WorldWideScience

Sample records for associating fluid theory

  1. Evaluation of the truncated perturbed chain-polar statistical associating fluid theory for complex mixture fluid phase equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Economou, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Perturbed chain-statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was extended rigorously to polar fluids based on the theory of Stell and co-workers [Mol. Phys. 1977, 33, 987]. The new PC-PSAFT was simplified to truncated PC-PSAFT (tPC-PSAFT) so that it can be practical for real polar fluid...

  2. ADSORPTION OF ASSOCIATING FLUIDS AT ACTIVE SURFACES: A DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Tripathi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a density functional theory (DFT to describe adsorption in systems where molecules of associating fluids can bond (or associate with discrete, localized functional groups attached to the surfaces, in addition to other fluid molecules. For such systems as water adsorbing on activated carbon, silica, clay minerals etc. this is a realistic model to account for surface heterogeneity rather than using a continuous smeared surface-fluid potential employed in most of the theoretical works on adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces. Association is modelled within the framework of first order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1. The new theory accurately predicts the distribution of bonded and non-bonded species and adsorption behavior under various conditions of bulk pressure, surface-fluid and fluid-fluid association strengths. Competition between the surface-fluid and fluid-fluid association is analyzed for fluids with multiple association sites and its impact on adsorption is discussed. The theory, supported by simulations demonstrates that the extent and the nature of adsorption (e.g. monolayer vary with the number of association sites on the fluid molecules.

  3. Correlation of 1H NMR Chemical Shift for Aqueous Solutions by Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Association Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许波; 李浩然; 王从敏; 许映杰; 韩世钧

    2005-01-01

    1H NMR chemical shifts of binary aqueous mixtures of acylamide, alcohol, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and acetone are correlated by statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) association model. The comparison between SAFT association model and Wilson equation shows that the former is better for dealing with aqueous solutions. Finally, the specialties of both models are discussed.

  4. Thermodynamic perturbation theory for associating fluids confined in a one-dimensional pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new theory is developed for the self-assembly of associating molecules confined to a single spatial dimension, but allowed to explore all orientation angles. The interplay of the anisotropy of the pair potential and the low dimensional space results in orientationally ordered associated clusters. This local order enhances association due to a decrease in orientational entropy. Unlike bulk 3D fluids which are orientationally homogeneous, association in 1D necessitates the self-consistent calculation of the orientational distribution function. To test the new theory, Monte Carlo simulations are performed and the theory is found to be accurate. It is also shown that the traditional treatment in first order perturbation theory fails to accurately describe this system. The theory developed in this paper may be used as a tool to study hydrogen bonding of molecules in 1D zeolites as well as the hydrogen bonding of molecules in carbon nanotubes

  5. Investigation of Vapor-Liquid Nucleation for Associating Fluids by Density Gradient Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Dong; LIU Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    An equation of state (EOS) applicable to both the uniform and non-uniform associating fluids was established by using the density-gradient expansion, in which the influence parameter κis formulated as a function of tempera-ture. The molecular parameters were regressed by fitting to the experimental data of vapor pressures and liquid den-sities. Within the framework of density gradient theory (DGT), the nucleation rates for water, heavy water, metha-nol, ethanol, 1-propanoi, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol were calculated. The results were satisfactory com-pared with the experimental data. Our study shows that DGT preserves all the advantages of density functional the-ory (DFT) in capturing the structure and properties of nucleus but gives much more accurate nucleation rates by adjusting the influence parameter.

  6. Modeling of aqueous electrolyte solutions with perturbed-chain statistical associated fluid theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameretti, Luca F.; Sadowski, Gabriele; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The vapor pressures and liquid densities of single-salt electrolyte solutions containing NaCl, LiCl, KCl, NaBr, LiBr, KBr, NaI, LiI, KI, Li2SO4, Na2SO4, and K2SO4 were modeled with an equation of state based on perturbed-chain statistical associated fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The PC-SAFT model was...... extended to charged compounds using a Debye-Huckel term for the electrostatic interactions. Two model parameters for each ion were fitted to experimental pVT and vapor-pressure data. The model is able to excellently reproduce the experimental data up to high salt molalities and even to predict vapor...

  7. Correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of binary mixtures from perturbed chain statistical associating fluid theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of Diethanolamine (DEA) + 2 alkanol (2 propanol up to 2 pentanol) were measured over the entire composition range and temperature interval of 293.15-323.15 K. From the density and viscosity data, values of various properties such as isobaric thermal expansibility, excess isobaric thermal expansibility, partial molar volumes, excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were calculated. The observed variations of these parameters, with alkanols chain length and temperature, are discussed in terms of the intermolecular interactions between the unlike molecules of the binary mixtures. The ability of the perturbed chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) to correlate accurately the volumetric behavior of the binary mixtures is demonstrated.

  8. On the relation between the Wertheim close-quote s two-density integral equation theory for associating fluids and Chandler endash Silbey endash Ladanyi integral equation theory for site endash site molecular fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated that Chandler endash Silbey endash Ladanyi integral equation theory for the site endash site molecular fluids is the limiting case of complete association of more general two-density integral equation theory for associating fluids developed by Wertheim. The analysis is presented for a site endash site molecular system with any number and geometrical arrangement of the sites in the molecule and arbitrary type of the site endash site pair interaction. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. New Variant of the Universal Constants in the Perturbed Chain-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The Perturbed Chain-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Equation of State (PC-SAFT EOS) has been successfully applied to model phase behavior of various types of systems, while it is also well-known that the PC-SAFT EOS has difficulties in describing some second-order derivative properties. In...... systems containing hydrocarbons, chemicals, water, or polymers....

  10. Evaluation of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (sPC-SAFT). 1. Vapor-liquid equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenner, Andreas; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Economou, Ioannis;

    2008-01-01

    the models were taken from literature or estimated in this work. Generalized pure-component parameters were fitted to pure-component vapor-pressure and liquid-density data. For the majority of the mixtures examined, satisfactory results were obtained. For a number of mixtures, different modeling......A standard database for the validation of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) models was used to evaluate prediction and correlation accuracy of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). Pure-component parameters for...

  11. The Quantum Theory of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Gripaios, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around non-interacting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is `freer', in the sense that the non-interacting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree- and loop-level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behaviour is radically different to both classical fluids and quantum fields, with interesting physical consequences for fluids in the low temperature regime.

  12. Quantum Field Theory of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around non-interacting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is `freer', in the sense that the non-interacting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree- and loop-level, we give evidence that a...

  13. Relativistic Field Theory of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Sylvan A.

    2004-01-01

    Classical relativistic field theory is applied to perfect and magneto-hydrodynamic flows. The fields for Hamilton's principle are shown to be the Lagrangian coordinates of the fluid elements, which are potentials for the matter current 4-vector and the electromagnetic field 2-form. The energy momentum tensor and equations of motion are derived from the fields. In this way the theory of continua is shown to have the same form as other field theories, such as electromagnetism and general relati...

  14. Evaluation of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (sPC-SAFT). 2. Liquid-liquid equilibria and prediction of monomer fraction in hydrogen bonding systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Grenner, Andreas; Economou, Ioannis;

    2008-01-01

    Two statistical thermodynamic models, the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory, which is a compressible lattice model, and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (sPC-SAFT), which is based on Wertheim's perturbation theory, were used to model liquid-liquid equilib...... treatment of hydrogen bonding, yielded similar predictions for the fraction of non-hydrogen bonded molecules (monomer fraction) in pure 1-alkanols and in 1-alkanol-n-hexane mixtures....

  15. SAFT缔合模型关联含水体系的1H NMR%Correlation of 1H NMR Chemical Shift for Aqueous Solutions by Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Association Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许波; 李浩然; 王从敏; 许映杰; 韩世钧

    2005-01-01

    1H NMR chemical shifts of binary aqueous mixtures of acylamide, alcohol, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and acetone are correlated by statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) association model. The comparison between SAFT association model and Wilson equation shows that the former is better for dealing with aqueous solutions. Finally, the specialties of both models are discussed.

  16. Renormalization group theory for fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some extensions of renormalization group methods to fluids are discussed that may facilitate the development of a general renormalization group theory for real fluids that is capable of predicting their thermodynamic properties globally, including both at the critical point and away from the critical point, from a specification solely of the microscopic interactions among the constituent molecules. The extensions include application to virial series and free energies for freely moving molecules (as contrasted with Hamiltonian methods used for fixed lattices of molecules); inclusion of contributions from fluctuations of very short wavelengths, comparable to the range of the attractive forces; and evaluation of the scale factor for fluctuation amplitudes. An approximate theory incorporating these new features is formulated and illustrated in a simple application to the thermal behavior of n-pentane in a large extended neighborhood of its critical point

  17. A theory of fractal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical fluid mechanic problems may be characterized by a length scale epsilon, below which we are not able or not willing to resolve details of density or velocity distributions. Conventional fluid mechanics assumes that below the epsilon-scale all essential quantities (in particular the density and velocity) can be considered as continuous and are accurately enough described by their average values taken over control volumes of size epsilon. This assumption, however, is not valid for many problems of interest. The category of these problems includes both turbulent flow and two-phase flow. The fundamental property of these fluids is that local flow characteristics (such as density or velocity) at any given point must be considered to be different from any (possibly weighted) average of this quantity in a small control volume surrounding this point, even for the smallest control volumes we can practically choose. This paper presents a new method to deal with such problems of fluid mechanics. The method is based on a rigorous treatment of the transport theorem and uses Taylor series expansions (with third order accuracy in the spatial variables) of the essential functions whenever exact solutions could not be obtained. A closed system of partial differential equations is derived. It contains conventional fluid dynamics as a special case as well as results which can be derived from the kinetic theory of gases. (orig./GL)

  18. Effective field theory of dissipative fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, Michael; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We develop an effective field theory for dissipative fluids which governs the dynamics of gapless modes associated to conserved quantities. The system is put in a curved spacetime and coupled to external sources for charged currents. The invariance of the hydrodynamical action under gauge symmetries and diffeomorphisms suggests a natural set of dynamical variables which provide a mapping between an emergent "fluid spacetime" and the physical spacetime. An essential aspect of our formulation is to identify the appropriate symmetries in the fluid spacetime. Our theory applies to nonlinear disturbances around a general density matrix. For a thermal density matrix, we require an additional Z_2 symmetry, to which we refer as the local KMS condition. This leads to the standard constraints of hydrodynamics, as well as a nonlinear generalization of the Onsager relations. It also leads to an emergent supersymmetry in the classical statistical regime, with a higher derivative version required for the full quantum regim...

  19. Mathematical theory of compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Von Mises, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow covers the conceptual and mathematical aspects of theory of compressible fluid flow. This five-chapter book specifically tackles the role of thermodynamics in the mechanics of compressible fluids. This text begins with a discussion on the general theory of characteristics of compressible fluid with its application. This topic is followed by a presentation of equations delineating the role of thermodynamics in compressible fluid mechanics. The discussion then shifts to the theory of shocks as asymptotic phenomena, which is set within the context of

  20. Thermodynamic Modeling of Several Aqueous Alkanol Solutions Containing Amino Acids with the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associated Fluid Theory Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Luisa; Breil, Martin Peter; Pinho, S. P.;

    2009-01-01

    and a fluid phase. The hypothetical melting properties of each amino acid were fitted, to accurately correlate the solubilities in pure water. Only one temperature independent binary parameter is required for each amino acid/solvent pair. The model can accurately describe the solubility of the amino......The perturbed-chain statistical associated fluid theory EoS was applied to model the solubilities of glycine, DL-alanine, L-serine, L-threonine, and L-isoleucine in pure water, pure alcohols (ethanol, I-propanol, and 2-propanol) and in mixed solvent systems. Three pure component nonassociating...... parameters for the amino acids were fitted to the densities, activity and osmotic coefficients, vapor pressures, and water activity of their aqueous solutions. The solubilities of amino acids in pure and mixed solvent systems were calculated on the basis of the phase equilibrium conditions for a pure solid...

  1. Variational theory of perfect hypermomentum fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Babourova, O V

    1996-01-01

    The variational theory of the perfect hypermomentum fluid is developed. The new type of the generalized Frenkel condition is considered. The Lagrangian density of such fluid is stated, and the equations of motion of the fluid and the Weyssenhoff-type evolution equation of the hypermomentum tensor are derived. The expressions of the matter currents of the fluid (the canonical energy-momentum 3-form, the metric stress-energy 4-form and the hypermomentum 3-form) are obtained. The special case of the dilaton-spin fluid with intrinsic spin and dilatonic charge is considered.

  2. Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics: Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner. The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming. This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice. There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes. Two distinguishing features of the discourse are: solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty. Matlab codes are presented and discussed for ...

  3. Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes Two distinguishing features of the discourse are solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty Matlab codes are presented and discussed for a broad...

  4. Statistical mechanical theory of fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueqiang; Wu, Zhengming; Liu, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    A general statistical mechanical theory of fluid mixtures (liquid mixtures and gas mixtures) is developed based on the statistical mechanical expression of chemical potential of components in the grand canonical ensemble, which gives some new relationships between thermodynamic quantities (equilibrium ratio Ki, separation factor α and activity coefficient γi) and ensemble average potential energy u for one molecule. The statistical mechanical expressions of separation factor α and activity coefficient γi derived in this work make the fluid phase equilibrium calculations can be performed by molecular simulation simply and efficiently, or by the statistical thermodynamic approach (based on the saturated-vapor pressure of pure substance) that does not need microscopic intermolecular pair potential functions. The physical meaning of activity coefficient γi in the liquid phase is discussed in detail from a viewpoint of molecular thermodynamics. The calculated Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) properties of argon-methane, methanol-water and n-hexane-benzene systems by this model fit well with experimental data in references, which indicates that this model is accurate and reliable in the prediction of VLE properties for small, large and strongly associating molecules; furthermore the statistical mechanical expressions of separation factor α and activity coefficient γi have good compatibility with classical thermodynamic equations and quantum mechanical COSMO-SAC approach.

  5. Mathematical theory of compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    von Mises, Richard

    2004-01-01

    A pioneer in the fields of statistics and probability theory, Richard von Mises (1883-1953) made notable advances in boundary-layer-flow theory and airfoil design. This text on compressible flow, unfinished upon his sudden death, was subsequently completed in accordance with his plans, and von Mises' first three chapters were augmented with a survey of the theory of steady plane flow. Suitable as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students - as well as a reference for professionals - Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow examines the fundamentals of high-speed flows, with

  6. Integral equation theory for nematic fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Holovko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional formalism in liquid state theory based on the calculation of the pair distribution function is generalized and reviewed for nematic fluids. The considered approach is based on the solution of orientationally inhomogeneous Ornstein-Zernike equation in combination with the Triezenberg-Zwanzig-Lovett-Mou-Buff-Wertheim equation. It is shown that such an approach correctly describes the behavior of correlation functions of anisotropic fluids connected with the presence of Goldstone modes in the ordered phase in the zero-field limit. We focus on the discussions of analytical results obtained in collaboration with T.G. Sokolovska in the framework of the mean spherical approximation for Maier-Saupe nematogenic model. The phase behavior of this model is presented. It is found that in the nematic state the harmonics of the pair distribution function connected with the correlations of the director transverse fluctuations become long-range in the zero-field limit. It is shown that such a behavior of distribution function of nematic fluid leads to dipole-like and quadrupole-like long-range asymptotes for effective interaction between colloids solved in nematic fluids, predicted before by phenomenological theories.

  7. Quasi-chemical Theories of Associated Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Lawrence R.; LaViolette, Randall A.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown how traditional development of theories of fluids based upon the concept of physical clustering can be adapted to an alternative local clustering definition. The alternative definition can preserve a detailed valence description of the interactions between a solution species and its near-neighbors, i.e., cooperativity and saturation of coordination for strong association. These clusters remain finite even for condensed phases. The simplest theory to which these developments lead i...

  8. Relativistic fluid formulation and theory of intense relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new general relativistic fluid formulation has been obtained for intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) with arbitrarily high relativistic mass factor γ. This theory is valid for confined IREB equilibria such as those found inside high energy accelerators as well as in the pinched and ion-focused regimes of beam propagation in plasma channels. The new relativistic fluid formulation is based on the covariant relativistic fluid formulation of Newcomb with the parameter lambda identical to 1, in order to allow for realistic confined equilibria. The resulting equilibrium constraints require that the beam has a slow rotational velocity around its direction of propagation and that the off-diagonal thermal stress element, associated with these two directions of motion, be nonzero. The effective betatron oscillation frequency of the fluid elements of the beam is modified by the radial gradient and anisotropies in the thermal stress elements of the beam fluid. The wave equation, for sausage, hose and filamentation excitations on the relativistic fluid beam, is found to be formally identical to that obtained from the Vlasov equation approach, hence phase-mixing damping is a generic and self-consistent correlate of the new relativistic fluid formulation

  9. Quasi-chemical Theories of Associated Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, L R; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Violette, Randall A. La

    1998-01-01

    It is shown how traditional development of theories of fluids based upon the concept of physical clustering can be adapted to an alternative local clustering definition. The alternative definition can preserve a detailed valence description of the interactions between a solution species and its near-neighbors, i.e., cooperativity and saturation of coordination for strong association. These clusters remain finite even for condensed phases. The simplest theory to which these developments lead is analogous to quasi-chemical theories of cooperative phenomena. The present quasi-chemical theories require additional consideration of packing issues because they don't impose lattice discretizations on the continuous problem. These quasi-chemical theories do not require pair decomposable interaction potential energy models. Since calculations may be required only for moderately sized clusters, we suggest that these quasi-chemical theories could be implemented with computational tools of current electronic structure the...

