows that the presence of plasma cells should not rule out the possibility of CVID. (2) In patients with chronic diarrhea, hypogammaglobulinemia and collagenous colitis/sprue should be considered for the available effective treatments such as immunoglobulins and budesonide. PMID:27053352

  20. Quantitative evaluation of changes in the selected white matter tracts using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, A; Szewczyk, P; Bladowska, J; Trypka, E; Wojtynska, R; Leszek, J; Sasiadek, M

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the damage to the extensive range of white matter tracts in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty-four patients with AD (mean age 71.5 yrs, MMSE 17.6), 23 patients with MCI (mean age 66 yrs, MMSE 27.4) and 15 normal controls (mean age 69 yrs, MMSE 29.8) were enrolled. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 25 directions on 1.5 T MR scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained with a small ROI method in several association tracts including posterior cingulum fibers, in commissural tracts (genu and splenium of corpus callosum) and projection tracts (middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior limbs of internal capsules). In MCI significant reductions of FA were found in the inferior longitudinal fascicles, left superior longitudinal fascicle and posterior cingulum fibers compared to normal controls. In AD significantly decreased FA values were detected in the same fascicles as in MCI and additionally in inferior fronto-occipital tracts and commissural tracts. In both AD and MCI the most severe changes were found within posterior cingulum fibers. No abnormalities were detected in projection tracts in both groups. Accuracy of DTI in detecting AD and MCI reached 0.95 and 0.79, respectively. FA measurements strongly correlated with neuropsychological tests. DTI is capable of depicting microstructural changes within white matter fiber tracts in dementia and may aid the differential diagnosis of AD and MCI. PMID:24028982

  1. Association between air pollution and general outpatient clinic consultations for upper respiratory tract infections in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson W S Tam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many studies have shown the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health, but few have examined the effects of air pollution on service utilisation in the primary care setting. The aim of this study was to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations due to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs in general outpatient clinics (GOPCs in Hong Kong. METHODS: Daily data on the numbers of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs, the concentrations of major air pollutants, and the mean values of metrological variables were retrospectively collected over a 3-year period (2008-2010, inclusive. Generalised additive models were constructed to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations, and to derive the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of GOPC consultations for a unit increase in the concentrations of air pollutants. RESULTS: The mean daily consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs ranged from 68.4 to 253.0 over the study period. The summary relative risks (and 95% CI of daily consultations in all GOPCs for the air pollutants PM10, NO2, O3, and SO2 were 1.005 (1.002, 1.009, 1.010 (1.006, 1.013, 1.009 (1.006, 1.012, and 1.004 (1.000, 1.008 respectively, per 10 µg/m(3 increase in the concentration of each pollutant. CONCLUSION: Significant associations were found between the daily number of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs and the concentrations of air pollutants, implying that air pollution incurs a substantial morbidity and increases the burden of primary health care services.

  2. Type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Insabato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Silent Corticotroph Adenoma (SCA is a pituitary adenoma variant characterized by the immunoreactivity for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and related peptides, without the clinical signs of Cushing's disease. SCA has been postulated to either secrete structurally abnormal ACTH that is inactive but detectable by immunohistochemistry or radioimmunoassay, or to secrete ACTH intermittently or at low levels continuously. Excess of ACTH has been associated to type II muscle atrophy. We describe a case of type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog. The dog showed moderate to severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness with normal levels of muscle-associated enzymes. In the limb muscle biopsies, type II fibers were uniformly smaller than type I fibers. In temporalis muscles, there were few atrophic fibers, and several irregular areas of loss of enzymatic activity observed in NADH, SDH and COX stains. The tumour showed a trabecular growth pattern and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for ACTH. The muscle atrophy was considered to be related to an excess of inactive ACTH. Studying spontaneous occurring rare diseases in animals could help to understand the mechanism of similar diseases in human has well.

  3. When should MERRF (myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers be the diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Lorenzoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged red fibers (MERRF is a rare mitochondrial disorder. Diagnostic criteria for MERRF include typical manifestations of the disease: myoclonus, generalized epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia and ragged red fibers (RRF on muscle biopsy. Clinical features of MERRF are not necessarily uniform in the early stages of the disease, and correlations between clinical manifestations and physiopathology have not been fully elucidated. It is estimated that point mutations in the tRNALys gene of the DNAmt, mainly A8344G, are responsible for almost 90% of MERRF cases. Morphological changes seen upon muscle biopsy in MERRF include a substantive proportion of RRF, muscle fibers showing a deficient activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX and the presence of vessels with a strong reaction for succinate dehydrogenase and COX deficiency. In this review, we discuss mainly clinical and laboratory manifestations, brain images, electrophysiological patterns, histology and molecular findings as well as some differential diagnoses and treatments.

  4. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are Associated with Increased Risk of Dementia among the Elderly: A Nationwide Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiang Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies show a strong association between dementia and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LUTS are a risk factor for cognitive impairment. We enrolled 50-year-old and older subjects with LUTS (LUTS[+] (n=6801 and controls without LUTS (LUTS[−] (n=20,403 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. LUTS, dementia, and other confounding factors are defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes. Participants were recruited from 2000 to 2004 and then followed up until death or the end of 2011. The outcome was the onset of dementia, which was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, Cox hazards models, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The incidence of dementia was significantly higher in the LUTS[+] group than in the LUTS[−] group (124.76 versus 77.59/1000 person-years. The increased risk of dementia related to LUTS remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR: 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.47–1.76, P<0.0001 and higher than that related to cerebrovascular disease (AHR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.26–1.61, P<0.0001. The outcome suggests the need for early screening and appropriate intervention to help prevent cognitive impairment of patients with LUTS.

  5. A Tool to Assess the Signs and Symptoms of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection: Development and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Tom J; Gardner, Sue E; Blodgett, Nicole P; Peterson, Lisa V; Pietraszak, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the inter-rater reliability of four clinical manifestations of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) among hospitalized adults with short-term indwelling urinary catheters using a tool developed for this purpose: the CAUTI Assessment Profile (CAP). Study participants included 30 non-pregnant English-speaking adults, recruited from two community hospitals. Three nurses assessed each participant for fever, suprapubic tenderness, flank tenderness, and delirium using standardized techniques. Based on the generalized Kappa statistic and 95% confidence intervals, there was evidence of strong inter-rater reliability for fever (K = 1.00, 0.793-1.207), suprapubic tenderness (K = 0.39, 0.185-0.598), and delirium (K = 0.58, 0.379-0.792), but not for flank tenderness (K = 0.29, -0.036 to 0.617). This study provides preliminary evidence that the CAP can be used to consistently identify these clinical signs and symptoms of CAUTI in hospitalized adults. PMID:25246536

  6. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibe Doosje

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS.Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions.Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations.Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.

  7. Lactobacillus crispatus dominant vaginal microbiome is associated with inhibitory activity of female genital tract secretions against Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeny P Ghartey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Female genital tract secretions inhibit E. coli ex vivo and the activity may prevent colonization and provide a biomarker of a healthy microbiome. We hypothesized that high E. coli inhibitory activity would be associated with a Lactobacillus crispatus and/or jensenii dominant microbiome and differ from that of women with low inhibitory activity. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal swab cell pellets from 20 samples previously obtained in a cross-sectional study of near-term pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women were selected based on having high (>90% inhibition or low (<20% inhibition anti-E. coli activity. The V6 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Filtered culture supernatants from Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners, and Gardnerella vaginalis were also assayed for E. coli inhibitory activity. RESULTS: Sixteen samples (10 with high and 6 with low activity yielded evaluable microbiome data. There was no difference in the predominant microbiome species in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women (n = 8 each. However, there were significant differences between women with high compared to low E. coli inhibitory activity. High activity was associated with a predominance of L. crispatus (p<0.007 and culture supernatants from L. crispatus exhibited greater E. coli inhibitory activity compared to supernatants obtained from L. iners or G. vaginalis. Notably, the E. coli inhibitory activity varied among different strains of L. crispatus. CONCLUSION: Microbiome communities with abundant L. crispatus likely contribute to the E. coli inhibitory activity of vaginal secretions and efforts to promote this environment may prevent E. coli colonization and related sequelae including preterm birth.

  8. Beta2-adrenoceptor gene variant Arg16Gly is associated with idiopathic ventricular outflow-tract tachycardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Yu-qin; LI Ning; YANG Ying; CHEN Jing-zhou; FENG Li; ZHANG Shu; PU Jie-lin

    2010-01-01

    Background Imbalance of the sympathetic nervous system was involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic ventricular outflow-tract tachycardia (IVOT). We aimed to investigate whether the major genetic variants in β1-and β2-adrenoceptors and GNB3 C825T were associated with IVOT and verapamil sensitive idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT).Methods Patients with IVOT and ILVT from December 2005 to December 2007 were consecutively enrolled into this study. Controls were randomly selected from the community-based inhabitants. Five genetic variants, Ser49Gly and Gly389Arg in the β1-adrenoceptor, Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu in the β2-adrenoceptor and GNB3 C825T, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.Results A total of 227 patients with IVOT and 110 patients with ILVT were included. Genotyping revealed that the 16Gly allele of Arg16Gly variant of β2-adrenoceptor was associated with a higher risk of IVOT (OR:1.40, 95% CI: 1.12-1.75,P=0.003 in the addictive model and OR:. 1.62, 95% CI: 1.14-2.31, P=0.007 in the dominant model). Patients with Gly16Gln27 haplotype also had a higher risk of IVOT (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.11-1.73, P=0.012). Other four variants,including Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly in β1-adrenoceptor, GIn27Glu in β2-adrenoceptor and GNB3 C825T, did not differ between patients with IVOT and controls. In patients with ILVT, no significant difference was found in these five variants compared with controls.Conclusions Arg16Gly in β2-adrenoceptor is significantly associated with IVOT in Chinese Han population. Major genetic variants in β1- and β2-adrenoceptor and GNB3 C825T may not be associated with ILVT. These data suggest a different arrhythmogenic mechanism in IVOT and ILVT.

  9. Intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal foods, is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer in the HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Skeie, Guri; Landberg, Rikard;

    2012-01-01

    ) and rectal cancer in the prospective Scandinavian HELGA cohort and to determine if fiber source (vegetables, fruits, potatoes, cereals) impacted the association. We included 1,168 incident cases (691 colon, 477 rectal cancer), diagnosed during a median of 11.3 years, among 108,081 cohort members. Sex......The role of dietary fiber on the risk of colon and rectal cancer has been investigated in numerous studies, but findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident colon (including distal and proximal colon......-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of colon and rectal cancer were related to intake of total or specific fiber source using Cox proportional hazards models. For men, an inverse association was observed between intake of total fiber and the risk of colon cancer per an incremental increase of 10 g day(-1) , IRR...

  10. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan eP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent development, the study aims to develop a potential drug molecule targeting the SarA of S. aureus to combat biofilm associated infections in which it is involved. In our previous studies, we have reported the antibiofilm activity of SarA based biofilm inhibitor, (SarABI with a 50% minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 value of 200 µg/mL against S. aureus associated with vascular graft infections and also the antibiofilm activity of the root ethanolic extracts of Melia dubia against uropathogenic E. coli. In the present study, in silico design of a hybrid molecule composed of a molecule screened from M. dubia root ethanolic extracts and a modified SarA based inhibitor (SarABIM was undertaken. SarABIM is a modified form of SarABI where the fluorine groups are absent in SarABIM. Chemical synthesis of the hybrid molecule, 4-(Benzylaminocyclohexyl 2-hydroxycinnamate (henceforth referred to as UTI Quorum-Quencher, UTIQQ was then performed, followed by in vitro and in vivo validation. The MBIC¬50 and MBIC90 of UTIQQ were found to be 15 µg/mL and 65 µg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM images witnessed biofilm reduction and bacterial killing in either UTIQQ or in combined use of antibiotic gentamicin and UTIQQ. Similar results were observed with in vivo studies of experimental UTI in rat model. So, we propose that the drug UTIQQ would be a promising candidate when used alone or, in combination with an antibiotic for staphylococcal

  11. The value of 3 T MR diffusion tensor fiber tractography study of association fasciculus of normative human in vivo primarily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To exhibit the fibers of association fascicules, aims at demonstrating the association fibers of brain with diffusion tensor fiber tracking technique. Methods: Conventionality MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor fiber tractography (DT-FT) were performed in twenty healthy subjects, including eighteen right-handed (sixteen men and four women) and two left-handed (one male and one female) by 3 T Siemens Trio 2003 T MRI. To select arcuate fascicules, inferior longitudinal fascicules, frontalwoceipital fascicules, corpus callosum, posterior limb of internal capsule and external capsule as seeds used to track fibers. Results: Diffusion tensor fiber tracking exhibited bundles of external capsule left mean fibers were 308 bundles, right fibers were 307 bundles (t=0.138, P>0.05), frontal-occipital tracks left mean fibers were 115 bundles, right fibers were 110 bundles(t=1.174, P>0.05), and their fractional anisotropy (FA) valueexternal capsule mean FA left was 0.361, the right was 0.362 (t=-0.184, P>0.05). Frontal-occipital tracks mean fractional anisotropy left was 0.352, the right was 0.351 (t=-0.816, P>0.05). The difference between both sides were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). The posterior limb of internal capsule left mean fibers were 249 bundles, right fibers were 257 bundles (t=-0.818, P>0.05), arcuate fascietfiesleft mean fibers were 198 bundles, right fibers were 204 bundles (t=-0.465, P>0.05 ) fibers difference between both sides were statistically insignificant (P>0.05), but the individual difference was significant, and their fractional anisotropy difference between both sides (posterior limb of internal capsule mean FA left was 0.450, the right was 0.444 (t=2.771, P0.05). Mean FA left was 0.369, the right was 0.370(t=-0.178, P>0.05) ,difference between both sides was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). But the individual difference was significant. Some of them were the left larger than the right side. The frontal parts

  12. Whole-Grain Intake and Cereal Fiber Are Associated with Lower Abdominal Adiposity in Older Adults1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Mckeown, Nicola M; Yoshida, Makiko; Shea, M. Kyla; Jacques, Paul F; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rogers, Gail; Sarah L. Booth; Saltzman, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Foods high in dietary fiber may play an important role in regulating body weight. Few observational studies have examined the relationship between dietary fiber from different sources and body fat in older adults. Our objectives were to examine the associations among grain intake (whole and refined), dietary fiber and fiber sources, and body fat among older adults. We used data from 434 free-living adults (177 men and 257 women) aged between 60 and 80 y. Dietary intake was estimated from a 12...

  13. Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem: dietary fiber and associated antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; S, Mahadevamma; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-11

    Banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (PS) are byproducts of banana cultivation and are known to have health beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber composition and antioxidant effect of BF and PS. In the present study, BF and PS were found to be rich in dietary fiber (65.6 ± 1.32 and 28.8 ± 0.98%, respectively). Dietary fiber fractions were extracted and characterized in terms of sugar profile, and antioxidant activities were determined. BF and PS fractions were rich in sugars and showed wide diversity with respect to the nature of the sugars. Hemicellulose A fraction of BF showed high amounts of total polyphenols and total antioxidants, which were 121.8 ± 1.9 and 39.03 ± 0.118 μg/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phenolic acids in hemicellulose A and B fractions of BF. These results indicate that BF and PS are rich sources of dietary fiber associated with polyphenols, which could promote health beneficial effects. PMID:22122826

  14. Tract-Specific Correlates of Neuropsychological Deficits in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Na-Yeon; Han, Cheol E; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoo, Sang Wook; Kim, Hee-Jong; Kim, Eun-Joo; Na, Duk L; Lockhart, Samuel N; Jagust, William J; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    The white matter tract-specific correlates of neuropsychological deficits are not fully established in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI), where white matter tract damage may be a critical factor in cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tract-specific correlates of neuropsychological deficits in SVCI patients using tract-specific statistical analysis (TSSA). We prospectively recruited 114 SVCI patients, and 55 age-, gender-, and education-matched individuals with normal cognition (NC). All participants underwent diffusion weighted imaging and neuropsychological testing. We classified tractography results into fourteen major fiber tracts and analyzed group comparison and correlation with cognitive impairments. Relative to NC subjects, SVCI patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy values in bilateral anterior-thalamic radiation, cingulum, superior-longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and left inferior-longitudinal fasciculus. Focal disruptions in specific tracts were associated with specific cognitive impairments. Our findings suggest that disconnection of specific white matter tracts, especially those neighboring and providing connections between gray matter regions important to certain cognitive functions, may contribute to specific cognitive impairments in SVCI. PMID:26836179

  15. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the...... cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system...... not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous...

  16. Sources of Dietary Fiber and the Association of Fiber Intake with Childhood Obesity Risk (in 2–18 Year Olds) and Diabetes Risk of Adolescents 12–18 Year Olds: NHANES 2003–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Brauchla; WenYen Juan; Jon Story; Sibylle Kranz

    2012-01-01

    Increased fiber intake has been linked with lower risk of overweight and obesity in adults, but data are sparse for children. To address this issue, NHANES 2003–2006 data was used to evaluate (1) the food sources of fiber in children, (2) the dietary fiber density levels and risk of being classified as overweight/obese, and (3) the association between fiber intake level and impaired glucose metabolism in children. Analyses were restricted to the subsample of children with biological plausible...

  17. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Balamurugan, P.; Hema, M.; Kaur, Gurmeet; Sridharan, V.; Prabu, P. C.; Sumana, M. N.; Princy, S. Adline

    2015-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA) is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent de...

  18. Predictors of Toxicity Associated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Central Hepatobiliary Tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundson, Evan C.; Wu, Yufan; Luxton, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Bazan, Jose G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric predictors of hepatobiliary (HB) toxicity associated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 96 patients treated with SBRT for primary (53%) or metastatic (47%) liver tumors between March 2006 and November 2013. The central HB tract (cHBT) was defined by a 15-mm expansion of the portal vein from the splenic confluence to the first bifurcation of left and right portal veins. Patients were censored for toxicity upon local progression or additional liver-directed therapy. HB toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. To compare different SBRT fractionations, doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) by using the standard linear quadratic model α/β = 10 (BED10). Results: Median follow-up was 12.7 months after SBRT. Median BED10 was 85.5 Gy (range: 37.5-151.2). The median number of fractions was 5 (range: 1-5), with 51 patients (53.1%) receiving 5 fractions and 29 patients (30.2%) receiving 3 fractions. In total, there were 23 (24.0%) grade 2+ and 18 (18.8%) grade 3+ HB toxicities. Nondosimetric factors predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity included cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) histology (P<.0001), primary liver tumor (P=.0087), and biliary stent (P<.0001). Dosimetric parameters most predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity were volume receiving above BED10 of 72 Gy (V{sub BED10}72) ≥ 21 cm{sup 3} (relative risk [RR]: 11.6, P<.0001), V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3} (RR: 10.5, P<.0001), and mean BED10 (Dmean{sub BED10}) cHBT ≥14 Gy (RR: 9.2, P<.0001), with V{sub BED10}72 and V{sub BED10}66 corresponding to V40 and V37.7 for 5 fractions and V33.8 and V32.0 for 3 fractions, respectively. V{sub BED10}72 ≥ 21 cm{sup 3}, V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3}, and Dmean{sub BED10} cHBT ≥14 Gy were consistently predictive of grade 3+ toxicity on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: V

  19. Striatum-Centered Fiber Connectivity Is Associated with the Personality Trait of Cooperativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Moyzis, Robert K.; Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperativeness is an essential behavioral trait evolved to facilitate group living. Social and cognitive mechanisms involved in cooperation (e.g., motivation, reward encoding, action evaluation, and executive functions) are sub-served by the striatal-projected circuits, whose physical existence has been confirmed by animal studies, human postmortem studies, and in vivo human brain studies. The current study investigated the associations between Cooperativeness and fiber connectivities from the striatum to nine subcortical and cortical regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex, dorsal cingulate cortex, and rostral cingulate cortex. Results showed that Cooperativeness was negatively correlated with fiber connectivity for the cognitive control system (from the dorsal caudate to the rostral cingulate cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), but not with fiber connectivity for the social cognitive system (e.g., connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala). These results partially supported Declerck et al.’s (2013) cognitive neural model of the role of cognitive control and social cognition in cooperation. PMID:27755551

  20. Effect of level of fiber of the rearing phase diets on egg production, digestive tract traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets differing in energy concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Bouali, O; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-01

    This research studied the effects of additional fiber in the rearing phase diets on egg production, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets varying in energy concentration from 17 to 46 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 10 treatments arranged as a 5 × 2 factorial with 5 rearing phase diets and 2 laying phase diets. During the rearing phase, treatments consisted of a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal and 4 additional diets with a combination of 2 fiber sources (cereal straw and sugar beet pulp, SBP) at 2 levels (2 and 4%). During the laying phase, diets differed in energy content (2,650 vs. 2,750 kcal AMEn/kg) but had the same amino acid content per unit of energy. The rearing diet did not affect any production trait except egg production that was lower in birds fed SBP than in birds fed straw (91.6 and 94.1%, respectively; P GIT traits was affected by previous dietary treatment. At this age, hen BW was positively related with body length (r = 0.500; P GIT development of the hens but SBP reduced egg production. An increase in the energy content of the laying phase diet reduced ADFI and improved feed efficiency but did not affect any of the other traits studied. PMID:26976899

  1. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

  2. Inclusion of fiber in diets for brown-egg laying pullets: Effects on growth performance and digestive tract traits from hatching to 17 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Kimiaeitalab, M V; García, J; Mateos, G G

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the effects of fiber inclusion in the diet on growth performance and digestive traits in pullets from hatching to 17 wk of age. The control diets of the 3 feeding periods (0 to 5 wk, 5 to 10 wk, and 10 to 17 wk) were based on corn and soybean meal and did not include any additional fiber source. The experimental diets included 2 or 4% of cereal straw or sugar beet pulp (SBP) at the expense (wt:wt) of the control diet. From 0 to 5 wk of age, fiber inclusion did not affect pullet performance. From hatch to 17 wk of age, the inclusion of straw had little effect on pullet performance but the inclusion of 4% SBP reduced (ADG) (P ratio (FCR; P ratio (P expense (wt:wt) of the whole diet did not affect pullet performance at 17 wk of age. An increase in the level of straw from 2 to 4% reduced FCR but did not affect ADG. The inclusion of SBP, however, reduced pullet growth, with effects being more pronounced at the higher level. PMID:26500272

  3. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Inge Huybrechts; Herman Van Oyen; John Van Camp; Guy De Backer; Stefaan De Henauw; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Willem De Keyzer; Selin Bolca; Yi Lin

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidel...

  4. Dietary fiber is associated with circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein in breast cancer survivors: the HEAL study

    OpenAIRE

    Villaseñor, Adriana; Ambs, Anita; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is a suspected risk factor for breast cancer and its subsequent prognosis. The extent to which dietary and lifestyle factors might influence inflammation is important to examine. Specifically, dietary fiber may reduce systemic inflammation, but this relationship has not been examined among breast cancer survivors. We examined associations between dietary fiber and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), among 698 female breast cancer survivors ...

  5. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

  6. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: Evidence from morphometry and tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG, as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller grey matter (GM volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

  7. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training. PMID:23847506

  8. Chlamydia muridarum Infection Associated Host MicroRNAs in the Murine Genital Tract and Contribution to Generation of Host Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishein; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Haskins, William E.; Chambers, James P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Bakar, Sazaly Abu; Guentzel, M. Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Problem Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the leading sexually transmitted bacterial infection in humans and is associated with reproductive tract damage. However, little is known about the involvement and regulation of microRNAs (miRs) in genital CT. Methods We analyzed miRs in the genital tract (GT) following C. muridarum (murine strain of CT) challenge of wild type (WT), and CD4+ T cell deficient (CD4−/−) C57BL/6 mice at days 6 and 12 post challenge. Results At day 6, miRs significantly downregulated in the lower GT were miR-125b-5p, −16, −214, −23b, −135a, −182, −183, −30c, and −30e while −146 and −451 were significantly upregulated, profiles not exhibited at day 12 post bacterial challenge. Significant differences in miR-125b-5p (+5.06 fold change), −135a (+4.9), −183 (+7.9), and −182 (+3.2) were observed in C. muridarum infected CD4−/− compared to WT mice. In silico prediction and mass spectrometry revealed regulation of miR-135a and −182 and associated proteins i.e, Heat Shock Protein B1 and Alpha-2HS-Glycoprotein. Conclusion This study provides evidence on regulation of miRs following genital chlamydial infection suggesting a role in pathogenesis and host immunity. PMID:24976530

  9. Vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma: a rare mesenchymal tumor of the lower female genital tract and a study of its association with viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Shen, Ko-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2012-06-01

    Superficial myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the lower female genital tract. The exact etiology of superficial myofibroblastoma remains unclear. The association of viral infection and mesenchymal tumors has been well established in some particular types of soft tissue tumors. In the lower female genital tract, the intimate correlation of viral infection and tumor pathogenesis has been also proposed. We present a 59-year-old woman with postcoital bleeding for 1 month. The pelvic examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid mass mimicking leiomyoma at the vaginal fornix. Local excision was performed, and the pathological examination revealed a superficial myofibroblastoma. No tumor recurrence was noted during the 12-month follow-up. Pathological differential diagnosis of this tumor from other mesenchymal tumors is essential because of its distinct clinicopathological features. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization of human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as immunohistochemical staining of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), was negative in tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first group to study the possible relationship of viral infection and the occurrence of this mesenchymal tumor. Our results suggested no association of vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma and infection with HPV, EBV, or HHV8.

  10. A longitudinal functional analysis framework for analysis of white matter tract statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Gilmore, John H; Geng, Xiujuan; Styner, Martin A; Chen, Kehui; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zhu, Hongtu

    2013-01-01

    Many longitudinal imaging studies have been/are being widely conducted to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to better understand white matter maturation in normal controls and diseased subjects. There is an urgent demand for the development of statistical methods for analyzing diffusion properties along major fiber tracts obtained from longitudinal DTI studies. Jointly analyzing fiber-tract diffusion properties and covariates from longitudinal studies raises several major challenges including (i) infinite-dimensional functional response data, (ii) complex spatial-temporal correlation structure, and (iii) complex spatial smoothness. To address these challenges, this article is to develop a longitudinal functional analysis framework (LFAF) to delineate the dynamic changes of diffusion properties along major fiber tracts and their association with a set of covariates of interest (e.g., age and group status) and the structure of the variability of these white matter tract properties in various longitudinal studies. Our LFAF consists of a functional mixed effects model for addressing all three challenges, an efficient method for spatially smoothing varying coefficient functions, an estimation method for estimating the spatial-temporal correlation structure, a test procedure with a global test statistic for testing hypotheses of interest associated with functional response, and a simultaneous confidence band for quantifying the uncertainty in the estimated coefficient functions. Simulated data are used to evaluate the finite sample performance of LFAF and to demonstrate that LFAF significantly outperforms a voxel-wise mixed model method. We apply LFAF to study the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-matter fiber tracts in a clinical study of neurodevelopment.

  11. FMEM: functional mixed effects modeling for the analysis of longitudinal white matter Tract data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Gilmore, John H; Geng, Xiujuan; Martin, Styner; Chen, Kehui; Wang, Jane-ling; Zhu, Hongtu

    2014-01-01

    Many longitudinal imaging studies have collected repeated diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data to understand white matter maturation and structural connectivity pattern in normal controls and diseased subjects. There is an urgent demand for the development of statistical methods for the analysis of diffusion properties along fiber tracts and clinical data obtained from longitudinal studies. Jointly analyzing repeated fiber-tract diffusion properties and covariates (e.g., age or gender) raises several major challenges including (i) infinite-dimensional functional response data, (ii) complex spatial-temporal correlation structure, and (iii) complex spatial smoothness. To address these challenges, this article is to develop a functional mixed effects modeling (FMEM) framework to delineate the dynamic changes of diffusion properties along major fiber tracts and their association with a set of covariates of interest and the structure of the variability of these white matter tract properties in various longitudinal studies. Our FMEM consists of a functional mixed effects model for addressing all three challenges, an efficient method for spatially smoothing varying coefficient functions, an estimation method for estimating the spatial-temporal correlation structure, a test procedure with local and global test statistics for testing hypotheses of interest associated with functional response, and a simultaneous confidence band for quantifying the uncertainty in the estimated coefficient functions. Simulated data are used to evaluate the finite sample performance of FMEM and to demonstrate that FMEM significantly outperforms the standard pointwise mixed effects modeling approach. We apply FMEM to study the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-matter fiber tracts in a clinical study of neurodevelopment.

  12. Fiber: How to Increase the Amount in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fiber: How to Increase the Amount in Your Diet Fiber: How to Increase the Amount in Your Diet ... in the digestive tract) and irritable bowel syndrome. Dietary fiber may also help lower your cholesterol and reduce ...

  13. Fibulin-2 and fibulin-5 alterations in tsk mice associated with disorganized hypodermal elastic fibers and skin tethering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Raphael; Korn, Joseph H; Schiemann, William P; Lafyatis, Robert

    2004-12-01

    The Tight skin (Tsk) mouse is an important model of skin fibrosis that occurs in systemic sclerosis. These mice develop skin tethering and thickening associated with expression of a mutant fibrillin-1 gene. We show that Tsk fibrillin-1 leads to marked alterations in elastic fibers of the hypodermis of Tsk animals. In Tsk mice, a prominent elastic fiber layer found normally at the interface between hypodermal muscle and connective tissue was absent from an early age. The lack of elastic fibers at the hypodermal muscle-connective tissue (M-CT) interface was associated with a loss of staining for fibulin-5 in the same region. These mice also formed disorganized elastic fibers throughout hypodermal connective tissue as they aged. The increased elastic fibers in Tsk hypodermal connective tissue was associated with increased fibrillin-1 and fibulin-2 matrices. These results suggest that Tsk fibrillin-1 causes skin tethering by altering matrix protein composition in Tsk hypodermal connective tissues. The closely parallel alterations in elastogenesis associated with increased fibulin-2 in hypodermal connective tissues and decreased fibulin-5 at the hypodermal M-CT interface suggest that these proteins mediate the effect of Tsk-fibrillin-1 on elastogenesis.

  14. Small Fiber Neuropathy Associated with Hyperlipidemia: Utility of Cutaneous Silent Periods and Autonomic Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Morkavuk, G.; Leventoglu, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Established electrophysiological methods have limited clinical utility in the diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy. The cutaneous silent period (CSP) may be useful as a method for the evaluation of smaller and unmyelinated fiber dysfunctions. Hyperlipidemia is a very rare cause of small fiber neuropathy. In this study, hyperlipidemia and small fiber neuropathy in symptomatic patients with normal nerve conduction studies were evaluated with autonomic tests and cutaneous silent perio...

  15. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  16. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubia Velázquez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c, glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p<0.05. Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control.

  17. Inverse associations of dietary fiber and menopausal hormone therapy with colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2016-09-15

    In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we previously reported that dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men only. In women, the inverse relationship was weaker and appeared to be confounded by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). We re-examined this observation with a greatly increased power. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed data from 187,674 participants with 4,692 cases identified during a mean follow-up period of 16 years. In multivariable-adjusted models, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in both sexes: HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.89 for highest vs. lowest quintile, ptrend  = 0.0020 in men and HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91, ptrend  = 0.0067 in women. Postmenopausal women who ever used MHT had a 19% lower risk of colorectal cancer (95% CI: 0.74-0.89) compared with MHT never users. In a joint analysis of dietary fiber and MHT, dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk in MHT never users (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.95, ptrend  = 0.045), but did not appear to further decrease the colorectal cancer risk of MHT ever users (ptrend  = 0.11). Our results support the overall protective roles of dietary fiber and MHT against colorectal cancer and suggest that dietary fiber may not lower risk further among women who ever used MHT. If confirmed, these results would suggest that MHT and dietary fiber may share overlapping mechanisms in protecting against colorectal cancer. PMID:27137137

  18. Functional recovery from pure dyslexia with preservation of subcortical association fiber networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Hayashi, M.D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old right-handed woman with seizures underwent a two-stage surgical excision of a glioma that was located in the posterior basal region of her left temporal brain. After each surgery, she developed transient pure dyslexia with complete recovery in several months. Around the surgeries, the two major lexico-semantic network pathways, i.e., the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF could be visualized by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI tractography. Interestingly, routes of IFOF and ILF shifted after the 1st-stage surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this case suggests, for the first time, that pure dyslexia could be reversed even when the cortical functional region is perturbed, through possible structural change and preservation of the association fiber networks.

