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Sample records for association biannual radiation

  1. Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors

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    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in the conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.

  2. Population vulnerability to biannual cholera outbreaks and associated macro-scale drivers in the Bengal Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Jutla, Antarpreet S; Gute, David M; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Islam, Shafiqul

    2013-11-01

    The highly populated floodplains of the Bengal Delta have a long history of endemic and epidemic cholera outbreaks, both coastal and inland. Previous studies have not addressed the spatio-temporal dynamics of population vulnerability related to the influence of underlying large-scale processes. We analyzed spatial and temporal variability of cholera incidence across six surveillance sites in the Bengal Delta and their association with regional hydroclimatic and environmental drivers. More specifically, we use salinity and flood inundation modeling across the vulnerable districts of Bangladesh to test earlier proposed hypotheses on the role of these environmental variables. Our results show strong influence of seasonal and interannual variability in estuarine salinity on spring outbreaks and inland flooding on fall outbreaks. A large segment of the population in the Bengal Delta floodplains remain vulnerable to these biannual cholera transmission mechanisms that provide ecologic and environmental conditions for outbreaks over large geographic regions.

  3. Analysis of the association between spawning time QTL markers and the biannual spawning behavior in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Nelson Colihueque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow trout is a salmonid fish that occasionally exhibits broodstocks with biannual spawning behavior, a phenomenon known as a double annual reproductive cycle (DARC. Spawning time quantitative trait loci (SPT-QTLs affect the time of the year that female rainbow trout spawn and may influence expression of the DARC trait. In this study, microsatellite markers linked and unlinked to SPT-QTLs were genotyped to investigate the underlying genetics of this trait. SPT-QTLs influenced the DARC trait since in two case-control comparisons three linked markers (OmyFGT12TUF, One3ASC and One19ASC had significant levels of allelic frequency differentiation and marker-character association. Furthermore, alleles of One3ASC and One19ASC had significantly higher frequencies in populations that carried the DARC trait.

  4. 19th Biannual Symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR)

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Wagner, Claus; Breitsamter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents contributions to the 19th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. Special emphasis is given to collaborative research projects conducted by German scientists and engineers from universities, research-establishments and industries. By addressing a number of cutting-edge applications, together with the relevant physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field. Though the book’s primary emphasis is on the aerospace context, it also addresses further important applications, e.g. in ground transportation and energy. .

  5. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421 of...

  6. Climatology of the meteorological factors associated with haze events over northern China and their potential response to the Quasi-Biannual Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ju; Tang, Yaoguo

    2017-10-01

    An upswing in haze weather during autumn and winter has been observed over North and Northeast China in recent years, imposing adverse impacts upon local socioeconomic development and human health. However, such an increase in the occurrence of haze events and its association with natural climate variability and climate change are not well understood. To investigate the climatology of the meteorological factors associated with haze events and their natural variability, this study uses a meteorological pollution index called PLAM (Parameter Linking Air-quality to Meteorological conditions) and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The results suggest that high PLAM values tend to occur over southern parts of northern China, implying the weather conditions over this area are favorable for the occurrence of haze weather. For the period 1979-2014, the regional mean PLAM shows an overall increase across Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province, and parts of Shanxi Province. Also, a periodicity of 28-34 months is found in the temporal variation of PLAM, which implies a potential association of PLAM with the stratospheric Quasi-Biannual Oscillation (QBO). By using the QBO index during the autumn and winter seasons in the preceding year, an increase in PLAM is found for the westerly phases of the QBO, relative to the easterly phases. An upper-tropospheric warming is also found in the westerly phases, which can induce a stable stratification that favors the increase in PLAM across the midlatitudes. The modulations of large-scale environmental factors, including moist static stability, vertical velocity, and temperature advection, also act to enhance PLAM in the westerly phases. However, the baroclinic term of moist potential vorticity at 700 hPa tends to decrease over the south, and an increase in low-level ascent is found over the north. These factors can reduce PLAM and possibly limit the statistical significance of the increased PLAM in the westerly phases of the QBO.

  7. IEA FBC Biannual report 1993-1994

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    Hupa, M.; Matinlinna, J.

    1995-12-31

    This publication is the 14th report (biannual, 1993-1994) of the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implement Agreement for Co-operation in the Filed of Fluidized Bed Conversion of Fuels Applied to Clean Energy Production. It has been submitted to IEA in accordance with the provisions of the agreement. This report is edited by Aabo Akademi University, Finland, which has been the operating agent during 1994. The report includes contributions from all the participating member countries. During this period Aabo Akademi University received additional financial support from the Combustion and Gasification Programme LIEKKI 2 of Finland

  8. Passive seismology reveals biannual calving periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Larsen, C. F.; West, M. E.; Oneel, S.

    2013-12-01

    Iceberg calving is a large and variable component of the total mass loss from marine-terminating glaciers worldwide. However, the processes that control the size and variability of calving fluxes are poorly understood. Even more basic descriptions of iceberg calving, such as its seasonality, are uncertain. Here, we present nearly two years of automatically-estimated calving fluxes at Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier whose terminus flows at ~7 km/yr towards the Gulf of Alaska. At the terminus, ice losses to calving and submarine melt total approximately 1.5 km^3/yr. In order to identify temporal variability in this mean rate, we develop a statistical model of calving size based on characteristics of calving-generated icequakes. These characteristics include 4 amplitude-based variables and 5 variables related to the shape of the icequake envelope. We build our model by combining automatically-detected icequakes (O'Neel et al., 2007) located at the terminus of Yahtse Glacier (Jones et al., 2013) with a training set of 1400 icequakes produced by visually-observed calving events (Bartholomaus et al., 2012). In each of the models tested (regression trees, multinomial logistic regression and multiple linear regession), icequake duration emerges as the single best predictor of iceberg size, consistent with past studies (Qamar, 1988; O'Neel et al., 2007). Additional predictors, such as the mean icequake amplitude and the kurtosis of the icequake envelope improve the predictive capability of the model and reduce the mean squared error to well-within the error of the in-person classification. Once validated, we apply our model to ~ 400,000 icequakes produced by calving events at Yahtse Glacier between June 2009 and September 2011. These results reveal fluctuations in calving rate at a range of timescales, including twice per year. We suggest that the roughly 50%, biannual variation in calving rate is the result of the trade-off between two competing processes at the

  9. Biannual Spawning and Temporal Reproductive Isolation in Acropora Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Gilmour

    Full Text Available Coral spawning on the oceanic reef systems of north-western Australia was recently discovered during autumn and spring, but the degree to which species and particularly colonies participated in one or both of these spawnings was unknown. At the largest of the oceanic reef systems, the participation by colonies in the two discrete spawning events was investigated over three years in 13 species of Acropora corals (n = 1,855 colonies. Seven species spawned during both seasons; five only in autumn and one only in spring. The majority of tagged colonies (n = 218 spawned once a year in the same season, but five colonies from three species spawned during spring and autumn during a single year. Reproductive seasonality was not influenced by spatial variation in habitat conditions, or by Symbiodinium partners in the biannual spawner Acropora tenuis. Colonies of A. tenuis spawning during different seasons separated into two distinct yet cryptic groups, in a bayesian clustering analysis based on multiple microsatellite markers. These groups were associated with a major genetic divergence (G"ST = 0.469, despite evidence of mixed ancestry in a small proportion of individuals. Our results confirm that temporal reproductive isolation is a common feature of Acropora populations at Scott Reef and indicate that spawning season is a genetically determined trait in at least A. tenuis. This reproductive isolation may be punctuated occasionally by interbreeding between genetic groups following favourable environmental conditions, when autumn spawners undergo a second annual gametogenic cycle and spawn during spring.

  10. Biannual Cycles in Intertidal Beach Volume Variations in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, K. R.; Blossier, B.; Coco, G.

    2016-02-01

    Interannual beach variations in intertidal beach volumes have been shown to correlate with climatic drivers. In New Zealand, the main climatic drivers on the north east coast are the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), which drive temperature and wind variations in the south Pacific. Lomb-scargle spectra of in situ intertidal beach volume measurements collected at 19 north-east beach sites and indices representing these two climate drivers show significant energy at biannual frequencies, yet no variation in wave climate at the same biannual timescale. In addition, the resolution of volume data precludes a detailed cross-correlation analysis. To explore the source of this biannual variation, a wave hindcast and an existing shoreline change model calibrated with 6 years of video-derived shoreline variations on one of the beaches was used to hindcast shoreline variations over (1) the time range of the in situ measurements ( 17 years) and (2) over the time range of the hindcast ( 33 years). Results show that the size of annual variations in the shoreline depend on the mean summer wave energy relative to the winter, which is inversely correlated with the energy difference the previous year (p=0.95). Moreover, the summer mean southern oscillation index had a similar inverse behaviour (p=0.90), and the two patterns are cross-correlated (p=0.95). Cross-correlation of the Pacific decadal oscillation index does not have the same pattern, likely due to the confounding effect of longer-term cycles in this index. Finally, results are not significant for the longer time range indicating that the biannual cycle is transient. Results show that very subtle variation in between the winter and summer wave climate can drive significant shoreline variations.

  11. Radiation-associated valvular disease

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    Carlson, R.G.; Mayfield, W.R.; Normann, S.; Alexander, J.A. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The prevalence of radiation-associated cardiac disease is increasing due to prolonged survival following mediastinal irradiation. Side effects of radiation include pericarditis, accelerated coronary artery disease, myocardial fibrosis and valvular injury. We evaluated the cases of three young patients with evidence of significant valvular disease following mediastinal irradiation. One patient underwent the first reported successful aortic and mitral valve replacement for radiation-associated valvular disease (RAVD) as well as concurrent coronary artery revascularization. A review of the literature revealed 35 reported cases of RAVD, with only one successful case of valve replacement that was limited to the aortic valve. Asymptomatic RAVD is diagnosed 11.5 years after mediastinal irradiation compared with 16.5 years for symptomatic patients, emphasizing that long-term follow-up is important for patients receiving mediastinal irradiation. This study defines a continuum of valvular disease following radiation that begins with mild asymptomatic valvular thickening and progresses to severe valvular fibrosis with hemodynamic compromise requiring surgical intervention. 32 refs.

  12. Risks associated with ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M P

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the deterministic and stochastic risks (the latter including the risk of cancer and of hereditary disease) associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. Particular attention is paid to cancer risks following exposure to man-made low linear energy transfer radiation. Excess cancer risks have been observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in many medically and occupationally exposed groups. In general, the relative risks among Japanese survivors of atomic-bomb explosions are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilization largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other factors may contribute, such as the generally higher underlying cancer risks in the medical series than in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Risks among occupationally exposed groups such as nuclear workforces and underground miners are generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

  13. Role of the International Radiation Protection Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Kenneth R; Metcalf, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over energy supply and climate change have given rise to an increase in uranium prospecting, mining and extraction. The changing world economy is spreading the use of advanced nuclear and radiation-related technologies to many parts of the world, giving rise to global initiatives on nuclear energy and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The emerging global nuclear safety regime promotes and encourages high standards of radiation safety worldwide. These developments call for increasing capacity and capabilities in radiation protection expertise and continue to present both challenges and opportunities to the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), an association of 46 societies representing 58 countries with an individual membership of approximately 17,000. IRPA's objectives include: (1) assisting the development of competent radiation protection programs; (2) fostering the exchange of scientific and technical information through its international and regional congresses; (3) promoting the scientific and professional recognition of the radiation protection expert; and (4) supporting continuing education programs at each IRPA congress. IRPA has adopted a Code of Ethics and Guiding Principles for the Conduct of Stakeholder Engagement. Recently work began to develop guidance for maintaining and improving current levels of radiation protection and transferring this culture to future radiation protection professionals. These IRPA projects are developed through the Associate Society Forum discussions that are held at each IRPA international and regional congress. Finally, IRPA maintains a close working relationship with various international organizations and is also represented on the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  14. Space Radiation and its Associated Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu

    2007-01-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to energetic particles of a complex composition and energy distribution. For the same amount of absorbed dose, these particles can be much more effective than X- or gamma rays in the induction of biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts, and cancer induction. Several of the biological consequences of space radiation exposure have already been observed in astronauts. This presentation will introduce the space radiation environment and discuss its associated health risks. Accurate assessment of the radiation risks and development of respective countermeasures are essential for the success of future exploration missions to the Moon and Mars.

  15. Rossendorf Beamline at ESRF (ROBL-CRG). Bi-annual report 2009/2010

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    Scheinost, Andreas C.; Baehtz, Carsten (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The Rossendorf Beamline (ROBL) - located at BM20 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France - is in operation since 1998. This 7th report covers the period from January 2009 to December 2010. In these two years, 67 peer- reviewed papers have been published based on experiments done at the beamline, more than in any biannual period before. Six highlight reports have been selected for this report to demonstrate the scientific strength and diversity of the experiments performed on the two end-stations of the beamline, dedicated to Radiochemistry (RCH) and Materials Research (MRH). The beamtime was more heavily overbooked than ever before, with an acceptance rate of only 25% experiments. We would like to thank our external proposal review members, Prof. Andre Maes (KU Leuven, Belgium), Prof. Laurent Charlet (UJF Grenoble, France), Dr. Andreas Leinweber (MPI Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Germany), Prof. David Rafaja (TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany), Prof. Dirk Meyer (TU Dresden, Germany), who evaluated the inhouse proposals in a thorough manner, thereby ensuring that beamtime was distributed according to scientific merit. The period was not only characterized by very successful science, but also by intense work on the optics upgrade. In spring 2009, a workshop was held at ROBL, assembling beamline experts from German, Spanish and Swiss synchrotrons, to evaluate the best setup for the new optics. These suggestions was used to prepare the call for tender published in July 2009. From the tender acceptance in November 2009 on, a series of design review meetings and factory acceptance tests followed. Already in July 2010, the first piece of equipment was delivered, the new double-crystal, double-multilayer monochromator. The disassembly of the old optics components started end of July, 2011, followed by the installation of the new components. As of December 2011, the new optics have seen the first test beam and thorough hot commissioning will

  16. Thermal Radiation Anomalies Associated with Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Kafatos, Menas C.; Taylor, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments of remote sensing methods for Earth satellite data analysis contribute to our understanding of earthquake related thermal anomalies. It was realized that the thermal heat fluxes over areas of earthquake preparation is a result of air ionization by radon (and other gases) and consequent water vapor condensation on newly formed ions. Latent heat (LH) is released as a result of this process and leads to the formation of local thermal radiation anomalies (TRA) known as OLR (outgoing Longwave radiation, Ouzounov et al, 2007). We compare the LH energy, obtained by integrating surface latent heat flux (SLHF) over the area and time with released energies associated with these events. Extended studies of the TRA using the data from the most recent major earthquakes allowed establishing the main morphological features. It was also established that the TRA are the part of more complex chain of the short-term pre-earthquake generation, which is explained within the framework of a lithosphere-atmosphere coupling processes.

  17. Carcinogenic risks associated with radiation pollution. [UV radiation, sunlight

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    Latarjet, R.

    1976-01-01

    The cancerogenic pollution by non-ionizing radiations is limited to the case of solar ultraviolet, whose activity at ground level may be increased as a consequence of the stratospheric depletion of ozone, produced by certain chemical pollutants: nitrogen oxides from supersonic aircrafts, freon. As regards ionizing radiations, the discussion is focused on the fundamental problem of the threshold, and on the means by which one may obtain some quantitative data related to carcinogenesis by small radiation doses in man. A new concept, that of a practical threshold, is proposed. A theory which links radiocancerogenesis, as well as chemical cancerogenesis, to errors produced in the repair of lesions in the DNA is discussed. The rads-equivalent project for chemical mutagens and carcinogens is described.

  18. Radiation therapy-associated invasive bladder tumors

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    Sella, A.; Dexeus, F.H.; Chong, C.; Ro, J.Y.; Logothetis, C.J.

    1989-03-01

    Radiotherapy-associated bladder carcinoma was found in 3.7 percent of 244 cases of advanced urothelial carcinoma. Average age at diagnosis of the bladder tumor was 63.1 years, with a mean of 20.5 years between radiation treatment and diagnosis. All 9 patients presented with gross hematuria. Eight patients had transitional cell carcinoma, 7/8 (87.5%) also had vascular or lymphatic invasion, and 1 was adenocarcinoma. Mean survival was 15.4 months (range 1-40 mos.), with a 55.5 percent one-year disease-free survival after diagnosis. Four patients died of bladder tumor, 4 were alive with no evidence of disease, and 1 was alive with metastasis.

  19. A review of welding radiation and associated protection measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenkate, T.

    1996-10-01

    Welding processes emit electromagnetic radiation that poses risk to the eyes and skin of workers. This paper reviews the health effects associated with exposure to welding radiation, the types of radiation emitted and the factors that influence the radiation emission. Studies on personal ultraviolet radiation levels of workers exposed to welding are reviewed, and engineering and personal protective measures that limit welding radiation are discussed. These measures include the design of the work area, and the use of semi-transparent welding curtains, protective clothing, safety spectacles and welding helmets. 41 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. [Carcinogenic risks associated with radiation pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, R

    1976-01-01

    1. The cancerogenic pollution by non-ionizing radiations is limited to the case of solar ultraviolet, whose activity at ground level may be increased as a consequence of the stratospheric depletion of ozone, itself produced by certain chemical pollutants: nitrogen oxydes from supersonic aircrafts, freon. 2. As regards ionizing radiations, the discussion is focused on the fundamental problem of the "threshold", aand on the means by which one may obtain some quantitative data related to carcinogenesis by small radiation doses in Man. A new concept, that of a "practical threshold" is proposed. 3. One discusses a theory which links radiocancerogenesis, as well as chemical cancerogenesis, to errors produced in the repair of lesions in the DNA. 4. One presents and discusses the "rads-equivalent" project for chemical mutagens and cancerogens.

  1. Biannual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Hung, H.; Ma, J.; Stern, G. A.; Rosenberg, B.; Racine, J.

    2014-09-01

    Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian arctic air monitoring station Alert (82°30' N, 62°20' W) were analyzed by enantiospecific gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = quantities of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, 0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for α-HCH (0.504 ± 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 ± 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 ± 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed biannual cycles of lower α-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded α-HCH with EF 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized α-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68° N, 94.90° W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed biannual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC/CC ratio (expressed as FTC = TC/(TC + CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall vs. winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

  2. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  3. Solar radiation is inversely associated with inflammatory bowel disease admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Francisca; Riutort, Maria C; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Rodrigo; Camargo, Carlos A; Borzutzky, Arturo

    To explore the associations between latitude and solar radiation with inflammatory bowel disease admission rates in Chile, the country with the largest variation in solar radiation in the world. This is an ecological study, which included data on all hospital-admitted population for inflammatory bowel disease between 2001 and 2012, according to different latitudes and solar radiation exposures in Chile. The data were acquired from the national hospital discharge database from the Department of Health Statistics and Information of the Chilean Ministry of Health. Between 2001 and 2012 there were 12,869 admissions due to inflammatory bowel disease (69% ulcerative colitis, 31% Crohn's disease). Median age was 36 years (IQR: 25-51); 57% were female. The national inflammatory bowel disease admission rate was 6.52 (95% CI: 6.40-6.63) per 100,000 inhabitants with increasing rates over the 12-year period. In terms of latitude, the highest admission rates for pediatric ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, as well as adult ulcerative colitis, were observed in the southernmost region with lowest annual solar radiation. Linear regression analysis showed that regional solar radiation was inversely associated with inflammatory bowel disease admissions in Chile (β: -.44, p = .03). Regional solar radiation was inversely associated with inflammatory bowel disease admission rates in Chile; inflammatory bowel disease admissions were highest in the southernmost region with lowest solar radiation. Our results support the potential role of vitamin D deficiency on inflammatory bowel disease flares.

  4. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2016

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    NONE

    2016-12-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2016. It was held on Dec. 1, 2016 Phoenix Island in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2016. This proceedings is comprised of 5 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation measurement, Radiation environment and prevention, Radiation epidemiography.

  5. Fear of crime: Methodological considerations and results from a biannual survey in the city of Oporto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Manita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of a biannual inquiry on fear of crime in the city of Oporto (Portugal. Given the ongoing controversy on fear of crime measurement, we developed an instrument that: (a differentiates between fear, risk and perceived seriousness of crime, (b includes multiple levels of measurement, both general and specific, and (c provides multiple measures of fear. Data were also collected on contextual clues that increase judgments of risk, defensive measures adopted by subjects and fear narratives. This instrument was first applied in 1997, to a sample of 467 subjects and again in 1999, to a sample of 500 subjects. Both studies evidence a high level of fear from crime in the population of Oporto, accompanied by a global perception of raising crime rates. Consistent with these high fear results, subjects resort to several defensive measures, mostly of an avoiding nature. Women and lower class subjects tend to report higher fear levels. Despite these global findings, fear levels (both general and between age groups vary substantially according to the different measures used, providing a more complex analysis of the pattern of results usually found in fear of crime research.

  6. Observation of the Energetic Radiation Associated with Winter Lightning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, T.; Sugita, T.; Muraki, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Gamma-ray dose-rate increase associated with thunderstorm activities was observed on the ground at the west coast of Japan in winter. To investigate the fluctuation profile during thunderstorms, the energetic radiation was measured by using two radiation detectors which consist of four long proportional counters (2.5 m in length; 10 cm in diameter) respectively. It was also compared with the result measured at the same time by the environmental radiation monitors adopting an NaI scintillator / ionization chamber as a detector. Moreover, the electric field was measured at the same site by using a field mill. In the observation from December, 2005 to January, 2006, the count-rate fluctuation which seem to originate from thunderstorm activity observed four times by the proportional counters. The features obtained by the measurement and the analysis of the counters are as follows: (1) It was observed that the radiation intensity began to increase from before several 10 seconds in which the radiation burst is generated. In addition, this radiation burst and a transient fluctuation of electric field showing lightning discharge were generated simultaneously. (2) The radiation fluctuation was not observed in every thunderstorm activity, even if lightning discharges were arising in the vicinity. (3) In all events that showed a count-rate increase detected by the proportional counters, the count-rate returned to former level at the same time as producing a lightning discharge. (4) From sensitivity experiments of the proportional counters by using RI radiation sources and the Monte Carlo analysis of these particle/energy response functions, the sensitivity of these counters for electrons with energy over 3 MeV has been an order of magnitude higher than that for gamma-rays. From the above mentioned results of the proportional counters and the other radiation monitors data, the transient increase of radiation is most likely caused by the incidence of the high energy electrons

  7. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017

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    NONE

    2017-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2017. It was held on 13 April 2017 Gunsan Saemangeum Covention Center in Gunsan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017. This proceedings is comprised of 5 ssessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation measurement and prevention, Radiation epidemiography.

  8. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2016. It was held on Apr. 6-8, 2016 Daemyung Resort in Byeonsan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2016. This proceedings is comprised of 4 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation Measurement, Radiation environment and prevention.

  9. Radiation-associated ischemic coloproctitis. Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomori, Hirofumi; Yasuda, Takashi; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Isa, Tsutomu; Muto, Yoshihiro; Egawa, Haruhiko [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    Radiation-associated ischemic coloproctitis is a rare clinical entity caused by vascular insufficiency to the rectosigmoid colon. It most commonly occurs after radiotherapy for gynecological cancer. We present herein the cases of two patients who developed radiation-associated coloproctitis with transmural necrosis and eventual perforation. Perforation of the rectosigmoid colon occurred 3.5 years after radiotherapy in case 1, a 46-year-old woman, and presented as a well-defined small area of transmural necrosis. Conversely, in case 2, a 55-year-old woman, it occurred 1.5 years after radiotherapy, and presented as segmental, diffuse transmural necrosis. The lesion in case 1 had been caused by intramural vascular obliteration due to marked fibrosis of the bowel wall, while that in case 2 had been caused by occlusion of the mesenteric artery with thrombosis. Both patients underwent Hartmann's resection without rectal excision, and survived the perforative event. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2015. It was held on Apr. 22-24, 2015 in Yeosu, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation Measurement 1, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 2.

  11. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2015. It was held on Oct.23, 2015 Mayfield Hotel in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation Measurement 1, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 2.

  12. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2014. It was held on Nov.19-21, 2014 in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation measurement 1, Radiation environment and protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and protection 2.

  13. Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Self-Consistent Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Plasma instabilities excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle acceleration. We have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of about 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. These magnetic fields contribute to the electrons transverse deflection behind the shock. We calculate the radiation from deflected electrons in the turbulent magnetic fields. The properties of this radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants.

  14. Bi-annual report 1994-1995. Research and operational activities of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    BI-annual report of Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw, shows its activities in 1994-1995. The general information and organization of CLOR have been performed in the opening part of the report. The second part contains extended abstracts of scientific activities especially in: environmental radioactivity monitoring, supervision and control of the users of radioactive sources, dosimetry problems, calibration and standardization of dosimetric equipment, radiobiology and radiological hazard assessment. The report also includes the full list of publications of CLOR scientific staff issued in the period of 1994-1995.

  15. Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Meena, Ramovatar; Verma, H N; Kumar, Shivendra

    2013-03-01

    Wireless technologies are ubiquitous today and the mobile phones are one of the prodigious output of this technology. Although the familiarization and dependency of mobile phones is growing at an alarming pace, the biological effects due to the exposure of radiations have become a subject of intense debate. The present evidence on mobile phone radiation exposure is based on scientific research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at radiofrequency (RF)/ electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. The conflict in conclusions is mainly because of difficulty in controlling the affecting parameters. Biological effects are dependent not only on the distance and size of the object (with respect to the object) but also on the environmental parameters. Health endpoints reported to be associated with RF include childhood leukemia, brain tumors, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, infertility and some cardiovascular effects. Most of the reports conclude a reasonable suspicion of mobile phone risk that exists based on clear evidence of bio-effects which with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. The present study summarizes the public issue based on mobile phone radiation exposure and their biological effects. This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Cardiovascular risks associated with low dose ionizing particle radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Yan

    Full Text Available Previous epidemiologic data demonstrate that cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality may occur decades after ionizing radiation exposure. With increased use of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy and concerns about space radiation exposures to astronauts on future long-duration exploration-type missions, the long-term effects and risks of low-dose charged particle irradiation on the CV system must be better appreciated. Here we report on the long-term effects of whole-body proton ((1H; 0.5 Gy, 1 GeV and iron ion ((56Fe; 0.15 Gy, 1GeV/nucleon irradiation with and without an acute myocardial ischemia (AMI event in mice. We show that cardiac function of proton-irradiated mice initially improves at 1 month but declines by 10 months post-irradiation. In AMI-induced mice, prior proton irradiation improved cardiac function restoration and enhanced cardiac remodeling. This was associated with increased pro-survival gene expression in cardiac tissues. In contrast, cardiac function was significantly declined in (56Fe ion-irradiated mice at 1 and 3 months but recovered at 10 months. In addition, (56Fe ion-irradiation led to poorer cardiac function and more adverse remodeling in AMI-induced mice, and was associated with decreased angiogenesis and pro-survival factors in cardiac tissues at any time point examined up to 10 months. This is the first study reporting CV effects following low dose proton and iron ion irradiation during normal aging and post-AMI. Understanding the biological effects of charged particle radiation qualities on the CV system is necessary both for the mitigation of space exploration CV risks and for understanding of long-term CV effects following charged particle radiotherapy.

  17. Radiation-associated pulmonary infundibular stenosis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Shinsuke; Horimoto, Masashi; Inoue, Hitoki; Takenaka, Takashi [Sapporo National Hospital (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    A 68-year-old female was admitted to the hospital for evaluation of cardiac murmur. At the age of 45, the patient was treated with an electron beam irradiation of a total of 51 Gy following radical mastectomy for the left mammary gland. Furthermore, the subsequent irradiation with a total of 57 Gy was delivered two months later. At the age of 59 years, pericardial diffusion due to radiation-associated pericarditis was noted but no cardiac murmur was heard. On the present admission, B-mode echocardiography showed pericardial effusion contiguous to the posterior wall of the left ventricle and no asynergy and no hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall. No valvular dysfunction was detected. The right ventricular (RV) outflow tract was strikingly narrowed at systole because of the hypercontraction of the thickened RV free wall at the RV outflow tract. Doppler echocardiography revealed a turbulent flow with a pressure gradient of 12 mmHg at the RV outflow tract. A similar pressure gradient was noted by RV pressure study at the pulmonary artery. Right ventriculography revealed a systolic narrowing of the RV outflow tract and coronary angiograms were normal. These findings lead to the diagnosis of pulmonary infundibular stenosis due to radiation. (N.A.).

  18. Aerosol Radiative Effects on Deep Convective Clouds and Associated Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Zhang, R.; Tao, W.-K.; Mohr, I.

    2007-01-01

    The aerosol radiative effects (ARE) on the deep convective clouds are investigated by using a spectral-bin cloud-resolving model (CRM) coupled with a radiation scheme and an explicit land surface model. The sensitivity of cloud properties and the associated radiative forcing to aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) are examined. The ARE on cloud properties is pronounced for mid-visible SSA of 0.85. Relative to the case excluding the ARE, cloud fraction and optical depth decrease by about 18% and 20%, respectively. Cloud droplet and ice particle number concentrations, liquid water path (LWP), ice water path (IWP), and droplet size decrease significantly when the ARE is introduced. The ARE causes a surface cooling of about 0.35 K and significantly high heating rates in the lower troposphere (about 0.6K/day higher at 2 km), both of which lead to a more stable atmosphere and hence weaker convection. The weaker convection and the more desiccation of cloud layers explain the less cloudiness, lower cloud optical depth, LWP and IWP, smaller droplet size, and less precipitation. The daytime-mean direct forcing induced by black carbon is about 2.2 W/sq m at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and -17.4 W/sq m at the surface for SSA of 0.85. The semi-direct forcing is positive, about 10 and 11.2 W/sq m at the TOA and surface, respectively. Both the TOA and surface total radiative forcing values are strongly negative for the deep convective clouds, attributed mostly to aerosol indirect forcing. Aerosol direct and semi-direct effects are very sensitive to SSA. Because the positive semi-direct forcing compensates the negative direct forcing at the surface, the surface temperature and heat fluxes decrease less significantly with the increase of aerosol absorption (decreasing SSA). The cloud fraction, optical depth, convective strength, and precipitation decrease with the increase of absorption, resulting from a more stable and dryer atmosphere due to enhanced surface cooling and

  19. Reaction rate constant for radiative association of CF+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ã-ström, Jonatan; Bezrukov, Dmitry S.; Nyman, Gunnar; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Reaction rate constants and cross sections are computed for the radiative association of carbon cations (C+) and fluorine atoms (F) in their ground states. We consider reactions through the electronic transition 11Π → X1Σ+ and rovibrational transitions on the X1Σ+ and a3Π potentials. Semiclassical and classical methods are used for the direct contribution and Breit-Wigner theory for the resonance contribution. Quantum mechanical perturbation theory is used for comparison. A modified formulation of the classical method applicable to permanent dipoles of unequally charged reactants is implemented. The total rate constant is fitted to the Arrhenius-Kooij formula in five temperature intervals with a relative difference of <3%. The fit parameters will be added to the online database KIDA. For a temperature of 10-250 K, the rate constant is about 10-21 cm3 s-1, rising toward 10-16 cm3 s-1 for a temperature of 30 000 K.

  20. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  1. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  2. The risk of melanoma associated with ambient summer ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Bushnik, Tracey; Fioletov, Vitali; Peters, Cheryl E; King, Will D; Tjepkema, Michael

    2017-05-17

    Depletion of the ozone layer has meant that ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has increased in recent decades. At the same time, the incidence of skin cancers, including melanoma, has risen. The relatively few large-scale studies that linked ambient UVR to melanoma found a trend toward rising incidence closer to the equator, where UVR estimates are highest. Similar research has not been conducted in Canada, where ambient UVR is generally lower than in countries further south. Modelled UVR data for the months of June through August during the 1980-to-1990 period were spatially linked in Geographic Information Systems to 2.4 million white members of the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort and tracked for melanoma diagnosis over an 18-year period (1992 to 2009). Standard Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate melanoma risk associated with increases of ambient summer UVR, assigned by residence at baseline. Models were adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic (SES) characteristics. Separate analyses by body site of melanoma were conducted. Effect modification of the association between ambient UVR and melanoma by sex, age, outdoor occupation and selected SES characteristics was evaluated. Differences of one standard deviation (446 J/m², or 7% of the mean) in average ambient summer UVR were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for melanoma of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.19 to 1.25) when adjusting for sex, age and SES characteristics. The HR for melanoma in relative UVR (per 1 standard deviation) was larger for men (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.30) than for women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.22). Ambient summer UVR is associated with a greater risk of melanoma among the white population, even in a country where most people live within a narrow latitudinal belt. A stronger association between melanoma and ambient UVR was evident among men and among people of lower SES.

  3. Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another.

  4. Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another.

  5. An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryberger, D.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and [gt] 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source.

  6. An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryberger, D.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and {gt} 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source.

  7. Study of outgoing longwave radiation anomalies associated with Haiti earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xiong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis by using the methods of Eddy field calculation mean and wavelet maxima to detect seismic anomalies within the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR data based on time and space. The distinguishing feature of the method of Eddy field calculation mean is that we can calculate "the total sum of the difference value" of "the measured value" between adjacent points, which could highlight the singularity within data. The identified singularities are further validated by wavelet maxima, which using wavelet transformations as data mining tools by computing the maxima that can be used to identify obvious anomalies within OLR data. The two methods has been applied to carry out a comparative analysis of OLR data associated with the earthquake recently occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010. Combining with the tectonic explanation of spatial and temporal continuity of the abnormal phenomena, the analyzed results have indicated a number of singularities associated with the possible seismic anomalies of the earthquake and from the comparative experiments and analyses by using the two methods, which follow the same time and space, we conclude that the singularities observed from 19 to 24 December 2009 could be the earthquake precursor of Haiti earthquake.

  8. XXIV Biannual meeting of Spanish Physics Royal Society. XXIV reunion bianual de la Sociedad Espaola de Fisica Jaca, Huesca, 27 sept-1 oct 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R.; Carrion Sanjuan, J.A.; Rodriguez Vallejo, S.; Virto Medina, A. (eds.)

    1993-01-01

    The XXIV biannual meeting of Spanish Physics Royal Society was articulated in 21 sessions. The topics of these sessions are: High Energy, Astronomy, Acoustic, Astrophysics, Electromagnetism, electronics, Energy and Environment, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Fusion, Condensed mater, Metrology, Reology, Spectroscopy, Nuclear Physics, Theoric Physics, Atmospheric Physics, Earth Physics, Meteorolgy, Polymers, Physical Chemistry and thermodynamics.

  9. Reaction Rate Constant for Radiative Association of CF$^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Öström, Jonatan; Nyman, Gunnar; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Reaction rate constants and cross sections are computed for the radiative association of carbon cations ($\\text{C}^+$) and fluorine atoms ($\\text{F}$) in their ground states. We consider reactions through the electronic transition $1^1\\Pi \\rightarrow X^1\\Sigma^+$ and rovibrational transitions on the $X^1\\Sigma^+$ and $a^3\\Pi$ potentials. Semiclassical and classical methods are used for the direct contribution and Breit--Wigner theory for the resonance contribution. Quantum mechanical perturbation theory is used for comparison. A modified formulation of the classical method applicable to permanent dipoles of unequally charged reactants is implemented. The total rate constant is fitted to the Arrhenius--Kooij formula in five temperature intervals with a relative difference of $<3\\:\\%$. The fit parameters will be added to the online database KIDA. For a temperature of $10$ to $250\\:\\text{K}$, the rate constant is about $10^{-21}\\:\\text{cm}^3\\text{s}^{-1}$, rising toward $10^{-16}\\:\\text{cm}^3\\text{s}^{-1}$ fo...

  10. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2011. It was held on Nov.17-18, 2011 the ocean resort in Yeosu, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2011. This proceedings is comprised of 14 sessions.

  11. Problems associated with microbiological validation of sterilization by ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J E

    1998-01-01

    Potential solutions to some of the practical problems experienced when validating products processed by radiation sterilization are discussed in this article. The standards for validation and routine control of radiation sterilization are to be revised next year and there is now an opportunity for the industry to influence the effectiveness of those revisions. Medical device manufacturers are encouraged to make views known to help ensure a simpler standard that is widely implemented.

  12. Investigating work-related neoplasia associated with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Forman, S D; McNamee, R; Wilkinson, S M; Agius, R

    2015-01-01

    Both solar and non-solar exposures associated with occupation and work tasks have been reported as skin carcinogens. In the UK, there are well-established surveillance schemes providing relevant information, including when exposures took place, occupation, location of work and dates of symptom onset and diagnosis. To add to the evidence on work-related skin neoplasia, including causal agents, geographical exposure and time lag between exposure and diagnosis. This study investigated incident case reports of occupational skin disease originating from clinical specialists in dermatology reporting to a UK-wide surveillance scheme (EPIDERM) by analysing case reports of skin neoplasia from 1996 to 2012 in terms of diagnosis, employment, suspected causal agent and symptom onset. The suspected causal agent was 'sun/sunlight/ultraviolet light' in 99% of the reported work-related skin neoplasia cases. Most cases reported (91%) were in males, and the majority (62%) were aged over 65 at the time of reporting. More detailed information on exposure was available for 42% of the cases, with the median time from exposure to symptom onset ranging from 44 (melanoma) to 57 (squamous cell carcinoma) years. Irrespective of diagnostic category, the median duration of exposure to 'sun/sunlight/ultraviolet light' appeared longer where exposures occurred in the UK (range 39-51 years) rather than outside the UK (range 2.5-6.5 years). It is important to provide effective information about skin protection to workers exposed to solar radiation, especially to outdoor workers based outside the UK. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Radiation-Associated Toxicities in Obese Women with Endometrial Cancer: More Than Just BMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita V. Dandapani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study characterizes the impact of obesity on postoperative radiation-associated toxicities in women with endometrial cancer (EC. Material and Methods. A retrospective study identified 96 women with EC referred to a large urban institution’s radiation oncology practice for postoperative whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT and/or intracavitary vaginal brachytherapy (ICBT. Demographic and clinicopathologic data were obtained. Toxicities were graded according to RTOG Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. Follow-up period ranged from 1 month to 11 years (median 2 years. Data were analyzed by χ2, logistic regression, and recursive partitioning analyses. Results. 68 EC patients who received WPRT and/or ICBT were analyzed. Median age was 52 years (29–73. The majority were Hispanic (71%. Median BMI at diagnosis was 34.5 kg/m2 (20.5–56.6 kg/m2. BMI was independently associated with radiation-related cutaneous (p=0.022 and gynecologic-related (p=0.027 toxicities. Younger women also reported more gynecologic-related toxicities (p=0.039. Adjuvant radiation technique was associated with increased gastrointestinal- and genitourinary-related toxicities but not gynecologic-related toxicity. Conclusions. Increasing BMI was associated with increased frequency of gynecologic and cutaneous radiation-associated toxicities. Additional studies to critically evaluate the radiation treatment dosing and treatment fields in obese EC patients are warranted to identify strategies to mitigate the radiation-associated toxicities in these women.

  14. Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Low-Dose Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyesi, Hargita; Sándor, Nikolett; Schilling, Boglárka; Kis, Enikő; Lumniczky, Katalin; Sáfrány, Géza

    We have studied low dose radiation induced gene expression alterations in a primary human fibroblast cell line using Agilent's whole human genome microarray. Cells were irradiated with 60Co γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.5 Gy) and 2 hours later total cellular RNA was isolated. We observed differential regulation of approximately 300-500 genes represented on the microarray. Of these, 126 were differentially expressed at both doses, among them significant elevation of GDF-15 and KITLG was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Based on the transcriptional studies we selected GDF-15 to assess its role in radiation response, since GDF-15 is one of the p53 gene targets and is believed to participate in mediating p53 activities. First we confirmed gamma-radiation induced dose-dependent changes in GDF-15 expression by qRT-PCR. Next we determined the effect of GDF-15 silencing on radiosensitivity. Four GDF-15 targeting shRNA expressing lentiviral vectors were transfected into immortalized human fibroblast cells. We obtained efficient GDF-15 silencing in one of the four constructs. RNA interference inhibited GDF-15 gene expression and enhanced the radiosensitivity of the cells. Our studies proved that GDF-15 plays an essential role in radiation response and may serve as a promising target in radiation therapy.

  15. Oncogenic rearrangements driving ionizing radiation-associated human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Massimo; Carlomagno, Francesca

    2013-11-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster has caused a remarkable increase in radiation-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and young adults. In this issue of the JCI, Ricarte-Filho and colleagues demonstrate that chromosomal rearrangements are the oncogenic "drivers" in most post-Chernobyl carcinomas and that they often lead to unscheduled activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. These findings represent a major step forward in our understanding of radiation-induced carcinogenesis and suggest various hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying the formation and selection of gene rearrangements during cancer cell evolution.

  16. Radiation-associated adverse events after childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, I.W.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    With improved survival rates, childhood cancer survivors are confronted with treatment-related adverse events, especially when radiation therapy was involved. After the introduction (Chapter 1), the Chapters 2 and 3 present the EKZ/AMC childhood cancer survivor cohort and the methodology of using

  17. Radiation-associated breast tumors display a distinct gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Wessels, Lodewyk F A

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women who received irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma have a strong increased risk for developing breast cancer. Approximately 90% of the breast cancers in these patients can be attributed to their radiation treatment, rendering such series extremely useful to determine whether a common...... at the same age. RNA was obtained from fresh frozen tissue samples from 22 patients who developed breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma (BfHL) and from 20 control breast tumors. RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the profile data resulted in a clustering of the radiation-associated tumors...... radiation-associated cause underlies the carcinogenic process. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study we used gene expression profiling technology to assess gene expression changes in radiation-associated breast tumors compared with a set of control breast tumors of women unexposed to radiation, diagnosed...

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With the Severity of Radiation-Induced Proctitis in Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbanzadeh-Moghaddam, Amir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamrezaei, Ali, E-mail: Gholamrezaei@med.mui.ac.ir [Medical Student' s Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursina Hakim Research Institution, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hemati, Simin [Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced injury to normal tissues is a common complication of radiation therapy in cancer patients. Considering the role of vitamin D in mucosal barrier hemostasis and inflammatory responses, we investigated whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis in cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This prospective observational study was conducted in cancer patients referred for pelvic radiation therapy. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured before radiation therapy. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <35 nmol/L and <40 nmol/L in male and female patients, respectively, based on available normative data. Acute proctitis was assessed after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (total received radiation dose of 50 Gy) and graded from 0 to 4 using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: Ninety-eight patients (57.1% male) with a mean age of 62.8 ± 9.1 years were studied. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57 patients (58.1%). Symptoms of acute proctitis occurred in 72 patients (73.4%) after radiation therapy. RTOG grade was significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency than in normal cases (median [interquartile range] of 2 [0.5-3] vs 1 [0-2], P=.037). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with RTOG grade of ≥2, independent of possible confounding factors; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 3.07 (1.27-7.50), P=.013. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of this association and evaluating the effectiveness of vitamin D therapy in preventing radiation-induced acute proctitis is warranted.

  19. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  20. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gaël P; Zeeb, Hajo

    2010-09-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated.

  1. Radiation Doses and Associated Risk From the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-03-01

    The magnitude of dose due to the Fukushima Daiichi Accident was estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2013 report published in April 2014. Following this, the UNSCEAR white paper, which comprises a digest of new information for the 2013 Fukushima report, was published in October 2015. Another comprehensive report on radiation dose due to the accident is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident published in August 2015. Although the UNSCEAR and IAEA publications well summarize doses received by residents, they review only literature published before the end of December 2014 and the end of March 2015, respectively. However, some studies on dose estimation have been published since then. In addition, the UNSCEAR 2013 report states it was likely that some overestimation had been introduced generally by the methodology used by the Committee. For example, effects of decontamination were not considered in the lifetime external dose estimated. Decontamination is in progress for most living areas in Fukushima Prefecture, which could reduce long-term external dose to residents. This article mainly reviews recent English language articles that may add new information to the UNSCEAR and IAEA publications. Generally, recent articles suggest lower doses than those presented by the UNSCEAR 2013 report.

  2. History of International Workshop on Mini-Micro- and Nano- Dosimetry (MMND) and Innovation Technologies in Radiation Oncology (ITRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Zaider, Marco; Yamada, Josh; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The biannual MMND (former MMD) - IPCT workshops was founded in collaboration between the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in 2001 and has become an important international multidisciplinary forum for the discussion of advanced quality assurance (QA) dosimetry technology for radiation therapy and space science, as well as advanced technologies for clinical cancer treatment.

  3. Investigation of background radiation and associated anomalies in Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smuin, D.R.; Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    In addition to examining anomalies and establishing the background gamma exposure rate range, the study presents a formula to convert thousand counts per minute (kcpm) from a gamma scintillator to microroentgen per hour (..mu..Rh) for the Rifle region. Also, a method is presented to identify contaminated areas containing excess /sup 226/Ra, by using a GR-410 gamma spectrometer. This method is suggested to be applied to all property surveys in the Rifle area. The Wasatch Formation, which outcrops extensively in the Rifle area, was found to have a major influence on the background radiation. Varying potassium concentrations and naturally occurring uranium in this rock unit reveal varying gamma exposure rates. Examining RaTh ratios from laboratory analysis of soil samples or use of RaTh ratios from GR-410 gamma spectrometer readings on site allows discrimination between mill related contamination and naturally occuring radioactivity. Radioactive coal clinkers were found used as fill material throughout the Rifle region and have been determined to be a product of the mill and subject to remediation. Finally, windblown mill tailings contamination is addressed in some detail. Mill tailings redistributed from the Rifle uranium mill tailings piles by prevailing winds were detected extensively on vicinity properties in Rifle. Some radioactive components of the windblown tailings were found to have leached into the subsurface soil. The combination of Wasatch Formation, radioactive coal clinkers, and windblown tailings accounts for many of the anomalous gamma exposure rates observed by the radiological survey teams. 11 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Assessment of Organ Radiation Dose Associated with Uterine Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomset, O.; Hellesnes, J.; Heimland, N.; Hafsahl, G.; Smith, H.J. [Rikshospitalet Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Radiology and the Interventional Centre

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiation dose to the skin, uterus, and ovaries during uterine artery embolization. Material and Methods: Guided uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata and two types of X-ray equipment with different dose levels were utilized during fluoroscopy in 20 women (ages ranging from 32 to 52 years, body weights from 55 to 68 kg). The first 13 women were treated using a non-pulsed system A, with 3.3 mm Al filtering and, for simplicity, a fixed peak voltage 80 kV. During treatment of the other 7 women, a pulsed system B with 5.4 mm Al filtering and an identical fixed voltage was used. The dose area product (DAP) was recorded. The vaginal dose of the first 13 patients and the peak skin dose of all patients were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). TLDs were placed in the posterior vaginal fornix and on the skin at the beam entrance site. The uterine and ovarian doses were estimated based on the measured skin doses, normalized depth dose, and organ depth values. The effective dose (D eff ) was estimated based on the observed DAP values. The measured vaginal doses and the corresponding estimated uterine doses were compared statistically, as were the DAP values from systems A and B. Results: For system A, the mean fluoroscopic time was 20.9 min (range 12.7-31.1), and for system B 35.9 min (range 16.4-55.4). The mean numbers of angiographic exposures for systems A and B were 82 (range 30-164) and 37 (range 20-72), respectively. The mean peak skin dose for system A was 601.5 mGy (range 279-1030) and for system B 453 mGy (range 257-875). The mean DAP for system A was 88.6 Gy cm{sup 2} (range 41.4-161.0) and for system B 52.5 Gy cm{sup 2} (range 20.1-107.9). Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the DAP values, the DAP for system B being the lower one. The mean estimated effective doses from systems A and B were 32 mSv (range 15.1-58.4) and 22 mSv (range 9-46), respectively. The mean estimated maximum uterine and

  5. Analysis of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms in the Ebro delta region in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Argemí, Oriol; van der Velde, Oscar A.; Romero, David; Soula, Serge

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of high-energy background radiation (0.1-2 MeV) enhancements during eight winter thunderstorms and five summer storms in the Ebro delta region in the northeast of Spain is presented. For the first time, high-energy radiation counts, precipitation, radar reflectivity, and very high frequency lightning detections to infer charge regions altitude have been analyzed in order to find out what produces the measured background radiation increments associated with storms. The good agreement between radar reflectivity and precipitation with increases in background radiation counts coupled with the spectrum analysis comparing rain/no rain periods suggests that radon-ion daughters play a major role in the radiation increments reported. No evidence has been found supporting that measured background radiation enhancements can be produced by storm electric fields. Finally, a single case of a high-energy radiation increase was prior to a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke, which reinforces the theory that a lower positive charge layer's existence is important for the production of Terrestrial Ground Enhancements.

  6. Dose–Volume Relationships Associated With Temporal Lobe Radiation Necrosis After Skull Base Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: markmcdonaldmd@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Linton, Okechukwu R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Calley, Cynthia S.J. [Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: We evaluated patient and treatment parameters correlated with development of temporal lobe radiation necrosis. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 66 patients treated for skull base chordoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, or sinonasal malignancies between 2005 and 2012, who had at least 6 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The median radiation dose was 75.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]). Analyzed factors included gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, use of chemotherapy, and the absolute dose:volume data for both the right and left temporal lobes, considered separately. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis evaluated potential predictors of radiation necrosis, and the median effective concentration (EC50) model estimated dose–volume parameters associated with radiation necrosis. Results: Median follow-up time was 31 months (range 6-96 months) and was 34 months in patients who were alive. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 3 years was 84.9%. The 3-year estimate of any grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis was 12.4%, and for grade 2 or higher radiation necrosis was 5.7%. On multivariate GEE, only dose–volume relationships were associated with the risk of radiation necrosis. In the EC50 model, all dose levels from 10 to 70 Gy (RBE) were highly correlated with radiation necrosis, with a 15% 3-year risk of any-grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis when the absolute volume of a temporal lobe receiving 60 Gy (RBE) (aV60) exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3}, or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Dose–volume parameters are highly correlated with the risk of developing temporal lobe radiation necrosis. In this study the risk of radiation necrosis increased sharply when the temporal lobe aV60 exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3} or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Treatment planning goals should include constraints on the volume of temporal lobes receiving

  7. Erythema multiforme associated with prophylactic use of phenytoin during cranial radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Leandro A; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto V

    2008-06-01

    A case of erythema multiforme associated with prophylactic use of phenytoin during cranial radiation therapy is reported. A 60-year-old woman with intraductal adenocarcinoma of the breast and cerebral metastasis who had an implanted central venous catheter arrived at the hospital for the treatment of cerebral metastasis. She underwent whole brain irradiation and was given a total dose of 3750 cGy over 15 fractional doses spaced over three weeks. At the beginning of cranial radiation therapy, prophylactic oral ranitidine, oral dexamethasone, and oral phenytoin were initiated to prevent seizures. After 30 days of continuous prophylactic phenytoin and cranial radiation therapy, the patient developed an episode of coughing with yellow sputum, mucositis, and a minor skin reaction that was diagnosed in the emergency department as radiotherapy-associated lesions. After 2 days, the patient returned to the hospital with severe mucositis and an erythematous macular eruption on the scalp and auricular region within the radiation field. These were believed to be due to the radiation therapy, and the patient was subsequently hospitalized. The eruption dramatically extended over the next day, with itching micropapular urticarial lesions over large areas of the face, trunk, and genital region. The condition had worsened by the next day, with erythematous eruptions on the whole body (including the extremities), skin detachment, and vesicular lesions on the eyelids. The patient was then diagnosed toxic epidermal necrolysis. A patient with intraductal adenocarcinoma of the breast and cerebral metastasis developed erythema multiforme after receiving concurrent phenytoin and radiation therapy.