  10. Plasma and fluid turbulence: Theory and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of turbulence has been covered by many books over the years. This has, of course, mainly been fluid turbulence, while the area of plasma turbulence has been treated much less. This book by Yoshizawa et al covers both plasma and fluid turbulence, in a way that does justice to both areas at the same time as cross-disciplinary aspects are illuminated. The book should be useful to physicists working in both areas partly because it examines fundamental aspects in a pedagogical way, partly because it is up to date and partly because of the cross-disciplinary aspects which enrich both areas. It is written as an advanced textbook. The reader should have previous knowledge of at least one of the areas and also some background in statistical physics. The book starts with the very important and highly up to date area of structure formation which is relevant both to fluids and plasmas. Here, pipe flow of fluids is treated as an introduction to the area, then follows discussion of the generation of magnetic fields by turbulent motion in stellar objects and structure formation in plasmas confined by a magnetic field. Also the concept of bifurcation is introduced. This part builds up knowledge from the simple fluid case to the problems of magnetic confinement of plasmas in a very pedagogical way. It continues by introducing the fundamentals of fluid turbulence. This is done very systematically and concepts useful for industrial applications like the K-e method and several ways of heuristic modelling are introduced. Also the two dimensional vortex equation, which is also relevant to magnetized plasmas is introduced. In chapter 5 the statistical theory of turbulence is treated. It starts with a very nice and easy to understand example of renormalization of a simple nonlinear equation where the exact solution is known. It introduces the method of partial renormalization, Greens functions and the direct interaction approximation (DIA). The book then continues with an

  11. The Relaxation Effect in Dissipative Relativistic Fluid Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Lee

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of the fluid fields in a large class of causal dissipative fluid theories is studied. It is shown that the physical fluid states in these theories must relax (on a time scale that is characteristic of the microscopic particle interactions) to ones that are essentially indistinguishable from the simple relativistic Navier-Stokes descriptions of these states. Thus, for example, in the relaxed form of a physical fluid state the stress energy tensor is in effect indistinguishable fro...

  12. The relaxation effect in dissipative relativistic fluid theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblom, L

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of the fluid fields in a large class of causal dissipative fluid theories is studied. It is shown that the physical fluid states in these theories must relax (on a time scale that is characteristic of the microscopic particle interactions) to ones that are essentially indistinguishable from the simple relativistic Navier-Stokes descriptions of these states. Thus, for example, in the relaxed form of a physical fluid state the stress energy tensor is in effect indistinguishable from a perfect fluid stress tensor plus small dissipative corrections proportional to the shear of the fluid velocity, the gradient of the temperature, etc.

  13. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: a multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Artee; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that def...

  14. Study of high-pressure adsorption from supercritical fluids by the potential theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    thermodynamic properties that depend on the distance from the solid surface (or position in the porous space). The description involves the two kinds of interactions present in the adsorbed fluid, i.e. the fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interactions. accounted for by means of an equation of state (EoS) and......The multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA), which has been previously used to study low-pressure adsorption of subcritical fluids, is extended to adsorption equilibria from supercritical fluids up to high pressures. The MPTA describes an adsorbed phase as an inhomogeneous fluid with...... interaction potential functions, respectively. This makes it possible to generate the different MPTA models by combination of the relevant EoS/potentials. In the present work, the simplified perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (sPC-SAFT) EoS is used for the thermodynamic description of both...

  15. Towards Predictive Association Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2011-01-01

    Association equations of state like SAFT, CPA and NRHB have been previously applied to many complex mixtures. In this work we focus on two of these models, the CPA and the NRHB equations of state and the emphasis is on the analysis of their predictive capabilities for a wide range of applications...... phase equilibria in mixtures containing glycols. The importance of considering the solvation of CO2–water (in CPA) when the model is applied to multicomponent mixtures as well as of the multiple associations in heavy glycol–water mixtures (in NRHB) is investigated....

  16. Perfect fluids in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend the fundamental variational principle for a perfect fluid in general relativity so that it applies to the metric-torsion Einstein-Cartan theory. We thereby deduce field equations for a perfect fluid in the Einstein-Cartan theory

  17. Association theories for complex thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani

    2013-01-01

    promising direction for a general and useful for engineering purposes modeling of complex thermodynamics is via the use of association theories e.g. those based on chemical theory (like APACT), or on the lattice theory (like NRHB) or those based on perturbation theory (like SAFT and CPA). The purpose of......Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...

  18. Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Durst, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.

  19. Theory of locomotion through complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Elfring, Gwynn

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria often swim in fluid environments that cannot be classified as Newtonian. Many biological fluids contain polymers or other heterogeneities which may yield complex rheology. For a given set of boundary conditions on a moving organism, flows can be substantially different in complex fluids, while non-Newtonian stresses can alter the gait of the microorganisms themselves. Heterogeneities in the fluid may also be characterized by length scales on the order of the organism itself leading to additional dynamic complexity. In this chapter we present a theoretical overview of small-scale locomotion in complex fluids with a focus on recent efforts quantifying the impact of non-Newtonian rheology on swimming microorganisms.

  20. The Einstein static universe in Scalar-Fluid theories

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian G; Wright, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    A new Lagrangian framework has recently been proposed to describe interactions between relativistic perfect fluids and scalar fields. In this paper we investigate the Einstein static universe in this new class of theories, which have been named Scalar-Fluid theories. The stability of the static solutions to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous perturbations is analysed deriving the relevant cosmological perturbation equations at the linear order. We can find several configurations corresponding to an Einstein static universes which are stable against inhomogeneous perturbations, but unstable against homogeneous perturbations. This shows the possible applications of Scalar-Fluid theories to the inflationary emergent universe scenario.

  1. Curvature Dependence of Interfacial Properties for Associating Lennard-Jones Fluids: A Density Functional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zong-Li; KANG Yan-Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Classical density functional theory is used to study the associating Lennard Jones fluids in contact with spherical hard wall of different curvature radii. The interfacial properties including contact density and fluid-solid interfacial tension are investigated. The influences of associating energy, curvature of hard wall and the bulk density of Huids on these properties are analyzed in detail. The results may provide helpful clues to understand the interfacial properties of other complex fluids.%@@ Classical density functional theory is used to study the associating Lennard Jones fluids in contact with spherical hard wall of different curvature radii.The interfacial properties including contact density and fluid-solid intcrfacial tension are investigated.The influences of associating energy, curvature of hard wall and the hulk density of fluids on these properties are analyzed in detail.The results may provide helpful clues to understand the interfacial properties of other complex fluids.

  2. The Einstein static universe in Scalar-Fluid theories

    OpenAIRE

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    A new Lagrangian framework has recently been proposed to describe interactions between relativistic perfect fluids and scalar fields. In this paper we investigate the Einstein static universe in this new class of theories, which have been named Scalar-Fluid theories. The stability of the static solutions to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous perturbations is analysed deriving the relevant cosmological perturbation equations at the linear order. We can find several configurations corresponding...

  3. Perfect hypermomentum fluid: variational theory and equations of motion

    CERN Document Server

    Babourova, O V; Babourova, Olga V.; Frolov, Boris N.

    1998-01-01

    The variational theory of the perfect hypermomentum fluid is developed. The new type of the generalized Frenkel condition is considered. The Lagrangian density of such fluid is stated, and the equations of motion of the fluid and the Weyssenhoff-type evolution equation of the hypermomentum tensor are derived. The expressions of the matter currents of the fluid (the canonical energy-momentum 3-form, the metric stress-energy 4-form and the hypermomentum 3-form) are obtained. The Euler-type hydrodynamic equation of motion of the perfect hypermomentum fluid is derived. It is proved that the motion of the perfect fluid without hypermomentum in a metric-affine space coincides with the motion of this fluid in a Riemann space.

  4. Field theory of the Eulerian perfect fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Ariki, Taketo

    2016-01-01

    An action formalism is developed for the perfect fluid in the Eulerian framework, where theoretical flaws related with the Clebsch parametrization are removed. The proposed formalism naturally leads us to interactions of 2 types. One is the gauge interaction on the Clebsch potentials, which yields the non-Abelian (Abelian) fluid dynamics in a pure manner of the gauge principle. The other is the interaction on the velocity potentials which convert the rest-mass energy to energies of other fields and vise versa.

  5. Modern Fluid Dynamics Intermediate Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2010-01-01

    Features pedagogical elements that include consistent 50/50 physics-mathematics approach when introducing material, illustrating concepts, showing flow visualizations, and solving problems. This title intends to help serious undergraduate student solve basic fluid dynamics problems independently, and suggest system design improvements

  6. Geometrical theory of dynamical systems and fluid flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kambe, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    This is an introductory textbook on the geometrical theory ofdynamical systems, fluid flows, and certain integrable systems. Thesubjects are interdisciplinary and extend from mathematics, mechanicsand physics to mechanical engineering, and the approach is veryfundamental. The underlying concepts are based on differentialgeometry and theory of Lie groups in the mathematical aspect, and ontransformation symmetries and gauge theory in the physical aspect. Agreat deal of effort has been directed toward making the descriptionelementary, clear and concise, so that beginners will have an accessto th

  7. Fluctuation theory of critical phenomena in fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    It is assumed that critical phenomena are generated by density wave fluctuations carrying a certain kinetic energy. It is noted that all coupling equations for critical indices are obtained within the context of this hypothesis. Critical indices are evaluated for 15 liquids more accurately than when using the current theory of critical phenomena.

  8. Mean field theory for non-abelian gauge theories and fluid dynamics. A brief progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the long standing problem of 'mean field theory' for non-abelian gauge theories. As a consequence of the AdS/CFT correspondence, in the large N limit, at strong coupling, and high temperatures and density, the 'mean field theory' is described by the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics. We also discuss and present results on the non-conformal fluid dynamics of the D1 brane in 1+1 dim. (author)

  9. Editorial Viscoplastic fluids: From theory to application 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Chateau, Xavier; Wachs, A

    2015-01-01

    International audience q This issue of the Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics includes a series of papers based on work presented at the international workshop on Viscoplastic fluids: from theory to application, held Nov. 18–21, 2013 in Rueil Malmaison, France. A list of participants is provided in Table 1. This was the fifth biannual meeting on this subject. The previous meetings were held in Banff (Alberta, Canada), Monte Verita (Ascona, Switzerland), Limassol (Cyprus) and Rio de J...

  10. Unified dark fluid in Brans-Dicke theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali; Mishra, Bivudutta(Department of Mathematics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, 500078, Hyderabad, India)

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models are constructed in the frame work of generalised Brans–Dicke theory with a self-interacting potential. A unified dark fluid characterised by a linear equation of state is considered as the source of dark energy. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar simulating an anisotropic relationship among the directional expansion rates. The dynamics of the universe in the presence of a unified dark fluid in anisotropic backg...

  11. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  12. Introduction to the theory of fluid and magnetofluid turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This set of notes was transcribed from the tape recording of three lectures given at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, in June, 1983. The lectures were intended to provide an introduction to the theory of magnetofluid turbulence which is a relatively new branch of plasma physics. It is related more closely to classic fluid dynamics than to the nonlinear theory of plasma oscillation. For this reason, fluid turbulence theory was reviewed as the background of the subject. The first lecture is on the origins of fluid and magnetofluid turbulence. The universal transition to turbulence takes place at sufficiently high Reynolds number, well above the critical threshold. The second lecture is on closures, attempt on dynamical theories. The Navier-Stokes case is discussed, and the attempt to reduce the number of the degrees of freedom, the importance of helicity in MHD, the direct interaction approximation (DIA) and others are explained. The third lecture is on the cascade and inverse cascade in fluid and magnetofluid. The idea of cascade was introduced into the theory of Navier-Stokes turbulence around 1941. The calculation of a form for inertial range energy spectra, the relation with dissipation rate, the tendency of migrating to long wavelength, the simulation of decaying turbulence, the numbers characterizing MHD and others are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  13. Perfect fluids in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that whereas most of the discussion of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory involves the relationship between gravitation and elementary particles, it is possible that the theory, if correct, may be important in certain extreme astrophysical and cosmological problems. The latter would include something like the collapse of a spinning star or an early universe with spin. A set of equations that describe a macroscopic perfect fluid in the EC theory is derived and examined. The equations are derived starting from the fundamental variational principle for a perfect fluid in general relativity. A brief review of the study by Ray (1972) is included, and the results for the EC theory are presented.

  14. Investigating models for associating fluids using spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Passos, Claudia Pereira;

    2005-01-01

    Two equations of state (PC-SAFT and CPA) are used to predict the monomer fraction of pure associating fluids. The models each require five pure-component parameters usually obtained by fitting to experimental liquid density and vapor pressure data. Here we also incorporate monomer fractions......-site schemes perform about equally for ethanol; for higher alcohols a two-site scheme is preferred. This is in accordance with steric arguments. Some difficulties in the interpretation of spectroscopic data and their comparison with the predictions of association models are illustrated. Apparently anomalous...... measured using spectroscopy, resulting in models that better predict the monomer fraction (fraction of molecules not participating in hydrogen bonding), without sacrificing the accuracy of the liquid density and vapor pressure correlations. Thus, it is clear that monomer fraction prediction depends on the...

  15. Vapour-to-Liquid Nucleation in Associating Lennard-Jones Fluids with Multiple Association Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Dong; LIAO Tao

    2007-01-01

    The excess Helmholtz free energy functional for associating Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid is formulated in terms of a weighted density approximation for short-ranged interactions and a Weeks Chandler-Andersen approximation for long-range attraction. Within the framework of density functional theory, phase equilibria, vapour-liquid surface tension and vapour-liquid nucleation properties including the density profile, work of formation, excess number of particles and critical supersaturation are investigated for associating LJ fluids with different numbers of association sites (M=1,2,3,4) per particle. The influences of association energy and association sites on phase equilibria, surface tension and vapour-liquid nucleation properties are discussed.

  16. Theory of chain association versus liquid condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roij, R. van

    1996-01-01

    We combine the original van der Waals description for liquid condensation with the association theory of ideal particles into a simple association theory of nonideal chains. The theory shows that vapor-liquid coexistence becomes metastable if the tendency to form weakly interacting chains is suffici

  17. Thermodynamics of perfect fluids from scalar field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Comelli, Denis; Pilo, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    The low-energy dynamics of relativistic continuous media is given by a shift-symmetric effective theory of four scalar fields. These scalars describe the embedding in spacetime of the medium and play the role of Stückelberg fields for spontaneously broken spatial and time translations. Perfect fluids are selected imposing a stronger symmetry group or reducing the field content to a single scalar. We explore the relation between the field theory description of perfect fluids to thermodynamics. By drawing the correspondence between the allowed operators at leading order in derivatives and the thermodynamic variables, we find that a complete thermodynamic picture requires the four Stückelberg fields. We show that thermodynamic stability plus the null-energy condition imply dynamical stability. We also argue that a consistent thermodynamic interpretation is not possible if any of the shift symmetries is explicitly broken.

  18. Thermodynamics of perfect fluids from scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pilo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of relativistic continuous media is given by a shift-symmetric effective theory of four scalar fields. These scalars describe the embedding in spacetime of the medium and play the role of Stuckelberg fields for spontaneously broken spatial and time translations. Perfect fluids are selected imposing a stronger symmetry group or reducing the field content to a single scalar. We explore the relation between the field theory description of perfect fluids to thermodynamics. By drawing the correspondence between the allowed operators at leading order in derivatives and the thermodynamic variables, we find that a complete thermodynamic picture requires the four Stuckelberg fields. We show that thermodynamic stability plus the null energy condition imply dynamical stability. We also argue that a consistent thermodynamic interpretation is not possible if any of the shift symmetries is explicitly broken.

  19. Theory of fluid slip in charged capillary nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, J; Biesheuvel, P M

    2016-01-01

    Based on the capillary pore model (space-charge theory) for combined fluid and ion flow through cylindrical nanopores or nanotubes, we derive the continuum equations modified to include wall slip. We focus on the ionic conductance and streaming conductance, cross-coefficients of relevance for electrokinetic energy conversion and electro-osmotic pumping. We combine the theory with a Langmuir-Stern 1-pK charge regulation boundary condition resulting in a non-monotonic dependence of the cross-coefficients on salt concentration.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of fluids from Fluctuation Solution Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluctuation Theory develops exact relations between integrals of molecular correlation functions and concentration derivatives of pressure and chemical potential. These quantities can be usefully correlated, particularly for mechanical and thermal properties of pure and mixed dense fluids and for activities of strongly nonideal liquid solutions. The expressions yield unique formulae for the desirable thermodynamic properties of activity and density. The molecular theory origins of the flucuation properties, their behavior for systems of technical interest and some of their successful correlations will be described. Suggestions for fruitful directions will be suggested

  1. Application of a density functional approach to nonuniform ionic fluids: the effect of association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Reszko-Zygmunt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we discuss a density functional approach for nonuniform ionic fluids, which takes into account the existence of ion pairs. The theory is based on a fundamental measure theory of hard-spheres, the theory of Gillespie et al., which leads to a more accurate description of the electrostatic part of the grand potential as well as on Wertheim's association theory. The results of model calculations indicate that the inclusion of the associative term in the grand potential leads to the structure of the double layer, which differs from the structure evaluated by neglecting the association. These differences are important at low temperatures only.

  2. Dissipative Fluid in Brans Dicke theory and late time acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, A A; Sethi, S K

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of having a late time accelerated expansion phase for the universe. We have used a dissipative fluid in Brans-Dicke(BD) theory for this purpose. The model does not involve any potential for the BD scalar field. We have obtained the best fit values for the different parameters in our model by comparing our model predictions with SNIa data and the also with the data from the ultra-compact radio sources.

  3. Fully Lagrangian Renormalized Approximation theory of fluid turbulence: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss our refinement and extension of the work of Y. Kaneda on a Lagrangian Renormalized Approximation (LRA) for homogeneous hydrodynamic turbulence. Kaneda's results are important to the development of a consistent theory of turbulence because the LRA theory successfully overcomes the failure of other turbulence theories (namely the Direct Interaction Approximation) to predict the Kolmogorov wavenumber spectrum. It is thought that this success is due to the use of a Lagrangian rather than Eulerian description of the fluid so that convection of the small eddies by the large ones is properly treated. However, some aspects of these results are puzzling and are considered here. For example, the form of the correlation function and the value of the Kolmogorov constant, K, depend on the choice of the form of the correlation function

  4. Use of Monomer Fraction Data in the Parametrization of Association Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; von Solms, Nicolas;

    2010-01-01

    Association theories such as the CPA (cubic-plus-association), NRHB (non-random hydrogen bonding) equations of state and the various variants of SAFT (statistical associating fluid theory) have been extensively applied to phase equilibrium calculations. Such models can also be used for estimating...