  19. A Case of Polymyxin b-Immobilized Fiber Column Treatment for Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Pneumonia Associated with Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Sasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis who responded to single course of polymyxin b-immobilized fiber column treatment. Initial treatment with pulsed corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, intravenous immunoglobulin, and cyclosporine seemed to suppress the activity of interstitial lung disease temporarily, but signs of relapse were detected such as elevation of serum KL-6 level and progressing pulmonary shadows in chest computed tomography scan. After polymyxin b-immobilized fiber column treatment, the areas of pulmonary shadows drastically decreased. Gradually, arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio recovered, and serum ferritin level and KL-6 level decreased. These findings indicate that polymyxin b-immobilized fiber column treatment could be promising in combination with conventional therapy for rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis, especially at the early phase of relapse.

  20. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N=278,097 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs and incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17 and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08. Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18 and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  1. Bacterial Composition of the Human Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome Is Dynamic and Associated with Genomic Instability in a Barrett's Esophagus Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alevtina Gall

    Full Text Available The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC has increased nearly five-fold over the last four decades in the United States. Barrett's esophagus, the replacement of the normal squamous epithelial lining with a mucus-secreting columnar epithelium, is the only known precursor to EAC. Like other parts of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the esophagus hosts a variety of bacteria and comparisons among published studies suggest bacterial communities in the stomach and esophagus differ. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach has been inversely associated with development of EAC, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear.The bacterial composition in the upper GI tract was characterized in a subset of participants (n=12 of the Seattle Barrett's Esophagus Research cohort using broad-range 16S PCR and pyrosequencing of biopsy and brush samples collected from squamous esophagus, Barrett's esophagus, stomach corpus and stomach antrum. Three of the individuals were sampled at two separate time points. Prevalence of H. pylori infection and subsequent development of aneuploidy (n=339 and EAC (n=433 was examined in a larger subset of this cohort.Within individuals, bacterial communities of the stomach and esophagus showed overlapping community membership. Despite closer proximity, the stomach antrum and corpus communities were less similar than the antrum and esophageal samples. Re-sampling of study participants revealed similar upper GI community membership in two of three cases. In this Barrett's esophagus cohort, Streptococcus and Prevotella species dominate the upper GI and the ratio of these two species is associated with waist-to-hip ratio and hiatal hernia length, two known EAC risk factors in Barrett's esophagus. H. pylori-positive individuals had a significantly decreased incidence of aneuploidy and a non-significant trend toward lower incidence of EAC.

  2. Biopsy - biliary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  3. No association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation or arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Liese, Angela D.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Marcovina, Santica; Reynolds, Kristi; Shah, Amy S.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Wadwa, R. Paul; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation and arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US. Methods Data are from youth ≥ 10 years old with clinically diagnosed T1D for ≥ 3 months and ≥ 1 positive diabetes autoantibody in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Fiber intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with measurement error (ME) accounted for by structural sub-models derived using additional 24-hour dietary recall data in a calibration sample and the respective exposure-disease model covariates. Markers of inflammation, measured at baseline, included IL-6 (n=1405), CRP (n=1387), and fibrinogen (n=1340); markers of arterial stiffness, measured approximately 19 months post-baseline, were available in a subset of participants and included augmentation index (n=180), pulse wave velocity (n=184), and brachial distensibility (n=177). Results Mean (SD) T1D duration was 47.9 (43.2) months; 12.5% of participants were obese. Mean (SD) ME-adjusted fiber intake was 15 (2.8) g/day. In multivariable analyses, fiber intake was not associated with inflammation or arterial stiffness. Conclusion Among youth with T1D, fiber intake does not meet recommendations and is not associated with measures of systemic inflammation or vascular stiffness. Further research is needed to evaluate whether fiber is associated with these outcomes in older individuals with T1D or among individuals with higher intakes than those observed in the present study. PMID:24613131

  4. Increased serum C-reactive protein level is associated with increased storage lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Fa Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammation is considered as one of the contributing mechanisms of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP level is the widely used biomarker of inflammatory status. This study investigated the association between serum CRP level in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS before and after medical treatment. METHODS: A total of 853 men with BPH and LUTS were enrolled. All patients completed the International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS questionnaire and urological examinations. The parameters of uroflowmetry (maximum flow rate, Qmax; voided volume, VV, post-void residual (PVR, total prostate volume (TPV and transition zone index (TZI, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA, and serum CRP levels were obtained. All patients were treated with alpha-blocker or antimuscarinic agent based on the IPSS voiding to storage subscore ratio (IPSS-V/S. Correlation analyses were performed between serum CRP levels with age, IPSS, TPV, TZI, Qmax, PVR, VV, PSA and between baseline and post treatment. RESULTS: The mean age was 66.9 ± 11.6 years old and the mean serum CRP levels were 0.31 ± 0.43 mg/dL. Univariate analyses revealed serum CRP levels were significantly associated with age (p<0.001, PSA levels (p = 0.005 and VV (p = 0.017, but not significantly associated with TPV (p = 0.854 or PVR (p = 0.068. CRP levels were positively associated with urgency (p<0.001 and nocturia (p<0.001 subscore of IPSS, total IPSS (p = 0.008 and storage IPSS (p<0.001 and negatively associated with IPSS- V/S ratio (p = 0.014. Multivariate analyses revealed that serum CRP levels were significantly associated with age (p = 0.004 and storage IPSS subscore p<0.001. Patients with IPSS-V/S<1 and treated with tolterodine for 3 months had significant decrease of CRP levels after treatment. CONCLUSION: Serum CRP levels are associated with storage LUTS and sensory bladder disorders, suggesting chronic

  5. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  6. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION AT HOSPITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT, BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savatmorigkorngul, Sorravit; Poowarattanawiwit, Pongsuree; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares

    2016-03-01

    Urinary tract infection or UTI is most commonly caused by Escherichia coli. This study investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) E. coli in community-acquired UTI presenting at the Emergency Department, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. A retrospective review was conducted over a one-year period (2014) of case histories of patients over 15 years of age diagnosed with (n = 159) and without culture-positive (n = 249) ESBL E. coli. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed four independent risk factors for UTI caused by ESBL E. coli, namely, urinary catheter use, previous UTI in which ESBL E. coli was present, and previous use of antibiotics cephalosporin and penicillin. This information should be useful in devising future public health prevention and control programs for ESBL E. coli-associated community-acquired UTI.

  7. Fate and effect of ingested Bacillus cereus spores and vegetative cells in the intestinal tract of human-flora-associated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse;

    2006-01-01

    from animals receiving vegetative cells, only few B. cereus cells were detected. Spores survived the gastric barrier well, and were in some cases detected up to 2 weeks after ingestion. Selective growing revealed no major changes in the intestinal flora during passage of B. cereus. However, denaturing......The fate and effect of Bacillus cereus F4433/73R in the intestine of human-flora-associated rats was studied using bacteriological culturing techniques and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in combination with cell assays and immunoassays for detection of enterotoxins. In faecal samples...... gradient gel electrophoresis analysis with universal 16S rRNA gene primers revealed significant changes in the intestinal microbiota of animals dosed with spores. Vero cell assays and a commercial kit (BCET-RPLA) did not reveal any enterotoxin production from B. cereus F4433/73R in the intestinal tract....

  8. Lower concentrations of chemotactic cytokines and soluble innate factors in the lower female genital tract associated with the use of injectable hormonal contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Masson, Lindi; Sibeko, Sengeziwe; Werner, Lise; McKinnon, Lyle R; Mlisana, Koleka; Shey, Muki; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-08-01

    Progesterone-based injectable hormonal contraceptives (HCs) potentially modulate genital barrier integrity and regulate the innate immune environment in the female genital tract, thereby enhancing the risk of STIs or HIV infection. We investigated the effects of injectable HC use on concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and other soluble factors associated with genital epithelial repair and integrity. The concentrations of 42 inflammatory, regulatory, adaptive growth factors and hematopoietic cytokines, five matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from 64 HIV-negative women using injectable HCs and 64 control women not using any HCs, in a matched case-control study. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV; Nugent score ≥7), or common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariate analyses adjusting for condom use, sex work status, marital status, BV and STIs, median concentrations of chemokines (eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC), adaptive cytokines (IL-15), growth factors (PDGF-AA) and a metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) were significantly lower in CVLs from women using injectable HCs than controls. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 and the chemokine fractalkine were less likely to have detectable levels in women using injectable HCs compared with those not using HCs. We conclude that injectable HC use was broadly associated with an immunosuppressive female genital tract innate immune profile. While the relationship between injectable HC use and STI or HIV risk is yet to be resolved, our data suggest that the effects of injectable HCs were similar in STI-positive and STI-negative participants.

  9. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmilla Reinprecht

    Full Text Available Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue.

  10. Black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25–64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003–2004; 2008–2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position. - Highlights: • The study included 1757 black, Latino, and white working class adults in Boston, MA. • Census tract poverty was associated with annual average black carbon exposure. • Annual household income was not associated with black carbon exposure. • Individual-level education was not associated with black carbon exposure. • The observed socioeconomic patterns varied by race/ethnicity. - In a US multiethnic urban working adult population, exposure to black carbon was more strongly associated with census tract as compared to household- or individual-level socioeconomic measures

  11. Are activity limitations associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in stroke patients? A cross-sectional, clinical survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Klarskov, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    . The response rate was 84%. The activity limitations were reported by 17-34% depending on the measurement. Mobility velocity was highly significantly associated (p=0.01) with severity of LUTS. In the LUTS incontinence symptom group, Barthel Index and mobility velocity were significantly associated...... with prevalence [p=0.03, odds ratio (OR) 2.08 and p=0.05, OR 1.87, respectively]. Barthel Index and mobility distance were also associated with severity (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively) and Barthel Index was associated with the prevalence of bother (p=0.02, OR 2.12). Conclusion. This study indicate for the first...

  12. The association between change in body mass index and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the ARCAGE project: multicenter case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Park, Sungshim Lani

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies reported an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Examining change in BMI over time may clarify these previous observations. We used data from 2,048 cases and 2,173 hospital- and population-based controls from ten European countries (alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe study) to investigate the relationship with BMI and adult change in BMI on UADT cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between BMI at three time intervals and BMI change on UADT cancer development, adjusting for center, age, sex, education, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found an inverse relationship between UADT cancers and BMI at time of interview and 2 years before interview. No association was found with BMI at 30 years of age. Regarding BMI change between age 30 and 2 years before interview, BMI decrease (BMI change <-5%) vs. BMI stability (-5% ≤ BMI change <5%) showed no overall association with UADT cancers (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.49). An increase in BMI (BMI change ≥+5%) was inversely associated with UADT cancers (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89). BMI gain remained inversely associated across all subsites except for esophageal cancer. When stratified by smoking or by drinking, association with BMI gain was detected only in drinkers and smokers. In conclusion, BMI gain is inversely associated with UADT cancers. These findings may be influenced by smoking and\\/or drinking behaviors and\\/or the development of preclinical UADT cancers and should be corroborated in studies of a prospective nature.

  13. Current status of radiation effects knowledge for fiber based systems and associated components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study sketches out the effects of cosmic rays and radiation belts on commercially available optical fibers and transducers. There already exists a selection of fiber optic components that simply need to be qualified for the adverse space environment. Some others require a shielding protection or software/hardware redundancy. (D.L.). 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Caveolin-3 is associated with the T-tubules of mature skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Ploug, Thorkil

    1999-01-01

    the distribution of caveolin-3 in single skeletal muscle fibers from adult rat soleus by confocal immunofluorescence and by immunogold electron microscopy. We found that caveolin-3 occurs at the highest density on the plasma membrane but is also present in the core of the fibers, at the I-band/A-band interface...

  15. Analysis and identification of SCAR molecular markers associated with birch fiber length trait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dan; WEI Zhi-gang; YANG Chuan-ping; LIU Guan-jun

    2008-01-01

    The fiber length trait (FLT) of 538 individuals from nature birch population in Maorshan region,Heilongjang,China were measured,of which 100 individuals were selected as representative variety of correlated fragments screening with random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) technique.In total of 20 RAPD primers were tested through multiple regression analysis between amplified strip and the character behaviors,and a correlative segment BFLR-16 was obtained.The correlation coefficient between BFLI-16 and FLT was 0.6144,with the significant level of 1%.BFLI-16 was then cloned,sequenced and transformed into SCAR marker.The percentage of identifying long fiber birches by this SCAR was more than 92.The result indicates that the SCAR markers has high specificity for the long fiber individuals and is highly linked with the gene controlling the character of fiber length,and its existence is significantly correlative with the increase in the fiber length.

  16. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection. PMID:26411309

  17. Association of diverse bacterial communities in human bile samples with biliary tract disorders: a survey using culture and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddin, E; Sherafat, S J; Majidi, M R S; Alebouyeh, M; Alizadeh, A H M; Zali, M R

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial infection is considered a predisposing factor for disorders of the biliary tract. This study aimed to determine the diversity of bacterial communities in bile samples and their involvement in the occurrence of biliary tract diseases. A total of 102 bile samples were collected during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Characterization of bacteria was done using culture and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and identity of the nucleotide sequences of differentiated bands from the DGGE gels was determined based on GenBank data. In total, 41.2 % (42/102) of the patients showed bacterial infection in their bile samples. This infection was detected in 21 % (4/19), 45.4 % (5/11), 53.5 % (15/28), and 54.5 % (24/44) of patients with common bile duct stone, microlithiasis, malignancy, and gallbladder stone, respectively. Escherichia coli showed a significant association with gallstones. Polymicrobial infection was detected in 48 % of the patients. While results of the culture method established coexistence of biofilm-forming bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp., and Acinetobacter spp.) in different combinations, the presence of Capnocytophaga spp., Lactococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter or Citrobacter spp., Morganella spp., Salmonella spp., and Helicobacter pylori was also characterized in these samples by the PCR-DGGE method. Multidrug resistance phenotypes (87.5 %) and resistance to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and quinolones were common in these strains, which could evolve through their selection by bile components. Ability for biofilm formation seems to be a need for polymicrobial infection in this organ. PMID:27193890

  18. Autotract: automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets.

  19. Association of Circulating 25(OH)D and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Four-Year Prospective Study among Elderly Chinese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Chan, Dicken; Woo, Jean; Chen, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bailing; Tse, Lap-Ah; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The role of vitamin D in relation to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) remains inconclusive. This four-year longitudinal study aims to explore the association of circulating 25(OH)D and LUTS in elderly Chinese men. Two thousand Chinese men aged 65 and older were recruited from a local community, of which 1998 (99.9%) at baseline and 1564 (78.2%) at four-year follow-up reported data on LUTS, and 988 of the randomly chosen subpopulation were assayed for serum 25(OH)D by radioimmunoassay at baseline. LUTS were evaluated by a validated International Prostate Symptoms Scale (IPSS). Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health, and medications were collected. Serum parathyroid and sex steroid hormones and genotypes of vitamin D receptors were assayed. The association of serum 25(OH)D and LUTS was examined by using multivariable regression models. Serum 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with the changes of IPSS or the risk of LUTS in overall participants. However, among men with 25(OH)D ≤ 60 nmol/L, each 10 nmol/L increase of 25(OH)D over 0 nmol/L was significantly associated with 1.3 lower points of IPSS or a 51.6% decreased risk for moderate/severe LUTS four years later. Adjustment for serum androstenedione (p = 0.019) and dehydropiandrosterone (p = 0.037) attenuated the associations. Our study suggested that among individuals with low vitamin D status, the increase of the 25(OH)D level may be associated with a lowered risk of LUTS. PMID:27164139

  20. Genetic characterization of a core collection of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) suitable for association mapping studies and evidence of divergent selection between fiber and linseed types

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J.; Diederichsen, Axel; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Background Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop. Simultaneous targeting of genomic regions controlling stem fiber and seed quality traits could enable the development of dual purpose cultivars. However, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns necessary for association mapping (AM) have not yet been as...

  1. Mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned pigs and dynamics linked to dietary calcium-phosphorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Mann

    Full Text Available Dietary composition largely influences pig's gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change at the gastric Pars non-glandularis (P = 0.035. Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs.

  2. Gum Guar fiber associated with fructose reduces serum triacylglycerol but did not improve the glucose tolerance in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyama Caio SM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increased intake of dietary fructose can be associated with alterations on energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism, such as insulin resistance and dislipidemia. On the other hand, the ingestion of soluble fiber gum guar could improve benefic mechanism on glucose tolerance and lipids profile. Objective The aim of the present study were to investigate the effects of the supplemental feeding partially hydrolyzed gum guar on glucose and lipid homeostasis, in rats fed with fructose solution. Methods The study was performed on thirty day-old male Wistar rats randomly assigned into four groups: control(C or treated with fructose (F-20%, fiber (FB-5%, or fructose plus fiber (F-20% + FB-5% = FF solution for 30 days on glucose tolerance (OGTT, triacylglycerol concentration in the liver by chloroform/methanol method, glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol serum concentration by assayed by enzymatic colorimetric method, insulin receptor (IR concentration in the liver by Western Blotting. Results The total body weight gain was not different between groups; in regards of total caloric intake, in the F group was significantly higher and in the FB group was lower than other groups. The triacylglycerol concentration in the liver of FF group was significantly higher than F group, the triacylglycerol concentration in the serum was higher the F group compared with other groups. The OGTT reveal impaired on glucose tolerance in the F, FB, FF compared with C. The IR concentration in the liver was lower in the F, FB, FF compared with C, no significant difference was observed between groups for IR concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle. No significant difference was observed between groups for carcass fat content and serum total cholesterol. Conclusion Fructose induced important alterations on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, despite of fiber showed reversion of part this alterations. The association fructose plus

  3. Characterization of Microfibrillar-associated Protein 4 (MFAP4) as a Tropoelastin- and Fibrillin-binding Protein Involved in Elastic Fiber Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilecki, Bartosz; Holm, Anne T; Schlosser, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    MFAP4 (microfibrillar-associated protein 4) is an extracellular glycoprotein found in elastic fibers without a clearly defined role in elastic fiber assembly. In the present study, we characterized molecular interactions between MFAP4 and elastic fiber components. We established that MFAP4......-directed mutagenesis disclosed residues Phe(241) and Ser(203) in MFAP4 as being crucial for type I collagen, elastin, and tropoelastin binding. Furthermore, we found that MFAP4 actively promotes tropoelastin self-assembly. In conclusion, our data identify MFAP4 as a new ligand of microfibrils and tropoelastin involved...... in proper elastic fiber organization....

  4. A Case of Polymyxin b-Immobilized Fiber Column Treatment for Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Pneumonia Associated with Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis

    OpenAIRE

    Oh Sasaki; Makoto Dohi; Hiroaki Harada; Mitsuru Imamura; Yumi Tsuchida; Kensuke Yamaguchi; Toshihiko Komai; Kazuhiko Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis who responded to single course of polymyxin b-immobilized fiber column treatment. Initial treatment with pulsed corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, intravenous immunoglobulin, and cyclosporine seemed to suppress the activity of interstitial lung disease temporarily, but signs of relapse were detected such as elevation of serum KL-6 level and progressing pulmonary shadows in c...

  5. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant reveal that fiber cell wall development is associated with sensitivity to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cotton fiber maturity refers the degree of fiber cell wall development and is an important factor for determining commercial value of cotton. The molecular mechanism regulating the fiber cell wall development has not been well characterized. Microscopic image analysis of the cross-sect...

  6. Sources of Dietary Fiber and the Association of Fiber Intake with Childhood Obesity Risk (in 2–18 Year Olds and Diabetes Risk of Adolescents 12–18 Year Olds: NHANES 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Brauchla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased fiber intake has been linked with lower risk of overweight and obesity in adults, but data are sparse for children. To address this issue, NHANES 2003–2006 data was used to evaluate (1 the food sources of fiber in children, (2 the dietary fiber density levels and risk of being classified as overweight/obese, and (3 the association between fiber intake level and impaired glucose metabolism in children. Analyses were restricted to the subsample of children with biological plausible diet reports (N=4,667 and stratified by 2–11 year olds (n=2072 and 12–18 year olds (n=2595. Results showed that the food sources are predominantly foods that are low in dietary fiber, but are consumed at high levels. In 2–18 year old plausible reporters, the risk for overweight/obesity decreased by 17% from children in the medium tertile of fiber density intake compared to the lowest tertile (OR=0.83, P value = 0.043 and by 21% between the highest compared to the lowest tertile (OR=0.79, P value = 0.031. There was a protective effect of being in the medium tertile of dietary fiber density (OR=0.68, P value <0.001 on impaired glucose metabolism. These results indicate a beneficial effect of higher fiber density in children’s diets.

  7. Efficacy and safety of combined therapy with terazosin and tolteradine for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; ZHAO Xiao-feng; LI Han-zhong; WANG Wei; ZHANG Yong; XIAO He; ZHANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    Background The primary objectives of the treatment for the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are to produce rapid, sustained, and safe improvements in the symptoms that affect the quality of life in the majority of men over 50. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the combined therapy with terazosin (α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and tolterodine (anticholinergic agent) for LUTS associated with BPH.Methods This combination study included 69 patients diagnosed with LUTS associated with BPH based on the International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), urinary flow rate, prostate volume, urinary residual, and their serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Initially, 191 patients were treated with terazosin 2 mg once daily for one week. Those patients with continued LUTS after the initial treatment were allocated randomly into two groups: terazosin group (n=36)in which patients were treated with terazosin 2 mg once daily for six weeks, and combination group (n=33) in which patients were treated with both terazosin 2 mg once daily and tolterodine 2 mg twice daily for 6 weeks.Results The IPSS were significantly improved in both groups after treatment, and the reduction of IPSS in the combination group was significantly greater than that in the terazosin group (P<0.01). A decrease in urgency, frequency and nocturia were the main contributory factors causing the reduction of IPSS in the combination group. The differences about the peak urinary flow rate and the residual urine from the baseline values were noted in both groups after treatment,but were not significant between the two groups. The incidence of adverse effects in the combination group was higher than that in the terazosin group. As expected the most common adverse effect was mouth dryness which was associated with anticholinergic drugs such as tolterodine.Conclusions Patients with LUTS associated BPH appear the improved IPSS after

  8. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: A birth cohort study (COCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OHD concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OHD in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OHD in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2. One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3% showed 25(OHD concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6% showed 25(OHD concentrations of 25.0&#8211;74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1% showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OHD concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004. Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively. Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.

  9. Macroscopic amyloid fiber formation by staphylococcal biofilm associated SuhB protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirudha; Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Kundu, Anirban; Dutta, Debabrata; Das, Amit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and opportunistic pathogen that causes lethal infections. Biofilm forming ability of S. aureus enhances its virulence since biofilm provides the bacteria protective shield against antibiotics and host immunity. Polysaccharide independent biofilm formation by several virulent S. aureus strains have been identified recently, where protein components substitute polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) involved in bacterial cell attachment. The suhB gene has been reported to be essential in staphylococcal PIA-independent biofilm formation. Overexpression of staphylococcal SuhB (SasuhB) in E. coli produces extracellular macroscopic fibers made of recombinant SaSuhB protein. The amyloidic nature of the fiber is evaluated by high resolution electron microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction and amyloid specific dyes, such as Congo red and thioflavin-T binding assay. The fibers appear to be sticky in nature and bind a large number of bacterial cells. The results suggest the possible role of SaSuhB-fibers as a structural component as well as an adhesin in biofilm matrix. PMID:27497060

  10. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  11. Qualified Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  13. Associations of hand-washing frequency with incidence of acute respiratory tract infection and influenza-like illness in adults: a population-based study in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Hanna; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Linde, Annika; Nyrén, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Background Frequent hand-washing is standard advice for avoidance of respiratory tract infections, but the evidence for a preventive effect in a general community setting is sparse. We therefore set out to quantify, in a population-based adult general population cohort, the possible protection against acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) conferred by a person’s self-perceived hand-washing frequency. Methods During the pandemic influenza season from September 2009 through May 2010, a coho...

  14. Role of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in colonizing silicone tubes implanted into the bladders of mice as a model of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin N; Mortensen, Martin S; Krogfelt, Karen A; Clegg, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are biofilm-mediated infections that cause a significant economic and health burden in nosocomial environments. Using a newly developed murine model of this type of infection, we investigated the role of fimbriae in implant-associated urinary tract infections by the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which is a proficient biofilm former and a commonly isolated nosocomial pathogen. Studies have shown that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae are involved in attachment and biofilm formation in vitro, and these fimbrial types are suspected to be important virulence factors during infection. To test this hypothesis, the virulence of fimbrial mutants was assessed in independent challenges in which mouse bladders were inoculated with the wild type or a fimbrial mutant and in coinfection studies in which the wild type and fimbrial mutants were inoculated together to assess the results of a direct competition in the urinary tract. Using these experiments, we were able to show that both fimbrial types serve to enhance colonization and persistence. Additionally, a double mutant had an additive colonization defect under some conditions, indicating that both fimbrial types have unique roles in the attachment and persistence in the bladder and on the implant itself. All of these mutants were outcompeted by the wild type in coinfection experiments. Using these methods, we are able to show that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae are important colonization factors in the murine urinary tract when an implanted silicone tube is present.

  15. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common kidney and urinary tract problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal ... congenital abnormalities (meaning abnormalities that exist at birth) is ...

  16. 氯胺酮导致下尿路症状的研究进展%Advance research on ketamine associated lower urinary tract symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓龙; 刘同族

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is a syndrome that includes urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia and suprapubic discomfort due to long-term ketamine addiction. In recent years, clinicians began to pay attention to the urinary system damage caused by ketamine, and conducted a series of surveys and studies, including research on the pathogenesis, pathology, treatment programs. But the cause of the disease, naming and diagnosis remains unclear. Most treatments of the disease are symptomatic treatments. In this review, the author examined the literatures of the last years published to study the ketamine associated LUTS.%氯胺酮导致下尿路症状是一种由于长期吸食氯胺酮导致的一种以尿频、尿急、夜尿增多伴有耻骨上疼痛的综合征。近几年临床工作者开始重视氯胺酮对于泌尿系统的损害,开展了一系列调查和研究,包括对发病机制、病理特点、治疗方案的研究。但该病的病因、命名和诊断仍不清楚,治疗多为对症治疗。本文检索了近年来发表的相关文献,以探究氯胺酮导致下尿路症状。

  17. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heudorf, Ursel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the “prevention of infections in nursing homes” (2005 as well as in the updated recommendations for the “prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” (2015, the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO has recommended adequate preventive measures. In 2015, the implementation of these KRINKO recommendations was investigated.Method: All of Frankfurt’s 40 nursing homes were evaluated using a checklist based on the KRINKO recommendations. The evaluation included assessing the availability of operating instructions, appropriate indications for the placement of catheters etc. Age, sex and duration of catheterization, as well as current and previous infections within the past 6 months were documented for every resident with a catheter.Results: In 35 (87.5% of the nursing homes, operating instructions for the handling of urinary tract catheters were available. The decision as to whether a catheter is indicated is made by physicians, while its placement is often delegated to the nursing service. Typically, silicon catheters are used. In three-quarters of the nursing homes, regular intervals of 4–6 weeks for changing catheters were reported. On the respective survey day, 7.3% of the residents were catheterized. On the survey day, 3.6% (4.2% and in the previous 6 months a total of 28% (28.9% of the residents had a urinary tract infection (prevalence of antibiotic therapy in parentheses. Ciprofloxacin was used most often followed by cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole.Discussion: In the current evaluation, fewer nursing home residents were catheterized than in previous years and the rate of urinary tract infections was low

  18. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, Ursel; Gasteyer, Stefanie; Müller, Maria; Samoiski, Yvonne; Serra, Nicole; Westphal, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the “prevention of infections in nursing homes” (2005) as well as in the updated recommendations for the “prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” (2015), the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) has recommended adequate preventive measures. In 2015, the implementation of these KRINKO recommendations was investigated. Method: All of Frankfurt’s 40 nursing homes were evaluated using a checklist based on the KRINKO recommendations. The evaluation included assessing the availability of operating instructions, appropriate indications for the placement of catheters etc. Age, sex and duration of catheterization, as well as current and previous infections within the past 6 months were documented for every resident with a catheter. Results: In 35 (87.5%) of the nursing homes, operating instructions for the handling of urinary tract catheters were available. The decision as to whether a catheter is indicated is made by physicians, while its placement is often delegated to the nursing service. Typically, silicon catheters are used. In three-quarters of the nursing homes, regular intervals of 4–6 weeks for changing catheters were reported. On the respective survey day, 7.3% of the residents were catheterized. On the survey day, 3.6% (4.2%) and in the previous 6 months a total of 28% (28.9%) of the residents had a urinary tract infection (prevalence of antibiotic therapy in parentheses). Ciprofloxacin was used most often followed by cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole. Discussion: In the current evaluation, fewer nursing home residents were catheterized than in previous years and the rate of urinary tract infections was low. This

  19. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is associated with lesion length in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, K; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Sander, B;

    2010-01-01

    included 41 patients with unilateral optic neuritis and 19 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated and examined within 28 days of onset of symptoms. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), an objective quantitative measure of optic nerve head edema, was measured by optical...

  20. Implementation of the updated 2015 Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO recommendations “Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” in the hospitals in Frankfurt/Main, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heudorf, Ursel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO updated the recommendations for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in 2015. This article will describe the implementation of these recommendations in Frankfurt’s hospitals in autumn, 2015.Material and methods: In two non-ICU wards of each of Frankfurt’s , inspections were performed using a checklist based on the new KRINKO recommendations. In one large hospital, a total of were inspected. The inspections covered the structure and process quality (operating instructions, training, indication, the placement and maintenance of catheters and the demonstration of the preparation for insertion of a catheter using an empty bed and an imaginary patient, or insertion in a model.Results: Operating instructions were available in all hospital wards; approximately half of the wards regularly performed training sessions. The indications were largely in line with the recommendations of the KRINKO. Alternatives to urinary tract catheters were available and were used more often than the urinary tract catheters themselves (15.9% vs. 13.5%. In accordance with the recommendations, catheters were placed without antibiotic prophylaxis or the instillation of antiseptic or antimicrobial substances or catheter flushing solutions. The demonstration of catheter placement was conscientiously performed. Need for improvement was seen in the daily documentation and the regular verification of continuing indication for a urinary catheter, as well as the omission of regular catheter change.Conclusion: Overall, the recommendations of the KRINKO on the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections were adequately implemented. However, it cannot be ruled out that in situations with time pressure and staff shortage, the handling of urinary tract catheters may be of lower quality than that observed during the inspections, when catheter insertion was done by two

  1. Real-time association rate constant measurement using combination tapered fiber-optic biosensor (CTFOB) dip-probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Boris; Wang, Chun-Wei; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2010-02-01

    This document reports a novel method of measuring association rate constant (ka) for antibody-antigen interaction using evanescent wave-based combination tapered fiber-optic biosensor (CTFOB) dip-probes. The method was demonstrated by measuring association rate constant for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA antibody interaction. "Direct method" was used for detection; goat anti-BSA "capture" antibodies were immobilized on the probe surfaces while the antigen (BSA) was directly labeled with Alexa 488 dye. The probes were subsequently submerged in 3nM Labeled BSA in egg albumin (1 mg/ml). The fluorescence signal recorded was proportional to BSA anti-BSA conjugates and continuous signal was acquired suing a fiber optic spectrometer (Ocean Optics, Inc.). A 476 nm diode laser was use as an excitation source. Association constant was estimated from a plot of signal as a function of time. Measured association rate constant ka for the binding of BSA with anti-BSA at room temperature is (8.33 +/- 0.01) x 104 M-1s-1.