  8. [Association of genetic polymorphism of XPD with chromosomal damage in workers exposed to radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xue-Yun; Jin, Yu-Lan; Yao, San-Qiao; Bai, Yu-Ping; Wu, Xu-Mei; Ren, Da-Wei; Pen, Jian

    2007-12-01

    To explore association genetic polymorphism of XPD with chromosomal damage in workers exposed to radiation. 182 workers exposed to radiation for at least one year with chromosomal damage were selected as cases based on a general health examination for all workers exposed to radiation in Tangshan city. The control group without chromosomal damage was matched to case by age (within 5 years), sex, work unit, type of exposed to radiation, cumulate serve length (within 1 year) according to 1:1. The micro whole blood cultivation was used for the chromosome analysis. The chromosome aberration type and rate were observed and counted. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to examine the genotype of three XPD loci (751, 312 and 156). The frequency of XPD 751 AA in cases was higher than that in controls (P 0.05). 156 mutant gene type in case group was higher than that in the control groups. The frequency of 156 A allele in case group were higher than that of the control groups (P < 0.05). The frequency of genotype with both 751AA and 156CA or 751AA and 156AA was higher in cases than that of controls (P < 0.05). XPD 751AA genotype is a possible risk factor for radiation-induced chromosomal damage. XPD 156 mutant gene type is a possible risk factor for radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Individuals with both XPD 751AA and 156 (CA+AA) genotypes are susceptible to radiation-induced chromosomal damage. No association of XPD 312 polymorphism with radiation-induced chromosomal damage is found.

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with geographical latitude and solar radiation in the older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Sebastián; Benavente, David; Alvo, Miriam; de Pablo, Paola; Ferro, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency are common in the older and are associated with several conditions including anaemia, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and cancer. Evidence from in vitro studies suggests that solar radiation can degrade both vitamins in the skin. Chile is the longest country in the world running perfectly North-South making it an ideal place to study potential associations of latitude and solar radiation on vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. The objective was to examine the association between vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies and latitude. Plasma samples were collected from Chileans aged 65+ years (n=1013) living across the whole country and assayed for vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations as part of the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010, which is a national representative sample study. Overall, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 11.3%, with the prevalence in the North of the country being significantly greater than in the Central and South zones (19.1%,10.5%, and 5.7%, respectively; Psolar radiation (OR 1.203 [95% confidence intervals 1.119-1.294], Psolar radiation. Although degradation by solar radiation might explain this observation, further work is required to establish the potential mechanisms. In countries that routinely fortify food with folic acid, efforts to identify vitamin B12 deficiency might be more cost-efficiently targeted in areas closest to the Equator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation and mortality of workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: positive associations for doses received at older ages.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, D. B.; Wing, S

    1999-01-01

    We examined associations between low-level exposure to ionizing radiation and mortality among 14,095 workers hired at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972. Workers at the facility were individually monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and have been followed through 1990 to ascertain cause of death information. Positive associations were observed between low-level exposure to external ionizing radiation and mortality. These associations were larger for doses...

  11. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhongli [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhang, Wencheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Xiao, Zefen, E-mail: xiaozefen@sina.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Tan, Wen, E-mail: tanwen@cicams.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); and others

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.

  12. Identification of novel senescence-associated genes in ionizing radiation-induced senescent carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Bong Cho; Han, Na Kyung; Hong, Mi Na; Park, Su Min; Yoo, Hee Jung [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chu, In Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Hee [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Cellular senescence is considered as a defense mechanism to prevent tumorigenesis. Ionizing radiation (IR) induces stress-induced premature senescence as well as apoptosis in various cancer cells. Senescent cells undergo functional and morphological changes including large and flattened cell shape, senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}Gal) activity, and altered gene expressions. Even with the recent findings of several gene expression profiles and supporting functional data, it is obscure that mechanism of IR-induced premature senescence in cancer cells. We performed microarray analysis to identify the common regulated genes in ionizing radiation-induced prematurely senescent human carcinoma cell lines.

  13. Mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure in the French combined cohort of nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Hubert, D; Richardson, D B; Laurier, D

    2013-09-01

    The long-term effects of protracted low level ionising radiation exposure are investigated in a combined analysis of French nuclear workers employed by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) and Electricité de France (EDF). Associations between cumulative external radiation dose and mortality due to solid cancers, leukaemia and circulatory disease were examined. All workers hired by CEA, AREVA NC and EDF between 1950 and 1994 who were employed for at least 1 year, badge-monitored for radiation exposure and alive on 1 January 1968 were included. Individual data of annual exposure to penetrating photons (X-rays and gamma rays) were reconstructed for each worker. Estimates of radiation dose-mortality associations were obtained using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) Poisson regression model. Among the 59 021 nuclear workers, 2312 died of solid cancer, 78 of leukaemia and 1468 of circulatory diseases during the 1968-2004 period. Approximately 72% of the cohort had a non-zero cumulative radiation dose estimate, with a mean cumulative dose of 22.5 mSv. Positive but non-significant ERR/Sv were observed for all solid cancers, leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. A significant ERR/Sv was found for myeloid leukaemia. This is the first combined analysis of major French cohorts of nuclear workers. Results were consistent with risks estimated in other nuclear worker cohorts and illustrate the potential of a further joint international study to yield direct risk estimates in support to radiation protection standards.

  14. American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 263: Standardizing Nomenclatures in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Charles S; Moran, Jean M; Bosch, Walter; Xiao, Ying; McNutt, Todd; Popple, Richard; Michalski, Jeff; Feng, Mary; Marks, Lawrence B; Fuller, Clifton D; Yorke, Ellen; Palta, Jatinder; Gabriel, Peter E; Molineu, Andrea; Matuszak, Martha M; Covington, Elizabeth; Masi, Kathryn; Richardson, Susan L; Ritter, Timothy; Morgas, Tomasz; Flampouri, Stella; Santanam, Lakshmi; Moore, Joseph A; Purdie, Thomas G; Miller, Robert C; Hurkmans, Coen; Adams, Judy; Jackie Wu, Qing-Rong; Fox, Colleen J; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo; Brown, Norman L; Verbakel, Wilko; Archambault, Yves; Chmura, Steven J; Dekker, Andre L; Eagle, Don G; Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Hong, Theodore; Kapoor, Rishabh; Lansing, Beth; Jolly, Shruti; Napolitano, Mary E; Percy, James; Rose, Mark S; Siddiqui, Salim; Schadt, Christof; Simon, William E; Straube, William L; St James, Sara T; Ulin, Kenneth; Yom, Sue S; Yock, Torunn I

    2018-03-15

    A substantial barrier to the single- and multi-institutional aggregation of data to supporting clinical trials, practice quality improvement efforts, and development of big data analytics resource systems is the lack of standardized nomenclatures for expressing dosimetric data. To address this issue, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 263 was charged with providing nomenclature guidelines and values in radiation oncology for use in clinical trials, data-pooling initiatives, population-based studies, and routine clinical care by standardizing: (1) structure names across image processing and treatment planning system platforms; (2) nomenclature for dosimetric data (eg, dose-volume histogram [DVH]-based metrics); (3) templates for clinical trial groups and users of an initial subset of software platforms to facilitate adoption of the standards; (4) formalism for nomenclature schema, which can accommodate the addition of other structures defined in the future. A multisociety, multidisciplinary, multinational group of 57 members representing stake holders ranging from large academic centers to community clinics and vendors was assembled, including physicists, physicians, dosimetrists, and vendors. The stakeholder groups represented in the membership included the AAPM, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), NRG Oncology, European Society for Radiation Oncology (ESTRO), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Children's Oncology Group (COG), Integrating Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO), and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine working group (DICOM WG); A nomenclature system for target and organ at risk volumes and DVH nomenclature was developed and piloted to demonstrate viability across a range of clinics and within the framework of clinical trials. The final report was approved by AAPM in October 2017. The approval process included review by 8 AAPM committees, with additional review by ASTRO

  15. Differential Effects of Alpha-Particle Radiation and X-Irradiation on Genes Associated with Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differential effects of alpha-(α- particle radiation and X-rays on apoptosis and associated changes in gene expression. Human monocytic cells were exposed to α-particle radiation and X-rays from 0 to 1.5 Gy. Four days postexposure, cell death was measured by flow cytometry and 84 genes related to apoptosis were analyzed using real-time PCR. On average, 33% of the cells were apoptotic at 1.5 Gy of α-particle radiation. Transcript profiling showed statistical expression of 15 genes at all three doses tested. Cells exposed to X-rays were <5% apoptotic at ~1.5 Gy and induced less than a 2-fold expression in 6 apoptotic genes at the higher doses of radiation. Among these 6 genes, Fas and TNF-α were common to the α-irradiated cells. This data suggests that α-particle radiation initiates cell death by TNF-α and Fas activation and through intermediate signalling mediators that are distinct from X-irradiated cells.

  16. Radiative association processes to specific rovibrational levels in low-energy Na++Rb87 collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L. L.; Li, X. Y.; Wu, Y.; Wang, J. G.; Qu, Y. Z.

    2014-09-01

    The radiative association processes for Na+ colliding with Rb87(5s ) atoms have been investigated by using the quantum-mechanical method. The total and partial cross sections that associate to the specific rovibrational states are calculated rigorously in the energy range of 10-13-1.2×10-2eV. The association cross sections display rich resonance structures. The ratios of rotationally resolved cross sections to total association cross sections and the ratios of vibrationally resolved cross sections to rotationally resolved cross sections are calculated and presented. For energies less than 10-9eV, association to X2Σ+ (J=1) dominates over all other association states. As the energy increases, each resonance of the total cross sections is associated with the given angular component of specific bound states. In the energy range of 10-13-1.2×10-3eV, the vibrational states v=27 and v=28 are the most probable final states. The probability for the formation of molecular ion NaRb+ in the rovibrational states is discussed. The existence of Cooper minima in the radiative association cross sections is found and illustrated.

  17. Analysis of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms in the Ebro delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Argemí, Oriol; van der Velde, Oscar; Romero, David; Soula, Serge

    2016-04-01

    We have analysed increments of background radiation during thunderstorm in the energy range 0.1 - 2 MeV in the Ebro delta region in the northeast of Spain. We present 8 episodes, 3 summer cases and 5 winter cases. The increments of the measured high-energy radiation have been analysed and compared with measurements of electric field, precipitation, radar reflectivity, lightning activity a charge regions altitude. For the first time, measurements of high-energy radiation associated with thunderstorms are compared with radar reflectivity and lightning detected by a LMA network. The aim of this paper is to discern if the high-energy radiation increments measured are related with the storm electrification, like reported in previous publications, or other factors like precipitation. As summary these are the main results: • The comparative of energy spectra of 1 hour period with rain and 1 hour period without rain shows that radon-ion daughters are quite important in the increase of the measured high-energy radiation. • The analysis of the time normalized cumulative curves of radiation counts, radar reflectivity and lightning activity (LINET and LMA detections) shows that that high-energy radiation increments are time related with radar reflectivity rather than lightning activity. • The calculated altitude of the negative charge regions of the different thunderstorms analayzed is too high for the photons produced at those altitudes by Bremmstrahlung effect to overcome atmospheric attenuation and reach the scintillator placed at sea level. These results lead us to conclude, as a contribution in addition to previous works, that the measured increments of high-energy analysed on this paper are associated with radon-ion daughters rather than storm electrification. However, the use of a detector in an energy from 0.1 MeV to 2 Mev does not allow to completely exclude the possibility that part of the high-energy radiation reported should be related storm electrification

  18. Plant-insect interactions: double-dating associated insect and plant lineages reveals asynchronous radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Diana M; Page, Roderic D M; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2004-02-01

    An increasing number of plant-insect studies using phylogenetic analysis suggest that cospeciation events are rare in plant-insect systems. Instead, nonrandom patterns of phylogenetic congruence are produced by phylogenetically conserved host switching (to related plants) or tracking of particular resources or traits (e.g., chemical). The dominance of host switching in many phytophagous insect groups may make the detection of genuine cospeciation events difficult. One important test of putative cospeciation events is to verify whether reciprocal speciation is temporally plausible. We explored techniques for double-dating of both plant and insect phylogenies. We use dated molecular phylogenies of a psyllid (Hemiptera)-Genisteae (Fabaceae) system, a predominantly monophagous insect-plant association widespread on the Atlantic Macaronesian islands. Phylogenetic reconciliation analysis suggests high levels of parallel cladogenesis between legumes and psyllids. However, dating using molecular clocks calibrated on known geological ages of the Macaronesian islands revealed that the legume and psyllid radiations were not contemporaneous but sequential. Whereas the main plant radiation occurred some 8 million years ago, the insect radiation occurred about 3 million years ago. We estimated that >60% of the psyllid speciation has resulted from host switching between related hosts. The only evidence for true cospeciation is in the much more recent and localized radiation of genistoid legumes in the Canary Islands, where the psyllid and legume radiations have been partially contemporaneous. The identification of specific cospeciation events over this time period, however, is hindered by the phylogenetic uncertainty in both legume and psyllid phylogenies due to the apparent rapidity of the species radiations.

  19. Solar Radiation-Associated Adaptive SNP Genetic Differentiation in Wild Emmer Wheat,Triticum dicoccoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Chen, Liang; Jin, Xiaoli; Zhang, Miaomiao; You, Frank M; Wang, Jirui; Frenkel, Vladimir; Yin, Xuegui; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome scans with large number of genetic markers provide the opportunity to investigate local adaptation in natural populations and identify candidate genes under positive selection. In the present study, adaptation genetic differentiation associated with solar radiation was investigated using 695 polymorphic SNP markers in wild emmer wheat originated in a micro-site at Yehudiyya, Israel. The test involved two solar radiation niches: (1) sun, in-between trees; and (2) shade, under tree canopy, separated apart by a distance of 2-4 m. Analysis of molecular variance showed a small (0.53%) but significant portion of overall variation between the sun and shade micro-niches, indicating a non-ignorable genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats. Fifty SNP markers showed a medium (0.05 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.15) or high genetic differentiation ( F ST > 0.15). A total of 21 outlier loci under positive selection were identified by using four different F ST -outlier testing algorithms. The markers and genome locations under positive selection are consistent with the known patterns of selection. These results suggested that genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats is substantial, radiation-associated, and therefore ecologically determined. Hence, the results of this study reflected effects of natural selection through solar radiation on EST-related SNP genetic diversity, resulting presumably in different adaptive complexes at a micro-scale divergence. The present work highlights the evolutionary theory and application significance of solar radiation-driven natural selection in wheat improvement.

  20. Particle Radiation signals the Expression of Genes in stress-associated Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, E.; Chang, P.; Bjornstad, K.; Dosanjh, M.; Cherbonnel, C.; Rosen, C.

    The explosive development of microarray screening methods has propelled genome research in a variety of biological systems allowing investigators to examine large-scale alterations in gene expression for research in toxicology pathology and therapy The radiation environment in space is complex and encompasses a variety of highly energetic and charged particles Estimation of biological responses after exposure to these types of radiation is important for NASA in their plans for long-term manned space missions Instead of using the 10 000 gene arrays that are in the marketplace we have chosen to examine particle radiation-induced changes in gene expression using a focused DNA microarray system to study the expression of about 100 genes specifically associated with both the upstream and downstream aspects of the TP53 stress-responsive pathway Genes that are regulated by TP53 include functional clusters that are implicated in cell cycle arrest apoptosis and DNA repair A cultured human lens epithelial cell model Blakely et al IOVS 41 3808 2000 was used for these studies Additional human normal and radiosensitive fibroblast cell lines have also been examined Lens cells were grown on matrix-coated substrate and exposed to 55 MeV u protons at the 88 cyclotron in LBNL or 1 GeV u Iron ions at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory The other cells lines were grown on conventional tissue culture plasticware RNA and proteins were harvested at different times after irradiation RNA was isolated from sham-treated or select irradiated populations

  1. Rate constants for the formation of SiO by radiative association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairnie, M.; Forrey, R. C.; Babb, J. F.; Stancil, P. C.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    Accurate molecular data for the low-lying states of SiO are computed and used to calculate rate constants for radiative association (RA) of Si and O. Einstein A-coefficients are also calculated for transitions between all of the bound and quasi-bound levels for each molecular state. The radiative widths are used together with elastic tunnelling widths to define effective RA rate constants which include both direct and indirect (inverse pre-dissociation) formation processes. The indirect process is evaluated for two kinetic models which represent limiting cases for astrophysical environments. The first case scenario assumes an equilibrium distribution of quasi-bound states and would be applicable whenever collisional and/or radiative excitation mechanisms are able to maintain the population. The second case scenario assumes that no excitation mechanisms are available which corresponds to the limit of zero radiation temperature and zero atomic density. Rate constants for SiO formation in realistic astrophysical environments would presumably lie between these two limiting cases.

  2. Radiation dose associated with CT-guided drain placement for pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Cody J.; Isaacson, Ari J.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Ivanovic, Marija; Dixon, Robert G. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, UNC Health Care, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, J.B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Environment, Health and Safety, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2017-05-15

    To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution. We compiled patient data and radiation dose information from CT-guided drain placements as well as pre-procedural diagnostic CTs and post-procedural follow-up fluoroscopic abscess catheter injections (sinograms). Then we converted dose-length product, fluoroscopy time and number of acquisitions to effective doses using Monte Carlo simulations and age-appropriate conversion factors based on annual quality-control testing. Fifty-two drainages were identified with mean patient age of 11.0 years (5 weeks to 17 years). Most children had diagnoses of appendicitis (n=23) or inflammatory bowel disease (n=11). Forty-seven patients had diagnostic CTs, with a mean effective dose of 7.3 mSv (range 1.1-25.5 mSv). Drains remained in place for an average of 16.9 days (range 0-75 days), with an average of 0.9 (0-5) sinograms per patient in follow-up. The mean effective dose for all drainages and follow-up exams was 5.3 mSv (0.7-17.1) and 62% (32/52) of the children had effective doses less than 5 mSv. The majority of pediatric patients who have undergone CT-guided drain placements at our institution have received total radiation doses on par with diagnostic ranges. This information could be useful when describing the dose of radiation to parents and providers when CT-guided drain placement is necessary. (orig.)

  3. Variation in Telangiectasia Predisposing Genes Is Associated With Overall Radiation Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanteles, George A. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Murray, Robert J.S. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Mills, Jamie [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Barwell, Julian [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chakraborti, Prabir [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Chan, Steve [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cheung, Kwok-Leung [Division of Breast Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ennis, Dawn [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Khurshid, Nazish [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Lambert, Kelly [Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospitals of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom); Machhar, Rohan; Meisuria, Mitul [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Osman, Ahmed; Peat, Irene [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Sahota, Harjinder [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Woodings, Pamela [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J., E-mail: cjt14@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: In patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer where the heart is within the radiation field, cutaneous telangiectasiae could be a marker of potential radiation-induced heart disease. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to cause heritable telangiectasia-associated disorders could predispose to such late, normal tissue vascular damage. Methods and Materials: The relationship between cutaneous telangiectasia as a late normal tissue radiation injury phenotype in 633 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy was examined. Patients were clinically assessed for the presence of cutaneous telangiectasia and genotyped at nine SNPs in three candidate genes. Candidate SNPs were within the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor, type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes, mutations in which cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene associated with ataxia-telangiectasia. Results: A total of 121 (19.1%) patients exhibited a degree of cutaneous telangiectasiae on clinical examination. Regression was used to examine the associations between the presence of telangiectasiae in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, controlling for the effects of boost and known brassiere size (n=388), and individual geno- or haplotypes. Inheritance of ACVRL1 SNPs marginally contributed to the risk of cutaneous telangiectasiae. Haplotypic analysis revealed a stronger association between inheritance of a ATM haplotype and the presence of cutaneous telangiectasiae, fibrosis and overall toxicity. No significant association was observed between telangiectasiae and the coinheritance of the candidate ENG SNPs. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the ATM gene influences reaction to radiotherapy through both vascular damage and increased fibrosis. The predisposing variation in the ATM gene will need to be better defined to optimize it as a predictive marker for assessing radiotherapy late effects.

  4. Is Leg Length Discrepancy Associated With the Side of Radiating Pain in Patients With a Lumbar Herniated Disc?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, Albert P.T.; van der Aa, Hans E.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Oosterveld, Frits P.T.

    1999-01-01

    Study Design. The association between leg length discrepancy and the side of the radiating pain in lumbar disc herniation was investigated in a case series. Objectives. To investigate whether pain tends to radiate into the longer or shorter leg in patients with a lumbar herniated disc. Summary of

  5. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  6. Disentangling the effects of solar radiation, wrack macroalgae and beach macrofauna on associated bacterial assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F; Fernandes, Joana P; Mucha, Ana P

    2015-12-01

    Wrack detritus plays a significant role in shaping community dynamics and food-webs on sandy beaches. Macroalgae is the most abundant beach wrack, and it is broken down by the combination of environmental processes, macrofauna grazing, and microbial degradation before returning to the sea as nutrients. The role of solar radiation, algal species and beach macrofauna as ecological drivers for bacterial assemblages associated to wrack was investigated by experimental manipulation of Laminaria ochroleuca and Sargassum muticum. We examined the effects of changes in solar radiation on wrack-associated bacterial assemblages by using cut-off filters: PAR + UVA + UVB (280-700 nm; PAB), PAR + UVA (320-700 nm; PA), PAR (400-700 nm; P), and a control with no filter (C). Results showed that moderate changes in UVR are capable to promote substantial differences on bacterial assemblages so that wrack patches exposed to full sunlight treatments (C and PAB) showed more similar assemblages among them than compared to patches exposed to treatments that blocked part of the solar radiation (P and PA). Our findings also suggested that specific algal nutrient quality-related variables (i.e. nitrogen, C:N ratio and phlorotannins) are main determinants of bacterial dynamics on wrack deposits. We showed a positive relationship between beach macrofauna, especially the most abundant and active wrack-users, the amphipod Talitrus saltator and the coleopteran Phaleria cadaverina, and both bacterial abundance and richness. Moderate variations in natural solar radiation and shifts in the algal species entering beach ecosystems can modify the role of wrack in the energy-flow of nearshore environments with unknown ecological implications for coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterising cloud regimes associated with the Southern Ocean shortwave radiation bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S.; Jakob, C.; Protat, A.

    2013-12-01

    The high-latitude Southern Ocean is the site of persistent cloud biases in GCMs. A deficit of shortwave cloud radiative effect especially between 50-65S causes an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation, which has been associated with other biases in the global circulation. Recent model evaluation studies have found that the shortwave radiation bias is potentially associated with low- and mid-level clouds in the cold-air part of extratropical cyclones and ahead of transient ridges. However a coherent description of the cloud properties and cloud processes most associated with the bias has not yet emerged. This study focuses on three cloud regimes that are most frequent in the area of the shortwave radiation bias during the austral summer. They are selected from the cloud regimes derived for the Southern Ocean from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud observations. We characterise the selected cloud regimes in terms of their meteorological conditions using the ECMWF Interim reanalysis. We also study their vertical macrophysical structure and microphysical properties based on active satellite observations using the DARDAR (raDAR/liDAR) combined CloudSat and CALIPSO data product. We find that two cloud regimes identified as mid-topped in the ISCCP based data set are associated with distinct meteorological processes. An optically thin mid-level top cloud regime is related to cold mid-levels, cold-air advection and moderate subsidence, while an optically thicker cloud regime is associated with a broader range of conditions resembling weak to moderate frontal events, with warm and moist mid-levels, moderate ascent and warm-air advection. The vertical cloud structure derived from DARDAR profiles show that both these regimes contain mostly low clouds, but both also include frequent occurrences of mid-level cloud. We use a clustering method to quantify the differences in microphysical properties between the regimes. We find that the optically

  8. XRCC1 Polymorphism Associated With Late Toxicity After Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, Petra; Behrens, Sabine [Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Schmezer, Peter [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Helmbold, Irmgard [Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Barnett, Gillian; Coles, Charlotte [Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom (UK) (United Kingdom); Yarnold, John [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, I.C.M. – Institut regional du Cancer Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Koch, C. Anne [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dunning, Alison M. [Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil [Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bliss, Judith M. [The Institute of Cancer Research, Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul; Rattay, Tim [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Suga, Tomo [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kerns, Sarah L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NH (United States); and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress–related genes associated with risk of late toxicities in breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Using a 2-stage design, 305 SNPs in 59 candidate genes were investigated in the discovery phase in 753 breast cancer patients from 2 prospective cohorts from Germany. The 10 most promising SNPs in 4 genes were evaluated in the replication phase in up to 1883 breast cancer patients from 6 cohorts identified through the Radiogenomics Consortium. Outcomes of interest were late skin toxicity and fibrosis of the breast, as well as an overall toxicity score (Standardized Total Average Toxicity). Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to assess associations between SNPs and late toxicity. A meta-analysis approach was used to summarize evidence. Results: The association of a genetic variant in the base excision repair gene XRCC1, rs2682585, with normal tissue late radiation toxicity was replicated in all tested studies. In the combined analysis of discovery and replication cohorts, carrying the rare allele was associated with a significantly lower risk of skin toxicities (multivariate odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.96, P=.02) and a decrease in Standardized Total Average Toxicity scores (−0.08, 95% confidence interval −0.15 to −0.02, P=.016). Conclusions: Using a stage design with replication, we identified a variant allele in the base excision repair gene XRCC1 that could be used in combination with additional variants for developing a test to predict late toxicities after radiation therapy in breast cancer patients.

  9. Association of amphibians with attenuation of ultraviolet-b radiation in montane ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M.J.; Schindler, D.E.; Bury, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-b (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nm) has increased at north-temperate latitudes in the last two decades. UV-B can be detrimental to amphibians, and amphibians have shown declines in some areas during this same period. We documented the distribution of amphibians and salmonids in 42 remote, subalpine and alpine ponds in Olympic National Park, Washington, United States. We inferred relative exposure of amphibian habitats to UV-B by estimating the transmission of 305- and 320-nm radiation in pond water. We found breeding Ambystoma gracile, A. macrodactylum and Rana cascadae at 33%, 31%, and 45% of the study sites, respectively. Most R. cascadae bred in fishless shallow ponds with relatively low transmission of UV-B. The relationship with UV-B exposure remained marginally significant even after the presence of fish was included in the model. At 50 cm water depth, there was a 55% reduction in incident 305-nm radiation at sites where breeding populations of R. cascadae were detected compared to other sites. We did not detect associations between UV-B transmission and A. gracile or A. macrodactylum. Our field surveys do not provide evidence for decline of R. cascadae in Olympic National Park as has been documented in Northern California, but are consistent with the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of R. cascadae breeding sites is influenced by exposure to UV-B. Substrate or pond depth could also be related to the distribution of R. cascadae in Olympic National Park.

  10. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile telephony and the association with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Denize Francisca da; Barros, Warley Rocha; Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas de; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and psychiatric symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 440 individuals were interviewed. Psychiatric complaints and diagnoses were the dependent variables and distance from the individual's residence to the base station was considered the main independent variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess confounding. An association was observed between psychiatric symptoms and residential proximity to the base station and different forms of mobile phone use (making calls with weak signal coverage, keeping the mobile phone close to the body, having two or more chips, and never turning off the phone while sleeping), and with the use of other electronic devices. The study concluded that exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and other electronic devices was associated with psychiatric symptoms, independently of gender, schooling, and smoking status. The adoption of precautionary measures to reduce such exposure is recommended.

  11. Is bacterial luminescence response to low-dose radiation associated with mutagenicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhko, T V; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Bondar, A A; Devyatlovskaya, A N; Kudryasheva, N S

    2017-10-01

    Luminous marine bacteria are widely used in bioassays with luminescence intensity being a physiological parameter tested. The purpose of the study was to determine whether bacterial genetic alteration is responsible for bioluminescence kinetics change under low-dose radiation exposure. The alpha-emitting radionuclide 241Am and beta-emitting radionuclide 3H were used as the sources of low-dose ionizing radiation. Changes of bioluminescence kinetics of Photobacterium phosphoreum in solutions of 241Am(NO3)3, 7 kBq/L, and tritiated water, 100 MBq/L, were studied; bioluminescence kinetics stages (absence of effect, activation, and inhibition) were determined. Bacterial suspension was sampled at different stages of the bioluminescent kinetics; the doses accumulated by the samples were close or a little higher than a tentative limit of a low-dose interval: 0.10 and 0.85 Gy for 241Am, or 0.11 and 0.18 Gy for 3H. Sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene did not reveal a mutagenic effect of low-dose alpha and beta radiation in the bacterial samples. Previous results on bacterial DNA exposed to low-dose gamma radiation (0.25 Gy) were analyzed and compared to those for alpha and beta irradiation. It is concluded that bioluminescence activation and/or inhibition under the applied conditions of low-dose alpha, beta and gamma radioactive exposure is not associated with DNA mutations in the gene sequences tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Masaharu, E-mail: mhata@syd.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomita, Naoto [Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhito [Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I{sub E}A in 29 patients and stage II{sub E}A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

  13. Assessing local patients' knowledge and awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Ho-kwan; Wong, Chun-Sing; Huang, Bingsheng; Yiu, Ka-ling; Wong, Wai-lam; Chu, Yiu Ching Tiffany

    2013-02-01

    To assess the awareness of radiation dose and associated risks caused by radiological procedures among local patients. All subjects were recruited by randomly sampling the patients receiving radiological examinations. These subjects were stratified on age, sex and education. The questionnaire was in Chinese and consisted of 28 questions mostly in multiple choice/true-or-false format, divided into three sections examining demographic data, radiation knowledge/awareness and expectations. A total of 173 questionnaires were returned (83 females and 84 females; mean age of 53). Of these, 32.6% had attended college, 32.6% had completed matriculation and 24.4% secondary school. Most subjects underwent CT (75), MRI (70) and PET-CT (18). Education significantly affected the radiation knowledge (P = 0.013). 60.7% and 32.7% were not aware of the radiation-free nature of MRI and USG, respectively. Respectively, 45.4% and 43.5% were of the misconception that Barium enema and Barium swallow studies do not involve radiation. Moreover, 77.6% and 87.9% were aware of the radiation-laden nature of CT and plain X-rays, respectively. Furthermore, 34% and 50%, respectively, think that they are not exposed to radiation at home and on a plane. Regarding the fatal cancer risk from CT, 17.8% chose the correct answer and 62% underestimated the risk. 32.2% correctly estimated the equivalent dose of CT in terms of number of conventional X-rays and 43.2% underestimated the dose. Most (98.2%) were told of the indication, and 42.7% were told the associated radiation dose. Patient radiation awareness is unsatisfactory. There is need to increase patient radiation awareness, and to provide them with the necessary information. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  14. Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Hall, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Li, Judy; Beckett, Laurel [Department of Biostatistics, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Lau, Derick H. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and treatment-related predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Three hundred thirty patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively screened using a standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from completion of radiation therapy was 56 months (range, 6-135 months). One-hundred fifty-five patients (47%) were treated by definitive radiation therapy, and 175 (53%) were treated postoperatively. Radiation doses ranged from 50 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used in 62% of cases, and 133 patients (40%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Forty patients (12%) reported neuropathic symptoms, with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), motor weakness, and/or muscle atrophy (25%). When patients with <5 years of follow-up were excluded, the rate of positive symptoms increased to 22%. On univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with brachial plexus symptoms: prior neck dissection (p = 0.01), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both neck dissection (p < 0.001) and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001) were independently predictive of symptoms. Conclusion: The incidence of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer may be underreported. In view of the dose-response relationship identified, limiting radiation dose to the brachial plexus should be considered when possible.

  15. Dynamics, thermodynamics, radiation, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, Virendra P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Miller, Mark [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the understanding of marine boundary clouds by using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites, so that they can be better represented in global climate models (GCMs). Marine boundary clouds are observed regularly over the tropical and subtropical oceans. They are an important element of the Earth’s climate system because they have substantial impact on the radiation budget together with the boundary layer moisture, and energy transports. These clouds also have an impact on large-scale precipitation features like the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Because these clouds occur at temporal and spatial scales much smaller than those relevant to GCMs, their effects and the associated processes need to be parameterized in GCM simulations aimed at predicting future climate and energy needs. Specifically, this project’s objectives were to (1) characterize the surface turbulent fluxes, boundary layer thermodynamics, radiation field, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers; (2) explore the similarities and differences in cloudiness and boundary layer conditions observed in the tropical and trade-wind regions; and (3) understand similarities and differences by using a simple bulk boundary layer model. In addition to working toward achieving the project’s three objectives, we also worked on understanding the role played by different forcing mechanisms in maintaining turbulence within cloud-topped boundary layers We focused our research on stratocumulus clouds during the first phase of the project, and cumulus clouds during the rest of the project. Below is a brief description of manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals that describe results from our analyses.

  16. Effective radiation doses associated with non-invasive versus invasive assessment of coronary anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, G G; Ntalianis, A; Ntarladimas, Y; de Booij, M; De Winter, O; Barbato, E; Pilet, B; Van Mieghem, C; Wijns, W; De Bruyne, B

    2015-06-01

    To compare the effective radiation dose (ERD) needed to obtain information on coronary anatomy and physiology by a non-invasive versus an invasive diagnostic strategy. Knowledge of anatomy and physiology is needed for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). There is, however, a growing concern about detrimental long-term effects of radiation associated with diagnostic procedures. In a total of 671 patients with suspected CAD, we compared the ERD needed to obtain anatomical and physiological information through a non-invasive strategy or an invasive strategy. The non-invasive strategy consisted of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The invasive strategy included coronary angiography (CA) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement. In 464 patients, the data were acquired in Period 2009 and in 207 the data were acquired in Period 2011 (after each period, the CCTA- and the CA-equipment had been upgraded). For the Period 2009 total ERD of the non-invasive approach was significantly larger compared to the invasive approach (28.45 ± 5.37 mSv versus 15.79 ± 7.95 mSv, respectively; P < 0.0001). For Period 2011, despite the significant decrease in ERD for both groups (P<0.0001 for both), the ERD remained higher for the non-invasive approach compared to the invasive approach (16.67 ± 10.45 mSv vs. 10.36 ± 5.87 mSv, respectively; P < 0.0001). Simulation of various diagnostic scenarios showed cumulative radiation dose is the lowest when a first positive test is followed by an invasive strategy. To obtain anatomic and physiologic information in patients with suspected CAD, the combination of CA and FFR is associated with lower ERD than the combination of CCTA and SPECT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Association of UV radiation with multiple sclerosis prevalence and sex ratio in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, S-M; Wald, L; Confavreux, C; Vukusic, S; Krohn, J P; Ramagopalan, S V; Herrera, B M; Sadovnick, A D; Ebers, G C

    2011-02-01

    French farmers and their families constitute an informative population to study multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence and related epidemiology. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the association of MS prevalence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a candidate climatologic risk factor. Mean annual and winter (December-March) UVB irradiation values were systematically compared to MS prevalence rates in corresponding regions of France. UVB data were obtained from the solar radiation database (SoDa) service and prevalence rates from previously published data on 2,667 MS cases registered with the national farmer health insurance system, Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA). Pearson correlation was used to examine the relationship of annual and winter UVB values with MS prevalence. Male and female prevalence were also analyzed separately. Linear regression was used to test for interaction of annual and winter UVB with sex in predicting MS prevalence. There was a strong association between MS prevalence and annual mean UVB irradiation (r = -0.80, p < 0.001) and average winter UVB (r = -0.87, p < 0.001). Both female (r = -0.76, p < 0.001) and male (r = -0.46, p = 0.032) prevalence rates were correlated with annual UVB. Regression modeling showed that the effect of UVB on prevalence rates differed by sex; the interaction effect was significant for both annual UVB (p = 0.003) and winter UVB (p = 0.002). The findings suggest that regional UVB radiation is predictive of corresponding MS prevalence rates and supports the hypothesis that sunlight exposure influences MS risk. The evidence also supports a potential role for gender-specific effects of UVB exposure.

  18. GSM 900 MHz radiation inhibits ants' association between food sites and encountered cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; De Doncker, Philippe; Patris, Xavier; Bellens, François; Rachidi, Zoheir; Cammaerts, David

    2012-06-01

    The kinetics of the acquisition and loss of the use of olfactory and visual cues were previously obtained in six experimental colonies of the ant Myrmica sabuleti meinert 1861, under normal conditions. In the present work, the same experiments were conducted on six other naive identical colonies of M. sabuleti, under electromagnetic radiation similar to those surrounding GSM and communication masts. In this situation, no association between food and either olfactory or visual cues occurred. After a recovery period, the ants were able to make such an association but never reached the expected score. Such ants having acquired a weaker olfactory or visual score and still undergoing olfactory or visual training were again submitted to electromagnetic waves. Not only did they lose all that they had memorized, but also they lost it in a few hours instead of in a few days (as under normal conditions when no longer trained). They kept no visual memory at all (instead of keeping 10% of it as they normally do). The impact of GSM 900 MHz radiation was greater on the visual memory than on the olfactory one. These communication waves may have such a disastrous impact on a wide range of insects using olfactory and/or visual memory, i.e., on bees.

  19. Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences (J. Afr. Assoc. Physiol. Sci.) is an international, bi-annual official publication of African Association of Physiological Sciences. Both print and online forms are available. The journal is aimed at dissemination of information on diverse areas of research in Physiological ...

  20. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms Associated With Symptom Clusters in Oncology Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaskowski, Christine; Conley, Yvette P; Mastick, Judy; Paul, Steven M; Cooper, Bruce A; Levine, Jon D; Knisely, Mitchell; Kober, Kord M

    2017-09-01

    Most of the reviews on the biological basis for symptom clusters suggest that inflammatory processes are involved in the development and maintenance of the symptom clusters. However, no studies have evaluated for associations between genetic polymorphisms and common symptom clusters (e.g., mood disturbance, sickness behavior). Examine the associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and the severity of three distinct symptom clusters (i.e., mood-cognitive, sickness-behavior, treatment-related) in a sample of patients with breast and prostate cancer (n = 157) at the completion of radiation therapy. Symptom severity was assessed using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Symptom clusters were created using exploratory factor analysis. The associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and the symptom cluster severity scores were evaluated using regression analyses. Polymorphisms in C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), interleukin (IL13), and nuclear factor kappa beta 2 (NFKB2) were associated with severity scores for the mood-cognitive symptom cluster. In addition to interferon gamma (IFNG1), the same polymorphism in NFKB2 (i.e., rs1056890) that was associated with the mood-cognitive symptom cluster score was associated with the sickness-behavior symptom cluster. Polymorphisms in interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1R1), IL6, and NFKB1 were associated with severity factor scores for the treatment-related symptom cluster. Our findings support the hypotheses that symptoms that cluster together have a common underlying mechanism and the most common symptom clusters in oncology patients are associated polymorphisms in genes involved in a variety of inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with reduced radiation exposure, cost, and technical difficulty of inferior vena cava filter placement and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Matthew; Charles, Hearns W; Pflager, Daniel; Deipolyi, Amy R

    2017-01-01

    We sought to delineate factors of inferior vena cava filter placement associated with increased radiation and cost and difficult subsequent retrieval. In total, 299 procedures from August 2013 to December 2014, 252 in a fluoroscopy suite (FS) and 47 in the operating room (OR), were reviewed for radiation exposure, fluoroscopy time, filter type, and angulation. The number of retrieval devices and fluoroscopy time needed for retrieval were assessed. Multiple linear regression assessed the impact of filter type, procedure location, and patient and procedural variables on radiation dose, fluoroscopy time, and filter angulation. Logistic regression assessed the impact of filter angulation, type, and filtration duration on retrieval difficulty. Access site and filter type had no impact on radiation exposure. However, placement in the OR, compared to the FS, entailed more radiation (156.3 vs 71.4 mGy; P = 0.001), fluoroscopy time (6.1 vs 2.8 min; P 1 retrieval device (P 30 min fluoroscopy time (P = 0.02). Cost savings for placement in the FS vs OR were estimated at $444.50 per case. In conclusion, increased radiation and cost were associated with placement in the OR. Filter angulation independently predicted difficult filter retrieval; angulation was determined by filter type. Performing filter placement in the FS using specific filters may reduce radiation and cost while enabling future retrieval.

  2. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  3. Advanced Treatment of Wastewater from UASB Reactor by Microfiltration Membrane Associated With Disinfection by Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Aguiar Battistelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The low efficiency of UASB bioreactors, regarding the removal of nutrient, organic matter and pathogens, makes it necessary to carry out a post treatment, in order to improve the quality of the effluent. Accordingly, this research has examined the use of microfiltration associated to the disinfection by the ultraviolet radiation, as an option to this post treatment. For so, were collected samples of UASB reactors’ effluent, in order to carry out some tests on a pilot microfiltration system, using in one of the samples pre-coagulation with vegetable tannin. After, all the microfiltrated samples were inserted in a UV reactor, applying different radiation doses, ranging from 43.8 to 194.9 mWs.cm-2, to simulate the disinfection. The system used showed good results in terms of turbidity removal, apparent color, true color, phosphorus, nitrogen, total solids, total suspended solids and COD, reaching in the best operating condition, the following values: 1.90 uT, 15 uC, 10 uC, 0.94 mg/L, 17.64 mg/L, 123 mg/L, 0 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively, which represent the following removal percentages: 91.3%, 93.6%, 82.0%, 55.1%, 26.3%, 35% and 86.1%. The inactivation obtained for E. coli, total coliforms, colifagos and Clostridium perfrigens was satisfactory, achieving a higher inactivation than the detection limit of the method used, when submitted to the highests tested radiation doses. The average permeate flux ranged from 55.2 to 133.6 L.m-2.h-1.

  4. Pharmacological alterations that could underlie radiation-induced changes in associative memory and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, L G; Cid, M P; Uran, S L; Zorrilla Zubilete, M A; Salvatierra, N A; Guelman, L R

    2013-10-01

    It is widely known that ionizing radiation is a physical agent broadly used to kill tumor cells during human cancer therapy. Unfortunately, adjacent normal tissues can concurrently undergo undesirable cell injury. Previous data of our laboratory demonstrated that exposure of developing rats to ionizing radiations induced a variety of behavioral differences respect to controls, including changes in associative memory and in anxiety state. However, there is a lack of data concerning modifications in different related pharmacological intermediaries. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether the behavioral differences observed in young animals irradiated at birth might be underlain by early changes in PKCß1 levels which, in turn, could lead to changes in hippocampal GABAergic neurotransmission. Male Wistar rats were irradiated with 5Gy of X rays between 24 and 48 h after birth. Different pharmacological markers related to the affected behavioral tasks were assessed in control and irradiated hippocampus at 15 and 30 days, namely GABAA receptor, GAD65-67, ROS and PKCß1. Results showed that all measured parameters were increased in the hippocampus of 30-days-old irradiated animals. In contrast, in the hippocampus of 15-days-old irradiated animals only the levels of PKCß1 were decreased. These data suggest that PKCß1 might constitute a primary target for neonatal radiation damage on the hippocampus. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that an initial decrease in the levels of this protein can trigger a subsequent compensatory increase that, in turn, could be responsible for the plethora of biochemical changes that might underlie the previously observed behavioral alterations. © 2013.

  5. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-02

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential).

  6. First Satellite-detected Perturbations of Outgoing Longwave Radiation Associated with Blowing Snow Events over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Palm, Stephen P.; Marshak, Alexander; Wu, Dong L.; Yu, Hongbin; Fu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We present the first satellite-detected perturbations of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) associated with blowing snow events over the Antarctic ice sheet using data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System. Significant cloud-free OLR differences are observed between the clear and blowing snow sky, with the sign andmagnitude depending on season and time of the day. During nighttime, OLRs are usually larger when blowing snow is present; the average difference in OLRs between without and with blowing snow over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is about 5.2 W/m2 for the winter months of 2009. During daytime, in contrast, the OLR perturbation is usually smaller or even has the opposite sign. The observed seasonal variations and day-night differences in the OLR perturbation are consistent with theoretical calculations of the influence of blowing snow on OLR. Detailed atmospheric profiles are needed to quantify the radiative effect of blowing snow from the satellite observations.

  7. Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Self-Consistent Radiation for GRB Prompt Emission and Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Plasma instabilities excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle acceleration. We have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of about 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. This simulation corresponds to a case for gamma-ray burst afterglows. We will simulate colliding shells as an internal shock model for prompt emission. Turbulent magnetic fields generated by a slower shell will be collided by a faster shell. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron s transverse deflection behind the shock. We calculate the radiation from deflected electrons in the turbulent magnetic fields. The properties of this radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts

  8. Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Mizuno, Y.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Using our new 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, we investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations were performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. Acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value as predicted by hydrodynamic compression. Behind the bow shock, in the jet shock, strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to time dependent afterglow emission. In order to go beyond the standard synchrotron model used in astrophysical objects we have used PIC simulations and calculated radiation based on first principles. We calculated radiation from electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. We also used the technique to calculate emission from electrons based on simulations with a small system. We obtain spectra which are consistent with those generated from electrons propagating in turbulent magnetic fields. This turbulent magnetic field is similar to the magnetic field generated at an early nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability. A fully developed shock within a larger system may generate a jitter/synchrotron spectrum.

  9. Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. I.; Mao, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ordovician radiation of marine life was among the most substantial pulses of diversification in Earth history and coincided in time with a major increase in the global level of orogenic activity. To investigate a possible causal link between these two patterns, the geographic distributions of 6576 individual appearances of Ordovician vician genera around the world were evaluated with respect to their proximity to probable centers of orogeny (foreland basins). Results indicate that these genera, which belonged to an array of higher taxa that diversified in the Middle and Late Ordovician (trilobites, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, monoplacophorans), were far more diverse in, and adjacent to, foreland basins than they were in areas farther removed from orogenic activity (carbonate platforms). This suggests an association of orogeny with diversification at that time.

  10. Association of Optic Radiation Integrity with Cortical Thickness in Children with Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shun; Mu, Yun-Feng; Cui, Long-Biao; Li, Rong; Shi, Mei; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Jian; Yin, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated regional abnormalities of both gray and white matter in amblyopia. However, alterations of cortical thickness associated with changes in white matter integrity have rarely been reported. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were obtained from 15 children with anisometropic amblyopia and 15 age- and gender-matched children with normal sight. Combining DTI and surface-based morphometry, we examined a potential linkage between disrupted white matter integrity and altered cortical thickness. The fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the optic radiations (ORs) of children with anisometropic amblyopia were lower than in controls (P amblyopia. These findings indicate that developmental changes occur simultaneously in the OR and visual cortex in amblyopia, and provide key information on complex damage of brain networks in anisometropic amblyopia. Our results also support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of anisometropic amblyopia is neurodevelopmental.

  11. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  12. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure is Associated with Clinical and Autoantibody Phenotypes in Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mona; Targoff, Ira N.; Rice, Madeline M.; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the etiology of the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM), systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by muscle and skin inflammation. We investigated the association between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and the clinical and autoantibody expression of JIIM. Methods We assessed the relationship between UVR exposure in the month before symptom onset and prevalence of juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) versus polymyositis (JPM) in 298 patients. Among JDM patients, the association between UVR exposure and myositis autoantibodies was assessed. Regression models were stratified by sex and race. The association between regional UV index in U.S. geoclimatic zones and the clinical and autoantibody subgroups was examined by weighted least squares regression analysis. Results We observed increasing odds of JDM compared with JPM per unit increase in the patients’ highest UV index in the month before symptom onset in girls (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.00–1.40). The average and highest UV indices were associated with increasing odds of anti-p155/140 autoantibodies, which was strongest in white males (OR 1.30 and 1.23, respectively). No association was observed between the UV index and anti-MJ autoantibodies or patients without myositis autoantibodies. Across US geoclimatic regions, the average UV index was associated with increasing odds of JDM and anti-p155/140 autoantibodies but decreasing odds of anti-MJ autoantibodies. Conclusion Short-term UVR exposure prior to illness onset may have a role in the clinical and serologic expression of juvenile myositis. Research examining mechanisms of UVR in JIIM pathogenesis is suggested from these findings. PMID:23658122

  13. Protonated ions as systemic trapping agents for noble gases: From electronic structure to radiative association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurel, O.; Pauzat, F.; Pilmé, J.; Ellinger, Y.; Bacchus-Montabonel, M.-C.; Mousis, O.

    2017-10-01

    The deficiencies of argon, krypton, and xenon observed in the atmosphere of Titan as well as anticipated in some comets might be related to a scenario of sequestration by H3+ in the gas phase at the early evolution of the solar nebula. The chemical process implied is a radiative association, evaluated as rather efficient in the case of H3+, especially for krypton and xenon. This mechanism of chemical trapping might not be limited to H3+ only, considering that the protonated ions produced in the destruction of H3+ by its main competitors present in the primitive nebula, i.e., H2O, CO, and N2, might also give stable complexes with the noble gases. However the effective efficiency of such processes is still to be proven. Here, the reactivity of the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe, with all protonated ions issued from H2O, CO, and N2, expected to be present in the nebula with reasonably high abundances, has been studied with quantum simulation method dynamics included. All of them give stable complexes and the rate coefficients of their radiative associations range from 10-16 to 10-19 cm3 s-1, which is reasonable for such reactions and has to be compared to the rates of 10-16 to 10-18 cm3 s-1, obtained with H3+. We can consider this process as universal for all protonated ions which, if present in the primitive nebula as astrophysical models predict, should act as sequestration agents for all three noble gases with increasing efficiency from Ar to Xe.