  5. Geometrodynamical Fluid Theory Applied to Dynamo Flows in Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kayla; Miramontes, Diego; Scofield, Dillon

    2015-11-01

    Due to their reliance on a Newtonian viscous stress model, the traditional Navier-Stokes equations are of parabolic type; this in turn leads to acausal behavior of solutions to these equations, e.g., a localized disturbance at any point instantaneously affects the solution arbitrarily far away. Geometrodynamical fluid theory (GFT) avoids this problem through a relativistically covariant formulation of the flow equations. Using GFT, we derive the magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the balance of energy-momentum appropriate for dynamo flows in planetary interiors. These equations include interactions between magnetic and fluid vortex fields. We derive scaling laws from these equations and compare them with scaling laws derived from the traditional approach. Finally, we discuss implications of these scalings for flows in planetary dynamos.

  6. Effective string theory for vortex lines in fluids and superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Bart; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the effective string theory of vortex lines in ordinary fluids and low-temperature superfluids, by describing the bulk fluid flow in terms of a two-form field to which vortex lines can couple. We derive the most general low-energy effective Lagrangian that is compatible with (spontaneously broken) Poincare invariance and worldsheet reparameterization invariance. This generalizes the effective action developed by Lund and Regge and by Endlich and Nicolis. By applying standard field-theoretical techniques, we show that certain low-energy coupling constants -- most notably the string tension -- exhibit RG running already at the classical level. We discuss applications of our techniques to the study of Kelvin waves, vortex rings, and the coupling to bulk sound modes.

  7. Unified dark fluid in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sunil K. [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Dhenkanal, Odisha (India); Behera, Dipanjali [Government College of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kalahandi, Odisha (India); Mishra, Bivudutta [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Hyderabad (India)

    2015-04-01

    Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models are constructed in the frame work of generalised Brans-Dicke theory with a self-interacting potential. A unified dark fluid characterised by a linear equation of state is considered as the source of dark energy. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar simulating an anisotropic relationship among the directional expansion rates. The dynamics of the universe in the presence of a unified dark fluid in anisotropic background have been discussed. The presence of an evolving scalar field makes it possible to get an accelerating phase of expansion even for a linear relationship among the directional Hubble rates. It is found that the anisotropy in expansion rates does not affect the scalar field, the self-interacting potential, but it controls the non-evolving part of the Brans-Dicke parameter. (orig.)

  8. Correlated density matrix theory of spatially inhomogeneous Bose fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the variational Hartree-Jastrow theory of the ground state of spatially inhomogeneous Bose systems is extended to finite temperatures. The theory presented here is a generalization also in the sense that it extends the correlated density matrix approach, formulated previously for uniform Bose fluids, to systems with nonuniform density profiles. The method provides a framework in which the effects of thermal excitations on the spatial structure of a Bose fluid, as represented by the density profile and the two-body distribution functions, may be discussed on the basis on an ab initio microscopic description of the system. Thermal excitations make their appearance through self-consistently determined one-body and two-body potentials which enter the nonlinear, coupled Euler-Lagrange equations for the one-body density and for the pair distribution function. Since back-flow correlations are neglected, the excitations are described by a Feynman eigenvalue equation, suitably generalized to nonzero temperatures. The only external quantities entering the correlated density matrix theory elaborated here are the bare two-body interaction potential and, in actual applications, the boundary conditions to be imposed on the one-body density. 30 refs

  9. Global Fluorine Flux Associated with Submarine Hydrothermal Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoshima, T.; Sano, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We estimated a fluorine flux associated with hydrothermal fluid emission at mid-ocean ridges (MOR) based on vent fluid chemistry and MORB vesicle compositions. Multiplication of fluorine concentrations in submarine hydrothermal fluids and the vent fluid flux at MOR may give us an estimate of fluorine flux at MOR. A worldwide vent chemistry research [1] suggested that submarine vent fluids are depleted in fluorine (Elsevier, London). [2] Coogan & Dosso (2012) EPSL 323-324, 92-101. [3] Kagoshima et al. (2014) Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2014 Abstract #SGC56-P01. [4] Fischer (2008) Geochem. J. 42, 21-38.

  10. Phase Equilibria and Plate-fluid Interfacial Tensions for Four-site Associating Lennard-Jones Fluids Confined in Slit Pores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Dong; YAN Shu-Mei; WANG Xue-Min

    2008-01-01

    The excess Helmholtz free energy functional for four-site associating Lennard-Jones(LJ)fluid was formulated in terms of a modified fundamental measure theory for short-ranged interactions and a first-order mean-spherical approximation theory for long-ranged attraction.Within the framework of density functional theory,the thermodynamic properties including the average density isotherms,density profiles and fractions of not bonded monomers characterizing the coexistences between gas-like and liquid-like phases for capillary condensation,phase equilibria and equilibrium plate-fluid interfacial tensions were investigated.The influences of association energy,fluid-solid interaction and pore width on the inhomogeneous behavior of four-site associating LJ fluids confined in slit pores were discussed.

  11. Interactions of some fluids with dark energy in f(T) theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nassur, S. B.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Salako, I. G.; Tossa, J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of the dark energy with some fluids filling the universe in the framework of $f(T)$ theory, where $T$ denotes the torsion scalar, searching for the associated gravitational actions. Dark energy is assumed to be of gravitational origin. The interaction of dark energy and baryonic matter is considered resulting in a decay of the energy density of the ordinary matter, where universe appears as driven by cosmological constant. Furthermore we consider the interaction...

  12. Non-extensive statistics, relativistic kinetic theory and fluid dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Biró, T. S.; Molnár, E.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental particle spectra can be successfully described by power-law tailed energy distributions characteristic to canonical equilibrium distributions associated to R\\'enyi's or Tsallis' entropy formula - over a wide range of energies, colliding system sizes, and produced hadron sorts. In order to derive its evolution one needs a corresponding dynamical description of the system which results in such final state observables. The equations of relativistic fluid dynamics are obtained from a...

  13. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  14. Second-order radio frequency kinetic theory revisited: Resolving inconsistency with conventional fluid theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second-order velocity distribution function was calculated from the second-order rf kinetic theory [Jaeger et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 641 (2000)]. However, the nonresonant ponderomotive force in the radial direction derived from the theory is inconsistent with that from the fluid theory. The inconsistency arises from that the multiple-timescale-separation assumption fails when the second-order Vlasov equation is directly integrated along unperturbed particle orbits. A slowly ramped wave field including an adiabatic turn-on process is applied in the modified kinetic theory in this paper. Since this modification leads only to additional reactive/nonresonant response relevant with the secular resonant response from the previous kinetic theory, the correct nonresonant ponderomotive force can be obtained while all the resonant moments remain unchanged

  15. Theory of trapped-particle-induced resistive fluid turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory of anomalous electron heat transport, evolving from trapped-particle-induced resistive interchange modes, is proposed. These latter are a new branch of the resistive interchange-ballooning family of instabilities, destabilized when the pressure carried by the unfavorably-drifting trapped particles is sufficiently large to overcome stabilizing contributions coming from favorable average curvature. Expressions for the turbulent heat diffusivity and anomalous electron thermal conductivity at saturation are derived for two regimes of trapped particle energy: (1) a moderately-energetic regime, which is ''fluid-like'' in the sense that the unstable mode grows faster than the time that it takes for particles in this energy range to precess once around the torus; and (2) a highly-energetic regime, where the trapped species has sufficiently high energy as to be able to resonantly interact with the mode. Unlike previous theories of anomalous transport, the estimates of diffusion and transport obtained here are self-consistent, since the trapped particles do not ''see'' the magnetic flutter due to their rapid bounce motion. The theory is valid for moderate electron-temperature, high ion-temperature (auxiliary-heated) plasmas, and as such, is relevant for present and future-generation experimental fusion devices

  16. Non-extensive statistics, relativistic kinetic theory and fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Biró, T S

    2012-01-01

    Experimental particle spectra can be successfully described by power-law tailed energy distributions characteristic to canonical equilibrium distributions associated to R\\'enyi's or Tsallis' entropy formula - over a wide range of energies, colliding system sizes, and produced hadron sorts. In order to derive its evolution one needs a corresponding dynamical description of the system which results in such final state observables. The equations of relativistic fluid dynamics are obtained from a non-extensive Boltzmann equation consistent with Tsallis' non-extensive $q$-entropy formula. The transport coefficients like shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, and heat conductivity are evaluate based on a linearized collision integral.

  17. Non-extensive statistics, relativistic kinetic theory and fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, T.S. [MTA Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O.Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Molnar, E. [MTA Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O.Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); MTA-DE Particle Physics Research Group, P.O.Box 105, Debrecen (Hungary); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Experimental particle spectra can be successfully described by power law tailed energy distributions characteristic to canonical equilibrium distributions associated to Renyi's or Tsallis' entropy formula -over a wide range of energies, colliding system sizes, and produced hadron sorts. In order to derive its evolution one needs a corresponding dynamical description of the system which results in such final state observables. The equations of relativistic fluid dynamics are obtained from a non-extensive Boltzmann equation consistent with Tsallis' non-extensive q-entropy formula. The transport coefficients like shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, and heat conductivity are evaluate based on a linearized collision integral. (orig.)

  18. Nucleation for Lennard-Jones Fluid by Density Functional Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ A non-mean field density functional theory is employed to investigate the vapour-liquid nucleation. The excess Helmholtz free energy functional is formulated in terms of a local density approximation for short ranged repulsion and a density-gradient expansion for long-ranged attractions. An analytical expression for the direct correlation function of a Lennard-Jones fluid is utilized to take into account the effect of long-ranged attractions on intermolecular correlations. With the predicted bulk properties and surface tension as input, the nucleation properties including density profile, work of formation and number of particles at the reduced temperatures T* = 0.694 and 0.741 are inuestigated. The obtained number of particles in the critical nucleus agrees well with the simulation data.

  19. Modeling of Phase Equilibria Containing Associating Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    terms of an activity coefficient model or an equation of state. Our target in this thesis is to review and develop such models capable of describing qualitatively as well as quantitatively phase equilibria in multicomponent multiphase systems containing non-polar, polar, and associating compounds. The......–known cubic SRK equation of state and the association term proposed by Wertheim, typically employed in models like the various variations of SAFT. CPA has been shown in the past to be a successful model for phase equilibria calculations for systems containing water, hydrocarbons and alcohols. In Chapter 4...... of CPA for the cross-association energy and volume parameters. Different types of such combining rules have been suggested over the past years for association models such as SAFT. These are tested in this work for CPA in terms of their correlation and prediction capabilities for vapor...

  20. Minimal continuum theories of structure formation in dense active fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-sustained dynamical phases of living matter can exhibit remarkable similarities over a wide range of scales, from mesoscopic vortex structures in microbial suspensions and motility assays of biopolymers to turbulent large-scale instabilities in flocks of birds or schools of fish. Here, we argue that, in many cases, the phenomenology of such active states can be efficiently described in terms of fourth- and higher-order partial differential equations. Structural transitions in these models can be interpreted as Landau-type kinematic transitions in Fourier (wavenumber) space, suggesting that microscopically different biological systems can share universal long-wavelength features. This general idea is illustrated through numerical simulations for two classes of continuum models for incompressible active fluids: a Swift–Hohenberg-type scalar field theory, and a minimal vector model that extends the classical Toner–Tu theory and appears to be a promising candidate for the quantitative description of dense bacterial suspensions. We discuss how microscopic symmetry-breaking mechanisms can enter macroscopic continuum descriptions of collective microbial motion near surfaces, and conclude by outlining future applications. (paper)

  1. Critical properties of effective gauge theories for novel quantum fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoergrav, Eivind

    2005-07-01

    Critical properties of U(1) symmetric gauge theories are studied in 2+1 dimensions, analytically through duality transformations and numerically through Monte Carlo simulations. Physical applications range from quantum phase transitions in two dimensional insulating materials to superfluid and superconducting properties of light atoms such as hydrogen under extreme pressure. A novel finite size scaling method, utilizing the third moment M{sub 3} of the action, is developed. Finite size scaling analysis of M{sub 3} yields the ratio (1 + alpha)/ny and 1/ny separately, so that critical exponents alpha and ny can be obtained independently without invoking hyperscaling. This thesis contains eight research papers and an introductory part covering some basic concepts and techniques. Paper 1: The novel M{sub 3} method is introduced and employed together with Monte Carlo simulations to study the compact Abelian Higgs model in the adjoint representation with q = 2. Paper 2: We study phase transitions in the compact Abelian Higgs model for fundamental charge q = 2; 3; 4; 5. Various other models are studied to benchmark the M{sub 3} method. Paper 3: This is a proceeding paper based on a talk given by F. S. Nogueira at the Aachen EPS HEP 2003 conference. A review of the results from Paper 1 and Paper 2 on the compact Abelian Higgs model together with some results on q = 1 obtained by F. S. Nogueira, H. Kleinert, and A. Sudboe is given. Paper 4: The effect of a Chern-Simons (CS) term in the phase structure of two Abelian gauge theories is studied. Paper 5: We study the critical properties of the N-component Ginzburg-Landau theory. Paper 6: We consider the vortices in the 2-component Ginzburg-Landau model in a finite but low magnetic field. The ground state is a lattice of co centered vortices in both order parameters. We find two novel phase transitions. i) A 'vortex sub-lattice melting' transition where vortices in the field with lowest phase stiffness (&apos

  2. Stability of EBT of guiding-centre fluid theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of the hot-electron annulus in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) is not yet completely understood despite considerable attention. Most stability studies have dealt with localized analysis of simplified models in which the actual magnetic configuration is replaced by a straight-line slab with a gravity to emulate the effects of curvature and gradients in the actual magnetic field. Here, a more realistic geometry, a 'bumpy' cylinder with a 2:1 magnetic mirror ratio, is considered and the response of the hot-electron rings to various non-local perturbations, specifying only the mode number in the ignorable co-ordinate, is examined. Guiding-centre theory (with psub(perpendicular) > psub(parallel)) is used and the second variation in the plasma energy (σW) using a finite-element representation to identify the least stable mode for the plasma is studied. All the equilibria that are examined are found to be unstable for all poloidal mode numbers m>=1, with growth rates increasing with increasing ring beta, plasma beta, and poloidal mode number. It is concluded that two-fluid and/or kinetic effects are required to explain the observed global stability of EBT-I. (author)

  3. Interactions of some fluids with dark energy in f(T) theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nassur, S B; Salako, I G; Tossa, J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of the dark energy with some fluids filling the universe in the framework of $f(T)$ theory, where $T$ denotes the torsion scalar, searching for the associated gravitational actions. Dark energy is assumed to be of gravitational origin. The interaction of dark energy and baryonic matter is considered resulting in a decay of the energy density of the ordinary matter, where universe appears as driven by cosmological constant. Furthermore we consider the interaction of dark energy with Van Der Waals fluid and in this regard the universe is seemed plunging into a phantom phase. Finally, the interaction of the dark energy with Chaplygin gas is studied, leading to a universe dominated by the cosmological constant.

  4. Two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the Einstein-Cartan theory, two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function are considered. One of these modelling anisotropic matter distributions within star and the other fluid is a perfect fluid representing a source of torsion. It is shown that the solutions of the Einstein equations for anisotropic relativistic spheres in General Relativity may generate the solutions in the Einstein-Cartan theory. Some exact solutions are obtained

  5. The variational theory of perfect fluid with intrinsic hypermomentum in space-time with nonmetricity

    CERN Document Server

    Babourova, O V

    1995-01-01

    The variational theory of the perfect fluid with an intrinsic hypermomentum is developed. The Lagrangian density of such fluid is stated and the equations of motion of the fluid and the evolution equation of the hypermomentum tensor are derived. The expressions of the matter currents of the fluid (the metric stress-energy 4-form, the canonical energy-momentum 3-form and the hypermomentum 3-form) are obtained.