  2. Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of bixa orellana in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated to benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Zegarra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of Bixa Orellana (BO in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH presenting moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. One thousand four hundred and seventy eight patients presenting moderate LUTS associated to BPH were interviewed, from whom we selected 136 to fulfill the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Assignation was performed at random in blocks of four to receive B0 at a dose of 250 mg 3 times a day or placebo (Pbo for 12 months, 68 patients were assigned to each group. From the patients in the study we obtained data of demographic, epidemiologic, symptom score, uroflowmetry and post void residual urine variables. RESULTS: Basically both groups were compared clinically, demographically and biochemically. Throughout the study variations of symptom score, mean delta symptom score during each visit and the final average delta were similar for both groups (BO - 0.79 ± 1.87 and Pbo - 1.07 ± 1.49 (p = 0.33. Similarly variations of Qmax mean, Qmax average delta and final average delta were similar (BO 0.44 ± 1.07 and Pbo 0.47 ± 1.32 (p = 0.88. Variations of post void residual urine mean, post void residual urine average delta in each visit and the final average delta were similar for both groups (BO 4.24 ± 11.69 and Pbo 9.01 ± 18.66 (p = 0.07. No differences were found in the answers of clinically significant improvement assessed with relative risk and risk differences, even though the proportion of adverse effects was similar for both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with BPH that present moderate LUTS did not show any benefit receiving BO when compared to placebo.

  3. Homozygous 16p13.11 duplication associated with mild intellectual disability and urinary tract malformations in two siblings born from consanguineous parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houcinat, N; Llanas, B; Moutton, S; Toutain, J; Cailley, D; Arveiler, B; Combe, C; Lacombe, D; Rooryck, C

    2015-11-01

    The use of array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) in routine clinical work has allowed the identification of many new copy number variations (CNV). The 16p13.11 duplication has been implicated in various congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders, but it has also been identified in healthy individuals. We report a clinical observation of two brothers from related parents each carrying a homozygous 16p13.11 duplication. The propositus had mild intellectual disability and posterior urethral valves with chronic renal disease. His brother was considered a healthy child with only learning disabilities and poor academic performances. However, a routine medical examination at 25-years-old revealed a mild chronic renal disease and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Furthermore, the father presented with a unilateral renal agenesis, thus it seemed that a "congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract" (CAKUT) phenotype segregated in this family. This may be related to the duplication, but we cannot exclude the involvement of additional genetic or non-genetic factors in the urological phenotype. Several cohort studies showed association between this chromosomal imbalance and different clinical manifestations, but rarely with CAKUT. The duplication reported here was similar to the larger one of 3.4 Mb previously described versus the more common of 1.6 Mb. It encompassed at least 11 known genes, including the five ohnologs previously identified. Our observation, in addition to expanding the clinical spectrum of the duplication provides further support to understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:26114937

  4. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-01

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region.

  5. Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    Fruit, vegetables, and certain components of plant foods, such as fiber, have long been thought to protect against cancer. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort that includes >500,000 participants from 10 European countries and has made a substantial contribution to knowledge in this research area. The purpose of this article is to summarize the findings published thus far from the EPIC study on the associations between fruit, vegetable, or fiber consumption and the risk of cancer at 14 different sites. The risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake. The risk of colorectal cancer was inversely associated with intakes of total fruit and vegetables and total fiber, and the risk of liver cancer was also inversely associated with the intake of total fiber. The risk of cancer of the lung was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake; this association with fruit intake was restricted to smokers and might be influenced by residual confounding due to smoking. There was a borderline inverse association of fiber intake with breast cancer risk. For the other 9 cancer sites studied (stomach, biliary tract, pancreas, cervix, endometrium, prostate, kidney, bladder, and lymphoma) there were no reported significant associations of risk with intakes of total fruit, vegetables, or fiber.

  6. Topography of the goldfish optic tracts: implications for the chronological clustering model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A D; Mednick, A S

    1985-09-01

    Both the dorsal and ventral optic tracts of goldfish have similar shapes when they are sectioned perpendicularly to their longitudinal axes. Each tract is pear-shaped, consisting of a narrow and a deep apex, a wide midspan, and a progressively curved and tapered superficial base. The tracts differ in that the apex of the dorsal optic tract points caudally, while the apex of the ventral optic tract points medially. In addition, upon segregating from the main optic tract, the dorsal optic tract courses dorsally while the ventral optic tract courses caudally. Thus, the two optic tracts have similar shapes and are orthongonal to one another. The topography of the retinal fibers within the optic tracts was determined either by ablating part of the retina and subsequently filling the axons from the intact hemiretina with cobaltous-lysine or by applying cobaltous-lysine to a slit in the retina. Both optic tracts contain a similar arrangement of optic fibers. Axons of central retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are in the apex of each tract and optic fibers of peripheral RGCs are located along the base of each tract. Axons of temporal RGCs are located dorsally in the ventral optic tract and laterally in the dorsal optic tract, while axons of nasal RGCs are located ventrally in the ventral optic tract and medially in the dorsal optic tract. These findings indicate that the optic axons are organized as laminae. Deeper laminae contain the axons of older annuli of RGCs and superficial laminae contain the axons of younger annuli of RGCs. This type of chronological organization appears to be consistent across vertebrates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4044928

  7. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sibe Doosje; Martijn P.M. de Goede; Lorenz J.P. van Doornen; Rens van de Schoot

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI).Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understandi...

  8. HuR cytoplasmic expression is associated with increased cyclin A expression and poor outcome with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HuR is an RNA-binding protein that post-transcriptionally modulates the expressions of various target genes implicated in carcinogenesis, such as CCNA2 encoding cyclin A. No prior study attempted to evaluate the significance of HuR expression in a large cohort with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs). In total, 340 cases of primary localized UTUC without previous or concordant bladder carcinoma were selected. All of these patients received ureterectomy or radical nephroureterectomy with curative intents. Pathological slides were reviewed, and clinical findings were collected. Immunostaining for HuR and cyclin A was performed and evaluated by using H-score. The results of cytoplasmic HuR and nuclear cyclin A expressions were correlated with disease-specific survival (DSS), metastasis-free survival (MeFS), urinary bladder recurrence-free survival (UBRFS), and various clinicopathological factors. HuR cytoplasmic expression was significantly related to the pT status, lymph node metastasis, a higher histological grade, the pattern of invasion, vascular and perineurial invasion, and cyclin A expression (p = 0.005). Importantly, HuR cytoplasmic expression was strongly associated with a worse DSS (p < 0.0001), MeFS (p < 0.0001), and UBRFS (p = 0.0370) in the univariate analysis, and the first two results remained independently predictive of adverse outcomes (p = 0.038, relative risk [RR] = 1.996 for DSS; p = 0.027, RR = 1.880 for MeFS). Cyclin A nuclear expression was associated with a poor DSS (p = 0.0035) and MeFS (p = 0.0015) in the univariate analysis but was not prognosticatory in the multivariate analyses. High-risk patients (pT3 or pT4 with/without nodal metastasis) with high HuR cytoplasmic expression had better DSS if adjuvant chemotherapy was performed (p = 0.015). HuR cytoplasmic expression was correlated with adverse phenotypes and cyclin A overexpression and also independently predictive of worse DSS and MeFS, suggesting its roles in

  9. A focus on dietary fiber and whole grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.W. van der; Jones, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A study in dietary fiber and whole grains is presented. Efficient tools for detailed characterization of fibers, systems for measuring the behavior of products and diets with fibers in the gastrointestinal tract and a broad range of biomarkers showing the impact of fibers on health and well being ar

  10. Urinary Tract Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, V. Allen

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the current imaging investigations usually required in the work-up of common urinary tract problems such as urinary tract infection, colic, trauma, hematuria and renal failure. Radiological therapeutic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy for drainage of obstructed systems and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of renal calculi are briefly mentioned. The virtual elimination of percutaneous or open surgery for renal and upper urinary tract stones, resulting ...

  11. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...

  12. In Inclusion-Body Myositis Muscle Fibers Parkinson-Associated DJ-1 is Increased and Oxidized

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, Chiara; Nogalska, Anna; Engel, W. King; Wojcik, Slawomir; Askanas, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Sporadic inclusion-body myositis (s-IBM) is the most common muscle disease of older persons. The muscle-fiber molecular phenotype exhibits similarities to both Alzheimer-disease (AD) and Parkinson-disease (PD) brains, including accumulations of amyloid-β, phosphorylated tau, α-synuclein and parkin, as well as evidence of oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities. Early-onset autosomal-recessive PD can be caused by mutations in the DJ-1 gene, leading to its inactivation. DJ-1 has anti-o...

  13. White matter fiber tracking directed by interpolating splines and a methodological framework for evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are eLosnegård

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Image-based tractography of white matter (WM fiber bundles in the brain using diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI has become a useful tool in basic and clinical neuroscience. However, proper tracking is challenging due to the anatomical complexity of fiber pathways, the coarse resolution of clinically applicable whole-brain in vivo imaging techniques, and the difficulties associated with verification. In this study we introduce a new tractography algorithm using splines (denoted Spline. Spline reconstructs smooth fiber trajectories iteratively, in contrast to most other tractography algorithms that create piecewise linear fiber tract segments, followed by spline fitting. Using DW-MRI recordings from eight healthy elderly people participating in a longitudinal study of cognitive aging, we compare our Spline algorithm to two state-of-the-art tracking methods from the TrackVis software suite. The comparison is done quantitatively using diffusion metrics (fractional anisotropy, FA, with both (i tract averaging, (ii longitudinal linear mixed-effects model fitting, and (iii detailed along-tract analysis. Further validation is done on recordings from a diffusion hardware phantom, mimicking a coronal brain slice, with a known ground truth. Results from the longitudinal aging study showed high sensitivity of Spline tracking to individual aging patterns of mean FA when combined with linear mixed-effects modelling, moderately strong differences in the along-tract analysis of specific tracts, whereas the tract-averaged comparison using simple linear OLS regression revealed less differences between Spline and the two other tractography algorithms. In the brain phantom experiments with a ground truth, we demonstrated improved tracking ability of Spline compared to the two reference tractography algorithms being tested.

  14. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean W Andrew

    Full Text Available IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii the development of oviduct pathology and (iii the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/- to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated

  15. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  16. Symptoms of respiratory tract infection and associated care-seeking in subjects with and without obstructive lung disease; The Tromsø Study: Tromsø 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melbye Hasse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory tract infections (RTIs may be more severe in those with asthma or COPD and these patients are more frequently in need of health care. The aim of the study was to describe the frequency of RTI symptoms in a general adult population and how care-seeking is associated with the presence of obstructive lung disease. Methods Cross-sectional data including spirometry and self-reported chronic diseases were collected among middle-aged and elderly subjects in the Tromsø population survey (Tromsø 6. Self- reported RTI symptoms, consultations and antibiotic use were the main outcome variables. Possible predictors of RTI symptoms were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 6414 subjects included, 798 (12.4% reported RTI symptoms in the previous week. RTI symptoms were reported less frequently by subjects aged 75 years or above, than by those younger than 55 years (OR 0.5. Winter season (OR 1.28, current smoking (OR 1.60, low self-rated health (OR 1.26 and moderate to severe bronchial obstruction (OR 1.51, were also statistically significant independent predictors of RTI symptoms, but these variables did not predict RTI symptoms that had started within the previous seven days. Among subjects with RTI symptoms, 5.1% also reported a consultation with a doctor. In those with bronchial obstruction by spirometry, who did not report asthma or COPD, this frequency was 2.4%. Antibiotic treatment was reported by 7.4% of the participants, among whom one third had consulted a doctor. Antibiotics were taken more frequently when asthma or COPD was reported (13.7%, but not in subjects with bronchial obstruction who did not report these diseases (7.2%. Conclusions RTI symptoms seldom led to consultation with a doctor and not even in subjects with obstructive lung disease. This was in particular the case in subjects who did not know about their obstructive lung disease. Strategies for early diagnosis of COPD and

  17. Associations Between Dietary Fiber and Inflammation, Hepatic Function, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Older Men Potential mechanisms for the benefits of fiber on diabetes risk

    OpenAIRE

    Wannamethee, S.G.; Thomas, M.C.; Whincup, P H; Sattar, N.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older men and the role of hepatic and inflammatory markers.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The study was performed prospectively and included 3,428 nondiabetic men (age 60-79 years) followed up for 7 years, during which there were 162 incident cases of type 2 diabetes.RESULTS - Low total dietary fiber (lowest quartile

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  20. Genetically-increased taste cell population with Gα-gustducin-coupled sweet receptors is associated with increase of gurmarin-sensitive taste nerve fibers in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsukawa Hideo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide gurmarin is a selective sweet response inhibitor for rodents. In mice, gurmarin sensitivity differs among strains with gurmarin-sensitive C57BL and gurmarin-poorly-sensitive BALB strains. In C57BL mice, sweet-responsive fibers of the chorda tympani (CT nerve can be divided into two distinct populations, gurmarin-sensitive (GS and gurmarin-insensitive (GI types, suggesting the existence of two distinct reception pathways for sweet taste responses. By using the dpa congenic strain (dpa CG whose genetic background is identical to BALB except that the gene(s controlling gurmarin sensitivity are derived from C57BL, we previously found that genetically-elevated gurmarin sensitivity in dpa CG mice, confirmed by using behavioral response and whole CT nerve response analyses, was linked to a greater taste cell population co-expressing sweet taste receptors and a Gα protein, Gα-gustducin. However, the formation of neural pathways from the increased taste cell population to nerve fibers has not yet been examined. Results Here, we investigated whether the increased taste cell population with Gα-gustducin-coupled sweet receptors would be associated with selective increment of GS fiber population or nonselective shift of gurmarin sensitivities of overall sweet-responsive fibers by examining the classification of GS and GI fiber types in dpa CG and BALB mice. The results indicated that dpa CG, like C57BL, possess two distinct populations of GS and GI types of sweet-responsive fibers with almost identical sizes (dpa CG: 13 GS and 16 GI fibers; C57BL: 16 GS and 14 GI fibers. In contrast, BALB has only 3 GS fibers but 18 GI fibers. These data indicate a marked increase of the GS population in dpa CG. Conclusion These results suggest that the increased cell population expressing T1r2/T1r3/Gα-gustducin in dpa CG mice may be associated with an increase of their matched GS type fibers, and may form the distinct GS sweet reception

  1. [Metagenomics in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Yunjuan; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-12-01

    Animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. The gut microbial community of humans and animals has received significant attention from researchers because of its association with health and disease. The application of metagenomics technology enables researchers to study not only the microbial composition but also the function of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, combined with our own findings, we summarized advances in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism with metagenomics and the bioinformatics technology.

  2. Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Strbo, Natasa; Romero, Laura; Jones, Deborah L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Bolivar, Hector; Podack, Eckhard R; Fischl, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, pvaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to HIV. PMID:27078021

  3. Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Laura; Jones, Deborah L.; Rodriguez, Violeta J.; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Bolivar, Hector; Podack, Eckhard R.; Fischl, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to

  4. Attributable costs of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) acquired on intensive care units: a retrospectively matched cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Leistner, Rasmus; Kankura, Linda; Bloch, Andy; Sohr, Dorit; Gastmeier, Petra; Geffers, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are the most common hospital-acquired infections on ICUs. They have not only an impact on each patient’s individual health but also result in a considerable financial burden for the healthcare system. Our aim was to determine the costs and the length of stay of patients with ICU-acquired LRTI. Methods We used a retrospectively matched cohort design, comparing patients with ICU-acquired LRTI and ICU patients without LRTI. LRTI was diagnosed ...

  5. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  6. Transcriptional analysis of genes associated with stress and adhesion in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM during the passage through an in vitro gastrointestial tract model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Gudrun Margarethe; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    juice, but they were significantly upregulated during incubation in duodenal juice and bile (6- to 7-fold). A significant induction of the gene encoding the S-layer protein was not detected. Our results give a better understanding of the functionality of L. acidophilus NCFM and other probiotics during...... passage through the gastrointestinal tract; hence, they provide an implementable basis for the selection of prospective probiotic candidates....

  7. A systematic review of factors associated with the retention of glass fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovito Adiel SKUPIEN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify factors that can affect the retention of glass fiber posts to intra-radicular dentin based on in vitro studies that compared the bond strength (BS of GFPs cemented with resin cements. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scopus until December 2013. Bond strength values and variables as type of tooth, presence of endodontic treatment, pretreatment of the post, type of bonding agent (if present, type of cement and mode of cement application were extracted from the 34 included studies. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the influence of these parameters on BS. The presence of endodontic treatment decreased the BS values in 22.7% considering the pooled data (p = 0.013. For regular cement, cleaning the post increased BS when compared to silane application without cleaning (p = 0.032, considering cleaning as ethanol, air abrasion, or phosphoric acid application. Applying the cement around the post and into root canal decreased the resistance compared to only around the post (p = 0.02 or only into root canal (p = 0.041, on the other hand, no difference was found for self-adhesive resin cement for the same comparisons (p = 0.858 and p = 0.067. Endodontic treatment, method of cement application, and post pretreatment are factors that might significantly affect the retention of glass-fiber posts into root canals mainly when cemented with regular resin cement. Self-adhesive resin cements were found to be less technique-sensitive to luting procedures as compared with regular resin cements.

  8. A afferent fibers are involved in the pathology of central changes in the spinal dorsal horn associated with myofascial trigger spots in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Yong-Hui; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-11-01

    A afferent fibers have been reported to participate in the development of the central sensitization induced by inflammation and injuries. Current evidence suggests that myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) induce central sensitization in the related spinal dorsal horn, and clinical studies indicate that A fibers are associated with pain behavior. Because most of these clinical studies applied behavioral indexes, objective evidence is needed. Additionally, MTrP-related neurons in dorsal root ganglia and the spinal ventral horn have been reported to be smaller than normal, and these neurons were considered to be related to A fibers. To confirm the role of A fibers in MTrP-related central changes in the spinal dorsal horn, we studied central sensitization as well as the size of neurons associated with myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equivalent to MTrPs in humans) in the biceps femoris muscle of rats and provided some objective morphological evidence. Cholera toxin B subunit-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was applied to label the MTrS-related neurons, and tetrodotoxin was used to block A fibers specifically. The results showed that in the spinal dorsal horn associated with MTrS, the expression of glutamate receptor (mGluR1α/mGluR5/NMDAR1) increased, while the mean size of MTrS-related neurons was smaller than normal. After blocking A fibers, these changes reversed to some extent. Therefore, we concluded that A fibers participated in the development and maintenance of the central sensitization induced by MTrPs and were related to the mean size of neurons associated with MTrPs in the spinal dorsal horn.

  9. von Willebrand factor fibers promote cancer-associated platelet aggregation in malignant melanoma of mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander T; Suckau, Jan; Frank, Kathrin; Desch, Anna; Goertz, Lukas; Wagner, Andreas H; Hecker, Markus; Goerge, Tobias; Umansky, Ludmila; Beckhove, Philipp; Utikal, Jochen; Gorzelanny, Christian; Diaz-Valdes, Nancy; Umansky, Viktor; Schneider, Stefan W

    2015-05-14

    Tumor-mediated procoagulatory activity leads to venous thromboembolism and supports metastasis in cancer patients. A prerequisite for metastasis formation is the interaction of cancer cells with endothelial cells (ECs) followed by their extravasation. Although it is known that activation of ECs and the release of the procoagulatory protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) is essential for malignancy, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that VWF fibers in tumor vessels promote tumor-associated thromboembolism and metastasis. Using in vitro settings, mouse models, and human tumor samples, we showed that melanoma cells activate ECs followed by the luminal release of VWF fibers and platelet aggregation in tumor microvessels. Analysis of human blood samples and tumor tissue revealed that a promoted VWF release combined with a local inhibition of proteolytic activity and protein expression of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I repeats 13) accounts for this procoagulatory milieu. Blocking endothelial cell activation by the low-molecular-weight heparin tinzaparin was accompanied by a lack of VWF networks and inhibited tumor progression in a transgenic mouse model. Our findings implicate a mechanism wherein tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) promotes tumor progression and angiogenesis. Thus, targeting EC activation envisions new therapeutic strategies attenuating tumor-related angiogenesis and coagulation. PMID:25977583

  10. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  11. ICU导尿管相关性尿路感染危险因素相关研究%Risk Factors of Urinary Tract Infection Associated With Catheter in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温顺; 叶宏伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查留置导尿管相关性尿路感染患者的危险因素及病原体分布。方法回顾性分析在重症监护病房(ICU)保留导尿的326例患者,研究患者年龄、性别、糖尿病,及是否使用糖皮质激素等与感染的相关性。结果老年人、女性、合并糖尿病,保留导尿时间长,应用糖皮质激素患者容易发生尿路感染。最常见的致病菌是大肠埃希菌。结论严格无菌操作、减少保留导尿的时间、控制糖尿病、减少糖皮质激素的应用是降低导尿管相关尿路感染疾病的主要措施。%Objective In order to investigate the risky factors and pathogens of urinary tract infection of the patients with indwelling catheter.Methods A retrospective analysis studies 326 patients from the intensive care unit (ICU) who retain the catheterization, about the relation between age, sex, diabetes, the use of corticosteroids and the urinary tract infections. ResultsPatients who tend to have urinary tract infections are old people, females, the patients with diabetes mellitus as well as long time retention catheterization and application of corticosteroids. The most common pathogenic bacteria were Escherichia coli.Conclusion The main measures to reduce the urinary tract infections associated with catheter are to perform aseptic operation strictly, reduce urinary retention time, controldiabetes and reduce the application of glucocorticoid.

  12. Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Erik Lindberg

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilization is affected by the age of the pig and the pig breed. The use of potential prebiotic effects of dietary fiber is an attractive way to stimulate gut health and thereby minimize the use of anti-microbial growth promoters. Inclusion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet can stimulate the growth of commensal gut microbes. Inclusion of NSP from chicory results in changes in gut micro-environment and gut morphology of pigs, while growth performance remains unaffected and digestibility was only marginally reduced. The fermentation products and pH in digesta responded to diet type and were correlated with shifts in the microbiota. Interestingly, fiber intake will have an impact on the expression of intestinal epithelial heat-shock proteins in the pig. Heat-shock proteins have an important physiological role in the gut and carry out crucial housekeeping functions in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, there are increasing evidence showing that fiber can have prebiotic effects in pigs due to interactions with the gut micro-environment and the gut associated immune system.

  13. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M A; Braun, Kim V E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI -0.037, -0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood. PMID:27589791

  14. Acute Urinary Tract Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksic Djordje

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are paired organs with the primary function of helping to remove toxins from the body and regulate water balance. They are vital to survival. After urine is produced in the kidneys, it must pass into the bladder, where it can be stored before being eliminated from the body through the urethra. Urinary tract obstruction is a common problem encountered by urologists, primary care physicians, and emergency medicine physicians. Urine can become obstructed at any point in this pathway. There are three groups of urinary tract obstructions: 1 obstruction of the urinary tract lumen; 2 obstruction of the urinary tract wall; and 3 extrinsic obstruction, which can press on the urinary tract lumen. An obstruction can be present from birth or develop later in life. The most common causes of obstruction include stones, strictures, tumours, and bladder dysfunction. These obstructions may result in the hydronephrosis of one or both kidneys, which, if left untreated, may lead to the deterioration of renal function. The goal of an initial treatment of urinary tract obstruction is to remove the obstruction. Later, we treat the cause that led to the obstruction. The bottom line is that all efforts should be made to preserve kidney function to avoid the need for dialysis or renal transplantation.

  15. Fiber and colorectal diseases: Separating fact from fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Whilst fruits and vegetables are an essential part of our dietary intake, the role of fiber in the prevention of colorectal diseases remains controversial. The main feature of a high-fiber diet is its poor digestibility. Soluble fiber like pectins, guar and ispaghula produce viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal tract delaying small bowel absorption and transit. Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, pass largely unaltered through the gut. The more fiber is ingested, the more stools will hav...

  16. EcoTILLING revealed SNPs in GhSus genes that are associated with fiber- and seed-related traits in upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Da; Sun, Jun-Ling; Bu, Su-Hong; Deng, Kang-Sheng; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Du, Xiong-Ming; Zhou, Bao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is the most important textile crop in the world due to its cellulose-enriched fibers. Sucrose synthase genes (Sus) play pivotal roles in cotton fiber and seed development. To mine and pyramid more favorable alleles for cotton molecular breeding, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GhSus family genes were investigated across 277 upland cotton accessions by EcoTILLING. As a result, a total of 24 SNPs in the amplified regions of eight GhSus genes were identified. These SNPs were significantly associated with at least one fiber- or seed-related trait measured in Nanjing, Anyang and Kuche in 2007–2009. Four main-effect quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) and five epistatic QTNs, with 0.76–3.56% of phenotypic variances explained by each QTN (PVE), were found to be associated with yield-related traits; six epistatic QTNs, with the 0.43–3.48% PVE, were found to be associated with fiber quality-related traits; and one main-effect QTN and one epistatic QTN, with the PVE of 1.96% and 2.53%, were found to be associated with seed oil content and protein content, respectively. Therefore, this study provides new information for molecular breeding in cotton. PMID:27385639

  17. Izmerenie vektora skorosti lazernym dopplerovskim anemometrom (LDA s volokonno-opticheskimi traktami[Measurement of the velocity vector of the laser Doppler anemometer (LDA with fiber-optic tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Khotyaintsev

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered in the development of laser Doppler velocity vector meter optical fiber paths. The scheme of the meter, including three-dimensional velocity meter made by differential circuit. Describes the experimental setup and the results of the experiment by measuring the two projections of the velocity vector.

  18. Forage cactus associated with different fiber sources for lactating Sindhi cows: production and composition of milk and ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Soares Saraiva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of forage cactus with different fiber sources (elephant grass hay - EGH; corn straw - CS, hay of cassava shoots - HCS; fresh sugarcane bagasse - FSB; and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse - HSB on the milk yield and composition and the feeding behavior of lactating Sindhi cows. Five cows with average body weight, average daily milk yield, and average daily 4%-fat-corrected milk yield of 265, 4.95 and 5.22 kg, respectively, were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The effect of experimental diets on milk yield and composition, feeding time (FT, rumination time (RT, idle time, mean values of total chewing time (TCT, number of ruminal boli (NRB, number of rumination chews (NRC, and feed efficiency (FE and rumination efficiency (RE expressed as a function of DM and NDF were analyzed. Milk yield in kg/day and corrected to 4.0% fat from the animals that received cactus associated with CS were higher as compared with the treatment with hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse. The milk composition variables were not influenced by the treatments, and nor were FT, RT, TCT, NRB and NC. Two patterns were observed for FE and RE, with higher efficiency of the diets with EGH, CS and HCS and lower efficiency for diets containing sugarcane bagasse. In this context, Sindhi cows fed forage cactus associated with corn straw, elephant grass hay, and hay of cassava shoots present better performance, feeding efficiency, and rumination responses than those fed forage cactus associated with fresh sugarcane bagasse and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

  19. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk E Anderson

    Full Text Available Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or "beebread". We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop, midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota

  20. 神经内科患者留置尿管相关泌尿道感染目标性监测%Objective monitoring of urinary tract infections associated with indwelling urinary catheters in patients of neurology department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文靖; 武迎宏; 申中菊; 房力云

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究神经内科患者留置尿管相关泌尿道感染的危险因素,积极采取措施,降低其感染率。方法制定住院患者留置尿管相关泌尿道感染的监测表格,采用病房查房、查阅病历、微生物监测和回顾性调查相结合的方法,对2012年1-12月905例患者进行调查,其中145例留置尿管患者进行目标性监测。结果905例神经内科患者中发生泌尿道感染10例,感染率1.1%,留置尿管患者感染率4.8%,明显高于未留置尿管患者感染率0.4%;留置尿管<3周患者泌尿道感染与留置尿管时间成正相关;夏季留置尿管患者感染率13.8%,远高于其他季节留置尿管患者感染率2.6%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);女性患者留置尿管泌尿道感染率8.9%,高于男性患者的5.6%,但差异无统计学意义。结论留置尿管是泌尿道感染最主要的因素,夏季也是泌尿道感染多发季节,对留置尿管相关泌尿道感染进行目标性监测并根据监测结果持续改进护理措施,减少患者尿管留置时间,可以有效降低泌尿道感染的发生。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors of urinary tract infections associated with indwelling urinary catheters ,in order to take active measures to reduce the incidence of infections .METHODS Monitoring forms were prepared for hospitalized patients with urinary tract infections associated with urethral intubation ,905 cases of patients from Jan .to Dec .2012 were investigated using combined methods of wards visiting ,access to medical records ,microbial monitoring and retrospective investigation , among which the 145 patients with indwelling urinary catheters were subject to objectively monitor .RESULTS Among the 905 patients in neurology department , 10 cases of urinary tract infection were found ,the infection rate was 1 .10% .The infection rate of patients with indwelling urinary catheters was 4

  1. Forage cactus associated with different fiber sources for lactating Sindhi cows: intake, digestibility and microbial protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Soares Saraiva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried to evaluate the effect of forage cactus with different fiber sources (elephant grass hay [EGH], corn straw [CS], hay of cassava shoots [HCS], fresh sugarcane bagasse [FSB], and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse [HSB] on intake, apparent digestibility and macrobiotic protein production of cows. Five cows with 265 kg average body weight, 4.95 kg average daily milk yield and 5.22 kg 4% fat-corrected milk yield were randomly allocated to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals fed cactus associated with CS, EGH and HCS showed higher intake of DM and nutrients. However, regarding the digestibility, diets with sugarcane bagasse showed higher digestibility compared with those with CS and hay. For microbial protein, the excretion of purine derivatives, synthesis of microbial N and microbial protein production were higher in the treatment with CS than in the treatment with sugarcane bagasse. On the other hand, the treatment with EGH and HCS did not have statistical differences compared with the other cases. The mean efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of the experiment was 131 g microbial crude protein/kg of TDN. The treatment with CS showed better efficiency; however, it was statistically superior only compared with FSB. The other treatments did not show statistical difference compared with the other cases. Diets with cactus associated with corn straw, hay of elephant grass or hay of cassava shoots provide higher intake of dry matter and nutrients and better metabolic response compared with diets with cactus associated with sugarcane bagasse for lactating Sindhi cows.

  2. Association Between Microglia, Inflammatory Factors, and Complement with Loss of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses Induced by Trimethyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Andrew D; McPherson, Christopher A; Harry, G Jean

    2016-07-01

    Complement-associated factors are implicated in pathogen presentation, neurodegeneration, and microglia resolution of tissue injury. To characterize complement activation with microglial clearance of degenerating mossy fiber boutons, hippocampal dentate granule neurons were ablated in CD-1 mice with trimethyltin (TMT; 2.2 mg/kg, i.p.). Neuronal apoptosis was accompanied by amoeboid microglia and elevations in tumor necrosis factor [Tnfa], interleukin 1β [Il1b], and Il6 mRNA and C1q protein. Inos mRNA levels were unaltered. Silver degeneration and synaptophysin staining indicated loss of synaptic innervation to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Reactive microglia with thickened bushy morphology showed co-localization of synaptophysin+ fragments. The initial response at 2 days post-TMT included transient elevations in Tnfa, Il1b, Il6, and Inos mRNA levels. A concurrent increase at 2 days was observed in arginase-1 [Arg1], Il10, transforming growth factor β1 [Tgfb1], and chitinase 3 like-3 [Ym1] mRNA levels. At 2 days, C1q protein was evident in the CA3 with elevated C1qa, C1qb, C3, Cr3a, and Cr3b mRNA levels. mRNA levels remained elevated at 5 days, returning to control by 14 days, corresponding to silver degeneration. mRNA levels for pentraxin3 (Ptx3) were elevated on day 2 and Ptx1 was not altered. Our data suggest an association between microglia reactivity, the induction of anti-inflammatory genes concurrent with pro-inflammatory genes and the expression of complement-associated factors with the degeneration of synapses following apoptotic neuronal loss. PMID:26892644

  3. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  4. Imaging corticospinal tract connectivity in injured rat spinal cord using manganese-enhanced MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgen Mehmet

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEI offers a novel neuroimaging modality to trace corticospinal tract (CST in live animals. This paper expands this capability further and tests the utility of MEI to image axonal fiber connectivity in CST of injured spinal cord (SC. Methods A rat was injured at the thoracic T4 level of the SC. The CST was labeled with manganese (Mn injected intracortically at two weeks post injury. Next day, the injured SC was imaged using MEI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI modalities. Results In vivo MEI data obtained from cervical SC confirmed that CST was successfully labeled with Mn. Ex vivo MEI data obtained from excised SC depicted Mn labeling of the CST in SC sections caudal to the lesion, which meant that Mn was transported through the injury, possibly mediated by viable CST fibers present at the injury site. Examining the ex vivo data from the injury epicenter closely revealed a thin strip of signal enhancement located ventrally between the dorsal horns. This enhancement was presumably associated with the Mn accumulation in these intact fibers projecting caudally as part of the CST. Additional measurements with DTI supported this view. Conclusion Combining these preliminary results collectively demonstrated the feasibility of imaging fiber connectivity in experimentally injured SC using MEI. This approach may play important role in future investigations aimed at understanding the neuroplasticity in experimental SCI research.