  14. Factors associated with increased academic productivity among US academic radiation oncology faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Catherine; Murata, Stephen; Murata, Mark; Fuller, Clifton David; Thomas, Charles R; Choi, Mehee; Holliday, Emma B

    Publication productivity metrics can help evaluate academic faculty for hiring, promotion, grants, and awards; however, limited benchmarking data exist, which makes intra- and interdepartmental comparisons difficult. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the scholarly activity of physician faculty at academic radiation oncology (RO) departments and establish factors associated with increased academic productivity. Citation database searches were performed for all physician-faculty in US residency-affiliated academic RO departments. Demographics, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, and bibliometrics (number of publications, Hirsch-[h]-index, and m-index [Hirsch index divided by the number of years since first publication]) were collected and stratified by academic rank. Senior academic rank was defined as full professor, professor, and/or chair. Junior academic rank was defined as all others. Logistic regression was performed to determine the association of academic rank and other factors with h- and m-indices. A total of 1191 academic RO physician faculty from 75 institutions were included in the analysis. The mean (standard deviation) number of publications and h- and m-indices were 48.2 (71.2), 14.5 (15), and 0.86 (0.83), respectively. The median (interquartile range) number of publications and h- and m-indices were 20 (6-61), 9 (4-20), and 0.69 (0.38-1.10), respectively. Recursive partitioning analysis revealed a statistically significant numeric h-index threshold of 21 between junior and senior faculty (LogWorth 114; receiver operating characteristic, 0.828). Senior faculty status, receipt of NIH funding, and a larger department size were associated with increased h- and m-indices. Current academic RO departments have relatively high objective metrics of scholastic productivity compared with prior benchmarking analyses of RO departments and compared with published metrics from other academic medicine subspecialties. An h-index of 21 or greater was

  15. Cloud-radiation-precipitation associations over the Asian monsoon region: an observational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Dong, Xiquan; Mao, Jiangyu

    2017-11-01

    This study uses 2001-2014 satellite observations and reanalyses to investigate the seasonal characteristics of Cloud Radiative Effects (CREs) and their associations with cloud fraction (CF) and precipitation over the Asian monsoon region (AMR) covering Eastern China (EC) and South Asia (SA). The CREs exhibit strong seasonal variations but show distinctly different relationships with CFs and precipitation over the two regions. For EC, the CREs is dominated by shortwave (SW) cooling, with an annual mean value of - 40 W m- 2 for net CRE, and peak in summer while the presence of extensive and opaque low-level clouds contributes to large Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) albedo (>0.5) in winter. For SA, a weak net CRE exists throughout the year due to in-phase compensation of SWCRE by longwave (LW) CRE associated with the frequent occurrence of high clouds. For the entire AMR, SWCRE strongly correlates with the dominant types of CFs, although the cloud vertical structure plays important role particularly in summer. The relationships between CREs and precipitation are stronger in SA than in EC, indicating the dominant effect of monsoon circulation in the former region. SWCRE over EC is only partly related to precipitation and shows distinctive regional variations. Further studies need to pay more attention to vertical distributions of cloud micro- and macro-physical properties, and associated precipitation systems over the AMR.

  16. Results of the 2014 Survey of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Ashesh B; Marshall, David; Vapiwala, Neha; Davis, Sara Beth; Langer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) conducted an in-depth survey of program directors along several axes. We report the results of this survey and compare the major findings with those of the 2007 ADROP survey. The survey was written and approved by ADROP leadership in 2012, announced online through broadcasts throughout 2013 and early 2014, and closed in mid-2014. The results based on question groups related to (1) hours spent in activities, (2) budget and nonprogram resources, (3) physics/biology didactics, (4) mock exams/didactics/research, (5) electives, (6) students, and (7) resources/challenges were tabulated. Descriptive comparisons with the 2007 survey were performed. There was 26% participation (23/88 programs). Major areas of time commitment were faculty and site organization, maintenance, and corrections (70 hours/year) and didactics/conferences and rounds (200 hours/year). The median program director protected time was 23% (range 0%-50%). All responding programs (100%) had biology and physics courses and assigned directors, but only approximately 20% of respondents had a threshold grade in these courses for graduation. Major resources desired were templates of goals/objectives by disease site, competency evaluations by level, journal club repository, and software for contouring, oral examination preparation, grant writing, publication writing, oral presentation, and effective teaching. Major activity challenges were Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education external review and time commitment. Overall, the 2014 results are similar to those of the 2007 survey. The average time commitment remains considerably higher than the 10% minimum required in the current ACGME program requirements. The survey results may guide ADROP membership in centralizing some of the identified resources needed. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.; Reeves, G. D.; Su, Z. P.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2017-05-01

    Using the particle data measured by Van Allen Probe A from October 2012 to March 2016, we investigate in detail the radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storms. The period of the storm recovery phase was limited to 72 h. The statistical study shows that geomagnetic storms and substorms play important roles in the radiation belt seed population (336 keV electrons) dynamics. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of "large flux enhancement" and "small flux enhancement." For large flux enhancement storm events, the correlation coefficients between the peak flux location of the seed population and those of relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) during the storm recovery phase decrease with electron kinetic energy, being 0.92, 0.68, 0.49, and 0.39, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the peak flux of the seed population and those of relativistic electrons are 0.92, 0.81, 0.75, and 0.73. For small flux enhancement storm events, the correlation coefficients between the peak flux location of the seed population and those of relativistic electrons are relatively smaller, while the peak flux of the seed population is well correlated with those of relativistic electrons (correlation coefficients >0.84). It is suggested that during geomagnetic storms there is a good correlation between the seed population and ≤1 MeV electrons and the seed population is important to the relativistic electron dynamics.

  18. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Li, Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative

  19. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis in a tumor-bearing mouse model is associated with enhanced Type-2 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yacheng; Mei, Zijie; Zhang, Shimin; Yang, Jie; Li, Xin; Yao, Ye; Xie, Conghua

    2016-03-01

    Lung fibrosis may be associated with Type-2 polarized inflammation. Herein, we aim to investigate whether radiation can initiate a Type-2 immune response and contribute to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis in tumor-bearing animals. We developed a tumor-bearing mouse model with Lewis lung cancer to receive either radiation therapy alone or radiation combined with Th1 immunomodulator unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN). The Type-2 immune phenotype in tumors and the histological grade of lung fibrosis were evaluated in mice sacrificed three weeks after irradiation. Mouse lung tissues were analyzed for hydroxyproline and the expression of Type-1/Type-2 key transcription factors (T-bet/GATA-3). The concentration of Type-1/Type-2 cytokines in serum was measured by cytometric bead array. Lung fibrosis was observed to be more serious in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice post-irradiation. The fibrosis score in irradiated tumor-bearing mice on Day 21 was 4.33 ± 0.82, which was higher than that of normal mice (2.00 ± 0.63; P Type-2 immunity in tumors appeared to affect the outcome of radiation damage and might be of interest for future studies on developing approaches in which Type-1-related immunotherapy and radiotherapy are used in combination. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  20. Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Radiation Therapy and Daily Temozolomide Is Associated With Minimal Toxicity in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vredenburgh, James J., E-mail: vrede001@mc.duke.edu [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Desjardins, Annick [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Reardon, David A. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Peters, Katherine B. [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer [Department of Cancer Center Biostatistics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bailey, Leighann; Threatt, Stevie; Sampson, John; Friedman, Allan [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in the study, and received standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide. All patients underwent a craniotomy and were at least 2 weeks postoperative. Radiation therapy was administered in 1.8-Gy fractions, with the clinical target volume for the primary course treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost of 9 to 14.4 Gy, to a total dose of 59.4 Gy. Patients received temozolomide at 75 mg/m{sup 2} daily throughout the course of radiation therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days, beginning a minimum of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: Of the 125 patients, 120 (96%) completed the protocol-specified radiation therapy. Five patients had to stop the protocol therapy, 2 patients with pulmonary emboli, and 1 patient each with a Grade 2 central nervous system hemorrhage, Grade 4 pancytopenia, and wound dehiscence requiring surgical intervention. All 5 patients ultimately finished the radiation therapy. After radiation therapy, 3 patients had progressive disease, 2 had severe fatigue and decreased performance status, 1 patient had a colonic perforation, and 1 had a rectal fissure; these 7 patients therefore did not proceed with the protocol-specified adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, and irinotecan. However, 113 patients (90%) were able to continue on study. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide was found to be associated with minimal toxicity in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

  1. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 04: Label-free Raman spectroscopy of single tumour cells detects early radiation-induced glycogen synthesis associated with increased radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Q; Lum, JJ [BC Cancer Agency — Vancouver Island Centre (Canada); Isabelle, M; Harder, S; Jirasek, A [Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria (Australia); Brolo, AG [Chemistry, University of Victoria (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To use label-free Raman spectroscopy (RS) for early treatment monitoring of tumour cell radioresistance. Methods: Three human tumour cell lines, two radioresistant (H460, SF{sub 2} = 0.57 and MCF7, SF{sub 2} = 0.70) and one radiosensitive (LNCaP, SF{sub 2} = 0.36), were irradiated with single fractions of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. In additional experiments, H460 and MCF7 cells were irradiated under co-treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known radiosensitizing agent. Treated and control cultures were analyzed with RS daily for 3 days post-treatment. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 live cells per sample, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. The combined data sets were analyzed with principal component analysis using standard algorithms. Cells from each culture were also subjected to standard assays for viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and radiation clonogenic survival. Results: The radioresistant cells (H460, MCF7) exhibited a RS molecular radiation response signature, detectable as early as 1 day post-treatment, of which radiation-induced glycogen synthesis is a significant contributor. The radiosensitive cells (LNCaP) exhibited negligible glycogen synthesis. Co-treatment with metformin in MCF7 cells blocked glycogen synthesis, reduced viability and proliferation, and increased radiosensitivity. Conversely, metformin co-treatment in H460 cells did not produce these same effects; importantly, both radiation-induced synthesis of glycogen and radiosensitivity were unaffected. Conclusions: Label-free RS can detect early glycogen synthesis post-irradiation, a previously undocumented metabolic mechanism associated with tumour cell radioresistance that can be targeted to increase radiosensitivity. RS monitoring of intratumoral glycogen may provide new opportunities for personalized combined modality radiotherapy treatments.

  2. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Challapalli, Srinivas [Department of Radiotherapy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore (India); Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India); Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa [National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Pratap [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar, E-mail: satish.adiga@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India)

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  3. Association of preresidency peer-reviewed publications with radiation oncology resident choice of academic versus private practice career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Thomas, Charles R; Wilson, Lynn D; Holliday, Emma B; Jaboin, Jerry J

    The decision of radiation oncology residents to pursue academic versus private practice careers plays a central role in shaping the present and future of the field, but factors that are potentially predictive of this decision are lacking. This study was performed to examine the role of several factors publicly available before residency on postresidency career choice, including preresidency peer-reviewed publications (PRPs), which have been associated with resident career choice in comparably competitive subspecialties such as neurosurgery. Using a combination of Internet searches, telephone interviews, and the 2015 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology directory, a list of 2016 radiation oncology resident graduates was compiled, along with their postresidency career choice. PRP was defined as the number of PubMed publications encompassing the end of the calendar year (2010) in which residency applications were due; this number was then correlated with career choice. A total of 163 residents from 76 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-certified programs were examined: 78% were male, 22% were MDs/PhDs, and 79 graduates (48%) chose academic careers. Fifty-two percent of graduates had at least 1 PRP at the time of application to radiation oncology residency; 35% had more than 1 PRP. Regarding career choice, the difference between 0 and 1+ PRP was statistically significant (odds ratio, 3.3; P 1 PRP. Sex, PhD, or non-PhD dual degree status were not associated with career choice. Radiation oncology residency graduates with 1 or more PRPs at the time of residency application were roughly 2 times more likely to choose an academic career as their initial career choice than graduates with no preresidency PRPs. This information may prove useful to medical students, medical school advisors, and residency program directors and deserves further prospective investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier

  4. Damage to the optic radiation in multiple sclerosis is associated with retinal injury and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Daniel S; Smith, Seth A; Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza M; Ozturk, Arzu; Caffo, Brian S; Balcer, Laura J; Calabresi, Peter A

    2009-08-01

    To determine whether damage to the optic radiation (OR) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with optic nerve injury and visual dysfunction. Case-control study. Referral center. Ninety referred patients with MS and 29 healthy volunteers. Magnetic resonance imaging indices along the OR were reconstructed with diffusion tensor tractography. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual acuity at high and low contrast were measured in a subset of the MS group (n = 36). All tested magnetic resonance imaging indices (fractional anisotropy [FA]; mean, parallel, and perpendicular [lambda( perpendicular)] diffusivity; T2 relaxation time; and magnetization transfer ratio) were significantly abnormal in patients with MS. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was significantly correlated with FA (r = 0.55; P 80 mum), letter acuity scores at 2.5% contrast were correlated with OR-specific FA (r = 0.55; P = .004), lambda( perpendicular) (r = -0.40; P = .04), and magnetization transfer ratio (r = 0.54; P = .01), as well as the fraction of OR volume made up of lesions (r = -0.69; P visual disability.

  5. Interstellar processes: Ortho/para conversion, radiative association, and dissociative recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbst Eric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ortho-to-para ratio of assorted gas-phase interstellar molecules such as H2, H2O, NH3, and H2O+ has gained interest in recent years, based partially on new spectral observations of light hydrides by the Herschel Space Observatory. Although these ratios can yield valuable information about the thermal history of the interstellar cloud where the molecules are found, an understanding of how the ratios are determined involves a number of often poorly studied processes, which can include both gas-phase and grain-surface reactions. In this article, we consider the processes that determine the ortho-to-para ratio of the molecular ion H2O+ in diffuse interstellar clouds and attempt to reproduce an unusual observed ratio for this ion. In addition to the study of ortho-to-para ratios, we look carefully at current uncertainties in the gas-phase formation of large neutral molecules in cold dense interstellar clouds via ion-neutral radiative association and dissociative recombination, among other processes.

  6. Modeling of cloud liquid water structure and the associated radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiscombe, W. [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A 0.5{degrees}C global warming should result from every 1% decrease in global albedo. It is therefore necessary to accurately quantify the cloud radiation interaction. Most radiation calculations are one-dimensional and attempt to deal with horizontal variability using a horizontally-averaged optical depth. This study presents detailed scale-by-scale statistical analysis of the cloud liquid water content (LWC) field. The aim is to use this information to provide radiation calculations with more adequate information about inhomogeneity in cloud fields. The radiation community needs to carefully specify the minimum requirements which GCMs must include in order to treat cloud-radiation interaction correctly. This may involve GCMs predicting not only mean cloud quantities but also cloud variability. 3 figs.

  7. Expression of miRNA-26b-5p and its target TRPS1 is associated with radiation exposure in post-Chernobyl breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Christina M; Hess, Julia; Klymenko, Sergiy V; Chumak, Vadim V; Zakhartseva, Liubov M; Bakhanova, Elena V; Feuchtinger, Annette; Walch, Axel K; Selmansberger, Martin; Braselmann, Herbert; Schneider, Ludmila; Pitea, Adriana; Steinhilber, Julia; Fend, Falko; Bösmüller, Hans C; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Unger, Kristian

    2018-02-01

    Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, it is unknown whether radiation-specific molecular oncogenic mechanisms exist. We investigated post-Chernobyl breast cancers from radiation-exposed female clean-up workers and nonexposed controls for molecular changes. Radiation-associated alterations identified in the discovery cohort (n = 38) were subsequently validated in a second cohort (n = 39). Increased expression of hsa-miR-26b-5p was associated with radiation exposure in both of the cohorts. Moreover, downregulation of the TRPS1 protein, which is a transcriptional target of hsa-miR-26b-5p, was associated with radiation exposure. As TRPS1 overexpression is common in sporadic breast cancer, its observed downregulation in radiation-associated breast cancer warrants clarification of the specific functional role of TRPS1 in the radiation context. For this purpose, the impact of TRPS1 on the transcriptome was characterized in two radiation-transformed breast cell culture models after siRNA-knockdown. Deregulated genes upon TRPS1 knockdown were associated with DNA-repair, cell cycle, mitosis, cell migration, angiogenesis and EMT pathways. Furthermore, we identified the interaction partners of TRPS1 from the transcriptomic correlation networks derived from gene expression data on radiation-transformed breast cell culture models and sporadic breast cancer tissues provided by the TCGA database. The genes correlating with TRPS1 in the radiation-transformed breast cell lines were primarily linked to DNA damage response and chromosome segregation, while the transcriptional interaction partners in the sporadic breast cancers were mostly associated with apoptosis. Thus, upregulation of hsa-miR-26b-5p and downregulation of TRPS1 in radiation-associated breast cancer tissue samples suggests these molecules representing radiation markers in breast cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Sporadic versus Radiation-Associated Angiosarcoma: A Comparative Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 48 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are aggressive tumors of vascular endothelial origin, occurring sporadically or in association with prior radiotherapy. We compared clinicopathologic and biologic features of sporadic angiosarcomas (SA and radiation-associated angiosarcomas (RAA. Methods. From a University of Michigan institutional database, 37 SA and 11 RAA were identified. Tissue microarrays were stained for p53, Ki-67, and hTERT. DNA was evaluated for TP53 and ATM mutations. Results. Mean latency between radiotherapy and diagnosis of RAA was 11.9 years: 6.7 years for breast RAA versus 20.9 years for nonbreast RAA (P=0.148. Survival after diagnosis did not significantly differ between SA and RAA (P=0.590. Patients with nonbreast RAA had shorter overall survival than patients with breast RAA (P=0.03. The majority of SA (86.5% and RAA (77.8% were classified as high-grade sarcomas (P=0.609. RAA were more likely to have well-defined vasoformative areas (55.6% versus 27%, P=0.127. Most breast SA were parenchymal in origin (80%, while most breast RAA were cutaneous in origin (80%. TMA analysis showed p53 overexpression in 25.7% of SA and 0% RAA, high Ki-67 in 35.3% of SA and 44.4% RAA, and hTERT expression in 100% of SA and RAA. TP53 mutations were detected in 13.5% of SA and 11.1% RAA. ATM mutations were not detected in either SA or RAA. Conclusions. SA and RAA are similar in histology, immunohistochemical markers, and DNA mutation profiles and share similar prognosis. Breast RAA have a shorter latency period compared to nonbreast RAA and a significantly longer survival.

  9. Radiation therapy (with or without neck surgery) for phenotypic human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Adam S; Fuller, Clifton D; Rosenthal, David I; William, William N; Gunn, Gary B; Beadle, Beth M; Johnson, Faye M; Morrison, William H; Phan, Jack; Frank, Steven J; Kies, Merrill S; Sturgis, Erich M

    2016-06-01

    Favorable outcomes for human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer have led to interest in identifying a subgroup of patients with the lowest risk of disease recurrence after therapy. De-intensification of therapy for this group may result in survival outcomes that are similar to those associated with current therapy but with less toxicity. To advance this effort, this study analyzed the outcomes of oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with or without systemic therapy. This was a retrospective study of patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated between 1985 and 2012. The criteria for inclusion were ≤10 pack-years of cigarette smoking and stage III/IVA cancer limited to T1-3, N1-N2b, and T3N0 disease. A survival analysis was performed with the primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS). The cohort included 857 patients. Systemic therapy was given to 439 patients (51%). The median survival was 80 months. The 2-year PFS rate was 91%. When the analysis was limited to 324 patients irradiated without systemic therapy, the 2- and 5-year PFS rates were 90% and 85%, respectively. Furthermore, for these 324 patients, the 5-year PFS rates for T1, T2, and T3 disease were 90%, 83%, and 70%, respectively. The 5-year PFS rate for patients treated with systemic therapy for T3 disease was 77% (P = .07). According to the low-risk definition currently established in cooperative trials, the patients had a 2-year PFS rate approximating 90%. When patients who were treated with radiation alone were evaluated, no compromise was observed in this high rate of PFS, which is higher than the 2-year PFS thresholds used in current cooperative trials. Cancer 2016;122:1702-7. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  10. Association Between Radiation Necrosis and Tumor Biology After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob A. [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bennett, Elizabeth E. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Xiao, Roy [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kotecha, Rupesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Chao, Samuel T. [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Barnett, Gene H.; Angelov, Lilyana [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S.; Yu, Jennifer S. [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ahluwalia, Manmeet S. [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Background: The primary dose-limiting toxicity of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is radiation necrosis (RN), which occurs after approximately 5% to 10% of treatments. This adverse event may worsen neurologic deficits, increase the frequency and cost of imaging, and necessitate prolonged treatment with steroids or antiangiogenic agents. Previous investigations have primarily identified lesion size and dosimetric constraints as risk factors for RN in small populations. We hypothesized that disease histology, receptor status, and mutational status are associated with RN. Methods and Materials: All patients presenting with brain metastasis between 1997 and 2015 who underwent SRS and subsequent radiographic follow-up at a single tertiary-care institution were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of radiographic RN. Multivariate competing risks regression was used to identify biological risk factors for RN. Results: 1939 patients (5747 lesions) were eligible for inclusion; 285 patients (15%) experienced radiographic RN after the treatment of 427 (7%) lesions. After SRS, the median time to RN was 7.6 months. After multivariate analysis, graded prognostic assessment, renal pathology, lesion diameter, and the heterogeneity index remained independently predictive of RN in the pooled cohort. In subset analyses of individual pathologies, HER2-amplified status (hazard ratio [HR] 2.05, P=.02), BRAF V600+ mutational status (HR 0.33, P=.04), lung adenocarcinoma histology (HR 1.89, P=.04), and ALK rearrangement (HR 6.36, P<.01) were also associated with RN. Conclusions: In the present investigation constituting the largest series of RN, several novel risk factors were identified, including renal histology, lung adenocarcinoma histology, HER2 amplification, and ALK/BRAF mutational status. These risk factors may be used to guide clinical trial design incorporating biological risk stratification or dose escalation. Future studies determining the

  11. Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, Jayant Sastri [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Simpson, Rand [Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tsang, Richard W., E-mail: richard.tsang@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses

  12. Modelling terahertz radiation absorption and reflection with computational phantoms of skin and associated appendages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilagosh, Zoltan; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Wood, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computational phantoms aid the analysis of THz radiation interaction with human skin. The presented computational phantoms have accurate anatomical layering and electromagnetic properties. A novel "large sheet" simulation technique is used allowing for a realistic representation of lateral absorption and reflection of in-vivo measurements. Simulations carried out to date have indicated that hair follicles act as THz propagation channels and confirms the possible role of melanin, both in nevi and skin pigmentation, to act as a significant absorber of THz radiation. A novel freezing technique has promise in increasing the depth of skin penetration of THz radiation to aid diagnostic imaging.

  13. Long-term outcome after radiation therapy for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandai, Michiko; Takahashi, Masayo; Miyamoto, Hideki; Hiroshiba, Naoko; Kimura, Hideya; Ogura, Yuichiro; Honda, Yoshihito; Sasai, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of low-dose radiation therapy on subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration. The clinical course and visual outcome were compared retrospectively among two treated groups and a control group; 15 patients (15 eyes) received 10 Gy, another 15 patients (15 eyes) received 20 Gy. The control group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes) without treatment. All patients were followed up for at least 18 months, and most were followed up for 3 years. The macula was irradiated with either 10 Gy in 5 fractions or with 20 Gy in 10 fractions after computed tomography (CT) simulation enabled real-time treatment planning from multiple CT slices. During the 3 years of follow-up, the lesions became better in 5 eyes, unchanged in 1, and worse in 9 with 10 Gy radiation; better in 7 eyes, unchanged in 1, and worse in 7 eyes with 20 Gy; and better in 1 eye and worse in 14 with no treatment. The difference between the groups treated with radiation and the control was statistically significant (P<.05). Visual acuity was also significantly better in the group receiving 20 Gy than in the control group up to 2 years after radiation (P<.01). Radiation may extend the period of good visual function substantially by reducing subfoveal choroidal neovascularization activity. (author)

  14. WE-E-BRE-09: Investigation of the Association Between Radiation-Induced Pain and Radiation Dose in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, H; Dyk, P; Mullen, D; Eschen, L; Fergus, S; Chin, R; Thorstad, W [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Oh, J; Apte, A; Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Patients with head and neck cancer who undergo radiotherapy often experience several undesirable side-effects, including xerostomia, trismus, and pain in the head and neck area, but little is know about the dose-volume predictors of such pain. We investigated the association between radiation dose and both throat and esophagus pain during radiotherapy. Methods: We analyzed 124 head and neck patients who received radiotherapy at the Washington University School of Medicine in Saint Louis. For these patients, weekly PROs were recorded, including 16 pain and anatomical location questions. In addition, 17 observational symptoms were recorded. Patients were asked to describe their pain at each site according to a four-level scale: none (0), mild (1), moderate (2), and severe (3). We explored the association between throat pain and the mean dose received in oral cavity and between esophageal pain and the mean dose received in the esophagus. The severity of pain was determined by the difference between the baseline (week 1) pain score and the maximum pain score during treatment. The baseline pain score was defined as the first available pain score before receiving 10 Gy because radiotherapy pain originates later during treatment. Dose-volume metrics were extracted from treatment plans using CERR. To evaluate the correlation between pain and radiation dose, Spearman's correlation coefficient (Rs) was used. Results: The associations between throat pain and the mean dose to the oral cavity, and between esophagus pain and the mean dose to the esophagus, were both statistically significant, with Rs=0.320 (p=0.003) and Rs=0.424 (p<0.0001), respectively. Mean dose, for each structure, was a better predictor of pain than total integral dose. Conclusion: We demonstrated that pain during radiotherapy in head and neck patients highly correlates with the dose delivered. We will further investigate the association between other pain locations and relevant normal tissue

  15. Analysis of Radiation Levels Associated with Operation of the RHIC Transfer Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-13

    This note is intended to document calculations of prompt radiation dose in regions exterior to the berm which now exists over the Transfer Line between the AGS and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  16. Is the prevalence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism associated with ultraviolet radiation in Eurasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafei, Wang; Lijun, Pei; Jinfeng, Wang; Xiaoying, Zheng

    2012-12-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolic acid reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism causes an amino-acid change from alanine to valine and results in the enzyme becoming thermolabile and half decreased activity. Its prevalence varies among global population. We collected data about MTHFR C677T polymorphism prevalence from epidemiology studies, as well as ultraviolet (UV) radiations and some other climatological factors from the internet. The results of the correlation and quadric regression showed that there was inverse U-shape relationship between T allele frequency and UV radiation. The explanatory power of UV radiation was stronger than latitude and all climatological factors. Our results supported the hypothesis that the distribution pattern of MTFHR C677T polymorphism in Eurasia might be the result of interaction of genetic and environmental natural selection, especially the UV radiation.

  17. Evaluation of testicular dose and associated risk from common pelvis radiation therapy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanei, Ahmad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate testicular dose (TD) and the associated risk of heritable disease from common pelvis radiotherapy of male patients in Iran. In this work, the relation between TD and changes in beam energy, pelvis size, source to skin distance (SSD) and beam directions (anterior or posterior) was also evaluated. The values of TDs were measured on 67 randomly selected male patients during common pelvis radiotherapy using 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, Theratron Cobalt-60 unit at SSD of 80 cm and 9 MV, Neptun 10 PC and 18 MV, GE Saturne 20 at SSD of 100 cm at Seyed-Al Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Results showed that, the maximum TD was up to 12% of the tumor dose. Considering the risk factor for radiation-induced heritable disorders of 0.1% per Sv, an excess risk of hereditary disorders of 72 per 10,000 births was conservatively calculated. There was a significant difference in the measured TD using different treatment machines and energies (P pelvis size (r = 0.275, P < 0.001). Using the student's t-tests, it was found that, there was not a significant difference between TD and beam direction (P = 0.231). Iranian male patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy have the potential of receiving a TD of more than 1 Gy which might result in temporary azoospermia. The risk for induction of hereditary disorders in future generations should be considered as low but not negligible in comparison with the correspondent nominal risk. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation Therapy (with or without neck surgery) for Phenotypic HPV- associated Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Adam S.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Rosenthal, David I.; William, William N.; Gunn, Gary B.; Beadle, Beth M.; Johnson, Faye M.; Morrison, William H.; Phan, Jack; Frank, Steven J.; Kies, Merrill S.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Favorable outcomes for HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has led to interest in identifying a subgroup of patients with the lowest risk of disease recurrence following therapy. De-intensification of therapy for this group may result in survival outcomes that are similar to current therapy but with less toxicity. To advance this effort, we analyzed the outcomes of OPC patients treated with and without systemic therapy. Methods This is a retrospective study of oropharyngeal cancer patients treated between 1985–2012. Criteria for inclusion were ≤ 10 pack-years of cigarette smoking and stage III and IVA limited to T1-3, N1-N2b and T3N0. Survival analysis was performed with the primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS). Results The cohort included 857 patients. Systemic therapy was given to 439 patients (51%). Median survival was 80 months. The 2-year PFS rates was 91%. Limiting analysis to 324 patients irradiated without systemic therapy, the 2- and 5- year PFS rates were 90% and 85%, respectively. Further, for these 324 patients the 5- year PFS rates for T1, T2, and T3 disease were 90%, 83%, and 70%, respectively. The 5-year PFS rate for patients treated with systemic therapy for T3 disease was 77% (p = .07). Conclusions Using the low-risk definition currently established in cooperative trials, our patients had a 2-year PFS rates approximating 90%. When evaluating patients treated with radiation alone, we did not observe a compromise in this high rate of PFS, which is higher than the 2-year PFS thresholds used in current cooperative trials. PMID:27019396

  19. Adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with better oncological outcome compared with salvage radiation therapy in patients with pN1 prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilki, Derya; Preisser, Felix; Tennstedt, Pierre; Tober, Patrick; Mandel, Philipp; Schlomm, Thorsten; Steuber, Thomas; Huland, Hartwig; Schwarz, Rudolf; Petersen, Cordula; Graefen, Markus; Ahyai, Sascha

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the comparative effectiveness of no treatment (NT) or salvage radiation therapy (sRT) at biochemical recurrence (BCR) vs adjuvant radiation therapy (aRT) in patients with lymph node (LN)-positive prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP). A total of 773 patients with LN-positive PCa at RP, with or without additional radiation therapy (RT), in the period 2005-2013, were retrospectively analysed. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing BCR and metastasis-free survival (MFS). Propensity score-matched analyses were performed. The median follow-up for the entire patient group was 33.8 months. Four-year BCR-free and MFS rates were 43.3% and 86.6%, respectively, for all patients. In multivariate analysis, NT/sRT (n = 505) was an independent risk factor for BCR and metastasis compared with aRT (n = 213). The superiority of aRT was confirmed after propensity score matching. The 4-year MFS in the matched cohort was 82.5% vs 91.8% for the NT/sRT and aRT groups, respectively (P = 0.02). Early sRT (pre-RT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≤0.5 ng/mL) compared with sRT at PSA >0.5 ng/mL was significantly associated with a lower risk of metastasis. Patients with LN-positive PCa who received aRT had a significantly better oncological outcome than patients with NT/sRT, independent of tumour characteristics. Patients with early sRT had higher rates of response and better MFS than patients with pre-RT PSA >0.5 ng/mL. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A 2-Stage Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Development of Erectile Dysfunction Following Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerns, Sarah L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Departments of Pathology and Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Stock, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Buckstein, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Shao, Yongzhao [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Campbell, Christopher [Departments of Pathology and Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Rath, Lynda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); De Ruysscher, Dirk; Lammering, Guido [Department of Radiation Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hixson, Rosetta; Cesaretti, Jamie; Terk, Mitchell [Florida Radiation Oncology Group, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Ostrer, Harry [Departments of Pathology and Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Rosenstein, Barry S., E-mail: barry.rosenstein@mssm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Departments of Dermatology and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with development of erectile dysfunction (ED) among prostate cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A 2-stage genome-wide association study was performed. Patients were split randomly into a stage I discovery cohort (132 cases, 103 controls) and a stage II replication cohort (128 cases, 102 controls). The discovery cohort was genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 genome-wide arrays. The 940 top ranking SNPs selected from the discovery cohort were genotyped in the replication cohort using Illumina iSelect custom SNP arrays. Results: Twelve SNPs identified in the discovery cohort and validated in the replication cohort were associated with development of ED following radiation therapy (Fisher combined P values 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} to 6.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}). Notably, these 12 SNPs lie in or near genes involved in erectile function or other normal cellular functions (adhesion and signaling) rather than DNA damage repair. In a multivariable model including nongenetic risk factors, the odds ratios for these SNPs ranged from 1.6 to 5.6 in the pooled cohort. There was a striking relationship between the cumulative number of SNP risk alleles an individual possessed and ED status (Sommers' D P value = 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -29}). A 1-allele increase in cumulative SNP score increased the odds for developing ED by a factor of 2.2 (P value = 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -19}). The cumulative SNP score model had a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 75% for prediction of developing ED at the radiation therapy planning stage. Conclusions: This genome-wide association study identified a set of SNPs that are associated with development of ED following radiation therapy. These candidate genetic predictors warrant more definitive validation in an independent cohort.

  1. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Adam J., E-mail: adam_olszewski@brown.edu; Desai, Amrita

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortal time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas.

  2. Human radiation experiments associated with the US Department of Energy and its predecessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-07-01

    This document contains a listing, description, and selected references for documented human radiation experiments sponsored, supported, or performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors, including the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the Off ice of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). The list represents work completed by DOE`s Off ice of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) through June 1995. The experiment list is available on the Internet via a Home Page on the World Wide Web (http://www.ohre.doe.gov). The Home Page also includes the full text of Human Radiation Experiments. The Department of Energy Roadmap to the Story and the Records (DOE/EH-0445), published in February 1995, to which this publication is a supplement. This list includes experiments released at Secretary O`Leary`s June 1994 press conference, as well as additional studies identified during the 12 months that followed. Cross-references are provided for experiments originally released at the press conference; for experiments released as part of The DOE Roadmap; and for experiments published in the 1986 congressional report entitled American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on US Citizens. An appendix of radiation terms is also provided.

  3. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada)

    1991-02-01

    The effects of an acute dose of {gamma}-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19+-1{sup 0}C and 42+-2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author).

  4. Temporal Cerebral Microbleeds Are Associated With Radiation Necrosis and Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients Treated for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Qingyu [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Neurology, Zengcheng People' s Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Focai; Rong, Xiaoming [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Yang, Wuyang [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Li, Yi; Cai, Zhaoxi; Xu, Pengfei; Xu, Yongteng [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Yamei, E-mail: yameitang@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Gene Regulation and Target Therapy of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may be complicated with radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN), resulting in deteriorated cognitive function. However, the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. This study attempts to elucidate the association between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and radiation necrosis and cognitive dysfunction in NPC patients treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study included 106 NPC patients who were exposed to radiation therapy (78 patients with RN and 28 without RN). Sixty-six patients without discernable intracranial pathology were included as the control group. CMBs were confirmed using susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive function was accessed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Patients with a total score below 26 were defined as cognitively dysfunction. Results: Seventy-seven patients (98.7%) in the RN group and 12 patients (42.9%) in the non-RN group had at least 1 CMB. In contrast, only 14 patients (21.2%) in the control group had CMBs. In patients with a history of radiation therapy, CMBs most commonly presented in temporal lobes (76.4%) followed by cerebellum (23.7%). Patients with RN had more temporal CMBs than those in the non-RN group (37.7 ± 51.9 vs 3.8 ± 12.6, respectively; P<.001). The number of temporal lobe CMBs was predictive for larger volume of brain necrosis (P<.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. Although cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 55.1% of RN patients, only 7.1% of non-RN patients sustained cognitive impairment (P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, education, period after radiation therapy, CMBs in other lobes, and RN volume, the number of temporal CMBs remained an independent risk factor for cognitive dysfunction (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.04; P=.003). Conclusions: CMBs is a common radiological manifestation in NPC patients with RN

  5. Problems Associated with the Use of the Radiochromic Dye Film as a Radiation Dose Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johnny; Wille, Mads; Olsen, Kjeld J.

    1984-01-01

    A thorough investigation has been made of the problems involved in using a dye film dose meter for precision dosimetry at high doses, using both low- and high-LET radiation. The study includes: time course of coloration following irradiation at various dose levels; dose response after irradiation...... of coloration. The dose response has been found to depend strongly on: the time span between irradiation and measurement; the irradiation temperature; and the dose rate at doses above 50 kGy for low-LET radiation. Irradiation in vacuum (right-pointing angle bracket1 Pa) and in air produced the same dose...

  6. Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Christopher H.; Boyd, Glenn

    2006-07-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other "heat and eat" multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a "frankfurter on a roll", a "beef cheeseburger on a bun" and a "vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun" was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log 10 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat" sandwich products.

  7. Quantifying the Increase in Radiation Exposure Associated with SPECT/CT Compared to SPECT Alone for Routine Nuclear Medicine Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Larkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We quantify the additional radiation exposure in terms of effective dose incurred by patients in the CT portion of SPECT/CT examinations. Methods. The effective dose from a variety of common nuclear medicine procedures is calculated and summarized. The extra exposure from the CT portion of the examination is summarized by examination and body part. Two hundred forty-eight scans from 221 patients are included in this study. The effective dose from the CT examination is also compared to average background radiation. Results. We found that the extra effective dose is not sufficient to cause deterministic effects. However, the stochastic effects may be significant, especially in patients undergoing numerous follow-up studies. The cumulative effect might increase the radiation exposure compared to patient management with SPECT alone. Conclusions. While the relative increase in radiation exposure associated with SPECT/CT is generally considered acceptable when compared with the benefits to the patient, physicians should make every effort to minimize this effect by using proper technical procedures and educating patients about the exposure they will receive.

  8. Cloud and radiative heating profiles associated with the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwon; Waliser, Duane E.; Cesana, Gregory V.; Jiang, Xianan; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Neena, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    The cloud water content (CW) and radiative heating rate (QR) structures related to northward propagating boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations (BSISOs) are analyzed using data from A-train satellites in conjunction with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. It is found that the northward movement of CW- and QR anomalies are closely synchronized with the northward movement of BSISO precipitation maxima. Commensurate with the northward propagating BSISO precipitation maxima, the CW anomalies exhibit positive ice (liquid) CW maxima in the upper (middle/low) troposphere with a prominent tilting structure in which the low-tropospheric (upper-tropospheric) liquid (ice) CW maximum leads (lags) the BSISO precipitation maximum. The BSISO-related shortwave heating (QSW) heats (cools) the upper (low) troposphere; the longwave heating (QLW) cools (heats) the upper (middle/low) troposphere. The resulting net radiative heating (QRN), being dominated by QLW, cools (heats) the atmosphere most prominently above the 200 hPa level (below the 600 hPa level). Enhanced clouds in the upper and middle troposphere appears to play a critical role in increasing low-level QLW and QRN. The vertically-integrated QSW, QLW and QRN are positive in the region of enhanced CW with the maximum QRN near the latitude of the BSISO precipitation maximum. The bottom-heavy radiative heating anomaly resulting from the cloud-radiation interaction may act to strengthen convection.

  9. Frequency of Acentric Fragments Are Associated with Cancer Risk in Subjects Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fucic, A.; Bonassi, S.; Gundy, S.; Šrám, Radim; Ceppi, M.; Lucas, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2016), s. 2451-2457 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : ionizing radiation * cancer risk * acentric fragments * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.937, year: 2016

  10. Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-02-12

    The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and land surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe by 0.1. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the change in the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation and land surface temperature to a 0.1 increase in urban albedos for all global land areas. The global average increase in the total outgoing radiation was 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, and temperature decreased by {approx}0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in surface albedo. These averages represent all global land areas where data were available from the land surface model used and are for the boreal summer (June-July-August). For the continental U.S. the total outgoing radiation increased by 2.3 Wm{sup -2}, and land surface temperature decreased by {approx}0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in surface albedo. Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO{sub 2} offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be {approx} 57 Gt CO{sub 2}. A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on global climate and the expected CO{sub 2} offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.

  11. Association of elevated radiation dose with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Puja B.; Prakash, Sheena; Tahir, Usman; Kort, Smadar; Gruberg, Luis; Jeremias, Allen, E-mail: allen.jeremias@stonybrook.edu

    2014-09-15

    Objectives: This study sought to identify clinical and procedural predictors of elevated radiation dose received by patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine if elevated radiation dose was predictive of mortality in this population. Background: Little data exist regarding the impact of excessive radiation burden on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI. Methods: The study population included 1,039 patients who underwent PCI for an AMI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 at an academic tertiary care teaching hospital. Cumulative skin dose (measured in milligray [mGy]) was selected as a measurement of patient radiation burden. Clinical and procedural variables were analyzed in multiple logistic and linear regression models to determine predictors of higher skin dose, and its impact was evaluated on all-cause intermediate-term mortality at two years. Results: Median skin dose was 2120 mGy (IQR 1379–3190 mGy) in the overall population, of which 153 (20.8%) patients received an elevated skin dose (defined as a skin dose > 4,000 mGy). Independent predictors of elevated skin dose included male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus an ST-elevation MI (STEMI). Increased skin dose was not predictive of intermediate-term mortality by multivariate analysis in the overall population or in either subgroup of STEMI and NSTEMI. Conclusions: In this contemporary observational study examining patients with AMI undergoing PCI, male gender, obesity, multivessel intervention, and presentation with a NSTEMI were associated with increased radiation exposure.

  12. Formation of H_2^+ and its Isotopomers by Radiative Association: the Role of Shape and Feshbach Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Maximilian; Merkt, Frederic

    2017-06-01

    The recent observations [1,2] of shape and Feshbach resonances in the high-resolution photoelectron spectra of H_2, HD and D_2 in the vicinity of the dissociation thresholds of H_2^+, HD^+ and D_2^+ raise questions concerning their potential role in the formation of H_2^+ and its isotopomers in the early universe by radiative association, a topic of astrophysical interest [3]. Close-coupling calculations for the cross sections of the reactions {H}^+ + {H} &\\to {H}_2^+ + hν {H}^+ + {D} &\\to {HD}^+ + hν {D}^+ + {H} &\\to {HD}^+ + hν {D}^+ + {D} &\\to {D}_2^+ + hν, will be presented which take into account nonadiabatic couplings involving rovibronic and hyperfine interactions, as well as relativistic and radiative corrections. The calculated energies and widths will be compared with the experimental results of Ref. [1,2] for H_2^+ and new data for HD^+ and D_2^+. The effect of the resonances on the radiative association rate coefficients will be discussed, also in comparison with earlier studies [4]. [1] M. Beyer and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 093001 (2016). [2] M. Beyer and F. Merkt, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 330, 147 (2016). [3] Molecule formation in dust-poor environments, J. F. Babb and K. P. Kirby, in "The molecular astrophysics of stars and galaxies", T. W. Hartquist and D. A. Williams, eds., Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, pp. 11-34. [4] D. E. Ramaker and J. M. Peek, Phys. Rev. A 13, 58 (1976).

  13. Troponin T-release associates with cardiac radiation doses during adjuvant left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyttä, Tanja; Tuohinen, Suvi; Boman, Eeva; Virtanen, Vesa; Raatikainen, Pekka; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2015-07-10

    Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer increases cardiac morbidity and mortality. For the heart, no safe radiation threshold has been established. Troponin T is a sensitive marker of myocardial damage. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of left-sided breast cancer RT on serum high sensitivity troponin T (hscTnT) levels and its association with cardiac radiation doses and echocardiographic parameters. A total of 58 patients with an early stage, left-sided breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) who received adjuvant breast RT without prior chemotherapy were included in this prospective, non-randomized study. Serum samples were taken before, during and after RT. An increase of hscTnT >30 % was predefined as significant. A comprehensive 2D echocardiograph and electrocardiogram (ECG) were performed before and after RT. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were generated for different cardiac structures. The hscTnT increased during RT from baseline in 12/58 patients (21 %). Patients with increased hscTnT values (group A, N = 12) had significantly higher radiation doses for the whole heart (p = 0.02) and left ventricle (p = 0.03) than patients without hscTnT increase (group B, N = 46). For the left anterior descending artery (LAD), differences between groups A and B were found in volumes receiving 15 Gy (p = 0.03) and 20 Gy (p = 0.03) Furthermore, after RT, the interventricular septum thickened (p = 0.01), and the deceleration time was prolonged (p = 0.008) more in group A than in group B. The increase in hscTnT level during adjuvant RT was positively associated with the cardiac radiation doses for the whole heart and LV in chemotherapy-naive breast cancer patients. Whether these acute subclinical changes increase the risk of excessive long-term cardiovascular morbidity or mortality, will be addressed in the follow-up of our patients.

  14. NBS1 knockdown by small interfering RNA increases ionizing radiation mutagenesis and telomere association in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lim, Chang U K.; Williams, Eli S.; Zhou, Junqing; Zhang, Qinming; Fox, Michael H.; Bailey, Susan M.; Liber, Howard L.

    2005-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations which lead to decreased function of the NBS1 gene are responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disorder that imparts an increased predisposition to development of malignancy. The NBS1 protein is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex that plays a critical role in cellular responses to DNA damage and the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Using small interfering RNA transfection, we have knocked down NBS1 protein levels and analyzed relevant phenotypes in two closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different p53 status, namely wild-type TK6 and mutated WTK1. Both TK6 and WTK1 cells showed an increased level of ionizing radiation-induced mutation at the TK and HPRT loci, impaired phosphorylation of H2AX (gamma-H2AX), and impaired activation of the cell cycle checkpoint regulating kinase, Chk2. In TK6 cells, ionizing radiation-induced accumulation of p53/p21 and apoptosis were reduced. There was a differential response to ionizing radiation-induced cell killing between TK6 and WTK1 cells after NBS1 knockdown; TK6 cells were more resistant to killing, whereas WTK1 cells were more sensitive. NBS1 deficiency also resulted in a significant increase in telomere association that was independent of radiation exposure and p53 status. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that NBS1 deficiency in human cells leads to hypermutability and telomere associations, phenotypes that may contribute to the cancer predisposition seen among patients with this disease.

  15. Factors associated with the omission of androgen deprivation therapy in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Muralidhar, Vinayak; Mahal, Brandon A; Nezolosky, Michelle D; Beard, Clair J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hoffman, Karen E; Martin, Neil E; Orio, Peter F; Sweeney, Christopher J; Feng, Felix Y; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been shown to improve survival for men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer (PCa). We investigated the utilization and factors associated with the omission of ADT in radiation-managed high-risk PCa. We used the National Cancer Database to identify men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network high-risk PCa treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without brachytherapy boost from 2004 to 2012. Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors was used to identify independent predictors for ADT use. A total of 57,968 radiation-treated high-risk PCa men were included in our analysis. There were 49,363 patients (85.2%) treated with EBRT alone and 8605 patients (14.8%) treated with EBRT plus brachytherapy boost. Overall, 77% of men received ADT. In multivariable regression analysis, the use of brachytherapy boost was associated with a significantly lower utilization of ADT (70% vs. 78%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.62-0.69; p-Value use was seen with higher Gleason scores, PSA, and T-category (all p-Values <0.001). Approximately one in four men with radiation-managed high-risk PCa do not receive ADT, which may reflect concerns about its toxicity profile despite known improvements in overall survival. Practice patterns suggest that some providers believe dose escalation through brachytherapy boost may obviate the need for ADT in some high-risk patients, but this hypothesis requires further testing. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Solid cancer mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure at the French atomic energy commission and nuclear fuel company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2011-07-01

    Studies of nuclear workers make it possible to directly quantify the risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure at low doses and low dose rates. Studies of the CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique) and AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) cohort, currently the most informative such group in France, describe the long-term risk to nuclear workers associated with external exposure. Our aim is to assess the risk of mortality from solid cancers among CEA and AREVA NC nuclear workers and its association with external radiation exposure. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and internal Poisson regressions were conducted, controlling for the main confounding factors [sex, attained age, calendar period, company and socioeconomic status (SES)]. During the period 1968-2004, there were 2,035 solid cancers among the 36,769 CEA-AREVA NC workers. Cumulative external radiation exposure was assessed for the period 1950-2004, and the mean cumulative dose was 12.1 mSv. Mortality rates for all causes and all solid cancers were both significantly lower in this cohort than in the general population. A significant excess of deaths from pleural cancer, not associated with cumulative external dose, was observed, probably due to past asbestos exposure. We observed a significant excess of melanoma, also unassociated with dose. Although cumulative external dose was not associated with mortality from all solid cancers, the central estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv of 0.46 for solid cancer mortality was higher than the 0.26 calculated for male Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors 50 years or older and exposed at the age of 30 years or older. The modification of our results after stratification for SES demonstrates the importance of this characteristic in occupational studies, because it makes it possible to take class-based lifestyle differences into account, at least partly. These results show the great potential of a further joint international study of

  17. Experimental measurements of the radiation hazards associated with manned space flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B C; Adams, D A

    1965-01-01

    Tissue-equivalent ionization chambers of special design have been flown on U.S. satellites to determine dose-rate levels in space. A chamber shielded by 4.7 g/cm2 measured doses from energetic protons in the inner Van Allen belt and bremsstrahlung radiation produced by relativistic electrons from the artificial radiation belt formed in July 1962. In November 1962, the maximum dose-rate in space for this shield was 30 rad/hr. Behind 0.4 g/cm2 shielding, the dose-rate peak was 20000 rad/hr. These doses have been determined to be due to artificial electrons in most regions of space, masking the dose arising from energetic protons.

  18. North American Pollutant Export and Associated Ozone Radiative Forcing During the Summers of 2002 and 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Hyer, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    The anthropogenic contribution to North American pollutant export and ozone radiative forcing is evaluated for the summers of 2002 and 2004. The evaluation is performed using the University of Maryland Chemistry and Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 CERES reanalysis data. The goals of the simulations are to quantify North American pollutant outflow and to estimate the effects of this outflow on the forcing of climate by tropospheric ozone. Simulations are performed with and without North American anthropogenic emissions. Year-specific biomass burning emissions are used. As the first part of this evaluation, model output is compared to satellite-(MOPITT CO and SCIAMACHY NO2), aircraft-(UMD RAMMPP O3, NASA DC-8 and NOAA P-3), and ground-based measurements (AIRMAP, CASTNET, NOAA CMDL), and to output from simulations with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM. Export and import fluxes of NOx and NOy are calculated. As the second part of this evaluation, the radiative forcing due to the additional ozone production by North American anthropogenic emissions was calculated. Clear sky infrared forcing approaching 1 Watt per square meter was seen over portions of the eastern United States and the western Atlantic during some pollution episodes. Smaller values of this forcing were seen throughout Europe and northern Africa. We compare the magnitudes of the North American pollutant export and radiative forcing between the 2002 Summer season (more polluted along the US east coast) and the cleaner Summer of 2004.