  6. Hamiltonian theory of self-gravitating perfect fluid and a method of effective deparametrization of Einstein's theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hamiltonian formulation of the theory of a gravitational field interacting with a perfect fluid is considered. There is a natural gauge related to the mechanical and thermodynamical properties of the fluid, which enables us to describe 2 degrees of freedom of the gravitational field and 4 degrees of freedom of the fluid (together with 6 conjugate momenta) by nonconstrained data (g,P) where g is a 3-dimensional metric and P is the corresponding Arnowitt-Deser-Misner momentum. The Hamiltonian of the theory, numerically equal to the entropy of the fluid, generates uniquely the evolution of the data. The Hamiltonian vanishes on the data satisfying the vacuum constraint equations and tends to infinity elsewhere as the amount of the matter tends to zero. In this way the vacuum theory with constraints is obtained as a limiting case of a ''deep potential well'' theory

  7. Many-fluid Onsager density functional theories for orientational ordering in mixtures of anisotropic hard-body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, George; Varga, Szabolcs

    2008-10-14

    The extension of Onsager's second-virial theory [L. Onsager, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 51, 627 (1949)] for the orientational ordering of hard rods to mixtures of nonspherical hard bodies with finite length-to-breadth ratios is examined using the decoupling approximations of Parsons [Phys. Rev. A 19, 1225 (1979)] and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6567 (1987); 89, 7036 (1988)]. Invariably the extension of the Parsons-Lee (PL) theory to mixtures has in the past involved a van der Waals one-fluid treatment in which the properties of the mixture are approximated by those of a reference one-component hard-sphere fluid with an effective diameter which depends on the composition of the mixture and the molecular parameters of the various components; commonly this is achieved by equating the molecular volumes of the effective hard sphere and of the components in the mixture and is referred to as the PL theory of mixtures. It is well known that a one-fluid treatment is not the most appropriate for the description of the thermodynamic properties of isotropic fluids, and inadequacies are often rectified with a many-fluid (MF) theory. Here, we examine MF theories which are developed from the virial theorem and the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of anisotropic fluid mixtures. The use of the decoupling approximation of the pair distribution function at the level of a multicomponent hard-sphere reference system leads to our MF Parsons (MFP) theory of anisotropic mixtures. Alternatively the mapping of the virial coefficients of the hard-body mixtures onto those of equivalent hard-sphere systems leads to our MF Lee (MFL) theory. The description of the isotropic-nematic phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard Gaussian overlap particles is used to assess the adequacy of the four different theories, namely, the original second-virial theory of Onsager, the usual PL one-fluid theory, and the MF theories based on the Lee (MFL) and Parsons (MFP) approaches. A comparison with the

  8. Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is put on understanding of effects on turbulent characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)

  9. Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is put on understanding of effects on turbulent characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)

  10. Towards a statistical mechanical theory of active fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini Bettolo Marconi, Umberto; Maggi, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    We present a stochastic description of a model of N mutually interacting active particles in the presence of external fields and characterize its steady state behavior in the absence of currents. To reproduce the effects of the experimentally observed persistence of the trajectories of the active particles we consider a Gaussian force having a non-vanishing correlation time τ, whose finiteness is a measure of the activity of the system. With these ingredients we show that it is possible to develop a statistical mechanical approach similar to the one employed in the study of equilibrium liquids and to obtain the explicit form of the many-particle distribution function by means of the multidimensional unified colored noise approximation. Such a distribution plays a role analogous to the Gibbs distribution in equilibrium statistical mechanics and provides complete information about the microscopic state of the system. From here we develop a method to determine the one- and two-particle distribution functions in the spirit of the Born-Green-Yvon (BGY) equations of equilibrium statistical mechanics. The resulting equations which contain extra-correlations induced by the activity allow us to determine the stationary density profiles in the presence of external fields, the pair correlations and the pressure of active fluids. In the low density regime we obtained the effective pair potential ϕ(r) acting between two isolated particles separated by a distance, r, showing the existence of an effective attraction between them induced by activity. Based on these results, in the second half of the paper we propose a mean field theory as an approach simpler than the BGY hierarchy and use it to derive a van der Waals expression of the equation of state. PMID:26387914

  11. Inclusion of ion orbit loss and intrinsic rotation in plasma fluid rotation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W. M.; Wilks, T. M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The preferential ion orbit loss of counter-current directed ions leaves a predominantly co-current ion distribution in the thermalized ions flowing outward through the plasma edge of tokamak plasmas, constituting a co-current intrinsic rotation. A methodology for representing this essentially kinetic phenomenon in plasma fluid theory is described and combined with a previously developed methodology of treating ion orbit particle and energy losses in fluid theory to provide a complete treatment of ion orbit loss in plasma fluid rotation theory.

  12. Inclusion of ion orbit loss and intrinsic rotation in plasma fluid rotation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferential ion orbit loss of counter-current directed ions leaves a predominantly co-current ion distribution in the thermalized ions flowing outward through the plasma edge of tokamak plasmas, constituting a co-current intrinsic rotation. A methodology for representing this essentially kinetic phenomenon in plasma fluid theory is described and combined with a previously developed methodology of treating ion orbit particle and energy losses in fluid theory to provide a complete treatment of ion orbit loss in plasma fluid rotation theory

  13. The variational theory of the perfect dilaton-spin fluid in a Weyl-Cartan space

    OpenAIRE

    Babourova, O. V.; Frolov, B. N.

    1997-01-01

    The variational theory of the perfect fluid with intrinsic spin and dilatonic charge (dilaton-spin fluid) is developed. The spin tensor obeys the classical Frenkel condition. The Lagrangian density of such fluid is stated, and the equations of motion of the fluid, the Weyssenhoff-type evolution equation of the spin tensor and the conservation law of the dilatonic charge are derived. The expressions of the matter currents of the fluid (the canonical energy-momentum 3-form, the metric stress-en...

  14. The variational theory of the perfect dilaton-spin fluid in a Weyl-Cartan space

    CERN Document Server

    Babourova, O V

    1997-01-01

    The variational theory of the perfect fluid with intrinsic spin and dilatonic charge (dilaton-spin fluid) is developed. The spin tensor obeys the classical Frenkel condition. The Lagrangian density of such fluid is stated, and the equations of motion of the fluid, the Weyssenhoff-type evolution equation of the spin tensor and the conservation law of the dilatonic charge are derived. The expressions of the matter currents of the fluid (the canonical energy-momentum 3-form, the metric stress-energy 4-form and the dilaton-spin momentum 3-form) are obtained.

  15. A coupled deformation-diffusion theory for fluid-saturated porous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henann, David; Kamrin, Ken; Anand, Lallit

    2012-02-01

    Fluid-saturated porous materials are important in several familiar applications, such as the response of soils in geomechanics, food processing, pharmaceuticals, and the biomechanics of living bone tissue. An appropriate constitutive theory describing the coupling of the mechanical behavior of the porous solid with the transport of the fluid is a crucial ingredient towards understanding the material behavior in these varied applications. In this work, we formulate and numerically implement in a finite-element framework a large-deformation theory for coupled deformation-diffusion in isotropic, fluid-saturated porous solids. The theory synthesizes the classical Biot theory of linear poroelasticity and the more-recent Coussy theory of poroplasticity in a large deformation framework. In this talk, we highlight several salient features of our theory and discuss representative examples of the application of our numerical simulation capability to problems of consolidation as well as deformation localization in granular materials.

  16. Complex fluids in biological systems experiment, theory, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as an introduction to the continuum mechanics and mathematical modeling of complex fluids in living systems. The form and function of living systems are intimately tied to the nature of surrounding fluid environments, which commonly exhibit nonlinear and history dependent responses to forces and displacements. With ever-increasing capabilities in the visualization and manipulation of biological systems, research on the fundamental phenomena, models, measurements, and analysis of complex fluids has taken a number of exciting directions. In this book, many of the world’s foremost experts explore key topics such as: Macro- and micro-rheological techniques for measuring the material properties of complex biofluids and the subtleties of data interpretation Experimental observations and rheology of complex biological materials, including mucus, cell membranes, the cytoskeleton, and blood The motility of microorganisms in complex fluids and the dynamics of active suspensions Challenges and solut...

  17. Calculation of interfacial tensions with gradient theory. I. Pure and Pseudo-Pure Fluids. II. Binary Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    In this research work, the gradient theory (GT) of inhomogeneous fluids was used to calculate interfacial tensions (IFTs). The correlations of the influence parameter are presented for pure hydrocarbons, which can improve the scaling behavior of pure fluids under near-critical conditions. The...... overall average absolute deviations (ADDs) of the calculated IFTs from the GT model with the SRK, PR and PT equations of state (EOS´s) for 86 non-polar and weakly polar pure substances are 2.34%, 2.10% and 2.29%, respectively. At low pressure, the lumping method proposed by Leibovici [Leibovici, C.F, 1993....... A consistent procedure for the estimation of properties associated to lumped systems. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 87: 89-197] was used to lump a mixture into one pseudocomponent, and its IFTs were calculated by means of the method of pure fluids. On the basis of the SRK EOS, the overall AAD of mixtures...

  18. Associativity Anomaly in String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bars, Itzhak; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    We give a detailed study of the associativity anomaly in open string field theory from the viewpoint of the split string and Moyal formalisms. The origin of the anomaly is reduced to the properties of the special infinite size matrices which relate the conventional open string to the split string variables, and is intimately related to midpoint issues. We discuss two steps to cope with the anomaly. We identify the field subspace that causes the anomaly which is related to the existence of clo...

  19. TOWARD A THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS. FLUID PHASE EQUILIBRIA: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    NRMRL/STD JOURNAL NRMRL-CIN-1364 Cabezas*, H., and Fath**, B.D. Toward a Theory of Sustainable Systems. Fluid Phase Equilibria (Nakanishi, K., Yasukiko, A., Miyano, Y. (Ed.), Elsevier Science B.V.) 194-197:3-14 (2002). EPA/600/J-02/186, www.elsevier.com/locate/fluid. 03/2...

  20. Conformally flat static spherically symmetric perfect-fluid distribution in Einstein-Cartan theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanshetti, S. B.; Waghmode, B. B.

    1983-06-01

    We consider the static, conformally flat spherically symmetric perfect-fluid distribution in Einstein-Cartan theory and obtain the field equations. These field equations are solved by adopting Hehl's approach with the assumption that the spins of the particles composing the fluid are all aligned in the radial direction only and the reality conditions are discussed.

  1. What Does Dynamical Systems Theory Teach Us about Fluids?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to compute the Lyapunov spectra of many-particle systems resembling simple fluids in thermal equilibrium and in non-equilibrium stationary states. Here we review some of the most interesting results and point to open questions. (general)

  2. Theory of nonstationary flows of nonlinear viscoelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special case of a quasilinear, nonstationary system is studied which describes particular classes of viscoelastic fluids with a finite number of discretely distributed relaxation times and retardation times. The global existence of at least one strong, generalized solution corresponding to the initial boundary value problem is proved

  3. Numerical implication of Riemann problem theory for fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Riemann problem plays an important role in understanding the wave structure of fluid flow. It is also crucial step in some numerical algorithms for accurately and efficiently computing fluid flow; Godunov method, random choice method, and from tracking method. The standard wave structure consists of shock and rarefaction waves. Due to physical effects such as phase transitions, which often are indistinguishable from numerical errors in an equation of state, anomalkous waves may occur, ''rarefaction shocks'', split waves, and composites. The anomalous waves may appear in numerical calculations as waves smeared out by either too much artificial viscosity or insufficient resolution. In addition, the equation of state may lead to instabilities of fluid flow. Since these anomalous effects due to the equation of state occur for the continuum equations, they can be expected to occur for all computational algorithms. The equation of state may be characterized by three dimensionless variables: the adiabatic exponent γ, the Grueneisen coefficient Γ, and the fundamental derivative G. The fluid flow anomalies occur when inequalities relating these variables are violated. 18 refs

  4. Study on Surface Properties for Non-polar Fluids with Density Functional Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴畏; 陆九芳; 付东; 刘金晨; 李以圭

    2004-01-01

    The density functional theory, simplified by the local density approximation and mean-field approximation, is applied to study the surface properties of pure non-polar fluids. A reasonable long rang correction is adopted to avoid the truncation of the potential. The perturbation theory is applied to establish the equation for the phase equilibrium, in which the hard-core chain fluid is as the reference fluid and the Yukawa potential is used as the perturbation term. Three parameters, elk, d and ms, are regressed from the vapor-liquid equilibria, and the surface properties, including density profile, surface tension and local surface tension profile are predicted with these parameters.

  5. Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model with wet dark fluid in the general theory of relativity

    OpenAIRE

    RAVISHANKAR, Arun; Mishra, Bivudutta; SAHOO, Pradyumn Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of wet dark fluid (WDF) in Kantowski-Sachs space-time in the general theory of relativity. In this theory, we solved the field equations for the case where r WDF=-2pWDF. Various physical and geometrical properties of the model are also discussed.

  6. Kinetic and fluid theory of microwave breakdown in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed time-dependent fluid and kinetic treatments of electron transport in air in the presence of a propagating microwave pulse. In both cases the HPM pulses are assumed to be of short enough duration so that electron spatial diffusion can be neglected. In addition, we limit our calculations to the non-relativistic regime where effects due to the ponderomotive force are negligible. 6 refs., 4 figs

  7. Mathematical theory of viscous fluids: retrospective and future perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2010), s. 533-555. ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : viscous fluid * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * global-intime solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4942

  8. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory : Correlations in molecular fluids with intrinsic angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Todd, B. D.; Bruus, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for ...

  9. Computational fluid dynamics in fire engineering theory, modelling and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Yuen, Kwok Kit

    2009-01-01

    Fire and combustion presents a significant engineering challenge to mechanical, civil and dedicated fire engineers, as well as specialists in the process and chemical, safety, buildings and structural fields. We are reminded of the tragic outcomes of 'untenable' fire disasters such as at King's Cross underground station or Switzerland's St Gotthard tunnel. In these and many other cases, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is at the forefront of active research into unravelling the probable causes of fires and helping to design structures and systems to ensure that they are less likely in the f

  10. Thermo-fluid dynamic theory of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed discussion on the formulation of various mathematical models of two-phase flows based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is presented. Special emphasises have been put on the local instant formulation and on the time-averaged macroscopic models. Two important models have been presented: 1) the two-fluid model which is formulated by considering each phase separately, and 2) the diffusion model which is formulated by considering the mixture as a whole, thus it is expressed in terms of three mixture conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy with one additional diffusion equation. The present formulation can be used to obtain the wall laws by analyses, i.e., the friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. The high-light of the report is the proposed constitutive laws with special emphasis on the interfacial exchange terms as well as on the turbulent transfer terms

  11. New relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics from kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with the relativistic Boltzmann equation where the collision term is generalized to include nonlocal effects via gradients of the phase-space distribution function, and using Grad's 14-moment approximation for the distribution function, we derive equations for the relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics. We compare them with the corresponding equations obtained in the standard Israel–Stewart and related approaches. Our method generates all the second-order terms that are allowed by symmetry, some of which have been missed by the traditional approaches based on the 14-moment approximation, and the coefficients of other terms are altered. The first-order or Navier–Stokes equations too get modified. Significance of these findings is demonstrated in the framework of one-dimensional scaling expansion of the matter formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

  12. Bianchi type VI1 cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated Bianchi type VIh, II and III cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravity, where the matter field is in the form of perfect fluid and with a time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). A non-singular model for the universe filled with disorder radiation is constructed and some physical behaviors of the model are studied for the feasible VIh (h = 1) space-time.

  13. Mass dependence of shear viscosity in a binary fluid mixture: mode-coupling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sk Musharaf; Samanta, Alok; Choudhury, Niharendu; Ghosh, Swapan K

    2006-11-01

    An expression for the shear viscosity of a binary fluid mixture is derived using mode-coupling theory in order to study the mass dependence. The calculated results on shear viscosity for a binary isotopic Lennard-Jones fluid mixture show good agreement with results from molecular dynamics simulation carried out over a wide range of mass ratio at different composition. Also proposed is a new generalized Stokes-Einstein relation connecting the individual diffusivities to shear viscosity. PMID:17279895

  14. Fluid Flow Complexity in Fracture Networks: Analysis with Graph Theory and LBM

    OpenAIRE

    H. O. Ghaffari; M. H. B. Nasseri; Young, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    Through this research, embedded synthetic fracture networks in rock masses are studied. To analysis the fluid flow complexity in fracture networks with respect to the variation of connectivity patterns, two different approaches are employed, namely, the Lattice Boltzmann method and graph theory. The Lattice Boltzmann method is used to show the sensitivity of the permeability and fluid velocity distribution to synthetic fracture networks' connectivity patterns. Furthermore, the fracture networ...

  15. A Thermodynamic Model for Square-well Chain Fluid: Theory and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for the freely jointed square-well chain fluids was developed based on the thermodynamic perturbation theory of Barker-Henderson, Zhang and Wertheim. In this derivation Zhang's expressions for square-well monomers improved from Barker-Henderson compressibility approximation were adopted as the reference fluid, and Wertheim's polymerization method was used to obtain the free energy term due to the bond connectivity. An analytic expression for the Helmholtz free energy of the square-well chain fluids was obtained. The expression without adjustable parameters leads to the thermodynamic consistent predictions of the compressibility factors, residual internal energy and constant-volume heat capacity for dimer,4-mer, 8-mer and 16-mer square-well fluids. The results are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. To obtain the MC data of residual internal energy and the constant-volume heat capacity needed, NVT MC simulations were performed for these square-well chain fluids.

  16. Cylindrically symmetric Zel'dovich fluid distributions in general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of charged perfect fluid distribution is investigated when the space-time is described by the Einstein-Rosen metric. It is shown that with assumed cylindrical symmetry the cosmological constant Λ vanishes, the electromagnetic field becomes source-free, and the perfect fluid reduces to Zel'dovich fluid with p = rho. Sets of exact solutions for this case have been obtained and the corresponding solutions for Brans-Dicke-Maxwell fields have been derived. For these solutions the Einstein-Rosen metric, however, goes over to three-parameter Marder metric in Brans-Dicke theory. (author)

  17. Stability, Causality, and Shock Waves in the Israel - Theory of Relativistic Dissipative Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Timothy Scott

    1990-08-01

    The stability, causality, and hyperbolicity properties were analyzed for the Israel-Stewart theory of relativistic dissipative fluids formulated in the energy frame. The equilibria of the theory which are stable for small perturbations were found by constructing a Liapunov functional. The conditions which guarantee that small perturbations about equilibrium will propagate with velocities less than the speed of light and will obey a system of hyperbolic differential equations were determined by calculating the characteristic velocities. It was shown that the stability conditions are equivalent to the causality and hyperbolicity conditions. The behavior of the theory far from equilibrium was studied by considering the plane symmetric motions of an inviscid ultrarelativistic Boltzmann gas. The theory was shown to be hyperbolic for large deviations from equilibrium, and acausality implies instability in this example. The plane steady shock wave solutions were also studied for the Israel-Stewart theory formulated in the Eckart frame. The theory was shown to fail to adequately describe the structure of strong shock waves. Physically acceptable solutions do not exist above a maximum upstream Mach number in any thermally nonconducting and viscous fluid described by the theory because the solutions become multiple-valued when the characteristic velocity is exceeded. It was also proven that physically acceptable solutions do not exist for thermally conducting and viscous fluids above either a maximum upstream Mach number, or else below a minimum downstream Mach number (or both). These limiting Mach numbers again correspond to the characteristic velocities of the fluid. Only extremely weak plane steady shock solutions can be single-valued in the Israel-Stewart theory for the ultrarelativistic Boltzmann gas or for the degenerate free Fermi gas.