  5. Urinary tract infection and indirect hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamdine Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Jaundice is a common problem during the neonatal period. About 60% of the full term and 80% of premature infants develop jaundice. It can be associated with serious illnesses such as Urinary tract infections. Aims : The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of urinary tract infection in newborns with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and to find a relationship with prolonged jaundice. Patients and Methods : We retrospectively evaluated asymptomatic, jaundiced neonates for evidence of a urinary tract infection. Data reviewed including demographic and historical data were included with data of blood studies, radiological evaluation and treatment. Results : 32 neonates of 152 cases had urinary tract infection. Most commonly isolated organisms were Klebsiella and Escherishia coli. Maximum duration of phototherapy was 4 days in the urinary tract infection group versus 7 in the non-urinary tract infection group. Intensive phototherapy was used in 18.7% in the urinary tract infection group versus 29.16% in the non-urinary tract infection group. None of the newborns in the urinary tract infection group underwent exchange transfusion therapy. Conclusion : Urinary tract infection can occur in asymptomatic, jaundiced newborns. Thus, it may be the first in these babies before other signs become evident.

  6. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (PEEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands. PMID:27592207

  7. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-09-04

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (PEEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands.

  8. Impact of selective digestive decontamination on respiratory tract Candida among patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia. A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, J C

    2016-07-01

    The purpose here is to establish the incidence of respiratory tract colonization with Candida (RT Candida) among ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation within studies in the literature. Also of interest is its relationship with candidemia and the relative importance of topical antibiotic (TA) use as within studies of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) versus other candidate risk factors towards it. The incidence of RT Candida was extracted from component (control and intervention) groups decanted from studies of various TA and non-TA ICU infection prevention methods with summary estimates derived using random effects. A benchmark RT Candida incidence to provide overarching calibration was derived using (observational) groups from studies without any prevention method under study. A multi-level regression model of group level data was undertaken using generalized estimating equation (GEE) methods. RT Candida data were sourced from 113 studies. The benchmark RT Candida incidence is 1.3; 0.9-1.8 % (mean and 95 % confidence intervals). Membership of a concurrent control group of a study of SDD (p = 0.02), the group-wide presence of candidemia risk factors (p Candida incidence. RT Candida and candidemia incidences are correlated. RT Candida incidence can serve as a basis for benchmarking. Several relationships have been identified. The increased incidence among concurrent control groups of SDD studies cannot be appreciated in any single study examined in isolation. PMID:27116009

  9. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of an Allene Oxide Cyclase Gene Associated with Fiber Strength in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-man; ZHU You-min; TONG Xiang-chao; HU Wen-jing; CAI Cai-ping; GUO Wang-zhen

    2014-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC) is one of the most important enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA). AOC catalyzes the conversion of allene oxide into 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a precursor of JA. Using 28K cotton genome array hybridization, an expressed sequence tag (EST;GenBank accession no. ES792958) was investigated that exhibited signiifcant expression differences between lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM isogenic lines during ifber initiation stages. The EST was used to search the Gossypium EST database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) for corresponding cDNA sequences encoding full-length open reading frames (ORFs). Identiifed ORFs were conifrmed using transcriptional and genomic data. As a result, a novel gene encoding AOC in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum AOC;GenBank accession no. KF383427) was cloned and characterized. The 741-bp GhAOC gene comprises three exons and two introns and encodes a polypeptide of 246 amino acids. Two homologous copies were identiifed in the tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, and one copy in the diploid cotton species G. herbaceum and G. raimondii. qRT-PCR showed that the GhAOC transcript was abundant in cotton ifber tissues from 8 to 23 days post anthesis (DPA), and the expression proifles were similar in the two cultivated tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, with a higher level of transcription in the former. One copy of GhAOC in tetraploid cotton was localized to chromosome 24 (Chr. D8) using the subgenome-speciifc single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker analysis, which co-localized GhAOC to within 10 cM of a ifber strength quantitative trait locus (QTL) reported previously. GhAOC was highly correlated with ifber quality and strength (P=0.014) in an association analysis, suggesting a possible role in cotton ifber development, especially in secondary cell wall thickening.

  10. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  11. Hematolymphoid lesions of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Genevieve M; Duffield, Amy S

    2016-03-01

    Various hematolymphoid lesions involve the sinonasal tract, including aggressive B, T, and NK-cell neoplasms; myeloid sarcoma; low-grade lymphomas; indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations; and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Differentiating aggressive lymphomas from non-hematopoietic neoplasms such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, or sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma may pose diagnostic challenges. In addition, the necrosis, vascular damage, and inflammatory infiltrates that are associated with some hematolymphoid disorders can result in misdiagnosis as infectious, autoimmune, or inflammatory conditions. Here, we review hematolymphoid disorders involving the sinonasal tract including their key clinical and histopathologic features. PMID:26472692

  12. CT diagnosis of biliary tract diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, J.; Horak, J.; Antos, Z.; Vodak, M. (Ustredni Vojenska Nemocnice, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-09-01

    The possibilities are discussed offered by computed tomography in the diagnosis of biliary tract diseases. Attention is paid to difficulties associated with the diagnosis of pathological changes in the biliary tract, and to the detection of isodense concrements where diagnostic problems are reliably resolved by PTHC and ERCP. It is therefore useful to supplement CT with other examination methods. A suitable combination is cholescintigraphy and CT with the possibility of a final diagnosis or selection of further examination, as a rule of an invasive nature.

  13. CT diagnosis of biliary tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities are discussed offered by computed tomography in the diagnosis of biliary tract diseases. Attention is paid to difficulties associated with the diagnosis of pathological changes in the biliary tract, and to the detection of isodense concrements where diagnostic problems are reliably resolved by PTHC and ERCP. It is therefore useful to supplement CT with other examination methods. A suitable combination is cholescintigraphy and CT with the possibility of a final diagnosis or selection of further examination, as a rule of an invasive nature. (author)

  14. Tracking White Matter Fiber in Human Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANGNing; ZHANGJun; EricSCarlson

    2004-01-01

    A new approach for noninvasively tracing brain white matter fiber tracts is presented using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) data. This technique is based on successive anisotropic diffusion simulations over the human brain, which are utilized to construct three dimensional diffusion fronts. The fiber pathways are determined by evaluating the distance and orientation from fronts to their corresponding diffusion seeds. Real DT-MRI data are used to demonstrate the tracking scheme. It is shown that several major white matter fiber pathways can be reproduced noninvasively, with the tract branching being allowed. Since the diffusion simulation,which is a truly physical phenomenon reflecting the underlying architecture of cerebral tissues, makes full use of the entire diffusion tensor data, the proposed approach is expected to enhance robustness and reliability of the DT-MRI based fiber tracking techniques in white matter fiber reconstruction.

  15. Characterization of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Huang, Houbin; Wei, Shihui; Qiu, Huaiyu; Gong, Yan; Li, Hongyang; Dai, Yanli; Jiang, Zhaocai; Liu, Zihao

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, the changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were examined by Cirrus high definition-optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the correlation between the RNFL thickness and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was evaluated. A cross-sectional study was performed. Sixty-eight eyes from patients with LHON and 30 eyes from healthy individuals were scanned. Affected eyes were divided into 5 groups according to disease duration: Group 1, ≤3 months; group 2, 4-6 months; group 3, 7-9 months; group 4, 10-12 months; and group 5, >12 months. The RNFL thickness of the temporal, superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and the 360° average were compared between the LHON groups and the control group. The eyes in groups 1 and 2 were observed to have a thicker RNFL in the superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and a higher 360°-average RNFL thickness compared with those of the control group (P<0.05), the RNFL was observed to be thinner in the temporal quadrant in groups 1 and 2. The eyes in groups 3 and 4 showed a thinner RNFL in the temporal (P=0.001), superior and inferior (both P<0.05) quadrants, and a lower 360°-average RNFL thickness as compared with controls (P=0.001). No significant correlation was identified between BCVA and RNFL thickness. RNFL thickness was observed to undergo a unique process from thickening to thinning in the patients with LHON. Changes in different quadrants occurred at different time periods and the BCVA was not found to be correlated with RNFL thickness.

  16. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Greater Insula White Matter Fiber Connectivity in Women Recovered from Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shott, Megan E; Pryor, Tamara L; Yang, Tony T; Frank, Guido K W

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with reduced drive to eat. Altered taste-reward circuit white matter fiber organization in anorexia nervosa after recovery could indicate a biological marker that alters the normal motivation to eat. Women recovered from restricting-type anorexia (Recovered AN, n = 24, age = 30.3 ± 8.1 years) and healthy controls (n = 24, age = 27.4 ± 6.3 years) underwent diffusion weighted imaging of the brain. Probabilistic tractography analyses calculated brain white matter connectivity (streamlines) as an estimate of fiber connections in taste-reward-related white matter tracts, and microstructural integrity (fractional anisotropy, FA) was assessed using tract-based spatial statistics. Recovered AN showed significantly (range Panorexia after recovery in tracts that connect taste-reward processing regions. Greater connectivity together with less-fiber integrity could indicate altered neural activity between those regions, which could interfere with normal food-reward circuit function. Correlations between connectivity and illness duration suggest that connectivity could be a marker for illness severity. Whether greater connectivity can predict prognosis of the disorder requires further study. PMID:26076832

  18. ICU 导尿管相关泌尿系感染危险因素分析及护理对策%Analysis of risk factors of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in ICU and the nursing countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢金兰; 秦颖; 石纯娟; 曾涛; 姚惠; 窦英茹; 朱金兰

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To discuss the risk factors of ICU patients with catheter-associate-durinary tract infection (CAUTI)so as to provide scientific basis for effective nursing measures. Methods ICU patients from April 2012 to March 2014 in our hospital were monitored,and in-dwelling catheter chances,indwelling catheter days,maintenance of urinary catheter,perineum nursing,the urine property,urine culture results were observed.Results 92 cases of urinary tract infection occurred in 1421 urinary catheter indwelling patients.Patients in emergency department with indwelling catheter more than 7 days and perineum nursing less than 2 times a day had more risk factors of urinary tract infection (P <0.05).A total of 153 pathogenic bacteria were separated in 92 patients.Among these pathogenic bacteria,23 cases were multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The top three pathogens were 17.65% of klebsiella,15.69% of candidaalbicans and 9.80% of es-cherichia coli.Conclusion Effective nursing strategies are to shorten the urine tube indwelling time,improve the technique of emergency patients with catheter,correctly maintain urine tube,en-sure the drainage device sealability,strengthen the perineum nursing,apply multiple drug-resis-tant bacteria isolation measures so as to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection.%目的:探讨 ICU 患者导尿管相关泌尿系感染(CAUTI)的危险因素,为针对性采取有效的护理措施提供科学依据。方法目标性监测2012年4月—2014年3月收住本院 ICU 的患者,观察并统计留置尿管时机、留置天数、尿管维护、会阴护理、尿液性状及尿培养结果等。结果1421例留置尿管患者中发生泌尿系感染92例,急诊入院患者留置尿管、留置尿管超过7 d、会阴护理每日2次以下是泌尿系感染的高危因素(P <0.05)。92例患者共分离病原菌153株,其中23例为多重耐药菌,前3位的病原菌分别是肺炎克雷伯菌17.65

  19. Downregulation of Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase 1 in the process of delayed myocardialization of cardiac proximal outflow tract septum in connexin 43 knockout mice embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Chun-hua; ZHAO Xiao-qing; MA Duan; MA Xiao-jing; ZHOU Guo-min; HUANG Guo-ying

    2011-01-01

    Background The connexln43 knockout (Cx43 KO) mouse dies at birth with an enlarged conotruncal region, which leads to the obstruction of the right outflow tract (OFT). Since myocardialization of the proximal OFT septum is one of the key events during heart development, we investigated the process in the Cx43 KO embryo hearts. Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), is a recently found key molecule to regulate the myocardialization of OFT, but its spatiotemporal expression pattern during myocardialization remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the differentially expressed pattern of ROCK1 between Cx43 KO and wild type embryo hearts, and its relationship with the delayed myocardialization in Cx43 KO embryo hearts.Methods Using immunohistochemistry, the processes of myocardiolization were investigated both in Cx43 KO and wild type embryo hearts. The differentially expressed pattern of ROCK1 between Cx43 KO and wildtype embryo hearts was evaluated both at the mRNA and protein level by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Results The expression of α-sarcomeric actin (α-SCA) in the proximal OFT septum of Cx43 KO embryos was delayed. Meanwhile, it was shown that the downregulation of ROCK1 coincided with delayed myocardialization. The expression of ROCK1 protein was mainly limited to the proximal outflow tract septum from embryo day (E) E11.5 to E15.5. Its expression pattern was similar with that of α-SCA. Real-time RT-PCR found that the expression level of Rock-1 mRNA began at a low level on E11.5 and reached peak at E13.5 and E14.5.Conclusions ROCK1 may have an important role in the process of myocardialization of the proximal OFT septum. Downregulation of ROCK1 is likely to contribute to the aberrant myocardialization in Cx43 KO embryo hearts.

  20. Baroreflexes of the rat. V. Tetanus-induced potentiation of ADN A-fiber responses at the NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaorui; Dworkin, Barry R

    2007-12-01

    In a long-term neuromuscular blocked (NMB) rat preparation, tetanic stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve (ADN) enhanced the A-fiber evoked responses (ERs) in the cardiovascular region, the nucleus of the solitary tract (dmNTS). The potentiation persisted for at least several hours and may be a mechanism for adaptive adjustment of the gain of the baroreflex, with functional implications for blood pressure regulation. Using a capacitance electrode, we selectively stimulated A-fibers and acquired a stable 10-h "A-fiber only" ER baseline at the dmNTS. Following baseline, an A+C-fiber activating tetanus was applied to the ADN. The tetanus consisted of 1,000 "high current" pulses (10 trains; 300 mus, 100 Hz, 1 s), with intertrain interval of 9 s. A 10-h A-fiber only posttetanic test phase repeated the stimulus pattern of the baseline. Fourteen tetanus experiments were done in 12 rats. Compared with the baseline before tetanus, the A-fiber ER magnitudes of posttetanus hours were larger [F(13, 247) = 3.407, P ADN A+C fiber-activating tetanus produced increases in the magnitude of the A-fiber ERs in the dmNTS that persisted for several hours. In an additional rat, application of an NMDA receptor antagonist, prior to the tetanus, blocked the potentiation effect. The stimulus protocols, magnitude and duration of the effect, and pharmacology resemble associative long-term potentiation (LTP).

  1. Association of Self-efficacy and Decisional Balance with Stages of Change for Fiber Intake and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Keshani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Constructs of behavioral models such as trans-theoretical model can be associated with healthy eating behaviors like increasing fiber intake. They can also be effective in improving these behaviors in patients with diabetes. This study aimed to assess the association of self-efficacy and decisional balance with stages of change for fiber intake and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 145 literate male and female patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 30 to 65 years they were randomly selected from the patients’ list of “Charity Foundation for Special Diseases” and ”Iranian Diabetes Society” in Tehran-Iran. Stages of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance questionnaires were filled out, and three food records were used to assess their nutritional status. Blood samples were taken to assess fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and insulin resistance. One-way ANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. The tests were done using the SPSS software (ver. 16. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: 126 patients with type 2 diabetes completed the study. Participants’ mean age was 53.5±6.02 and 65% were men. Patients in post-action stages revealed higher self-efficacy than did those in pre-action stages (P=0.035. A relationship was observed between insulin resistance and self-efficacy (P=0.040. One unit increase in self-efficacy decreased the risk of insulin resistance by 12%, and each unit increase in decisional balance increased the chance of eating sufficient fiber by 2.2 times. There was also a significant relationship between the perceived cons (P<0.0001 and self-efficacy (P=0.037 with fiber intake after adjustment with confounders. Conclusions: This study suggests that there is a relationship between transtheoretical model constructs such as self-efficacy and decisional balance, especially cons, with

  2. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms at +191 and +292 of Galectin-3 Gene (LGALS3) Related to Lower GAL-3 Serum Levels Are Associated with Frequent Respiratory Tract Infection and Vaso-Occlusive Crisis in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça Belmont, Taciana Furtado; do Ó, Kleyton Palmeira; Soares da Silva, Andreia; de Melo Vilar, Kamila; Silva Medeiros, Fernanda; Silva Vasconcelos, Luydson Richardson; Mendonça dos Anjos, Ana Claudia; Domingues Hatzlhofer, Betânia Lucena; Pitta, Maíra Galdino da Rocha; Bezerra, Marcos André Cavalcanti; Araújo, Aderson da Silva; de Melo Rego, Moacyr Jesus Barreto; Moura, Patrícia; Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may present chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion and respiratory tract infection (RTI) episodes. Galectin-3 (GAL-3) is a multifunctional protein involved in inflammation, apoptosis, adhesion and resistance to reactive oxygen species. Studies point to a dual role for GAL-3 as both a circulation damage-associated molecular pattern and a cell membrane associated pattern recognition receptor. Objective To investigate associations between the SNPs of GAL-3 gene (LGALS3) and serum levels with RTI and vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in children with SCA. Materials and Methods SNPs +191 and +292 in LGALS3 were studied using the TaqMan real-time PCR system; GAL-3 serum levels were measured by ELISA. The study included 79 children with SCA ranging from 2 to 12 years old. Results GAL-3 serum levels were associated with LGALS3 +191 and +292 genotypes (p <0.0001; p = 0.0169, respectively). LGALS3 +191, AA genotype was associated with low and CC with higher levels of GAL-3. For LGALS3 +292, the CC genotype was associated with lower GAL-3 and AA with higher levels. Patients with Frequency of RTI (FRTI) ≥1 presented higher frequency of +191AA (p = 0.0263) and +292AC/CC genotypes (p = 0.0320). SNP +292 was associated with Frequency of VOC (FVOC) (p = 0.0347), whereas no association was shown with SNP +191 and FVOC. However, CA/AC and AA/CC genotypes with lower GAL-3 levels showed a higher frequency in patients with FRTI ≥1 (p = 0.0170; p = 0.0138, respectively). Also, patients with FVOC ≥1 presented association with CA/AC (p = 0.0228). LGALS3 +191 and +292 combined genotypes related to low (p = 0.0263) and intermediate expression (p = 0.0245) were associated with FRTI ≥1. Lower GAL-3 serum levels were associated with FRTI ≥1 (p = 0.0426) and FVOC ≥1 (p = 0.0012). Conclusion Variation of GAL-3 serum levels related to SNPs at +191 and +292 may constitute a susceptibility factor for RTI and VOC frequency. PMID:27603703

  3. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: Bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen that are either vertically inherited or acquired from the environment. While the core bacteria of the honey bee gut is becoming evident, the influence of the pollination environment on honey bee-associated microbial p...

  4. Analysis of the brain-stem white-matter tracts with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have reviewed the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain stem in 19 subjects, consisting of 15 normal volunteers and four multi-system atrophy patients. The study was performed with 1.5 T MRI scanners. DTI was correlated with an automated program allowing superposition of the structural anatomy. Axial, sagittal, and coronal images demonstrated major white-matter fibers within the brain stem, including cortico-spinal tracts, transverse pontine fibers, and medial lemniscus. Smaller fibers, such as medial longitudinal fascicles and central tegmental tracts are difficult to visualize. To identify the anatomical orientation of the brain stem, white-matter fibers will help us understand the different functional disease processes, and DTI will play an important role for the evaluation of the different white matter fibers in the brain stem. (orig.)

  5. Respiratory tract and mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory tract problems originating in attempts to diagnose and treat illness are commonplace. They range from pharyngeal trauma during intubation to radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma. Occasionally, as with pulmonary hypervolemia accompanying drug-induced renal failure, they originate at a distance. Their actual number far exceeds those brought to clinical attention. Familiarity with the procedures which give rise to these complications is helpful in detecting and remedying them. It is important, therefore, to discuss their pathogenesis as well as their clinical and radiological findings

  6. Changes in the axonal conduction velocity of pyramidal tract neurons in the aged cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, M C; Liu, R H; Engelhardt, J K; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1999-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether age-dependent changes in axonal conduction velocity occur in pyramidal tract neurons. A total of 260 and 254 pyramidal tract neurons were recorded extracellularly in the motor cortex of adult control and aged cats, respectively. These cells were activated antidromically by electrical stimulation of the medullary pyramidal tract. Fast- and slow-conducting neurons were identified according to their axonal conduction velocity in both control and aged cats. While 51% of pyramidal tract neurons recorded in the control cats were fast conducting (conduction velocity greater than 20 m/s), only 26% of pyramidal tract neurons in the aged cats were fast conducting. There was a 43% decrease in the median conduction velocity for the entire population of pyramidal tract neurons in aged cats when compared with that of pyramidal tract neurons in the control cats (P cats. However, the regression slope was significantly reduced in aged cats. This reduction was due to the appearance of a group of pyramidal tract neurons with relatively shorter spike durations but slower axonal conduction velocities in the aged cat. Sample intracellular data confirmed the above results. These observations form the basis for the following conclusions: (i) there is a decrease in median conduction velocity of pyramidal tract neurons in aged cats; (ii) the reduction in the axonal conduction velocity of pyramidal tract neurons in aged cats is due, in part, to fibers that previously belonged to the fast-conducting group and now conduct at slower velocity. PMID:10392844

  7. Distribution and Resistance Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection in ICU%ICU导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊; 郑瑞强; 林华; 卢年芳; 於江泉

    2013-01-01

    Objective :To explore the distribution and resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing catheter associated uri-nary tract infection in ICU so as to guide the clinical rational use of antibiotics .Methods :Urine culture and its drug sus-ceptibility results of patients who were diagnosed catheter associated urinary tract infection were analyzed retrospective-ly from July 2009 to June 2013 in ICU of Subei People’s Hospital of Jiangsu Province .Results:226 strains of pathogenic bacteria was detected from 4558 urine specimens ,of which 138 strains of gram-negative bacteria (61 .06% ) ,57 strains of gram-positive bacteria(25 .22% ) ,31 fungi strains(13 .72% ) .Top five of pathogenic bacteria was followed by acine-tobacter baumannii ,pneumonia klebsiella ,Escherichia coli ,Enterococcus faecalis ,candida albicans .Resistance of acine-tobacter baumannii in most drug was >50% .Under 50% of the resistance was just cefoperazone/sulbactam ,meropen-em ,imipenem/Cilastatin ,SMZ/TMP .Conclusion:Gram-negative bacteria is still the main pathogenic bacteria of catheter associated urinary tract infections in ICU .Acinetobacter baumannii has risen to the first pathogenic bacteria ,and drug resistance is very severe .Rational use of antibiotics and good hand hygiene is very important according to the results of drug susceptibility .%目的:探讨IC U导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原学分布及耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法:回顾性对2009年7月-2013年6月入住我院IC U确诊导尿管相关性尿路感染的患者送检的尿液标本培养及药敏结果进行统计分析。结果:4558份尿标本共检出226株致病菌,其中革兰氏阴性菌138株,占61.06%,革兰氏阳性菌株57株,占25.22%,真菌株31株,占13.72%。排名前五位的病原菌依次是鲍曼不动杆菌、肺炎克雷伯氏菌、大肠埃希菌、粪肠球菌、白色念珠菌。鲍曼不动杆菌对大部分药物耐药性均>50

  8. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  9. Labeling of the cerebellar peduncles using a supervised Gaussian classifier with volumetric tract segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chuyang; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Bogovic, John A.; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2012-02-01

    The cerebellar peduncles are white matter tracts that play an important role in the communication of the cerebellum with other regions of the brain. They can be grouped into three fiber bundles: inferior cerebellar peduncle middle cerebellar peduncle, and superior cerebellar peduncle. Their automatic segmentation on diffusion tensor images would enable a better understanding of the cerebellum and would be less time-consuming and more reproducible than manual delineation. This paper presents a method that automatically labels the three fiber bundles based on the segmentatin results from the diffusion oriented tract segmentation (DOTS) algorithm, which achieves volume segmentation of white matter tracts using a Markov random field (MRF) framework. We use the DOTS labeling result as a guide to determine the classification of fibers produced by wild bootstrap probabilistic tractography. Mean distances from each fiber to each DOTS volume label are defined and then used as features that contribute to classification. A supervised Gaussian classifier is employed to label the fibers. Manually delineated cerebellar peduncles serve as training data to determine the parameters of class probabilities for each label. Fibers are labeled ad the class that has the highest posterior probability. An outlier detection ste[ re,pves fober tracts that belong to noise of that are not modeled by DOTS. Experiments show a successful classification of the cerebellar peduncles. We have also compared results between successive scans to demonstrate the reproducibility of the proposed method.

  10. Evaluation of corticospinal tract injury with three-dimensional diffusion tensor tract in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xiao; Ziqian Chen; Biyun Zhang; Ping Ni

    2006-01-01

    of CST injury and the muscle strength of ipsilateral hand was analyzed with spearman correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① FA values in the infarcted sites and those in the contralateral corresponding sites of patients with cerebral infarction; ② CST manifestations in the patients with cerebral infarction and the control group.RESULTS: All the 30 testees were involved in the analysis of results. ① The FA values in infarcted sites of white matter were significantly lower than those in the contralateral ones (t =4.570, P < 0.001 ). ② In the control group, bilateral CST were reconstructed, they originated from precentral gyrus, went downwards to internal capsule, and extended to pontine and medulla oblongata, each fiber had good uniformity in continuous form. In the patients with cerebral infarction, the forms of contralateral CST were consistent with those in the control group with good continuity. Due to the involvement by the infarcted site to different extents, the ipsilateral CST manifested as continuous interruption and loss of uniformity in anatomic structure and form. The CST involvements were divided into three grades: integrated CST for grade I (n =2); integrated CST but compressed or displaced for grade 2 (n =5); interrupted CST for grade 3 (n =8). ③ The severity of CST injury was obviously correlated with the muscle strength of the ipsilateral hand (r=0.888, P< 0.05=.CONCLUSION: ① CST is injured to different extents in patients with acute cerebral infarction, and the severity of injury is associated with muscle strength. It is indicated that it can be used to judge the prognosis of rehabilitative treatment. ②DTT can directly display the status of pyramidal tract more three-dimensionally.

  11. 导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性%Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urethral catheter-associated urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程光敏; 姜玲; 尧兴水

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the constituent ratio and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urethral catheter-associated urinary tract infection and offer reference for clinical use of antibiotics. METHODS Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures, bacterial culture and identification were performed. The susceptibility testing was performed by K-B method as recommended by CLSI. RESULTS Among 159 strains of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (38. 4%) ranked the top one, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13. 2%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (12. 6%). All of the pathogenic bacteria were resistant to commonly used antibiotics to varying degrees. CONCLUSION Clinicians should attach importance to pathogenic surveillance and reasonably use the antibiotics according to susceptibility testing results to effectively control urelhral catheter-associated urinary tract infection and raise the clinical recovery rate.%目的 了解医院导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药特征,为临床医师合理使用抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法 严格按照《全国临床检验操作规程》,采集患者的尿液进行细菌培养与鉴定;采用CLSI推荐的K- B法进行药敏试验.结果 159株尿路感染病原菌以大肠埃希菌为主,占38.4%,铜绿假单胞菌第2位,占13.2%,凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌第3位,占12.6%;所有病原菌对常用抗菌药物均产生了不同的耐药性.结论 临床医师应重视病原学监测,按照药敏试验结果规范用药,才能有效控制导尿管相关性尿路感染,提高临床治愈率.

  12. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  13. Syndrome-Associated Tumors by Organ System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Riddle, Nicole D

    2016-06-01

    Certain tumors suggest the possibility of a patient harboring a genetic syndrome, particularly in children. Syndrome-associated tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, gynecologic tract, heart, lungs, brain, eye, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic system will be briefly discussed.

  14. CDBG Activity Funding by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.

  15. Cytosolic malic enzyme 1 (ME1 mediates high fat diet-induced adiposity, endocrine profile, and gastrointestinal tract proliferation-associated biomarkers in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Dwairi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated hormonal disturbances are risk factors for colon cancer. Cytosolic Malic Enzyme (ME1 generates NADPH used for lipogenesis in gastrointestinal (GI, liver and adipose tissues. We have reported that inclusion of soy protein isolate (SPI in the diet lowered body fat content and colon tumor incidence of rats fed AIN-93G diet, while others have demonstrated SPI inhibition of rat hepatic ME1 expression. The present study examined the individual and combined effects of dietary SPI and absence of ME1 on: 1 serum concentrations of hormones implicated in colon cancer development, 2 expression of lipogenic and proliferation-associated genes in the mouse colon and small intestine, and 3 liver and adipose expression of lipogenic and adipocytokine genes that may contribute to colon cancer predisposition. METHODS: Weanling wild type (WT and ME1 null (MOD-1 male mice were fed high-fat (HF, iso-caloric diets containing either casein (CAS or SPI as sole protein source for 5 wks. Somatic growth, serum hormone and glucose levels, liver and adipose tissue weights, GI tissue parameters, and gene expression were evaluated. RESULTS: The MOD-1 genotype and SPI-HF diet resulted in decreases in: body and retroperitoneal fat weights, serum insulin, serum leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, adipocyte size, colon mTOR and cyclin D1 mRNA abundance, and jejunum FASN mRNA abundance, when compared to WT mice fed CAS-HF. Regardless of diet, MOD-1 mice had reductions in liver weight, liver steatosis, and colon crypt depth, and increases in adipose tissue expression of IRS1 and IRS2, compared to WT mice. SPI-HF diet reduced ME1 gene expression only in retroperitoneal fat. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that the pharmacological targeting of ME1 or the inclusion of soy protein in the diet may provide avenues to reduce obesity and its associated pro-tumorigenic endocrine environment and improve insulin sensitivity, potentially disrupting the obesity

  16. 氯胺酮致泌尿系统损害35例临床分析%Clinical analysis of ketamine-associated urinary tract dysfunction:a report of 35 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志扬; 林俊雄; 吴文峰; 沈倚天

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnosis and treatment of the ketamine-associated urinary system dysfunction and its possible mechanism. Methods A total of 35 ketamine abusers aged 18 -35 years were collected. All of them had abused ketamine for 1 -5 years, and presented with severe lower urinary tract symptoms. Urinalysis showed no bacterial pyuria and were negative for tuberculosis. The appearance of erythrocyte in urine was normal or abnormal. Five patients had renal dysfunction. Intravenous pyelography( IVP ) and CT examination demonstrated the presence of bilateral pyelectasia and dilatation of ureter in 10 patients, of whom 2 patients had bladder contracture complicated with bladder and vesico-ureteric reflux. Results All patients were required to withdraw the ketamine abuse or reduced the frequency and amount of ketamin and given medicine. Hematuria disappeared in 30 patients, and the lower urinary tract symptoms relieved or disappeared in 20 patients. Two patients with bladder contracture restored to normal bladder capacity after the conservative treatment. Conclusion Ketamine-associated urinary system dysfunction might be a kind of reversible inflammatory process involving the upper and lower urinary tract. Stopping ketamine and conservative treatment are effective for the disease. Even the patients with contracture of bladder could have a better outcome after the conservative treatment.%目的 探讨氯胺酮(K粉)引发泌尿系损害的诊治方法及可能机制.方法 滥用K粉患者35例,年龄18-35岁,吸食K粉1-5年,均因严重的下尿路症状就诊,尿培养阴性,尿找结核菌阴性,尿红细胞形态正常或畸形,5例出现肾功能不全,IVP和CT检查提示10例出现双侧集合系统扩张和输尿管上段或全长扩张,其中膀胱挛缩2例并膀胱输尿管反流.结果 患者停止或减少滥用K粉并药物治疗,30例血尿消失,20例尿频、下尿路症状缓解或消失,2例膀胱挛缩经保守治疗后,膀

  17. Why psychosis is frequently associated with Parkinson’s disease?*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingmei Zhong; Kunhua Wu; Shaoyuan Wu; Ying Zhao; Hui Chen; Naiwei Zhao; Kunwen Zheng; Zhong Zhao; Wenli Chen; Bo Wang

    2013-01-01

    Psychosis is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease whose pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Parkinson’s disease in conjunction with psychosis has been shown to induce injury to extracorticospinal tracts as wel as within some cortical areas. In this study, Parkinson’s disease patients with psychosis who did not receive antipsychotic treatment and those without psychosis underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Results revealed that in Parkinson’s disease patients with psychosis, damage to the left frontal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, left cingulated gyrus, and left hippocampal white-matter fibers were greater than damage to the substantia nigra or the globus pal idus. Damage to white-matter fibers in the right frontal lobe and right cingulate gyrus were also more severe than in the globus pal idus, but not the substantia nigra. Damage to frontal lobe and cingulate gyrus white-matter fibers was more apparent than that to occipital or hippocampal fiber damage. Compared with Parkinson’s disease patients without psychosis, those with psychosis had significantly lower fractional anisotropy ratios of left frontal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, left cingu-lated gyrus, and left hippocampus to ipsilateral substantia nigra or globus pal idus, indicating more severe damage to white-matter fibers. These results suggest that psychosis associated with Par-kinson’s disease is probably associated with an imbalance in the ratio of white-matter fibers be-tween brain regions associated with psychiatric symptoms (frontal lobe, occipital lobe, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus) and those associated with the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (the substantia nigra and globus pal idus). The relatively greater damage to white-matter fibers in psychiatric symptom-related brain regions than in extracorticospinal tracts might explain why psy-chosis often occurs in Parkinson’s disease patients.