  19. Efficacy and survival associated with cystoscopy and clot evacuation for radiation or cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Joshua R; Wolf, J Stuart

    2009-02-01

    We assessed the outcome of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis severe enough to require cystoscopy and clot evacuation. We retrospectively evaluated the records of 33 patients with cyclophosphamide or radiation induced hemorrhagic cystitis treated with cystoscopy. Mean followup of living patients was 76 months. Of 33 patients 20 (61%) had resolution of hematuria after single cystoscopy unrelated to hemorrhagic cystitis etiology. Only 4 of 11 patients (36%) had resolution after 2 or more cystoscopies, and all were in the radiation induced hemorrhagic cystitis group (4 of 6, 67%) with none in the cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis group (0 of 5, p = 0.02). Hematuria was refractory to cystoscopy in 9 patients and ileal conduits were created in 4. Kaplan-Meier overall survival at 1, 2 and 5 years was 58%, 51% and 43%, respectively, with survival tending to be worse in patients who received cyclophosphamide for bone marrow transplantation induction. Of the 18 deaths 3 were due to complications of hemorrhagic cystitis, 13 were due to the disease underlying the hemorrhagic cystitis and 2 were unrelated. The response of hemorrhagic cystitis to single cystoscopy and clot evacuation is reasonable but response to subsequent cystoscopy (unless the hemorrhagic cystitis is radiation induced) is less likely, so alternate interventions should be considered if hematuria does not resolve after initial cystoscopy. Patients with hemorrhagic cystitis requiring cystoscopy have a poor prognosis even if hematuria resolves, although most deaths are related to the disease underlying the hemorrhagic cystitis rather than its direct result.

  20. Association Between Geographic Access to Cancer Care and Receipt of Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun Chieh, E-mail: anna.lin@cancer.org [American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Kirkwood, M. Kelsey [American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, Virginia (United States); Hershman, Dawn L. [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Jemal, Ahmedin [American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yu, James B. [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Goldstein, Michael [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bajorin, Dean [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kosty, Michael [Scripps Clinic, San Diego, California (United States); Arnone, Anna [American Society for Radiation Oncology, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Hanley, Amy [American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, Virginia (United States); Stevens, Stephanie [American Society for Radiation Oncology, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Trimodality therapy (chemoradiation and surgery) is the standard of care for stage II/III rectal cancer but nearly one third of patients do not receive radiation therapy (RT). We examined the relationship between the density of radiation oncologists and the travel distance to receipt of RT. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study based on the National Cancer Data Base identified 26,845 patients aged 18 to 80 years with stage II/III rectal cancer diagnosed from 2007 to 2010. Radiation oncologists were identified through the Physician Compare dataset. Generalized estimating equations clustering by hospital service area was used to examine the association between geographic access and receipt of RT, controlling for patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results: Of the 26,845 patients, 70% received RT within 180 days of diagnosis or within 90 days of surgery. Compared with a travel distance of <12.5 miles, patients diagnosed at a reporting facility who traveled ≥50 miles had a decreased likelihood of receipt of RT (50-249 miles, adjusted odds ratio 0.75, P<.001; ≥250 miles, adjusted odds ratio 0.46; P=.002), all else being equal. The density level of radiation oncologists was not significantly associated with the receipt of RT. Patients who were female, nonwhite, and aged ≥50 years and had comorbidities were less likely to receive RT (P<.05). Patients who were uninsured but self-paid for their medical services, initially diagnosed elsewhere but treated at a reporting facility, and resided in Midwest had an increased the likelihood of receipt of RT (P<.05). Conclusions: An increased travel burden was associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving RT for patients with stage II/III rectal cancer, all else being equal; however, radiation oncologist density was not. Further research of geographic access and establishing transportation assistance programs or lodging services for patients with an unmet need might help decrease

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Nyctaginaceae: taxonomy, biogeography, and characters associated with a radiation of xerophytic genera in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Norman A; Manos, Paul S

    2007-05-01

    The four o'clock family (Nyctaginaceae) has a number of genera with unusual morphological and ecological characters, several of which appear to have a "tendency" to evolve repeatedly in Nyctaginaceae. Despite this, the Nyctaginaceae have attracted little attention from botanists. To produce a phylogeny for the Nyctaginaceae, we sampled 51 species representing 25 genera (of 28-31) for three chloroplast loci (ndhF, rps16, rpl16, and nrITS) and included all genera from North America. Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods were used to reconstruct the phylogeny for the family. The family is neotropical in origin. A radiation of woody taxa unites Pisonia and Pisoniella with the difficult tropical genera Neea and Guapira, which also form a clade, though neither appears to be monophyletic. This group is sister to a clade containing Bougainvillea, Belemia, and Phaeoptilum. A dramatic radiation of genera occurred in the deserts of North America. The tribe Nyctagineae and its subtribes are paraphyletic, due to over-reliance on a few homoplasious characters, i.e., pollen morphology and involucre presence. Two notable characters associated with the desert radiation are cleistogamy and edaphic endemism on gypsum soils. We discuss evolutionary trends in these traits in light of available data about self-incompatibility and gypsum tolerance in Nyctaginaceae.

  2. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong R Yang

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS. Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29, had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26, estrogen receptor (ER-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28, and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22. Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12. Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings.

  3. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebara, Takeshi [Municipal Kanbara General Hospital, Fujikawa, Shizuoka (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  4. Comparison of systemic therapies used concurrently with radiation for the treatment of human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Hsin-Hua; Sturgis, Erich M; Kies, Merrill S; El-Naggar, Adel K; Morrison, William H; Beadle, Beth M; Johnson, Faye M; Gunn, Gary B; Fuller, Clifton D; Phan, Jack; Gold, Kathryn A; Frank, Steven J; Skinner, Heath; Rosenthal, David I; Garden, Adam S

    2016-04-01

    This was a retrospective study of patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer treated with concurrent systemic therapy and radiation. Data were extracted through chart review, and statistical analyses included frequency tabulation, chi-square, and Kaplan-Meier tests. Three hundred thirty-nine patients were analyzed; 166 received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. One hundred thirty-six patients were treated with cisplatin, 123 with cetuximab, and 59 with carboplatin. The 2-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial overall survival rates were 92%, 88%, and 78%, respectively. There were no significant differences in survival or disease control when analyzed by systemic agent. Platin-treated patients had greater hematologic toxicity, and required more intravenous hydration. The incidence of confluent mucositis was highest among patients treated with cetuximab. Platin and cetuximab seem to have similar efficacy when delivered concurrently with radiation in our retrospective population study. Although platin did cause greater hematologic toxicity, radiation-specific side effects seemed relatively comparable. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1554-E1561, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, Christopher H. [Food Safety Intervention Technologies Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)]. E-mail: csommers@errc.ars.usda.gov; Boyd, Glenn [Food Safety Intervention Technologies Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other 'heat and eat' multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a 'frankfurter on a roll', a 'beef cheeseburger on a bun' and a 'vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun' was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log{sub 1} of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat' sandwich products.

  6. Cancer-associated fibroblasts from human NSCLC survive ablative doses of radiation but their invasive capacity is reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellevik Turid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs are significant components of solid malignancies and play central roles in cancer sustainability, invasion and metastasis. In this study we have investigated the invasive capacity and matrix remodelling properties of human lung CAFs after exposure to ablative doses of ionizing radiation (AIR, equivalent to single fractions delivered by stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SART for medically inoperable stage-I/II non-small-cell lung cancers. Methods CAFs were isolated from lung tumour specimens from 16 donors. Initially, intrinsic radiosensitivity was evaluated by checking viability and extent of DNA-damage response (DDR at different radiation doses. The migrative and invasive capacities of CAFs were thereafter determined after a sub-lethal single radiation dose of 18 Gy. To ascertain the mechanisms behind the altered invasive capacity of cells, expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs were measured in the conditioned media several days post-irradiation, along with expression of cell surface integrins and dynamics of focal contacts by vinculin-staining. Results Exposing CAFs to 1 × 18 Gy resulted in a potent induction of multiple nuclear DDR foci (> 9/cell with little resolution after 120 h, induced premature cellular senescence and inhibition of the proliferative, migrative and invasive capacity. AIR promoted MMP-3 and inhibited MMP-1 appearance to some extent, but did not affect expression of other major MMPs. Furthermore, surface expression of integrins α2, β1 and α5 was consistently enhanced, and a dramatic augmentation and redistribution of focal contacts was observed. Conclusions Our data indicate that ablative doses of radiation exert advantageous inhibitory effects on the proliferative, migratory and invasive capacity of lung CAFs. The reduced motility of irradiated CAFs might be a consequence of stabilized focal contacts via integrins.

  7. Results of the 2013-2015 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, Nima, E-mail: nabaviza@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Burt, Lindsay M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Mancini, Brandon R. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Morris, Zachary S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Walker, Amanda J. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Miller, Seth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Bhavsar, Shripal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Integris Cancer Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Mohindra, Pranshu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kim, Miranda B. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kharofa, Jordan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to survey radiation oncology chief residents to define their residency experience and readiness for independent practice. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2013 to 2014 and 2014 to 2015, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted an electronic survey of post-graduate year-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 3 months of training. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: Sixty-six chief residents completed the survey in 2013 to 2014 (53% response rate), and 69 completed the survey in 2014 to 2015 (64% response rate). Forty to 85% percent of residents reported inadequate exposure to high-dose rate and low-dose rate brachytherapy. Nearly all residents in both years (>90%) reported adequate clinical experience for the following disease sites: breast, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, head and neck, and lung. However, as few as 56% reported adequate experience in lymphoma or pediatric malignancies. More than 90% of residents had participated in retrospective research projects, with 20% conducting resident-led prospective clinical trials and 50% conducting basic science or translational projects. Most chief residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week in the clinical/hospital setting and performing fewer than 15 hours per week tasks that were considered to have little or no educational value. There was more than 80% compliance with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) work hour limits. Fifty-five percent of graduating residents intended to join an established private practice group, compared to 25% who headed for academia. Residents perceive the job market to be more competitive than previous years. Conclusions: This first update of the ARRO chief resident survey since the 2007 to 2008 academic year documents US radiation oncology residents' experiences and conditions over a 2-year period

  8. Mutant frequency of radiotherapy technicians appears to be associated with recent dose of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, K.; Ferraris, J.; Bradley, W.E.; Swartz, J.; Seifert, A.M. (Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada))

    1989-10-01

    The frequency of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutants among peripheral T-lymphocytes of radiotherapy technicians primarily exposed to 60Co was measured by the T-cell cloning method. Mutant frequencies of these technicians in 1984 and 1986 were significantly higher than those of physiotherapy technicians who worked in a neighboring service, and correlated significantly with thermoluminescence dosimeter readings recorded during the 6 mo preceding mutant frequency determination. Correlations decreased when related to dose recorded over longer time intervals. HPRT mutant frequency determination in peripheral lymphocytes is a good measure of recently received biologically effective radiation dose in an occupationally exposed population.

  9. Quantifying Extremely Rapid Flux Enhancements of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons Associated With Radial Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si; Yan, Qi; Yang, Chang; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei; Xiao, Fuliang

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have revealed a typical picture that seed electrons are transported inward under the drive of radial diffusion and then accelerated via chorus to relativistic energies. Here we show a potentially different process during the 2-3 October 2013 storm when Van Allen Probes observed extremely rapid (by about 50 times in 2 h) flux enhancements of relativistic (1.8-3.4 MeV) electrons but without distinct chorus at lower L-shells. Meanwhile, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites simultaneously measured enhanced chorus and fluxes of energetic (˜100-300 keV) seed electrons at higher L-shells. Numerical calculations show that chorus can efficiently accelerate seed electrons at L ˜ 8.3. Then radial diffusion further increased the phase space density of relativistic electrons throughout the outer radiation belts, with a remarkable agreement with the observation in magnitude and timescale. The current results provide a different physical scenario on the interplay between radial diffusion and local acceleration in outer radiation belt.

  10. Optic radiation damage in multiple sclerosis is associated with visual dysfunction and retinal thinning - an ultrahigh-field MR pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnecker, Tim [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Asklepios Fachklinikum Teupitz, Department of Neurology, Teupitz (Germany); Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Zimmermann, Hanna; Ramien, Caren; Brandt, Alexander U. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Metz, Imke; Brueck, Wolfgang [University Medicine Goettingen, Institute of Neuropathology, Goettingen (Germany); Pfueller, Caspar F.; Doerr, Jan [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Hahn, Katrin [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F), Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Paul, Friedemann [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Wuerfel, Jens [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F), Berlin (Germany); University Medicine Goettingen, Institute of Neuroradiology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    To investigate posterior visual pathway damage in multiple sclerosis using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 Tesla (7 T), and to determine its correlation with visual disability and retinal fibre layer (RNFL) damage detectable by optic coherence tomography (OCT). We studied 7 T MRI, OCT, functional acuity contrast testing (FACT), and visually evoked potentials (VEP, n = 16) in 30 patients (including 26 relapsing-remitting MS and four clinically isolated syndrome patients) and 12 healthy controls to quantify RNFL thickness, optic radiation lesion volume, and optic radiation thickness. Optic radiation lesion volume was associated with thinning of the optic radiation (p < 0.001), delayed VEP (p = 0.031), and visual disability indicated by FACT (p = 0.020). Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between optic radiation lesion volume and RNFL thickness (p < 0.001), including patients without previous optic neuritis (p < 0.001). Anterior visual pathway damage, but also (subclinical) optic radiation integrity loss detectable by 7 T MRI are common findings in MS that are mutually affected. Given the association between optic radiation damage, visual impairment, and increased VEP latency in this exploratory study of a limited sample size, clinicians should be aware of acute lesions within the optic radiation in patients with (bilateral) visual disturbances. (orig.)

  11. Atmospheric radiative feedbacks associated with transient climate change and climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, Robert A.; Power, Scott B. [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    This study examines in detail the 'atmospheric' radiative feedbacks operating in a coupled General Circulation Model (GCM). These feedbacks (defined as the change in top of atmosphere radiation per degree of global surface temperature change) are due to responses in water vapour, lapse rate, clouds and surface albedo. Two types of radiative feedback in particular are considered: those arising from century scale 'transient' warming (from a 1% per annum compounded CO{sub 2} increase), and those operating under the model's own unforced 'natural' variability. The time evolution of the transient (or 'secular') feedbacks is first examined. It is found that both the global strength and the latitudinal distributions of these feedbacks are established within the first two or three decades of warming, and thereafter change relatively little out to 100 years. They also closely approximate those found under equilibrium warming from a 'mixed layer' ocean version of the same model forced by a doubling of CO{sub 2}. These secular feedbacks are then compared with those operating under unforced (interannual) variability. For water vapour, the interannual feedback is only around two-thirds the strength of the secular feedback. The pattern reveals widespread regions of negative feedback in the interannual case, in turn resulting from patterns of circulation change and regions of decreasing as well as increasing surface temperature. Considering the vertical structure of the two, it is found that although positive net mid to upper tropospheric contributions dominate both, they are weaker (and occur lower) under interannual variability than under secular change and are more narrowly confined to the tropics. Lapse rate feedback from variability shows weak negative feedback over low latitudes combined with strong positive feedback in mid-to-high latitudes resulting in no net global feedback - in contrast to the dominant negative low

  12. Parameterization of sea-salt optical properties and physics of the associated radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of sea-salt aerosol have been parameterized at shortwave and longwave wavelengths. The optical properties were parameterized in a simple functional form in terms of the ambient relative humidity based on Mie optical property calculations. The proposed parameterization is tested relative to Mie calculations and is found to be accurate to within a few percent. In the parameterization, the effects of the size distribution on the optical properties are accounted for in terms of effective radius of the sea-salt size distribution. This parameterization differs from previous works by being formulated directly with the wet sea-salt size distribution and, to our knowledge, this is the first published sea-salt parameterization to provide a parameterization for both shortwave and longwave wavelengths.

    We have used this parameterization in a set of idealized 1-D radiative transfer calculations to investigate the sensitivity of various attributes of sea-salt forcing, including the dependency on sea-salt column loading, effective variance, solar angle, and surface albedo. From these sensitivity tests, it is found that sea-salt forcings for both shortwave and longwave spectra are linearly related to the sea-salt loading for realistic values of loadings. The radiative forcing results illustrate that the shortwave forcing is an order of magnitude greater than the longwave forcing results and opposite in sign, for various loadings. Forcing sensitivity studies show that the influence of effective variance for sea-salt is minor; therefore, only one value of effective variance is used in the parameterization. The dependence of sea-salt forcing with solar zenith angle illustrates an interesting result that sea-salt can generate a positive top-of-the-atmosphere result (i.e. warming when the solar zenith angle is relatively small (i.e. <30°. Finally, it is found that the surface albedo significantly affects the shortwave radiative

  13. Post-radiation fibrosarcoma of the cerebrum associated with a prominent, lace-like, perivascular, desmoplastic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Masayuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yasuhide; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Koyama, Junji

    2016-04-01

    An intra-axial tumor measuring about 4 cm was excised from the right temporal lobe of a 35-year-old woman, who had a past history of resection of craniopharyngioma and postoperative radiation 21 years earlier. The tumor involved both the cortex and white matter, but was not attached to the dura mater. It consisted of a dense, interlacing, fascicular proliferation of atypical fibroblastic cells and was associated with an extensive, lace-like, desmoplastic change mainly involving the perivascular region around the tumor and overlying the subarachnoid space. The histopathological features of the desmoplastic change resembled meningioangiomatosis, but no proliferation of meningothelial cells was noted. The patient has been free from recurrence for 12 months since the operation. The association of primary cerebral fibrosarcoma with an extensive, lace-like, perivascular, desmoplastic change has not been documented in the literature. The radiation administered 21 years previously may have played some pathogenetic role in the perivascular desmoplastic change, and a malignant transformation of fibroblasts within the perivascular collagenous tissue is considered the most likely origin of the fibrosarcoma. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  14. Association of Radiation Dose to the Eyes With the Risk for Cataract After Nonretinoblastoma Solid Cancers in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Diallo, Ibrahima; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Kahlouche, Amar; Dumas, Agnès; Schwartz, Boris; Oberlin, Odile; Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine; Labbé, Martine; Jackson, Angela; Bullet, Julien; Rubino, Carole; Haddy, Nadia; De Vathaire, Florent

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have been published on the association of the radiation dose received to the eyes during radiotherapy (RT) for childhood cancer and the risk for later cataract. To investigate the risk for cataract after treatment of nonretinoblastoma solid cancer in childhood. The study used data from the Euro2K cohort that includes 4389 5-year survivors of solid tumors treated from January 1, 1945, to December 31, 1985; of these, 3172 patients were treated in France. A self-reported questionnaire was sent to French survivors from September 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012, when follow-up was considered completed for this study. However, 619 patients died before the beginning of the study and 128 patients treated for a retinoblastoma or who underwent enucleation were excluded. Likewise, 429 patients with unknown addresses or who did not return the consent form and 163 nonresponders did not participate. The remaining 1833 patients who completed the questionnaire underwent analysis for this study from June 1, 2014, to December 7, 2015. Radiation doses in both eyes for individuals were estimated for all patients who had received RT. The role of the radiation dose in cataract risk was investigated using the Cox proportional hazard regression model and the excess relative or the absolute risk model. The role of ctytotoxic chemotherapy was also investigated. The 1833 patients (961 men [52.4%]; 872 women [47.6%]; mean [SD] age, 37.0 [8.5]) who returned the questionnaire were included in the analysis. After a mean follow-up of 32 years, 33 patients with unilateral or bilateral cataract were identified, for a total of 47 cataract events. The 47 events were validated by medical record review and by contacting the patients and the corresponding medical physician or ophthalmologist to obtain copies of diagnostic examinations or surgical reports. Overall, in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, patients who received RT had a 4.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5- to 13.0-fold

  15. Locally advanced breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A case report of successful treatment with radiation and chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleighton Estes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare phenomenon. A typical presentation is an effusion associated with a breast implant. Less commonly, disease can become more advanced locoregionally or distantly. The optimal treatment schema is a topic of debate: localized ALCL can potentially be cured with implant removal alone, while other cases in the literature, including those that are more advanced, have been treated with varying combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy. This is a case report of breast implant ALCL with pathologically proven lymph node involvement, the fifth such patient reported. Our patient experienced a favorable outcome with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  16. No association between excessive wound complications and preoperative high-dose, hypofractionated, image-guided radiation therapy for spine metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keam, Jennifer; Bilsky, Mark H; Laufer, Ilya; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Tam, Moses; Zatcky, Joan; Lovelock, Dale M; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2014-04-01

    Radiation therapy is known to impair wound healing. Higher dose per fraction is believed to increase this risk. This study sought to quantify rates of wound complication in patients receiving preoperative conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (XRT) or high-dose hypofractionated image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for spinal metastasis, and to identify predictors of wound complication. The records of 165 consecutive patients who underwent spine surgery for metastasis at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1999 and 2010, with a history of prior radiation therapy, were reviewed. Patients with primary spine tumors, 2 courses of prior radiation therapy to the surgical site, total dose 3 Gy/fraction). The total dose prescribed to the 100% isodose line to treat the planning target volume was 18-30 Gy in 1-5 fractions. Clinical factors evaluated included age, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, body mass index, presence of diabetes, smoking, ambulatory status, prior surgery at same spinal site, preoperative laboratory results (hemoglobin, lymphocyte count, and albumin), perioperative chemotherapy or steroids, estimated blood loss, extent of stabilization hardware, time between radiation therapy and surgery, number of vertebral bodies irradiated, total radiation dose, and dose per fraction of radiation therapy. Wound complication was defined as poor healing, dehiscence, or infection. Potential predictors of wound complication were assessed by univariate analyses using competing-risk methods to adjust for risk of death. results: For XRT patients, median dose was 30 Gy (range 11.5-70 Gy) with 72% of them receiving 3 Gy × 10 fractions. For IGRT patients, 66% received 18-24 Gy × 1 fraction and 23% received 6 Gy × 5 fractions. Groups differed only by the mean number of vertebral bodies treated (4.6 XRT and 1.8 IGRT, p complications occurred at a median of 0.95 months (range 0.4-3.9 months). A total of 22 wound events occurred in the XRT group and 2 in the IGRT

  17. Impact of considering non-occupational radiation exposure on the association between occupational dose and solid cancer among French nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Lucie; Cléro, Enora; Samson, Eric; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi

    2017-10-21

    The French nuclear worker cohort allows for the assessment of cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure, but workers are also exposed to medical and environmental radiation which can be of the same order of magnitude. This study aims to examine the impact of non-occupational radiation exposures on the dose-risk analysis between occupational radiation exposure and cancer mortality. The cohort included workers employed before 1995 for at least one year by CEA, AREVA NC or EDF and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure. Monitoring results were used to calculate occupational individual doses. Scenarios of work-related X-ray and environmental exposures were simulated. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between occupational exposure and cancer mortality adjusting for non-occupational radiation exposure. The mean cumulative dose of external occupational radiation was 18.4 mSv among 59 004 workers. Depending on the hypotheses made, the mean cumulative work-related X-ray dose varied between 3.1 and 9.2 mSv and the mean cumulative environmental dose was around 130 mSv. The unadjusted excess relative rate of cancer per Sievert (ERR/Sv) was 0.34 (90% CI -0.44 to 1.24). Adjusting for environmental radiation exposure did not substantially modify this risk coefficient, but it was attenuated by medical exposure (ERR/Sv point estimate between 0.15 and 0.23). Occupational radiation risk estimates were lower when adjusted for work-related X-ray exposures. Environmental exposures had a very slight impact on the occupational exposure risk estimates. In any scenario of non-occupational exposure considered, a positive but insignificant excess cancer risk associated with occupational exposure was observed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Radiative Energy Budgets of Phototrophic Surface-Associated Microbial Communities and their Photosynthetic Efficiency Under Diffuse and Collimated Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Brodersen, Kasper E; Kühl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the radiative energy budgets of a heterogeneous photosynthetic coral reef sediment and a compact uniform cyanobacterial biofilm on top of coastal sediment. By combining electrochemical, thermocouple and fiber-optic microsensor measurements of O 2 , temperature and light, we could calculate the proportion of the absorbed light energy that was either dissipated as heat or conserved by photosynthesis. We show, across a range of different incident light regimes, that such radiative energy budgets are highly dominated by heat dissipation constituting up to 99.5% of the absorbed light energy. Highest photosynthetic energy conservation efficiency was found in the coral sediment under low light conditions and amounted to 18.1% of the absorbed light energy. Additionally, the effect of light directionality, i.e., diffuse or collimated light, on energy conversion efficiency was tested on the two surface-associated systems. The effects of light directionality on the radiative energy budgets of these phototrophic communities were not unanimous but, resulted in local spatial differences in heat-transfer, gross photosynthesis, and light distribution. The light acclimation index, E k , i.e., the irradiance at the onset of saturation of photosynthesis, was >2 times higher in the coral sediment compared to the biofilm and changed the pattern of photosynthetic energy conservation under light-limiting conditions. At moderate to high incident irradiances, the photosynthetic conservation of absorbed energy was highest in collimated light; a tendency that changed in the biofilm under sub-saturating incident irradiances, where higher photosynthetic efficiencies were observed under diffuse light. The aim was to investigate how the physical structure and light propagation affected energy budgets and light utilization efficiencies in loosely organized vs. compact phototrophic sediment under diffuse and collimated light. Our results suggest that the optical properties and the

  19. A Voxel-Based Approach to Explore Local Dose Differences Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Giuseppe [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Monti, Serena [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); D' Avino, Vittoria [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Conson, Manuel [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Liuzzi, Raffaele [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Pressello, Maria Cristina [Department of Health Physics, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Donato, Vittorio [Department of Radiation Oncology, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Quarantelli, Mario [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Pacelli, Roberto [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Cella, Laura, E-mail: laura.cella@cnr.it [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To apply a voxel-based (VB) approach aimed at exploring local dose differences associated with late radiation-induced lung damage (RILD). Methods and Materials: An interinstitutional database of 98 patients who were Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with postchemotherapy supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy was analyzed in the study. Eighteen patients experienced late RILD, classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system. Each patient's computed tomographic (CT) scan was normalized to a single reference case anatomy (common coordinate system, CCS) through a log-diffeomorphic approach. The obtained deformation fields were used to map the dose of each patient into the CCS. The coregistration robustness and the dose mapping accuracy were evaluated by geometric and dose scores. Two different statistical mapping schemes for nonparametric multiple permutation inference on dose maps were applied, and the corresponding P<.05 significance lung subregions were generated. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-based test was performed on the mean dose extracted from each subregion. Results: The coregistration process resulted in a geometrically robust and accurate dose warping. A significantly higher dose was consistently delivered to RILD patients in voxel clusters near the peripheral medial-basal portion of the lungs. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) from the mean dose of the voxel clusters was higher than the corresponding AUC derived from the total lung mean dose. Conclusions: We implemented a framework including a robust registration process and a VB approach accounting for the multiple comparison problem in dose-response modeling, and applied it to a cohort of HL survivors to explore a local dose–RILD relationship in the lungs. Patients with RILD received a significantly greater dose in parenchymal regions where low doses (∼6 Gy) were delivered. Interestingly, the relation between differences in the high

  20. Radiative Energy Budgets of Phototrophic Surface-Associated Microbial Communities and their Photosynthetic Efficiency Under Diffuse and Collimated Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Brodersen, Kasper E.; Kühl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the radiative energy budgets of a heterogeneous photosynthetic coral reef sediment and a compact uniform cyanobacterial biofilm on top of coastal sediment. By combining electrochemical, thermocouple and fiber-optic microsensor measurements of O2, temperature and light, we could calculate the proportion of the absorbed light energy that was either dissipated as heat or conserved by photosynthesis. We show, across a range of different incident light regimes, that such radiative energy budgets are highly dominated by heat dissipation constituting up to 99.5% of the absorbed light energy. Highest photosynthetic energy conservation efficiency was found in the coral sediment under low light conditions and amounted to 18.1% of the absorbed light energy. Additionally, the effect of light directionality, i.e., diffuse or collimated light, on energy conversion efficiency was tested on the two surface-associated systems. The effects of light directionality on the radiative energy budgets of these phototrophic communities were not unanimous but, resulted in local spatial differences in heat-transfer, gross photosynthesis, and light distribution. The light acclimation index, Ek, i.e., the irradiance at the onset of saturation of photosynthesis, was >2 times higher in the coral sediment compared to the biofilm and changed the pattern of photosynthetic energy conservation under light-limiting conditions. At moderate to high incident irradiances, the photosynthetic conservation of absorbed energy was highest in collimated light; a tendency that changed in the biofilm under sub-saturating incident irradiances, where higher photosynthetic efficiencies were observed under diffuse light. The aim was to investigate how the physical structure and light propagation affected energy budgets and light utilization efficiencies in loosely organized vs. compact phototrophic sediment under diffuse and collimated light. Our results suggest that the optical properties and the

  1. Increasing Radiation Therapy Dose Is Associated With Improved Survival in Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshy, Matthew, E-mail: mkoshy@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Malik, Renuka [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Weichselbaum, Ralph R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Sher, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the comparative effectiveness of different stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) dosing regimens for early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer, using a large national database, focusing on the relative impact of dose as a function of tumor stage. Methods and Materials: The study included patients in the National Cancer Database from 2003 to 2006 with T1-T2N0M0 inoperable lung cancer (n=498). The biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated according to the linear quadratic formula using an α/β ratio of 10. High versus lower-dose (HD vs LD) SBRT was defined as a calculated BED above or below 150 Gy. Overall survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: The 5 most common dose fractionation schemes (percentage of cohort) used were 20 Gy × 3 (34%), 12 Gy × 4 (16%), 18 Gy × 3 (10%), 15 Gy × 3 (10%), and 16 Gy × 3 (4%). The median calculated BED was 150 Gy (interquartile range 106-166 Gy). The 3-year overall survival (OS) for patients who received HD versus LD was 55% versus 46% (log–rank P=.03). On subset analysis of the T1 cohort there was no association between calculated BED and 3-year OS (61% vs 60% with HD vs LD, P=.9). Among the T2 cohort, patients receiving HD experienced superior 3-year OS (37% vs 24%, P=.01). On multivariable analysis, factors independently prognostic for mortality were female gender (hazard ratio [HR] 0.76, P=.01), T2 tumor (HR 1.99, P=.0001), and HD (HR 0.68, P=.001). Conclusions: This comparative effectiveness analysis of SBRT dose for patients with stage I non–small-cell lung cancer suggests that higher doses (>150 Gy BED) are associated with a significant survival benefit in patients with T2 tumors.

  2. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  3. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  4. Brightening of the global cloud field by nitric acid and the associated radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Makkonen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Clouds cool Earth's climate by reflecting 20% of the incoming solar energy, while also trapping part of the outgoing radiation. The effect of human activities on clouds is poorly understood, but the present-day anthropogenic cooling via changes of cloud albedo and lifetime could be of the same order as warming from anthropogenic addition in CO2. Soluble trace gases can increase water condensation to particles, possibly leading to activation of smaller aerosols and more numerous cloud droplets. We have studied the effect of nitric acid on the aerosol indirect effect with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2. Including the nitric acid effect in the model increases cloud droplet number concentrations globally by 7%. The nitric acid contribution to the present-day cloud albedo effect was found to be −0.32 W m−2 and to the total indirect effect −0.46 W m−2. The contribution to the cloud albedo effect is shown to increase to −0.37 W m−2 by the year 2100, if considering only the reductions in available cloud condensation nuclei. Overall, the effect of nitric acid can play a large part in aerosol cooling during the following decades with decreasing SO2 emissions and increasing NOx and greenhouse gases.

  5. Adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jodi M; Martinez, Steve R; Bold, Richard J; Chen, Steven L

    2010-09-15

    The role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast remains unclear. We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database for patients with breast ACC resected between 1988 and 2005, and divided patients based on the receipt of RT. Univariate and multivariate survival comparisons were made for overall and disease-specific survival. Three hundred seventy six patients met criteria for inclusion. Demographics and staging were similar between groups. Univariate analysis revealed an absolute overall and cause-specific survival benefit of 21% and 7% at 10 years (P = 0.005 and P = 0.12 respectively). In the multivariate analysis, RT was a significant predictor of overall and cause-specific survival with hazard ratios of 0.44 (95% Confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-0.88) and 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01-0.88), respectively. RT after local surgical therapy for ACC of the breast improved both cause-specific and overall survival. Use of RT in this rare tumor should be considered in patients otherwise eligible for RT. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Mathematical modeling of the drying of orange bagasse associating the convective method and infrared radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Sánchez-Sáenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mathematical modeling enables dimensioning of dryers, optimization of drying conditions and the evaluation of process performance. The aim of this research was to describe the behavior of orange bagasse drying using Page's and Fick's second law models, and to assess activation energy (using Arrhenius equation, moisture content, water activity and bulk density of product at the end of the process. The drying experimental assays were performed in 2011 with convective air temperature between 36 and 64 ºC and infrared radiation application time in the range from 23 to 277 s in accordance with the experimental central composite rotatable design. Analysis of variance and F-test were applied to results. At the end of the drying process, moisture content was about 0.09 to 0.87 db and water activity was between 0.25 and 0.87. Bulk density did not vary under studied conditions. Empirical Page's model demonstrated better representation of experimental data than the Fick's model for spheres. Activation energy values were about 18.491; 14.975 and 11.421 kJ mol-1 for infrared application times of 60; 150 e 244 s, respectively.

  7. Indirect Radiative Warming Effect in the Winter and Spring Arctic Associated with Aerosol Pollution from Mid-latitude Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanfeng; Garrett, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Different from global cooling effects of aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions, anthropogenic aerosols from mid-latitude are found to play an increased warming effect in the Arctic in later winter and early spring. Using four-year (2000-2003) observation of aerosol, cloud and radiation at North Slope of Alaska, it is found that the aerosols can increase cloud droplet effective radius 3 um for fixed liquid water path, and increase cloud thermal emissivity about 0.05-0.08. In other words, aerosols are associated with a warming of 1-1.6 degrees (3-5 W/m2) in the Arctic during late winter and early spring solely due to their first indirect effect. Further analysis indicates that total aerosol climate effects are even more significant (8-10 W/m2), with about 50% contribution from aerosol first indirect effect and another 50% contribution from complicated feedbacks. It also shows strong seasonal distribution of the aerosol indirect radiative effects, with warming effects in seasons other than in summer. However, only the significant warming effect in winter and spring passes through the significance test. The strong warming effect due to aerosol indirect effect could be further strengthened through following feedbacks involving the surface albedo (early ice melting).

  8. THE VALIDATION OF THE RESULTS OF MICROARRAY STUDIES OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENE POLYMORPHISMS AND THE FREQUENCY OF RADIATION EXPOSURE MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Khalyuzova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results from the selective validation research into the association between genetic polymorphisms and the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities on a large independent sample are analyzed. These polymorphisms have been identified previously during own microarray studies. It has been shown an association with the frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes induced by radiation exposure. The study was conducted among Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises healthy employees (n = 573 exposed to professional irradiation in a dose range of 40–400 mSv. We have found that 5 SNP are confirmed to be associated with the frequency of dicentric and ring: INSR rs1051690 – insulin receptor gene; WRNrs2725349 – Werner syndrome gene, RecQ helicase-like; VCAM1 rs1041163 – vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 gene; PCTP rs2114443 – phosphatidylcholine transfer protein gene; TNKS rs7462102 – tankyrase gene; TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase. IGF1 rs2373721 – insulin-like growth factor 1 gene has not confirmed to be associated with the frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes.

  9. Leukemia risk associated with chronic external exposure to ionizing radiation in a French cohort of nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2012-11-01

    Leukemia is one of the earliest cancer effects observed after acute exposure to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation. Leukemia mortality after external exposure at low doses and low-dose rates has been investigated at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Nuclear Fuel Company (AREVA NC) after an additional follow-up of 10 years. The cohort included radiation-monitored workers employed for at least one year during 1950-1994 at CEA or AREVA NC and followed during 1968-2004. Association between external exposure and leukemia mortality was estimated with excess relative risk (ERR) models and time-dependent modifying factors were investigated with time windows. The cohort included 36,769 workers, followed for an average of 28 years, among whom 73 leukemia deaths occurred. Among the workers with a positive recorded dose, the mean cumulative external dose was 21.7 mSv. Results under a 2-year lag assumption suggested that the risk of leukemia (except chronic lymphatic leukemia) increased significantly by 8% per 10 mSv. The magnitude of the association for myeloid leukemia was larger. The higher ERR/Sv for doses received 2-14 years earlier suggest that time since exposure modifies the effect. The ERR/Sv also appeared higher for doses received at exposure rates ≥20 mSv per year. These results are consistent with those found in other studies of nuclear workers. However, confidence intervals are still wide. Further analyses should be conducted in pooled cohorts of nuclear workers.

  10. Mathematical models of tissue stem and transit target cell divisions and the risk of radiation- or smoking-associated cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling biological data to suggest that cancer arises from a series of mutations in single target cells, resulting in defects in cell renewal and differentiation processes which lead to malignancy. Because much mutagenic damage is expressed following cell division, more-rapidly renewing tissues could be at higher risk because of the larger number of cell replications. Cairns suggested that renewing tissues may reduce cancer risk by partitioning the dividing cell populations into lineages comprising infrequently-dividing long-lived stem cells and frequently-dividing short-lived daughter transit cells. We develop generalizations of three recent cancer-induction models that account for the joint maintenance and renewal of stem and transit cells, also competing processes of partially transformed cell proliferation and differentiation/apoptosis. We are particularly interested in using these models to separately assess the probabilities of mutation and development of cancer associated with "spontaneous" processes and with those linked to a specific environmental mutagen, specifically ionizing radiation or cigarette smoking. All three models demonstrate substantial variation in cancer risks, by at least 20 orders of magnitude, depending on the assumed number of critical mutations required for cancer, and the stem-cell and transition-cell mutation rates. However, in most cases the conditional probabilities of cancer being mutagen-induced range between 7-96%. The relative risks associated with mutagen exposure compared to background rates are also stable, ranging from 1.0-16.0. Very few cancers, generally 0.3 between lifetime cancer-site specific radiation risk and the probability of that cancer being mutagen-induced. These results do not depend on the assumed critical number of mutations leading to cancer, or on the assumed mutagen-associated mutation rate, within the generally-accepted ranges tested. However, there are borderline

  11. HER2-associated radiation resistance of breast cancer stem cells isolated from HER2-negative breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Nadire; Fan, Ming; Candas, Demet; Menaa, Cheikh; Liu, Hsin-Chen; Nantajit, Danupon; Wen, Yunfei; Xiao, Kai; Eldridge, Angela; Chromy, Brett A.; Li, Shiyong; Spitz, Douglas R.; Lam, Kit S.; Wicha, Max S.; Li, Jian Jian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To understand the role of HER2-associated signaling network in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs); using radiation-resistant breast cancer cells and clinical recurrent breast cancers to evaluate HER2-targeted therapy as a tumor eliminating strategy for recurrent HER2−/low breast cancers. Experimental Design HER2-expressing BCSCs (HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low) were isolated from radiation-treated breast cancer MCF7 cells and in vivo irradiated MCF7 xenograft tumors. Tumor aggressiveness and radiation resistance were analyzed by gap filling, Matrigel invasion, tumor-sphere formation, and clonogenic survival assays. The HER2/CD44 feature was analyzed in 40 primary and recurrent breast cancer specimens. Protein expression profiling in HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low versus HER2−/CD44+/CD24−/low BCSCs was conducted with 2-D DIGE and HPLC-MS/MS analysis and HER2-mediated signaling network was generated by MetaCore™ program. Results Compared to HER2-negative BCSCs, HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low cells showed elevated aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and aggressiveness tested by matrigel invasion, tumor sphere formation and in vivo tumorigenesis. The enhanced aggressive phenotype and radioresistance of the HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low cells were markedly reduced by inhibition of HER2 via siRNA or Herceptin treatments. Clinical breast cancer specimens revealed that cells co-expressing HER2 and CD44 were more frequently detected in recurrent (84.6%) than primary tumors (57.1%). In addition, 2-D DIGE and HPLC-MS/MS of HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low versus HER2−/CD44+/CD24−/low BCSCs reported a unique HER2-associated protein profile including effectors involved in tumor metastasis, apoptosis, mitochondrial function and DNA repair. A specific feature of HER2-STAT3 network was identified. Conclusion This study provides the evidence that HER2-mediated pro-survival signaling network is responsible for the aggressive phenotype of breast cancer stem cells that could be targeted to control

  12. The effectiveness of the biannual application of silver nitrate solution followed by sodium fluoride varnish in arresting early childhood caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Li, Samantha Ky; Wong, May Cm; Lo, Edward Cm

    2015-09-25

    The application of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been shown to be effective in arresting early childhood caries (ECC). Since SDF is not available in certain countries, some dentists use adjunctive application of 25 % silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 5 % sodium fluoride (NaF) to arrest ECC. This randomised controlled trial will systematically compare the efficacy of a 25 % AgNO3 solution followed by 5 % NaF varnish with that of a 38 % SDF solution in arresting ECC when applied at half-yearly intervals over a 30-month period. This study is a randomised, double-blinded, non-inferiority clinical trial. The hypothesis tested is that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 followed by 5 % NaF is at least not appreciably worse than a 38 % SDF in arresting ECC. Approximately 3100 kindergarten children aged 3-4 years will be screened and at least 1070 children with caries will be recruited. This sample size is sufficient for an appropriate statistical analysis (power at 90 % (β = 0.10) with a 2-sided type-I error of α = 0.05), allowing for an overall 20 % drop-out rate. The children will be randomly allocated into 2 groups to treat their caries over a 30-month period: Group A - biannual adjunctive application of a 25 % AgNO3 solution and a 5 % NaF varnish, and Group B - biannual adjunctive application of a 38 % SDF solution followed by a placebo varnish. Clinical examinations will be conducted at 6-month intervals. Primary outcome measured is the number of active caries surfaces which are arrested. Information on confounding factors such as oral hygiene habits will be collected through a parental questionnaire. We expect that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 solution and 5 % NaF varnish and of 38 % SDF solution can both effectively arrest ECC. Lower concentrations of silver and fluoride are contained in 25 % AgNO3 and 5 % NaF, respectively, than in 38 % SDF; therefore, AgNO3/NaF are more favourable for use in young children. Because its use for caries management is

  13. Effect of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration with albendazole on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Sébastien D S; Chesnais, Cédric B; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U; Missamou, François; Boussinesq, Michel

    2017-07-01

    The standard treatment strategy of mass drug administration with ivermectin plus albendazole for lymphatic filariasis cannot be applied in central Africa, because of the risk of serious adverse events in people with high Loa loa microfilaraemia. Thus, alternative strategies are needed. We investigated one such alternative strategy for mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in Republic of the Congo. In 2012, we started a 3 year community trial of biannual mass administration of albendazole in a village in Republic of the Congo. All volunteering inhabitants aged 2 years or older were offered albendazole (400 mg) every 6 months. Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti was diagnosed with a rapid card immunochromatographic test for antigenaemia. People with antigenaemia were tested for microfilaraemia by night blood smears. Individuals were also tested for soil-transmitted helminth infections (ie, hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) with the Kato-Katz method. Assessment surveys were done at 12, 24, and 36 months. The main outcome measure was change in infection rates from baseline to year 3. Therapeutic coverage was more than 80% in all six rounds of mass administration of albendazole. Between 2012 and 2015, W bancrofti antigenaemia and microfilaraemia rates in the community fell significantly, from 17·3% (95% CI 14·7-20·0) to 4·7% (3·3-6·6; p<0·0001) and from 5·3% (3·9-7·1) to 0·3% (0·1-1·2; p<0·0001), respectively. The geometric mean microfilaria count in microfilaraemic people fell from 199·4 (120·4-330·5) per mL in 2012 to 39·1 (95% CIs not computed) per mL in 2015 (p=0·0095). Hookworm infection was undetectable after 1 year. Between 2012 and 2015, the number of A lumbricoides eggs expelled per g of faeces fell from 9844·6 (8209·0-11 480·0) to 724·4 (340·7-1114·2; p<0·0001), and of T trichiura eggs from 1107·4 (878·5-1336·3) to 366·0 (255·7-476·2; p<0

  14. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  15. Radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect in unirradiated fibroblasts is associated with TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Tian, Wenqian; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-06-16

    Traditional radiation biology states that radiation causes damage only in cells traversed by ionizing radiation. But radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), which refers to the biological responses in unirradiated cells when the neighboring cells are exposed to radiation, challenged this old dogma and has become a new paradigm of this field. By nature, RIBEs are the consequences of intercellular communication between irradiated and unirradiated cells. However, there are still some important questions remain unanswered such as whether RIBE is dependent on radiation quality, what are the determining factors if so, etc. Using a transwell co-culture system, we found that HaCaT keratinocytes irradiated with α-particles but not X-rays could induce bystander micronucleus formation in unirradiated WS1 fibroblasts after co-culture. More importantly, the activation of TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and the consistent decrease of miR-21 level in α-irradiated HaCaT cells were essential to the micronucleus induction in bystander WS1 cells. On the other hand, X-irradiation did not induce bystander effect in unirradiated WS1 cells, accompanied by lack of Smad2 activation and consistent decrease of miR-21 in X-irradiated HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect may be associated with the TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated cells.

  16. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bunin, Nancy [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Oncology Division, BMT Section, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  17. Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khlaiwi, Thamir; Meo, Sultan A

    2004-06-01

    The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources.

  18. Association Between Treatment at a High-Volume Facility and Improved Survival for Radiation-Treated Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mahal, Brandon A. [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Muralidhar, Vinayak [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nezolosky, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Martin, Neil E.; Orio, Peter F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L., E-mail: pnguyen@LROC.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Although the association between higher hospital volume and improved outcomes has been well-documented in surgery, there is little data about whether this effect exists for radiation-treated patients. We investigated whether treatment at a radiation facility that treats a high volume of prostate cancer patients is associated with improved survival for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We used the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to identity patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2006. The radiation case volume (RCV) of each hospital was based on its number of radiation-treated prostate cancer patients. We used propensity-score based analysis to compare the overall survival (OS) of high-risk prostate cancer patients in high versus low RCV hospitals. Primary endpoint is overall survival. Covariates adjusted for were tumor characteristics, sociodemographic factors, radiation type, and use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Results: A total of 19,565 radiation-treated high-risk patients were identified. Median follow-up was 81.0 months (range: 1-108 months). When RCV was coded as a continuous variable, each increment of 100 radiation-managed patients was associated with improved OS (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-0.98; P<.0001) after adjusting for known confounders. For illustrative purposes, when RCV was dichotomized at the 80th percentile (43 patients/year), high RCV was associated with improved OS (7-year overall survival 76% vs 74%, log-rank test P=.0005; AHR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86-0.96, P=.0005). This association remained significant when RCV was dichotomized at 75th (37 patients/year), 90th (60 patients/year), and 95th (84 patients/year) percentiles but not the 50th (19 patients/year). Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment at centers with higher prostate cancer radiation case volume is associated with improved OS for radiation-treated men with high-risk prostate

  19. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-06-06

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p < 10{sup -53}) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Late radiation-associated dysphagia (late-RAD) with lower cranial neuropathy after oropharyngeal radiotherapy: a preliminary dosimetric comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Musaddiq J; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Lewin, Jan S; Baron, Charles A; Gunn, G Brandon; Rosenthal, David I; Holsinger, F Christopher; Schwartz, David L; Fuller, Clifton D; Hutcheson, Katherine A

    2014-08-01

    Late radiation-associated dysphagia (late-RAD) is a rare delayed toxicity, in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) survivors. Prevention of late-RAD is paramount because the functional impairment can be profound and refractory to standard therapies. The objective of this analysis is to identify candidate dosimetric predictors of late-RAD and associated lower cranial neuropathies after radiotherapy (RT) or chemo-RT (CRT) for OPC. An unmatched retrospective case-control analysis was conducted. Late-RAD cases were identified among OPC patients treated with definitive RT or CRT. Controls were selected with minimum of 6 years without symptoms of late-RAD. Dysphagia-aspiration related structures (DARS) and regions of interest containing cranial nerve paths (RCCNPs) were retrospectively contoured. Dose volume histograms were calculated. Non-parametric bivariate associations were analyzed with Bonferroni correction and multiple logistic regression models were fit. Thirty-eight patients were included (12 late-RAD cases, 26 controls). Median latency to late-RAD was 5.8 years (range: 4.5-11.3 years). Lower cranial neuropathies were present in 10 of 12 late-RAD cases. Mean superior pharyngeal constrictor (SPC) dose was higher in cases relative to controls (median: 70.5 vs. 61.6 Gy). Mean SPC dose significantly predicted late-RAD (p = 0.036) and related cranial neuropathies (p = 0.019). RCCNPs did not significantly predict late-RAD or cranial neuropathies. SPC dose may predict for late-RAD and related lower cranial neuropathies. These data, and those of previous studies that have associated SPC dose with classical dysphagia endpoints, suggest impetus to constrain dose to the SPCs when possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Defective-interfering particles of the human parvovirus adeno-associated virus. [uv radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, C.A.; Myers, M.W.; Risin, D.L.; Carter, B.J.

    1979-04-15

    We have previously shown that adeno-associated virus (AAV) grown in KB cells with a helper adenovirus, produced several classes of particles defined by their buoyant density in CsCl. The predominant density classes were referred to as AAV(1.45), AAV(1.41), AAV (1.35), and AAV(1.32), respectively, where the density of the particle was written in the parentheses. The AAV(1.45) and AAV(1.41) particles which contained standard genomes were the only infectious AAV these infectious AAV particles exhibited autointerference. The ligh-density AAV(1.35) and (1.32) particles contained aberrant (deleted and/or snap-back) genomes. We report here experiments which show that the light-density AAV particles were noninfectious but interfered with the replication of AAV(1.41). The interference was intracellular and resulted in inhibition of synthesis of standard (14.5S) AAV genomes. In some cases there was also a concomitant increase in synthesis of aberrant, shorter AAV DNA. The inhibitory activity of the light-density particles was abolished by uv irradiation. These results show that the population of light AAV particles contained DI particles. The observed autointerference of AAV(1.45) or AAV(1.41) virus is postulated to be due to AAV DI particles. Replication of AAV DI genomes appeared to require the presence of replicating, standard AAV genomes. This is interpreted to mean that progeny strand replication of AAV requires an AAV-specified product, presumably the AAV capsid protein. In contrast to standard, infectious AAV, the AAV DI particles alone do not inhibit replication of the helper adenovirus.