  18. Non-static conformally flat spherically symmetric perfect fluid distribution in Einstein-Cartan theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R. B. S.; Prasad, U.

    1993-05-01

    The nonstatic conformally flat spherically symmetric perfect fluid distribution in Einstein-Cartan theory is considered, and the field equations and their general solution are obtained using Hehl's approach (1974). Particular attention is given to the solution in co-moving coordinates and the explicit expressions for pressure, density, expansion, rotation, and shear and nonzero components of flow vector.

  19. Equilibrium Properties of Hard Sphere Fluid in Confined Geometries: a Density Functional Theory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫华; 诸蔚朝; 马红孺

    2003-01-01

    One component hard-sphere fluid confined in two planar hard walls is studied by means of density functional theory with Rosenfeld functional and molecular dynamics simulation. The validity of the Rosenfeld functional is examined. Chemical potential, grand potential and free energy as functions of the wall separation are obtained.

  20. Comparison of Theories of Anisotropy in Transformer Oil-Based Magnetic Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external magnetic field in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and formation of clusters. These aggregations are the result of the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles occurs. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids has also very important influence on the structural changes because the mechanism of thermal motion acts against the cluster creation. The acoustic spectroscopy was used to study the anisotropy of transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the effect of an external magnetic field and temperature. In present the anisotropy of the magnetic fluids can be described by two theories. Taketomi theory assumes the existence of spherical clusters. These clusters form long chains, aligned in a magnetic field direction. Shliomis in his theory supposed that only nanoparticles formed chains. A comparison of the experimental results with the predictions of the Taketomi theory allowed a determination of the cluster radius and the number density of the colloidal particles. The proportions of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational motion were determined.

  1. On the Hamiltonian formulation of incompressible ideal fluids and magnetohydrodynamics via Dirac's theory of constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Chandre, Cristel; Morrison, Philip; Tassi, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structures of the incompressible ideal fluid, including entropy advection, and magnetohydrodynamics are investigated by making use of Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. A Dirac bracket for these systems is constructed by assuming a primary constraint of constant density. The resulting bracket is seen to naturally project onto solenoidal velocity fields.

  2. Does a scalar meson field represent an irrotational perfect fluid in bimetric theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of homogeneous plane symmetric perfect fluid and massive scalar field are investigated in Rosen's bimetric theory. It is shown that a macro cosmological model represented by perfect fluid distribution does not exist and only a vacuum model can be constructed whereas in case of a micro cosmological model represented by a scalar meson field exist and the model is obtained. Moreover it is shown that the massive scalar field cannot be equivalent to irrotational perfect fluid neither through the identification of the the corresponding eigenvalues of their energy momentum tensors nor through the transformation as in the case of Tiwary et all and Tabensky and Taub respectively in general theory of relativity. (authors)

  3. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton\\'s method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. White operators in a non-associative quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The associators/antiassociators for the product of three and four non-associative operators are deduced. By the analogy with SU(3) gauge theory the notion of white (colorless) operators is introduced. Some properties of white operators are considered. It is offered that the white operators do not give any contribution to corresponding associators/antiassociators. It is suggested that the observables in a non-associative quantum theory correspond to the white operators only. (author)

  5. Beyond Poisson-Boltzmann: fluctuations and fluid structure in a self-consistent theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, S; Blossey, R

    2016-09-01

    Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory is the classic approach to soft matter electrostatics and has been applied to numerous physical chemistry and biophysics problems. Its essential limitations are in its neglect of correlation effects and fluid structure. Recently, several theoretical insights have allowed the formulation of approaches that go beyond PB theory in a systematic way. In this topical review, we provide an update on the developments achieved in the self-consistent formulations of correlation-corrected Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We introduce a corresponding system of coupled non-linear equations for both continuum electrostatics with a uniform dielectric constant, and a structured solvent-a dipolar Coulomb fluid-including non-local effects. While the approach is only approximate and also limited to corrections in the so-called weak fluctuation regime, it allows us to include physically relevant effects, as we show for a range of applications of these equations. PMID:27357125

  6. Bianchi Type VI1 Viscous Fluid Cosmological Model in Wesson´s Theory of Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadekar, G. S.; Avachar, G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Field equations of a scale invariant theory of gravitation proposed by Wesson [1, 2] are obtained in the presence of viscous fluid with the aid of Bianchi type VIh space-time with the time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). It is found that Bianchi type VIh (h = 1) space-time with viscous fluid is feasible in this theory, whereas Bianchi type VIh (h = -1, 0) space-times are not feasible in this theory, even in the presence of viscosity. For the feasible case, by assuming a relation connecting viscosity and metric coefficient, we have obtained a nonsingular-radiating model. We have discussed some physical and kinematical properties of the models.

  7. Dynamic Self-Consistent Field Theory of Inhomogeneous Complex Fluids Under Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlovic, Maja; Lo, Tak Shing; Shnidman, Yitzhak

    2003-03-01

    Understanding and predicting the interplay between morphology and rheology of sheared, inhomogeneous, complex fluids is of great importance. Yet modeling of such phenomena is in its infancy. We have developed a novel dynamic self-consistent field (DSCF) theory that makes possible detailed computational study of such phenomena. Our DSCF theory couples the time evolution of chain conformation statistics with probabilistic transport equations for volume fractions and momenta, based on local conservation laws formulated on a segmental scale. To generate chain conformation statistics, we are using a modification of the lattice random walk formalism of Scheutjens and Fleer. Their static SCF theory is limited to equilibrium systems, since probability distributions are obtained by free energy minimization, assuming isotropic Gaussian chain conformations. In contrast, our DSCF approach accounts for explicit time evolution of the segmental and (anisotropic) stepping probabilities used for generating chain conformations. We will present highlights of DSCF studies of a variety of inhomogenous fluids containing homopolymers, block copolymers and nanoparticles.

  8. Collisionless two-fluid theory of toroidal ηi stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collisionless two-fluid theory based on a 14-moment generalization of the ''double-adiabatic'' equations is developed to lowest order in the Larmor radius parameter, and applied to derive the toroidal ηi stability boundary for all values of the ratio of the density gradient scale length divided by the field curvature length. The present model is an improvement over existing two-fluid models in view of the collisionless nature of the ηi instability, while retaining the advantage over kinetic theory of the practicability of mode-coupling simulations. The linear stability boundary, linear growth rate, and real frequency agree fairly accurately with drift-kinetic theory

  9. Critical evidence for the prediction error theory in associative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kanta Terao; Yukihisa Matsumoto; Makoto Mizunami

    2015-01-01

    In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. Complete evidence for the prediction error theory, however, has not been obtained in any learning systems: Prediction error theory stems from the finding of a blocking phenomenon, but blocking can also be accounted for by other theories, such as the attentional theory. We demonstrated blocking in classical conditioning in crickets an...

  10. Experimental evidence of ion acoustic soliton chain formation and validation of nonlinear fluid theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas

  11. Experimental evidence of ion acoustic soliton chain formation and validation of nonlinear fluid theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakad, Amar [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410-218 (India); Omura, Yoshiharu [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kakad, Bharati [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410-218 (India)

    2013-06-15

    We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.

  12. The Dynamics of fluid flow and associated chemical fluxes at active continental margins

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Evan Alan

    2007-01-01

    Active fluid flow plays an important role in the geochemical, thermal, and physical evolution of the Earth’s crust. This dissertation investigates the active fluid flow and associated chemical fluxes at two dynamic continental margins: The Costa Rica subduction zone and the northern Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon province, using novel seafloor instrumentation for continuous monitoring of fluid flow rates and chemistry. Traditional pore fluid sampling methods and flow rate models only provide a ...

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in Chiari malformation associated with syringomyelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; WANG Zhen-yu; XIE Jing-cheng; HAN Hong-bin; PEI Xin-long

    2007-01-01

    Background About 50%-70% of patients with Chiari malformation I (CMI) presented with syringomyelia (SM), which is supposed to be related to abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow around the foramen magnum. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics at levels of the aqueduct and upper cervical spine in patients with CMI associated with SM, and to discuss the possible mechanism of formation of SM.Methods From January to April 2004, we examined 10 adult patients with symptomatic CMI associated with SM and 10 healthy volunteers by phase-contrast MRI. CSF flow patterns were evaluated at seven regions of interest (ROI): the aqueduct and ventral and dorsal subarachnoid spaces of the spine at levels of the cerebellar tonsil, C2-3, and C5-6. The CSF flow waveforms were analyzed by measuring CSF circulation time, durations and maximum velocities of cranial- and caudal-directed flows, and the ratio between the two maximum velocities. Data were analyzed by ttest using SPSS 11.5.Results We found no definite communication between the fourth ventricle and syringomyelia by MRI in the 10 patients.In both the groups, we observed cranial-directed flow of CSF in the early cardiac systolic phase, which changed the direction from cranial to caudal from the middle systolic phase to the early diastolic phase, and then turned back in cranial direction in the late diastolic phase. The CSF flow disappeared at the dorsal ROI at the level of C2-3 in 3 patients and 1 volunteer, and at the level of C5-6 in 6 patients and 3 volunteers. The durations of CSF circulation at all the ROIs were significantly shorter in the patients than those in the healthy volunteers (P=0.014 at the midbrain aqueduct, P=0.019 at the inferior margin of the cerebellar tonsil, P=0.014 at the level of C2-3, and P=0.022 at the level of C5-6). No significant difference existed between the two groups in the initial point and duration of the caudal-directed CSF flow during a cardiac cycle at

  14. Marder's Two-Fluid Dark Energy Cosmological Models In Saez-Ballester Theory of Gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Pawar, D D

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with cylindrically symmetric metric in the form of Marder (1958) with Saez-Ballester theory of gravitation in the presence of perfect fluid and dark energy. In order to obtain the deterministic solution of the field equations we have assumed that the expansion scalar in the model is proportional to the Eigen value of the shear tensor. We have also assumed that the two sources, here the perfect fluid and dark energy interact minimally with separate conservative parts of their energy momentum tensors together with the constant EoS parameter of the perfect fluid. The role of the dark energy in the present model with variable equation of state parameter is studied more in detail. Some physical properties of model are also discussed.

  15. Theory and validation of magnetic resonance fluid motion estimation using intensity flow data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion tracking based on spatial-temporal radio-frequency signals from the pixel representation of magnetic resonance (MR imaging of a non-stationary fluid is able to provide two dimensional vector field maps. This supports the underlying fundamentals of magnetic resonance fluid motion estimation and generates a new methodology for flow measurement that is based on registration of nuclear signals from moving hydrogen nuclei in fluid. However, there is a need to validate the computational aspect of the approach by using velocity flow field data that we will assume as the true reference information or ground truth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we create flow vectors based on an ideal analytical vortex, and generate artificial signal-motion image data to verify our computational approach. The analytical and computed flow fields are compared to provide an error estimate of our methodology. The comparison shows that the fluid motion estimation approach using simulated MR data is accurate and robust enough for flow field mapping. To verify our methodology, we have tested the computational configuration on magnetic resonance images of cardiac blood and proved that the theory of magnetic resonance fluid motion estimation can be applicable practically. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this work will allow us to progress further in the investigation of fluid motion prediction based on imaging modalities that do not require velocity encoding. This article describes a novel theory of motion estimation based on magnetic resonating blood, which may be directly applied to cardiac flow imaging.

  16. The Aharonov-Bohm effect in a spatially confining theory based on a turbulent fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    Wilson loops in a turbulent fluid are shown to respect a specific area law corresponding to the Kolmogorov scaling. This law leads to the condensation of a complex-valued scalar field minimally coupled to the velocity field. We use this finding to estimate a v.e.v. of the dual Higgs field, which appears in the hydrodynamic description of a spatially confining dual Landau-Ginzburg theory. The temperature dependence of all other parameters of this theory is found upon a comparison with the spatial string tension and the chromo-magnetic vacuum correlation length of the Yang-Mills gluon plasma. In particular, a nonperturbative contribution to the shear viscosity of the dual fluid comes out exponentially suppressed with temperature. Interactions of the dual Abrikosov vortices with excitations of the fluid yield a long-range Aharonov-Bohm effect. This effect is shown to take place for all but calculated discrete values of the product of the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to the coupling constant of the dual Higgs...

  17. Cosmological perturbation in f(R,G) theories with a perfect fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to classify modified gravity models according to their physical properties, we analyze the cosmological linear perturbations for f(R,G) theories (R being the Ricci scalar and G, the Gauss-Bonnet term) with a minimally coupled perfect fluid. For the scalar-type perturbations, we identify in general six degrees of freedom. We find that two of these physical modes obey the same dispersion relation as the one for a nonrelativistic de Broglie wave. This means that spacetime is either highly unstable or its fluctuations undergo a scale-dependent superluminal propagation. Two other modes correspond to the degrees of freedom of the perfect fluid, and propagate with the sound speed of such a fluid. The remaining two modes correspond to the entropy and temperature perturbations of the perfect fluid, and completely decouple from the other modes for a barotropic equation of state. We then provide a concise condition on f(R,G) theories, which both f(R) and R+f(G) do fulfill, to avoid the de Broglie-type dispersion relation. For the vector-type perturbation, we find that the perturbations decay in time. For the tensor-type perturbation, the perturbations can be either superluminal or subluminal, depending on the model. No-ghost conditions are also obtained for each type of perturbation.

  18. A Theory of Intelligence and Total Factor Productivity: Value Added Reflects the Fruits of Fluid Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Harashima, Taiji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a theory of total factor productivity (TFP) that incorporates a model of intelligence is formulated and described. In particular, the fluid intelligence of ordinary workers is emphasized as an important element in TFP because such workers have the intelligence to innovate, even though their innovations are minor. Nevertheless, these innovations are essential for production because they solve many small but unexpected problems that ordinary workers must address. The TFP model is...

  19. A general theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid-protein fluid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Miao, L.

    2005-01-01

    We present a general and systematic theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of multi-component fluid membranes, in general, and membranes containing transmembrane proteins, in particular. Developed based on a minimal number of principles of statistical physics and designed to be a meso/macroscopic-sca......-equilibrium phenomena in a range of membrane systems, as discussions in the paper of a few limit cases demonstrate. © EDP Sciences / Società Italiana di Fisica / Springer-Verlag 2005....

  20. The Two Fluid Drop Snap-off Problem Experiments and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, I; Eggers, J; Nagel, S R; Cohen, Itai; Brenner, Michael P.; Eggers, Jens; Nagel, Sidney R.

    1999-01-01

    We address the dynamics of a drop with viscosity $\\lambda \\eta$ breaking up inside another fluid of viscosity $\\eta$. For $\\lambda=1$, a scaling theory predicts the time evolution of the drop shape near the point of snap-off which is in excellent agreement with experiment and previous simulations of Lister and Stone. We also investigate the $\\lambda$ dependence of the shape and breaking rate.

  1. Ellipticity of static perfect fluids in preferred-frame theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that in any metric theory with the parametrized-post-Newtonian parameter α2not =0 (for general relativity α2 = 0) a static: in the rest frame: perfect fluid moving with velocity omega-arrow-right relative to the preferred frame of the Universe, in empty space, cannot have a spherically symmetric configuration and is oblate for α2>0 and prolate for α2<0, with respect to the direction of motion

  2. A thermodynamically consistent constitutive theory for a rigid solid-stokesian fluid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is concerned with the modelling for the flow of a stokesian fluid through a rigid porous medium, using a Theory of Mixtures viewpoint. A systematic procedure to obtain constitutive relations that verify automatically the principle of objectivity and a local version of the second law of Thermodynamics is proposed. The prescription of two thermodynamic potentials for each constituent is sufficient to define a complete set of constitutive relations. (author)

  3. Solution-generating transformations in duality-invariant theories and the fluid/gravity correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Berkeley, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We explore dualities and solution-generating transformations in various contexts. Our focus is on the T-duality invariant form of supergravity known as double field theory, the $SL(5)$-invariant M-theory extended geometry, and metrics dual under the fluid/gravity correspondence to an incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid. In double field theory (DFT), a wave solution is shown to embed both the F1 string and the pp-wave. For the former, the Goldstone mode dynamics reproduce the duality symmetric string introduced by Tseytlin. We consider solution-generating techniques in DFT in the presence of an isometry, firstly via Buscher-like transformations in the DFT string $\\sigma$-model, and secondly via the DFT equations of motion. In the $SL(5)$-invariant geometry, we provide a chain rule derivation of the covariant equations of motion, and present a wave solution embedding the M2 brane. Lastly, solution-generating transformations for metrics with an isometry are considered in the context of the fluid/gravity correspon...

  4. Equilibrium configuration of perfect fluid orbiting around black holes in some classes of alternative gravity theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2015-04-01

    The hydrodynamic behavior of perfect fluid orbiting around black holes in spherically symmetric spacetime for various alternative gravity theories has been investigated. For this purpose we have assumed a uniform distribution for the angular momentum density of the rotating perfect fluid. The contours of equipotential surfaces are illustrated in order to obtain the nature of inflow and outflow of matter. It has been noticed that the marginally stable circular orbits originating from decreasing angular momentum density lead to closed equipotential surfaces along with cusps, allowing the existence of accretion disks. On the other hand, the growing part of the angular momentum density exhibits central rings for which stable configurations are possible. However, inflow of matter is prohibited. Among the solutions discussed in this work, the charged F(R) gravity and Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet solutions exhibit inflow and outflow of matter with central rings present. These varied accretion disk structures of perfect fluid attribute astrophysical importance to these spacetimes. The effect of higher curvature terms predominantly arises from the region near the black hole horizon. Hence the structural difference of the accretion disk in modified gravity theories in comparison to general relativity may act as an experimental probe for these alternative gravity theories.

  5. Computation of Nonlinear Hydrodynamic Loads on Floating Wind Turbines Using Fluid-Impulse Theory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok Yan Chan, G.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Jonkman, J.; Hayman, G.