  18. Dietary Fiber and Saturated Fat Intake Associations with Cardiovascular Disease Differ by Sex in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wallström; Emily Sonestedt; Joanna Hlebowicz; Ulrika Ericson; Isabel Drake; Margaretha Persson; Bo Gullberg; Bo Hedblad; Elisabet Wirfält

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine associations between intake of macronutrients and dietary fiber and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease (iCVD) in men and women. METHODS: We used data from 8,139 male and 12,535 female participants (aged 44-73 y) of the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The participants were without history of CVD and diabetes mellitus, and had reported stable dietary habits in the study questionnaire. Diet was assessed by ...

  19. Endotoxin adsorption therapy using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber as a treatment for septic shock-associated severe acute cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Onodera, Makoto; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Gaku; Kojika, Masahiro; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2013-10-01

    The application of endotoxin adsorption therapy for severe acute cholangitis is controversial. We present a survival case of septic shock and multiple organ failure due to severe acute cholangitis. The patient was treated by endotoxin adsorption therapy using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber because he continued to remain in shock even after successful endoscopic nasobiliary drainage. The patient was an 84-year-old male diagnosed with acute cholangitis and acute pancreatitis who was transferred to our department because of shock and severe dyspnea. The patient had already developed acute respiratory failure, acute renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We performed endoscopic nasobiliary drainage immediately, but the patient continued to remain in shock and plasma endotoxin level was markedly elevated at 133.6 pg/mL. Therefore, we performed direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber. On starting the hemoperfusion, blood pressure and urine volume increased, and the plasma endotoxin level reduced considerably. On the basis of our experience in this case, we think that direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber may be a useful modality in the management of severe acute cholangitis.

  20. Reduction of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Through the Use of an Evidence-Based Nursing Algorithm and the Implementation of Shift Nursing Rounds: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kamishia L

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to successfully implement a nurse-led evidence-based practice change designed to reduce CAUTIs in a cardiac intensive care and step-down unit. The QI project was implemented using a convenience sample of patients admitted to the cardiac intensive care and step-down unit.Evaluation data were collected 3 months preimplementation and 9 months postimplementation. We used Wick's Check-Plan-Do-Check-Act model of continuous QI to guide the project. A statistically significant change in the number of CAUTIs (P = .009) and CAUTI occurrences (P = .005) was observed following the intervention. The number of indwelling catheter days and indwelling catheter utilization did not significantly differ following implementation of the intervention. Nurse compliance with the intervention was computed for each month; the average compliance rate was 91%. Findings from this project indicate that a nurse-led evidence-based practice project exerted a positive influence on CAUTI occurrences. PMID:26808302

  1. Reduction of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Through the Use of an Evidence-Based Nursing Algorithm and the Implementation of Shift Nursing Rounds: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kamishia L

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to successfully implement a nurse-led evidence-based practice change designed to reduce CAUTIs in a cardiac intensive care and step-down unit. The QI project was implemented using a convenience sample of patients admitted to the cardiac intensive care and step-down unit.Evaluation data were collected 3 months preimplementation and 9 months postimplementation. We used Wick's Check-Plan-Do-Check-Act model of continuous QI to guide the project. A statistically significant change in the number of CAUTIs (P = .009) and CAUTI occurrences (P = .005) was observed following the intervention. The number of indwelling catheter days and indwelling catheter utilization did not significantly differ following implementation of the intervention. Nurse compliance with the intervention was computed for each month; the average compliance rate was 91%. Findings from this project indicate that a nurse-led evidence-based practice project exerted a positive influence on CAUTI occurrences.

  2. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  3. Advances in alimentary tract imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Maglinte, Dean DT; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Tann, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Advances in imaging techniques are changing the way radiologists undertake imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and their ability to answer questions posed by surgeons. In this paper we discuss the technological improvements of imaging studies that have occurred in the last few years and how these help to better diagnosing alimentary tract disease.

  4. 临床操作路径应用于降低内科导尿管相关性尿路感染的临床观察%Clinical observation of clinical operation path to be applied to reduce medical catheter associated urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁维红

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察临床操作路径应用于降低内科导尿管相关性尿路感染临床效果。方法:在2013年目标性监测有效预防措施基础上制定导尿管相关性尿路感染的临床操作路径干预措施,以2014年应用者310例为观察组,2013未应用者322例为对照组。结果:观察组发生泌尿系感染19例,感染率6.13%,对照组发生泌尿系感染37例,感染率11.49%。结论:临床操作路径应用于内科导尿管相关性尿路感染,有效降低泌尿道感染的发生,值得临床推广。%objective: to observe clinical path used to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection internal medicine clinical effects. Method:in the 2013 target monitoring effective prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections based on clinical path of interventions by 2014 in 310 cases of application for observer group, 2013 322 cases is not applied as a control group. Results:observation of urinary infection in 19 cases, the rate of infection 6.13%, 37 cases occurred in the control group urinary tract infections, infection rate was 11.49%. Conclusions:clinical path applied to medical catheter-associated urinary tract infections, effectively reducing the occurrence of urinary tract infections, isworthy of promotion.

  5. Recurrent urinary tract infection by burkholderia cepacia in a live related renal transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholderia cepacia is high virulent organism usually causing lower respiratory tract infections especially in Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and post lung transplant. Urinary tract infections with Burkholderia cepacia have been associated after bladder irrigation or use of contaminated hospital objects. Post renal transplant urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complications. Recurrent urinary tract infection with Burkholderia cepacia is a rare finding. Complete anatomical evaluation is essential in case recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) after renal transplant. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) and neurogenic urinary bladder was found to be important risk factors. (author)

  6. Urinary tract infection and indirect hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Chamdine Omar; Shadi Hamza; Abou Merhi Bassem; Rajab Mariam

    2011-01-01

    Background : Jaundice is a common problem during the neonatal period. About 60% of the full term and 80% of premature infants develop jaundice. It can be associated with serious illnesses such as Urinary tract infections. Aims : The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of urinary tract infection in newborns with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and to find a relationship with prolonged jaundice. Patients and Methods : We retrospectively evaluated asymptomatic, jaundiced ne...

  7. Candida yeasts and carcinogenic acetaldehyde in upper digestive tract carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nieminen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Cancers of the upper digestive tract (oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, oesophageal and stomach) are among the ten most common cancers worldwide and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Despite improved treatment strategies, the prognosis of these cancers remains poor. The main aetiological factors for the upper digestive tract cancers are alcohol consumption and smoking. Dietary and genetic factors can also contribute to an increased risk. Alcohol consumption, smoking and poor oral h...

  8. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract in elective gastrointestinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, D.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) surgery and especially colorectal surgery is associated with a high risk of postoperative infections due to contamination by bacteria in the large intestine. These postoperative infectious complications increase hospital stay and costs of treatment. The most common infectious complications after surgery are urinary tract, wound and pulmonary infections. These mainly Gram negative infections generally originate from the patient’s own digestive tract. The use of oral antib...

  9. Somatostatin receptors in the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Reubi, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The multiple actions of somatostatin are mediated by specific membrane-bound receptors present in all somatostatin target tissues, such as brain, pituitary, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract. Three different types of tissues in the human gastrointestinal tract express somatostatin receptors: (1) the gastrointestinal mucosa, (2) the peripheral nervous system, and (3) the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, where the receptors are preferentially located in germinal centers. In all these cases, s...

  10. Behavior of parasite-specific effector CD8+ T cells in the brain and visualization of a kinesis-associated system of reticular fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma H; Harris, Tajie H; Mrass, Paulus; John, Beena; Tait, Elia D; Wu, Gregory F; Pepper, Marion; Wherry, E John; Dzierzinski, Florence; Roos, David; Haydon, Philip G; Laufer, Terri M; Weninger, Wolfgang; Hunter, Christopher A

    2009-02-20

    To understand lymphocyte behavior in the brain, we used two-photon microscopy to visualize effector CD8(+) T cells during toxoplasmic encephalitis. These cells displayed multiple behaviors with two distinct populations of cells apparent: one with a constrained pattern of migration and one with a highly migratory subset. The proportion of these populations varied over time associated with changes in antigen availability as well as T cell expression of the inhibitory receptor PD1. Unexpectedly, the movement of infiltrating cells was closely associated with an infection-induced reticular system of fibers. This observation suggests that, whereas in other tissues pre-existing scaffolds exist that guide lymphocyte migration, in the brain specialized structures are induced by inflammation that guide migration of T cells in this immune-privileged environment.

  11. Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract.OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge relevant to complicated urinary tract infection, and to provide evidence-based recommendations for management.METHODS: The literature was reviewed through a PubMed search, and additional articles were identified by journal reference review. A draft guideline was prepared and critically reviewed by members of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada Guidelines Committee, with modifications incorporated following the review.RESULTS: Many urological abnormalities may be associated with complicated urinary infection. There is a wide spectrum of potential infecting organisms, and isolated bacteria tend to be more resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Morbidity and infection outcomes in subjects with complicated urinary infection are principally determined by the underlying abnormality rather than the infection. Principles of management include uniform collection of a urine specimen for culture before antimicrobial therapy, characterization of the underlying genitourinary abnormality, and nontreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria except before an invasive genitourinary procedure. The antimicrobial regimen is determined by clinical presentation, patient tolerance, renal function and known or anticipated infecting organisms. If the underlying abnormality contributing to the urinary infection cannot be corrected, then early post-treatment recurrence of infection is anticipated.CONCLUSIONS: The management of complicated urinary infection is individualized depending on patient variables and the infecting organism. Further clinical investigations are necessary to assist in determining optimal antimicrobial regimens.

  12. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  13. DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Mondt, Katrien; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-30

    The impact of bilingualism on the microstructure of the white matter pathways related to language processing is assessed in elementary school children by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI). Forty children, 8-11 years old, subdivided into 3 different groups (15 simultaneous bilinguals, 15 sequential bilinguals and 10 monolinguals), were scanned. The hypothesis was that the starting age and the manner of second language acquisition would affect the characteristics of language circuitry. In each subject the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was obtained for four major white matter pathways: 1 - the left arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (lAF/lSLF) that connects Broca's area in the opercular and triangular regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus to the posterior language zone, 2 - the left inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (lIFOF), connecting anterior regions in the frontal lobe with posterior regions in the temporal occipital lobes, 3 - the bundle arising from the anterior part of the corpus callosum projecting to the orbital lobe (AC-OL) and 4 - the fibers emerging from the anterior midbody (AMB) of the corpus callosum that associate with the premotor and supplementary motor cortices (AMB-PMC). The three groups did not show significant differences in mean FA over the lAF/lSLF or AMB-PMC tracts. In simultaneous bilingual subjects the lIFOF tracts had higher mean FA value compared to monolinguals and also sequential bilinguals, whereas the comparison for the AC-OL fibers yielded a significantly lower mean FA value in simultaneous bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals. In both cases the FA value for sequential bilinguals was intermediate to that of the other two groups. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of bilingualism related adaptation of white matter microstructure in the human brain.

  14. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp. PMID:26865230

  15. Improved delineation of short cortical association fibers and gray/white matter boundary using whole-brain three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Allen W; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Petty, Christopher; Guidon, Arnaud; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2014-11-01

    Recent emergence of human connectome imaging has led to a high demand on angular and spatial resolutions for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While there have been significant growths in high angular resolution diffusion imaging, the improvement in spatial resolution is still limited due to a number of technical challenges, such as the low signal-to-noise ratio and high motion artifacts. As a result, the benefit of a high spatial resolution in the whole-brain connectome imaging has not been fully evaluated in vivo. In this brief report, the impact of spatial resolution was assessed in a newly acquired whole-brain three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging data set with an isotropic spatial resolution of 0.85 mm. It was found that the delineation of short cortical association fibers is drastically improved as well as the definition of fiber pathway endings into the gray/white matter boundary-both of which will help construct a more accurate structural map of the human brain connectome.

  16. One hour of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus is sufficient to develop chronic epilepsy in mice, and is associated with mossy fiber sprouting but not neuronal death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Lin Chen; Hang-Feng Feng; Xue-Xia Mao; Qing Ye; Ling-Hui Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Determining the minimal duration of status epilepticus (SE) that leads to the development of subsequent spontaneous seizures (i.e.,epilepsy) is important,because it provides a critical time-window for seizure intervention and epilepsy prevention.In the present study,male ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice were injected with pilocarpine to induce acute seizures.SE was terminated by diazepam at 10 min,30 min,1 h,2 h and 4 h after seizure onset.Spontaneous seizures occurred in the 1,2 and 4 h SE groups,and the seizure frequency increased with the prolongation of SE.Similarly,the Morris water maze revealed that the escape latency was significantly increased and the number of target quadrant crossings was markedly decreased in the 1,2 and 4 h SE groups.Robust mossy fiber sprouting was observed in these groups,but not in the 10 or 30 min group.In contrast,Fluoro-Jade B staining revealed significant cell death only in the 4 h SE group.The incidence and frequency of spontaneous seizures were correlated with Timm score (P =0.004) and escape latency (P =0.004).These data suggest that SE longer than one hour results in spontaneous motor seizures and memory deficits,and spontaneous seizures are likely associated with robust mossy fiber sprouting but not neuronal death.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your urinary tract, take these steps: Keep clean. Wash your private parts every day when you take ... choices. Those trips to the bathroom can help wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  20. Importance of optimal fiber consumption during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Hajhoseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiber has known as an essential part of human nutrition. It is a nutrient that could not get digested by human gastrointestinal tract. It absorbs water and helps bowel movements. Classifies as polysacharides such as cellulose,pectin,lignin,…etc. Two types of fiber exist, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber absorbs water, binds to fatty acids, slows down the rate of sugar absorption, helps stomach emptying and gets fermented via GI bacteria through digestion. Insoluble fiber goes without changes through digestion, it helps to maintain the PH level of intestines and it also helps to move bulks through GI. Some types of soluble fibers are: Kidney beans, Pinto beans, Brussels sprouts, Broccoli, Spinach, Zucchini , Fruits (raw, Apple, Orange, Grapefruit Grapes, Prunes, Grains, Oatmeal , Whole-wheat bread . Some types of insoluble fiber are: Vegetables, especially dark green leafy ones, root vegetable skins, fruit skins, whole wheat products, wheat bran, Corn bran, nuts and seeds (14. The daily recommended intake of fiber is 25-35 gm for pregnancy however in many countries the consumed fiber is below 14 grm/day for pregnant women. Adequate hydration and water intake is recommended along with proper fiber intake. Excess of fiber is not recommended because it causes nutrient loss and diarrhea during pregnancy.

  1. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh;

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive...... to substantial over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of reproductive tract infections in this hospital. To enhance reproductive tract infection care, providers need to be sensitized to the social and medical consequences of their own cultural perceptions and to increase their awareness of the risks associated...... tract infections and the difficulties they experience in establishing exact diagnoses. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed. The quantitative research involved 748 abortion-seeking women; the qualitative research was conducted with 10 doctors and 10 lab...

  2. Analysis of risk factors of indwell ing catheter associated urinary tract infection and nursing prevention%留置尿管相关性尿路感染的危险因素分析及护理预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王竹君; 付林; 王玉; 陈汉霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the risk factors of indwelling cathe-ter associated urinary tract infection,so as to improve the clinical medi-cal security.Methods:A total of 255 patients with indwelled urinary and data integrity were included.According to whether catheter relat-ed urinary infection occurred or not,all patients were divided into infec-tion group (73 cases)and not infection group (182 cases).Single fac-tor analysis was used to investigate the differences of risk factors of catheter related urinary infection between both groups,and further Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze independent risk fac-tors of influencing catheter related urinary infection.Results:Univa-riate analysis of two groups of data showed that the age,indwelling uri-nary tube time ≥ 7 d,application of hormone,operation ≥ 2 or more times,bladder irrigation <7 times every week,urethral opening clean-ing<7 times every week in infection group were higher than those in non infection group,all differences were statistically significant (all P <0.05).Multi factor analysis of two groups data showed that in infec-tion groups,the age,indwelling urinary tube time≥7d,operation≥2 or more times and urethral opening cleaning<7 times every week were high-er than those in non infection group,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion:Old age,long indwelling time,the operation of more than 2 times and urethral mouth cleaning <7 times per week are the independent risk factors of catheter related urinary tract infection.%[目的]探讨留置尿管相关性尿路感染的危险因素,以提高临床医疗安全性。[方法]纳入资料完整的留置尿管病人255例,以是否发生导管相关性尿路感染为判断标准分为感染组(73例)和非感染组(182例)。采用单因素分析两组导管相关性尿路感染的危险因素的差异,并进一步通过 Logistic 回归分析影响导管相关性尿路感染发生的独立危险因素。[结果]

  3. Quantitative study of prostate cancer using three dimensional fiber tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgire, Sandeep; Tonyushkin, Alexey; Kilcoyne, Aoife; Efstathiou, Jason A; Hahn, Peter F; Harisinghani, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate feasibility of a quantitative study of prostate cancer using three dimensional (3D) fiber tractography. METHODS: In this institutional review board approved retrospective study, 24 men with biopsy proven prostate cancer underwent prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an endorectal coil on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Single shot echo-planar diffusion weighted images were acquired with b = 0.600 s/mm2, six gradient directions. Open-source available software TrackVis and its Diffusion Toolkit were used to generate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) map and 3D fiber tracts. Multiple 3D spherical regions of interest were drawn over the areas of tumor and healthy prostatic parenchyma to measure tract density, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), which were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: DTI tractography showed rich fiber tract anatomy with tract heterogeneity. Mean tumor region and normal parenchymal tract densities were 2.53 and 3.37 respectively (P < 0.001). In the tumor, mean ADC was 0.0011 × 10-3 mm2/s vs 0.0014 × 10-3 mm2/s in the normal parenchyma (P < 0.001). The FA values for tumor and normal parenchyma were 0.2047 and 0.2259 respectively (P = 0.3819). CONCLUSION: DTI tractography of the prostate is feasible and depicts congregate fibers within the gland. Tract density may offer new biomarker to distinguish tumor from normal tissue. PMID:27158426

  4. Favorable outcome with hemoperfusion of polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column for rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyasu, Hidenori; Horio, Yuko; Tsumura, Shinsuke; Hirosako, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yasumiko; Sakata, Shinya; Nakashima, Kei; Komatsu, Taiyo; Kojima, Keisuke; Masunaga, Aiko; Fujii, Kazuhiko; Saita, Naoki; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu

    2014-03-01

    We present 3 cases of rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia (RPIP) associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (C-ADM) that were treated with two courses of direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX-DHP). Despite initial treatment with high-dose corticosteroids, pulsed cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporine, the lung disease and hypoxemia deteriorated in all the patients. After PMX-DHP treatment, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and serum LDH and KL-6 were improved, the abnormal shadows in chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans gradually decreased, and, finally, all patients survived. These findings indicate that PMX-DHP treatment could be effective in the management of RPIP in patients with C-ADM in combination with conventional therapy. PMID:24593215

  5. 119例导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原体分布及耐药性分析%Analysis on the distribution and the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens from 119 cases of catheter associ-ated urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王效雷; 罗婕; 丁兆霞; 曹地芹; 娄瑞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain the pathogens distribution and drug resistance characteristics of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), so as to provide the evidence of controlling urinary tract infection .Methods 119 cases of CAUTI microbial culture and drug sensitive were collected and analyzed from January 2012 to June 2014.Results Isolated 97 pathogens from 119 urine specimens.Top 6 pathogens were:Escherichia coli (26.80%), Enterococcus faecalis (15.46%), Candida albicans (11.34%), Feces Enterococcus (10.31%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.15%), Coagulase negative staphylococcus (5.15%), and the multi-drug-resistance was found.Some bacterial resistance rate was higher than the results of chinet 2013 surveillance.Conclusion The surveillance of bacterial resistance and the supervision of clinical rational drug use should be enhanced , and the further heavy interven-tions should be necessary to prevent the contact transmission of the multidrug -resistant organisms and CAUTI also .%目的:掌握导尿管相关性尿路感染( catheter associated urinary tract infection ,CAUTI)的病原体分布以及耐药性特征,为控制尿路感染提供依据。方法通过统计2012年1月-2014年6月解放军81医院119例CAUTI尿液微生物培养及药敏结果,分析CAUTI病原体分布及耐药性特征。结果119例CAUTI尿液标本中检出病原菌97株,前6位病原体依次为大肠埃希菌(26.80%)、粪肠球菌(15.46%)、白色念珠菌(11.34%)、屎肠球菌(10.31%)、铜绿假单胞菌(5.15%)和凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(5.15%),并呈现出多耐药性,部分耐药率超过2013年Chinet的相关监测结果。结论应加强CAUTI病原体耐药性监测和临床合理用药监管,重视对多重耐药菌的隔离预防和对CAUTI的预防干预。

  6. Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus...

  7. Group D Salmonella Urinary Tract Infection in an Immunocompetent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old male with past medical history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to the emergency department with complaints of decreased urinary flow, inability to fully empty his bladder, and gross hematuria. Physical examination was unremarkable. Urinalysis revealed large amount of blood and more than 700 white blood cells suggesting a urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew group D Salmonella greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per mL. He was prescribed 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and had resolution of symptoms. Retrospectively, he reported a 3-day history of watery diarrhea about a week prior to onset of urinary symptoms that was presumed to be the hematogenous source in this case. Urinary tract infection from nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, chronic diseases, such as diabetes or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Genitourinary tract abnormalities previously reported in the literature that predispose to nontyphoidal Salmonella urinary tract infection include nephrolithiasis, chronic pyelonephritis, retrovesicular fistula, urethrorectal fistula, hydrocele, and post-TURP. We present an exceedingly uncommon case of 62-year-old male with group D Salmonella urinary tract infection predisposed by his history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  8. 文本挖掘探索泌尿系感染中西医用药规律%Exploring the associated rules of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on urinary tract infection with text mining technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文; 姜洋; 黄蕙莉; 孙玉香

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the associated rules between western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on urinary tract infection (UTI) with text mining technique.Methods The data set on UTI was downloaded from CBM database.The regularities of Chinese patent medicines (CPM),western medicines and the combination of CPM and western medicines on UTI were mined out by data slicing algorithm.The results were showed visually with Cytoscape2.8 software.Results The main function of CPM was focused on clearing heat and removing toxicity,promoting diuresis and relieving stranguria.For western medicine,antibacterial agents was often used and it was also frequently used together with CPM such as Sanjinpian.Conclusions Text mining approach provides an important method in the summary of the application regularity for disease in both TCM and western medicine.%目的 利用文本挖掘技术探索泌尿系感染中西医用药规律.方法 在中国生物医学文献服务系统中收集治疗泌尿系感染文献数据,采用基于敏感关键词频数统计的数据分层算法,挖掘泌尿系感染中成药、西药、中成药与西药联合应用规律,并利用Cytoscape2.8软件进行可视化展示.结果 中成药的应用以清热解毒、利尿通淋为主;西药以抗菌治疗为主;具有清热解毒、利尿通淋之功的中成药常与抗菌药联合应用.结论 文本挖掘能够比较客观地总结疾病用药规律,为临床应用提供有益的探索和参考.

  9. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  10. Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2014-07-08

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

  11. Respiratory tract tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010336 Study on the association between DNA double-strand break repair gene NBS1 polymorphisms and susceptibility on lung cancer. FAN Lihui(樊丽辉),et al. Dept Epidemiol,Public Health Sch,Fujian Med Univ,Fuzhou 350004.Chin J Epidemiol 2010;31(2):213-217.

  12. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    11.1.Kidney function2005391 Increased levels of advanced oxidationproducts are associated with atherosclerosis in chron-ic kidney disease.YANG Xiaobing(杨小兵),et al.Dept Nephrol,Nanfang Hops,1st Milit Med Univ,Guangzhou.Chin J Intern Med 2005;44(5):342-346.Objective:Accumulation of advanced oxidation protein

  13. Potential misinterpretation of the nutritional value of dietary fiber: correcting fiber digestibility values for nondietary gut-interfering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the origin and implications of a nondietary material present in digesta and feces that interferes with the determination of dietary fiber in gastrointestinal contents. Negative values for ileal and fecal digestibility of dietary fiber are commonly reported in the literature for monogastric animal species, including humans. As negative values are not possible physiologically, this suggests the existence of a nondietary material in the gastrointestinal contents and feces that interferes with the accurate determination of dietary fiber digestibility when conventional methods of fiber determination are applied. To date, little attention has been given to this nondietary interfering material, which appears to be influenced by the type and concentration of fiber in the diet. Interestingly, estimates of dietary fiber digestibility increase substantially when corrected for the nondietary interfering material, which suggests that currently reported values underestimate the digestibility of dietary fiber and may misrepresent where, in the digestive tract, fermentation of fiber occurs. A new perspective of dietary fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract is developing, leading to a better understanding of the contribution of dietary fiber to health. PMID:27330145

  14. Targeted monitoring and analysis of catheter associated urinary tract infection in patients with severe brain injury%重症脑损伤患者留置尿管相关尿路感染的目标性监测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹闻亚; 刘芳; 王冉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To monitor the catheter associated urinary tract infection in patients with severe brain injury and analyze the incidence and risk factors of urinary tract infection in hospital, so as to take preventive measures and reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection. Methods Based on the monitoring program of indwelling urinary catheter in patients with severe brain injury and combining the method of microbial monitoring and retrospective study of patients in hospital, a total of 204 catheterized patients with severe brain injury were selected and analyzed the catheter associated urinary tract infection. Results There were 12 patients with urinary tract infections, and a higher incidence of urinary tract infection in elderly, serious condition, long-term bed ridden patients and longer catheter indwelling time with severe brain injury. The incidence of urinary tract infection in patients with more invasive operations was 3. 8‰. Fungus was the most common pathogenic bacteria. Conclusions Following indwelling catheter indications strictly, strengthening the aseptic management of catheter, shortening time of detaining urethral catheterization, and proper using of antibiotics are recommended as effective measures to lower the incidence of catheter associated urinary tract infection in patients with severe brain injury.%目的:通过对重症脑损伤患者留置尿管的目标性监测,总结出院内尿路感染的发生率和危险因素,便于积极采取预防措施,降低尿路感染的发生。方法通过制定出重症脑损伤患者留置尿管的监测方案,采取住院期间对患者的微生物监测和回顾性调查相结合的方法,收集了204例重症脑损伤同时伴有留置导尿管患者,并针对患者留置导尿管情况进行了分析。结果发生尿路感染的病例12例,重症脑损伤患者高龄、病情严重、长期卧床、导尿管留置时间长患者的尿路感染发生率高;有创性操作较多

  15. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  16. Quantification of the fate of dietary fiber in humans by a newly developed radiolabeled fiber marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carryer, P.W.; Brown, M.I.; Malagelada, J.R.; Carlson, G.L.; McCall, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    A radiolabeled cellulose (/sup 131/I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested /sup 131/I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of /sup 131/I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, /sup 99/mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99/mTc-DTPA), showed that /sup 131/I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some /sup 131/I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. /sup 131/I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of /sup 131/I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet.

  17. Quantification of the fate of dietary fiber in humans by a newly developed radiolabeled fiber marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiolabeled cellulose (131I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested 131I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of 131I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA), showed that 131I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some 131I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. 131I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of 131I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet

  18. Signs and symptoms of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The abnormalities of the genitourinary tract development are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD in children. The diagnosis of this disease in Brazil is late and incomplete, which results in increased morbidity and mortality in this age group. Early diagnosis of this condition is the prerogative of generalist pediatricians, and the aim of this study was to review the clinical signs and symptoms associated with developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Data sources: Based on the description of a symbolic clinical case, the authors conducted a non-systematic review of medical literature. Data synthesis: The results suggest that the following data should be used as a warning for early diagnosis of affected children: (a combined urinary tract abnormalities (chromosomal abnormalities; sequence of malformations [VACTERLand Prune-Belly]; and musculoskeletal, digestive tract, heart, and nervous system malformations; (b previous history (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract [CAKUT] in the family, low birth weight, and oligoamnios; (c clinical signs (polyuria/nocturia, urinary tract infection, systemic arterial hypertension, failure to thrive, weak urinary stream, difficulty to start urination, distended bladder, non-monosymptomatic enuresis, urinary/urge incontinence, and bowel and bladder dysfunction; and (d pre- and postnatal ultrasonographic alterations (increased anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis, mainly in the third trimester of pregnancy; single kidney; hydronephrosis associated with other abnormalities; and hydronephrosis with parenchymal involvement in the post-neonatal assessment. Conclusion: The suggestions shown here can help the pediatrician to establish clinical hypotheses for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract without resorting to expensive and invasive procedures.

  19. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:26526626

  20. Comparison of Established Diagnostic Methodologies and a Novel Bacterial smpB Real-Time PCR Assay for Specific Detection of Haemophilus influenzae Isolates Associated with Respiratory Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Reddington, Kate; Schwenk, Stefan; Tuite, Nina; Platt, Gareth; Davar, Danesh; Coughlan, Helena; Personne, Yoann; Gant, Vanya; Enne, Virve I.; Zumla, Alimuddin; Barry, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a significant causative agent of respiratory tract infections (RTI) worldwide. The development of a rapid H. influenzae diagnostic assay that would allow for the implementation of infection control measures and also improve antimicrobial stewardship for patients is required. A number of nucleic acid diagnostics approaches that detect H. influenzae in RTIs have been described in the literature; however, there are reported specificity and sensitivity limitations for th...

  1. Dietary fiber type reflects physiological functionality: comparison of grain fiber, inulin, and polydextrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa; Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber is a nutritional concept based not on physiological functions but on defined chemical and physical properties. Recent definitions of dietary fiber differentiate inherent plant cell wall-associated fiber from isolated or synthetic fiber. For the latter to be defined as fiber, beneficial physiological effects should be demonstrated, such as laxative effects, fermentability, attenuation of blood cholesterol levels, or postprandial glucose response. Grain fibers are a major natural source of dietary fiber worldwide, while inulin, a soluble indigestible fructose polymer isolated from chicory, and polydextrose, a synthetic indigestible glucose polymer, have more simple structures. Inulin and polydextrose show many of the same functionalities of grain fiber in the large intestine, in that they are fermentable, bifidogenic, and laxative. The reported effects on postprandial blood glucose and fasting cholesterol levels have been modest, but grain fibers also show variable effects. New biomarkers are needed to link the physiological functions of specific fibers with long-term health benefits.