  2. High Frequency of AML1/RUNX1 Point Mutations in Radiation-Associated Myelodysplastic Syndrome Around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    OpenAIRE

    Dinara, ZHARLYGANOVA; Hironori, HARADA; Yuka, HARADA; Sergey, SHINKAREV; Zhaxybay, ZHUMADILOV; Aigul, ZHUNUSOVA; Naylya J., TCHAIZHUNUSOVA; Kazbek N., APSALIKOV; Vadim, KEMAIKIN; Kassym, ZHUMADILOV; Noriyuki, KAWANO; Akiro, KIMURA; Masaharu, HOSHI; State Research Center Institute of Biophysics, Federal Medical Biological Agency; Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy

    2008-01-01

    It is known that bone marrow is a sensitive organ to ionizing radiation, and many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have been diagnosed in radiation-treated cases and atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The AML1/RUNX1 gene has been known to be frequently mutated in MDS/AML patients among atomic bomb survivors and radiation therapy-related MDS/AML patients. In this study, we investigated the AML1 mutations in radiation-exposed patients wi...

  3. Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Is Associated With Improved Survival in Node-Positive Male Breast Cancer: A Population Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, Matthew J., E-mail: mabrams@tuftsmedicalcenter.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Koffer, Paul P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Hepel, Jaroslaw T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Because of its rarity, there are no randomized trials investigating postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in male breast cancer. This study retrospectively examines the impact of PMRT in male breast cancer patients in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Methods and Materials: The SEER database 8.3.2 was queried for men ages 20+ with a diagnosis of localized or regional nonmetastatic invasive ductal/lobular carcinoma from 1998 to 2013. Included patients were treated by modified radical mastectomy (MRM), with or without adjuvant external beam radiation. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluated predictors for PMRT use after MRM. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) curves of the entire cohort and a case-matched cohort were calculated and compared by the log-rank test. Cox regression was used for multivariate survival analyses. Results: A total of 1933 patients were included in the unmatched cohort. There was no difference in 5-year OS between those who received PMRT and those who did not (78% vs 77%, respectively, P=.371); however, in the case-matched analysis, PMRT was associated with improved OS at 5 years (83% vs 54%, P<.001). On subset analysis of the unmatched cohort, PMRT was associated with improved OS in men with 1 to 3 positive nodes (5-year OS 79% vs 72% P=.05) and those with 4+ positive nodes (5-year OS 73% vs 53% P<.001). On multivariate analysis of the unmatched cohort, independent predictors for improved OS were use of PMRT: HR=0.551 (0.412-0.737) and estrogen receptor–positive disease: HR=0.577 (0.339-0.983). Predictors for a survival detriment were higher grade 3/4: HR=1.825 (1.105-3.015), larger tumor T2: HR=1.783 (1.357-2.342), T3/T4: HR=2.683 (1.809-3.978), higher N-stage: N1 HR=1.574 (1.184-2.091), N2/N3: HR=2.328 (1.684-3.218), black race: HR=1.689 (1.222-2.336), and older age 81+: HR=4.164 (1.497-11.582). Conclusions: There may be a survival benefit with the

  4. Timed Get Up and Go Test and Geriatric 8 Scores and the Association With (Chemo-) Radiation Therapy Noncompliance and Acute Toxicity in Elderly Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, Judith G.; Mast, Mirjam E.; de Kroon, Maaike; Jobsen, Jan J.; Rozema, Tom; Maas, Huub A. A. M.; Baartman, Elizabet A.; Geijsen, Debby; van der Leest, Annija H.; van den Bongard, Desiree J.; van Loon, Judith; Budiharto, Tom; Coebergh, Jan-Willem; Aarts, Mieke J; Struikmans, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the Geriatric 8 (G8) and the Timed Get Up and Go Test (TGUGT) and clinical and demographic patient characteristics were associated with acute toxicity of radiation therapy and noncompliance in elderly cancer patients being irradiated with curative intent. Methods and

  5. Ocular temperature elevation induced by threshold in vivo exposure to 1090-nm infrared radiation and associated heat diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G

    2014-01-01

    An in vivo exposure to 197  W/cm 2 1090-nm infrared radiation (IRR) requires a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. The present study aims to determine the ocular temperature evolution and the associated heat flow at the same exposure conditions. Two groups of 12 rats were unilaterally exposed within the dilated pupil with a close to collimated beam between lens and retina. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples. Within 5 min after exposure, the lens light scattering was measured. In one group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye, expressed as a confidence interval (0.95), was 11±3°C at the limbus, 16±6°C in the vitreous behind lens, and 16±7°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. In the other group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye was 9±1°C at the limbus and 26±11°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. The difference of forward light scattering between exposed and contralateral not exposed eye was 0.01±0.09 tEDC. An exposure to 197  W/cm 2 1090-nm IRR for 8 s induces a temperature increase of 10°C at the limbus and 26°C close to the retina. IRR cataract is probably of thermal origin.

  6. Effect of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on novel object associative recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Lu, Jun-Mei; Xing, Zhen-He; Zhao, Qian-Ru; Hu, Lin-Qi; Xue, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2017-03-17

    Mounting evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) can influence learning and memory in rodents. In this study, we examined the effects of single exposure to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR for 30 min on subsequent recognition memory in mice, using the novel object recognition task (NORT). RF-EMR exposure at an intensity of >2.2 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) power density induced a significant density-dependent increase in NORT index with no corresponding changes in spontaneous locomotor activity. RF-EMR exposure increased dendritic-spine density and length in hippocampal and prefrontal cortical neurons, as shown by Golgi staining. Whole-cell recordings in acute hippocampal and medial prefrontal cortical slices showed that RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the resting membrane potential and action potential frequency, and reduced the action potential half-width, threshold, and onset delay in pyramidal neurons. These results demonstrate that exposure to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR for 30 min can significantly increase recognition memory in mice, and can change dendritic-spine morphology and neuronal excitability in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The SAR in this study (3.3 W/kg) was outside the range encountered in normal daily life, and its relevance as a potential therapeutic approach for disorders associated with recognition memory deficits remains to be clarified.

  7. Long term effects of radiation exposure on telomere lengths of leukocytes and its associated biomarkers among atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Ana; Shterev, Ivo; Geyer, Susan; Shi, Alvin; Hu, Yiqun; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Maki, Mayumi; Hayashi, Ikue; Furukawa, Kyoji; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2016-06-28

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a major source of cellular damage and the immediate cellular response to IR has been well characterized. But the long-term impact of IR on cell function and its relationship with aging are not known. Here, we examined the IR effects on telomere length and other biomarkers 50 to 68 years post-exposure (two time points per person) in survivors of the atomic bombing at Hiroshima during WWII. We found that telomere length of leukocytes was inversely correlated with the dose of IR (p=0.008), and this effect was primarily found in survivors who were exposed at younger ages; specifically those <12 years old (p=0.0004). Although a dose-related retardation of telomere shortening with age was observed in the cross-sectional data, longitudinal follow-up after 11 years did not show IR exposure-related alteration of the rate of telomere shortening with age. In addition, IR diminished the associations between telomere length and selected aging biomarkers that were observed in survivors with no dose. These included uric acid metabolism, cytokines, and blood T cell counts. These findings showed long-lasting detrimental effects of IR on telomere length of leukocytes in both dose- and age-at-exposure dependent manner, and on alterations of biomarkers with aging.

  8. Cumulative radiation exposure and associated cancer risk estimates for scoliosis patients: Impact of repetitive full spine radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Martin; Ma, Wang-Kei; Lau, Damian; Chan, Eva; Yip, Lawrance; Lam, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the cumulative effective dose and associated cancer risk for scoliotic patients undergoing repetitive full spine radiography during their diagnosis and follow up periods. Organ absorbed doses of full spine exposed scoliotic patients at different age were computer simulated with the use of PCXMC software. Gender specific effective dose was then calculated with the ICRP-103 approach. Values of lifetime attributable cancer risk for patients exposed at different age were calculated for both patient genders and for Asian and Western population. Mathematical fitting for effective dose and for lifetime attributable cancer risk, as function of exposed age, was analytically obtained to quantitatively estimate patient cumulated effective dose and cancer risk. The cumulative effective dose of full spine radiography with posteroanterior and lateral projection for patients exposed annually at age between 5 and 30 years using digital radiography system was calculated as 15mSv. The corresponding cumulative lifetime attributable cancer risk for Asian and Western population was calculated as 0.08-0.17%. Female scoliotic patients would be at a statistically significant higher cumulated cancer risk than male patients under the same full spine radiography protocol. We demonstrate the use of computer simulation and analytic formula to quantitatively obtain the cumulated effective dose and cancer risk at any age of exposure, both of which are valuable information to medical personnel and patients' parents concern about radiation safety in repetitive full spine radiography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The 15th Biannual National Congress of the South African Society of Psychiatrists, 10-14 August 2008, Fancourt, George, W Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Allers

    2008-08-01

    , Christa Kruger 49. Management of psychogenic and chronic pain - A novel approach M S Salduker 50. Childhood ADHD and bipolar mood disorders: Differences and similarities L Scribante 51. The choice of antipsychotic in HIV-infected patients and psychopharmacocal responses to antipsychotic medication Dinesh Singh, Karl Goodkin 52. Pearls in clinical neuroscience: A teaching column in CNS Spectrums Dan J Stein 53. Urinary Cortisol secretion and traumatics in a cohort of SA Metro policemen A longitudinal study Ugash Subramaney 54. Canabis use in Psychiatric inpatients M Talatala, G M Nair, D L Mkize 55. Pathways to care and treatmt in first and multi-episodepsychosis: Findings fm a developing country H S Teh, P P Oosthuizen 56. Mental disorders in HIV-infected indivat various HIV Treatment sites in South Africa Rita Thom 57. Attendanc ile of long-term mental health care users at ocupational therapy group sessions at Weskoppies Hospital Ronel van der Westhuizen, Christa Kruger 58. Epidemiological patterns of extra-medical drug use in South Africa: Results from the South African stress and health study Margaretha S van Heerden, Anna Grimsrud, David Williams, Dan  Stein 59. Persocentred diagnosis: Where d ps and mental disorders fit in the International classificaton of diseases (ICD? Werdie van Staden 60. What every psychiatrist needs to know about scans Herman van Vuuren 61. Psychiatric morbidity in health care workers withle drug-resistant erulosis (MDR-TB A case series Urvashi Vasant, Dinesh Singh 62. Association between uetrine artery pulsatility index and antenatal maternal psychological stress Bavanisha Vythilingum, Lut Geerts, Annerine Roos, Sheila Faure, Dan J Stein 63. Approaching the dual diagnosis dilemma Lize Weich 64. Women's mental health: Onset of mood disturbance in midlife - Fact or fiction Denise White 65. Failing or faking: Isses in the fiagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD Dora Wynchank

  10. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals a spatial association of copper on elastic laminae in rat aortic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhenyu; Toursarkissian, Boulos; Lai, Barry

    2011-08-01

    Copper, an essential trace metal in humans, plays an important role in elastic formation. However, little is known about the spatial association between copper, elastin, and elastin producing cells. The aorta is the largest artery; the aortic media is primarily composed of the elastic lamellae and vascular smooth muscle cells, which makes it a good model to address this issue. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SRXRF) is a new generation technique to investigate the spatial topography of trace metals in biological samples. Recently, we utilized this technique to determine the topography of copper as well as other trace elements in aortic media of Sprague Dawley rats. A standard rat diet was used to feed Sprague Dawley rats, which contains the normal dietary requirements of copper and zinc. Paraffin embedded segments (4 μm of thickness) of thoracic aorta were analyzed using a 10 keV incident monochromatic X-ray beam focusing on a spot size of 0.3 μm × 0.2 μm (horizontal × vertical). The X-ray spectrum was measured using an energy-dispersive silicon drift detector for elemental topography. Our results showed that phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc are predominately distributed in the vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas copper is dramatically accumulated in elastic laminae, indicating a preferential spatial association of copper on elastic laminae in aortic media. This finding sheds new light on the role of copper in elastic formation. Our studies also demonstrate that SRXRF allows for the visualization of trace elements in tissues and cells of rodent aorta with high spatial resolution and provides an opportunity to study the role of trace elements in vasculature.

  11. Association of Clinical Response and Long-term Outcome Among Patients With Biopsied Orbital Pseudotumor Receiving Modern Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, Roshan S., E-mail: rprabhu@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Kandula, Shravan; Liebman, Lang [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wojno, Ted H.; Hayek, Brent [Division of Oculoplastics, Orbital and Cosmetic Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Hall, William A.; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Crocker, Ian [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate institutional outcomes for patients treated with modern radiation therapy (RT) for biopsied orbital pseudotumor (OP). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients (26 affected orbits) with OP were treated with RT between January 2002 and December 2011. All patients underwent biopsy with histopathologic exclusion of other disease processes. Sixteen patients (80%) were treated with intensity modulated RT, 3 (15%) with opposed lateral beams, and 1 (5%) with electrons. Median RT dose was 27 Gy (range 25.2-30.6 Gy). Response to RT was evaluated at 4 months post-RT. Partial response (PR) was defined as improvement in orbital symptoms without an increase in steroid dose. Complete response (CR) 1 and CR 2 were defined as complete resolution of orbital symptoms with reduction in steroid dose (CR 1) or complete tapering of steroids (CR 2). The median follow-up period was 18.6 months (range 4-81.6 months). Results: Seventeen patients (85%) demonstrated response to RT, with 7 (35%), 1 (5%), and 9 (45%) achieving a PR, CR 1, and CR 2, respectively. Of the 17 patients who had ≥PR at 4 months post-RT, 6 (35%) experienced recurrence of symptoms. Age (>46 years vs ≤46 years, P=.04) and clinical response to RT (CR 2 vs CR 1/PR, P=.05) were significantly associated with pseudotumor recurrence. Long-term complications were seen in 7 patients (35%), including 4 with cataract formation, 1 with chronic dry eye, 1 with enophthalmos, and 1 with keratopathy. Conclusions: RT is an effective treatment for improving symptoms and tapering steroids in patients with a biopsy supported diagnosis of OP. Older age and complete response to RT were associated with a significantly reduced probability of symptom recurrence. The observed late complications may be related to RT, chronic use of steroids/immunosuppressants, medical comorbidities, or combination of factors.

  12. Colorectal Histology Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Local Failure in Lung Metastases Treated With Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jacobs, Lisa Rose; Eyben, Rie von; Le, Quynh-Thu; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shultz, David Benjamin, E-mail: DavidS4@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is increasingly used to treat lung oligometastases. We set out to determine the safety and efficacy of this approach and to identify factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of patients treated with SABR for metastatic lung tumors at our institution from 2003 to 2014. We assessed the association between various patient and treatment factors with local failure (LF), progression, subsequent treatment, systemic treatment, and overall survival (OS), using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: We identified 122 tumors in 77 patients meeting inclusion criteria for this study. Median follow-up was 22 months. The 12- and 24-month cumulative incidence rates of LF were 8.7% and 16.2%, respectively; the 24-month cumulative incidence rates of progression, subsequent treatment, and subsequent systemic treatment were 75.2%, 64.5%, and 35.1%, respectively. Twenty-four-month OS was 74.6%, and median OS was 36 months. Colorectal metastases had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of LF at 12 and 24 months (25.5% and 42.2%, respectively), than all other histologies (4.4% and 9.9%, respectively; P<.0004). The 24-month cumulative incidences of LF for colorectal metastases treated with a biologically effective dose at α/β = 10 (BED{sub 10}) of <100 Gy versus BED{sub 10} of ≥100 Gy were 62.5% and 16.7%, respectively (P=.08). Toxicity was minimal, with only a single grade 3 or higher event observed. Conclusions: SABR for metastatic lung tumors appears to be safe and effective with excellent local control, treatment-free intervals, and OS. An exception is metastases from colorectal cancer, which have a high LF rate consistent with a radioresistant phenotype, suggesting a potential role for dose escalation.

  13. Diversity of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes in Europe: results from the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Ashwin, Helen; Longshaw, Christopher M; Burns, David A; Davis, Georgina L; Wilcox, Mark H

    2016-07-21

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the major cause of infective diarrhoea in healthcare environments. As part of the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), the largest C. difficile epidemiological study of its type, PCR ribotype distribution of C. difficile isolates in Europe was investigated. PCR ribotyping was performed on 1,196 C. difficile isolates from diarrhoeal samples sent to the European coordinating laboratory in 2012-13 and 2013 (from two sampling days) by 482 participating hospitals from 19 European countries. A total of 125 ribotypes were identified, of which ribotypes 027 (19%, n =222), 001/072 (11%, n = 134) and 014/020 (10%, n = 119) were the most prevalent. Distinct regional patterns of ribotype distribution were noted. Of 596 isolates from patients with toxin-positive stools (CDI cases), ribotype 027 accounted for 22% (32/144) of infections in cases aged from 18 to less than 65 years, but the prevalence decreased in those aged ≥ 65 years (14% (59/412)) and further decreased in those aged ≥ 81 years (9% (18/195)). The prevalence of ribotype 027 and 176, but not other epidemic strains, was inversely proportional to overall ribotype diversity (R(2) = 0.717). This study highlights an increased diversity of C. difficile ribotypes across Europe compared with previous studies, with considerable intercountry variation in ribotype distribution. Continuous surveillance programmes are necessary to monitor the changing epidemiology of C. difficile. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  14. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2011, 2 September). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Poster presented at the the 14th biannual EARLI conference, Exeter,

  15. Proceedings of the third international congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, Washington, D. C. , September 9--14, 1973. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-02-01

    Complete texts of 123 communications to the Congress (in the original language; the majority in English, some in Russian, French), on the following topics; radiation perspective in the U.S., radiation and man, non-ionising radiation, radiation effects on animals, radiation quantities, radioecology, reactor experience, late radiation effects, dose calculations and radiation accidents.

  16. Simple Factors Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of the Thorax: A Pooled Analysis of 88 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, GRU Cancer Center/Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia (United States); Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Li, Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, GRU Cancer Center/Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia (United States); Department of Shanghai Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Das, Shiva [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York (United States); Campbell, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, GRU Cancer Center/Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia (United States); Xue, Jinyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center at Cooper, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Grimm, Jimm [Bott Cancer Center, Holy Redeemer Hospital, Meadowbrook, Pennsylvania (United States); Milano, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); and others

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To study the risk factors for radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of the thorax. Methods and Materials: Published studies on lung toxicity in patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastatic lung tumors treated with SBRT were pooled and analyzed. The primary endpoint was RILT, including pneumonitis and fibrosis. Data of RILT and risk factors were extracted from each study, and rates of grade 2 to 5 (G2+) and grade 3 to 5 (G3+) RILT were computed. Patient, tumor, and dosimetric factors were analyzed for their correlation with RILT. Results: Eighty-eight studies (7752 patients) that reported RILT incidence were eligible. The pooled rates of G2+ and G3+ RILT from all 88 studies were 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.15-11.4) and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.3-2.5), respectively. The median of median tumor sizes was 2.3 (range, 1.4-4.1) cm. Among the factors analyzed, older patient age (P=.044) and larger tumor size (the greatest diameter) were significantly correlated with higher rates of G2+ (P=.049) and G3+ RILT (P=.001). Patients with stage IA versus stage IB NSCLC had significantly lower risks of G2+ RILT (8.3% vs 17.1%, odds ratio = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.29-0.64, P<.0001). Among studies that provided detailed dosimetric data, the pooled analysis demonstrated a significantly higher mean lung dose (MLD) (P=.027) and V20 (P=.019) in patients with G2+ RILT than in those with grade 0 to 1 RILT. Conclusions: The overall rate of RILT is relatively low after thoracic SBRT. Older age and larger tumor size are significant adverse risk factors for RILT. Lung dosimetry, specifically lung V20 and MLD, also significantly affect RILT risk.

  17. Terahertz radiation induces non-thermal structural changes associated with Fröhlich condensation in a protein crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Ida V; Rodilla, Helena; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Duelli, Annette; Bourenkov, Gleb; Vukusic, Josip; Friedman, Ran; Stake, Jan; Schneider, Thomas; Katona, Gergely

    2015-09-01

    Whether long-range quantum coherent states could exist in biological systems, and beyond low-temperature regimes where quantum physics is known to be applicable, has been the subject to debate for decades. It was proposed by Fröhlich that vibrational modes within protein molecules can order and condense into a lowest-frequency vibrational mode in a process similar to Bose-Einstein condensation, and thus that macroscopic coherence could potentially be observed in biological systems. Despite the prediction of these so-called Fröhlich condensates almost five decades ago, experimental evidence thereof has been lacking. Here, we present the first experimental observation of Fröhlich condensation in a protein structure. To that end, and to overcome the challenges associated with probing low-frequency molecular vibrations in proteins (which has hampered understanding of their role in proteins' function), we combined terahertz techniques with a highly sensitive X-ray crystallographic method to visualize low-frequency vibrational modes in the protein structure of hen-egg white lysozyme. We found that 0.4 THz electromagnetic radiation induces non-thermal changes in electron density. In particular, we observed a local increase of electron density in a long α-helix motif consistent with a subtle longitudinal compression of the helix. These observed electron density changes occur at a low absorption rate indicating that thermalization of terahertz photons happens on a micro- to milli-second time scale, which is much slower than the expected nanosecond time scale due to damping of delocalized low frequency vibrations. Our analyses show that the micro- to milli-second lifetime of the vibration can only be explained by Fröhlich condensation, a phenomenon predicted almost half a century ago, yet never experimentally confirmed.

  18. GMOSS: All-sky Model of Spectral Radio Brightness Based on Physical Components and Associated Radiative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana Rao, Mayuri; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Udaya Shankar, N.; Chluba, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We present the Global Model for the Radio Sky Spectrum (GMOSS), a novel, physically motivated model of the low-frequency radio sky from 22 MHz to 23 GHz. GMOSS invokes different physical components and associated radiative processes to describe the sky spectrum over 3072 pixels of 5° resolution. The spectra are allowed to be convex, concave, or of more complex form with contributions from synchrotron emission, thermal emission, and free-free absorption included. Physical parameters that describe the model are optimized to best fit four all-sky maps at 150 MHz, 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, and 23 GHz and two maps at 22 and 45 MHz generated using the Global Sky Model of de Oliveira-Costa et al. The fractional deviation of the model from data has a median value of 6% and is less than 17% for 99% of the pixels. Though aimed at the modeling of foregrounds for the global signal arising from the redshifted 21 cm line of hydrogen during the Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), over redshifts 150≲ z≲ 6, GMOSS is well suited for any application that requires simulating spectra of the low-frequency radio sky as would be observed by the beam of any instrument. The complexity in spectral structure that naturally arises from the underlying physics of the model provides a useful expectation for departures from smoothness in EoR foreground spectra and hence may guide the development of algorithms for EoR signal detection. This aspect is further explored in a subsequent paper.

  19. Radiation therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Dose-volumetric analysis and its clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyeon Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Cho, Soo Jeong; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Dae Yong [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To assess the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) for patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma to evaluate the effectiveness of involved field RT with moderate-dose and to evaluate the benefit of 3D-CRT comparing with 2D-RT. Between July 2003 and March 2015, 33 patients with stage IE and IIE gastric MALT lymphoma received RT were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 patients (51.5%) were Helicobacter pylori (HP) negative and 16 patients (48.5%) were HP positive but refractory to HP eradication (HPE). The 2D-RT (n = 14) and 3D-CRT (n = 19) were performed and total dose was 30.6 Gy/17 fractions. Of 11 patients who RT planning data were available, dose-volumetric parameters between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT plans was compared. All patients reached complete remission (CR) eventually and median time to CR was 3 months (range, 1 to 15 months). No local relapse occurred and one patient died with second primary malignancy. Tumor response, survival, and toxicity were not significantly different between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT (p > 0.05, each). In analysis for dose-volumetric parameters, Dmax and CI for PTV were significantly lower in 3D-CRT plans than 2D-RT plans (p < 0.05, each) and Dmean and V15 for right kidney and Dmean for left kidney were significantly lower in 3D-CRT than 2D-RT (p < 0.05, each). Our data suggested that involved field RT with moderate-dose for gastric MALT lymphoma could be promising and 3D-CRT could be considered to improve the target coverage and reduce radiation dose to the both kidneys.

  20. Voxel-based analysis unveils regional dose differences associated with radiation-induced morbidity in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Serena; Palma, Giuseppe; D'Avino, Vittoria; Gerardi, Marianna; Marvaso, Giulia; Ciardo, Delia; Pacelli, Roberto; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Alterio, Daniela; Cella, Laura

    2017-08-03

    The risk of radiation-induced toxicity in patients treated for head and neck (HN) cancer with radiation therapy (RT) is traditionally estimated by condensing the 3D dose distribution into a monodimensional cumulative dose-volume histogram which disregards information on dose localization. We hypothesized that a voxel-based approach would identify correlations between radiation-induced morbidity and local dose release, thus providing a new insight into spatial signature of radiation sensitivity in composite regions like the HN district. This methodology was applied to a cohort of HN cancer patients treated with RT at risk of radiation-induced acute dysphagia (RIAD). We implemented an inter-patient elastic image registration framework that proved robust enough to match even the most elusive HN structures and to provide accurate dose warping. A voxel-based statistical analysis was then performed to test regional dosimetric differences between patients with and without RIAD. We identified a significantly higher dose delivered to RIAD patients in two voxel clusters in correspondence of the cricopharyngeus muscle and cervical esophagus. Our study goes beyond the well-established organ-based philosophy exploring the relationship between radiation-induced morbidity and local dose differences in the HN region. This approach is generally applicable to different HN toxicity endpoints and is not specific to RIAD.

  1. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be extra careful not to spend time with children or pregnant women. Internal Radiation Therapy Makes You Give Off Radiation With systemic radiation, your body fluids ( urine , sweat, and saliva ) will give off radiation for a while. With ...

  2. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  3. Mitigating effects of L-selenomethionine on low-dose iron ion radiation-induced changes in gene expression associated with cellular stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Manunya; Kennedy, Ann R

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation associated with highly energetic and charged heavy (HZE) particles poses a danger to astronauts during space travel. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the patterns of gene expression associated with cellular exposure to low-dose iron ion irradiation, in the presence and absence of L-selenomethionine (SeM). Human thyroid epithelial cells (HTori-3) were exposed to low-dose iron ion (1 GeV/n) irradiation at 10 or 20 cGy with or without SeM pretreatment. The cells were harvested 6 and 16 h post-irradiation and analyzed by the Affymetrix U133Av2 gene chip arrays. Genes exhibiting a 1.5-fold expression cut-off and 5% false discovery rate (FDR) were considered statistically significant and subsequently analyzed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) for pathway analysis. Representative genes were further validated by real-time RT-PCR. Even at low doses of radiation from iron ions, global genome profiling of the irradiated cells revealed the upregulation of genes associated with the activation of stress-related signaling pathways (ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, p53 signaling, cell cycle and apoptosis), which occurred in a dose-dependent manner. A 24-h pretreatment with SeM was shown to reduce the radiation effects by mitigating stress-related signaling pathways and downregulating certain genes associated with cell adhesion. The mechanism by which SeM prevents radiation-induced transformation in vitro may involve the suppression of the expression of genes associated with stress-related signaling and certain cell adhesion events.

  4. Hypofractionated Nodal Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer Was Not Associated With Increased Patient-Reported Arm or Brachial Plexopathy Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Nelson; Truong, Pauline T; Tankel, Keith; Kwan, Winkle; Weir, Lorna; Olivotto, Ivo A

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether nodal radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer using modest hypofractionation (HF) with 2.25 to 2.5 Gy per fraction (fx) was associated with increased patient-reported arm symptoms, compared with conventional fractionation (CF) ≤2 Gy/fx. Two cancer registries were used to identify subjects who received computed tomography-planned nodal RT for pT1-3, pN0-2, M0 breast cancer, from 2007 to 2010 at 2 cancer institutions. After ethics approval, patients were mailed an explanatory letter and the Self-reported Arm Symptom Scale, a validated instrument with 8 questions about arm symptoms and 5 related to activities of daily living. Clinicopathologic characteristics and Self-reported Arm Symptom Scale scores were compared between HF/CF cohorts using nonparametric analysis, χ2 analysis, and multivariate ordinal regression. Of 1759 patients, 800 (45.5%) returned a completed survey. A total of 708 eligible cases formed the study cohort. Of these, 406 (57%) received HFRT (40 Gy/16 fx, 45 Gy/20 fx), and 302 (43%) received CFRT (45-50 Gy/25 fx, 50.4 Gy/28 fx). Median time interval after RT was 5.7 years. Forty-three percent and 75% of patients received breast-conserving surgery and chemotherapy, respectively. Twenty-two percent received breast boost RT, independent of fractionation. Median age at diagnosis was 59 years (HF) and 53 years (CF) (Parm symptoms (P=.17) and activities of daily living (P=.85). Patients receiving HF reported lower rates of shoulder stiffness (P=.04), trouble moving the arm (P=.02), and difficulty reaching overhead (Parm swelling or symptoms related to brachial plexopathy. Nodal RT with hypofractionation was not associated with increased patient-reported arm symptoms or functional deficits compared with CF. Subjects treated with CF reported more disability in certain aspects of arm/shoulder function. These data support shorter fractionation utilization when regional nodes are within the therapeutic target. Copyright

  5. Dose–Volume Modeling of Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Findings From a Prospective Screening Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: amchen@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wang, Pin-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Daly, Megan E.; Cui, Jing; Hall, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson, Mississippi (United States); Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory [Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Data from a prospective screening protocol administered for patients previously irradiated for head-and-neck cancer was analyzed to identify dosimetric predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred fifty-two patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were prospectively screened from August 2007 to April 2013 using a standardized self-administered instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from radiation therapy was 40 months (range, 6-111 months). A total of 177 patients (50%) underwent neck dissection. Two hundred twenty-one patients (63%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Fifty-one patients (14%) reported brachial plexus-related neuropathic symptoms with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), and motor weakness and/or muscle atrophy (25%). The 3- and 5-year estimates of freedom from brachial plexus-associated neuropathy were 86% and 81%, respectively. Clinical/pathological N3 disease (P<.001) and maximum radiation dose to the ipsilateral brachial plexus (P=.01) were significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms. Cox regression analysis revealed significant dose–volume effects for brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. The volume of the ipsilateral brachial plexus receiving >70 Gy (V70) predicted for symptoms, with the incidence increasing with V70 >10% (P<.001). A correlation was also observed for the volume receiving >74 Gy (V74) among patients treated without neck dissection, with a cutoff of 4% predictive of symptoms (P=.038). Conclusions: Dose–volume guidelines were developed for radiation planning that may limit brachial plexus-related neuropathies.

  6. Significance of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplifications in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: associations with radiation exposure and histologic grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro; Ito, Masahiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Meirmanov, Serik; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Soda, Midori; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sekine, Ichiro

    2008-05-15

    It has been postulated that radiation induces breast cancers in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Oncogene amplification is an important mechanism during breast carcinogenesis and also serves as an indicator of genomic instability (GIN). The objective of this study was to clarify the association of oncogene amplification in breast cancer in A-bomb survivors with radiation exposure. In total, 593 breast cancers were identified in A-bomb survivors from 1968 to 1999, and the association between breast cancer incidence and A-bomb radiation exposure was evaluated. Invasive ductal cancers from 67 survivors and 30 nonsurvivors were analyzed for amplification of the HER2 and C-MYC genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and expression levels of hormone receptors were analyzed by immunostaining. The incidence rate increased significantly as exposure distance decreased from the hypocenter (hazard ratio per 1-km decrement, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.30-1.66). The incidence of HER2 and C-MYC amplification was increased significantly in the order of the control group, the distal group (P = .0238), and the proximal group (P = .0128). Multivariate analyses revealed that distance was a risk factor for the coamplification of C-MYC and HER2 in breast cancer in survivors (odds ratio per 1-km increment, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.01-0.63). The histologic grade of breast cancers became significantly higher in the order of the control group, the distal group, and the proximal group and was associated with oncogene amplifications. The current results suggested that A-bomb radiation may affect the development of oncogene amplification by inducing GIN and may be associated with a higher histologic grade in breast cancer among A-bomb survivors. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  7. Seasonal Clear-Sky Flux and Cloud Radiative Effect Anomalies in the Arctic Atmospheric Column Associated with the Arctic Oscillation and Arctic Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Bradley M.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Arctic Dipole (AD) on the radiative flux into the Arctic mean atmospheric column is quantified. 3-month-averaged AO and AD indices are regressed with corresponding surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes from the CERES-SFC and CERES-TOA EBAF datasets over the period 2000-2014. An increase in clear-sky fluxes into the Arctic mean atmospheric column during fall is the largest net flux anomaly associated with AO, primarily driven by a positive net longwave flux anomaly (i.e. increase of net flux into the atmospheric column) at the surface. A decrease in the Arctic mean atmospheric column cloud radiative effect during winter and spring is the largest flux anomaly associated with AD, primarily driven by a change in the longwave cloud radiative effect at the surface. These prominent responses to AO and AD are widely distributed across the ice-covered Arctic, suggesting that the physical process or processes that bring about the flux change associated with AO and AD are distributed throughout the Arctic.

  8. Clinical indications and radiation doses to the conceptus associated with CT imaging in pregnancy: a retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woussen, S.; Vanbeckevoort, D.; Bosmans, H.; Oyen, R. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Lopez-Rendon, X.; Zanca, F. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    To perform an internal audit at a university hospital with the aim of evaluating the number, clinical indication and operating procedure of computed tomography (CT) performed on pregnant patients and of estimating the radiation doses to the conceptus. A retrospective review was conducted of all CT examinations performed in a single centre on pregnant patients between January 2008 and July 2013. The radiation doses to the conceptus were estimated. The results were compared with published data. The number of CT examinations during pregnancy increased from 3-4 per year in 2008-2011 to 11 per year in 2012. The mean estimated conceptus radiation dose was considered negligible for CT of the head and cervical spine, being less than 0.01 mGy, and for CT of the chest, less than 0.1 mGy. The estimated conceptus radiation dose from abdominopelvic CT was on average 28.7 mGy (range 6.7-60.5 mGy). The number of CT scans of pregnant patients increased threefold during the last few years. Most clinical indications and doses were in line with good clinical practice and literature; only in two cases the dose to the conceptus was higher than 50 mGy. (orig.)

  9. Predictors of Toxicity Associated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Central Hepatobiliary Tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundson, Evan C.; Wu, Yufan; Luxton, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Bazan, Jose G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric predictors of hepatobiliary (HB) toxicity associated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 96 patients treated with SBRT for primary (53%) or metastatic (47%) liver tumors between March 2006 and November 2013. The central HB tract (cHBT) was defined by a 15-mm expansion of the portal vein from the splenic confluence to the first bifurcation of left and right portal veins. Patients were censored for toxicity upon local progression or additional liver-directed therapy. HB toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. To compare different SBRT fractionations, doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) by using the standard linear quadratic model α/β = 10 (BED10). Results: Median follow-up was 12.7 months after SBRT. Median BED10 was 85.5 Gy (range: 37.5-151.2). The median number of fractions was 5 (range: 1-5), with 51 patients (53.1%) receiving 5 fractions and 29 patients (30.2%) receiving 3 fractions. In total, there were 23 (24.0%) grade 2+ and 18 (18.8%) grade 3+ HB toxicities. Nondosimetric factors predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity included cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) histology (P<.0001), primary liver tumor (P=.0087), and biliary stent (P<.0001). Dosimetric parameters most predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity were volume receiving above BED10 of 72 Gy (V{sub BED10}72) ≥ 21 cm{sup 3} (relative risk [RR]: 11.6, P<.0001), V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3} (RR: 10.5, P<.0001), and mean BED10 (Dmean{sub BED10}) cHBT ≥14 Gy (RR: 9.2, P<.0001), with V{sub BED10}72 and V{sub BED10}66 corresponding to V40 and V37.7 for 5 fractions and V33.8 and V32.0 for 3 fractions, respectively. V{sub BED10}72 ≥ 21 cm{sup 3}, V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3}, and Dmean{sub BED10} cHBT ≥14 Gy were consistently predictive of grade 3+ toxicity on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: V

  10. Localized Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Long-Term Outcome in 86 Patients With 104 Treated Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Ken, E-mail: keharada@ncc.go.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Murakami, Naoya; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Shigenobu [Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tobinai, Kensei [Department of Hematologic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Uno, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Itami, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history, behavior of progression, prognostic factors, and treatment-related adverse effects of primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POAML). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with histologically proven stage I POAML treated with radiation therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 56 years (range, 18-85 years). The median dose administered was 30 Gy (range, 30-46 Gy). Seventy-seven patients (90%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Results: The median follow-up duration was 9 years (range, 0.9-22 years). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.6% and 93.5%, respectively, and no patients died of lymphoma. Patients with tumor sizes ≥4 cm showed a greater risk of contralateral relapse (P=.012). Six patients with contralateral relapse were seen and treated by radiation therapy alone, and all the lesions were controlled well, with follow-up times of 3 to 12 years. There was 1 case of local relapse after radiation therapy alone, and 3 cases of relapse occurred in a distant site. Cataracts developed in 36 of the 65 eyes treated without lens shielding and in 12 of the 39 patients with lens shielding (P=.037). Conclusions: The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

  11. Determination of the Risk of Radiation-Associated Circulatory and Cancer Disease Mortality in a NASA Early Astronaut Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Chappell, L.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Little, M.; Patel, Z. S.

    2017-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to determine if there was sufficient evidence for excess risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in early NASA astronaut cohorts. NASA astronauts in selection groups 1-7 were chosen; this relatively homogeneous cohort consists of 73 white males, who unlike today's astronauts, maintained similar smoking and drinking habits to the general US population, and have published radiation doses. The participants flew in space on missions Mercury through Shuttle and received space radiation doses between 0-74.1 milligrays. Cause of death information was obtained from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) program at NASA Johnson Space Center. Mortality was compared with the US male population. Trends of mortality with dose were assessed using a logistic model, fitted by maximum likelihood. Only 32 (43.84 percent) of the 73 early astronauts have died. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) for cancer (n=7, SMR=43.4, 95 percent CI 17.8, 84.9), all circulatory disease (n=7, SMR=33.2, 95 percent CI 13.7, 65.0), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (n=5, SMR=40.1, 95 percent CI 13.2, 89.4) were significantly lower than for the US white male population. For cerebrovascular disease, the upper confidence interval for SMR included 100, indicating it was not significantly different from the US population (n=2, SMR = 77.0, 95 percent CI 9.4, 268.2). The power of the study is low and remains below 10 percent even when risks 10 times those reported in the literature are assumed. Due to small sample size, there is currently insufficient statistical power to evaluate space

  12. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  13. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Susceptibility Loci That Modify Radiation-Related Risk for Breast Cancer After Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Sampson, Joshua N; Armstrong, Gregory T; Chen, Ting-Huei; Hudson, Melissa M; Karlins, Eric; Dagnall, Casey L; Li, Shengchao Alfred; Wilson, Carmen L; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Liu, Wei; Kang, Guolian; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Henderson, Tara O; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Gibson, Todd M; Merino, Diana M; Wong, Jeannette R; Hammond, Sue; Neglia, Joseph P; Turcotte, Lucie M; Miller, Jeremy; Bowen, Laura; Wheeler, William A; Leisenring, Wendy M; Whitton, John A; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles; Hicks, Belynda D; Jones, Kristine; Machiela, Mitchell J; Vogt, Aurelie; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Neale, Geoffrey; Lear, Matthew; Strong, Louise C; Yasui, Yutaka; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E; Smith, Susan A; Howell, Rebecca; Davies, Stella M; Radloff, Gretchen A; Onel, Kenan; de González, Amy Berrington; Inskip, Peter D; Rajaraman, Preetha; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Bhatia, Smita; Chanock, Stephen J; Tucker, Margaret A; Robison, Leslie L

    2017-11-01

    Childhood cancer survivors treated with chest-directed radiotherapy have substantially elevated risk for developing breast cancer. Although genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in the general population is well studied, large-scale evaluation of breast cancer susceptibility after chest-directed radiotherapy for childhood cancer is lacking. We conducted a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in female survivors of childhood cancer, pooling two cohorts with detailed treatment data and systematic, long-term follow-up: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and St. Jude Lifetime Cohort. The study population comprised 207 survivors who developed breast cancer and 2774 who had not developed any subsequent neoplasm as of last follow-up. Genotyping and subsequent imputation yielded 16 958 466 high-quality variants for analysis. We tested associations in the overall population and in subgroups stratified by receipt of lower than 10 and 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure. We report P values and pooled per-allele risk estimates from Cox proportional hazards regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among survivors who received 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure, a locus on 1q41 was associated with subsequent breast cancer risk (rs4342822, nearest gene PROX1 , risk allele frequency in control subjects [RAF controls ] = 0.46, hazard ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.49 to 2.44, P = 7.09 × 10 -9 ). Two rare variants also showed potentially promising associations (breast radiation ≥10 gray: rs74949440, 11q23, TAGLN , RAF controls = 0.02, P = 5.84 × 10 -8 ; breast cancer risk after childhood cancer.

  15. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  16. Low skeletal muscle radiation attenuation and visceral adiposity are associated with overall survival and surgical site infections in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, David P J; Bakens, Maikel J A M; Coolsen, Mariëlle M E; Rensen, Sander S; van Dam, Ronald M; Bours, Martijn J L; Weijenberg, Matty P; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cachexia and skeletal muscle wasting are related to poor survival. In this study, quantitative body composition measurements using computed tomography (CT) were investigated in relation to survival, post-operative complications, and surgical site infections in surgical patients with cancer of the head of the pancreas. A prospective cohort of 199 patients with cancer of the head of the pancreas was analysed by CT imaging at the L3 level to determine (i) muscle radiation attenuation (average Hounsfield units of total L3 skeletal muscle); (ii) visceral adipose tissue area; (iii) subcutaneous adipose tissue area; (iv) intermuscular adipose tissue area; and (v) skeletal muscle area. Sex-specific cut-offs were determined at the lower tertile for muscle radiation attenuation and skeletal muscle area and the higher tertile for adipose tissues. These variables of body composition were related to overall survival, severe post-operative complications (Dindo-Clavien ≥ 3), and surgical site infections (wounds inspected daily by an independent trial nurse) using Cox-regression analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis, respectively. Low muscle radiation attenuation was associated with shorter survival in comparison with moderate and high muscle radiation attenuation [median survival 10.8 (95% CI: 8.8-12.8) vs. 17.4 (95% CI: 14.7-20.1), and 18.5 (95% CI: 9.2-27.8) months, respectively; P attenuation combined with either low visceral adipose tissue or age attenuation was inversely correlated with intermuscular adipose tissue (rp  = -0.697, P attenuation was associated with reduced survival, and high visceral adiposity was associated with an increase in surgical site infections. The strong correlation between muscle radiation attenuation and intermuscular adipose tissue suggests the presence of ectopic fat in muscle, warranting further investigation. CT image analysis could be implemented in pre-operative risk assessment to assist in treatment

  17. Genome Wide Association Study to Identify SNPs and CNPs Associated with Development of Radiation Injury in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    hemorrhagic cystitis . Whereas risk factors for acute urinary morbidity have been well-documented, acute urinary morbidity does not predict strongly...multi-SNP model including SNPs in ART1, ID3, EPDR1, PAH, and XRCC6, was found to be predictive of radiation cystitis among a group of men (n = 197...studies to date have been conducted using relatively small sample sizes, and many look at single measures of urinary toxicity (ex. cystitis ) or

  18. SNP in TXNRD2 Associated With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis: A Study of Genetic Variation in Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsen, Hege, E-mail: hege.edvardsen@rr-research.no [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Landmark-Høyvik, Hege [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Reinertsen, Kristin V. [National Resource Centre for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Zhao, Xi [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe Irene; Nebdal, Daniel [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Syvänen, Ann-Christine [Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Rødningen, Olaug [Department of Medical Genetics, OUS Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens [Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Ahus University Hospital (Norway); Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Fosså, Sophie D. [K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); National Resource Centre for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Kristensen, Vessela N. [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Department of Clinical Molecular Biology (EpiGen), Division of Medicine, Ahus University Hospital (Norway)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify noninvasive markers of treatment-induced side effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated after irradiation, and genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism might influence the level of radiation-induced adverse effects (AEs). Methods and Materials: 92 breast cancer (BC) survivors previously treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy were assessed for the AEs subcutaneous atrophy and fibrosis, costal fractures, lung fibrosis, pleural thickening, and telangiectasias (median follow-up time 17.1 years). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 203 genes were analyzed for association to AE grade. SNPs associated with subcutaneous fibrosis were validated in an independent BC survivor material (n=283). The influence of the studied genetic variation on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of 18 genes previously associated with fibrosis was assessed in fibroblast cell lines from BC patients. Results: Subcutaneous fibrosis and atrophy had the highest correlation (r=0.76) of all assessed AEs. The nonsynonymous SNP rs1139793 in TXNRD2 was associated with grade of subcutaneous fibrosis, the reference T-allele being more prevalent in the group experiencing severe levels of fibrosis. This was confirmed in another sample cohort of 283 BC survivors, and rs1139793 was found significantly associated with mRNA expression level of TXNRD2 in blood. Genetic variation in 24 ROS-related genes, including EGFR, CENPE, APEX1, and GSTP1, was associated with mRNA expression of 14 genes previously linked to fibrosis (P≤.005). Conclusion: Development of subcutaneous fibrosis can be associated with genetic variation in the mitochondrial enzyme TXNRD2, critically involved in removal of ROS, and maintenance of the intracellular redox balance.

  19. High γ-radiation sensitivity is associated with increased gastric cancer risk in a Chinese Han population: a case-control analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Dong

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity to radiation exposure has been suggested to be a risk factor for the development of several malignancies, but not including gastric cancer. In this case-control study, radiation sensitivity as measured by chromatid breaks per cell (b/c was examined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs from 517 patients with gastric cancer and 525 healthy controls. Our results showed that b/c values were significantly higher in cases than in controls (Mean [SD], 0.47 [0.20] vs. 0.34 [0.17]; P<0.001. Using the 50(th percentile value for controls (0.34 b/c as the cutoff point, unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that γ-radiation-sensitive individuals were at significantly higher risk for gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-3.13. Quartile stratification analysis indicated a dose-response relationship between γ-radiation sensitivity and gastric cancer risk (P for trend <0.001. When using the subjects in first quartile of b/c values as reference, the adjusted ORs and corresponding CIs for the subjects in second, third, and fourth quartiles were 1.48 (0.91-2.17, 2.42 (1.76-3.64, and 3.40 (2.11-5.29, respectively. The γ-radiation sensitivity was related to age and smoking status. In addition, a clear joint effect on cancer risk was found between γ-Radiation sensitivity and smoking status. The risk for ever smokers with high sensitivity was higher than those for never smokers with high sensitivity and ever smokers with low sensitivity (OR [CI], 4.67 [2.31-6.07] vs. 2.14 [1.40-3.06] vs. 2.42 [1.57-3.95], respectively. No significant interaction was found between both factors (P for interaction= 0.42. We conclude that chromatid radiosensitivity is associated with gastric cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population.

  20. Low-Dose Radiation Treatment in Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: A Plausible Approach? A Single-Institution Experience in 10 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girinsky, Theodore, E-mail: girinsky@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paumier, Amaury [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ferme, Christophe; Hanna, Colette; Ribrag, Vincent [Department of Hematology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Leroy-Ladurie, Francois [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Ghalibafian, Mithra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 2-103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%-97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.

  1. Use of Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Elderly and Very Elderly Patients With Brain Metastases to Limit Toxicity Associated With Whole Brain Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linda; Shen, Colette; Redmond, Kristin J; Page, Brandi R; Kummerlowe, Megan; Mcnutt, Todd; Bettegowda, Chetan; Rigamonti, Daniele; Lim, Michael; Kleinberg, Lawrence

    2017-07-15

    We evaluated the toxicity associated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in elderly and very elderly patients with brain metastases, as the role of SRS in geriatric patients who would traditionally receive WBRT is unclear. We conducted a retrospective review of elderly patients (aged 70-79 years) and very elderly patients (aged ≥80 years) with brain metastases who underwent RT from 2010 to 2015 at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Patients received either upfront WBRT or SRS for metastatic solid malignancies, excluding small cell lung cancer. Acute central nervous system toxicity within 3 months of RT was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute radiation central nervous system morbidity scale. The toxicity data between age groups and treatment modalities were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the median overall survival, and the Cox proportion hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. A total of 811 brain metastases received RT in 119 geriatric patients. The median overall survival from the diagnosis of brain metastases was 4.3 months for the patients undergoing WBRT and 14.4 months for the patients undergoing SRS. On multivariate analysis, WBRT was associated with worse overall survival in this cohort of geriatric patients (odds ratio [OR] 3.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-7.0, PElderly and very elderly patients did not have significantly different statistically acute toxicity rates when stratified by age. WBRT was associated with increased toxicity compared with SRS in elderly and very elderly patients with brain metastases. SRS, rather than WBRT, should be prospectively evaluated in geriatric patients with the goal of minimizing treatment-related toxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Natural Cubic Spline Regression Modeling Followed by Dynamic Network Reconstruction for the Identification of Radiation-Sensitivity Gene Association Networks from Time-Course Transcriptome Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, Agata; Braselmann, Herbert; Selmansberger, Martin; Dietz, Anne; Hess, Julia; Gomolka, Maria; Hornhardt, Sabine; Blüthgen, Nils; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Unger, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression time-course experiments allow to study the dynamics of transcriptomic changes in cells exposed to different stimuli. However, most approaches for the reconstruction of gene association networks (GANs) do not propose prior-selection approaches tailored to time-course transcriptome data. Here, we present a workflow for the identification of GANs from time-course data using prior selection of genes differentially expressed over time identified by natural cubic spline regression modeling (NCSRM). The workflow comprises three major steps: 1) the identification of differentially expressed genes from time-course expression data by employing NCSRM, 2) the use of regularized dynamic partial correlation as implemented in GeneNet to infer GANs from differentially expressed genes and 3) the identification and functional characterization of the key nodes in the reconstructed networks. The approach was applied on a time-resolved transcriptome data set of radiation-perturbed cell culture models of non-tumor cells with normal and increased radiation sensitivity. NCSRM detected significantly more genes than another commonly used method for time-course transcriptome analysis (BETR). While most genes detected with BETR were also detected with NCSRM the false-detection rate of NCSRM was low (3%). The GANs reconstructed from genes detected with NCSRM showed a better overlap with the interactome network Reactome compared to GANs derived from BETR detected genes. After exposure to 1 Gy the normal sensitive cells showed only sparse response compared to cells with increased sensitivity, which exhibited a strong response mainly of genes related to the senescence pathway. After exposure to 10 Gy the response of the normal sensitive cells was mainly associated with senescence and that of cells with increased sensitivity with apoptosis. We discuss these results in a clinical context and underline the impact of senescence-associated pathways in acute radiation response of normal

  3. Identification of aerosol types over Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to optical properties and associated radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Srivastava, A K; Singh, A K; Singh, Sachchidanand

    2015-08-01

    The aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are a mixture of sulfate, dust, black carbon, and other soluble and insoluble components. It is a challenge not only to identify these various aerosol types, but also to assess the optical and radiative implications of these components. In the present study, appropriate thresholds for fine-mode fraction and single-scattering albedo have been used to first identify the aerosol types over IGB. Four major aerosol types may be identified as polluted dust (PD), polluted continental (PC), black carbon-enriched (BCE), and organic carbon-enriched (OCE). Further, the implications of these different types of aerosols on optical properties and radiative forcing have been studied. The aerosol products derived from CIMEL sun/sky radiometer measurements, deployed under Aerosol Robotic Network program of NASA, USA were used from four different sites Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur, spread over Pakistan and Northern India. PD is the most dominant aerosol type at Karachi and Jaipur, contributing more than 50% of all the aerosol types. OCE, on the other hand, contributes only about 12-15% at all the stations except at Kanpur where its contribution is ∼38%. The spectral dependence of AOD was relatively low for PD aerosol type, with the lowest AE values (aerosol types, with the highest AE values (>1.0). SSA was found to be the highest for OCE (>0.9) and the lowest for BCE (aerosols, with drastically different spectral variability. The direct aerosol radiative forcing at the surface and in the atmosphere was found to be the maximum at Lahore among all the four stations in the IGB.