    2015-04-02

    A hydrodynamics computer module was developed for the evaluation of the linear and nonlinear loads on floating wind turbines using a new fluid-impulse formulation for coupling with the FAST program. The recently developed formulation allows the computation of linear and nonlinear loads on floating bodies in the time domain and avoids the computationally intensive evaluation of temporal and nonlinear free-surface problems and efficient methods are derived for its computation. The body instantaneous wetted surface is approximated by a panel mesh and the discretization of the free surface is circumvented by using the Green function. The evaluation of the nonlinear loads is based on explicit expressions derived by the fluid-impulse theory, which can be computed efficiently. Computations are presented of the linear and nonlinear loads on the MIT/NREL tension-leg platform. Comparisons were carried out with frequency-domain linear and second-order methods. Emphasis was placed on modeling accuracy of the magnitude of nonlinear low- and high-frequency wave loads in a sea state. Although fluid-impulse theory is applied to floating wind turbines in this paper, the theory is applicable to other offshore platforms as well.

  6. Some C*-algebras associated to quantum gauge theories

    OpenAIRE

    Hannabuss, Keith C.

    2010-01-01

    Algebras associated with Quantum Electrodynamics and other gauge theories share some mathematical features with T-duality Exploiting this different perspective and some category theory, the full algebra of fermions and bosons can be regarded as a braided Clifford algebra over a braided commutative boson algebra, sharing much of the structure of ordinary Clifford algebras.

  7. NAHAMMER, Pressure Transients in Na LMFBR Piping System, Linear Fluid Hammer Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: NAHAMMER analyzes short-term pressure-pulse transients in a closed hydraulic system consisting of series or parallel piping, pipe junctions, diameter discontinuities, elbows, junctions of three to six branches, orifices, acoustic impedance discontinuities, dummy junctions, dead ends, and free surfaces in surge tanks. The working fluid is assumed to be sodium without cavitation. 2 - Method of solution: NAHAMMER considers a simplified one-dimensional linear inviscid set of governing equations. Classical fluid-hammer theory was linearized by neglecting the viscosity and recognizing that convective terms are negligible when the ratio of flow velocity to sonic speed is less than 0.01. Numerical solutions are obtained by a simple superposition technique for tracing the waves traveling along each characteristic and for extending the solution from one constant time line to the next. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program currently provides for maxima of: 50 legs, 120 nodes per leg, 50 junctions, 10 plenums (surge tanks). The assumption of linearity restricts the maximum pressure at any propagating wave front in sodium to about 5800 psi. Calculations are limited to liquid sodium in the absence of cavitation. Friction- free fluid motion maintains its energy within any pipe section, but conventional energy losses based on steady-state incompressible fluid flow are taken into account for elbows, diameter discontinuities, and orifice-like restrictions. To specify a working fluid other than sodium, the source coding must be changed

  8. A non-associative quaternion scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Giardino, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    A non-associative Groenewold-Moyal plane is constructed using quaternion-valued function algebras. The symmetrized multi-particle states, the scalar product, the annihilation/creation algebra and d the formulation in terms of a Hopf algebra are also developed. Non-associative quantum algebras in terms of position and momentum operators are given as the simplest examples of a framework whose applications may involve string theory and non-linear quantum field theory

  9. Adsorption of short-chain fluids at solid substrates from density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use microscopic density functional theory to investigate the adsorption of short-chains at solid surfaces. The fluid is modeled as freely-jointed tangent spheres that interact via a short-ranged attractive potential. Within the framework of fundamental measure theory we study how the structure and surface phase behaviour of adsorbed fluid changes when the chain length is increased. We observe that the wetting temperature rescaled by the bulk critical temperature decreases with an increase of the chain length. For longer chains this temperature reaches a plateau. For the surface critical temperature an inverse effect is observed, i.e. the surface critical temperature increases with the chain length and then attains a plateau. Furthermore, we analyze how the layering transitions change with the change of the chain length and with relative strength of the fluid-solid interaction. The critical temperature of the first layering transition, rescaled by the bulk critical temperature increases slightly with an increase of the chain length. We have found that for longer chains the layering transitions within consecutive layers are shifted towards very low temperatures and that their sequence is finally replaced by a single transition. Finally we investigate capillary condensation of chain fluid in slit-like pores. We find that for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. (author)

  10. Theory of activated penetrant diffusion in viscous fluids and colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2015-10-14

    We heuristically formulate a microscopic, force level, self-consistent nonlinear Langevin equation theory for activated barrier hopping and non-hydrodynamic diffusion of a hard sphere penetrant in very dense hard sphere fluid matrices. Penetrant dynamics is controlled by a rich competition between force relaxation due to penetrant self-motion and collective matrix structural (alpha) relaxation. In the absence of penetrant-matrix attraction, three activated dynamical regimes are predicted as a function of penetrant-matrix size ratio which are physically distinguished by penetrant jump distance and the nature of matrix motion required to facilitate its hopping. The penetrant diffusion constant decreases the fastest with size ratio for relatively small penetrants where the matrix effectively acts as a vibrating amorphous solid. Increasing penetrant-matrix attraction strength reduces penetrant diffusivity due to physical bonding. For size ratios approaching unity, a distinct dynamical regime emerges associated with strong slaving of penetrant hopping to matrix structural relaxation. A crossover regime at intermediate penetrant-matrix size ratio connects the two limiting behaviors for hard penetrants, but essentially disappears if there are strong attractions with the matrix. Activated penetrant diffusivity decreases strongly with matrix volume fraction in a manner that intensifies as the size ratio increases. We propose and implement a quasi-universal approach for activated diffusion of a rigid atomic/molecular penetrant in a supercooled liquid based on a mapping between the hard sphere system and thermal liquids. Calculations for specific systems agree reasonably well with experiments over a wide range of temperature, covering more than 10 orders of magnitude of variation of the penetrant diffusion constant. PMID:26472397

  11. Theory of activated penetrant diffusion in viscous fluids and colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We heuristically formulate a microscopic, force level, self-consistent nonlinear Langevin equation theory for activated barrier hopping and non-hydrodynamic diffusion of a hard sphere penetrant in very dense hard sphere fluid matrices. Penetrant dynamics is controlled by a rich competition between force relaxation due to penetrant self-motion and collective matrix structural (alpha) relaxation. In the absence of penetrant-matrix attraction, three activated dynamical regimes are predicted as a function of penetrant-matrix size ratio which are physically distinguished by penetrant jump distance and the nature of matrix motion required to facilitate its hopping. The penetrant diffusion constant decreases the fastest with size ratio for relatively small penetrants where the matrix effectively acts as a vibrating amorphous solid. Increasing penetrant-matrix attraction strength reduces penetrant diffusivity due to physical bonding. For size ratios approaching unity, a distinct dynamical regime emerges associated with strong slaving of penetrant hopping to matrix structural relaxation. A crossover regime at intermediate penetrant-matrix size ratio connects the two limiting behaviors for hard penetrants, but essentially disappears if there are strong attractions with the matrix. Activated penetrant diffusivity decreases strongly with matrix volume fraction in a manner that intensifies as the size ratio increases. We propose and implement a quasi-universal approach for activated diffusion of a rigid atomic/molecular penetrant in a supercooled liquid based on a mapping between the hard sphere system and thermal liquids. Calculations for specific systems agree reasonably well with experiments over a wide range of temperature, covering more than 10 orders of magnitude of variation of the penetrant diffusion constant

  12. Beyond Poisson–Boltzmann: fluctuations and fluid structure in a self-consistent theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, S.; Blossey, R.

    2016-09-01

    Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) theory is the classic approach to soft matter electrostatics and has been applied to numerous physical chemistry and biophysics problems. Its essential limitations are in its neglect of correlation effects and fluid structure. Recently, several theoretical insights have allowed the formulation of approaches that go beyond PB theory in a systematic way. In this topical review, we provide an update on the developments achieved in the self-consistent formulations of correlation-corrected Poisson–Boltzmann theory. We introduce a corresponding system of coupled non-linear equations for both continuum electrostatics with a uniform dielectric constant, and a structured solvent—a dipolar Coulomb fluid—including non-local effects. While the approach is only approximate and also limited to corrections in the so-called weak fluctuation regime, it allows us to include physically relevant effects, as we show for a range of applications of these equations.

  13. Dense fluid self-diffusion coefficient calculations using perturbation theory and molecular dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COELHO L. A. F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to correlate self-diffusion coefficients in dense fluids by using the perturbation theory (WCA coupled with the smooth-hard-sphere theory is presented and tested against molecular simulations and experimental data. This simple algebraic expression correlates well the self-diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane, ethylene, and sulfur hexafluoride. We have also performed canonical ensemble molecular dynamics simulations by using the Hoover-Nosé thermostat and the mean-square displacement formula to compute self-diffusion coefficients for the reference WCA intermolecular potential. The good agreement obtained from both methods, when compared with experimental data, suggests that the smooth-effective-sphere theory is a useful procedure to correlate diffusivity of pure substances.

  14. Extended Chaplygin gas as a unified fluid of dark components in varying gravitational constant theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin; Tan, Hongyan; Gao, Shanshan

    2014-03-01

    Varying gravitational constant G(t) (VG) cosmology is studied in this paper, where the modified Friedmann equation and the modified energy conservation equation are given with respect to the constant-G theory. Considering the extended Chaplygin gas (ECG) as background fluid (or thinking that ECG fluid is induced by the variation of G), the unified model of dark matter and dark energy is obtained in VG theory. The parameter spaces are investigated in the VG-ECG model by using the recent cosmic data. Constraint results show β =-G/.HG =-0.003-0.020-0.055+0.021+0.034 for the VG-GCG unified model and β=-0.027-0.032-0.066+0.032+0.059 for the VG-MCG unified model. Equivalently, they correspond to the limits on the current variation of Newton's gravitational constant at 95.4% confidence level |G/.G|today≲4.1×10-12 yr-1 and |G/.G|today≲6.6×10-12 yr-1. And for z ≤3.5, bounds on the variation of G/.G in the VG-ECG unified model are in accordance with the experiment explorations of varying G. In addition, in VG theory the used observational data point still cannot distinguish the VG-GCG and VG-MCG unified model from the most popular ΛCDM cosmology. Furthermore, to see the effects of varying G and physical properties for VG-ECG fluid, we discuss the evolutionary behaviors of cosmological quantities in VG theory, such as G/.G, G./.G and equation of state w, etc. For β <0 a quintom scenario crossing over w=-1 can be realized in the VG-GCG model.

  15. Associations of Hospital and Patient Characteristics with Fluid Resuscitation Volumes in Patients with Severe Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fluid resuscitation is a key intervention in patients with sepsis and circulatory impairment. The recommendations for continued fluid therapy in sepsis are vague, which may result in differences in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate associations between hospital and patient...... characteristics and fluid resuscitation volumes in ICU patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: We explored the 6S trial database of ICU patients with severe sepsis needing fluid resuscitation randomised to hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 vs. Ringer's acetate. Our primary outcome measure was fluid resuscitation volume...... sepsis. The data indicate variations in clinical practice not explained by patient characteristics emphasizing the need for RCTs assessing fluid resuscitation volumes fluid in patients with sepsis....

  16. Towards a theory for vortex filaments in stratified-rotating fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billant, Paul; Deloncle, Axel; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Otheguy, Pantxika

    2014-12-01

    In inviscid fluids with uniform density, it is common to idealize three-dimensional vortex tubes by filaments (i.e., single lines of an infinitesimal cross section). Thanks to the Kelvin and Helmholtz theorems, it is known that these vortex filaments are transported with the fluid and their circulation is conserved. The induced motions can be computed by the Biot-Savart law, with an appropriate cut off in the integral to avoid singularity. Hence, this approach allows one to model the linear or nonlinear dynamics of vortex flows. A priori, vortex filaments cannot be used in density-stratified and rotating fluids since the circulation is not conserved and the vortex lines are not material lines. However, in this paper we review a theory that is equivalent to vortex filaments. It is based on matched asymptotic expansions for small vortex-core size, weak curvature, and small vortex displacements. The resulting stability equations are formally identical to those of vortex filaments in homogeneous fluids. However, striking differences between homogeneous and stratified-rotating fluids exist, such as the reversal of the self-induced motion for strong stratification or complex self-induction for moderate stratification due to the presence of critical points. The three-dimensional linear stability of vertical vortex pairs and vortex arrays (Karman street, double symmetric row) in stratified and rotating fluids has been investigated using this analytical approach. The results are in very good agreement with the results of direct numerical stability analyses of smooth vortex configurations. Possible extensions to include nonlinear and baroclinic effects are briefly discussed.

  17. Existence and release of fluid inclusions in bornite and its associated quartz and calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Wen, Shu-ming; Wu, Dan-dan; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao-lin; Shen, Hai-ying

    2013-09-01

    The existence and release of fluid inclusions in bornite and its associated minerals, namely, quartz and calcite were investigated and confirmed. The structures, forms, and phases of these large quantities of fluid inclusions were also studied. A mass of fluid inclusions with various sizes, distributions, shapes, and phases exist in bornite and its associated minerals. Their sizes vary from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers, and the forms appear as negative crystals, or elongated, elliptical, and irregular. At room temperature, fluid inclusions were mainly characterized as gas-liquid twophase. However, small amounts of fluid inclusions with pure gas phase and pure liquid single-phase were also observed in quartz and calcite. These fluid inclusions initially broke during the ore crushing and grinding process and then released into the flotation pulp in the flotation process. The quantitative analysis of fluid inclusions in the solution and the comparisons of mineral dissolution show that the amount of copper and iron released by fluid inclusions in the bornite sample is higher than the amount dissolved by the mineral; fluid inclusions in the associated gangue minerals, quartz, and calcite also make contribution.

  18. Binary Mixture of Perfect Fluid and Dark Energy in Modified Theory of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, A. Y.

    2016-07-01

    A self consistent system of Plane Symmetric gravitational field and a binary mixture of perfect fluid and dark energy in a modified theory of gravity are considered. The gravitational field plays crucial role in the formation of soliton-like solutions, i.e., solutions with limited total energy, spin, and charge. The perfect fluid is taken to be the one obeying the usual equation of state, i.e., p = γρ with γ∈ [0, 1] whereas, the dark energy is considered to be either the quintessence like equation of state or Chaplygin gas. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained for power-law and exponential volumetric expansion. The geometrical and physical parameters for both the models are studied.

  19. Mechanical design problems associated with turbopump fluid film bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evces, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    Most high speed cryogenic turbopumps for liquid propulsion rocket engines currently use ball or roller contact bearings for rotor support. The operating speeds, loads, clearances, and environments of these pumps combine to make bearing wear a limiting factor on turbopump life. An example is the high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Although the HPOTP design life is 27,000 seconds at 30,000 rpms, or approximately 50 missions, bearings must currently be replaced after 2 missions. One solution to the bearing wear problem in the HPOTP, as well as in future turbopump designs, is the utilization of fluid film bearings in lieu of continuous contact bearings. Hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, and damping seal bearings are all replacement candidates for contact bearings in rocket engine high speed turbomachinery. These three types of fluid film bearings have different operating characteristics, but they share a common set of mechanical design opportunities and difficulties. Results of research to define some of the mechanical design issues are given. Problems considered include transient strat/stop rub, non-operational rotor support, bearing wear inspection and measurement, and bearing fluid supply route. Emphasis is given to the HPOTP preburner pump (PBP) bearing, but the results are pertinent to high-speed cryogenic turbomachinery in general.

  20. 13th Conference of the Canadian Number Theory Association

    CERN Document Server

    Alaca, Şaban; Williams, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The theory of numbers continues to occupy a central place in modern mathematics because of both its long history over many centuries as well as its many diverse applications to other fields such as discrete mathematics, cryptography, and coding theory. The proof by Andrew Wiles (with Richard Taylor) of Fermat’s last theorem published in 1995 illustrates the high level of difficulty of problems encountered in number-theoretic research as well as the usefulness of the new ideas arising from its proof. The thirteenth conference of the Canadian Number Theory Association was held at Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada from June 16 to 20, 2014. Ninety-nine talks were presented at the conference on the theme of advances in the theory of numbers. Topics of the talks reflected the diversity of current trends and activities in modern number theory. These topics included modular forms, hypergeometric functions, elliptic curves, distribution of prime numbers, diophantine equations, L-functions, Diophantine app...

  1. The Complete Friedman Cosmology with Barotropic Fluids for the Brans-Dicke Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet-Alducin, P.