  2. Tension characteristics of the iliotibial tract and role of its superficial layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H; Seedhom, B

    1995-04-01

    Change in tension along the iliotibial tract by sectioning its superficial layer was analyzed using 5 fresh whole cadavers, and the role of the superficial layer was investigated. Tibial attachment of the iliotibial tract (Gerdy's tubercle) was detached and pulled gradually in a distal direction with respect to the femur. Tension along the iliotibial tract by the distal movement of Gerdy's tubercle (stretching the iliotibial tract) was measured first when the whole iliotibial tract was intact, and then when the superficial layer was sectioned at different levels. When the superficial layer was sectioned above the greater trochanter, no significant change in tension was observed from that observed when the whole iliotibial tract was intact. When the superficial layer was sectioned at the middle of the thigh, the tension at Gerdy's tubercle was significantly reduced. It was concluded that not only Kaplan's fibers, those attached to the distal end of the femur and Gerdy's tubercle, but also the superficial layer of the iliotibial tract had an important role in producing tension at Gerdy's tubercle.

  3. Mechanisms for Effect of Wendan Decoction on Tumor-Associated Gastrointestinal Tract Reaction%温胆汤治疗肿瘤相关胃肠道反应的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金峰; 袁芳; 程志成; 李茜琼; 何春生; 石晋

    2014-01-01

    cells,the contents of serotonin in small intestine were,respectively,(1 .5 7 ± 0.09)and (1.54±0.11)μg·g-1 in normal mice,(2.93±0.17)and (3.99±0.32)μg·g-1 in tumor-bearing group,and(2.03±0.17)and (3.05±0.17)μg·g-1 in Wendan decoction treat-ment group.The differences in serotonin content were significant among the three groups (P<0.01).Compared normal controls,the number of enterochromaffin cells significantly increased in tumor-bearing group at 7 and 14 days after inoculation of tumor cells(P<0.01).However,Wen-dan decoction treatment significantly decreased the number of enterochromaffin cells compared with tumor-bearing group (P<0.01 ).Moreover,Wendan decoction treatment significantly de-creased the food intake compared with tumor-bearing group at 14 days after inoculation of tumor cells(P<0.01).Conclusion Wendan decoction treatment can alleviate tumor-associated gastroin-testinal tract reaction through reducing the number of enterochromaffin cells and the content of serotonin.

  4. Imaging of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes pictures of the body’s internal organs and soft tissues without using x rays. MRI machines use radio waves and magnets to ... Urinary tract imaging techniques include conventional radiology, or x rays; ... tomography (CT) scans; and radionuclide scans. Preparations for an ...

  5. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a diary of your diet and gas symptoms. ​​​​ ​Treatment for Gas in the Digestive Tract To reduce or prevent gas and gas symptoms, your doctor may suggest that you reduce swallowed air, quit smoking, make changes to your diet, or take medicines. ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's ... near your body, especially when it's hot outside. Bacteria love to grow in warm, moist places. Gross! Reviewed by: T. Ernesto Figueroa, ... Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  7. A chromatin insulator driving three-dimensional Polycomb response element (PRE) contacts and Polycomb association with the chromatin fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comet, Itys; Schuettengruber, Bernd; Sexton, Tom;

    2011-01-01

    to insulate genes from regulatory elements or to take part in long-distance interactions. Using a high-resolution chromatin conformation capture (H3C) method, we show that the Drosophila gypsy insulator behaves as a conformational chromatin border that is able to prohibit contacts between a Polycomb response...... element (PRE) and a distal promoter. On the other hand, two spaced gypsy elements form a chromatin loop that is able to bring an upstream PRE in contact with a downstream gene to mediate its repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) profiles of the Polycomb protein and its associated H3K27me3...

  8. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  9. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  10. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (P<0.05), without affecting neither the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids nor the relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The association of crude glycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality. PMID:26857157

  11. Research Concerning the Correlations Between Urinary Tract Infections and Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System

    OpenAIRE

    Moréh Zsuzsanna; Voicu Lucia Sanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital malformations of the urinary system are risk factors for the development of urinary tract infections (UTI). Besides the severity of the malformation, urinary infection is always associated with poor prognosis for these patients. Late discovery of the malformation background, after several urinary tract infection episodes, contributes to the development of chronic pyelonephritis that may lead to chronic renal failure.

  12. Research Concerning the Correlations Between Urinary Tract Infections and Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moréh Zsuzsanna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the urinary system are risk factors for the development of urinary tract infections (UTI. Besides the severity of the malformation, urinary infection is always associated with poor prognosis for these patients. Late discovery of the malformation background, after several urinary tract infection episodes, contributes to the development of chronic pyelonephritis that may lead to chronic renal failure.

  13. Chiricahua National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Piscataway Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Pipestone National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Hovenweep National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Pinnacles National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Petersburg National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Fort Donelson National Battlefield Tract & Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Sequoia National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Canyonlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Saguaro National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Theodore Roosevelt Island Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Cowpens National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Boundaries, Tracts (Published 2006), Petrified Forest, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ESRI shapefile of National Park Service tract data. Tracts are numbered and created by the regional cartographic staff at the Land Resources Program...

  6. Coronado National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Chamizal National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Badlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Mojave National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Antietam National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Noatak National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Vietnam Vetrans Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Alagnak Wild River Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Colorado National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Buffalo National River Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Zion National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Catoctin Mountain Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Haleakala National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Navajo National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Wupatki National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. The Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyburz, Andreas; Müller, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is required for optimal digestion of foods, for the development of resistance against pathogens (termed colonization resistance), for the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and for local as well as systemic immune homeostasis. Certain constituents of the GI tract microbiota are widely recognized as critical regulators and modulators of their host's immune response. These include bacterial members of the microbiota as well as parasitic nematodes. Immune regulation by immunomodulatory members of the GI microbiota primarily serves to subvert host antimicrobial immune defenses and promote persistent colonization, but as a side effect may prevent or suppress immunological disorders resulting from inappropriate responses to harmless antigens, such as allergy, colitis or autoimmunity. Many of the best understood GI-resident immunomodulatory species have co-evolved with their mammalian hosts for tens of thousands of years and masterfully manipulate host immune responses. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological evidence for the role of the GI tract microbiota as a whole, and of specific members, in protection against allergic and other immunological disorders. We then focus on the mechanistic basis of microbial immunomodulation, which is presented using several well-understood paradigmatic examples, that is, helminths, Helicobacter pylori, Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. In a final chapter, we highlight past and ongoing attempts at harnessing the immunomodulatory properties of GI microbiota species and their secreted products for intervention studies and describe the promises and limitations of these experimental approaches. The effects of pro- and prebiotics, bacterial lysates, as well as of fecal microbiota transplantation are presented and compared. PMID:27028536

  2. 导管相关尿道感染的病原学及耐药性分析%Pathogenesis and drug resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雁; 夏邦世; 林奇龙

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析导管相关尿道感染(CAUTI)的病原菌分布及对抗菌药物的耐药情况,为临床诊断和治疗提供依据.方法 收集2009年1月至2011年12月留置导管患者尿标本分离出的414株病原菌,采用美国PHOENIX 100细菌鉴定及药敏系统进行鉴定及药敏试验.结果 导管相关尿道感染的主要致病菌依次是大肠埃希菌(22.7%)、肠球菌(21.7%)、白假丝酵母菌(7.7%)和肺炎克雷伯菌(7.0%).药敏结果显示肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌及肠球菌对常用抗菌药物有较高耐药性;肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌超广谱β-内酰胺酶阳性率为51.7%、65.9%,高浓度庆大霉素耐药肠球菌为64.4%.结论 CAUTI病原菌以大肠埃希菌和肠球菌属为主,且呈多重耐药现象,开展耐药性监测对临床合理用药具有重要意义.%Objective To analyze the distribution and resistance to antibiotics of the pathogens in catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and provide doctors with the laboratory evidence of CAUTI diagnosis. Methods 414 strains of pathogens from patients with indwelling catheter were collected from January 2009 to December 2011. The pathogens were identified and tested for drug sensitivity by American PHOENIX 100 Analys's systems for bacteria identification and drug sensitivity. Results The top four CAUTI pathogens were Escherichia coli (22. 7%), Enterococcus (21. 7%), Candida albicans (7. 7%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7. 0%). Klebsiel-la pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were highly resistant to common antimicrobials and demonstrated multi-drug resistance. The positive rates of ESBLs-producers in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were 51. 7% and 65. 9%, and that of HLGR in Enterococcus was 64. 4%. Conclusion Escherichia coli and Enterococcus are predominant in CAUTI patients, and often demonstrate multi-drug resistance. The surveillance of bacterial resistance have great significance to the

  3. MASP2在小儿上呼吸道感染中的意义%Plasma levels of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 in children with upper respiratory tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊思敏; 赵娜; 裘宇容; 张丽芸; 左大明; 陈政良

    2015-01-01

    Absteact:Objective To explore the significance of plasma levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease 2 (MASP2) in children with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Methods A total of 103 children with URTI and 35 healthy children were examined for plasma levels of MASP2 and C-reactive protein (CRP). According to CRP levels, white blood cell count (WBC), stage of infection, and administration of treatments, the children with URTI were divided into the elevated CRP group (n=48) and the normal CRP group (n=54), elevated WBC group (n=61) and normal WBC group (n=40), the early stage of infection without treatment group (n=68) and mid-late stage of infection with treatment group (n=35). Results Plasma MASP2 levels was significantly higher in URTI group than in the healthy control group (P0.05), correlated with WBC in elevated WBC group (r=0.392, P0.05), and was significantly higher in early stage infection without treatment group than in mid-late stage of infection with treatment group (P<0.01). MASP2, MBL2 and CRP genes had a common binding site for the transcription factor HNF-4α. Conclusion MASP2 may be an acute-phase protein, and its plasma level might serve as a new reference index in the diagnosis of URTI in children.%目的:探讨血浆甘露聚糖结合凝集素(MBL)相关丝氨酸蛋白酶2(MASP2)水平在儿童上呼吸道感染(上感)中的意义。方法取103例上感患儿和35例健康体检儿童作为研究对象,测定其血浆MASP2和C反应蛋白(CRP)浓度并进行白细胞计数(WBC)。根据CRP和WBC值、感染不同时期及有无治疗,上感儿童分为CRP升高组(n=48)与正常组(n=54)、WBC升高组(n=61)与正常组(n=40)、感染早期未用药组(n=68)与感染中后期已用药组(n=35),对各组资料进行统计学分析。结果上感组MASP2浓度显著高于对照组(P<0.001),CRP升高组血浆MASP2浓度与CRP值正相关(r=0.310,P<0.05

  4. Giant blood cyst tumor in the left ventricular outflow tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chong; HU Jian; NI Yi-ming; JIANG Zhi-nong; XU He-yun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Blood cyst is a rare primary cardiac tumor usually affecting the cardiac valves. Associated with severe occlusion-related complications, it is generally removed surgically. With a brief review of the literature, we present a case of pedunculated tumor in the left ventricular outflow tract identified by echocardiography.

  5. [How Does Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Affekt Female Sexuality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anding, R; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Rantell, A; Wiedemann, A

    2016-08-01

    With increasing age many women suffer from lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and female sexual dysfunction. An increasing body of evidence supports an association between the 2 conditions. Especially women with urodynamically proved detrusor hyperactivity suffer from sexual dysfunction and there is some evidence that in patients with stress incontinence sexual health improves after successful surgery. PMID:27328304

  6. Self Similar Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zheng-Xuan

    This research proposes Self Similar optical fiber (SSF) as a new type of optical fiber. It has a special core that consists of self similar structure. Such a structure is obtained by following the formula for generating iterated function systems (IFS) in Fractal Theory. The resulted SSF can be viewed as a true fractal object in optical fibers. In addition, the method of fabricating SSF makes it possible to generate desired structures exponentially in numbers, whereas it also allows lower scale units in the structure to be reduced in size exponentially. The invention of SSF is expected to greatly ease the production of optical fiber when a large number of small hollow structures are needed in the core of the optical fiber. This dissertation will analyze the core structure of SSF based on fractal theory. Possible properties from the structural characteristics and the corresponding applications are explained. Four SSF samples were obtained through actual fabrication in a laboratory environment. Different from traditional conductive heating fabrication system, I used an in-house designed furnace that incorporated a radiation heating method, and was equipped with automated temperature control system. The obtained samples were examined through spectrum tests. Results from the tests showed that SSF does have the optical property of delivering light in a certain wavelength range. However, SSF as a new type of optical fiber requires a systematic research to find out the theory that explains its structure and the associated optical properties. The fabrication and quality of SSF also needs to be improved for product deployment. As a start of this extensive research, this dissertation work opens the door to a very promising new area in optical fiber research.

  7. Elevated tumor markers in coccidiomyocosis of the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Y

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The female genital tract is rarely involved by coccidioidomycosis. We describe a woman with disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving the female pelvic organs associated with elevated tumor markers CA 125 and CA 19-9. She had no fevers and the initial clinical suspicion was a malignancy because of the elevated tumor markers. At exploratory laparotomy a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed because of the suspicion of a malignancy. Subsequent pathology demonstrated coccidioidomycosis involving the female genital tract and no malignancy. The abnormal CA 125 and CA 19-9 returned to normal after surgical resection and treatment of the coccidioidomycosis.

  8. Fiber and colorectal diseases: Separating fact from fiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Yang Tan; Francis Seow-Choen

    2007-01-01

    Whilst fruits and vegetables are an essential part of our dietary intake, the role of fiber in the prevention of colorectal diseases remains controversial. The main feature of a high-fiber diet is its poor digestibility. Soluble fiber like pectins, guar and ispaghula produce viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal tract delaying small bowel absorption and transit. Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, pass largely unaltered through the gut. The more fiber is ingested, the more stools will have to be passed.Fermentation in the intestines results in build up of large amounts of gases in the colon. This article reviews the physiology of ingestion of fiber and defecation. It also looks into the impact of dietary fiber on various colorectal diseases. A strong case cannot be made for a protective effect of dietary fiber against colorectal polyp or cancer. Neither has fiber been found to be useful in chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also not useful in the treatment of perianal conditions.The fiber deficit - diverticulosis theory should also be challenged. The authors urge clinicians to keep an open mind about fiber. One must be aware of the truths and myths about fiber before recommending it.

  9. Clinical study of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in elderly patients during perioperative period of endovascular interventional surgery%老年患者腔内介入治疗围术期留置尿管泌尿道感染的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苏健; 银彩霞; 丁明超; 王意忠; 王斌; 王鸿

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the risk factors for catheter‐associated urinary tract infections in elderly patients of vascular surgery department during perioperative period of endovascular interventional surgery and put forward the prevention measures so as to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections .METHODS A total of 98 elderly patients who underwent the endovascular interventional surgery in the vascular surgery department from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012 were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into the 24‐hour group with 32 cases ,48‐hour group with 33 cases ,and the 72‐hour group with 33 cases ;the risk factors for the catheter‐associated urinary tract infections were statistically analyzed .RESULTS The urinary tract infections occurred in 1 case in the 24‐hour group ,with the infection rate of 3 .1% ;the urinary tract infections occurred in 3 cases in the 48‐hour group ,with the infection rate of 9 .1% ;the urinary tract infections occurred in 5 cases in the no less than 72‐hour group ,with the infection rate of 15 .2% ,there was significant difference among the three groups (P<0 .05) .The Escherichia coli ,Enterococcus f aecalis ,and fungi were the most common pathogens .CONCLUSION It is an effective way to shorten the urinary catheter indwelling time so as to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections in the elderly patients during the perioperative period .%目的:探讨血管外科老年患者腔内介入治疗围术期留置尿管导致泌尿道感染的危险因素并提出预防措施,以降低泌尿道感染发生率。方法对2010年1月-2013年12月血管外科行腔内介入治疗98例老年患者随机分为24、48、72 h组,分别为32、33、33例,对留置尿管致泌尿道感染的危险因素进行统计分析。结果术后24 h组有1例发生泌尿道感染,感染率为3.1%,术后48h组有3例发生泌尿道感染,感染率为9.1%,术后≥72h组有5例发生,感染率为15.2

  10. Characteristics of the Pathogens Causing Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection in Critically Ill Patients%危重患者导管相关性尿路感染病原菌特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何超; 刘钰琪; 李纪文; 戴仲秋; 朱丽娜; 谢轶; 陈知行; 康梅

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解危重患者导管相关性尿路感染(catheter-associated urinary tract infection,CAUTI)的病原菌菌种分布及耐药表型,为其临床治疗和院感控制提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2012年1月至2014年12月在我院重症监护病房发生CAUTI的患者临床资料和实验室检查结果.对CAUTI患者尿标本分离的病原菌及其耐药表型进行统计分析.结果 共纳入CAUTI患者370例,从其尿标本共分离出病原菌517株,其中:真菌222株,占42.9%;革兰阴性菌181株,占35.0%;革兰阳性菌114株,占22.0%.从菌种分布看,真菌主要有白色念珠菌(105株,20.3%)、热带念珠菌(78株,15.1%)和光滑念珠菌(30株,5.8%);革兰阴性菌主要有大肠埃希菌(81株,15.7%)、肺炎克雷伯菌(37株,7.2%)和鲍曼/醋酸钙不动杆菌复合体(23株,4.4%);革兰阳性菌主要有屎肠球菌(79株,15.3%)和粪肠球菌(13株,2.5%).耐药表型分析结果显示:念珠菌对伊曲康唑、伏立康唑和氟康唑的耐药率均在10.0%以上;大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌对大多数常规药物耐药率均大于30%;鲍曼/醋酸钙不动杆菌复合体对大多数常规药物耐药率均大于60%,对亚胺培南耐药率为60.8%;屎肠球菌和粪肠球菌对大多数常规药物耐药率均大于60%,对万古霉素耐药率分别为16.5%和31.0%.结论 引起我院危重患者CAUTI的主要病原菌是念珠菌,并对唑类药物表现出一定耐药性;革兰阴性菌和革兰阳性菌的耐药性值得关注.应合理使用抗生素,并采取有效措施,减少CAUTI的发生.%Objective To investigate the species and resistance phenotypes of the pathogens causing catheterassociated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in critically ill patients in West China Hospital of Sichuan University,and to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of this kind of infection.Methods The clinical data and findings of the laboratory examination of the patients,who were

  11. Fiber Selection from Diffusion Tensor Data based on Boolean Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Merhof, Dorit; Greiner, Günther; Buchfelder, Michael; Nimsky, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows investigating white matter structures in vivo which is of particular interest for neurosurgery. A promising approach for the reconstruction of neural pathways are streamline techniques, which are commonly referred to as fiber tracking. However, the resulting visualization of fibers within the whole brain may be complex and difficult to interpret. For this reason, a novel strategy for selecting specific tract systems based on user-defined regions of intere...

  12. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  13. Musculature of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, J E

    2000-04-01

    Leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas are derived from smooth muscle tissues. Smooth muscle cells also surround the blood vessels that supply the alimentary tract. These cells have at times been said to contribute to the formation of smooth muscle tumors in the alimentary canal. With such an abundance of smooth muscle, there is little reason at present to implicate the smooth muscle elements of blood vessel walls.

  14. Diet and biliary tract cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman CJ; Bueno de Mesquita HB; Runia S; Smeets FWM

    1991-01-01

    We studied the relation between diet and biliary tract cancer in a case-control study, comprising 111 incident cases and 480 controls from the general population. Food intake was assessed with a semi- quantitative food frequency questionnaire, which covered diet comprehensively. In half of the cases and 30% of the controls the information was obtained from the spouse or other relatives (indirect respondents). Mono- and disaccharides showed an elevated risk, independent from other sources of e...

  15. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy. PMID:25713505

  16. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  17. Intravenous inoculation of a bat-associated rabies virus causes lethal encephalopathy in mice through invasion of the brain via neurosecretory hypothalamic fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam A R Preuss

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rabies virus (RV infections are caused by bites or scratches from rabid carnivores or bats. Usually, RV utilizes the retrograde transport within the neuronal network to spread from the infection site to the central nervous system (CNS where it replicates in neuronal somata and infects other neurons via trans-synaptic spread. We speculate that in addition to the neuronal transport of the virus, hematogenous spread from the site of infection directly to the brain after accidental spill over into the vascular system might represent an alternative way for RV to invade the CNS. So far, it is unknown whether hematogenous spread has any relevance in RV pathogenesis. To determine whether certain RV variants might have the capacity to invade the CNS from the periphery via hematogenous spread, we infected mice either intramuscularly (i.m. or intravenously (i.v. with the dog-associated RV DOG4 or the silver-haired bat-associated RV SB. In addition to monitoring the progression of clinical signs of rabies we used immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR to follow the spread of the virus from the infection site to the brain. In contrast to i.m. infection where both variants caused a lethal encephalopathy, only i.v. infection with SB resulted in the development of a lethal infection. While qRT-PCR did not reveal major differences in virus loads in spinal cord or brain at different times after i.m. or i.v. infection of SB, immunohistochemical analysis showed that only i.v. administered SB directly infected the forebrain. The earliest affected regions were those hypothalamic nuclei, which are connected by neurosecretory fibers to the circumventricular organs neurohypophysis and median eminence. Our data suggest that hematogenous spread of SB can lead to a fatal encephalopathy through direct retrograde invasion of the CNS at the neurovascular interface of the hypothalamus-hypophysis system

  18. Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley, Amy R.; Julie Miller Jones; Judith Rodriguez; Joanne Slavin; Zelman, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attemp...

  19. Systematic review of the epidemiology literature on formaldehyde and cancers of the upper respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: EPA is currently drafting a Toxicological Review of formaldehyde. As part of the comprehensive evaluation of potential hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde, the potential hazards for cancers of the upper respiratory tract are being evaluated. We are aware ...

  20. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Defa; Liu, Ling; Zang, Jianjun; Duan, Qiwu; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0...

  1. Intramedullary projections of the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract in the rat : Gustatory influences on autonomic output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, C; Jansen, K

    1999-01-01

    The efferent connections of the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the rat were studied by anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. Rostral to the injection site, fibers travel through the rostral parvocellular reticular formation and deflect medially or laterally aro

  2. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  3. Morphohistology of the Digestive Tract of the Damsel Fish Stegastes fuscus (Osteichthyes: Pomacentridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara Canan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the morphohistology of the digestive tract and the mean intestinal coefficient of the damsel fish Stegastes fuscus captured from the tidal pools of Northeastern Brazil. The wall of the digestive tract of S. fuscus is composed of the tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The esophagus is short with sphincter and thick distensible wall with longitudinally folded mucosa. Mucous glands are predominant, and the muscular layer of the esophagus presented striated fibers all along its extension. The transition region close to the stomach shows plain and striated muscular fibers. Between the stomach and intestine, there are three pyloric caeca. The intestine is long and thin with four folds around the stomach. The anterior intestine presents folds similar to those of pyloric caeca. The estimated mean intestinal coefficient and characteristics of the digestive system of S. fuscus present morphological adequacy for both herbivorous and omnivorous feeding habits.

  4. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals. PMID:27573953

  5. Tract-specific white matter microstructure and gait in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Vincentius J A; de Groot, Marius; Cremers, Lotte G M; van der Geest, Jos N; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Vernooij, Meike W; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-07-01

    Gait is a complex sequence of movements, requiring cooperation of many brain areas, such as the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, and cerebellum. However, it is unclear which connecting white matter tracts are essential for communication across brain areas to facilitate proper gait. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated associations of microstructural organization in 14 brain white matter tracts with gait, among 2330 dementia- and stroke-free community-dwelling individuals. Gait was assessed by electronic walkway and summarized into Global Gait, and 7 gait domains. Higher white matter microstructure associated with higher Global Gait, Phases, Variability, Pace, and Turning. Microstructure in thalamic radiations, followed by association tracts and the forceps major, associated most strongly with gait. Hence, in community-dwelling individuals, higher white matter microstructure associated with better gait, including larger strides, more single support, less stride-to-stride variability, and less turning steps. Our findings suggest that intact thalamocortical communication, cortex-to-cortex communication, and interhemispheric visuospatial integration are most essential in human gait. PMID:27255826

  6. Metagenomics of the human intestinal tract: from who is there to what is done there

    OpenAIRE

    Lapaque, Nicolas; Doré, Joël; Blottière, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The human gastro-intestinal tract is colonized by 10(6)-10(14) microorganisms from the three domains, eukaria, archaea and bacteria that are collectively referred as the human gut microbiota. Gut microbiota actively contributes to the digestion of the nutrients, mainly the fibers otherwise undigested by the host, and participate to the host capacity of energy recovery from food. It plays also a key role in gut homeostasis, impacting on its barrier function and regulating the immune and metabo...

  7. Clinical Significance of Cerebrovascular Biomarkers and White Matter Tract Integrity in Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ming-Kung; Lu, Yan-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Sz-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cerebrovascular risk factors and white matter (WM) damage lead to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer dementia (AD). This study investigated WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild to moderate AD and investigated specific fiber tract involvement with respect to predefined cerebrovascular risk factors and neurobehavioral data prediction cross-sectionally and after 18 months. To identify the primary pathoanatomic relationships of risk biomarkers to f...

  8. Neoplasias do trato alimentar superior de bovinos associadas ao consumo espontâneo de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum Neoplasms of the upper digestive tract of cattle associated with spontaneous ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marione A. Moreira Souto

    2006-06-01

    /orofaringe, epiglote, média (terços cranial, médio e caudal do esôfago e caudal (entrada do rúmen e rúmen do TAS, observou-se que a localização era cranial em 39% dos casos, média em 16%, e caudal em 45%. Utilizando-se esse mesmo critério de agrupamento, porém considerando o número total de vezes em que CCEs (de tamanhos variados foram diagnosticados nas regiões cranial, média e caudal, os números alteraram-se para 34, 26 e 40%, respectivamente. As evidências epidemiológicas e histomorfológicas relatadas neste estudo reforçam as observações de uma estreita correlação entre a infecção pelo papiloma-vírus bovino tipo 4, causador da papilomatose digestiva, e a co-carcinogênese química dos princípios tóxicos da samambaia na patogênese dos CCEs do TAS de bovinos. Entretanto, a presença de alterações pré-neoplásicas (áreas de displasia, áreas de CCE in situ ou CCEs em estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento, independentemente da presença de papilomas no local, mostram claramente ser possível o desenvolvimento de CCEs diretamente do epitélio normal, possivelmente por uma ação direta dos carcinó-genos químicos da samambaia.Thirty bovine with neoplasms of the upper digestive tract (UDT associated with spontaneous ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum were studied. They were from 27 farms, located in the municipalities of Jaguari (23 and Nova Esperança do Sul (4, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The total cattle population in those farms was 1,090 and large amounts of bracken fern were found in the pastures. Twenty-six of the affected cattle were cows and four were castrated males, 3-13 years of age; most of them were 7-8 years old (46,6%. Clinical signs observed in the affected animals were progressive weight loss, absence of ruminal movements, cough, dysphagia, regurgitation, halitosis, diarrhea, and bloat. Less frequent signs were selective appetite, dyspnea, and salivation. Two bovine died and 28 were submitted to euthanasia in advanced stage

  9. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  10. Candida albicans colonization and dissemination from the murine gastrointestinal tract: the influence of morphology and Th17 immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Vautier, Simon; Drummond, Rebecca A.; Chen, Kong; Murray, Graeme I.; Kadosh, David; Alistair J P Brown; Gow, Neil A R; MacCallum, Donna M.; Jay K Kolls; Brown, Gordon D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of C andida albicans to cause disease is associated with its capacity to undergo morphological transition between yeast and filamentous forms, but the role of morphology in colonization and dissemination from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains poorly defined. To explore this, we made use of wild-type and morphological mutants of C . albicans in an established model of GI tract colonization, induced following antibiotic treatment of mice. Our data reveal that GI tract coloniza...

  11. Managing lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kenneth R; Aning, Jonathan J

    2016-04-01

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common and increase in prevalence with age. Up to 90% of men aged 50 to 80 may suffer from troublesome LUTS. Men may attend expressing direct concern about micturition, describing one or more LUTS and the related impact on their quality of life. Frequently men may present for other medical or urological reasons such as concern regarding their risk of having prostate cancer or erectile dysfunction but on taking a history bothersome LUTS are identified. Men may present late in the community with urinary retention: the inability to pass urine. A thorough urological history is essential to inform management. It is important to determine whether men have storage or voiding LUTS or both. All patients must have a systematic comprehensive examination including genitalia and a digital rectal examination. Investigations performed in primary care should be guided by the history and examination findings, taking into account the impact of the LUTS on the individual's quality of life. Current NICE guidelines recommend the following to be performed at initial assessment: frequency volume chart (FVC); urine dipstick to detect blood, glucose, protein, leucocytes and nitrites; and prostate specific antigen. Men should be referred for urological review if they have: bothersome LUTS which have not responded to conservative management or medical therapy; LUTS in association with recurrent or persistent UTIs; urinary retention; renal impairment suspected to be secondary to lower urinary tract dysfunction; or suspected urological malignancy. All patients not meeting criteria for immediate referral to urology can be managed initially in primary care. Based on history, examination and investigation findings an individualised management plan should be formulated. Basic lifestyle advice should be given regarding reduction or avoidance of caffeinated products and alcohol. The FVC should guide advice regarding fluid intake management and all

  12. Potential combination of target therapy and radiation therapy in gastro intestinal (G.I.) tract cancers; Place potentielle des therapies ciblees en association avec la radiotherapie dans les cancers digestifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingon, P.; Crehange, G.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2008-01-15

    At cellular level, marking pathway activated by E.r.b.B. receptors participate to the proliferation, migration and differentiation of many cellular types. Observed alterations are mutations, over expressions with or without gene amplification or abnormal stimulation by their ligands. The most frequently observed mutation is an extracellular deletion aiming to activate tyrosine kinase activity without ligand. Strategies to target the E.G.F.r. receptor include antisense oligonucleotides, antibodies directed to extracellular component of tyrosine kinase receptor. Only monoclonal antibodies and T.K.I. have been developed in clinical research, mainly for oesophageal and rectal carcinomas. Solid tumor proliferation is under control of tumoral mechanisms and the interaction between tumor and microenvironment. In particular, angio genesis is important during invasive and metastasis phases. The major role of Vascular endothelial Growth Factor (V.E.G.F.) in angio genesis is useful for tumor growth, which has been demonstrated by many convergent studies. Radiosensitization or reversion of radioresistance could be obtained by inhibition of V.E.G.F. pathway. Antibodies directed against this molecule have been introduced in G.I. tract malignancies for the treatment of pancreatic and colic carcinomas. (authors)

  13. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake, ...

  14. Incense use and respiratory tract carcinomas: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, J.M.; Wang, R.; Koh, W.P.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incense use is an integral part of daily life in large parts of Asia. The burning of incense is a powerful producer of particulate matter and the smoke contains a multitude of well-characterized carcinogens. However, to the authors' knowledge, no convincing association has been reported...... between exposure to incense smoke and the development of cancer. Therefore, the relation between incense use and the risk of respiratory tract carcinomas was analyzed in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1998, a population-based cohort of 61,320 Singapore Chinese who were free...... with incense use was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A total of 325 upper respiratory tract (UPT) carcinomas and 821 lung carcinomas were observed during follow-up. Incense use was associated with a significantly increased risk of UPT carcinomas other than nasopharyngeal, whereas...

  15. Hollow fiber adsorbents for CO2 capture: Kinetic sorption performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2011-07-01

    We describe a CO 2 capture platform based on hollow polymeric fibers with sorbent particles embedded in the porous fiber wall for post-combustion CO 2 capture. These fibers are intended for use in a rapid temperature swing adsorption (RTSA) process. The RTSA system utilizes the hollow fiber morphology by flowing cooling water on the bore-side of the fibers during sorption to prevent temperature rise associated with the sorption enthalpy. Steam or hot water is flowed through the bores during desorption to desorb CO 2 rapidly. To minimize material transfer between the bore and the fiber wall, a dense Neoprene ® lumen layer is cast on the bore-side of the fiber wall. In this paper, the key sorption step and associated kinetic resistances for the uncooled fibers are examined and evaluated for this portion of the RTSA process. Chopped fibers in a packed bed, as well as fibers assembled into a parallel flow module, have been tested in a simulated flue gas stream. Kinetic limitations in the hollow fiber modules are largely overcome by increasing the superficial gas velocity and the fiber packing in the module-indicating that film diffusion is the controlling mass transfer limitation in the fiber system. The un-cooled fiber modules lose apparent capacity as superficial velocities are increased, likely indicating non-isothermal operation, whereas the actively-cooled fibers in the packed bed maintain apparent capacity at all flowrates studied. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Respiratory tract mortality in cement workers: a proportionate mortality study

    OpenAIRE

    Rachiotis George; Drivas Spyros; Kostikas Konstantinos; Makropoulos Vasilios; Hadjichristodoulou Christos

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The evidence regarding the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to cement is controversial. This study investigated causes of deaths from cancer of respiratory tract among cement workers. Methods The deaths of the Greek Cement Workers Compensation Scheme were analyzed covering the period 1969-1998. All respiratory, lung, laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer proportionate mortality were calculated for cement production, maintenance, and office workers i...