  4. Distributions of Low- and High-LET Radiation-Induced Breaks in Chromosomes are Associated with Inter- and Intrachromosome Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; Zhang, Ye; Feiveson, Alan; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    To study the breakpoint along the length of the chromosome induced by low- and high-LET radiations, we exposed human epithelial cells in vitro to Cs-137 rays at both low and high dose rates, secondary neutrons at a low dose rate, and 600 MeV/u Fe ions at a high dose rate. The location of the breaks was identified using the multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) that paints Chromosome 3 in 23 different colored bands. The breakpoint distributions were found to be similar between rays of low and high dose rates and between the two high-LET radiation types. Detailed analysis of the chromosome break ends involved in inter- and intrachromosome exchanges revealed that only the break ends participating in interchromosome exchanges contributed to the hot spots found for low-LET. For break ends participating in intrachromosome exchanges, the distributions for all four radiation scenarios were similar with clusters of breaks found in three regions. Analysis of the locations of the two break ends in Chromosome 3 that joined to form an intrachromosome exchange demonstrated that two breaks with a greater genomic separation may be more likely to rejoin than two closer breaks, indicating that chromatin folding can play an important role in the rejoining of chromosome breaks. Our study demonstrated that the gene-rich regions do not necessarily contain more breaks. The breakpoint distribution depends more on the likelihood that a break will join with another break in the same chromosome or in a different chromosome.

  5. Results of the 2012-2013 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Job Search and Career Planning Survey of Graduating Residents in the United States

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    Mattes, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdm9007@nyp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Kharofa, Jordan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Zeidan, Youssef H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Tung, Kaity [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Gondi, Vinai [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the timeline used by postgraduate year (PGY)-5 radiation oncology residents during the job application process and the factors most important to them when deciding on a first job. Methods and Materials: In 2012 and 2013, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide electronic survey of PGY-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 2 months of their training. Descriptive statistics are reported. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Surveys were completed by 180 of 314 residents contacted. The median time to start networking for the purpose of employment was January PGY-4; to start contacting practices, complete and upload a curriculum vitae to a job search website, and use the American Society of Radiation Oncology Career Center was June PGY-4; to obtain letters of recommendation was July PGY-5; to start interviewing was August PGY-5; to finish interviewing was December PGY-5; and to accept a contract was January PGY-5. Those applying for a community position began interviewing at an earlier average time than did those applying for an academic position (P=.04). The most important factors to residents when they evaluated job offers included (in order from most to least important) a collegial environment, geographic location, emphasis on best patient care, quality of support staff and facility, and multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Factors that were rated significantly different between subgroups based on the type of position applied for included adequate mentoring, dedicated research time, access to clinical trials, amount of time it takes to become a partner, geographic location, size of group, starting salary, and amount of vacation and days off. Conclusions: The residents' perspective on the job application process over 2 years is documented to provide a resource for current and future residents and employers to use.

  6. Association of radiation belt electron enhancements with earthward penetration of Pc5 ULF waves: a case study of intense 2001 magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Georgiou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geospace magnetic storms, driven by the solar wind, are associated with increases or decreases in the fluxes of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt. We examine the response of relativistic electrons to four intense magnetic storms, during which the minimum of the Dst index ranged from −105 to −387 nT, and compare these with concurrent observations of ultra-low-frequency (ULF waves from the trans-Scandinavian IMAGE magnetometer network and stations from multiple magnetometer arrays available through the worldwide SuperMAG collaboration. The latitudinal and global distribution of Pc5 wave power is examined to determine how deep into the magnetosphere these waves penetrate. We then investigate the role of Pc5 wave activity deep in the magnetosphere in enhancements of radiation belt electrons population observed in the recovery phase of the magnetic storms. We show that, during magnetic storms characterized by increased post-storm electron fluxes as compared to their pre-storm values, the earthward shift of peak and inner boundary of the outer electron radiation belt follows the Pc5 wave activity, reaching L shells as low as 3–4. In contrast, the one magnetic storm characterized by irreversible loss of electrons was related to limited Pc5 wave activity that was not intensified at low L shells. These observations demonstrate that enhanced Pc5 ULF wave activity penetrating deep into the magnetosphere during the main and recovery phase of magnetic storms can, for the cases examined, distinguish storms that resulted in increases in relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belts from those that did not.

  7. Genetic differences in transcript responses to low-dose ionizing radiation identify tissue functions associated with breast cancer susceptibility.

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    Antoine M Snijders

    Full Text Available High dose ionizing radiation (IR is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer but the health effects after low-dose (LD, <10 cGy exposures remain highly uncertain. We explored a systems approach that compared LD-induced chromosome damage and transcriptional responses in strains of mice with genetic differences in their sensitivity to radiation-induced mammary cancer (BALB/c and C57BL/6 for the purpose of identifying mechanisms of mammary cancer susceptibility. Unirradiated mammary and blood tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of DNA repair, tumor suppressor, and stress response genes. LD exposures of 7.5 cGy (weekly for 4 weeks did not induce detectable genomic instability in either strain. However, the mammary glands of the sensitive strain but not the resistant strain showed early transcriptional responses involving: (a diminished immune response, (b increased cellular stress, (c altered TGFβ-signaling, and (d inappropriate expression of developmental genes. One month after LD exposure, the two strains showed opposing responses in transcriptional signatures linked to proliferation, senescence, and microenvironment functions. We also discovered a pre-exposure expression signature in both blood and mammary tissues that is predictive for poor survival among human cancer patients (p = 0.0001, and a post-LD-exposure signature also predictive for poor patient survival (p<0.0001. There is concordant direction of expression in the LD-exposed sensitive mouse strain, in biomarkers of human DCIS and in biomarkers of human breast tumors. Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic mechanisms that determine susceptibility to LD radiation induced mammary cancer in mice are similar to the tissue mechanisms that determine poor-survival in breast cancer patients. We observed non-linearity of the LD responses providing molecular evidence against the LNT risk model and obtained new evidence that LD responses are

  8. IL6-174 G>C Polymorphism (rs1800795) Association with Late Effects of Low Dose Radiation Exposure in the Portuguese Tinea Capitis Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Paula; Durães, Cecília; Mendes, Adélia; Costa, Natália Rios; Chora, Inês; Ferreira, Sara; Araújo, Emanuel; Lopes, Pedro; Rosa, Gilberto; Marques, Pedro; Bettencourt, Paulo; Oliveira, Inês; Costa, Francisco; Ramos, Isabel; Teles, Maria José; Guimarães, João Tiago; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    Head and neck cancers, and cardiovascular disease have been described as late effects of low dose radiation (LDR) exposure, namely in tinea capitis cohorts. In addition to radiation dose, gender and younger age at exposure, the genetic background might be involved in the susceptibility to LDR late effects. The -174 G>C (rs1800795) SNP in IL6 has been associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease, nevertheless this association is still controversial. We assessed the association of the IL6-174 G>C SNP with LDR effects such as thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and carotid atherosclerosis in the Portuguese tinea capitis cohort. The IL6-174 G>C SNP was genotyped in 1269 individuals formerly irradiated for tinea capitis. This sampling group included thyroid cancer (n = 36), basal cell carcinoma (n = 113) and cases without thyroid or basal cell carcinoma (1120). A subgroup was assessed for atherosclerosis by ultrasonography (n = 379) and included matched controls (n = 222). Genotypes were discriminated by real-time PCR using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. In the irradiated group, we observed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with carotid plaque risk, both in the genotypic (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.60-7.95, p-value = 0.002) and in the recessive (OR = 3.02, CI = 1.42-6.42, p-value = 0.004) models. Irradiation alone was not a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis. We did not find a significant association of the IL6-174 C allele with thyroid carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma risk. The IL6-174 CC genotype confers a three-fold risk for carotid atherosclerotic disease suggesting it may represent a genetic susceptibility factor in the LDR context.

  9. Intraoperative Radiation for Breast Cancer with Intrabeam™: Factors Associated with Decreased Operative Times in Patients Having IORT for Breast Cancer

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    Stephanie A. Valente

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIntraoperative radiation with Intrabeam™ (IORT for breast cancer is a newer technology recently implemented into the operating room (OR. This procedure requires time and coordination between the surgeon and radiation oncologist, who both perform their treatments in a single operative setting. We evaluated the surgeons at our center, who perform IORT and their OR times to examine changes in OR times following implementation of this new surgical procedure. We hypothesized that IORT is a technique for which timing could be improved with the increasing number of cases performed.MethodsA prospectively maintained IRB approved database was queried for OR times (incision and close in patients who underwent breast conserving surgery (BCS, sentinel lymph node biopsy with and without IORT using the Intrabeam™ system at our institution from 2011 to 2015. The total OR times were compared for each surgeon individually and over time. Next, the OR times of each surgeon were compared to each other. Continuous variables were summarized and then a prediction model was created using IORT time, OR time, surgeon, and number of cases performed.ResultsThere were five surgeons performing IORT at our institution during this time period with a total of 96 cases performed. There was a significant difference observed in baseline surgeon-specific OR time for BSC (p = 0.03 as well as for BCS with IORT (p < 0.05, attributable to surgeon experience. The average BCS times were faster than the BCS plus IORT procedure times for all surgeons. The overall mean OR time for the entire combined surgical and radiation procedure was 135.5 min. The most common applicator sizes used were the 3.5 and 4 cm, yielding an average 21 min IORT time. Applicator choice did not differ over time (p = 0.189. After adjusting for IORT time and surgeon, the prediction model estimated that surgeons decreased the total BCS plus IORT OR time at a rate of −4.5 min per

  10. Storm-time variation of relativistic electron phase space density associated with potential mechanisms in the outer radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Xiao, F.; Yang, C.; Zhou, Q.; He, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The possible acceleration mechanisms of relativistic electron fluxes in Earth's outer radiation belt are basically categorized into two groups: radial diffusion and in-situ acceleration. A physical understanding and modeling of the radiation belt dynamic require an investigation of the electron phase space density (PSD) to provide a delicate picture of the mechanisms. Here, we study the time evolution of relativistic electron PSD during two events. During 23 to 24 September, 2014, with minimum Dst=-27 nT and maximum Kp 4, relativistic (2.1 -3.4 MeV) electron fluxes and chorus waves were substantially enhanced at L=4.5-6 by the Van Allen Probes. Pronounced peaks in PSD radial profiles occurred at L*=4.9-5.2, suggesting a local acceleration process as the primary mechanism. Numerical calculation shows that bounce-averaged momentum diffusion coefficient from chorus wave approaches 10-5 s-1 at large pitch angle for 2 MeV electrons. Meanwhile, electromagnetic and electrostatic radial diffusion coefficients (DMLL and DELL) are smaller than approximately by 3-20 times and 25-100 times respectively. This indicates that chorus-electron interaction dominates the PSD evolution over the radial diffusion in this event. During 1 to 3 October, 2013, with minimum Dst=-67 nT and maximum Kp 8, relativistic electron fluxes increased by 1-2 orders at L=4.8-5.8, while chorus waves are not directly observed. The PSD radial profiles monotonically increases with L*. We find that DMLL and DELL can approach 10-4 s-1 and 10-5 s-1 respectively. Using inferred chorus intensity 50 pT, we obtain the momentum diffusion coefficient as about 10-6 s-1. The above calculations and observations indicated that the radial diffusion tends to be the dominant process for the PSD enhancement. The present results provide a direct support and reveal a typical picture for the previous statistical characteristics of radial PSD evolution related to different internal, magnetospheric processes. It further

  11. The Association of IFI27 Expression and Fatigue Intensification during Localized Radiation Therapy: Implication of a Para-Inflammatory Bystander Response

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    Leorey N. Saligan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind fatigue intensification during cancer therapy remain elusive. The interferon alpha-inducible protein 27 (IFI27 was the most up-regulated gene based on our previous microarray data in fatigued men with non-metastatic prostate cancer receiving localized external beam radiation therapy (EBRT. The purpose of this study was to confirm the IFI27 up-regulation and determine its association with fatigue intensification during EBRT. Peripheral blood samples and fatigue scores were collected at three time points—prior to EBRT, at midpoint, and at completion of EBRT. Confirmatory quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were utilized to verify the microarray results. Subjects were a total of 40 Caucasian men with prostate cancer; 20 scheduled for EBRT (65.6 ± 7.5 years old, and 20 on active surveillance as controls (62.8 ± 6.1 years old. Significant IFI27 expression overtime during EBRT was confirmed by qPCR (p < 0.5, which correlated with fatigue scores during EBRT (R = −0.90, p = 0.006. Alterations in mechanisms associated with immune response and mitochondrial function that explain the up-regulation of IFI27 may provide an understanding of the pathways related to the intensification of fatigue during localized radiation therapy.

  12. Appraisal of radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in sand samples of four rivers of Punjab province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khalid; Khalid, Muhammad Rizwan; Jabbar, Abdul; Akhter, Perveen

    2012-06-01

    Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity of sand and water samples collected from the four big rivers of Punjab province, Pakistan, was measured using a high-purity germanium detector coupled with a high resolution multichannel analyser. The average concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in all the sand samples from the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Indus was found to be 22±0.6, 36±1 and 287±10 Bq kg (-1), respectively, while the concentration of the anthropogenic radionuclide (137)Cs was found to be below the minimum detectable activity, i.e. ~1.2 Bq kg (-1). All the sand samples have Ra(eq) concentrations lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg (-1). Indoor (H (in)) and outdoor (H (out)) radiation hazard indices were calculated for the samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of this sand in construction, and were found to be less than unity in the study area. Calculated values of the absorbed dose rate were less than the typical world average value of 59 nGy h (-1), and the annual effective dose rate was also less than the typical world value of 70 μSv, except in the Indus river, in which it is slightly higher then the world average. Results show that the measured values are comparable with other global radioactivity measurements. None of the studied riverbeds was considered a radiological hazard, and their sand can be safely used in construction.

  13. RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ chromosomal rearrangements in post-Chernobyl thyroid cancer and their association with I-131 radiation dose and other characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman-Neill, Rebecca J.; Brenner, Alina V.; Little, Mark P.; Bogdanova, Tetiana I.; Hatch, Maureen; Zurnadzy, Liudmyla Y.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Tronko, Mykola D.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood exposure to I-131 from the 1986 Chernobyl accident led to a sharp increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence in regions surrounding the reactor. Data concerning the association between genetic mutations in PTCs and individual radiation doses are limited. Methods We performed mutational analysis of 62 PTCs diagnosed in a Ukrainian cohort of patients who were Chernobyl tumors and show different associations for point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements with I-131 dose and other factors. These data support the relationship between chromosomal rearrangements, but not point mutations, and I-131 exposure and point to a possible role of iodine deficiency in generation of RET/PTC rearrangements in these patients. PMID:23436219

  14. Proposing a Simple Radiation Scale for the Public: Radiation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuseong Cho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new radiation scale is proposed. With empathy toward the vast majority of people who are not well versed in radiation and related matters, and thus suffering from misunderstanding that breeds unnecessary fear of radiation, the aim of proposing a new radiation scale, radiation index (RAIN, is to put the general public at ease with the concept of radiation. RAIN is defined in dimensionless numbers that relate any specific radiation dose to a properly defined reference level. As RAIN is expressed in plain numbers without an attached scientific unit, the public will feel comfortable with its friendly look, which in turn should help them understand radiation dose levels easily and allay their anxieties about radiation. The expanded awareness and proper understanding of radiation will empower the public to feel that they are not hopeless victims of radiation. The correspondence between RAIN and the specific accumulated dose is established. The equivalence will allow RAIN to serve as a common language of communication for the general public with which they can converse with radiation experts to discuss matters related to radiation safety, radiation diagnosis and therapy, nuclear accidents, and other related matters. Such fruitful dialogues will ultimately enhance public acceptance of radiation and associated technologies.

  15. Proposing a simple radiation scale for the public: Radiation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Soon [Center for Ionizing Radiation, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kunwoo [Dept. of Natural Radiation Safety, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A new radiation scale is proposed. With empathy toward the vast majority of people who are not well versed in radiation and related matters, and thus suffering from misunderstanding that breeds unnecessary fear of radiation, the aim of proposing a new radiation scale, radiation index (RAIN), is to put the general public at ease with the concept of radiation. RAIN is defined in dimensionless numbers that relate any specific radiation dose to a properly defined reference level. As RAIN is expressed in plain numbers without an attached scientific unit, the public will feel comfortable with its friendly look, which in turn should help them understand radiation dose levels easily and allay their anxieties about radiation. The expanded awareness and proper understanding of radiation will empower the public to feel that they are not hopeless victims of radiation. The correspondence between RAIN and the specific accumulated dose is established. The equivalence will allow RAIN to serve as a common language of communication for the general public with which they can converse with radiation experts to discuss matters related to radiation safety, radiation diagnosis and therapy, nuclear accidents, and other related matters. Such fruitful dialogues will ultimately enhance public acceptance of radiation and associated technologies.

  16. Lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels associated with worsening fatigue in prostate cancer patients during repeated stress from radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saligan, L N; Lukkahatai, N; Holder, G; Walitt, B; Machado-Vieira, R

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue during cancer treatment is associated with depression. Neurotrophic factors play a major role in depression and stress and might provide insight into mechanisms of fatigue. This study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of three neurotrophic factors (BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDNF, glial-derived neurotrophic factor; and SNAPIN, soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion attachment receptor-associated protein) and initial fatigue intensification during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in euthymic non-metastatic prostate cancer men. Fatigue, as measured by the 13-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F), and plasma neurotrophic factors were collected at baseline (prior to EBRT) and mid-EBRT. Subjects were categorized into fatigue and no fatigue groups using a > 3-point change in FACT-F scores between the two time points. Multiple linear regressions analysed the associations between fatigue and neurotrophic factors. FACT-F scores of 47 subjects decreased from baseline (43.95 ± 1.3) to mid-EBRT (38.36 ± 1.5, P < 0.001), indicating worsening fatigue. SNAPIN levels were associated with fatigue scores (rs = 0.43, P = 0.005) at baseline. A significant decrease of BDNF concentration (P = 0.008) was found in fatigued subjects during EBRT (n = 39). Baseline SNAPIN and decreasing BDNF levels may influence worsening fatigue during EBRT. Further investigations are warranted to confirm their role in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of fatigue.

  17. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  18. Results of the 2005 to 2008 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology surveys of chief residents in the United States: didactics and research experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Vinai; Bernard, Johnny Ray; Jabbari, Siavash; Keam, Jennifer; de Amorim Bernstein, Karen L; Dad, Luqman K; Li, Linna; Poppe, Matthew M; Strauss, Jonathan B; Chollet, Casey T

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the didactics and research experience reported by chief residents during their residency training. During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistic was used to assess for changes in didactics and research experience over time. During the years surveyed, an increasing percentage of programs offered curriculum-based didactics in clinical oncology (P=0.042), with a similar trend of borderline significance observed in biostatistics (P = 0.056). Each year, the majority of programs offered >40 hours of curriculum-based training in clinical oncology and physics, >20 hours in radiobiology, and 10 hours or fewer in biostatistics. 11% to 13% of residents reported having no full-time equivalent radiation biologists affiliated with their training program. Less than 64% of programs incorporated mock oral boards into their training. An increasing percentage of programs evaluated residents in a "360 degree" manner, with a trend to significance (P=0.073). Over 80% of programs required resident participation in research activities and allocated dedicated elective research time, typically 4 months or longer. Though the vast majority of programs make clinical research activities available to interested residents, borderline significance (P = 0.051) was observed for a decreasing percentage of such programs during the years analyzed. Trends in didactics and research experience over three years are documented to allow residents and program directors to assess their residency training.

  19. Enhanced radiation dose and DNA damage associated with iodinated contrast media in diagnostic X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbron, Richard; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Bouffler, Simon D; Tanner, Rick J; Eakins, Jonathan S; Pearce, Mark S

    2017-11-01

    A review was undertaken of studies reporting increased DNA damage in circulating blood cells and increased organ doses, for X-ray exposures enhanced by iodinated contrast media (ICM), compared to unenhanced imaging. This effect may be due to ICM molecules acting as a source of secondary radiation (Auger/photoelectrons, fluorescence X-rays) following absorption of primary X-ray photons. It is unclear if the reported increase in DNA damage to blood cells necessarily implies an increased risk of developing cancer. Upon ICM-enhancement, the attenuation properties of blood differ substantially from surrounding tissues. Increased energy deposition is likely to occur within very close proximity to ICM molecules (within a few tens of micrometres). Consequently, in many situations, damage and dose enhancement may be restricted to the blood and vessel wall only. Increased cancer risks may be possible, in cases where ICM molecules are given sufficient time to reach the capillary network and interstitial fluid at the time of exposure. In all situations, the extrapolation of blood cell damage to other tissues requires caution where contrast media are involved. Future research is needed to determine the impact of ICM on dose to cells outside the blood itself and vessel walls, and to determine the concentration of ICM in blood vessels and interstitial fluid at the time of exposure.

  20. Radiation therapy dose is associated with improved survival for unresected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Outcomes from the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Todd A; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Sheu, Tommy; Blanchard, Pierre; Sandulache, Vlad C; Lai, Stephen Y; Cabanillas, Maria E; Williams, Michelle D; Pezzi, Christopher M; Lu, Charles; Garden, Adam S; Morrison, William H; Rosenthal, David I; Fuller, Clifton D; Gunn, G Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The outcomes of patients with unresected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) were assessed, and potential correlations were explored between radiation therapy (RT) dose and overall survival (OS). The study cohort was comprised of patients who underwent either no surgery or grossly incomplete resection. Correlates of OS were explored using univariate analysis and multivariable analysis (MVA). In total, 1288 patients were analyzed. The mean patient age was 70.2 years, 59.7% of patients were women, and 47.6% received neck RT. The median OS was 2.27 months, and 11% of patients remained alive at 1 year. A positive RT dose-survival correlation was observed for the entire study cohort, for those who received systemic therapy, and for those with stage IVA/IVB and IVC disease. On MVA, older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.317; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.137-1.526), ≥ 1 comorbidity (HR, 1.587; 95% CI, 1.379-1.827), distant metastasis (HR, 1.385; 95% CI, 1.216-1.578), receipt of systemic therapy (HR, 0.637; 95% CI, 0.547-0.742), and receipt of RT compared with no RT (Cancer 2017;123:1653-1661. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. RADIATION COUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  2. Association between Cataract and Keratinocytic Skin Cancers or Melanoma: Speculating on the Common Role of Sun and Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varssano, David; Friedman, Mira; Goldstein, Michaella; Bar-Sela, Shai; Sella, Tal; Shalev, Varda; Chodick, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    Cataract and sun-related skin conditions are proxies to lifetime UV exposure. We examined the association between them using real-world data from an unselected Israeli population. Computerized data was obtained from an Israeli health maintenance organization regarding cases of sun-related skin pathologies and cataract diagnosed between 2006 and 2011 in 686,260 members aged 40 or above. Sun-related skin disorders were found in 9.3% of the study population, more commonly among the elderly, and those who reside in areas of higher socioeconomic status. Cataract was diagnosed in 13.1% of the study population, with highest prevalence (47%) among squamous cell carcinoma patients, who were the oldest group. Multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, residential district, birth region, smoking, and chronic comorbidities showed no statistically significant association between melanoma and cataract (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91-1.22). Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinomas, and actinic keratosis were associated with increased likelihood of prevalent cataract with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of 1.14 (1.08-1.20), 1.11 (1.01-1.19), and 1.16 (1.13-1.19), respectively. When stratified by gender, the association between actinic keratosis and cataract was stronger in women than in men, particularly in patients under 65 years. The association between the prevalence of skin cancers and the prevalence of cataract enhances the conclusion that cataract is related to UVR exposure.

  3. RADIATION ACOUSTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamshev, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a new branch of acoustics. Its' fundamentals are lying in the research of acoustical effects due to the interaction of a radiation with matter. The sound excitation in liquids and solids by modulated or pulsed particle beams (electron, proton, ion beams, γ-radiation and single high-energy elementary particles) and some practical applications are discussed.

  4. A multivariate approach to the association pattern of reciprocal translocations induced by chemicals and ionizing radiation in mouse germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. De Luca

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of similarity between chemical and physical agents in their capacity to induce reciprocal translocations was analyzed by means of multivariate analysis techniques. The effect of three different doses of gamma rays, four doses of X-rays and different doses of adriamycin, mitomycin C, thio-tepa and bleomycin was analyzed. Data were arranged in a basic matrix by two methods: cluster analysis and ordination. Two main groups were found, one including doses of 9 and 10 Gy and the other including the remaining lower doses of ionizing radiation and the other chemicals. Various subgroups were found within the second group. Accordingly, using presence/absence data there was not a specific pattern of chromosomal damage induction for physical and chemical agents. The increase in the frequencies of reciprocal translocation observed with 9 and 10 Gy was due to an increase in the kind of multivalent configurations. This variability could be dose dependent. Likewise, the similarity observed in the second group between the chemicals and the lower doses of ionizing radiation could also be dose dependent.O grau de similaridade entre agentes químicos e físicos quanto a sua capacidade de induzir translocações recíprocas foi analisado por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Analisou-se o efeito de três diferentes doses de raios gama, quatro doses de raios-X e diferentes doses de adriamicina, mitomicina C, tio-tepa e bleomicina. Os dados foram arranjados em uma matriz básica por 2 métodos: análise de cluster e ordenação. Dois grupos principais foram encontrados, um incluindo doses de 9 e 10 Gy e o outro incluindo as outras doses de radiação ionizante e as substâncias químicas. Vários subgrupos foram encontrados dentro do segundo grupo. Usando dados de presença/ausência, não se encontrou um padrão específico de indução de danos cromossômicos para os agentes físicos e químicos. O aumento na freqüência de translocação rec

  5. Investigation of reference levels and radiation dose associated with abdominal EVAR (endovascular aneurysm repair) procedures across several European Centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuthill, E.; Rainford, L. [University College Dublin, Diagnostic Imaging, School of Medicine, Dublin (Ireland); O' Hora, L.; O' Donohoe, M. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Panci, S. [San Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Florence (Italy); Gilligan, P.; Fox, E. [Mater Private Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Campion, D. [Mauriziano-Umberto Hospital, Turin (Italy); Trenti, R. [Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Catania, D. [AITRI, Association of Italian Interventional Radiographers, Milan (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is considered the treatment of choice for abdominal aortic aneurysms with suitable anatomy. In order to improve radiation safety, European Directive (2013/59) requires member states to implement diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in radio-diagnostic and interventional procedures. This study aimed to determine local DRLs for EVAR across five European centres and identify an interim European DRL, which currently remains unestablished. Retrospective data was collected for 180 standard EVARs performed between January 2014 and July 2015 from five specialist centres in Ireland (n=2) and Italy (n=3). Data capture included: air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), total air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), fluoroscopic time (FT), number of acquisitions, frame rate of acquisition, type of acquisition, patient height, weight, and gender. The mean values for each site A, B, C, D, and E were: P{sub KA}s of 4343 ± 994 μGym{sup 2}, 18,200 ± 2141 μGym{sup 2}, 11,423 ± 1390 μGym{sup 2}, 7796 ± 704 μGym{sup 2}, 31,897 ± 5798 μGym{sup 2}; FTs of 816 ± 92 s, 950 ± 150 s, 708 ± 70 s, 972 ± 61 s, 827 ± 118 s; and number of acquisitions of 6.72 ± 0.56, 10.38 ± 1.54, 4.74 ± 0.19, 5.64 ± 0.36, 7.28 ± 0.65, respectively. The overall pooled 75th percentile P{sub KA} was 15,849 μGym{sup 2}. Local reference levels were identified. The pooled data has been used to establish an interim European DRL for EVAR procedures. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Nicholas S.; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas G.; Baumann, Zofia; Madigan, Daniel J.; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes originating from the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 were found in resident marine animals and in migratory Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT). Publication of this information resulted in a worldwide response that caused public anxiety and concern, although PBFT captured off California in August 2011 contained activity concentrations below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. To link the radioactivity to possible health impairments, we calculated doses, attributable to the Fukushima-derived and the naturally occurring radionuclides, to both the marine biota and human fish consumers. We showed that doses in all cases were dominated by the naturally occurring alpha-emitter 210Po and that Fukushima-derived doses were three to four orders of magnitude below 210Po-derived doses. Doses to marine biota were about two orders of magnitude below the lowest benchmark protection level proposed for ecosystems (10 µGy⋅h−1). The additional dose from Fukushima radionuclides to humans consuming tainted PBFT in the United States was calculated to be 0.9 and 4.7 µSv for average consumers and subsistence fishermen, respectively. Such doses are comparable to, or less than, the dose all humans routinely obtain from naturally occurring radionuclides in many food items, medical treatments, air travel, or other background sources. Although uncertainties remain regarding the assessment of cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation to humans, the dose received from PBFT consumption by subsistence fishermen can be estimated to result in two additional fatal cancer cases per 10,000,000 similarly exposed people. PMID:23733934

  7. Systematic literature review of adverse reproductive outcomes associated with physiotherapists' occupational exposures to non-ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    To review empirical research on adverse health and pregnancy outcomes associated with physiotherapists' occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) from shortwave (SWD) and microwave (MWD) diathermy devices. A systematic review of peer reviewed literature published from 1990 to 2010 in the English language searched in eight online bibliographic databases: CINAHL, EBSCOhost, ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, OSH UPDATE, PubMed Central, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. Findings suggest that physiotherapists' occupational exposure to SWD was statistically significantly associated with delayed time to pregnancy (>6 months), still birth, altered gender ratio (low ratio of boys to girls), congenital malformations and low birth weight (diathermy devices to be inconsistent. A number of studies did not find statistically significant results to replicate associations with such adverse outcomes, and therefore further research, preferably prospective studies of cohorts of physiotherapists, is warranted.

  8. Results of the 2005-2008 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States: Clinical Training and Resident Working Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: gondi@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bernard, Johnny Ray [Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Jabbari, Siavash [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Amorim Bernstein, Karen L. de [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Dad, Luqman K. [SUNY Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Li, Linna [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Poppe, Matthew M. [University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Hospital (United States); Strauss, Jonathan B. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Chollet, Casey T. [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To document clinical training and resident working conditions reported by chief residents during their residency. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to assess changes in clinical training and resident working conditions over time. Results: Surveys were completed by representatives from 55 programs (response rate, 71.4%) in 2005 to 2006, 60 programs (75.9%) in 2006 to 2007, and 74 programs (93.7%) in 2007 to 2008. Nearly all chief residents reported receiving adequate clinical experience in commonly treated disease sites, such as breast and genitourinary malignancies; and commonly performed procedures, such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical experience in extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy increased over time (p < 0.001), whereas clinical experience in endovascular brachytherapy (p <0.001) decreased over time. The distribution of gynecologic and prostate brachytherapy cases remained stable, while clinical case load in breast brachytherapy increased (p = 0.006). A small but significant percentage of residents reported receiving inadequate clinical experience in pediatrics, seeing 10 or fewer pediatric cases during the course of residency. Procedures involving higher capital costs, such as particle beam therapy and intraoperative radiotherapy, and infrequent clinical use, such as head and neck brachytherapy, were limited to a minority of institutions. Most residency programs associated with at least one satellite facility have incorporated resident rotations into their clinical training, and the majority of residents at these programs find them valuable experiences. The majority of residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week on required clinical duties

  9. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.

  10. Evaluation of a hand-held far-ultraviolet radiation device for decontamination of Clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerandzic Michelle M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental surfaces play an important role in transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens. There is a need for new disinfection methods that are effective against Clostridium difficile spores, but also safe and rapid. The Sterilray™ Disinfection Wand device is a hand-held room decontamination technology that utilizes far-ultraviolet radiation (185-230 nm to kill pathogens. Methods We examined the efficacy of disinfection using the Sterilray device in the laboratory, in rooms of hospitalized patients, and on surfaces outside of patient rooms (i.e. keyboards and portable medical equipment. Cultures for C. difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE were collected from commonly-touched surfaces before and after use of the Sterilray device. Results On inoculated surfaces in the laboratory, application of the Sterilray device at a radiant dose of 100 mJ/cm2 for ~ 5 seconds consistently reduced recovery of C. difficile spores by 4.4 CFU log10, MRSA by 5.4 log10CFU and of VRE by 6.9 log10CFU. A >3 log10 reduction of MRSA and VRE was achieved in ~2 seconds at a lower radiant dose, but killing of C. difficile spores was significantly reduced. On keyboards and portable medical equipment that were inoculated with C. difficile spores, application of the Sterilray device at a radiant dose of 100���mJ/cm2 for ~ 5 seconds reduced contamination by 3.2 log10CFU. However, the presence of organic material reduced the lethal effect of the far-UV radiation. In hospital rooms that were not pre-cleaned, disinfection with the Sterilray device significantly reduced the frequency of positive C. difficile and MRSA cultures (P =0.007. Conclusions The Sterilray™ Disinfection Wand is a novel environmental disinfection technology that rapidly kills C. difficile spores and other healthcare-associated pathogens on surfaces. However, the presence of organic matter

  11. Age and Comorbid Illness Are Associated With Late Rectal Toxicity Following Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stenmark, Matt H.; Ritter, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Litzenberg, Dale; Jackson, William; Johnson, Skyler; Albrecht-Unger, Liesel; Donaghy, Alex; Phelps, Laura; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Marsh, Robin; Olson, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts of patient age and comorbid illness on rectal toxicity following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the Qualitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in this context. Methods and Materials: Rectal toxicity was analyzed in 718 men previously treated for prostate cancer with EBRT (≥75 Gy). Comorbid illness was scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI), and the NTCP was evaluated with the QUANTEC model. The influence of clinical and treatment-related parameters on rectal toxicity was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The cumulative incidence of rectal toxicity grade ≥2 was 9.5% and 11.6% at 3 and 5 years and 3.3% and 3.9% at 3 and 5 years for grade ≥3 toxicity, respectively. Each year of age predicted an increasing relative risk of grade ≥2 (P<.03; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.06]) and ≥3 rectal toxicity (P<.0001; HR, 1.14 [95% CI,1.07-1.22]). Increasing CCMI predicted rectal toxicity where a history of either myocardial infarction (MI) (P<.0001; HR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.9-13.7]) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<.0006; HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 0.6-47.5]) predicted grade ≥3 rectal toxicity, with lesser correlation with grade ≥2 toxicity (P<.02 for MI, and P<.09 for CHF). An age comorbidity model to predict rectal toxicity was developed and confirmed in a validation cohort. The use of anticoagulants increased toxicity independent of age and comorbidity. NTCP was prognostic for grade ≥3 (P=.015) but not grade ≥2 (P=.49) toxicity. On multivariate analysis, age, MI, CHF, and an NTCP >20% all correlated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: Patient age and a history of MI or CHF significantly impact rectal toxicity following EBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer, even after controlling for NTCP.

  12. Radiation hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1982-12-31

    This course was intended to provide the participant with an introduction to the theory of radiative transfer, and an understanding of the coupling of radiative processes to the equations describing compressible flow. At moderate temperatures (thousands of degrees), the role of the radiation is primarily one of transporting energy by radiative processes. At higher temperatures (millions of degrees), the energy and momentum densities of the radiation field may become comparable to or even dominate the corresponding fluid quantities. In this case, the radiation field significantly affects the dynamics of the fluid, and it is the description of this regime which is generally the charter of radiation hydrodynamics. The course provided a discussion of the relevant physics and a derivation of the corresponding equations, as well as an examination of several simplified models. Practical applications include astrophysics and nuclear weapons effects phenomena.

  13. Association Between Myopia, Ultraviolet B Radiation Exposure, Serum Vitamin D Concentrations, and Genetic Polymorphisms in Vitamin D Metabolic Pathways in a Multicountry European Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katie M; Bentham, Graham C G; Young, Ian S; McGinty, Ann; McKay, Gareth J; Hogg, Ruth; Hammond, Christopher J; Chakravarthy, Usha; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2017-01-01

    Myopia is becoming increasingly common globally and is associated with potentially sight-threatening complications. Spending time outdoors is protective, but the mechanism underlying this association is poorly understood. To examine the association of myopia with ultraviolet B radiation (UVB; directly associated with time outdoors and sunlight exposure), serum vitamin D concentrations, and vitamin D pathway genetic variants, adjusting for years in education. A cross-sectional, population-based random sample of participants 65 years and older was chosen from 6 study centers from the European Eye Study between November 6, 2000, to November 15, 2002. Of 4187 participants, 4166 attended an eye examination including refraction, gave a blood sample, and were interviewed by trained fieldworkers using a structured questionnaire. Myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent of -0.75 diopters or less. Exclusion criteria included aphakia, pseudophakia, late age-related macular degeneration, and vision impairment due to cataract, resulting in 371 participants with myopia and 2797 without. Exposure to UVB estimated by combining meteorological and questionnaire data at different ages, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolic pathway genes, serum vitamin D3 concentrations, and years of education. Odds ratios (ORs) of UVB, serum vitamin D3 concentrations, vitamin D single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and myopia estimated from logistic regression. Of the included 3168 participants, the mean (SD) age was 72.4 (5) years, and 1456 (46.0%) were male. An SD increase in UVB exposure at age 14 to 19 years (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92) and 20 to 39 years (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.62-0.93) was associated with a reduced adjusted OR of myopia; those in the highest tertile of years of education had twice the OR of myopia (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.41-3.06). No independent associations between myopia and serum vitamin D3 concentrations nor variants in genes associated with vitamin D

  14. Functional Promoter Variant rs2868371 of HSPB1 Is Associated With Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis After Chemoradiation for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Qingsong [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China); Wei, Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Xu, Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Yuan, Xianglin [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis [Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Liu, Zhensheng [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Wang, Li-E. [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To date, no biomarkers have been found to predict, before treatment, which patients will develop radiation pneumonitis (RP), a potentially fatal toxicity, after chemoradiation for lung cancer. We investigated potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HSPB1 and risk of RP after chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Subjects were patients with NSCLC treated with chemoradiation at 1 institution. The training data set comprised 146 patients treated from 1999 to July 2004; the validation data set was 125 patients treated from August 2004 to March 2010. We genotyped 2 functional SNPs of HSPB1 (rs2868370 and rs2868371) from all patients. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess the risk of grade ≥2 or ≥3 RP in both data sets and a parametric log-logistic survival model to evaluate the association of HSPB1 genotypes with that risk. Results: Grade ≥3 RP was experienced by 13% of those with CG/GG and 29% of those with CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 in the training data set (P=.028); corresponding rates in the validation data set were 2% CG/GG and 14% CC (P=.02). Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed the association of CC of HSPB1 rs2868371 with higher risk of grade ≥3 RP than CG/GG after adjustment for sex, age, performance status, and lung mean dose. This association was validated both in the validation data set and with Harrell's C statistic. Conclusions: The CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 was associated with severe RP after chemoradiation for NSCLC.

  15. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  16. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, D.J. [Dental Hospital and School, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author).

  17. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  18. Radiative transfer dynamo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirov, Vadim R; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.

  19. SU-F-R-42: Association of Radiomic and Metabolic Tumor Volumes in Radiation Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, C; Nagornaya, N; Parra, N; Kwon, D; Ishkanian, F; Markoe, A; Maudsley, A; Stoyanova, R [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: High-throughput extraction of imaging and metabolomic quantitative features from MRI and MR Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) results in tens of variables per patient. In radiotherapy (RT) of GBM, the relevant metabolic tumor volumes (MTVs) are related to aberrant levels of N-acetyl Aspartate (NAA) and Choline (Cho). Corresponding Clinical Target Volumes (CTVs) for RT planning are based on Contrast Enhancing T1-weighted MRI (CE-T1w) and T2-weighted/Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) MRI. The objective is to build a framework for investigation of associations between imaging, CTV, and MTV features better understanding of the underlying information in the CTVs and dependencies between these volumes. Methods: Necrotic portions, enhancing lesion and edema were manually contoured on T1w/T2w images for 17 GBM patients. CTVs and MTVs for NAA (MTV{sub NAA}) and Cho (MTV{sub Cho}) were constructed. Tumors were scored categorically for ten semantic imaging traits by neuroradiologist. All features were investigated for redundancy. Two-way correlations between imaging and RT/MTV features were visualized as heat maps. Associations between MTV{sub NAA}, MTV{sub Cho} and imaging features were studied using Spearman correlation. Results: 39 imaging features were computed per patient. Half of the imaging traits were replaced with automatically extracted continuous variables. 21 features were extracted from MTVs/CTVs. There were a high number (43) of significant correlations of imaging with CTVs/MTV{sub NAA} while very few (10) significant correlations were with CTVs/MTV{sub Cho}. MTV{sub NAA} was found to be closely associated with MRI volumes, MTV{sub Cho} remains elusive for characterization with imaging. Conclusion: A framework for investigation of co-dependency between MRI and RT/metabolic features is established. A series of semantic imaging traits were replaced with automatically extracted continuous variables. The approach will

  20. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk.

  1. Solar-simulated radiation and heat treatment induced metalloproteinase-1 expression in cultured dermal fibroblasts via distinct pathways: implications on reduction of sun-associated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Cheng-Che E; Wu, Ching-Shang; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2013-12-01

    Sun exposure is an important environmental factor affecting human beings. Most knowledge regarding solar aging focused on light radiation (photoaging), and little emphasis has been placed on heat, a factor that is also closely associated with sun exposure. This study was launched to evaluate the effects of simulated solar radiation (SSR) and environmental heat on skin fibroblasts in terms of dermal aging. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were treated with moderate amount of SSR (200J/cm(2)) and heat (+2°C). The metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression was used as a surrogate marker for dermal aging and the involved regulatory mechanisms were explored. Both treatment conditions did not affect viability but significantly increased the expressions of MMP-1. In parallel, both treatments increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the increase induced by SSR is much greater than heat. In contrast, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1), the sensor of environmental heat, was upregulated by heat but not SSR treatment. Pretreating fibroblasts with antioxidant abrogated the SSR-induced MMP-1 but has limited effect on heat-induced MMP-1. On the other hand, TRPV-1 antagonist pretreatment reduced heat-induced MMP-1 in fibroblasts but not their SSR-treated counterparts. Both SSR and heat induced MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts but through different pathways. As current strategies for reducing sun-related aging focused on filtering of light and use of antioxidants, future strategies design to reduce solar aging should also incorporate heat-induced aging into consideration. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  3. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  4. Ionizing radiation-induced expression of the genes associated with the acute response to injury in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magic, Z.; Matic-Ivanovic, S.; Savic, J. [Institute for Biologica Research, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Total-body irradiation of rats with doses ranging from an LD{sub 10/30} to an LD{sub 100/30} induced a dose-dependent increase in the concentration of serum protein associated with the acute response to the irradiation. However, this increase was reached at a later time and was not as pronounced as described previously during the typical acute phase of the response found experimentally. The greatest increase in the serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins was found from the third to the seventh days postirradiation. At these times, the serum concentrations of {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, fibrinogen and cysteine protease inhibitor were raised from two- to fivefold, whereas {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein was increased sixfold. Incorporation of [{sup 35}S]methionine into total serum and acute-phase proteins indicated that the increase in the concentration of the acute-phase proteins was preceded by their de novo synthesis in the liver. The results that were obtained by dot-blot analysis showed that the basic course of change in the relative m RNA concentrations of a{alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein had an extrahepatic origin. On the basis of these results we concluded that total-body irradiation increased the expression of acute-phase protein genes. 50 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Association of genetic variants in apoptosis genes FAS and FASL with radiation-induced late toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, E.M.; Krenn-Pilko, S.; Kapp, K.S.; Langsenlehner, T. [Medical University of Graz, Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Graz (Austria); Langsenlehner, U. [Division of Internal Medicine, GKK Outpatient Department, Graz (Austria); Renner, W. [Medical University of Graz, Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Graz (Austria); Gerger, A. [Medical University of Graz, Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Fas ligand (FASL) triggers apoptotic cell death by cross-linking with its receptor FAS, and after irradiation, expression of FAS and FASL is increased. In the present study, we investigated the association between common polymorphisms in the genes for FAS and FASL and the risk of late side effects after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The role of FAS (- 1377G > A, rs2234767 and - 670A > G, rs1800682) and FASL (- 844C > T, rs763110) gene polymorphisms in the development of high-grade late rectal and/or urinary toxicity (defined as late toxicity EORTC/RTOG grade ≥ 2) was analyzed in 607 prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. DNA was isolated and the selected polymorphisms were determined by 5'-nuclease (TaqMan) assays. After a median follow-up time of 82 months, high-grade late rectal and/or urinary toxicity was observed in 175 patients (29.7 %). Univariate analysis revealed a significantly decreased risk of high-grade late toxicity in carriers of the FASL - 844T allele. After adjusting for covariates, patients harboring at least one - 844T allele (CT or TT genotype) remained at decreased risk of high-grade late toxicity compared with patients harboring the CC genotype [hazard ratio (HR) 0.585, 95 %CI 0.39-0.878; p = 0.010]. For patients with the - 844TT genotype, the HR was 0.404 (95 %CI 0.171-0.956; p = 0.039) in multivariate analysis. No significant associations were found for the remaining polymorphisms analyzed. These results provide the first evidence that the presence of the FASL - 844T variant allele may have a protective effect against the development of high-grade late rectal and/or urinary side effects after prostate cancer radiotherapy. (orig.) [German] Fas-Ligand (FASL) triggert durch Bindung an seinen Rezeptor FAS den apoptotischen Zelltod, desweiteren konnte nach Bestrahlung eine Ueberexpression von FAS und FASL beobachtet werden. Ziel der vorliegenden prospektiven Studie war die Untersuchung der Zusammenhaenge von

  6. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2002-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported.

  7. A pilot study of the characterization of hepatic tissue strain in children with cystic-fibrosis-associated liver disease (CFLD) by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher B.; Langholz, Juliane H.; Eiler, Jessika; Jenewein, Raphael; Fuchs, Konstantin; Alzen, Gerhard F.P. [University Hospital Giessen, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Giessen (Germany); Naehrlich, Lutz [University Hospital Giessen, Department of Pediatrics, Giessen (Germany); Harth, Sebastian; Krombach, Gabriele A. [University Hospital Giessen, Department of Radiology, Giessen (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Progressive fibrotic alterations of liver tissue represent a major complication in children with cystic fibrosis. Correct assessment of cystic-fibrosis-associated liver disease (CFLD) in clinical routine is a challenging issue. Sonographic elastography based on acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) is a new noninvasive approach for quantitatively assessing in vivo elasticity of biological tissues in many organs. To characterize ARFI elastography as a diagnostic tool to assess alteration of liver tissue elasticity related to cystic fibrosis in children. ARFI elastography and B-mode US imaging were performed in 36 children with cystic fibrosis. The children's clinical history and laboratory parameters were documented. According to the findings on conventional US, children were assigned to distinct groups indicating severity of hepatic tissue alterations. The relationship between US findings and respective elastography values was assessed. Additionally, differences between ARFI elastography values of each US group were statistically tested. Children with sonomorphologic characteristics of fibrotic tissue remodeling presented significantly increased values for tissue elasticity. Children with normal B-mode US or discrete signs of hepatic tissue alterations showed a tendency toward increased tissue stiffness indicating early tissue remodeling. Assessment of children with CFLD by means of ARFI elastography yields adequate results when compared to conventional US. For detection of early stages of liver disease with mild fibrotic reactions of hepatic tissue, ARFI elastography might offer diagnostic advantages over conventional US. Thus, liver stiffness measured by means of elastography might represent a valuable biological parameter for evaluation and follow-up of CFLD. (orig.)