    2002-12-01

    The different ways in which an homogeneous and isotropic Universe in the form of a barotropic fluid expands in the cosmological theory of Brans-Dicke [1] can be completly rendered, even if the space is not flat, almost only for the special stress-energy tensor that represents incoherent radiation or ultrarelativistic matter because the original, and well known, nonlinear field equations comprise two unknowns which makes their integration difficult, and more so when the space is non-flat, in contrast with the General Relativity case which only has a single unknown function to determine -the scale factor-. Therefore, a fruitful avenue that can be used to obtain cosmological solutions for this, and other scalar-tensor theories, originally developed in Chauvet [2], and extended elsewhere [3] has been to procure equations for a single variable by combining the two aforementioned functions into a single one. So far this, and other methods to obtain perfect fluid, analytic solutions for a non-flat space, have given the sought after, and complete results, mostly for the vacuum, incoherent radiation, and stiff "matter" cases in this, and in similar but more general scalar-tensor theories [4]. A salient fact for a non-flat space is that radiation, and the remaining fluids as well, can expand linearly in time which is the limit for accelerating universes that, nowadays, turn out to be significant [5]. This expansion comes about as the end product of the special form that the composite function assumes: a second degree polynomial whose discriminant is equal to zero, which then permits a time inversion onto "cosmic time" which translates into a common behavior for the non-flat FRW models, and is moreover the general cosmic solution to the flat space [6]. For the polynomial function different fluids, and different spaces as well, are distinguished essentially by the three constant factors some of which depend on the equation of state through n, and the coupling parameter

  2. Transmission Characteristics in Tubular Acoustic Metamaterials Studied with Fluid Impedance Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubular acoustic metamaterials with negative densities composed of periodical membranes set up along pipes are studied with the fluid impedance theory. In addition to the conventional forbidden bands induced by the Bragg-scattering due to the periodic distributions of different acoustic impedances, the low-frequency forbidden band (LFB) with the low-frequency limit of zero Hertz is studied, in which the LFB is explained with acoustic impedance matching and the Bloch theory. Furthermore, the influences of the structural parameters of the tubular acoustic metamaterials on the transmission characteristics, such as the transmission coefficients, dispersion curves, widths of forbidden and pass bands, fluctuations in pass bands, etc., are evaluated, which can be used in the optimization of the acoustic insulation ability of the metamaterials. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  3. Quasi-chemical Theory for the Statistical Thermodynamics of the Hard Sphere Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, L R; Gómez, M A; Gentile, M E; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Violette, Randall A. La; Gomez, Maria A.; Gentile, Mary E.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a quasi-chemical theory for the study of packing thermodynamics in dense liquids. The situation of hard-core interactions is addressed by considering the binding of solvent molecules to a precisely defined `cavity' in order to assess the probability that the `cavity' is entirely evacuated. The primitive quasi-chemical approximation corresponds to a extension of the Poisson distribution used as a default model in an information theory approach. This primitive quasi-chemical theory is in good qualitative agreement with the observations for the hard sphere fluid of occupancy distributions that are central to quasi-chemical theories but begins to be quantitatively erroneous for the equation of state in the dense liquid regime of $\\rho d^3>$0.6. How the quasi-chemical approach can be iterated to treat correlation effects is addressed. Consideration of neglected correlation effects leads to a simple model for the form of those contributions neglected by the primitive quasi-chemical approximation. These c...

  4. Quasi-chemical Theory and the Statistical Thermodynamics of the Hard Sphere Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, L. R.; Laviolette, Randall Alexander; Gomez, M. A.; Gentile, M.

    2001-09-01

    We develop a quasi-chemical theory for the study of packing thermodynamics in dense liquids. The situation of hard-core interactions is addressed by considering the binding of solvent molecules to a precisely defined cavity in order to assess the probability that the cavity is entirely evacuated. The primitive quasi-chemical approximation corresponds to an extension of the Poisson distribution used as a default model in an information theory approach. This primitive quasi-chemical theory is in good qualitative agreement with the observations for the hard-sphere fluid of occupancy distributions that are central to quasi-chemical theories but begins to be quantitatively erroneous for the equation of state in the dense liquid regime of d3 > 0.6. How the quasi-chemical approach can be iterated to treat correlation effects is addressed. Consideration of neglected correlation effects leads to a simple model for the form of those contributions neglected by the primitive quasi-chemical approximation. These considerations, supported by simulation observations, identify a "break away" phenomena that requires special thermodynamic consideration for the zero (0) occupancy case as distinct from the rest of the distribution. An empirical treatment leads to a one-parameter model occupancy distribution that accurately fits the hard-sphere equation of state and observed distributions.

  5. Flow of colloidal solids and fluids through constrictions: dynamical density functional theory versus simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Urs; Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-06-22

    Using both dynamical density functional theory and particle-resolved Brownian dynamics simulations, we explore the flow of two-dimensional colloidal solids and fluids driven through a linear channel with a constriction. The flow is generated by a constant external force acting on all colloids. The initial configuration is equilibrated in the absence of flow and then the external force is switched on instantaneously. Upon starting the flow, we observe four different scenarios: a complete blockade, a monotonic decay to a constant particle flux (typical for a fluid), a damped oscillatory behaviour in the particle flux, and a long-lived stop-and-go behaviour in the flow (typical for a solid). The dynamical density functional theory describes all four situations but predicts infinitely long undamped oscillations in the flow which are always damped in the simulations. We attribute the mechanisms of the underlying stop-and-go flow to symmetry conditions on the flowing solid. Our predictions are verifiable in real-space experiments on magnetic colloidal monolayers which are driven through structured microchannels and can be exploited to steer the flow throughput in microfluidics. PMID:27116706

  6. The Instantaneous Wall Viscosity in Pipe Flow of Power Law Fluids: Case Study for a Theory of Turbulence in Time-Independent Non-Newtonian Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Khanh Tuoc

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory of turbulence in time-independent non-Newtonian fluids. The wall layer is modelled in terms of unsteady exchange of viscous momentum between the wall and the main stream, following the classic visualisation of inrush-sweep-ejection/burst. The thickness of the wall layer is found to be the same for Newtonian and purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids, when normalised with the instantaneous wall parameters at the onset of bursting. The results indicate that the mec...

  7. Potential theory of adsorption for associating mixtures: possibilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel; Shapiro, Alexander; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    describe the solid-fluid interactions. The potential is extended to include adsorbate-absorbent specific capacities rather than an adsorbent specific capacity. Correlations of pure component isotherms are generally excellent with individual capacities, although adsorption on silicas at different...... the binary mixtures only contain associating compounds. Predictions are typically improved by about 3% when individual capacities are employed, but improvements can in some cases be as large as 45%. When individual capacities and the best performing EoS are used, average absolute deviations of the...

  8. Contributions of Associative Learning to Age and Individual Differences in Fluid Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Elaine; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    According to the cognitive cascade hypothesis, age-related slowing results in decreased working memory, which in turn affects higher-order cognition. Because recent studies show complex associative learning correlates highly with fluid intelligence, the present study examined the role of complex associative learning in cognitive cascade models of…

  9. A thermo-mechanically coupled theory for fluid permeation in elastomeric materials: Application to thermally responsive gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Shawn A.; Anand, Lallit

    2011-10-01

    An elastomeric gel is a cross-linked polymer network swollen with a solvent, and certain gels can undergo large reversible volume changes as they are cycled about a critical temperature. We have developed a continuum-level theory to describe the coupled mechanical deformation, fluid permeation, and heat transfer of such thermally responsive gels. In discussing special constitutive equations we limit our attention to isotropic materials, and consider a model based on a Flory-Huggins model for the free energy change due to mixing of the fluid with the polymer network, coupled with a non-Gaussian statistical-mechanical model for the change in configurational entropy—a model which accounts for the limited extensibility of polymer chains. We have numerically implemented our theory in a finite element program. We show that our theory is capable of simulating swelling, squeezing of fluid by applied mechanical forces, and thermally responsive swelling/de-swelling of such materials.

  10. Time-dependent quantum fluid density functional theory of hydrogen molecule under intense laser fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amita Wadehra; B M Deb

    2007-09-01

    A time-dependent generalized non-linear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) of motion was earlier derived in our laboratory by combining density functional theory and quantum fluid dynamics in threedimensional space. In continuation of the work reported previously, the GNLSE is applied to provide additional knowledge on the femtosecond dynamics of the electron density in the hydrogen molecule interacting with high-intensity laser fields. For this purpose, the GNLSE is solved numerically for many time-steps over a total interaction time of 100 fs, by employing a finite-difference scheme. Various time-dependent (TD) quantities, namely, electron density, ground-state survival probability and dipole moment have been obtained for two laser wavelengths and four different intensities. The high-order harmonics generation (HHG) is also examined. The present approach goes beyond the linear response formalism and, in principle, calculates the TD electron density to all orders of change.

  11. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J S

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies the relaxation of the molecular spin angular velocity in the framework of generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory. Using molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that for uncharged diatomic molecules the relaxation time decreases with increasing molecular moment of inertia per unit mass. In the regime of large moment of inertia the fast relaxation is wave-vector independent and dominated by the coupling between spin and the fluid streaming velocity, whereas for small inertia the relaxation is slow and spin diffusion plays a significant role. The fast wave-vector-independent relaxation is also observed for highly packed systems. The transverse and longitudinal spin modes have, to a good approximation, identical relaxation, indicating that the longitudinal and transverse spin viscosities have same value. The relaxation is also shown to be isomorphic invariant. Finally, the effect of the coupling in the zero frequency and wave-vector limit is quantified by a characteristic length scale; if the system dimension is comparable to this length the coupling must be included into the fluid dynamical description. It is found that the length scale is independent of moment of inertia but dependent on the state point. PMID:24125208

  12. Unification of Plasma Fluid and Kinetic Theory via Gaussian Radial Basis Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental macroscopic description of a magnetized plasma is the Vlasov equation supplemented by the nonlinear inverse-square force Fokker-Planck collision operator [Rosenbluth et al., Phys. Rev. 107, 1957]. The Vlasov part describes advection in a six-dimensional phase space whereas the collision operator contains friction and diffusion coefficients that are weighted velocity-space integrals of the particle distribution function. The Fokker-Planck collision operator is an integro-differential, nonlinear (bilinear) operator. Numerical discretization of the operator, in particular for collisions of unlike species, is extremely challenging. In this work, we describe a new approach to discretize the entire kinetic system based on an expansion in Gaussian Radial Basis functions (RBFs). This approach is particularly well-suited to treat the collision operator because the friction and diffusion coefficients can be analytically calculated. Although the RBF method is known to be a powerful scheme for the interpolation of scattered multidimensional data, Gaussian RBFs also have a deep physical interpretation in statistical mechanics and plasma physics as local thermodynamic equilibria. We outline the general theory, highlight the connection to plasma fluid theories, and also give 2D and 3D numerical solutions of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. A broad spectrum of applications for the new method is anticipated in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In particular, we believe that the RBF method may provide a new bridge between fluid and kinetic descriptions of magnetized plasma. Work supported in part by US DOE under DE-FG02-08ER54963.

  13. Density functional theory of inhomogeneous liquids. I. The liquid-vapor interface in Lennard-Jones fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsko, James F.

    2007-01-01

    A simple model is proposed for the direct correlation function (DCF) for simple fluids consisting of a hard-core contribution, a simple parametrized core correction, and a mean-field tail. The model requires as input only the free energy of the homogeneous fluid, obtained, e.g., from thermodynamic perturbation theory. Comparison to the DCF obtained from simulation of a Lennard-Jones fluid shows this to be a surprisingly good approximation for a wide range of densities. The model is used to co...

  14. THEORY OF FLUID-SOLID COUPLED FLOW THROUGH FRACTURED LOW-PERMEABILITY OIL RESERVOIR AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian-jun

    2003-01-01

    During the development of low permeability reservoirs. the interaction between fluid flow and rock-mass deformation is obvious. On the basis of fluid mechanics in porous media and elasto-plastic theory. the author presents an equivalent continuum model to simulate fluid flow in fractured low-permeability oil reservoir coupled with geo-stress. The model not only reflects the porosity change of matrix, but also the permeability change due to the opening and closing of fracture. By analyzing of simulation results, the changes in porosity and permeability and their effect on oil development are studied.

  15. Mode-coupling theory of the stress-tensor autocorrelation function of a dense binary fluid mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2005-01-01

    We present a generalized mode-coupling theory for a dense binary fluid mixture. The theory is used to calculate molecular-scale renormalizations to the stress-tensor autocorrelation function (STAF) and to the long-wavelength zero-frequency shear viscosity. As in the case of a dense simple fluid, we find that the STAF appears to decay as $t^{-3/2}$ over an intermediate range of time. The coefficient of this long-time tail is more than two orders of magnitude larger than that obtained from conv...

  16. A new perturbation theory of solids and fluids and its applications to high-pressure melting problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical mechanical theory that can describe both solids and fluids in a self-consistent way is described. This theory utilizes a optimized reference potential whose repulsive range shrinks with density. A unique feature of the new theory is that solid- and fluid-phase thermodynamic properties are both computed within a single theoretical framework. Hence, it allows us to study melting phenomena in a self-consistent manner. For solids, the new theory treats both harmonic and anharmonic effects in thermodynamic properties on equal footing. Applications to several model and rare gas systems show that the new theory can accurately predict fluid, solid, and fluid-solid transition properties. Effective pair potentials inferred from the analysis of krypton and xenon isotherms contain short- and long-range modifications to the Aziz-Slaman pair potential. The long-range correction is repulsive and originates from the Axilrod-Teller three-body force, while the short-range correction probably originates from many-body forces. Using the computed melting curves of krypton and neon, we discuss the range of validity of the corresponding states principle for rare gas systems. 68 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Kinematics of fluid particles on the sea surface. Part 1. Hamiltonian theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fedele, Francesco; Farazmand, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    We derive the John-Sclavounos equations describing the motion of a fluid particle on the sea surface from first principles using Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms applied to the motion of a frictionless particle constrained on an unsteady surface. The main result is that vorticity generated on a stress-free surface vanishes at a wave crest when the horizontal particle velocity equals the crest propagation speed, which is the kinematic criterion for wave breaking. If this holds for the largest crest, then the symplectic two-form associated with the Hamiltonian dynamics reduces instantaneously to that associated with the motion of a particle in free flight, as if the surface did not exist. Further, exploiting the conservation of the Hamiltonian function for steady surfaces and traveling waves we show that particle velocities remain bounded at all times, ruling out the possibility of the finite-time blowup of solutions.

  18. Dynamical density functional theory for arbitrary-shape colloidal fluids including inertia and hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Goddard, Ben; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades the classical density-functional theory (DFT) and its dynamic extensions (DDFTs) have become a remarkably powerful tool in the study of colloidal fluids. Recently there has been extensive research to generalise all previous DDFTs finally yielding a general DDFT equation (for spherical particles) which takes into account both inertia and hydrodynamic interactions (HI) which strongly influence non-equilibrium properties. The present work will be devoted to a further generalisation of such a framework to systems of anisotropic particles. To this end, the kinetic equation for the Brownian particle distribution function is derived starting from the Liouville equation and making use of Zwanzig's projection-operator techniques. By averaging over all but one particle, a DDFT equation is finally obtained with some similarities to that for spherical colloids. However, there is now an inevitable translational-rotational coupling which affects the diffusivity of asymmetric particles. Lastly, in the overdamped (high friction) limit the theory is notably simplified leading to a DDFT equation which agrees with previous derivations. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  19. Temperature-dependent study of isotropic-nematic transition for a Gay-Berne fluid using density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the density-functional theory to study the effect of varying temperature on the isotropic-nematic transition of a fluid of molecules interacting via the Gay-Berne intermolecular potential. The nematic phase is found to be stable with respect to isotropic phase in the temperature range 0.80≤T*≤1.25. Pair correlation functions needed as input information in density-functional theory is calculated using the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory. We find that the density-functional theory is good for studying the isotropic-nematic transition in molecular fluids if the values of the pair-correlation functions in the isotropic phase are known accurately. We have also compared our results with computer simulation results wherever they are available

  20. Higher-order weakly nonlinear theory for internal waves in three-layer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkina, O. E.; Kurkin, A. A.; Rouvinskaya, E. A.

    2012-04-01

    Three-layer stratifications are proved to be a proper approximation of sea water density profile in some basins in the World Ocean with specific hydrological conditions. Some shallow basins such as the Baltic Sea and some river estuaries have more or less continuous three-layer vertical structure caused by the interplay of fresh water discharge to the surface and salt water intrusion in the bottom layers. In order to describe the basic features of the internal wave field in such environments it is necessary to introduce a three-layer model. Such models are considerably more complex than the most popular two-layer systems; however, they represent new dynamical effects and allow for much more analytical progress in their studies compared to the fully stratified situation. In the present study two modes of long internal gravity waves in a three-layer fluid are investigated in the framework of higher-order nonlinear evolutionary equations derived with the use of asymptotic procedure from the governing Euler equations for inviscid incompressible layered medium with "rigid lid" and horizontal impermeable bottom. The equations are written upto the fifth order of the perturbation theory for both interfaces for the waves of both modes: first (fast mode) and second (slow mode, so-called double-humped or varicose). For each equation the coefficients of nonlinearity, dispersion and nonlinear dispersion are expressed explicitly in terms of parameters of this fluid configuration. The behavior and signs of the coefficients are analyzed. The necessary order of the equations is discussed and determined for each case. A few nonlinear asymptotic transformations are proposed to reduce higher-order equations to simpler lower-order or well-known integrable equations (Korteweg - de Vries, Gardner equations). Special attention is paid to the situations when the nonlinear terms of lower orders of perturbation theory can vanish. For such situations particular rescaling is performed in order

  1. Polarized and depolarized light-scattering studies on Brownian diffusional and critical fluid systems: theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to expand light-scattering autocorrelation techniques to Brownian diffusional and critical fluid systems in which multiple scattering effects are important, and to understand the observed similarity of the Rayleigh linewidth of light scattered from these two seemingly different systems is discussed. A formalism was developed to find the light field multiply scattered from a suspension of Brownian diffusing particles. For the field doubly scattered from a system of noninteracting Brownian particles, the intensity and correlation time were much less dependent on the scattering angle than for the singly scattered component. The polarized and depolarized correlation times of light scattered from Brownian particle systems were measured. The double-scattering formalism was extended to light scattered from critical fluid systems. In the region k xi greater than 5 the doubly and singly scattered correlation times were nearly equal. The dynamic droplet model of critical phenomena was developed which gives the proper, experimentally verified, forms for the intensity and linewidth of light scattered from a critical fluid. To test the dynamic droplet model and the mode theories Rayleigh linewidth predictions, light-scattering measurements were performed on the critical fluid system methanol and cyclohexane. The data agreed with both the dynamic droplet and decoupled mode theory predictions. The depolarized scattered spectra from a critical fluid were measured, and qualitative agreement with the double-scattering theory was found. 57 figures, 5 tables.