  17. Brain gliomas Biological characteristics and correlation with the status of adjacent corticospinal tracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoshi Niu; Xiaorui Fei; Changxin Wang; Jiaming Mei; Ying Liu; Min Ding

    2010-01-01

    Malignant behaviors of brain gliomas include proliferation and infiltration.It remains unclear which behavior influences the status of adjacent corticospinal tracts.Diffusion tensor imaging can show the status of brain white matter fiber tracts.Ki-67 and CD44/matrix metalloproteinase 9 are sensitive markers for reflecting the proliferation and infiltration of tumor cells.The present study analyzed pre-operative diffusion tensor images of 24 patients with pathologically confirmed World Health Organization glioma(Ⅰ-Ⅳ).We observed lapse,infiltration and destruction of the peri-tumor corticospinal tract following reconstruction,and simultaneously detected the expression of Ki-67,CD44/matrix metalloproteinase 9 in samples.Expression of CD44 and matrix metalloproteinase 9was not significantly correlated to the status of the peri-tumor corticospinal tract(r = 1.597,4.859;P = 0.450,0.088),while Ki-67 expression significantly correlated to its status(r= 6.590,P = 0.037).These findings demonstrate that highly proliferative gliomas result in damage to the peripheral corticospinal tract.

  18. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders. In kids, the more common problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal shape or position. One common congenital abnormality (an abnormality that exists at birth) is ...

  19. Renal tract malformations: perspectives for nephrologists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerecuk, L.; Schreuder, M.F.; Woolf, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Renal tract malformations are congenital anomalies of the kidneys and/or lower urinary tract. One challenging feature of these conditions is that they can present not only prenatally but also in childhood or adulthood. The most severe types of malformations, such as bilateral renal agenesis or dyspl

  20. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging detects Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract early after cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiman Xie; Min Fang; Linjiang Zhou; Shanghua Fan; Jianying Liu; Hongbo Quan; Man Luo; Dongying Qiu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and time window of early detection of Wallerian degeneration in the corticospinal tract after middle cerebral artery infarction, 23 patients were assessed using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging at 3.0T within 14 days after the infarction. The fractional anisotropy values of the affected corticospinal tract began to decrease at 3 days after onset and decreased in all cases at 7 days. The diffusion coefficient remained unchanged. Experimental findings indicate that diffusion tensor imaging can detect the changes associated with Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract as early as 3 days after cerebral infarction.

  2. [Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. A vision for the paediatrician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios Loro, M L; Segura Ramírez, D K; Ordoñez Álvarez, F A; Santos Rodríguez, F

    2015-12-01

    The congenital abnormalities of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are disorders with a high prevalence in the general population, with urinary tract dilations being the most frequent. CAKUT also account for the most important cause of chronic kidney disease in childhood. This paper focuses on the role of the primary care paediatrician in the diagnosis, assessment, and follow-up of children with CAKUT, with special emphasis on the associated urinary tract infections, the progression toward chronic renal failure, and the genetic basis. PMID:26497631

  3. Biofilm formation by asymptomatic and virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ferrieres, Lionel; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic urinary tract infection, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we...... have investigated the biofilm-forming capacity on abiotic surfaces of groups of ABU strains and UPEC strains in human urine. We found that there is a strong bias; ABU strains were significantly better biofilm formers than UPEC strains. Our data suggest that biofilm formation in urinary tract infectious...

  4. Enhanced white matter tracts integrity in children with abacus training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuzheng; Geng, Fengji; Tao, Lixia; Hu, Nantu; Du, Fenglei; Fu, Kuang; Chen, Feiyan

    2011-01-01

    Experts of abacus, who have the skills of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), are able to manipulate numbers via an imagined abacus in mind and demonstrate extraordinary ability in mental calculation. Behavioral studies indicated that abacus experts utilize visual strategy in solving numerical problems, and fMRI studies confirmed the enhanced involvement of visuospatial-related neural resources in AMC. This study aims to explore the possible changes in brain white matter induced by long-term training of AMC. Two matched groups participated: the abacus group consisting of 25 children with over 3-year training in abacus calculation and AMC, the controls including 25 children without any abacus experience. We found that the abacus group showed higher average fractional anisotropy (FA) in whole-brain fiber tracts, and the regions with increased FA were found in corpus callosum, left occipitotemporal junction and right premotor projection. No regions, however, showed decreased FA in the abacus group. Further analysis revealed that the differences in FA values were mainly driven by the alternation of radial rather than axial diffusivities. Furthermore, in forward digit and letter memory span tests, AMC group showed larger digit/letter memory spans. Interestingly, individual differences in white matter tracts were found positively correlated with the memory spans, indicating that the widespread increase of FA in the abacus group result possibly from the AMC training. In conclusion, our findings suggested that long-term AMC training from an early age may improve the memory capacity and enhance the integrity in white matter tracts related to motor and visuospatial processes.

  5. Enhanced white matter tracts integrity in children with abacus training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuzheng; Geng, Fengji; Tao, Lixia; Hu, Nantu; Du, Fenglei; Fu, Kuang; Chen, Feiyan

    2011-01-01

    Experts of abacus, who have the skills of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), are able to manipulate numbers via an imagined abacus in mind and demonstrate extraordinary ability in mental calculation. Behavioral studies indicated that abacus experts utilize visual strategy in solving numerical problems, and fMRI studies confirmed the enhanced involvement of visuospatial-related neural resources in AMC. This study aims to explore the possible changes in brain white matter induced by long-term training of AMC. Two matched groups participated: the abacus group consisting of 25 children with over 3-year training in abacus calculation and AMC, the controls including 25 children without any abacus experience. We found that the abacus group showed higher average fractional anisotropy (FA) in whole-brain fiber tracts, and the regions with increased FA were found in corpus callosum, left occipitotemporal junction and right premotor projection. No regions, however, showed decreased FA in the abacus group. Further analysis revealed that the differences in FA values were mainly driven by the alternation of radial rather than axial diffusivities. Furthermore, in forward digit and letter memory span tests, AMC group showed larger digit/letter memory spans. Interestingly, individual differences in white matter tracts were found positively correlated with the memory spans, indicating that the widespread increase of FA in the abacus group result possibly from the AMC training. In conclusion, our findings suggested that long-term AMC training from an early age may improve the memory capacity and enhance the integrity in white matter tracts related to motor and visuospatial processes. PMID:20235096

  6. Virulence-associated Gene Determination of Non-gonococcal Neisseria Strains Isolated from Male Genitourinary Tracts%男性泌尿生殖道感染非淋病奈瑟菌的毒力相关基因检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 王和; 佘晓玲; 叶长芸

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect virulence-associated genes of non-gonococcal Neisseria isolated from male genitourinary tracts and survey pathogenesis of non-gcnococci Neisseria species. Methods By PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing, the virulence-associated genes of N. gonorrhoeae, including orfl, nspA, PIA, PIB, opa, iga,pilE genes of 12 strains non-gonococci Neisseria, which were distributed in 6 different species of Neisseria, isolated from the patients with male genitourinary tract infection were detected. Results In the 12 strains of non-gonococcal Neisseria species, 8 strains showed positive in the reaction of virulence-associated genes, in which 25.00% (3/12) strains were orfl or opa, 16.67% (2/12)strains were PIB and 8. 33% (l/12)strains were nspA. The genes of PlA,pilE and iga were not found in the species of non-gonococcal Neisseria. Conclusion The virulence-associated genes orfl, nspA, PIB and opa of N. gonorrhoeae can be detected in the species of non-gonococcal Neisseriae. While the above genes are not the only pathogenic factors for the non-gonococci Neisseriae causing male genitourinary tract infection, and the pathogenicity of the non-gonouocci Neisseriae infected male genitourinary tract are responsible for their mucosal parasitic properties and other biological properties.%目的 检测男性泌尿生殖道分离的非淋病奈瑟菌毒力相关基因,探讨非淋病奈瑟菌的致病机理.方法 采用PCR扩增和核苷酸序列分析技术,检测从男性泌尿生殖道感染患者生殖道分离的6个菌种12株非淋病奈瑟菌的毒力相关基因orf1,nspA,PIA,PIB,opa,iga,pilE.结果 12个分离菌株中8株(检出率66.67%)检出毒力相关基因,其中orf1的阳性率为25.00%( 3/12),opa为25.00%( 3/12),PIB为16.67% (2/12),nspA为8.33%(1/12),各菌株均未检出PIA,pilE与iga.结论 感染男性泌尿生殖道的部分非淋病奈瑟菌具有淋病奈瑟菌的毒力相关基因.但这些毒力相关基因并不是非淋病奈

  7. Comparison of Established Diagnostic Methodologies and a Novel Bacterial smpB Real-Time PCR Assay for Specific Detection of Haemophilus influenzae Isolates Associated with Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddington, Kate; Schwenk, Stefan; Tuite, Nina; Platt, Gareth; Davar, Danesh; Coughlan, Helena; Personne, Yoann; Gant, Vanya; Enne, Virve I; Zumla, Alimuddin; Barry, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a significant causative agent of respiratory tract infections (RTI) worldwide. The development of a rapid H. influenzae diagnostic assay that would allow for the implementation of infection control measures and also improve antimicrobial stewardship for patients is required. A number of nucleic acid diagnostics approaches that detect H. influenzae in RTIs have been described in the literature; however, there are reported specificity and sensitivity limitations for these assays. In this study, a novel real-time PCR diagnostic assay targeting the smpB gene was designed to detect all serogroups of H. influenzae. The assay was validated using a panel of well-characterized Haemophilus spp. Subsequently, 44 Haemophilus clinical isolates were collected, and 36 isolates were identified as H. influenzae using a gold standard methodology that combined the results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and a fucK diagnostic assay. Using the novel smpB diagnostic assay, 100% concordance was observed with the gold standard, demonstrating a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.26% to 100.00%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 63.06% to 100.00%) when used on clinical isolates. To demonstrate the clinical utility of the diagnostic assay presented, a panel of lower RTI samples (n = 98) were blindly tested with the gold standard and smpB diagnostic assays. The results generated were concordant for 94/98 samples tested, demonstrating a sensitivity of 90.91% (95% CI, 78.33% to 97.47%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 93.40% to 100.00%) for the novel smpB assay when used directly on respiratory specimens. PMID:26109443

  8. Prefrontal cortex white matter tracts in prodromal Huntington disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Joy T.; Vaidya, Jatin G.; Wassermann, Demian; Kim, Regina Eunyoung; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Johnson, Hans J.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is most widely known for its selective degeneration of striatal neurons but there is also growing evidence for white matter (WM) deterioration. The primary objective of this research was to conduct a large-scale analysis using multisite diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) tractography data to quantify diffusivity properties along major prefrontal cortex WM tracts in prodromal HD. Fifteen international sites participating in the PREDICT-HD study collected imaging and neuropsychological data on gene-positive HD participants without a clinical diagnosis (i.e. prodromal) and gene-negative control participants. The anatomical prefrontal WM tracts of the corpus callosum (PFCC), anterior thalamic radiations (ATR), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFO), and uncinate fasciculi (UNC) were identified using streamline tractography of DWI. Within each of these tracts, tensor scalars for fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity coefficients were calculated. We divided prodromal HD subjects into three CAG-age product (CAP) groups having Low, Medium, or High probabilities of onset indexed by genetic exposure. We observed significant differences in WM properties for each of the four anatomical tracts for the High CAP group in comparison to controls. Additionally, the Medium CAP group presented differences in the ATR and IFO in comparison to controls. Furthermore, WM alterations in the PFCC, ATR, and IFO showed robust associations with neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. These results suggest long-range tracts essential for cross-region information transfer show early vulnerability in HD and may explain cognitive problems often present in the prodromal stage. PMID:26179962

  9. Prefrontal cortex white matter tracts in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Joy T; Vaidya, Jatin G; Wassermann, Demian; Kim, Regina Eunyoung; Magnotta, Vincent A; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is most widely known for its selective degeneration of striatal neurons but there is also growing evidence for white matter (WM) deterioration. The primary objective of this research was to conduct a large-scale analysis using multisite diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) tractography data to quantify diffusivity properties along major prefrontal cortex WM tracts in prodromal HD. Fifteen international sites participating in the PREDICT-HD study collected imaging and neuropsychological data on gene-positive HD participants without a clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal) and gene-negative control participants. The anatomical prefrontal WM tracts of the corpus callosum (PFCC), anterior thalamic radiations (ATRs), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFO), and uncinate fasciculi (UNC) were identified using streamline tractography of DWI. Within each of these tracts, tensor scalars for fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity coefficients were calculated. We divided prodromal HD subjects into three CAG-age product (CAP) groups having Low, Medium, or High probabilities of onset indexed by genetic exposure. We observed significant differences in WM properties for each of the four anatomical tracts for the High CAP group in comparison to controls. Additionally, the Medium CAP group presented differences in the ATR and IFO in comparison to controls. Furthermore, WM alterations in the PFCC, ATR, and IFO showed robust associations with neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. These results suggest long-range tracts essential for cross-region information transfer show early vulnerability in HD and may explain cognitive problems often present in the prodromal stage. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3717-3732, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Fruit and Vegetable Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox-Carlos, Hugo; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant compounds primarily found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of each compound differs greatly, and the most abundant antioxidants in ingested fruit are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Fruit antioxidants are commonly mixed with different macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to form a food matrix. In fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates are the major compounds found, mainly in free and conjugated forms. Dietary fiber, the indigestible cell wall component of plant material, is considered to play an important role in human diet and health. Most studies on antioxidant bioavailability are focused on foods and beverages from which antioxidants are easily released. There is evidence indicating that food microstructure affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of several nutrients, referring mostly to antioxidants. Nevertheless, the specific role of dietary fiber in the absorption of antioxidants has not been widely discussed. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the association between dietary fiber and antioxidants, and the physical and chemical interactions that modulate their release from the chyme in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21535705

  11. Genome-wide association study of shared components of reading disability and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, J D; Powers, N R; Miller, L L; Akshoomoff, N; Amaral, D G; Bloss, C S; Libiger, O; Schork, N J; Darst, B F; Casey, B J; Chang, L; Ernst, T; Frazier, J; Kaufmann, W E; Keating, B; Kenet, T; Kennedy, D; Mostofsky, S; Murray, S S; Sowell, E R; Bartsch, H; Kuperman, J M; Brown, T T; Hagler, D J; Dale, A M; Jernigan, T L; St Pourcain, B; Davey Smith, G; Ring, S M; Gruen, J R

    2013-11-01

    Written and verbal languages are neurobehavioral traits vital to the development of communication skills. Unfortunately, disorders involving these traits-specifically reading disability (RD) and language impairment (LI)-are common and prevent affected individuals from developing adequate communication skills, leaving them at risk for adverse academic, socioeconomic and psychiatric outcomes. Both RD and LI are complex traits that frequently co-occur, leading us to hypothesize that these disorders share genetic etiologies. To test this, we performed a genome-wide association study on individuals affected with both RD and LI in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The strongest associations were seen with markers in ZNF385D (OR = 1.81, P = 5.45 × 10(-7) ) and COL4A2 (OR = 1.71, P = 7.59 × 10(-7) ). Markers within NDST4 showed the strongest associations with LI individually (OR = 1.827, P = 1.40 × 10(-7) ). We replicated association of ZNF385D using receptive vocabulary measures in the Pediatric Imaging Neurocognitive Genetics study (P = 0.00245). We then used diffusion tensor imaging fiber tract volume data on 16 fiber tracts to examine the implications of replicated markers. ZNF385D was a predictor of overall fiber tract volumes in both hemispheres, as well as global brain volume. Here, we present evidence for ZNF385D as a candidate gene for RD and LI. The implication of transcription factor ZNF385D in RD and LI underscores the importance of transcriptional regulation in the development of higher order neurocognitive traits. Further study is necessary to discern target genes of ZNF385D and how it functions within neural development of fluent language. PMID:24024963

  12. Sapphire optical fiber sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Feth, Shari

    1991-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors offer many advantages over conventional sensors, including; small size, low weight, high strength and durability. Standard silica optical fibers are limited by the material properties of silica. Temperatures above 700°C and other harsh environments are incompatible with standard optical fiber sensors. Sapphire fiber sensors offer another option for fiber optic sensing. Sapphire fibers are limited by the material properties of sapphire, which include high...

  13. Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1999-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility.......Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility....

  14. Real-time fiber selection using the Wii remote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jan; Scholl, Mike; Köhn, Alexander; Hahn, Horst K.

    2010-02-01

    In the last few years, fiber tracking tools have become popular in clinical contexts, e.g., for pre- and intraoperative neurosurgical planning. The efficient, intuitive, and reproducible selection of fiber bundles still constitutes one of the main issues. In this paper, we present a framework for a real-time selection of axonal fiber bundles using a Wii remote control, a wireless controller for Nintendo's gaming console. It enables the user to select fiber bundles without any other input devices. To achieve a smooth interaction, we propose a novel spacepartitioning data structure for efficient 3D range queries in a data set consisting of precomputed fibers. The data structure which is adapted to the special geometry of fiber tracts allows for queries that are many times faster compared with previous state-of-the-art approaches. In order to extract reliably fibers for further processing, e.g., for quantification purposes or comparisons with preoperatively tracked fibers, we developed an expectationmaximization clustering algorithm that can refine the range queries. Our initial experiments have shown that white matter fiber bundles can be reliably selected within a few seconds by the Wii, which has been placed in a sterile plastic bag to simulate usage under surgical conditions.

  15. Tract-tracing study of the extrabulbar olfactory projections in the brain of some teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aniello, Biagio; Luongo, Luciano; Rastogi, Rakesh K; Di Meglio, Maria; Pinelli, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    The extrabulbar olfactory projections (EBOP) is a collection of nerve fibers that originate from primary olfactory receptor neurons. These fibers penetrate into the brain, bypassing the olfactory bulbs (OBs). While the presence of an EBOP has been well established in teleosts, here we morphologically characterize the EBOP structure in four species each with a different morphological relationship of OB with the ventral telencephalic area. Tract-tracing methods (carbocyanine DiI/DIA and biocytin) were used. FMRFamide immunoreactive nervus terminalis (NT) components were also visualized to define any neuroanatomical relationship between the NT and EBOP. Unilateral DiI/DiA application to the olfactory chamber stained the entire olfactory epithelium, olfactory nerve fibers, and ipsilateral olfactory bulb. Labeled primary olfactory fibers running ventromedially as extrabulbar primary olfactory projections reached various regions of the secondary prosencephalon. Only in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (no olfactory peduncle) did lipophilic tracer-labeled fibers reach the ipsilateral mesencephalon. The combination of tracing techniques and FMRFamide immunohistochemistry revealed a substantial overlap of the label along the olfactory pathways as well as in the anterior secondary prosencephalon. However, FMRFamide immunoreactivity was never colocalized in the same cellular or fiber component as visualized using tracer molecules. Our results showed a certain uniformity in the neuroanatomy and extension of EBOP in all four species, independent of the pedunculate feature of the OBs. The present study also provided additional evidence to support the view that EBOP and FMRFamide immunoreactive components of the NT are separate anatomical entities. PMID:25663434

  16. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T). The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) and mean diffusivity (rMD) in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.). Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement

  17. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna F. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T. The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA and mean diffusivity (rMD in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.. Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement.

  18. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anna F.; Nilsson, Markus; Latini, Francesco; Mårtensson, Johanna; Zetterling, Maria; Berntsson, Shala G.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Lätt, Jimmy; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T). The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) and mean diffusivity (rMD) in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.). Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement. PMID:27190647

  19. A survey of fiber-positioning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Greg; Brzeski, Jurek; Miziarski, Stan; Gillingham, Peter R.; Moore, Anna; McGrath, Andrew

    2004-09-01

    A wide range of positioning technologies has been exploited to flexibly configure fiber ends on the focal surfaces of telescopes. The earliest instruments used manual plugging, or glued buttons on the focal plane. Later instruments have used robotic fisherman-round-the-pond probes and articulated armsto position fibres, each probe or arm operated by its own motors, or buttons on fiber ends moved by pick-and-place robotic positioners. A positioner using fiber spines incorporating individual actuators operating over limited patrol areas is currently being manufactured and a derivative proposed for future large telescopes. Other techniques, using independent agents carrying the fiber ends about the focal plane have been prototyped. We describe these various fiber positioning techniques and compare them, listing the issues associated with their implementation, and consider the factors which make each of them suitable for a given situation. Factors considered include: robot geometries; costs; inherent limits to the number of fibers; clustering of targets; serial and parallel positioning and reconfiguration times; adaptability to curved focal surfaces; the virtues of on-telescope versus off-telescope configuration of the field, and suitability for the various telescope foci. The design issues include selection of actuators and encoding systems, counterbalancing, configuration of fiber buttons and their associated grippers, interchanging field plates, and the need for fiber retractors. Finally we consider the competing technologies: fiber and reflective image slicer IFUs, multislit masks and reconfigurable slits.

  20. Gene duplication and adaptive evolution of digestive proteases in Drosophila arizonae female reproductive tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Kelleher

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It frequently has been postulated that intersexual coevolution between the male ejaculate and the female reproductive tract is a driving force in the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. The dearth of research on female tracts, however, presents a major obstacle to empirical tests of this hypothesis. Here, we employ a comparative EST approach to identify 241 candidate female reproductive proteins in Drosophila arizonae, a repleta group species in which physiological ejaculate-female coevolution has been documented. Thirty-one of these proteins exhibit elevated amino acid substitution rates, making them candidates for molecular coevolution with the male ejaculate. Strikingly, we also discovered 12 unique digestive proteases whose expression is specific to the D. arizonae lower female reproductive tract. These enzymes belong to classes most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of a diverse array of organisms. We show that these proteases are associated with recent, lineage-specific gene duplications in the Drosophila repleta species group, and exhibit strong signatures of positive selection. Observation of adaptive evolution in several female reproductive tract proteins indicates they are active players in the evolution of reproductive tract interactions. Additionally, pervasive gene duplication, adaptive evolution, and rapid acquisition of a novel digestive function by the female reproductive tract points to a novel coevolutionary mechanism of ejaculate-female interaction.

  1. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2002-01-01

    . Such micro-structured fibers are the ones most often trated in literature concerning micro-structured fibers. These micro-structured fibers offer a whole range of novel wave guiding characteristics, including the possibility of fibers that guide only one mode irrespective of the frequency of light....... The thesis focuses on understanding the basic mechanisms controlling the modal properties of micro-structured fibers. One important sub-class of micro-structured fibers are fibers that guide light by index effects similar to those index effects that ensure guidance of light in standard optical fibers...... complicated to manufacture, compared to micro-structured fibers that guide light by simple index effects, because of stringent requirements concerning the periodicity of the cladding structure of the fibers. The theoretical investigation of these fibers is also more complex, than the investigation of micro...

  2. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and alimentary tract of the non-hematophagous blow fly, Phormia regina, and the hematophagous horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselton, Aaron T; Yin, Chih-Ming; Stoffolano, John G

    2008-01-01

    FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are a diverse and physiologically important class of neuropepeptides in the metazoa. In insects, FaRPs function as brain-gut neuropeptides and have been immunolocalized throughout the nervous system and alimentary tract where they have been shown to affect feeding behavior. The occurrence of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was examined in the central nervous system and alimentary tract of non-hematophagous blow fly, Phormia regina Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and the hematophagous horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera:Tabanidae). Although the central nervous system and alimentary anatomy differ between these two dipteran species, many aspects of FLI remain similar. FLI was observed throughout the central and stomatogastric nervous systems, foregut, and midgut in both flies. In the central nervous system, cells and processes with FLI occurred in the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and ventral nerve cord. FLI was associated with neurohemal areas of the brain and ventral nerve cord. A neurohemal plexus of fibers with FLI was present on the dorsal region of the thoracic central nervous system in both species. In the gut, processes with FLI innervated the crop duct, crop and anterior midgut. Endocrine cells with FLI were present in the posterior midgut. The distribution of FLI in these two flies, in spite of their different feeding habits, further supports the role of FaRPs as important components of the braingut neurochemical axis in these insects and implicates FaRPs as regulators of insect feeding physiology among divergent insect taxa.

  3. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome.

  4. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manjula; Sharma, Jyoti; Bhardwaj, Sonia

    2016-03-15

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM) and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome. PMID:27275323

  5. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  6. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

    1995-02-01

    The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

  7. HDAC4 Regulates Muscle Fiber Type-Specific Gene Expression Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Todd J.; Choi, Moon-Chang; Kapur, Meghan; Lira, Vitor A.; Yan, Zhen; Yao, Tso-Pang

    2015-01-01

    Fiber type-specific programs controlled by the transcription factor MEF2 dictate muscle functionality. Here, we show that HDAC4, a potent MEF2 inhibitor, is predominantly localized to the nuclei in fast/glycolytic fibers in contrast to the sarcoplasm in slow/oxidative fibers. The cytoplasmic localization is associated with HDAC4 hyper-phosphorylation in slow/oxidative-fibers. Genetic reprogramming of fast/glycolytic fibers to oxidative fibers by active CaMKII or calcineurin leads to increased...

  8. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  9. Gastrointestinal tract imaging in children: current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiorns, Melanie P. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in children continues to evolve, with new techniques, both radiological and non-radiological, being added to the repertoire. This article provides a summary of current imaging techniques of the GI tract (primarily the upper GI tract) and the relationship between those techniques. It covers the upper GI series and other contrast studies, US, CT and MRI. Note is also made of the contribution now made by capsule endoscopy (CE). Abdominal emergency imaging is not covered in this article. (orig.)

  10. Diagnosis of liver, biliary tract and gastrointestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of RI imaging in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, biliary tracts and gastrointestinal tracts are reviewed, and representative cases are shown. Liver scintigraphy was of value for the diagnosis of lesions limitted to the liver such as primary and metastatic liver cancer and inflammatory liver diseases. However, RI methods were less useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the biliary tracts and stomach. RI scintigraphy was more sensitive than angiography in the detection of Meckel's deverticulum, Ballet's esophagus, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Ultrasound of the paediatric urogenital tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathology in the urinary tract is one of the most frequent queries when children are referred for an ultrasound examination. Comprehensive ultrasound examinations can answer most clinical questions of the urogenital tract with minimal patient preparation and without the use of ionising radiation. Therefore, optimised imaging protocols should be available in all radiology departments where children are examined. This review suggests a preferred imaging protocol for urogenital imaging in children and gives an overview of the different structures of the urogenital tract, the normal age-related sonographic anatomy, and gives examples of the most commonly encountered diseases of the urogenital system in children

  12. Comparing a diffusion tensor and non-tensor approach to white matter fiber tractography in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Auriat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-based tractography has been used to demonstrate functionally relevant differences in white matter pathway status after stroke. However, it is now known that the tensor model is insensitive to the complex fiber architectures found in the vast majority of voxels in the human brain. The inability to resolve intra-voxel fiber orientations may have important implications for the utility of standard DTI-based tract reconstruction methods. Intra-voxel fiber orientations can now be identified using novel, tensor-free approaches. Constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD is one approach to characterize intra-voxel diffusion behavior. In the current study, we performed DTI- and CSD-based tract reconstruction of the corticospinal tract (CST and corpus callosum (CC to test the hypothesis that characterization of complex fiber orientations may improve the robustness of fiber tract reconstruction and increase the sensitivity to identify functionally relevant white matter abnormalities in individuals with chronic stroke. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 27 chronic post-stroke participants and 12 healthy controls. Transcallosal pathways and the CST bilaterally were reconstructed using DTI- and CSD-based tractography. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, axial diffusivity (AD, and radial diffusivity (RD were calculated across the tracts of interest. The total number and volume of reconstructed tracts was also determined. Diffusion measures were compared between groups (Stroke, Control and methods (CSD, DTI. The relationship between post-stroke motor behavior and diffusion measures was evaluated. Overall, CSD methods identified more tracts than the DTI-based approach for both CC and CST pathways. Mean FA, ADC, and RD differed between DTI and CSD for CC-mediated tracts. In these tracts, we discovered a difference in FA for the CC between stroke and healthy control groups

  13. Effect of increasing diffusion gradient direction number on diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Xu Fang; Liang, Bie Bei; Xia, Tian; Huang, Qin Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin [School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shanghai Medical Instrument College, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Yu, Tong Gang [Dept. of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    To assess the effects of varying the number of diffusion gradient directions (NDGDs) on diffusion tensor fiber tracking (FT) in human brain white matter using tract characteristics. Twelve normal volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning with NDGDs of 6, 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations. Three fiber tract groups, including the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), the entire CC, and the full brain tract, were reconstructed by deterministic DTI-FT. Tract architecture was first qualitatively evaluated by visual observation. Six quantitative tract characteristics, including the number of fibers (NF), average length (AL), fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA), mean diffusivity (MD), and volume ratio (VR) were measured for the splenium of the CC at the tract branch level, for the entire CC at tract level, and for the full brain tract at the whole brain level. Visual results and those of NF, AL, FA, RA, MD, and VR were compared among the five different NDGDs. The DTI-FT with NDGD of 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations gave better tracking results compared with NDGD of 6 after the visual evaluation. NF, FA, RA, MD, and VR values with NDGD of six were significantly greater (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.042) than those with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations), whereas AL measured with NDGD of six was significantly smaller (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.041) than with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations). No significant differences were observed in the results among the four NDGD groups of 11, 15, 21, and 31 directions (smallest p = 0.059 to largest p = 1.000). The main fiber tracts were detected with NDGD of six orientations; however, the use of larger NDGD (> or = 11 orientations) could provide improved tract characteristics at the expense of longer scanning time.

  14. Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Albertengo; María Susana Rodríguez; Mirta Montero; Marina Dello Staffolo; Miriam Martino; Alicia Bevilacqua

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was ...

  15. International urinary tract imaging basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create an International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: An international working group. METHODS: The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed...... by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version...

  16. Fluorescence diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kate C.; Inada, Natalia M.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    The pharyngitis and laryngitis are respiratory tract infections highly common. Pharyngitis can be accompanied by fever, especially if caused by a systemic infection. Laryngitis is an inflammation of your voice box (larynx) from irritation or infection. The conventional treatment is the antibiotics administration, which may be responsible by an increase of identification of bacterial strains resistant to drug. This fact associated to high incidence of these infections become important to develop new technologies for diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the use of widefield fluorescence imaging for the characterization of oropharynx infections, in order to diagnose the bacteria colonization. The imaging system for wide field fluorescence visualization is Evince® (MMOptics, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) coupled to an Apple iPhone® cell phone device. The system consists of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) operating in the violet blue region centered at green-red spectrum 450 nm and optical filters that allow viewing of fluorescence. A tongue depressor was adapted to Evince® for mouth opening. The same images were captured with white light and fluorescence with an optical system. The red fluorescence may be a bacterial marker for physiological monitoring of oropharynx infection processes. The bacterial biofilm on tissue were assigned to the presence of protoporphyrin IX. This work indicates that the autofluorescence of the tissue may be used as a non-invasive technique to aid in the oropharynx infection diagnostic.