  8. Accumulation of radium in ferruginous protein bodies formed in lung tissue: association of resulting radiation hotspots with malignant mesothelioma and other malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eizo; Makishima, Akio; Hagino, Kyoko; Okabe, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    While exposure to fibers and particles has been proposed to be associated with several different lung malignancies including mesothelioma, the mechanism for the carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Along with mineralogical observation, we have analyzed forty-four major and trace elements in extracted asbestos bodies (fibers and proteins attached to them) with coexisting fiber-free ferruginous protein bodies from extirpative lungs of individuals with malignant mesothelioma. These observations together with patients’ characteristics suggest that inhaled iron-rich asbestos fibers and dust particles, and excess iron deposited by continuous cigarette smoking would induce ferruginous protein body formation resulting in ferritin aggregates in lung tissue. Chemical analysis of ferruginous protein bodies extracted from lung tissues reveals anomalously high concentrations of radioactive radium, reaching millions of times higher concentration than that of seawater. Continuous and prolonged internal exposure to hotspot ionizing radiation from radium and its daughter nuclides could cause strong and frequent DNA damage in lung tissue, initiate different types of tumour cells, including malignant mesothelioma cells, and may cause cancers. PMID:19644223

  9. Radiation shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Tadahiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Omori, Tetsu; Mizuochi, Akira

    1997-11-18

    A radiation shield is constituted by using a flexible bag made of a synthetic resin, a rubber plate or a composite member of them. Water is charged therein as a shielding liquid. Water injection ports are formed at the lower surface, and gas exhaustion ports are formed on the upper surface of the radiation shield. A plurality of vertical ribs made of the same material as the bag of the radiation shield are formed, integral with the bag, each at a space on the outer surface of the radiation shield. A reinforcing tube are inserted to the vertical ribs integral with the bag. The reinforcing tube may be made of an metal or non-metal material, but material having a bending strength greater than that of the bag is used. When wide surfaces are constituted in the horizontal direction as radiation shielding surfaces, a plurality of the radiation shields are used being in adjacent in the horizontal direction. The reinforcing tubes in adjacent with each other among the adjacent radiation shields are connected by connectors. (I.N.)

  10. Refining the American Urological Association and American Society for Radiation Oncology guideline for adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy using the pathologic Gleason score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been suggested that the guideline for adjuvant radiotherapy (ART following radical prostatectomy (RP sponsored by the American Urological Association and American Society for Radiation Oncology (AUA/ASTRO may result in a significant overtreatment. Thus, the objective of the present study was to refine the AUA/ASTRO guideline for ART in patients at risk for biochemical recurrence (BCR after RP. To this end, we reviewed our prospectively maintained database and selected 193 patients who met the AUA/ASTRO ART criteria. With a median follow-up of 24.0 months, BCR rate was 17.6% (34/193. When stratified by the Gleason score, BCR rate in men with Gleason score 6 was 6.8%. There was no significant association between BCR-free survival and surgical margin (P = 0.690 and pathologic stage (P = 0.353 in patients with the Gleason score 6. However, in patients with positive surgical margins (PSMs/pathologic stage ≥T3, there was a significant difference in BCR-free survival according to Gleason score (≤ 7 vs 8-10, P = 0.047. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that pathologic stage ≥T3 (HR = 2.106; P= 0.018, PSMs (HR = 2.411; P= 0.003, and pathologic Gleason score 8-10 (HR = 4.715; P< 0.001 were independent predictors of BCR after RP. Therefore, in addition to pathologic stage ≥T3 and PSMs, Gleason score 8-10 predicts BCR after RP. In patients with Gleason score 6, observation rather than ART may be more appropriate regardless of stage and surgical margin status.

  11. Refining the American Urological Association and American Society for Radiation Oncology guideline for adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy using the pathologic Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wan; Kwon, Young Suk; Jeon, Seong Soo; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that the guideline for adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) following radical prostatectomy (RP) sponsored by the American Urological Association and American Society for Radiation Oncology (AUA/ASTRO) may result in a significant overtreatment. Thus, the objective of the present study was to refine the AUA/ASTRO guideline for ART in patients at risk for biochemical recurrence (BCR) after RP. To this end, we reviewed our prospectively maintained database and selected 193 patients who met the AUA/ASTRO ART criteria. With a median follow-up of 24.0 months, BCR rate was 17.6% (34/193). When stratified by the Gleason score, BCR rate in men with Gleason score 6 was 6.8%. There was no significant association between BCR-free survival and surgical margin (P = 0.690) and pathologic stage (P = 0.353) in patients with the Gleason score 6. However, in patients with positive surgical margins (PSMs)/pathologic stage ≥T3, there was a significant difference in BCR-free survival according to Gleason score (≤ 7 vs 8-10, P = 0.047). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that pathologic stage ≥T3 (HR = 2.106; P= 0.018), PSMs (HR = 2.411; P= 0.003), and pathologic Gleason score 8-10 (HR = 4.715; PGleason score 8-10 predicts BCR after RP. In patients with Gleason score 6, observation rather than ART may be more appropriate regardless of stage and surgical margin status.

  12. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  13. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  14. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2001-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  15. Larger Maximum Tumor Diameter at Radical Prostatectomy Is Associated With Increased Biochemical Failure, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer After Salvage Radiation for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Skyler B.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Jackson, William C.; Zhou, Jessica; Foster, Benjamin; Foster, Corey; Song, Yeohan; Li, Darren [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Palapattu, Ganesh S. [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kunju, Lakshmi; Mehra, Rohit [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the maximum tumor diameter (MTD) of the dominant prostate cancer nodule in the radical prostatectomy specimen as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients treated with salvage external beam radiation therapy (SRT) for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From an institutional cohort of 575 patients treated with SRT, data on MTD were retrospectively collected. The impact of MTD on biochemical failure (BF), metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In the 173 patients with MTD data available, median follow-up was 77 months (interquartile range, 47-104 months) after SRT, and median MTD was 18 mm (interquartile range, 13-22 mm). Increasing MTD correlated with increasing pT stage, Gleason score, presence of seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node invasion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified MTD of >14 mm to be the optimal cut-point. On univariate analysis, MTD >14 mm was associated with an increased risk of BF (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.8), metastasis (P=.002, HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and PCSM (P=.02, HR 8.0, 95% CI 2.9-21.8). On multivariate analysis MTD >14 mm remained associated with increased BF (P=.02, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), metastasis (P=.02, HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.2), and PCSM (P=.05, HR 9.7, 95% CI 1.0-92.4), independent of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, pre-RT PSA value, Gleason score, and pre-RT PSA doubling time. Conclusions: For patients treated with SRT for a rising PSA value after prostatectomy, MTD at time of radical prostatectomy is independently associated with BF, metastasis, and PCSM. Maximum tumor diameter should be incorporated into clinical decision making and future clinical risk assessment tools for those patients

  16. Biological basis of radiation protection needs rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunesku, Tatjana; Haley, Benjamin; Brooks, Antone; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2017-10-01

    Human beings encounter radiation in many different situations - from proximity to radioactive waste sites to participation in medical procedures using X-rays etc. Limits for radiation exposures are legally regulated; however, current radiation protection policy does not explicitly acknowledge that biological, cellular and molecular effects of low doses and low dose rates of radiation differ from effects induced by medium and high dose radiation exposures. Recent technical developments in biology and medicine, from single cell techniques to big data computational research, have enabled new approaches for study of biology of low doses of radiation. Results of the work done so far support the idea that low doses of radiation have effects that differ from those associated with high dose exposures; this work, however, is far from sufficient for the development of a new theoretical framework needed for the understanding of low dose radiation exposures. Mechanistic understanding of radiation effects at low doses is necessary in order to develop better radiation protection policy.

  17. Transient Impairment of Hippocampus-dependent Learning and Memory in Relatively Low-Dose of Acute Radiation Syndrome is Associated with Inhibition of Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Joong-Sun, KIM; Hae-June, LEE; Jong Choon, KIM; Seong Soo, KANG; Chun-Sik, BAE; Taekyun, SHIN; Jae-Kwang, JIN; SUNG HO, KIM; Hongbing, WANG; Changjong, MOON; Department of Veterinary Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Center, Chonnam National University; Department of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Center, Chonnam National University; Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Subtropical Agriculture and Biotechnology, Cheju National University; Ilsong Institute of Life Science, Hallym University; Department of Physiology and Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TUNEL method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin ...

  18. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  19. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Radiation Therapy Print A ... have many questions and concerns about it. About Radiation Therapy In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation from ...

  20. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  1. Association of Far-Infrared Radiation Therapy and Ankle-Brachial Index of Patients on Hemodialysis with Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Kuo, I-Ching; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recognized to be a good marker for atherosclerosis, and is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) which is prevalent among patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This randomized trial aimed to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) therapy on ABI in HD patients with PAOD. PAOD was defined as patients with ABI < 0.95. One hundred and eight HD patients were enrolled, including 50 in the control group and 58 in the FIR group. A WS TY101 FIR emitter was applied for 40 minutes during each HD session, three times per week for six months. The ABI was measured before and after the FIR therapy. Results: Regardless of FIR therapy, the bilateral ABI decreased (in the FIR group, left: 0.88±0.22 to 0.85±0.24, p = 0.188; right: 0.92±0.20 to 0.90±0.23, p = 0.372; in control group, left: 0.91±0.23 to 0.88±0.21, p = 0144; right: 0.93±0.17 to 0.89±0.21, p = 0.082). Multivariate logistic analysis of the FIR group revealed that high uric acid (odds ratio [OR]: 2.335; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-4.882; p=0.024) and aspirin use (OR: 16.463; 95% CI: 1.787-151.638; p=0.013) were independently associated with increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ABI is not increased after FIR therapy in HD patients with PAOD. However, in the FIR group, patients with higher uric acid level or those who used aspirin have increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy.

  2. Expression of cell cycle bio-markers and telomere length in papillary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative study between radiation-associated and spontaneous cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achille, M.; Boukheris, H.; Caillou, B.; Talbot, M.; De Vathaire, F.; Sabatier, L.; Desmaze, C.; Schlumberger, M.; Soria, J.C. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, DSV/DRR/Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Villejuif (France)

    2009-07-01

    Objective: Radiation exposure during childhood is the only well-established risk factor for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To better define the biologic profile of radiation-induced and sporadic PTC, we compared in these two groups of PTC the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and telomere length. Methods: Cell cycle markers (cyclin A, B1, D1, E, and Ki67) were evaluated on 100 PTC specimens (26 radiation-induced and 74 sporadic PTCs). The expression of cell cycle regulators was studied using immunohistochemistry; telomere length heterogeneity was studied using in situ hybridization in a subset of 16 formalin-fixed samples (8 radiation-induced and 8 sporadic PTCs). Results: At multivariate analysis, only cytoplasmic cyclin E staining was over expressed in sporadic cases (P = 0.006). The other cell cycle markers and telomere length did not differ significantly between sporadic PTC and radiation-induced PTC. Conclusions: These markers cannot be used to differentiate radiation-induced from sporadic PTCs. (authors)

  3. Radiation damage in biomolecular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuss, Martina Christina

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity, ionizing radiations have been widely applied in medicine both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The risks associated with radiation exposure and handling led to the parallel development of the field of radiation protection. Pioneering experiments done by Sanche and co-workers in 2000 showed that low-energy secondary electrons, which are abundantly generated along radiation tracks, are primarily responsible for radiation damage through successive interactions with the molecular constituents of the medium. Apart from ionizing processes, which are usually related to radiation damage, below the ionization level low-energy electrons can induce molecular fragmentation via dissociative processes such as internal excitation and electron attachment. This prompted collaborative projects between different research groups from European countries together with other specialists from Canada,  the USA and Australia. This book summarizes the advances achieved by these...

  4. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dholakia, Avani S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Raman, Siva P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hacker-Prietz, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wahl, Richard L. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pawlik, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Laheru, Daniel A. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wolfgang, Christopher L. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver{sub mean} + [2 × Liver{sub sd}]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm{sup 3} or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in

  5. Radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, I.A.; Myers, S.J.

    1976-02-01

    Myelopathy secondary to radiation is a relatively uncommon entity which was reported initially in 1941 by Ahlbom. From a total of 65 patients who were seen in our spinal injury clinic during the past four years, three patients have received a diagnosis of radiation myelopathy. This is 4.6 percent of the total number. The case histories of two patients with radiation myelopathy are presented. The clinical and pathologic features are discussed. Since the three patients with this diagnosis whose cases are followed in the clinic are still alive, the second case that is reported is taken from the files of the pathology department so that autopsy and histologic data also can be presented.

  6. Directional radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.

    2017-09-12

    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  7. High Efficency Lightweight Radiators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — XC Associates proposes to build on prior work to develop and characterize a very high efficiency, lightweight radiator constructed from high thermal conductivity...

  8. Evaluation of the detriment associated with exposure at low doses and low dose rates in the radiation protection system; Evaluation du detriment associe a l'exposition aux faibles doses et faibles debits de dose dans le systeme de radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillant, Ludovic; Schneider, Thierry [CEPN, 28, rue de la Redoute, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2012-03-15

    Questions about quantifying the radiological risk associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been debated repeatedly for a variety of exposure situations, including, among others, medical irradiation, discharges from nuclear facilities, transportation of radioactive waste, and potential nuclear accidents. This paper aims to shed light on the link between exposure and risk, focusing on the items that constitute the detriment associated with this exposure. The management of the risk associated with it relies on a cautious hypothesis of a linear no-threshold relation between exposure and risk of death or detriment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published General Recommendations in 1966 that recognised this relation, but did not publish a quantification of the risk until 1977. The Commission introduced the concept of effective dose as a risk indicator that makes it possible to determine dose limits according to the risk associated with them. In 1990, the Commission proposed a revision of the quantification and construction of detriment. New limits, based on risk quantification and, for the first time, risk tolerability, were proposed. The optimisation of radiation protection - keeping radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable in light of the economic and social context - became the key principle of the radiation protection system. The use of detriment makes it possible to use economic tools to guide the decision process for this optimisation - by assessing the monetary value of human life. This concept, widely used in health economics during the 1980's, has been criticised by many and must be used cautiously. ICRP published the latest quantifications of detriment in 2007. Detriment is thus an indicator that assesses the risk of death associated with exposure to ionising radiation for an average individual. Its construction relies on simplifying assumptions that are needed to implement a robust and effective

  9. Charpak, Garwin, propose unit for radiation dose

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2002-01-01

    Becquerels, curries, grays, rads, rems, roentgens, sieverts - even for specialists the units of radiation can get confusing. That's why two eminent physicists, Georges Charpak of France, and Richard Garwin, are proposing the DARI as a unit of radiation dose they hope will help the public evaluate the risks associated with low-level radiation exposure (1 page)

  10. Total skin electron irradiation treatment for mycosis fungoides with a new alternate daily treatment schedule to minimize radiation-associated toxicity: a preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, D K; Verma, K K; Rath, G K

    2009-07-01

    Conventional total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) for mycosis fungoides (MF) causes radiation toxicity, requiring treatment interruptions that prolong the treatment period, making patient compliance poor. We evaluated an alternate daily treatment schedule of TSEI, using a high dose rate (HDR) to minimize radiation toxicity and shorten the treatment duration. Four patients (aged 45-73 years with MF duration of 7-22 months) were treated by TSEI using HDR. The treatment was given on 5 days/week for 2 weeks followed by treatment on alternate days to deliver a total dose of 36 Gy. All the patients completed treatment in 10 weeks and had complete remission. Radiation toxicity was much less common with this schedule, requiring no treatment interruption. All the patients were until in remission after 60-84 months of follow-up. This schedule of TSEI treatment caused minimal radiation toxicity and allowed completion of treatment over a shorter period, giving good clinical remission and prolonged disease-free survival.

  11. "Pulmonary embolism diagnostics of pregnant patients: What is the recommended clinical pathway considering the clinical value and associated radiation risks of available imaging tests?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Perisinakis, Kostas

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) during pregnancy remains the leading preventable cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. Diagnosis of PE in pregnant patients is a challenging clinical problem, since pregnancy-related physiologic changes can mimic signs and symptoms of PE. Patient mismanagement may result into unjustified anticoagulant treatment or unnecessary imaging tests involving contrast-related or/and radiation-related risks for both the expectant mother and embryo/fetus. On the other hand, missing or delaying diagnosis of PE could lead to life-threatening conditions for both the mother and the embryo/fetus. Thus, a timely and accurate diagnostic approach is required for the optimal management of pregnant patients with suspected PE. Aim of the current review is to discuss a pregnancy-specific clinical pathway for the early diagnosis of PE with non-ionizing radiation- and ionizing radiation-based imaging modalities taking into account previously reported data on diagnostic value of available imaging tests, and radiation related concerns. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A survey of the optical hazards associated with hospital light sources with reference to the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A; Fedele, F; Khazova, M; Freeman, P; Sarkany, R

    2010-09-01

    Workplace exposure to coherent and incoherent optical radiation from artificial sources is regulated under the Artificial Optical Radiation Directive (AORD) 2006/25/EC, now implemented in the UK under the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations (AOR) 2010. These regulations set out exposure limit values. Implementing the AOR (2010 Health and Safety Statutory Instrument No 1140 www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1140/pdf/uksi_20101140_en.pdf) requirements in a hospital environment is a potentially complex problem because of the wide variety of sources used for illumination, diagnosis and therapy. A survey of sources of incoherent optical radiation in a large hospital is reported here. The survey covers examples of office lighting, operating theatre lighting, examination lamps, and sources for ultraviolet phototherapy and visible phototherapies, including photodynamic therapy and neonatal blue-light therapy. The results of the survey are used to inform consideration of the strategy that a hospital might reasonably adopt both to demonstrate compliance with the AOR (2010) and to direct implementation effort.

  13. A survey of the optical hazards associated with hospital light sources with reference to the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, A; Fedele, F; Freeman, P [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Khazova, M [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom); Sarkany, R, E-mail: andrew.coleman@gstt.nhs.u [St John' s Institute of Dermatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Workplace exposure to coherent and incoherent optical radiation from artificial sources is regulated under the Artificial Optical Radiation Directive (AORD) 2006/25/EC, now implemented in the UK under the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations (AOR) 2010. These regulations set out exposure limit values. Implementing the AOR (2010 Health and Safety Statutory Instrument No 1140 www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/1140/pdf/uksi{sub 2}0101140{sub e}n.pdf) requirements in a hospital environment is a potentially complex problem because of the wide variety of sources used for illumination, diagnosis and therapy. A survey of sources of incoherent optical radiation in a large hospital is reported here. The survey covers examples of office lighting, operating theatre lighting, examination lamps, and sources for ultraviolet phototherapy and visible phototherapies, including photodynamic therapy and neonatal blue-light therapy. The results of the survey are used to inform consideration of the strategy that a hospital might reasonably adopt both to demonstrate compliance with the AOR (2010) and to direct implementation effort.

  14. MicroRNA-Related DNA Repair/Cell-Cycle Genes Independently Associated With Relapse After Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, Harriet E., E-mail: harriet.gee@sydney.edu.au [The Kinghorn Cancer Centre & Cancer Research Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Buffa, Francesca M.; Harris, Adrian L. [Department of Medical Oncology, The University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Toohey, Joanne M.; Carroll, Susan L. [The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Cooper, Caroline L. [Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Beith, Jane [The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); McNeil, Catriona [The Kinghorn Cancer Centre & Cancer Research Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Carmalt, Hugh; Mak, Cindy; Warrier, Sanjay [The Chris O' Brien Lifehouse, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Holliday, Anne [The Kinghorn Cancer Centre & Cancer Research Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); Selinger, Christina; Beckers, Rhiannon [Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Kennedy, Catherine [Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Graham, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW (Australia); Swarbrick, Alexander [The Kinghorn Cancer Centre & Cancer Research Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); St Vincent' s Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of NSW, Kensington, NSW (Australia); and others

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence and distant failure after adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer remain significant clinical problems, incompletely predicted by conventional clinicopathologic markers. We had previously identified microRNA-139-5p and microRNA-1274a as key regulators of breast cancer radiation response in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate standard clinicopathologic markers of local recurrence in a contemporary series and to establish whether putative target genes of microRNAs involved in DNA repair and cell cycle control could better predict radiation therapy response in vivo. Methods and Materials: With institutional ethics board approval, local recurrence was measured in a contemporary, prospectively collected series of 458 patients treated with radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery. Additionally, independent publicly available mRNA/microRNA microarray expression datasets totaling >1000 early-stage breast cancer patients, treated with adjuvant radiation therapy, with >10 years of follow-up, were analyzed. The expression of putative microRNA target biomarkers—TOP2A, POLQ, RAD54L, SKP2, PLK2, and RAG1—were correlated with standard clinicopathologic variables using 2-sided nonparametric tests, and to local/distant relapse and survival using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Results: We found a low rate of isolated local recurrence (1.95%) in our modern series, and that few clinicopathologic variables (such as lymphovascular invasion) were significantly predictive. In multiple independent datasets (n>1000), however, high expression of RAD54L, TOP2A, POLQ, and SKP2 significantly correlated with local recurrence, survival, or both in univariate and multivariate analyses (P<.001). Low RAG1 expression significantly correlated with local recurrence (multivariate, P=.008). Additionally, RAD54L, SKP2, and PLK2 may be predictive, being prognostic in radiation therapy–treated patients but not in untreated matched

  15. Changes in the Hippocampal Proteome Associated with Spatial Memory Impairment after Exposure to Low (20 cGy) Doses of 1 GeV/n 56Fe Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Richard A; Jewell, Jessica S; Davis, Leslie K; Miller, Vania D; Hadley, Melissa M; Semmes, O John; Lonart, György; Dutta, Sucharita M

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to low (∼20 cGy) doses of high-energy charged (HZE) particles, such as 1 GeV/n 56Fe, results in impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (e.g., novel object recognition and spatial memory) in rodents. While these findings raise the possibility that astronauts on deep-space missions may develop cognitive deficits, not all rats develop HZE-induced cognitive impairments, even after exposure to high (200 cGy) HZE doses. The reasons for this differential sensitivity in some animals that develop HZE-induced cognitive failure remain speculative. We employed a robust quantitative mass spectrometry-based workflow, which links early-stage discovery to next-stage quantitative verification, to identify differentially active proteins/pathways in rats that developed spatial memory impairment at three months after exposure to 20 cGy of 1 GeV/n 56Fe (20/impaired), and in those rats that managed to maintain normal cognitive performance (20/functional). Quantitative data were obtained on 665-828 hippocampal proteins in the various cohorts of rats studied, of which 580 were expressed in all groups. A total of 107 proteins were upregulated in the irradiated rats irrespective of their spatial memory performance status, which included proteins involved in oxidative damage response, calcium transport and signaling. Thirty percent (37/107) of these "radiation biomarkers" formed a functional interactome of the proteasome and the COP9 signalosome. These data suggest that there is persistent oxidative stress, ongoing autophagy and altered synaptic plasticity in the irradiated hippocampus, irrespective of the spatial memory performance status, suggesting that the ultimate phenotype may be determined by how well the hippocampal neurons compensate to the ongoing oxidative stress and associated side effects. There were 67 proteins with expression that correlated with impaired spatial memory performance. Several of the "impaired biomarkers" have been implicated in poor

  16. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  17. Visual analysis of the radiation effects associated to modified atmosphere on the tahiti lemon storage - preliminary study; Analise visual dos efeitos da radiacao associada a atmosfera modificada no armazenamento do limao 'tahiti' - ensaio preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda Maria da; Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Fruits of selected lime in the stage of complete maturation, dark green skin, smooth thickness and free of mechanical damages, had been take to the Laboratorio de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia, CENA/USP, with objective to evaluate the effect of the radiation gamma on the external appearance when associate with packing in polystyrene bag, with and without air. The packing process was done before and also after irradiation. A cobalt-60 source was used to treated the fruits with doses of 0,0.5 and 0.75 kGy. The storage was held in BOD chamber with constant temperature of 27 deg C during 3 and 6 days. The association of the radiation with polystyrene bag, with or without application of vacuum, did not prevent the effect of the radiation doses, causing occurrence of dark spots in the skin. The vacuum application in the package resulted in lesser damage in the skin. Polystyrene bag, with and without vacuum application, kept the green coloration and the brightness of the skin during all period of storage, with loss of weight varying from 0.22 to 0.66% of the original weight. (author)

  18. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  19. Multi-institutional Prospective Evaluation of Bowel Quality of Life After Prostate External Beam Radiation Therapy Identifies Patient and Treatment Factors Associated With Patient-Reported Outcomes: The PROSTQA Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Conlon, Anna S.C.; Daignault, Stephanie [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dunn, Rodney L. [Department of Urology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hembroff, A. Larry [Office for Survey Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaplan, Irving [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ciezki, Jay [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, John T. [Department of Urology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sanda, Martin G. [Department of Urology, Emory University Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patients treated with external beam radiation therapy as part of the multicenter Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction with Treatment Quality Assessment (PROSTQA), to identify factors associated with posttreatment patient-reported bowel health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment characteristics and treatment details among 292 men were evaluated using a general linear mixed model for their association with measured HRQOL by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite instrument through 2 years after enrollment. Results: Bowel HRQOL had a median score of 100 (interquartile range 91.7-100) pretreatment and 95.8 (interquartile range 83.3-100) at 2 years, representing new moderate/big problems in 11% for urgency, 7% for frequency, 4% for bloody stools, and 8% for an overall bowel problems. Baseline bowel score was the strongest predictor for all 2-year endpoints. In multivariable models, a volume of rectum ≥25% treated to 70 Gy (V70) yielded a clinically significant 9.3-point lower bowel score (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.8-1.7, P=.015) and predicted increased risks for moderate to big fecal incontinence (P=.0008). No other radiation therapy treatment-related variables influenced moderate to big changes in rectal HRQOL. However, on multivariate analyses V70 ≥25% was associated with increases in small, moderate, or big problems with the following: incontinence (3.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-13.4, P=.03), rectal bleeding (3.6-fold; 95% CI 1.3-10.2, P=.018), and bowel urgency (2.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-7.6, P=.026). Aspirin use correlated with a clinically significant 4.7-point lower bowel summary score (95% CI 9.0-0.4, P=.03) and an increase in small, moderate, or big problems with bloody stools (2.8-fold; 95% CI 1.2-6.4, P=.018). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was associated with higher radiation therapy doses to the prostate and lower doses to the rectum but did not independently correlate with bowel HRQOL

  20. Radiation Engineering for Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  1. Risk Factors: Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  2. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public ... is called the radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose ...

  3. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  4. Radiation physics for nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The field of nuclear medicine is expanding rapidly, with the development of exciting new diagnostic methods and treatments. This growth is closely associated with significant advances in radiation physics. In this book, acknowledged experts explain the basic principles of radiation physics in relation to nuclear medicine and examine important novel approaches in the field. The first section is devoted to what might be termed the "building blocks" of nuclear medicine, including the mechanisms of interaction between radiation and matter and Monte Carlo codes. In subsequent sections, radiation sources for medical applications, radiopharmaceutical development and production, and radiation detectors are discussed in detail. New frontiers are then explored, including improved algorithms for image reconstruction, biokinetic models, and voxel phantoms for internal dosimetry. Both trainees and experienced practitioners and researchers will find this book to be an invaluable source of up-to-date information.

  5. Request for Funding for the 2016 Air & Waste Management Association Visibility Conference on Atmospheric Optics:Aerosols, Visibility, and the Radiative Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eatough, Delbert [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This international conference will provide a technical forum on advances in the scientific understanding of the effects of aerosols on urban, regional, continental, and global-scale haze and the radiative balance. The conference will take a multipronged approach and address scientific topics (e.g., related to measurements, modeling, etc.) as well as regulatory and policy issues. There will be sessions on black and brown carbon, as recent research has shown the importance of these particles for radiative forcing. In addition, there will be sessions related to the synergistic and increasing concerns of the effects of atmospheric nitrogen and carbonaceous material on haze, climate change, and nitrogen deposition on ecosystems. Conference learning will be enhanced with a half day excursion and hikes in Grand Teton National Park and a Night Sky Program.

  6. Nuclear cardiology practice and associated radiation doses in Europe: results of the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) for the 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Oliver; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Acampa, Wanda; Burchert, Wolfgang; Flotats, Albert; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Knuuti, Juhani; Underwood, S Richard; Vitola, João V; Mahmarian, John J; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Better, Nathan; Rehani, Madan M; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear cardiology is widely used to diagnose coronary artery disease and to guide patient management, but data on current practices, radiation dose-related best practices, and radiation doses are scarce. To address these issues, the IAEA conducted a worldwide study of nuclear cardiology practice. We present the European subanalysis. In March 2013, the IAEA invited laboratories across the world to document all SPECT and PET studies performed in one week. The data included age, gender, weight, radiopharmaceuticals, injected activities, camera type, positioning, hardware and software. Radiation effective dose was calculated for each patient. A quality score was defined for each laboratory as the number followed of eight predefined best practices with a bearing on radiation exposure (range of quality score 0 - 8). The participating European countries were assigned to regions (North, East, South, and West). Comparisons were performed between the four European regions and between Europe and the rest-of-the-world (RoW). Data on 2,381 European patients undergoing nuclear cardiology procedures in 102 laboratories in 27 countries were collected. A cardiac SPECT study was performed in 97.9 % of the patients, and a PET study in 2.1 %. The average effective dose of SPECT was 8.0 ± 3.4 mSv (RoW 11.4 ± 4.3 mSv; P cardiology is lower and the average quality score is higher than in the RoW. There is regional variation in effective dose in relation to the best practice quality score. A possible reason for the differences between Europe and the RoW could be the safety culture fostered by actions under the Euratom directives and the implementation of diagnostic reference levels. Stress-only imaging and weight-adjusted activity might be targets for optimization of European nuclear cardiology practice.

  7. Ionizing radiation in patients with Crohn’s disease: Estimation and associated factors Radiación ionizante en pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn: Estimación y factores asociados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ciáurriz-Munuce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with an increased risk of developing tumors. Patients with Crohn's disease (CD usually require multiple imaging tests using this type of radiation. Objectives: the objectives of this study were to estimate the total dose of ionizing radiation received by patients with Crohn's disease during their course and to identify the factors associated with higher radiation doses. Methods: two hundred thirty-five CD patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2010 were included. The effective dose (ED received by each patient was calculated retrospectively based on the number of gastrointestinal transit studies and computed tomography scans performed. Considering recent epidemiological studies, an ED greater than or equal to 50 mSv was used as the cut-off point for increased risk of developing cancer. Results: the mean ED received per patient was 33.4 mSv (95% CI 29.3-37.5. A total of 49 (20.8% patients received an ED ≥ 50 mSv. The following factors were identified as independent predictors associated with an ED ≥ 50 mSv: Age older than 40 years, need for surgery, age under 16 years at diagnosis and disease duration over 8 years. Conclusions: a substantial proportion of patients with Crohn's disease receive high doses of potentially carcinogenic ionizing radiation. Identification of the most susceptible patients to receive high doses of radiation, monitoring of effective doses received and the use of imaging techniques that do not require ionizing radiation (MR enterography, abdominal ultrasound could contribute in reducing patients' exposure to potentially carcinogenic ionizing radiation.Introducción: la exposición a radiación ionizante se asocia a un mayor riesgo de desarrollar tumores. Los pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn requieren habitualmente múltiples pruebas de imagen que utilizan este tipo de radiación. Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio son estimar la dosis total de radiaci

  8. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

  9. Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesawi, Anwar M; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C; Saad, Fred

    2014-09-01

    To better understand the mechanism of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and the advantages and disadvantages of available treatment options for bladder hemorrhage as well as preventive measures. There have been several attempts recently to manage hemorrhagic cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, transurethral coagulation using Greenlight potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser and other different treatment modalities, but we still need more investigation on larger cohort studies. Hemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon urological problem. It is most often caused by radiation therapy and cyclophosphamide, but can be associated with other contributing factors. Technological advances in radiation therapy have resulted in greater treatment efficacy, with significant reduction in side-effects such as hemorrhagic cystitis. Higher dose radiation treatment, however, is more often associated with problematic hemorrhagic cystitis. Treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis is multifactorial and can range from simple bladder irrigation to cystectomy with urinary diversion.

  10. A novel complete radiation protection system eliminates physician radiation exposure and leaded aprons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal, Peter; Goldstein, James A

    2013-07-01

    Occupational health hazards associated with fluoroscopic-based procedures are well known, including a high prevalence of orthopedic problems, and those related to radiation exposure, particularly cancer and cataracts. This article reports the "first-in-man" clinical experience with a novel radiation protection system designed to eliminate radiation exposure to operators and thereby obviate the need for orthopedically burdensome leaded aprons. The Trinity Radiation Protection System consists of a combination of fixed shields, radiation drapes, and interconnecting flexible radiation resistant materials creating a complete radiation protection environment for the operators, yet maintaining full and unimpeded contact with the patient and total control of all operational elements of the catheterization equipment. This report constitutes an analysis of 19 nonrandomized cases in which operator radiation exposure data were collected (Trinity Radiation Protection System n = 10 cases versus standard shielding alone n = 9). In all cases performed with the Trinity System, there was neither any measurable significant radiation exposure in any anatomic region nor for the total case, whereas operators performing cases with standard shielding were exposed to radiation in all regions of their bodies (total per case exposure differences P radiation protection system described is the first to provide a complete radiation barrier that eliminates radiation exposure to operators, thereby obviating the need for orthopedically burdensome leaded aprons. This approach to radiation protection has promise to enhance the safety and occupational health of medical personnel in the catheterization laboratory. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Survey on gynecological cancer treatment by Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d’Aosta group of AIRO (Italian Association of Radiation Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Cattari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : We focused the attention on radiation therapy practices about the gynecological malignancies in Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d’Aosta to know the current treatment practice and to improve the quality of care. Material and methods : We proposed a cognitive survey to evaluate the standard practice patterns for gynecological cancer management, adopted from 2012 to 2014 by radiotherapy (RT centers with a large amount of gynecological cancer cases. There were three topics: 1. Taking care and multidisciplinary approach 2. Radiotherapy treatment and brachytherapy, 3. Follow-up. Results : Nineteen centers treated gynecological malignancies and 12 of these had a multidisciplinary dedicated team. Radiotherapy option has been used in all clinical setting: definitive, adjuvant, and palliative. In general, 1978 patients were treated. There were 834 brachytherapy (BRT treatments. The fusion between diagnostic imaging (magnetic resonance imaging – MRI, positron emission tomography – PET and computed tomography (CT simulation was used for contouring in all centers. Conformal RT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT were the most frequent techniques. The image guided radiation therapy (IGRT was used in 10/19 centers. There were 8 active BRT centers. Brachytherapy was performed both with radical intent and as boost, mostly by HDR (6/8 centers. The doses for exclusive BRT were between 20 to 30 Gy. The doses for BRT boost were between 10 and 20 Gy. Four centers used CT-MRI compatible applicators but only one used MRI for planning. The BRT plans on vaginal cuff were still performed on traditional radiographies in 2 centers. The plan sum was evaluated in only 1 center. Only 1 center performed in vivo dosimetry. Conclusions : In the last three years, multidisciplinary approach, contouring, treatment techniques, doses, and control systems were similar in Liguria-Piedmont and Valle d’Aosta. However, the technology implementation didn

  12. A Contralateral Esophagus-Sparing Technique to Limit Severe Esophagitis Associated With Concurrent High-Dose Radiation and Chemotherapy in Patients With Thoracic Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Halabi, Hani; Paetzold, Peter; Sharp, Gregory C.; Olsen, Christine; Willers, Henning, E-mail: hwillers@mgh.harvard.edu

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Severe (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade 3 or greater) esophagitis generally occurs in 15% to 25% of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CCRT), which may result in treatment breaks that compromise local tumor control and pose a barrier to dose escalation. Here, we report a novel contralateral esophagus-sparing technique (CEST) that uses intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to reduce the incidence of severe esophagitis. Methods and Materials: We reviewed consecutive patients with thoracic malignancies undergoing curative CCRT in whom CEST was used. The esophageal wall contralateral (CE) to the tumor was contoured as an avoidance structure, and IMRT was used to guide a rapid dose falloff gradient beyond the target volume in close proximity to the esophagus. Esophagitis was recorded based on the RTOG acute toxicity grading system. Results: We identified 20 consecutive patients treated with CCRT of at least 63 Gy in whom there was gross tumor within 1 cm of the esophagus. The median radiation dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 63-72.15 Gy). In all patients, ≥99% of the planning and internal target volumes was covered by ≥90% and 100% of prescription dose, respectively. Strikingly, no patient experienced grade ≥3 esophagitis (95% confidence limits, 0%-16%) despite the high total doses delivered. The median maximum dose, V45, and V55 of the CE were 60.7 Gy, 2.1 cc, and 0.4 cc, respectively, indicating effective esophagus cross-section sparing by CEST. Conclusion: We report a simple yet effective method to avoid exposing the entire esophagus cross-section to high doses. By using proposed CE dose constraints of V45 <2.5 cc and V55 <0.5 cc, CEST may improve the esophagus toxicity profile in thoracic cancer patients receiving CCRT even at doses above the standard 60- to 63-Gy levels. Prospective testing of CEST is warranted.

  13. Nuclear cardiology practice and associated radiation doses in Europe: results of the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) for the 27 European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Oliver; Burchert, Wolfgang [University Hospital of the Ruhr University, Institute of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Pascual, Thomas N.B.; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana [International Atomic Energy Agency, Section of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); Mercuri, Mathew [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Acampa, Wanda [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Flotats, Albert [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Kitsiou, Anastasia [Sismanoglio Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Athens (Greece); Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Underwood, S.R. [Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Vitola, Joao V. [Quanta Diagnostico and Terapia, Curitiba (Brazil); Mahmarian, John J. [Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Department of Cardiology, Houston, TX (United States); Karthikeyan, Ganesan [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiology, New Delhi (India); Better, Nathan [Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Rehani, Madan M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Radiation Protection of Patients Unit, Vienna (Austria); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Einstein, Andrew J. [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Collaboration: for the INCAPS Investigators Group

    2016-04-15

    Nuclear cardiology is widely used to diagnose coronary artery disease and to guide patient management, but data on current practices, radiation dose-related best practices, and radiation doses are scarce. To address these issues, the IAEA conducted a worldwide study of nuclear cardiology practice. We present the European subanalysis. In March 2013, the IAEA invited laboratories across the world to document all SPECT and PET studies performed in one week. The data included age, gender, weight, radiopharmaceuticals, injected activities, camera type, positioning, hardware and software. Radiation effective dose was calculated for each patient. A quality score was defined for each laboratory as the number followed of eight predefined best practices with a bearing on radiation exposure (range of quality score 0 - 8). The participating European countries were assigned to regions (North, East, South, and West). Comparisons were performed between the four European regions and between Europe and the rest-of-the-world (RoW). Data on 2,381 European patients undergoing nuclear cardiology procedures in 102 laboratories in 27 countries were collected. A cardiac SPECT study was performed in 97.9 % of the patients, and a PET study in 2.1 %. The average effective dose of SPECT was 8.0 ± 3.4 mSv (RoW 11.4 ± 4.3 mSv; P < 0.001) and of PET was 2.6 ± 1.5 mSv (RoW 3.8 ± 2.5 mSv; P < 0.001). The mean effective doses of SPECT and PET differed between European regions (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). The mean quality score was 6.2 ± 1.2, which was higher than the RoW score (5.0 ± 1.1; P < 0.001). Adherence to best practices did not differ significantly among the European regions (range 6 to 6.4; P = 0.73). Of the best practices, stress-only imaging and weight-adjusted dosing were the least commonly used. In Europe, the mean effective dose from nuclear cardiology is lower and the average quality score is higher than in the RoW. There is regional variation in effective dose in

  14. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  15. The Caenorhabditis elegans ing-3 gene regulates ionizing radiation-induced germ-cell apoptosis in a p53-associated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingjing; Shah, Sitar; Riabowol, Karl; Mains, Paul E

    2009-02-01

    The inhibitor of growth (ING) family of type II tumor suppressors are encoded by five genes in mammals and by three genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. All ING proteins contain a highly conserved plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc finger. ING proteins are activated by stresses, including ionizing radiation, leading to the activation of p53. ING proteins in mammals and yeast have recently been shown to read the histone code in a methylation-sensitive manner to regulate gene expression. Here we identify and characterize ing-3, the C. elegans gene with the highest sequence identity to the human ING3 gene. ING-3 colocalizes with chromatin in embryos, the germline, and somatic cells. The ing-3 gene is part of an operon but is also transcribed from its own promoter. Both ing-3(RNAi) and ing-3 mutant strains demonstrate that the gene likely functions in concert with the C. elegans p53 homolog, cep-1, to induce germ-cell apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation. Somatically, the ing-3 mutant has a weak kinker uncoordinated (kinker Unc) phenotype, indicating a possible neuronal function.

  16. International radiation commissions 1896 to 2008. Research into atmospheric radiation from IMO to IAMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, H.J. (comp.); Moeller, F.; London, J.

    2008-05-15

    The document covers a historical compilation on research into atmospheric radiation from 1896 to 2008. The first part is a brief history of the radiation commissions of IMO (International Meteorological Organization) and IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) for the period 1824 to 1948. Part 2 Covers the International Radiation Commission (IRC) of IAM (International Association of Meteorology)/IAMAS (International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences)/IAMAP (International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics); the Re-constitution of the IUGG Radiation Commision, the Officers of the International Radiation Commission of IUUG 1948-2008, and the activities of the Radiation Commision of the IUGG 1948-2008. The appendices include the Radiation Commission Members, the summaries of presented papers from 1954 and 1957, the IRC publications, and acronyms.

  17. Radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amla, T.R.; Chakravarti, R.N.; Lal, K.

    1975-07-01

    Adult healthy rhesus monkeys were exposed to a course of roentgen irradiation over the chest and back to produce pulmonary changes simulating human radiation pneumonitis. Macroscopic and morphologic changes included dense adhesions, pleural thickening and increased consistency of the lungs. Microscopically the early reaction was characterized by dilatation of pulmonary vessels, microhaemorrhages, collapse of alveoli, permeation of the interstitial tissue with a fibrinous fluid and cells. In the late stage the fibrinous interstitial matrix was replaced by hyaline eosinophilic mass, fragmentation and dissolution of the elastic tissue and thickening of the alveolar walls. The cell population in the interstitial tissue showed decline and at places radiolytic effect. There was peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis and hyalinization and pulmonary arteries revealed marked degree of arteriosclerosis. The present study opens a new field for experimental research on the development of pulmonary hypertension as a post-irradiation complication.

  18. RADIATION DOSIMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkwell, W.R. Jr.; Adams, G.D. Jr.

    1960-05-10

    An improvement was made in the determination of amounts of ionizing radiation, particularly low-energy beta particles of less than 1000 rad total dose by means of fluid-phase dosimeter employing a stabilized-- sensitized ferrous-ferric colorimetric system in a sulphuric acid medium. The improvement in the dosimeter consists of adding to the ferrous-ferric system in concentrations of 10/sub -2/ to 10/sup -4/M an organic compound having one or more carboxylic or equivalent groups, such compounds being capable of chelating or complexing the iron ions in the solution. Suitable sensitizing and stabilizing agents are benzoic, phthalic, salicylic, malonic, lactic, maleic, oxalic, citric, succinic, phenolic tartaric, acetic, and adipic acid, as well as other compounds which are added to the solution alone or in certain combinations. As in conventional fluid-phase dosimeters, the absorbed dosage is correlated with a corresponding change in optical density at particular wavelengths of the solution.

  19. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  20. Errors, uncertainties and other problems associated with the interpretation of transgenerational epidemiological studies with special reference to postulated ionising radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, A.J.M. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    The transgenerational effects debate of recent years can, in the light of current knowledge, be seen as a working example of the operation of a powerful range of errors, biases and confounders. These have often helped to obfuscate the issues addressed to the disbenefit of interested parties such as vicinity populations and workforces. The possibility of transgenerational effects has been entertained as a theoretical constant throughout the history of radiation science being given particular direction and focus by the work of Mueller in the 1920's. The absence of such effect in bomb survivors was therefore somewhat surprising to researchers even though this relative radio resistance was confirmed by later animal studies, such as by Russell and Selby. For emotive and situational reasons the renewed transgenerational debate of the last couple of decades has focused largely on childhood leukaemia, a very late, even remote-manifesting putative, transgenerational effect. This effect has now been demonstrated to be mainly due to confounding, most likely by population mixing, even in the sentinel study population of Seascale, near Sellafield. Little attention had been paid to the nature of the biological plausibility of putative transgenerational effects of ionizing radiation in terms of likelihood and closeness of fit. Thus there is a likelihood gradient of expected magnitude of effect which may be predicted to run from early to late manifesting defects. This would be expected to be high for pre-implantation loss and low for stillbirths or childhood cancer. Cited biological concordance also seldom takes regard of dose and dose rate. This is a particular problem because many epidemiological studies use more or less crude surrogate of dose such as monitored/never monitored or mechanical proportionalisation of annual dose summaries to shorter critical periods (such as spermatogenesis). In questionnaire studies, which are often regarded as inescapable in reproductive

  1. Characterization of distinctive features of oceanic light fields associated with inelastic radiative processes in the near-surface, euphotic, and mesopelagic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linhai

    A thorough understanding of the oceanic light fields is required to support studies of various biological, chemical, and physical processes and phenomena in the ocean. The interaction of light with seawater and its constituents involves absorption (change of radiant energy into another form of energy), elastic scattering (change in light propagation direction but not wavelength), and inelastic radiative processes (change in light wavelength and propagation direction). The absorption and elastic scattering have been the primary research focus for decades. The inelastic processes have been less investigated and often ignored in oceanographic studies or applications. The inelastic processes, including Raman scattering and fluorescence, have been demonstrated to significantly affect the oceanic light fields. However, a systematic examination of these influences within different ocean layers is lacking. I studied the effects of inelastic processes on oceanic light fields in the near-surface (0-10 m), euphotic (0-200 m), and mesopelagic (200-1000 m) layers. I modeled the upwelling radiance within the top 10 m of the ocean surface layer. The inelastic processes dramatically affect the upwelling radiance and its attenuation coefficient in the red and near-infrared spectral regions, indicating that common approaches for estimating water-leaving radiance from extrapolating measurements of upwelling radiance are inadequate. A new strategy is proposed for more accurate in-situ determinations of water-leaving radiance, which is critical for ocean color applications. Using both a unique field dataset and radiative transfer modeling I examined the effects of inelastic processes in the euphotic layer. I demonstrate distinctive features caused by inelastic processes in the irradiance and radiance fields as well as apparent optical properties for realistic scenarios of optically non-uniform water column. I also demonstrate the role of inelastic processes in photosynthetically

  2. Radiation chemistry comes before radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Peter; Wardman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to illustrate some contributions of radiation chemistry to radiobiology and related science, and to draw attention to examples where radiation chemistry is central to our knowledge of specific aspects. Radiation chemistry is a mature branch of radiation science which is continually evolving and finding wider applications. This is particularly apparent in the study of the roles of free radicals in biology generally, and radiation biology specifically. The chemical viewpoint helps unite the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with the diversity of biological responses. While historically, the main application of radiation chemistry of relevance to radiation biology has been investigations of the free-radical processes leading to radiation-induced DNA damage and its chemical characterization, two features of radiation chemistry point to its wider importance. First, its emphasis on quantification and characterization at the molecular level helps provide links between DNA damage, biochemical repair processes, and mutagenicity and radiosensitivity. Second, its central pillar of chemical kinetics aids understanding of the roles of 'reactive oxygen species' in cell signalling and diverse biological effects more generally, and application of radiation chemistry in the development of drugs to enhance radiotherapy and as hypoxia-specific cytotoxins or diagnostic agents. The illustrations of the broader applications of radiation chemistry in this article focus on their relevance to radiation biology and demonstrate the importance of synergy in the radiation sciences. The past contributions of radiation chemistry to radiation biology are evident, but there remains considerable potential to help advance future biological understanding using the knowledge and techniques of radiation chemistry.

  3. Job satisfaction and its relationship to Radiation Protection Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (RPKAP) of Iranian radiation workers/Satisfaction au travail et lien avec les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de radioprotection des travailleurs iraniens exposés aux rayonnements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S S Alavi; S T Dabbagh; M Abbasi; R Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

      This study aimed to find the association between job satisfaction and radiation protection knowledge, attitude and practice of medical radiation workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation...

  4. Measurement of secondary cosmic radiation and calculation of associated dose conversion coefficients for humans; Messung sekundaerer kosmischer Strahlung und Berechnung der zugehoerigen Dosiskonversionskoeffizienten fuer den Menschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmer, Gregor

    2012-04-11

    Due to secondary cosmic radiation (SCR), pilots and flight attendants receive elevated effective doses at flight altitudes. For this reason, since 2003 aircrew members are considered as occupationally exposed, in Germany. This work deals with the calculation of dose conversion coefficients (DCC) for protons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, photons and myons, which are crucial for estimation of effective dose from SCR. For the first time, calculations were performed combining Geant4 - a Monte Carlo code developed at CERN - with the voxel phantoms for the reference female and male published in 2008 by ICRP and ICRU. Furthermore, measurements of neutron fluence spectra - which contribute the major part to the effective dose of SCR - were carried out at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS) located at 2650 m above sea level nearby the Zugspitze mountain, Germany. These measured neutron spectra, and additionally available calculated spectra, were then folded with the DCC calculated in this work, and effective dose rates for different heights were calculated.

  5. The Evolving Theory of Evolutionary Radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, M; Breitkreuz, L; Alvarado, M; Baca, S; Cooper, J C; Heins, L; Herzog, K; Lieberman, B S

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations have intrigued biologists for more than 100 years, and our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with these radiations continues to grow and evolve. Recently it has been recognized that there are many different types of evolutionary radiation beyond the well-studied adaptive radiations. We focus here on multifarious types of evolutionary radiations, paying special attention to the abiotic factors that might trigger diversification in clades. We integrate concepts such as exaptation, species selection, coevolution, and the turnover-pulse hypothesis (TPH) into the theoretical framework of evolutionary radiations. We also discuss other phenomena that are related to, but distinct from, evolutionary radiations that have relevance for evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  7. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is exposed to radiation. Whether IMRT leads to improved control of tumor growth and better survival compared ... treatments. Some patients may receive radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the same time. The timing of radiation ...

  8. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy The birth of a child ... experience. It is In addition to unavoidable background radiation, one hard to prepare yourself for the joys— ...

  9. Bacteriotherapy of acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, V.M.; Strel' nikov, V.A.; Ikonnikova, T.B.; Kissina, E.V.; Lyannaya, A.M.; Goncharova, G.I.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1979-04-01

    Acute sickness is associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; there is a radical decrease in number of microorganisms of lactic fermentation (bifidobacterium, lactobacillus) and an increase in E. coli proteus, enterococcus, and clostridium. Extensive use is made of live microorganisms in the treatment of various diseases associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; in the case of acute radiation sickness, yeast, colibacterin, and E. coli have been used. In a number of cases, such therapy increased survival and life expectancy of irradiated animals. In this study, microorganisms of lactic fermentation (lactobacillus, bifidobacterium) and colibacterin were used for treatment of acute radiation sickness.