  17. Virtual endoscopy of the urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George C. Kagadis; Dimitrios Siablis; Evangelos N. Liatsikos; Theodore Petsas; George C. Nikiforidis

    2006-01-01

    Technological breakthroughs have advanced the temporal and spatial resolutions of diagnostic imaging, and 3 dimensional (3-D) reconstruction techniques have been introduced into everyday clinical practice. Virtual endoscopy (VE)is a non-invasive technique that amplifies the perception of cross-sectional images in the 3-D space, providing precise spatial relationships of pathological regions and their surrounding structures. A variety of computer algorithms can be used to generate 3-D images, taking advantage of the information inherent in either spiral computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). VE images enable endoluminal navigation through hollow organs, thus simulating conventional endoscopy. Several clinical studies have validated the diagnostic utility of virtual cystoscopy, which has high sensitivity and specificity rates in the detection of bladder tumor. Published experience in the virtual exploration of the renal pelvis, ureter and urethra is encouraging but still scarce. VE is a safe, non-invasive method that could be applied in the long-term follow-up of patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction, urinary bladder tumors and ureteral and/or urethral strictures. Its principal limitations are the inability to provide biopsy tissue specimens for histopathologic examination and the associated ionizing radiation hazards (unless MRI is used). However, in the case of endoluminal stenosis or obstruction, VE permits virtual endoluminal navigation both cephalad and caudal to the stenotic segment. To conclude, VE provides a less invasive method of evaluating the urinary tract, especially for clinicians who are less familiar with cross-sectional imaging than radiologists.

  18. Importance of human right inferior frontoparietal network connected by inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus tract in corporeal awareness of kinesthetic illusory movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Kaoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    It is generally believed that the human right cerebral hemisphere plays a dominant role in corporeal awareness, which is highly associated with conscious experience of the physical self. Prompted by our previous findings, we examined whether the right frontoparietal activations often observed when people experience kinesthetic illusory limb movement are supported by a large-scale brain network connected by a specific branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus fiber tracts (SLF I, II, and III). We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while nineteen blindfolded healthy volunteers experienced illusory movement of the right stationary hand elicited by tendon vibration, which was replicated after the scanning. We also scanned brain activity when they executed and imagined right hand movement, and identified the active brain regions during illusion, execution, and imagery in relation to the SLF fiber tracts. We found that illusion predominantly activated the right inferior frontoparietal regions connected by SLF III, which were not substantially recruited during execution and imagery. Among these regions, activities in the right inferior parietal cortices and inferior frontal cortices showed right-side dominance and correlated well with the amount of illusion (kinesthetic illusory awareness) experienced by the participants. The results illustrated the predominant involvement of the right inferior frontoparietal network connected by SLF III when people recognize postural changes of their limb. We assume that the network bears a series of functions, specifically, monitoring the current status of the musculoskeletal system, and building-up and updating our postural model (body schema), which could be a basis for the conscious experience of the physical self.

  19. Fibered F-Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2007-01-01

    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  20. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  1. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber - self-care ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can help you ... Grains are another important source of dietary fiber. Eat more: ... Whole-grain breads Brown rice Popcorn High-fiber cereals, such ...

  2. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  3. Histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Fagerberg, Christina R; Ousager, Lilian Bomme;

    2013-01-01

    a short review on histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in general. The primary histiocytic disorders of uncertain origin, Rosai-Dorfman disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Erdheim-Chester disease, are addressed. Reactive and infectious conditions such as xanthomatosis...

  4. Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) Activities by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The data being displayed are census tract level counts of NSP-funded activities and is derived from an extract of HUD's Community Planning and Development’s (CPD)...

  5. Voyageurs National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Bureau of Land Maganement in GCDB for the Midwest Regional...

  6. Crayfish Sampling on the Whaley Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report discusses electrofishing for crayfish in a small creek on the FHmA Whaley Tract targeting Orconectes sp. Only Procambarus hayi and Cambarus striatus were...

  7. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  8. Neurotrophins and specific receptors in the oviduct tracts of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruccio, L; Castaldo, L; D'Angelo, L; Gatta, C; Lucini, C; Cotea, C; Solcan, C; Nechita, E L

    2016-09-01

    Neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF and NT-3) and their specific receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) were studied in the oviduct of egg laying quails. Neurotrophins (NTs) are mainly involved in the development and maintenance of neuronal populations in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also in reproductive system. In this survey, we first studied the morphological organization of the quail oviduct, distinguished in infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina, and then we analyzed the expression and localization of NTs and Trks receptors in the whole tracts. By western blotting we detected that the investigated NTs and Trks receptors are expressed in all oviductal tracts. By immunohistochemistry we were able to define the distribution of NTs and Trks. Specifically, NGF, BDNF and NT3 were localized in lining and ductal epithelial cells, and NGF was also detected in secretory cells of tubular glands and in nervous fibers of vessel wall. TrkA and TrkB were present in the lining and ductal epithelium; TrkA and TrkC were present in nervous fibers of vessel wall in all oviductal tracts. Furthermore, we also observed NGF and BDNF co-localized with TrkA and TrkB in cells of the lining and ductal epithelium, suggesting an autocrine mechanism of action. PMID:27167968

  9. Evaluation of Citrus Fibers as a Tablet Excipient

    OpenAIRE

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers ...

  10. Singing synthesis and the Vocal Tract Organ

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, David Martin

    2014-01-01

    Vocal synthesis has been the subject of investigation since the late 18th century when von Kempelen produced his mechanical ‘speaking machine’. The advert of electronics has enabled a number of different methods of voice synthesis to be realized in practice. Recently with the advent of 3-D printing and magnetic resonance imaging of human vocal tracts, it has been possible to create synthetic vocal sounds that combine both mechanical (3-D printed tracts) and electronic (synthesized larynx soun...

  11. Association of polymorphisms in CYP19A1 and CYP3A4 genes with lower urinary tract symptoms, prostate volume, uroflow and PSA in a population-based sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Berges; A. Gsur; E. Feik; K. Höfner; T. Senge; L. Pientka; A. Baierl; M.C. Michel; A. Ponholzer; S. Madersbacher

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The known importance of testosterone for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) prompted us to test the hypothesis whether polymorphisms of two genes (CYP19A1 and CYP3A4) involved in testosterone metabolism are associated with clinical BPH-parameters. METHODS: A random sample

  12. Genetic Variants of NPAT-ATM and AURKA are Associated With an Early Adverse Reaction in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Patients With Cervical Cancer Treated With Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Atsuko; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yoshinaga, Shinji [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ohara, Kiyoshi [Tsukuba University Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Ariga, Hisanori [Tohoku University Hospital, Miyagi (Japan); Nomura, Kuninori [Toyama University Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Moritake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Iwakawa, Mayumi [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Imai, Takashi, E-mail: imait@nirs.go.jp [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: This study sought to associate polymorphisms in genes related to cell cycle regulation or genome maintenance with radiotherapy (RT)-induced an early adverse reaction (EAR) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 243 cervical cancer patients who were treated with pelvic RT. An early gastrointestinal reaction was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2. Clinical factors of the enrolled patients were analyzed, and 208 patients were grouped for genetic analysis according to their EAR (Grade {<=}1, n = 150; Grade {>=}2, n = 58). Genomic DNA was genotyped, and association with the risk of EAR for 44 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 candidate genes was assessed by single-locus, haplotype, and multilocus analyses. Results: Our analysis revealed two haplotypes to be associated with an increased risk of EAR. The first, comprising rs625120C, rs189037T, rs228589A, and rs183460G, is located between the 5' ends of NPAT and ATM (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.21-2.87), whereas the second is located in the AURKA gene and comprises rs2273535A and rs1047972G (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10-2.78). A third haplotype, rs2273535T and rs1047972A in AURKA, was associated with a reduced EAR risk (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20-0.89). The risk of EAR was significantly higher among patients with both risk diplotypes than in those possessing the other diplotypes (OR = 3.24; 95% CI, 1.52-6.92). Conclusions: Individual radiosensitivity of intestine may be determined by haplotypes in the NPAT-ATM and AURKA genes. These variants should be explored in larger association studies in cervical cancer patients.

  13. Genetic Variants of NPAT-ATM and AURKA are Associated With an Early Adverse Reaction in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Patients With Cervical Cancer Treated With Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study sought to associate polymorphisms in genes related to cell cycle regulation or genome maintenance with radiotherapy (RT)-induced an early adverse reaction (EAR) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 243 cervical cancer patients who were treated with pelvic RT. An early gastrointestinal reaction was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2. Clinical factors of the enrolled patients were analyzed, and 208 patients were grouped for genetic analysis according to their EAR (Grade ≤1, n = 150; Grade ≥2, n = 58). Genomic DNA was genotyped, and association with the risk of EAR for 44 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 candidate genes was assessed by single-locus, haplotype, and multilocus analyses. Results: Our analysis revealed two haplotypes to be associated with an increased risk of EAR. The first, comprising rs625120C, rs189037T, rs228589A, and rs183460G, is located between the 5’ ends of NPAT and ATM (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.21–2.87), whereas the second is located in the AURKA gene and comprises rs2273535A and rs1047972G (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10–2.78). A third haplotype, rs2273535T and rs1047972A in AURKA, was associated with a reduced EAR risk (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20–0.89). The risk of EAR was significantly higher among patients with both risk diplotypes than in those possessing the other diplotypes (OR = 3.24; 95% CI, 1.52–6.92). Conclusions: Individual radiosensitivity of intestine may be determined by haplotypes in the NPAT-ATM and AURKA genes. These variants should be explored in larger association studies in cervical cancer patients.

  14. Fiber modeling and clustering based on neuroanatomical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yap, Pew-Thian; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    DTI tractography allows unprecedented understanding of brain neural connectivity in-vivo by capturing water diffusion patterns in brain white-matter microstructures. However, tractography algorithms often output hundreds of thousands of fibers, rendering the computation needed for subsequent data analysis intractable. A remedy is to group the fibers into bundles using fiber clustering techniques. Most existing fiber clustering methods, however, rely on fiber geometrical information only by viewing fibers as curves in the 3D Euclidean space. The important neuroanatomical aspect of the fibers is mostly ignored. In this paper, neuroanatomical information is encapsulated in a feature vector called the associativity vector, which functions as the "fingerprint" for each fiber and depicts the connectivity of the fiber with respect to individual anatomies. Using the associativity vectors of fibers, we model the fibers as observations sampled from multivariate Gaussian mixtures in the feature space. An expectation-maximization clustering approach is then employed to group the fibers into 16 major bundles. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method groups the fibers into anatomically meaningful bundles, which are highly consistent across subjects. PMID:21995008

  15. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  16. [Recurrence of upper aerodigestive tract tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurent; Zoubir, Mustapha; Le Tourneau, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Recurrences of tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract are frequent despite the improvement of the primary treatment and they limit the rate of survival long-term. They occur in patients with multiple co-morbidities, often associated with sequelae or side effects of earlier treatments. The salvage treatment will add a cumulative toxicity and therapeutic options are limited. The choice will go from curator to palliative treatment. The report benefit-risk must be assessed in each case depending on the terrain and prognostic factors that have been identified, such as performance status, the time between initial disease and the recurrence, the site and the stratification of the recurrence. In operable non-metastatic recurrence surgery remains the treatment of choice. Multimodal treatment involving surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy in this context is being evaluated. Non-operable tumors have long been considered only in a palliative context. The evaluation of detailed irradiation as bifractionnated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy helped establish protocols allowing long-term survivals and consider these treatments as potentially curators. However, the toxicity of these treatments is important. That is why the technical innovations of the radiation and the development of new chemotherapeutic agents today offer opportunities remaining to assess. The use of irradiation targeted by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and stereotactic radiotherapy by decreasing the irradiated volume should decrease the toxicity. Generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy agents, targeted therapies also took their places associated with radiotherapy in the treatment of these patients already treated. Cetuximab was the first agent obtaining an indication. Other agents are being evaluated in metastatic recurrent tumors, including exploring the possibilities of radiopotentialisation nanoparticles and the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins.

  17. Software for the draft NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A task group of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) is developing a new respiratory tract dosimetry model to update an earlier model developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group on Lung Dynamics. To facilitate the use of the new model and model calculations, a menu-driven computer simulation package has been developed. The implementation and main features of the package are presented, including: (1) calculations of regional fractional deposition and clearance in the nasal, oral, tracheobronchial airways (16 generations), and pulmonary region; (2) scaling of respiratory tract airway size and breathing parameters for people of all sizes; and (3) incorporation of dissolution and mechanical clearance as two competing mechanisms. At present, the software package can be used to compute fractions of total inhaled radioactive material initially deposited and later retained in the respiratory tract regions. In the near future, the software will also make dosimetry calculations. This paper discusses mathematical formulations, computer languages, examples and future development associated with this package. (author)

  18. Photodynamic therapy for pancreatic and biliary tract carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Stephen P.

    2009-02-01

    Patients with non-resectable pancreatic and biliary tract cancer (cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer) have a dismal outlook with conventional palliative therapies, with a median survival of 3-9 months and a 5 year survival of less than 3%. Surgery is the only curative treatment but is appropriate in less than 20% of cases, and even then is associated with a 5-year survival of less than 30%. Although most applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in gastroenterology have been on lesions of the luminal gut, there is increasing experimental and clinical evidence for its efficacy in cancers of the pancreas and biliary tract. Our group has carried out the only clinical study of PDT in pancreatic carcinoma reported to date, and showed that PDT is feasible for local debulking of pancreatic cancer. PDT has also been used with palliative intent in patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, with patients treated with stenting plus PDT reporting improvements in cholestasis, quality of life and survival compared with historical or randomized controls treated with stenting alone. Further controlled studies are needed to establish the influence of PDT and chemotherapy on the survival and quality of life of patients with pancreatic and biliary tract carcinoma.

  19. Genetics of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT occur at a frequency of 1 in 500 live births and are a common cause of renal insufficiency in childhood. CAKUT encompass a wide spectrum of malformations including anomalies of the kidney, collecting system, bladder and urethra. Most cases of CAKUT are sporadic and limited to the urinary tract, but some of them are syndromic or associated with positive family history. To understand the basis of human renal anomalies, knowledge of kidney and urinary tract development is necessary. This process is very complicated, requires precise integration of a variety of progenitor cell populations of diverse embryonic origins and is controlled by many factors at every stage of development. This review focuses on the genetic factors leading to developmental errors of important morphogenetic processes, particularly in metanephric kidney induction and ureteric bud branching. The essential results of genetic studies in regard to CAKUT, performed on experimental models and in humans, are presented. However, further investigations are required to complete understanding of the complex molecular network, which will help us to determine novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for CAKUT.

  20. Clinical features and renal morphological changes of the patients with urinary tract infection associated ureteral stent%输尿管支架管相关尿路感染患者的临床特征及其肾脏形态学改变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔庐东; 闫伟; 陈山

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨输尿管支架管相关尿路感染患者的临床特征及其肾脏形态学变化.方法 对2012年10月至2013年5月收治的留置输尿管支架管伴发热性尿路感染的男性患者(A组,n=7)进行前瞻性研究,选取同期、同年龄段的留置输尿管支架管不伴发热的男性患者(B组,n=7)及因留置导尿管、膀胱造瘘管或间歇自家清洁导尿等出现发热性尿路感染的男性患者(C组,n=7)作为对照.A组年龄53~69岁,平均(61.0±5.5)岁;B组年龄52~65岁,平均(60.2±6.2)岁;C组年龄34 ~ 79岁,平均(66.4±18.3)岁,3组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).A组出现发热性尿路感染时留置输尿管支架管的时间为7~90 d,平均(30.3±29.5) d;B组为7~70 d,平均(27.4±26.8)d,两组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).比较3组的实验室检查、99 Tcm-二巯基琥珀酸(DMSA)肾静态显像结果. 结果 A、B、C组的血白细胞分别为13.2× 109/L、6.8× 109/L和11.9× 109/L,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);超敏C反应蛋白分别为172.2、11.2和78.2 mg/L,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).脓尿患者比例分别为A组7/7,B组5/7,C组7/7.尿细菌培养阳性比例分别为A组7/7,B组3/7,C组7/7.A组的99Tcm-DMSA肾静态显像检查示留置输尿管支架管侧的肾脏点状或片状吸收区减少,B、C组的肾脏均未见异常. 结论 99Tcm-DMSA肾静态显像可以用于判断输尿管支架管相关感染的部位.输尿管支架管相关感染患者如出现发热寒战,提示有可能出现肾实质受累,应给予足够的重视,及时处理.%Objective To evaluate the clinical features and renal morphological changes of the patients with urinary tract infection associated ureteral stent.Methods From Oct.2012 to May.2013,21 patients were divided into three groups depending on the different conditions:Group A (n=7):patients who had febrile urinary tract infections associated with ureteral stents; Group B (n =7):patients with ureteral stents

  1. Contraction-induced muscle fiber damage is increased in soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats and is associated with elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in muscle fibers and activated satellite cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copray, S; Liem, R; Brouwer, N; Greenhaff, P; Habens, F; Fernyhough, P

    2000-01-01

    The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is elevated in the soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. To determine whether this diabetes-induced elevation was associated with or enhanced by muscle activity we have induced high-intensity muscle contraction by electrically stimu

  2. Complications of stent placement for benign stricture of gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ming-Hua Li; Wei-Xiong Chen; Ni-Wei Chen; Qi-Xin Zhuang; Ke-Zhong Shang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the frequent complications of stent placement for stricture of the gastrointestinal tract and to find proper treatment.METHODS: A total number of 140 stents were inserted in 138 patients with benign stricture of the gastrointestinal tract. The procedure was completed under fluoroscopy in all of the patients.RESULTS: Stents were successfully placed in all the 138 patients. Pains occurred in 23 patients (16.7%), slight or dull pains were found in 21 patients and severe chest pain in 2 respectively.For the former type of pain, the patients received only analgesia or even no treatment, while peridural anesthesics was conducted for the latter condition. Reflux occurred in 16 of these patients (11.6%) after stent placement. It was managed by common antireflux procedures. Gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 13 patients (9.4%), and was treated by hemostat. Restenosis of the gastrointestinal tract occurred in 8 patients (5.8%), and was apparently associated with hyperplasia of granulation tissue. In 2 patients, the second stent was placed under X-ray guidance. The granulation tissue was removed by cauterization through hot-node therapy under gastroscope guidance in 3 patients, and surgical reconstruction was performed in another 3 patients. Stent migration occurredin 5 patients (3.6%), and were extracted with the aid of a gastroscope. Food-bolus obstruction was encountered in 2 patients (1.4%) and was treated by endoscope removal. No perforation occurred in all patients.CONCLUSION: Frequent complications after stent placement for benign stricture of the gastrointestinal tract include pain,reflux, bleeding, restenosis, stent migration and food-bolus obstruction. They can be treated by drugs, the second stent placement or gastroscopic procedures according to the specific conditions.

  3. Fatores preditivos da transfusão de concentrado de hemácias em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias eletivas do aparelho digestivo: uma análise interinstitucional Predictive factors associated with packed red cell transfusions in patients submitted to elective surgery of the digestive tract: an inter-institutional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio Barcala Jorge

    2010-01-01

    performed by collecting data from the clinical records of patients submitted to elective digestive tract surgeries from June 2007 to December 2008 at these four hospital units. Eighty-one cases (42% females and 58% males were included in this study. The average age was 55.5 years old (Standard deviation ± 19.11 years. The commonest reported underlying disease was neoplasia (42%. Of these patients, 38 (47% were transfused in the immediate preoperative period, 28 (34.6% during the surgery and 37 (45.7% in the immediate postoperative period. In the univariate analysis, there was an association between the data of transfusions and the different institutions. In the surgical phase, there were correlations between transfusion and the reason for transfusion, RH factor (Rhesus, institutional policy and the underlying disease. In the postoperative phase, no association was identified. In all phases, there were not correlations between the type of surgical procedures, ASA index (American Society of Anesthesiology, and hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the blood transfusions in elective digestive tract surgeries were heterogeneous between hospitals and were not related to specific laboratorial values; they were associated to the underlying pathology, but not with the type of surgical procedure and generally followed the criteria of the healthcare specialist.

  4. Normal centrolineal myelination of the callosal splenium reflects the development of the cortical origin and size of its commissural fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Raju, Anand; Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Commissural white matter fibers comprising the callosal splenium are diverse. Subsections of the splenium myelinate at different times, in a centrolineal manner. The aims of this study are to depict the normal callosal splenium myelination pattern and to distinguish the transient age-related mid splenium hypointensity from pathology. We reviewed 131 consecutive brain MRIs in patients between ages 3 and 6 months from a single academic children's hospital. Patients that were preterm, hydrocephalic, and/or had volume loss were excluded. Fifty total MR exams that included T1-weighted MR imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted MR imaging (T2WI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were reviewed. Regions of callosal splenium myelination manifested by T1 and T2 shortening were evaluated. Tractography was performed with seeds placed over the posterior, mid, and anterior splenium to define the origin, destination, and course of traversing fibers. Splenium signal varied significantly from 3 to 6 months, with distinct age-related trends. On T1WI, the splenium was hypointense at 3 months (12/13), centrally hypointense/peripherally hyperintense at 4 months (15/16), and hyperintense at 6 months (10/11). Tractography revealed three distinct white matter tract populations: medial occipital (posterior); precuneus, posterior cingulate, and medial temporal (middle); and postcentral gyri (anterior). Specific commissural fiber components of the splenium myelinate at different times. The transient developmental mid splenium hypointensity on T1WI corresponds to tracts from the associative cortex, principally the precuneus. Heterogeneous splenium signal alteration in patients ages 3-6 months is a normal developmental phenomenon that should not be confused with pathologic lesions. (orig.)

  5. Fiber optic evanescent wave biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1991-09-01

    The role of modern analytical chemistry is not restricted to quality control and environmental surveillance, but has been extended to process control using on-line analytical techniques. Besides industrial applications, highly specific, ultra-sensitive biochemical analysis becomes increasingly important as a diagnostic tool, both in central clinical laboratories and in the doctor's office. Fiber optic sensor technology can fulfill many of the requirements for both types of applications. As an example, the experimental arrangement of a fiber optic sensor for biochemical affinity assays is presented. The evanescent electromagnetic field, associated with a light ray guided in an optical fiber, is used for the excitation of luminescence labels attached to the biomolecules in solution to be analyzed. Due to the small penetration depth of the evanescent field into the medium, the generation of luminescence is restricted to the close proximity of the fiber, where, e.g., the luminescent analyte molecules combine with their affinity partners, which are immobilized on the fiber. Both cw- and pulsed light excitation can be used in evanescent wave sensor technology, enabling the on-line observation of an affinity assay on a macroscopic time scale (seconds and minutes), as well as on a microscopic, molecular time scale (nanoseconds or microseconds).

  6. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  7. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  8. Effects of Insoluble Compound Dietary Fibers on Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production in the Intestinal Tract of Rats%3种不溶性复合膳食纤维对小鼠肠道内短链脂肪酸产生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗剑鸣; 饶洁; 冯嘉韵; 蔡芸; 邹亚; 彭喜春

    2012-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be generated from a variety of dietary fibers through in vivo fermentation by intestinal microflora and are beneficial to human health. Three types of insoluble dietary fibers were selected from pectin, resistant starch, fructo-oligosaccharide and cellulose, mixed in a certain proportion and added to the rat diet. After six weeks of feeding, the rats were anatomized to collect intestinal contents, and the types and amounts of SCFAs in the intestinal contents were measured by GC to determine the optimal combination of SCFA types. The optimal combination of insoluble dietary fibers in the diet of female rats was pectin, resistant starch and cellulose with an amount of 2% for each of them. For male rats, the optima/combination was pectin, fructo-oligosaccharide and cellulose, each of which was added at 2%.%不同膳食纤维均可被肠道微生物发酵利用产生短链脂肪酸(SCFA),SCFA对人体的健康有重要作用。以果胶、抗性淀粉、低聚果糖以及纤维素4种不溶性膳食纤维中的任意3种,按照一定比例复合并添加于小鼠饲料中。经6周喂养后解剖收集小鼠肠道内容物并用气相色谱测定SCFA的种类及含量,以确定产生SCFA不同膳食纤维的最优组合。结果显示:对于雌性小鼠,果胶、抗性淀粉、纤维素3种膳食纤维各以2%比例复合的饲料效果最好;对于雄性小鼠,效果最好的是果胶、低聚果糖、纤维素3种膳食纤维各以2%比例复合的饲料。

  9. Specialty optical fibers: revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2011-10-01

    The paper contains description of chosen aspects of analysis and design of tailored optical fibers. By specialty optical fibers we understand here the fibers which have complex construction and which serve for the functional processing of optical signal rather than long distance transmission. Thus, they are called also instrumentation optical fibers. The following issues are considered: transmission properties, transformation of optical signal, fiber characteristics, fiber susceptibility to external reactions. The technology of tailored optical fibers offers a wider choice of the design tools for the fiber itself, and then various devices made from these fiber, than classical technology of communication optical fibers. The consequence is different fiber properties, nonstandard dimensions and different metrological problems. The price to be paid for wider design possibilities are bigger optical losses of these fibers and weaker mechanical properties, and worse chemical stability. These fibers find their applications outside the field of telecommunications. The applications of instrumentation optical fibers combine other techniques apart from the photonics ones like: electronic, chemical and mechatronic.

  10. Catecholaminergic projections from the solitary tract nucleus to the perifornical hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, P; Christolomme, A; Bosler, O; Perrin, J; Orsini, J C

    1994-01-01

    The source of adrenergic and other catecholaminergic fibers innervating the perifornical lateral hypothalamus was localized in the medulla after combination of Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry for either tyrosine-hydroxylase or phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase. Following perifornical injections, Fluoro-Gold-labeled neurons were observed mainly in regions including the noradrenergic and adrenergic cell groups. In the caudal solitary tract nucleus, two kinds of doubly labeled neurons were found: a) numerous noradrenergic neurons in the A2 group at the level of, or caudal to the area postrema; b) some adrenergic neurons in the C2 group at a level immediately rostral to the area postrema. These catecholaminergic neurons connecting the caudal solitary tract nucleus to the perifornical hypothalamus might convey feeding relevant information such as glycemic level or satiety signals.

  11. Effect of needle tract bleeding on occurrence of pneumothorax after transthoracic needle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Occasionally bleeding along the needle trajectory is observed at post-biopsy computed tomographic sections. This study was designed to evaluate the possible effect of needle tract bleeding on the occurrence of pneumothorax and on requirement of chest tube insertion. Materials and methods: Two hundred eighty-four needle biopsies performed in 275 patients in whom the needle traversed the aerated lung parenchyma were retrospectively reviewed. Bleeding along the needle tract, occurrence of pneumothorax and need for chest tube insertion, type and size of the needle, size of the lesion, length of the lung traversed by the needle, presence or absence of emphysema were noted. Effect of these factors on the rate of pneumothorax and needle-tract bleeding was evaluated. The data were analyzed by χ2 test. Results: Pneumothorax developed in 100 (35%) out of 284 procedures requiring chest tube placement in 16 (16%). Variables that were significantly associated with an increased risk of pneumothorax were depth of the lesion (P 0.05). However, analysis of the relation between length of lung traversed by the needle, tract-bleeding and pneumothorax rate indicated that tract-bleeding had a preventive effect on development of pneumothorax (P 0.05). Conclusion: Bleeding in the needle tract has a preventive effect on the occurrence of the pneumothorax in deep-seated lesions and in the presence of emphysema, although it does not affect the overall rate of pneumothorax

  12. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Gastrointestinal Tract Tissues Induced by Arsenic Toxicity in Cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Hu, Zhibo; Tian, Li; Zhang, Kexin; Zhang, Wen; Xing, Mingwei

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widely distributed trace element which is known to be associated with numerous adverse effects on human beings and animals. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an inorganic arsenical-containing toxic compound. The effect of excessive amounts of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks is still unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks. In total, 72 1-day-old male Hyline cocks were randomly divided into four groups and fed either a commercial diet or an As2O3 supplement diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days and gastrointestinal tract tissue samples (gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum) were collected at 30, 60, and 90 days. Catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities; malondialdehyde (MDA) contents; and hydroxyl radical (OH·)-mediated inhibition were examined. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that MDA content in the gastrointestinal tract was increased, while the activities of CAT, GSH, and GSH-Px and the ability to resist OH· was decreased in the As2O3 treatment groups. Extensive damage was observed in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings indicated that As2O3 exposure caused oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks due to alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and elevation of free radicals.

  13. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  14. Intractable urinary tract infection in a renal transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections after renal transplantation and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recurrent or relapsing infections are not uncommon in the early post-transplant period and superadded fungal UTI can occur in these patients, posing a difficult therapeutic problem. Literature on recurrent UTI after transplant as well as the ideal approach to such patients is scanty. We present the case of a renal allograft recipient who presented with relapsing bacterial UTI complicated by systemic fungemia; also, a brief review of fungal UTI is attempted. (author)

  15. Morbimortalidade dos ferimentos penetrantes toracoabdominais associados ao trauma diafragmático e do trato digestório Morbimortality of penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries associated to diaphragmatic and digestive tract trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto

    2008-03-01

    'água.BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic injury in trauma is uncommon, but it is a clinical entity with lifethreatening condition and high incidence of associated injuries. AIM: To demonstrate the effectiveness of thoracic washing through thoracotomy or thoracic drainage alone in wounds with diaphragmatic injury associated to gastrointestinal perforations. METHODS: Prospective study in patients admitted in the trauma unit of the Restauração Hospital (Recife PE, Brasil between April /2004 and September/2006. All the patients were adult (> 13 years and victims of penetrating wounds associated with digestive and diaphragmatic injuries. The patients were divided in two groups according to surgical treatment: thoracic washing through thoracotomy and simple thoracic drainage. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were selected. The medium age was 26,6 years. There were 73 gunshot injuries and 19 stabs. The Revised Trauma Score (RTS varied from 7,28 to 7,55. Thoracic washing was used in 13 patients. Forty-six patients (50% suffered injuries in right hemidiaphragm; 37 (40.21% in left and 9 bilateral (9.78%. Pulmonary atelectasis, pleural effusion and mediastinal infection were more frequent in the drainage group. Respiratory insufficiency, pulmonary imprisonment and pleural empiema were more frequent in washing group. CONCLUSIONS: Higher morbidity occurred with thoracic washing patients when compared to the ones submitted to simple drainage procedure.

  16. Fiber: composition, structures, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Ian M; Monro, John A

    2013-01-01

    Kiwifruit dietary fiber consists of cell-wall polysaccharides that are typical of the cell walls of many dicotyledonous fruits, being composed of pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose. The kiwifruit pectic polysaccharides consist of homo- and rhamnogalacturonans with various neutral, (arabino)-galactan side chains, while the hemicelluloses are mostly xyloglucan and xylan. The proportions of pectic polysaccharide, hemicellulose, and cellulose in both green 'Hayward' and 'Zespri® Gold' are similar and are little affected by in vitro exposure to gastric and small intestinal digestion. The hydration properties of the kiwifruit-swelling and water retention capacity-are also unaffected by foregut digestion, indicating that the functional properties of kiwifruit fiber survive in the foregut. However, in the hindgut, kiwifruit fiber is fermented, but whole kiwifruit consumed in association with slowly fermented fiber leads to distal displacement of fermentation, indicating that hindgut benefits of kiwifruit may result from its interaction with other dietary sources of fiber. PMID:23394983

  17. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2015-12-01

    The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months) and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients) and the low functioning group (20 patients) using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  18. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients and the low functioning group (20 patients using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  19. Long-Term Lithium Use and Risk of Renal and Upper Urinary Tract Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Jensen, Boye L; Madsen, Kirsten; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Lithium induces proliferation in the epithelium of renal collecting ducts. A recent small-scale cohort study reported a strong association between use of lithium and increased risk of renal neoplasia. We therefore conducted a large-scale pharmacoepidemiologic study of the association between long-term use of lithium and risk of upper urinary tract cancer, including renal cell cancer and cancers of the renal pelvis or ureter. We identified all histologically verified upper urinary tract cancer cases in Denmark between 2000 and 2012 from the Danish Cancer Registry. A total of 6477 cases were matched by age and sex to 259,080 cancer-free controls. Data on lithium use from 1995 to 2012 were obtained from the Danish Prescription Registry. We estimated the association between long-term use of lithium (≥5 years) and risk of upper urinary tract cancer using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Long-term use of lithium was observed among 0.22% of cases and 0.17% of controls. This yielded an overall nonsignificant adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.8-2.2) for upper urinary tract cancer associated with long-term use of lithium. Analyses stratified by stage and subtype of upper urinary tract cancer revealed slight but nonsignificant increases in the ORs for localized disease (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0) and for renal pelvis/ureter cancers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.5-5.4). In conclusion, in our nationwide case-control study, use of lithium was not associated with an increased risk of upper urinary tract cancer.

  20. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)