  10. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  11. PREFACE: International Congress on Energy Fluxes and Radiation Effects (EFRE-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The International Congress on Energy Fluxes and Radiation Effects 2014 (EFRE 2014) was held in Tomsk, Russia, on September 21-26, 2014. The organizers of the Congress were the Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS and Tomsk Polytechnic University. EFRE 2014 combines three international conferences which are regularly held in Tomsk, Russia: the 18th International Symposium on High-Current Electronics (18th SHCE), the 12th International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows (12th CMM) and the 16th International Conference on Radiation Physics and Chemistry of Condensed Matter (16th RPC). The International Conference on Radiation Physics and Chemistry of Condensed Matter is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of the fundamental problems of physical and chemical non-linear processes in condensed matter (mainly inorganic dielectrics) under the action of particle and photon beams of all types including pulsed power laser radiation. The International Symposium on High-Current Electronics is held biannually in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the conferences covers a wide range of scientific and technical areas including pulsed power technology, ion and electron beams, high-power microwaves, plasma and particle beam sources, modification of materials, and pulsed power applications in chemistry, biology and medicine. The 12th International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental and applied issues in the field of modification of materials properties with particle beams and plasma flows. The six-day Congress brought together more than 250 specialists and scientists from different countries and organizations and provided an excellent opportunity to exchange knowledge, make oral contributions and poster presentations, and initiate discussion on the topics of interest. The proceedings were edited by Victor Lisitsyn, Vladimir

  12. Fanconi anemia and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Asako; Komatsu, Kenshi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1999-09-01

    Aplastic Fanconi anemia (FA) accompanying malformation was firstly reported in 1927. This review concerns the recent findings on FA. FA belongs to the chromosomal instability syndrome and its detailed molecular mechanism is still unknown. The disease has been defined to be highly sensitive to radiation, however, which is quite an important problem since irradiation with a large dose of radiation is required before its radical treatment (bone marrow transplantation). FA cells are also mitomycin C-sensitive and FA patients are said to be the mosaic of the sensitive and normal cells. This enables to classify FA into 8 types of A-H groups, whose genotypes (FAA-FAH, FANCA-FANCH) are becoming clear. However, the intracellular function of the FANC-expressed protein, although known to form a big complex, is not elucidated yet. There is an abnormality in DNA processing such as re-linkage of the double strand-broken DNA in FA cells. FA causal gene FANCG is found identical to XRCC9 which is associated to high sensitivity to radiation. Analysis of FANC genes will provide useful findings on molecular mechanism of DNA-repair. (K.H.)

  13. Radiation hardening of diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, R. E.

    The world fusion program has advanced to the stage where it is appropriate to construct a number of devices for the purpose of burning DT fuel. In these next-generation experiments, the expected flux and fluence of 14 MeV neutrons and associated gamma rays will pose a significant challenge to the operation and diagnostics of the fusion device. Radiation effects include structural damage to materials such as vacuum windows and seals, modifications to electrical properties such as electrical conductivity and dielectric strength and impaired optical properties such as reduced transparency and luminescence of windows and fiber optics during irradiation. In preparation for construction and operation of these new facilities, the fusion diagnostics community needs to work with materials scientists to develop a better understanding of radiation effects, and to undertake a testing program aimed at developing workable solutions for this multi-faceted problem. A unique facility to help in this regard is the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility, a neutron source located at the beam stop of the world's most powerful accelerator, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The LAMPF proton beam generates 10(exp 16) neutrons per second because of spallation'reactions when the protons collide with the copper nuclei in the beam stop.

  14. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy, including: Fatigue Hair loss Skin changes Swelling/edema Nausea Sexual effects (reduced desire) Blood clots Your ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain ...

  15. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Marie L.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Baas, Paul; van 't Veer, Mars B.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Louwman, Marieke W. J.; Zijlstra, Josée M.; van den Berg, Hendrik; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the disease may be associated with radiation exposure. Recently, increased risks for second primary mesothelioma after radiation for lymphoma have been reported. Because these

  16. The effect of a behavioral activation program on improving mental and physical health complaints associated with radiation stress among mothers in Fukushima: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Kotaro; Sekiya, Yuki; Asai, Yumi; Umeda, Maki; Horikoshi, Naoko; Yasumura, Seiji; Yabe, Hirooki; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-11-08

    Mothers living with small children in Fukushima prefecture may experience radiation anxiety and related symptoms after the Fukushima Dai'ich Nuclear Power Plant Accident. A behavioral activation (BA) program was developed to improve their psychosomatic symptoms. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effectiveness of a BA program for improving psychological distress and physical symptoms among mothers with preschool children in Fukushima-prefecture 3 years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Participants were recruited from mothers living with a preschool child(ren) in Fukushima city and surrounding areas though a newspaper advertisement, posters, and flyers. Participants allocated to the intervention group received a newly developed group-based BA program, which consisted of two 90- min lessons with a 1-week interval. Psychological distress and physical symptoms as a primary outcome, and radiation anxiety and positive well-being (liveliness and life satisfaction) as a secondary outcome, were measured at baseline, 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Participants were randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group (18 and 19, respectively). The BA program showed a marginally significant intervention effect on psychological distress (p = 0.051) and physical symptoms (p = 0.07) at 1-month follow-up, while the effect became smaller at 3-month follow-up. The effect sizes at 1-month were medium to large (-0.72 and -0.56, respectively). There was a significant intervention effect on increasing liveliness at 3-month follow-up (p = 0.02); and there were marginally significant effects on life satisfaction at 1- and 3-month follow-ups (both p = 0.09). This BA program may be effective for improving psychological distress, physical symptoms, and well-being, at least for a short duration, among mothers with preschool children after the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima, while a further large

  17. Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Primary Kidney Cancer: A 3-Dimensional Conformal Technique Associated With Low Rates of Early Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.pham@petermac.org [Department of Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Thompson, Ann [Department of Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kolsky, Michal Schneider [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Devereux, Thomas; Lim, Andrew [Department of Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Siva, Shankar [Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To describe our 3-dimensional conformal planning approaches and report early toxicities with stereotactic body radiation therapy for the management of primary renal cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of a phase 1 trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary inoperable renal cell carcinoma. A dose of 42 Gy/3 fractions was prescribed to targets ≥5 cm, whereas for <5 cm 26 Gy/1 fraction was used. All patients underwent a planning 4-dimensional CT to generate a planning target volume (PTV) from a 5-mm isotropic expansion of the internal target volume. Planning required a minimum of 8 fields prescribing to the minimum isodose surrounding the PTV. Intermediate dose spillage at 50% of the prescription dose (R50%) was measured to describe the dose gradient. Early toxicity (<6 months) was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (v4.0). Results: From July 2012 to August 2013 a total of 20 patients (median age, 77 years) were recruited into a prospective clinical trial. Eleven patients underwent fractionated treatment and 9 patients a single fraction. For PTV targets <100 cm{sup 3} the median number of beams used was 8 (2 noncoplanar) to achieve an average R50% of 3.7. For PTV targets >100 cm{sup 3} the median beam number used was 10 (4 noncoplanar) for an average R50% value of 4.3. The R50% was inversely proportional to decreasing PTV volume (r=−0.62, P=.003) and increasing total beams used (r=−0.51, P=.022). Twelve of 20 patients (60%) suffered grade ≤2 early toxicity, whereas 8 of 20 patients (40%) were asymptomatic. Nausea, chest wall pain, and fatigue were the most common toxicities reported. Conclusion: A 3-dimensional conformal planning technique of 8-10 beams can be used to deliver highly tolerable stereotactic ablation to primary kidney targets with minimal early toxicities. Ongoing follow-up is currently in place to assess long-term toxicities and cancer control.

  18. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-09

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  19. Impaired visual short-term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm-born adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaux, Aurore; Meng, Chun; Neitzel, Julia; Bäuml, Josef G; Müller, Hermann J; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Finke, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for lasting changes in both the cortico-thalamic system and attention; however, the link between cortico-thalamic and attention changes is as yet little understood. In preterm newborns, cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic structural connectivity are distinctively altered, with increased local clustering for cortico-cortical and decreased integrity for cortico-thalamic connectivity. In preterm-born adults, among the various attention functions, visual short-term memory (vSTM) capacity is selectively impaired. We hypothesized distinct associations between vSTM capacity and the structural integrity of cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connections, respectively, in preterm-born adults. A whole-report paradigm of briefly presented letter arrays based on the computationally formalized Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) was used to quantify parameter vSTM capacity in 26 preterm- and 21 full-term-born adults. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of posterior thalamic radiations and the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained by diffusion tensor imaging were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics and used as proxies for cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical structural connectivity. The relationship between vSTM capacity and cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connectivity, respectively, was significantly modified by prematurity. In full-term-born adults, the higher FA in the right posterior thalamic radiation the higher vSTM capacity; in preterm-born adults this FA-vSTM-relationship was inversed. In the splenium, higher FA was correlated with higher vSTM capacity in preterm-born adults, whereas no significant relationship was evident in full-term-born adults. These results indicate distinct associations between cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical integrity and vSTM capacity in preterm-and full-term-born adults. Data suggest compensatory cortico-cortical fiber re-organization for attention deficits after preterm delivery

  20. Butterfly wings shaped by a molecular cookie cutter: evolutionary radiation of lepidopteran wing shapes associated with a derived Cut/wingless wing margin boundary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Warren P; Martin, Arnaud; Reed, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Butterflies and moths show a remarkable diversity of specialized wing shapes, yet little is known about the molecular basis of wing shape determination. To learn more about this process we examined the expression of dorsoventral (DV) boundary candidate genes in developing wings of several species of Lepidoptera. We found that the transcription factor Cut and mRNA for the signaling molecule wingless (wg) are strongly co-expressed in a discrete zone around the larval wing disc margin. Surprisingly, the expression boundary of Cut and wg clearly presages complex future adult wing shapes, including the hindwing tails of swallowtail butterflies, very early in final-instar wing disc development. During pupal wing development the cells in this zone undergo apoptosis, thereby defining the actual margin of the adult wing. Comparison with gene expression in beetle and fly wings suggests that this delineation of a topologically independent boundary running parallel to the DV boundary is a derived feature of Lepidoptera. We propose that the developmental decoupling of wing margin determination and DV boundary formation was a major developmental innovation that facilitated the radiation of specialized wing shapes in moths and butterflies.

  1. Evaluation of blackbody radiation shift with temperature associated fractional uncertainty at 10E-18 level for 40Ca+ ion optical clock

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping; Shu, Hua-lin; Yuan, Jin-bo; Shang, Juan-juan; Cui, Kai-feng; Chao, Si-jia; Wang, Shao-mao; Liu, Dao-xin; Huang, Xue-ren

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, blackbody radiation (BBR) temperature rise seen by the $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ion confined in a miniature Paul trap and its uncertainty have been evaluated via finite-element method (FEM) modelling. The FEM model was validated by comparing with thermal camera measurements, which were calibrated by PT1000 resistance thermometer, at several points on a dummy trap. The input modelling parameters were analyzed carefully in detail, and their contributions to the uncertainty of environment temperature were evaluated on the validated FEM model. The result shows that the temperature rise seen by $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ion is 1.72 K with an uncertainty of 0.46 K. It results in a contribution of 2.2 mHz to the systematic uncertainty of $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ion optical clock, corresponding to a fractional uncertainty 5.4$\\times$10$^{-18}$. This is much smaller than the uncertainty caused by the BBR shift coefficient, which is evaluated to be 4.8 mHz and at 10$^{-17}$ level in fractional frequency units.

  2. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-02-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    themselves to prolonged study, many tend to eliminate or rearrange the target chromosome until it is too small for further rearrangement. The observed frequency of induced instability by low and high linear-energy-transfer radiations greatly exceeds that observed for nuclear gene mutations at similar doses; hence, mutation of a gene or gene family is unlikely to be the initiating mechanism. Once initiated however, there is evidence in the GM10115 model system that it can be perpetuated over time by dicentric chromosome formation followed by bridge breakage fusion cycles (Marder and Morgan 1993), as well as recombinational events involving interstitial telomere like repeat sequences (Day et al. 1998). There is also increasing evidence that inflammatory type reactions (Lorimore et al. 2001, Lorimore and Wright 2003), presumably involving reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as cytokines and chemokines might be involved in driving the ustable phenotype (Liaikis et al. 2007, Hei et al. 2008). To this end there is very convincing evidence for such reactions being involved in another non-targeted effect associated with ionizing radiation, the bystander effect (Hei et al. 2008). Clearly the link between induced instability and bystander effects suggests common processes and inflammatory type reactions will likely be the subject of future investigation.

  4. Current treatments for radiation retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliari, Gian Paolo; Simpson, E. Rand (Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Toronto (Canada)), e-mail: gpgiuliari@gmail.com; Sadaka, Ama (Schepens Eye Research Inst., Boston, MA (United States)); Hinkle, David M. (Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    2011-01-15

    Background. To review the currently available therapeutic modalities for radiation retinopathy (RR), including newer investigational interventions directed towards specific aspects of the pathophysiology of this refractory complication. Methods. A review of the literature encompassing the pathogenesis of RR and the current therapeutic modalities available was performed. Results. RR is a chronic and progressive condition that results from exposure to any source of radiation. It might be secondary to radiation treatment of intraocular tumors such as choroidal melanomas, retinoblastomas, and choroidal metastasis, or from unavoidable exposure to excessive radiation from the treatment of extraocular tumors like cephalic, nasopharyngeal, orbital, and paranasal malignancies. After the results of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, most of the choroidal melanomas are being treated with plaque brachytherapy increasing by that the incidence of this radiation complication. RR has been reported to occur in as many as 60% of eyes treated with plaque radiation, with higher rates associated with larger tumors. Initially, the condition manifests as a radiation vasculopathy clinically seen as microaneurysms and telangiectasis, with posterior development of retinal hard exudates and hemorrhages, macular edema, neovascularization and tractional retinal detachment. Regrettably, the management of these eyes remains limited. Photodynamic therapy, laser photocoagulation, oral pentoxyphylline and hyperbaric oxygen have been attempted as treatment modalities with inconclusive results. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab and pegaptanib sodium have been recently used, also with variable results. Discussion. RR is a common vision threatening complication following radiation therapy. The available therapeutic options are limited and show unsatisfactory results. Further large investigative studies are required for developing

  5. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  6. On a model in radiation hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ducomet, Bernard; Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka

    2011-01-01

    We consider a simplified model arising in radiation hydrodynamics based on the Navier–Stokes–Fourier system describing the macroscopic fluid motion, and a transport equation modeling the propagation of radiative intensity. We establish global-in-time existence for the associated initial–boundary value problem in the framework of weak solutions.

  7. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946-1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  8. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  9. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  10. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2006-07-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  11. Thermal radiation heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.; Howell, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation. Among the topics considered are property prediction by electromagnetic theory, the observed properties of solid materials, radiation in the presence of other modes of energy transfer, the equations of transfer for an absorbing-emitting gas, and radiative transfer in scattering and absorbing media. Also considered are radiation exchange between black isothermal surfaces, radiation exchange in enclosures composed of diffuse gray surfaces and in enclosures having some specularly reflecting surfaces, and radiation exchange between nondiffuse nongray surfaces. The use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant-exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media is explained.

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  14. Job satisfaction and its relationship to Radiation Protection Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (RPKAP) of Iranian radiation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S S; Dabbagh, S T; Abbasi, M; Mehrdad, R

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to find the association between job satisfaction and radiation protection knowledge, attitude and practice of medical radiation workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In this crosssectional study, 530 radiation workers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences completed a knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on protecting themselves against radiation and Job Descriptive Index as a job satisfaction measure during May to November 2014. Opportunities for promotion (84.2%) and payment (91.5%) were the most important factors for dissatisfaction. Radiation workers who were married, had more positive attitudes toward protecting themselves against radiation, and had higher level of education accounted for 15.8% of the total variance in predicting job satisfaction. In conclusion, medical radiation workers with a more positive attitude toward self-protection against radiation were more satisfied with their jobs. In radiation environments, improving staff attitudes toward their safety may be considered as a key strategy to increase job satisfaction.

  15. Exposure to ionizing radiation during dental X-rays is not associated with risk of developing meningioma: a meta-analysis based on seven case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    Full Text Available Many observational studies have found that exposure to dental X-rays is associated with the risk of development of meningioma. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma.The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Summary odds ratio (OR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were used to compute the risk of meningioma development according to heterogeneity. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to further explore the potential heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed.Seven case-control studies involving 6,174 patients and 19,459 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Neither exposure to dental X-rays nor performance of full-mouth panorex X-rays was associated with an increased risk of development of meningioma (overall: OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.70-1.32; dental X-rays: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.89-1.25; panorex X-rays: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.76-1.34. However, exposure to bitewing X-rays was associated with a slightly increased risk of development of meningioma (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.34. Similar results were obtained in the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Little evidence of publication bias was observed.Based on the currently limited data, there is no association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma. However, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of the heterogeneity among studies. Additional large, high-quality clinical trials are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma.

  16. Modeling Space Radiation with Radiomimetic Agent Bleomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    using bleomycin to treat biological specimen as an easily available model to study effects of space radiation on biological systems and to develop countermeasures for space radiation associated risks will be discussed.

  17. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Harilal B., E-mail: harilalm@gmail.com [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Shirodkar, Shilpa [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat State 380009 (India); Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-01

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD{sub 0}.{sub 500} {sub μm} and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD{sub 0.500} {sub μm} exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 μg/m{sup 3} and 4.5 μg/m{sup 3}, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 μm4.0 μm. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between − 14.1 W m{sup −2} and − 35.6 W m{sup −2}, − 6.7 W m{sup −2} and − 13.4 W m{sup −2} and 5.5 W m{sup −2} to 22.5 W m{sup −2}, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is

  18. Improving patient safety in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, and emphasized in 2000 with the release of an Institute of Medicine report, healthcare providers and institutions have dedicated time and resources to reducing errors that impact the safety and well-being of patients. But in January 2010 the first of a series of articles appeared in the New York Times that described errors in radiation oncology that grievously impacted patients. In response, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American Society of Radiation Oncology sponsored a working meeting entitled "Safety in Radiation Therapy: A Call to Action." The meeting attracted 400 attendees, including medical physicists, radiation oncologists, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, hospital administrators, regulators, and representatives of equipment manufacturers. The meeting was cohosted by 14 organizations in the United States and Canada. The meeting yielded 20 recommendations that provide a pathway to reducing errors and improving patient safety in radiation therapy facilities everywhere.

  19. Electromagnetic radiations and cancer. Cause and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, R E

    1988-10-15

    The various types of electromagnetic radiation differ considerably in their ability to induce cancer. The potential of radiofrequency or microwave radiation and low-frequency electromagnetic radiation to alter DNA is very limited, because their energy is too low to produce substantial ionizations. They are therefore unlikely to be carcinogenic by any direct mechanism. Epidemiologic studies of the carcinogenicity of microwave radiation are basically negative. Studies of workers with relatively high exposures to low-frequency electromagnetic fields have suggested that such persons may be at somewhat elevated risk for leukemia, especially of the acute myeloid type, but the studies have had methodologic weaknesses and mixed results. The association is not proven at this point, but neither can it be ruled out. For ionizing radiation, which is clearly carcinogenic, major questions pertain to how to define the magnitude of risk from low doses and low dose rates, how to identify subgroups of people who are especially susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation, and how to minimize radiation exposure. When fortuitous radiation exposure from manmade sources, such as radioactive releases from nuclear power plants, are examined in the context of the total exposure people receive from natural sources, medical irradiation, etc., they are almost always found to be small by comparison. Quantitatively, two sources of radiation provide the greatest opportunities for exposure reduction: abatement of radon levels in homes, and reduction in medical radiation exposures.

  20. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  1. Radiation-emitting Electronic Product Codes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains product names and associated information developed by the Center for all products, both medical and non-medical, which emit radiation. It...

  2. Effects of radiation therapy on tissue and serum concentrations of tumour associated trypsin inhibitor and their prognostic significance in rectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenman Ulf-Håkan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that elevated concentrations of tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI in both tumour tissue (t-TATI and in serum (s-TATI are associated with a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. It was also found that s-TATI concentrations were lower in patients with rectal cancer compared to patients with colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT on concentrations of t-TATI and s-TATI in patients with rectal cancer. Methods TATI was analysed in serum, normal mucosa and tumour tissue collected at various time points in 53 rectal cancer patients enrolled in a case-control study where 12 patients received surgery alone, 20 patients 5 × 5 Gy (short-term preoperative RT and 21 patients 25 × 2 Gy (long-term preoperative RT. T-TATI was analysed by immunohistochemistry and s-TATI was determined by an immunofluorometric assay. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Z (Z test were used to assess t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations in relation to RT. Spearman's correlation (R test was used to explore the associations between t-TATI, s-TATI and clinicopathological parameters. Overall survival (OS according to high and low t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations was estimated by classification and regression tree analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test. Results RT did not affect concentrations of t-TATI or s-TATI. In patients receiving short-term but not long-term RT, s-TATI concentrations were significantly higher 4 weeks post surgery than in serum drawn prior to surgery (Z = -3.366, P Conclusions The results presented here further validate the utility of t-TATI and s-TATI as prognostic biomarkers in patients with rectal cancer, independent of neoadjuvant RT.

  3. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  4. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  5. Utilization of SRNL-developed radiation-resistant polymer in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibo, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-27

    The radiation-resistant polymer developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory is adaptable for multiple applications to enhance polymer endurance and effectiveness in radiation environments. SRNL offers to collaborate with TEPCO in evaluation, testing, and utilization of SRNL’s radiation-resistant polymer in the D&D of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Refinement of the scope and associated costs will be conducted in consultation with TECPO.

  6. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  7. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Wenzler

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury.

  8. Small fields: nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indra J; Ding, George X; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Advances in radiation treatment with beamlet-based intensity modulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery (including specialized equipments like CyberKnife, Gamma Knife, tomotherapy, and high-resolution multileaf collimating systems) have resulted in the use of reduced treatment fields to a subcentimeter scale. Compared to the traditional radiotherapy with fields > or =4 x 4 cm2, this can result in significant uncertainty in the accuracy of clinical dosimetry. The dosimetry of small fields is challenging due to nonequilibrium conditions created as a consequence of the secondary electron track lengths and the source size projected through the collimating system that are comparable to the treatment field size. It is further complicated by the prolonged electron tracks in the presence of low-density inhomogeneities. Also, radiation detectors introduced into such fields usually perturb the level of disequilibrium. Hence, the dosimetric accuracy previously achieved for standard radiotherapy applications is at risk for both absolute and relative dose determination. This article summarizes the present knowledge and gives an insight into the future procedures to handle the nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry problems. It is anticipated that new miniature detectors with controlled perturbations and corrections will be available to meet the demand for accurate measurements. It is also expected that the Monte Carlo techniques will increasingly be used in assessing the accuracy, verification, and calculation of dose, and will aid perturbation calculations of detectors used in small and highly conformal radiation beams. rican Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  10. Cigarette smoking during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality and treatment-related toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Emily; Kollmeier, Marisa; McBride, Sean; Novak, Caroline; Pei, Xin; Zelefsky, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate whether a history of smoking or smoking during therapy after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for clinically localised prostate cancer is associated with increased treatment-related toxicity or disease progression. Of 2358 patients receiving EBRT for prostate cancer between 1988 and 2005, 2156 had chart-recorded smoking histories. Patients were classified as 'never smokers', 'current smokers', 'former smokers', and 'current smoking unknown'. Variables considered included quantity of tobacco use in pack-years, duration of smoking, and, for former smokers, how long before initiation of RT the patient quit smoking, when available. The median EBRT dose was 8100 Gy and the median follow-up was 95 months. Toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Current smoking significantly increased the risks of both prostate-specific antigen relapse [hazard ratio (HR) 1.4, P = 0.02] and distant metastases (HR 2.37, P smoking was also associated with increased risk of EBRT-related genitourinary toxicities (current smoker, HR 1.8, P = 0.02; former smoker, HR 1.45, P = 0.01). Smoking did not increase gastrointestinal toxicity. Current smokers with prostate cancer are at increased risk of biochemical recurrence, distant metastasis, and prostate cancer-related mortality after definitive RT to the prostate. Current and former smokers, regardless of duration and quantity of exposure, are at an increased risk of long-term genitourinary toxicity after EBRT. Oncologists should encourage patients to participate in smoking-cessation programmes before therapy to potentially lower their risk of relapsing disease and post-treatment toxicities. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  12. Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhallak, Kinan; Jenkins, Samir V.; Lee, David E.; Greene, Nicholas P.; Quinn, Kyle P.; Griffin, Robert J.; Dings, Ruud P. M.; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2017-06-01

    Radiation resistance remains a significant problem for cancer patients, especially due to the time required to definitively determine treatment outcome. For fractionated radiation therapy, nearly 7 to 8 weeks can elapse before a tumor is deemed to be radiation-resistant. We used the optical redox ratio of FAD/(FAD+NADH) to identify early metabolic changes in radiation-resistant lung cancer cells. These radiation-resistant human A549 lung cancer cells were developed by exposing the parental A549 cells to repeated doses of radiation (2 Gy). Although there were no significant differences in the optical redox ratio between the parental and resistant cell lines prior to radiation, there was a significant decrease in the optical redox ratio of the radiation-resistant cells 24 h after a single radiation exposure (p=0.01). This change in the redox ratio was indicative of increased catabolism of glucose in the resistant cells after radiation and was associated with significantly greater protein content of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α), a key promoter of glycolytic metabolism. Our results demonstrate that the optical redox ratio could provide a rapid method of determining radiation resistance status based on early metabolic changes in cancer cells.

  13. Radiation Safety Awareness among Radiation Workers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: All x-ray utilization in human medicine leads to exposure of the patient and personnel to radiation. Although the quantity is low in diagnostic examinations, special attention should be given to this fact in order to minimize unnecessary exposure for both groups. Exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be avoided ...

  14. Decline of Tumor Vascular Function as Assessed by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is Associated With Poor Responses to Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fang-Hsin; Wang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Radiation Biology Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung University/Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Liu, Ho-Ling [Department of Imaging Physics, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Fu, Sheng-Yung [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National TsingHua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ching-Fang [Radiation Biology Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung University/Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academic Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chi-Shiun [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National TsingHua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong, E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Radiation Biology Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung University/Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether changes in the volume transfer coefficient (K{sup trans}) in a growing tumor could be used as a surrogate marker for predicting tumor responses to radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). Methods and Materials: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was consecutively performed on tumor-bearing mice, and temporal and spatial changes of K{sup trans} values were measured along with tumor growth. Tumor responses to RT and CT were studied before and after observed changes in K{sup trans} values with time. Results: Dynamic changes with an initial increase and subsequent decline in K{sup trans} values were found to be associated with tumor growth. When each tumor was divided into core and peripheral regions, the K{sup trans} decline was greater in core, although neither vascular structure or necrosis could be linked to this spatial difference. Tumor responses to RT were worse if applied after the decline of K{sup trans}, and there was less drug distribution and cell death in the tumor core after CT. Conclusion: The K{sup trans} value in growing tumors, reflecting the changes of tumor microenvironment and vascular function, is strongly associated with tumor responses to RT and CT and could be a potential surrogate marker for predicting the tumor response to these treatments.

  15. A Rat Body Phantom for Radiation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Garry D.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the uncertainties associated with estimating the biological effects of ionizing radiation in tissue, researchers rely on laboratory experiments in which mono-energetic, single specie beams are applied to cell cultures, insects, and small animals. To estimate the radiation effects on astronauts in deep space or low Earth orbit, who are exposed to mixed field broad spectrum radiation, these experimental results are extrapolated and combined with other data to produce radiation quality factors, radiation weighting factors, and other risk related quantities for humans. One way to reduce the uncertainty associated with such extrapolations is to utilize analysis tools that are applicable to both laboratory and space environments. The use of physical and computational body phantoms to predict radiation exposure and its effects is well established and a wide range of human and non-human phantoms are in use today. In this paper, a computational rat phantom is presented, as well as a description of the process through which that phantom has been coupled to existing radiation analysis tools. Sample results are presented for two space radiation environments.

  16. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  17. Fluorescent radiation converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehmann, W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluorescence radiation converter is described which includes a substantially undoped optically transparent substrate and a waveshifter coating deposited on at least one portion of the substrate for absorption of radiation and conversion of fluorescent radiation. The coating is formed to substantially 1000 g/liter of a solvent, 70 to 200 g/liter of an organic polymer, and 0.2 to 25 g/liter of at least one organic fluorescent dye. The incoming incident radiation impinges on the coating. Radiation is absorbed by the fluorescent dye and is re-emitted as a longer wavelength radiation. Radiation is trapped within the substrate and is totally internally reflected by the boundary surface. Emitted radiation leaves the substrate ends to be detected.

  18. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  19. Environmental Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and...

  20. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  1. Radiation Protection Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  2. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... You may notice changes in the way your breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation ... after treatment is over. The skin on your breast may become more sensitive or numb. Skin and ...

  3. ERLN Radiation Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Environmental Response Laboratory Network, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) here provides your laboratory with access to radiation-specific laboratory guidance documents and training courses.

  4. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Is it safe? > Radiation and pregnancy Radiation and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  5. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  6. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  7. Heart and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  8. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  9. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  10. Associations of DNA-repair gene polymorphisms with a genetic susceptibility to ionizing radiation in residents of areas with high radon (222Rn) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsky, Maxim Y; Larionov, Aleksey V; Asanov, Maxim A; Druzhinin, Vladimir G

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the individual radiosensitivity of the human genome in long-term residents of areas with high radon concentration. The materials used for this investigation were venous blood samples extracted from children living in the boarding school of Tashtagol (Kemerovo Region, Russia). Cytogenetic damage assessment was performed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) on peripheral blood lymphocytes. PCR, gel electrophoresis and product detection using a transilluminator were used to determine polymorphisms in the genes ADPRT (rs 1136410), hOGG1 (rs 1052133), NBS1 (rs 1805794), XRCC1 (rs 25487), XpC (rs 2228001), XpD (rs 13181), and XpG (rs 17655). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric methods. To ensure accurate results, FDR-correction for multiple comparisons was performed. We discovered a significant increase in the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (MN) in carriers of the His/His genotype of the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism in comparison to heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the Asp allele. In addition, the Ala/Ala genotype for the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the Glu/Gln genotype for the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism were associated with the elevated frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB). As a result of this study, the elevated frequency of cytogenetic damage in people with particular DNA-repair gene polymorphisms in response to chronic exposure to radon was demonstrated. It was shown that the genes and corresponding polymorphisms (the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism, the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism) can be used as molecular genetic markers of increased individual radiosensitivity in long-term residents of areas with high concentrations of radon.

  11. Tafazzin protein expression is associated with tumorigenesis and radiation response in rectal cancer: a study of Swedish clinical trial on preoperative radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Pathak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tafazzin (TAZ, a transmembrane protein contributes in mitochondrial structural and functional modifications through cardiolipin remodeling. TAZ mutations are associated with several diseases, but studies on the role of TAZ protein in carcinogenesis and radiotherapy (RT response is lacking. Therefore we investigated the TAZ expression in rectal cancer, and its correlation with RT, clinicopathological and biological variables in the patients participating in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. METHODS: 140 rectal cancer patients were included in this study, of which 65 received RT before surgery and the rest underwent surgery alone. TAZ expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in primary cancer, distant, adjacent normal mucosa and lymph node metastasis. In-silico protein-protein interaction analysis was performed to study the predictive functional interaction of TAZ with other oncoproteins. RESULTS: TAZ showed stronger expression in primary cancer and lymph node metastasis compared to distant or adjacent normal mucosa in both non-RT and RT patients. Strong TAZ expression was significantly higher in stages I-III and non-mucinious cancer of non-RT patients. In RT patients, strong TAZ expression in biopsy was related to distant recurrence, independent of gender, age, stages and grade (p = 0.043, HR, 6.160, 95% CI, 1.063-35.704. In silico protein-protein interaction study demonstrated that TAZ was positively related to oncoproteins, Livin, MAC30 and FXYD-3. CONCLUSIONS: Strong expression of TAZ protein seems to be related to rectal cancer development and RT response, it can be a predictive biomarker of distant recurrence in patients with preoperative RT.

  12. Breast reconstruction and post-mastectomy radiation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Susie A; Hiley, Crispin; Nickleach, Dana; Petsuksiri, Janjira; Andic, Fundagul; Riesterer, Oliver; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Torres, Mylin A

    2013-03-02

    The goal of this study was to explore the perspectives and practice of radiation oncologists who treat breast cancer patients who have had breast reconstruction. In 2010, an original electronic survey was sent to all physician members of the American Society of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Research Institute-Breast Cancer Studies Group in the United Kingdom, Thai Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Swiss Society of Radiation Oncology, and Turkish Radiation Oncology Society. We identified factors associated with radiation oncologists who treat breast cancer patients with reconstruction performed prior to radiation and obtained information regarding radiation management of the breast reconstruction. 358 radiation oncologists responded, and 60% of the physicians were from the United States. While 64% of participants agree or strongly agree that breast image affects a woman's quality of life during radiation, 57% feel that reconstruction challenges their ability to deliver effective breast radiation. Compared with other countries, treatment within the United States was associated with a high reconstruction rate (>/= 50% of mastectomy patients) prior to radiation (p clinic patients (p practice is evident from our study of radiation treatment for breast cancer patients with reconstruction. Further research on the impact and delivery of radiation to a reconstructed breast may validate some of the observed practices, highlight the variability in treatment practice, and help create a treatment consensus.

  13. Radiation bioengineering; Bioinzynieria radiacyjna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, J.M. [Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Inst. Techniki Radiacynej

    1997-10-01

    Radiation processing for modification of different properties of materials being designed for medical use have been described. Especially the polymers as very often used for medical equipment production have been modified by radiation. The different medical applications of biomaterials based on radiation modified polymers have been presented. 13 refs.

  14. Ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G M

    2009-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a complete carcinogen. The effects of UV radiation are mediated via direct damage to cellular DNA in the skin and suppression of image surveillance mechanisms. In the context of organ transplantation, addiction of drugs which suppress the immune system add greatly to the carcinogenicity of UV radiation. This review considers the mechanisms of such effects.

  15. (Mis)Understanding Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Stephen Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-10

    This set of slides discusses radiation and fears concerning it at a non-technical level. Included are some misconceptions and practical consequences resulting from these. The concept of radiation hormesis is explained. The author concludes that a number of significant societal benefits are being foregone because of overly cautious concerns about low-level radiation.

  16. RADIATION AND SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. S.A. Adewuyi

    Introduction. Radiation therapy is devoted to management of patients with cancers and occasionally benign conditions by ionizing radiations. It can be used alone or in combination with other treatment modalities like surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and immunotherapy . Ionizing radiations were discovered.

  17. Pelvic (between the hips) radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation treatment area on your body is large. Alternative Names Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical ...

  18. Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS): an international cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Leuraud, Klervi; Richardson, David B.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D.; Gillies, Michael; O?Hagan, Jacqueline A; Ghassan B. Hamra; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background There is much uncertainty about the risks of leukaemia and lymphoma after repeated or protracted low-dose radiation exposure typical of occupational, environmental, and diagnostic medical settings. We quantified associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposures and leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma mortality among radiation-monitored adults employed in France, the UK, and the USA. Methods We assembled a cohort of 308?297 radiation-monitored workers employ...

  19. Prostate brachytherapy, either alone or in combination with external beam radiation, is associated with longer overall survival in men with favorable pathologic Group 4 (Gleason score 8) prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew W; Amini, Arya; Jones, Bernard L; Kavanagh, Brian; Maroni, Paul; Frank, Steven J; Mahmood, Usama; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Pugh, Thomas J

    Conventional prostate cancer risk stratification results in considerable heterogeneity within each prognostic group. Men with pathologic grade Group 4 (Gleason score 8) but otherwise low-risk features have been identified as a favorable subset of high-risk prostate cancer. Given recent randomized data supporting improved cancer outcome with brachytherapy in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer, we sought to evaluate brachytherapy utilization and overall survival (OS) for these patients. We queried the National Cancer Database for clinical T1c-T2a N0 M0 prostate cancer with prostate-specific antigen Gleason score 8 adenocarcinoma on biopsy. All patients received androgen deprivation therapy and either external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone, brachytherapy alone, or a combination of EBRT with brachytherapy boost (brachytherapy + EBRT). Kaplan-Meier OS estimates as well as univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. Propensity score-matched analyses were performed to further control for baseline confounders. Four thousand four hundred ninety-six patients were identified with a median followup of 62.5 months (range, 2.3-119.8). Median age was 72 years (range, 41-90+). Utilization of brachytherapy decreased from 2004 to 2009. The odds ratio for brachytherapy by year (continuous variable) was 0.86 (p score, and treatment with brachytherapy alone (hazard ratio, 0.66; p = 0.005) or brachytherapy + EBRT (hazard ratio, 0.70; p = 0.001) remained associated with longer OS. Propensity score matching confirmed longer OS associated with either brachytherapy regimen. Of those men with World Health Organization pathologic grade Group 4 (Gleason score 8) prostate cancer and otherwise favorable prognostic features treated with androgen deprivation therapy and radiation therapy, longer OS was achieved when prostate brachytherapy was included, whether used alone or in combination with supplemental EBRT. In spite of these

  20. Analysis of clinical and dosimetric factors associated with severe acute radiation pneumonitis in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between the clinical, dosimetric factors and severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LANSCLC treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods We analyzed 94 LANSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT between May 2005 and September 2006. SARP was defined as greater than or equal 3 side effects and graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0. The clinical and dosimetric factors were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between clinical, dosimetric factors and SARP. Results Median follow-up was 10.5 months (range 6.5-24. Of 94 patients, 11 (11.7% developed SARP. Univariate analyses showed that the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP, mean lung dose (MLD, relative volumes of lung receiving more than a threshold dose of 5-60 Gy at increments of 5 Gy (V5-V60, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1 were associated with SARP (p p = 0.001 and V10 (p = 0.015 were the most significant factors associated with SARP. The incidences of SARP in the group with NTCP > 4.2% and NTCP ≤4.2% were 43.5% and 1.4%, respectively (p 50% were 5.7% and 29.2%, respectively (p Conclusions NTCP value and V10 are the useful indicators for predicting SARP in NSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT.

  1. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  2. Radiative Corrections to Bremsstrahlung in Radiative Return

    CERN Document Server

    Yost, S A; Ward, B F L; Yost, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiating a photon from the initial state provides a useful tool for studying a range of low energy physics using a high-energy e+ e- accelerator. Accurate results require careful calculation of the first order virtual photon corrections. We compare exact results for initial state radiative corrections, finding agreement to an order of 10^{-5} or better as a fraction of the Born cross-section for most of the range of photon energies, at CMS energies relevant in both high-energy collision and radiative return experiments.

  3. Adverse lipid profile is not associated with relapse risk in MS: results from an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettey, Prudence; Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce; Blizzard, Leigh; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kostner, Karam; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2014-05-15

    There is increasing evidence that serum lipids and apolipoproteins may be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical course. To investigate the associations between serum lipids, apolipoproteins, body mass index and relapse in MS. A prospective cohort of 141 participants with relapsing-remitting MS was followed from 2002 to 2005. Serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured biannually, and body mass index at baseline. The association with hazard of relapse was assessed using survival analysis. Neither body mass index nor any of the lipid-related measures were associated with the hazard of relapse. Serum lipid profile and body mass index are not associated with the hazard of relapse in MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  5. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  6. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  7. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L

    1997-01-01

    countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil...... and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180......Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...

  8. Micromechanical Resonator Driven by Radiation Pressure Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boales, Joseph A; Mateen, Farrukh; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2017-11-22

    Radiation pressure exerted by light on any surface is the pressure generated by the momentum of impinging photons. The associated force - fundamentally, a quantum mechanical aspect of light - is usually too small to be useful, except in large-scale problems in astronomy and astrodynamics. In atomic and molecular optics, radiation pressure can be used to trap or cool atoms and ions. Use of radiation pressure on larger objects such as micromechanical resonators has been so far limited to its coupling to an acoustic mode, sideband cooling, or levitation of microscopic objects. In this Letter, we demonstrate direct actuation of a radio-frequency micromechanical plate-type resonator by the radiation pressure force generated by a standard laser diode at room temperature. Using two independent methods, the magnitude of the resonator's response to forcing by radiation pressure is found to be proportional to the intensity of the incident light.

  9. Using ENSO to analyse Cloud Radiative Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolly, Allison; Huang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    When attempting to diagnose the climate sensitivity, clouds are the cause of much uncertainty as they are highly variable. There exists a discrepancy between climate models and observations on the sign and magnitude of cloud radiative feedback. For example, Dessler (2013) shows that models predict a very strong, positive feedback response to ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies in the central Pacific which is not present in observations. To better understand these discrepancies we are using radiation data from the CERES satellite and ERAi reanalysis data to look at the most recent El Nino events. By looking at temperature and humidity anomalies in the central Pacific which are associated with these events, and using radiative kernels, we can calculate their radiative effects. We extend previous work by not only performing an analysis of TOA but also analysing the surface and atmospheric radiation budgets. Additionally we analyse the latest GCMs (e.g. CMIP5 models) and compare them to observations.

  10. COHERENCE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , COHERENT SCATTERING), (*COHERENT SCATTERING, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), LIGHT, INTERFERENCE, INTENSITY, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS, QUANTUM THEORY, BOSONS, INTERFEROMETERS, CHINA

  11. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  12. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  13. Ionizing radiation--understanding and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Laurentiu Teodor; Milu, Constantin; Voicu, Bogdan; Enachescu, Dan

    2005-10-01

    A written survey about perceived radiation risks was conducted among three groups of a total of 400 individuals. Seventy-seven (26%) of the respondents were radiation workers, 35 (12%) were medical doctors without professional exposure, and 177 (68%) belonged to the general population. Even if the sample is not representative of the Romanian population as a whole, some interesting conclusions can be made. The level of anxiety toward radiation, expressed as a hazard perception index, is significantly lower in radiation workers when compared to medical doctors and the general population (0.81 +/- 0.94, 1.42 +/- 1.21, and 1.72 +/- 1.34, respectively, p < 0.001). Hazard perception index values also varied with the education status, with lowest values among medical university graduates and highest among public school graduates (p < 0.001). Both university-graduated groups significantly differ from the non-university groups (p < 0.05). Knowledge about radiation and emergency plans for nuclear accidents/incidents was also correlated with hazard perception, with the results confirming the hypothesis that better knowledge is associated with lower radiation hazard perception. The extent to which people accept civilian nuclear power is also related to hazard perception and knowledge. The way people perceive the radiation risk differed among the three groups. Different levels of risk perception were associated with radiation from nuclear energy and diagnostic x rays. It is important that radiological protection authorities develop new plans and materials for communicating with the general public in order to improve knowledge of ionizing radiation, radiation risks, and the safety of civilian nuclear energy employment.

  14. Radiation shield for operator under radiation circumference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Tadahiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Omori, Tetsu; Mizuochi, Akira

    1997-11-18

    A radiation shield for an upper half of a man`s body comprises a synthetic resin clothing, a rubber plate or a composite member of them formed into a bag. The bag is formed three dimensionally in the form of an open in front vest. A radiation shielding bag for the lower half of a man`s body is formed into three dimensionally in the form of open in front half trousers. A water injection port for injecting water as shielding liquid and a gas exhaust port are formed to each of the bags. Upon operation under radiation circumstance, the water injection ports and the gas exhaustion ports are opened, and shielding liquid is injected from the water injection ports to the bag so that the shielding liquid shields radiation rays. After closing the water injection ports and the gas exhaustion ports, an operator wears and buttons up the radiation shield of the upper half and the lower half to protect radiation exposure from the front, back and the side of a man. (I.N.)

  15. Failure to Adhere to Protocol Specified Radiation Therapy Guidelines Was Associated With Decreased Survival in RTOG 9704-A Phase III Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Chemoradiotherapy for Patients With Resected Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, Ross A., E-mail: Ross_a_abrams@rush.edu [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Winter, Kathryn A. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Regine, William F. [University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Safran, Howard [Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lustig, Robert [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Konski, Andre A. [Wayne State Medical Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Benson, Al B. [Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Macdonald, John S. [St. Vincent' s Cancer Care Center, New York, NY (United States); Rich, Tyvin A. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: In Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704, as previously published, patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma received continuous infusion 5-FU and concurrent radiotherapy (5FU-RT). 5FU-RT treatment was preceded and followed by randomly assigned chemotherapy, either 5-FU or gemcitabine. This analysis explored whether failure to adhere to specified RT guidelines influenced survival and/or toxicity. Methods and Materials: RT requirements were protocol specified. Adherence was scored as per protocol (PP) or less than per protocol (associated with decreased risk of failure (p = 0.016) and, for gemcitabine patients, a trend toward reduced Grade 4/5 nonhematologic toxicity (p = 0.065). Conclusions: This is the first Phase III, multicenter, adjuvant protocol for pancreatic adenocarcinoma to evaluate the impact of adherence to specified RT protocol guidelines on protocol outcomes. Failure to adhere to specified RT guidelines was associated with reduced survival and, for patients receiving gemcitabine, trend toward increased nonhematologic toxicity.

  16. RECQ1 A159C Polymorphism Is Associated With Overall Survival of Patients With Resected Pancreatic Cancer: A Replication Study in NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Donghui, E-mail: dli@mdanderson.org [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Crane, Christopher [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Safran, Howard [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Liu, Chang; Chang, Ping [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Winter, Kathryn A. [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guha, Chandan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Abbruzzese, James L. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To confirm whether a previously observed association between RECQ1 A159C variant and clinical outcome of resectable pancreatic cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation is reproducible in another patient population prospectively treated with postoperative chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Patients were selected, according to tissue availability, from eligible patients with resected pancreatic cancer who were enrolled on the NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704 trial of 5-fluorouacil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation preceded and followed by 5-FU or gemcitabine. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections, and genotype was determined using the Taqman method. The correlation between genotype and overall survival was analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier plot, log-rank test, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In the 154 of the study's 451 eligible patients with evaluable tissue, genotype distribution followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (ie, 37% had genotype AA, 43% AC, and 20% CC). The RECQ1 variant AC/CC genotype carriers were associated with being node positive compared with the AA carrier (P=.03). The median survival times (95% confidence interval [CI]) for AA, AC, and CC carriers were 20.6 (16.3-26.1), 18.8 (14.2-21.6), and 14.2 (10.3-21.0) months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients with the AC/CC genotypes were associated with worse survival than patients with the AA genotype (hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.23, P=.022). This result seemed slightly stronger for patients on the 5-FU arm (n=82) (HR 1.64, 95% CI 0.99-2.70, P=.055) than for patients on the gemcitabine arm (n=72, HR 1.46, 95% CI 0.81-2.63, P=.21). Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that the RECQ1 A159C genotype may be a prognostic or predictive factor for resectable pancreatic cancer patients who are treated with adjuvant 5-FU before and after 5-FU-based chemoradiation. Further study is

  17. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  18. Serial Assessment of Therapeutic Response to a New Radiosensitization Treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II, in Patients with Stage I/II Breast Cancer Using Breast Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yaogawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have developed a new radiosensitization treatment called Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II. Using KORTUC II, we performed breast-conserving treatment (BCT without any surgical procedure for elderly patients with breast cancer in stages I/II or patients refusing surgery. Since surgery was not performed, histological confirmation of the primary tumor region following KORTUC II treatment was not possible. Therefore, to precisely evaluate the response to this new therapy, a detailed diagnostic procedure is needed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic response to KORTUC II treatment in patients with stage I/II breast cancer using annual breast contrast-enhanced (CE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Methods: Twenty-one patients with stage I/II breast cancer who were elderly and/or refused surgery were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent MRI prior to and at 3 to 6 months after KORTUC II, and then approximately biannually thereafter. Findings from MRI were compared with those from other diagnostic modalities performed during the same time period. Results: KORTUC II was well tolerated, with minimal adverse effects. All of 21 patients showed a clinically complete response (cCR on CE MRI. The mean period taken to confirm cCR on the breast CE MRI was approximately 14 months. The mean follow-up period for the patients was 61.9 months at the end of October 2014. Conclusions: The therapeutic effect of BCT using KORTUC II without surgery could be evaluated by biannual CE MRI evaluations. Approximately 14 months were required to achieve cCR in response to this therapy.

  19. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  20. Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term {\\it \\`a la} Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the elect...

  1. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  2. Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albi, Elisabetta; Cataldi, Samuela; Lazzarini, Andrea; Codini, Michela; Beccari, Tommaso; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Curcio, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage is a complex network of interlinked signaling pathways, which may result in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and cancer. The development of thyroid cancer in response to radiation, from nuclear catastrophes to chemotherapy, has long been an object of study. A basic overview of the ionizing and non-ionizing radiation effects of the sensitivity of the thyroid gland on radiation and cancer development has been provided. In this review, we focus our attention on experiments in cell cultures exposed to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and proton beams. Studies on the involvement of specific genes, proteins, and lipids are also reported. This review also describes how lipids are regulated in response to the radiation-induced damage and how they are involved in thyroid cancer etiology, invasion, and migration and how they can be used as both diagnostic markers and drug targets. PMID:28445397

  3. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalas, D.; Mihalas, B. W.

    This book is the result of an attempt, over the past few years, to gather the basic tools required to do research on radiating flows in astrophysics. The microphysics of gases is discussed, taking into account the equation of state of a perfect gas, the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermal properties of a perfect gas, the distribution function and Boltzmann's equation, the collision integral, the Maxwellian velocity distribution, Boltzmann's H-theorem, the time of relaxation, and aspects of classical statistical mechanics. Other subjects explored are related to the dynamics of ideal fluids, the dynamics of viscous and heat-conducting fluids, relativistic fluid flow, waves, shocks, winds, radiation and radiative transfer, the equations of radiation hydrodynamics, and radiating flows. Attention is given to small-amplitude disturbances, nonlinear flows, the interaction of radiation and matter, the solution of the transfer equation, acoustic waves, acoustic-gravity waves, basic concepts of special relativity, and equations of motion and energy.

  4. Radiation exposure and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labant, Amy; Silva, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Radiological exposure from nuclear power reactor accidents, transportation of nuclear waste accidents, industrial accidents, or terrorist activity may be a remote possibility, but it could happen. Nurses must be prepared to evaluate and treat pregnant women and infants who have been exposed to radiation, and to have an understanding of the health consequences of a nuclear or radiological incident. Pregnant women and infants are a special group of patients who need consideration when exposed to radiation. Initial care requires thorough assessment and decisions regarding immediate care needs. Ongoing care is based on type and extent of radiation exposure. With accurate, comprehensive information and education, nurses will be better prepared to help mitigate the effects of radiation exposur