  2. [A Case of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Associated with Cervical Spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Hirohito; Shiomi, Ryoji; Tatsumi, Shotaro; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak and intracranial hypotension associated with cervical spondylosis have rarely been observed, and only a few cases are reported. A 69-year-old woman, previously treated for rectal and thyroid cancer, complained of a non-postural persistent headache. The patient regularly practiced aerobic exercise, but a month earlier she had started experiencing headache and neck pain while exercising. Computed tomography(CT)showed bilateral chronic subdural hematomas, and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed diffuse dural enhancement and tonsillar herniation. We drained the subdural hematomas and replaced the ventricular reservoir to safely access the cerebrospinal fluid space. After surgery, the persistent headache disappeared for several days, but a postural headache emerged. CT myelogram showed extradural accumulation of the contrast medium at the C2-5 level with cervical spondylosis. The patient was treated with conservative therapy of bed rest and intravenous fluid hydration for two weeks, and the headache improved. CT myelogram after treatment showed no extradural accumulation of the contrast medium. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak associated with cervical spondylosis could be induced by the repeated minor mechanical stress caused by physical exercise. Therefore, the possibility that non-postural persistent headache may be caused by spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak should not be underestimated. PMID:27605479

  3. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite associated with the Windy Knoll bitumen deposit, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M. R.; Rankin, A. H.; Milledge, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite, associated with an outcropping bitumen deposit at Windy Knoll, Derbyshire, have been analysed in situ using a combination of microthermometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectrometry, and ultraviolet (UV) microscopy. The inclusions in these samples can be considered as a series with two endmembers: aqueous inclusions containing a low-density vapour phase and inclusions containing liquid "oil" with no detectable aqueous phase. The majority of the inclusions are mixed types containing both aqueous and liquid hydrocarbon phases. Although microthermometry distinguishes at least two different aqueous fluids with varying homogenization temperatures and salinities, the oil fraction is cogenetic and trapped together with just one fluid, a low-salinity, low-calcium brine with an average homogenization temperature of 134°C. The majority of the liquid hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions fluoresce bright blue under UV illumination with peaks around 475 nm, characteristic of paraffinic oils. The FTIR spectra of these inclusions are dominated by peaks assigned to aliphatic C - H bonding. However, inclusions have also been found which display a fluorescence typical of the red-shift associated with less mature oils. The FTIR spectra display peaks assigned to CO, C - O, and O - CH 2 bonding. This study presents new data on the in-situ analysis of hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions from this important area of natural petroleum seepage and ore mineralization. The results suggest a direct link between the fluid inclusion populations, the outcropping bitumens, and fluorite deposition.

  4. Hierarchical reference theory of fluids: Application to three-dimensional Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hierarchical reference theory (HRT) of fluids is applied to the three-dimensional Ising model on a simple cubic lattice with nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic interaction via the equivalence with the lattice-gas model. The hierarchy is truncated to the first equation and closed with an Ornstein-Zernike ansatz for the direct correlation function embodying both thermodynamic consistency and on-site repulsion between lattice particles. The resulting equations are integrated numerically above and below the critical temperature and the results are compared with those obtained by closed-form approximants. It is shown that HRT yields nontrivial critical exponents with the correct scaling regime and a value of the critical temperature in very close agreement with the true one. At the same time it retains all the information about the short-range behavior of the system, and so gives a very accurate description also away from the critical point. Below the critical temperature as long as long-wavelength fluctuations are included in the system the van der Waals loop is suppressed and is replaced by a region where the compressibility is infinite, namely the coexistence region. 21 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. Fluids density functional theory and initializing molecular dynamics simulations of block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan R.; Seo, Youngmi; Maula, Tiara Ann D.; Hall, Lisa M.

    2016-03-01

    Classical, fluids density functional theory (fDFT), which can predict the equilibrium density profiles of polymeric systems, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which are often used to show both structure and dynamics of soft materials, can be implemented using very similar bead-based polymer models. We aim to use fDFT and MD in tandem to examine the same system from these two points of view and take advantage of the different features of each methodology. Additionally, the density profiles resulting from fDFT calculations can be used to initialize the MD simulations in a close to equilibrated structure, speeding up the simulations. Here, we show how this method can be applied to study microphase separated states of both typical diblock and tapered diblock copolymers in which there is a region with a gradient in composition placed between the pure blocks. Both methods, applied at constant pressure, predict a decrease in total density as segregation strength or the length of the tapered region is increased. The predictions for the density profiles from fDFT and MD are similar across materials with a wide range of interfacial widths.

  6. Neutrophil chemotactic activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Kharazmi, A; Larsen, C G; Lundgren, J D

    1997-01-01

    been shown to confer a poor prognosis in PCP. We therefore investigated the potential of BAL fluid from 17 patients with PCP to induce neutrophil chemotaxis. BAL fluid from patients induced considerable neutrophil chemotactic activity compared to normal controls. Elevated levels of IL-8 were detected...... in patient samples as compared to controls. A specific anti-IL-8 antibody significantly reduced chemotactic activity of patient samples by more than 50%. In conclusion, IL-8 appears to be a significant participant of neutrophil chemotaxis in AIDS-associated PCP, and may participate in the recruitment...

  7. Variational formulation of pre-stressed solid–fluid mixture theory, with an application to wave phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Placidi, Luca; Dell'Isola, Francesco; Ianiro, Nicoletta; Sciarra, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    Fluid saturated porous media are modelled by the theory of mixtures and the placement maps of the solid and of the fluid are considered. The momentum balance equations are derived in the framework of a variational approach: We take an action functional and two families of variations and assume that the sum of the virtual work of the external forces and the variation of such an action along each variation are zero. Constitutive equations for the two Cauchy stress tensors and for the interactio...

  8. Association of positive fluid balance and cardiovascular complications after thoracotomy for noncancer lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipanmekaporn T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanyong Pipanmekaporn,1,2 Yodying Punjasawadwong,2 Somrat Charuluxananan,3 Worawut Lapisatepun,2 Pavena Bunburaphong,3 Somchareon Saeteng41Clinical Epidemiology Program, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandObjective: The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of positive fluid balance on cardiovascular complications after thoracotomy for noncancer lesions.Methods: After approval from an institutional review board, a retrospective cohort study was conducted. All consecutive patients undergoing thoracotomy between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011 in a single medical center were recruited. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of cardiovascular complications, which were defined as cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, heart failure, myocardial ischemia, and pulmonary embolism. Univariable and multivariable risk regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between positive fluid balance and cardiovascular complications.Results: A total of 720 patients were included in this study. The incidence of cardiovascular complications after thoracotomy for noncancer lesions was 6.7% (48 of 720. Patients with positive fluid balance >2,000 mL had a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular complications than those with positive fluid balance ≤2,000 mL (22.2% versus 7.0%, P=0.005. Cardiac arrhythmias were the most common complication. Univariable risk regression showed that positive fluid balance >2,000 mL was a significant risk factor (risk ratio =3.15, 95% confident interval [CI] =1.44–6.90, P-value =0.004. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables during multivariable risk regression analysis, positive fluid balance >2,000 mL remained a strong risk

  9. SDEM modelling of deformation associated with a listric fault system and associated fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Marie L.; Clausen, Ole R.; Egholm, David L.; Andresen, Katrine J.

    2016-04-01

    Numerical modelling of geological structures using FEM, DEM and SDEM methods as well as analogue modelling are widely used in order to achieve a better understanding of the kinematics and dynamics during deformation. The methods are furthermore the ultimate source for mapping (observing) the true geometry of geological structures as well as subsurface fluid flow phenomena in 3D seismic data developed for hydrocarbon exploration. Here we use 3D seismic data and SDEM modelling to suggest a dynamic-kinematic evolution of the deformation in the hangingwall of a listric fault overlying an active salt roller. We use the results to obtain a better understanding of the fluid flow in a complex deformed hangingwall. The case study is focused at the D-1 fault trend in the western part of the Norwegian Danish Basin, at the northern slope of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The D-1 main fault detaches along the northern flank of a Zechstein salt roller which was active during the Cenozoic. The seismic analysis shows a system of secondary normal antithetic and synthetic faults dipping approximately 50-60dg within the hangingwall. Shallow gas is trapped in the hangingwall and the secondary faults often confine the accumulations i.e. indicating that the secondary faults are sealing. The modelling confirms that the geometry of the secondary faults is highly controlled by the rheology of different layers in the hangingwall but also on the intensity of the salt movement. The modelling also suggests the presence of vertical deformation zones; structures which are not directly observed on the seismic data. The vertical deformation zones are related to the differential vertical movement of the strata due to salt migration. A neural network trained chimney probability cube shows high probabilities for the presence of minor vertical gas chimneys below the gas accumulations suggesting that vertical fluid migration in the hangingwall occurred in areas with significant vertical salt movements. The

  10. Connecting Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Fluids Density Functional Theory of Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lisa

    Increased understanding and precise control over the nanoscale structure and dynamics of microphase separated block copolymers would advance development of mechanically robust but conductive materials for battery electrolytes, among other applications. Both coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and fluids (classical) density functional theory (fDFT) can capture the microphase separation of block copolymers, using similar monomer-based chain models and including local packing effects. Equilibrium free energies of various microphases are readily accessible from fDFT, which allows us to efficiently determine the equilibrium nanostructure over a large parameter space. Meanwhile, MD allows us to visualize specific polymer conformations in 3D over time and to calculate dynamic properties. The fDFT density profiles are used to initialize the MD simulations; this ensures the MD proceeds in the appropriate microphase separated state rather than in a metastable structure (useful especially for nonlamellar structures). The simulations equilibrate more quickly than simulations initialized with a random state, which is significant especially for long chains. We apply these methods to study the interfacial behavior and microphase separated structure of diblock and tapered block copolymers. Tapered copolymers consist of pure A and B monomer blocks on the ends separated by a tapered region that smoothly varies from A to B (or from B to A for an inverse taper). Intuitively, tapering increases the segregation strength required for the material to microphase separate and increases the width of the interfacial region. Increasing normal taper length yields a lower domain spacing and increased polymer mobility, while larger inverse tapers correspond to even lower domain spacing but decreased mobility. Thus the changes in dynamics with tapering cannot be explained by mapping to a diblock system at an adjusted effective segregation strength. This material is based upon work

  11. High-Pressure Transport Properties Of Fluids: Theory And Data From Levitated Drops At Combustion-Relevant Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth; Ohsaka, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    Although the high pressure multicomponent fluid conservation equations have already been derived and approximately validated for binary mixtures by this PI, the validation of the multicomponent theory is hampered by the lack of existing mixing rules for property calculations. Classical gas dynamics theory can provide property mixing-rules at low pressures exclusively. While thermal conductivity and viscosity high-pressure mixing rules have been documented in the literature, there is no such equivalent for the diffusion coefficients and the thermal diffusion factors. The primary goal of this investigation is to extend the low pressure mixing rule theory to high pressures and validate the new theory with experimental data from levitated single drops. The two properties that will be addressed are the diffusion coefficients and the thermal diffusion factors. To validate/determine the property calculations, ground-based experiments from levitated drops are being conducted.

  12. Comment on 'Vibration analysis of fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotubes based on nonlocal elastic theory'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most recently, Lee and Chang (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 115302) combined nonlocal theory and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in the study of the vibration of the fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotube. In this recent published work, the importance of using nonlocal stress tensors consistently has been overlooked, and some ensuring relations were still presented based on the local stress components. Therefore, the governing equations and applied forces obtained in this manner are either inconsistent or incomplete. In this comment, the consistent governing equations for modelling free transverse vibration of the fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotube using the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model are derived. (comment)

  13. Theory of the vortex-clustering transition in a confined two-dimensional quantum fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaoquan; Nian, Jun; Reeves, Matthew T; Bradley, Ashton S

    2016-01-01

    Clustering of like-sign vortices in a planar bounded domain is known to occur at negative temperature, a phenomenon that Onsager demonstrated to be a consequence of bounded phase space. In a confined superfluid, quantized vortices can support such an ordered phase, provided they evolve as an almost isolated subsystem containing sufficient energy. A detailed theoretical understanding of the statistical mechanics of such states thus requires a microcanonical approach. Here we develop an analytical theory of the vortex clustering transition in a neutral system of quantum vortices confined to a two-dimensional disk geometry, within the microcanonical ensemble. As the system energy increases above a critical value, the system develops global order via the emergence of a macroscopic dipole structure from the homogeneous phase of vortices, spontaneously breaking the Z2 symmetry associated with invariance under vortex circulation exchange, and the rotational SO(2) symmetry due to the disk geometry. The dipole structu...

  14. Theory and Application of Characteristic Finite Element Domain Decomposition Procedures for Coupled System of Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-rang Yuan

    2007-01-01

    For a coupled system of multiplayer dynamics of fluids in porous media,the characteristic finite element domain decomposition procedures applicable to parallel arithmetic are put forward.Techniques such as calculus of variations,domain decomposition,characteristic method,negative norm estimate,energy method and the theory of prior estimates are adopted.Optimal order estimates in L2 norm are derived for the error in the approximate solution.

  15. Theoretical models for fluid thermodynamics based on the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Summary The theoretical modeling of fluid thermodynamics is one of the most challenging fields in physical chemistry. In fact the fluid behavior, except at very low density conditions, is still extremely difficult to be modeled from a statistical mechanical point of view, as for any realistic model

  16. Associative digital network theory an associative algebra approach to logic, arithmetic and state machines

    CERN Document Server

    Benschop, Nico F

    2009-01-01

    ""Associative Digital Network Theory"" is intended for researchers at industrial laboratories, teachers and students at technical universities, in electrical engineering, computer science and applied mathematics departments, interested in new developments of modeling and designing digital networks (DN: state machines, sequential and combinational logic) in general, as a combined math/engineering discipline. As background an undergraduate level of modern applied algebra (Birkhoff-Bartee: ""Modern Applied Algebra"" - 1970, and Hartmanis-Stearns: ""Algebraic Structure of Sequential Machines"" - 1

  17. Teaching Fluid Mechanics for Undergraduate Students in Applied Industrial Biology: from Theory to Atypical Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Absi, Rafik; Dufour, Florence; Huet, Denis; Bennacer, Rachid; Absi, Tahar

    2011-01-01

    EBI is a further education establishment which provides education in applied industrial biology at level of MSc engineering degree. Fluid mechanics at EBI was considered by students as difficult who seemed somewhat unmotivated. In order to motivate them, we applied a new play-based pedagogy. Students were asked to draw inspiration from everyday life situations to find applications of fluid mechanics and to do experiments to verify and validate some theoretical results obtained in course. In this paper, we present an innovative teaching/learning pedagogy which includes the concept of learning through play and its implications in fluid mechanics for engineering. Examples of atypical experiments in fluid mechanics made by students are presented. Based on teaching evaluation by students, it is possible to know how students feel the course. The effectiveness of this approach to motivate students is presented through an analysis of students' teaching assessment. Learning through play proved a great success in fluid...

  18. A study of orientational ordering in a fluid of dipolar Gay-Berne molecules using density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Szabolcs; Szalai, István; Liszi, János; Jackson, George

    2002-05-01

    We present a density-functional approach to describe the orientational ordering of nonpolar and dipolar Gay-Berne fluids. The first-order perturbation theory developed by Velasco et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8107 (1995)] for a Gay-Berne fluid is simplified and tested for molecules with a length to breath ratio of κ=3 and energy anisotropies of κ'=1, 1.25, 2.5, and 5. The theory is found to be in fair agreement with existing simulation data for the location of the isotopic-nematic phase transition, but it overestimates the vapor-liquid critical point of the fluid due to a description of the free energy at the mean-field level. The effect on the phase behavior of including a central longitudinal point dipole within the Gay-Berne molecule is studied using a correct treatment of the long-range dipolar contribution at the level of a second-order virial theory [B. Groh and S. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. E 50, 3814 (1994)]. For a given energy anisotropy of κ'=5 and reduced dipole moment μ*=0.5 we search for a stable ferroelectric nematic phase by changing the length to breath ratio κ. We do not find any evidence of ferroelectric nematic ordering for κ>1.5; the system only exhibits vapor-liquid and isotropic-nematic phase transitions for these values of the aspect ratios. For a slightly elongated and oblate shaped potential (e.g., κ=0.5), regions of stable isotropic-ferroelectric nematic and nematic-ferroelectric nematic phase coexistences are observed. The results of the theory indicate that a ferroelectic nematic fluid phase may be stabilized with respect to the positional ordering in the fluid of oblate dipolar particles. Comparison are made, where appropriate, with the existing results of Monte Carlo simulations for dipolar Gay-Berne fluids (Rull and co-workers, Molec. Phys. 94, 439 (1998); J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9529 (1998)).

  19. Association between fetal weight and amniotic fluid index in women of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Wadnere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The placenta is important for fetal growth and well-being. Defective placentation and impaired placental circulation may result in anomalies in fetal growth. Placental volume in the second trimester appears to be closely related to the neonatal weight. The association of body weight with urine output has been observed in human neonates. Our goal is to assess the association of the amniotic fluid index (AFI with the estimated fetal weight (EFW. Materials and Methods : Thirteen hundred and ninety-three pregnant women were prospectively studied by means of an ultrasound over a 12-month period. The fetal weight (FW was estimated using a combination of fetal parameters - bi-parietal diameter, fetal trunk cross-sectional area, and femur length. AFI was assessed using the four quadrant method. The level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Result s: There was no statistically significant association between AFI and EFW (P > 0.05; r = 0.413. We also did not find a significant association between AFI and EFW for all subdivisions of gestation age, except in the 24 - 28 weeks and 29 - 32 weeks′ groups. Conclusion : The FW calculations and amniotic index show a variation in values in late pregnancy. There does not appear to be a linear association between the ultrasound estimate of FW and the amniotic index. The implication of this is that the fetal size need not be taken into cognizance when alterations in amniotic fluid values are noted.

  20. Fluid mechanics simulation of fog formation associated with polluted atmosphere produced by energy related fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that large quantities of atmospheric aerosols with composition SO4(-2), NO3(-1), and NH4(+1) have been detected in highly industrialized areas. Most aerosol products come from energy-related fuel combustion. Fluid mechanics simulation of both microphysical and macrophysical processes is considered in studying the time dependent evolution of the saturation spectra of condensation nuclei associated with polluted and clean atmospheres during the time periods of advection fog formation. The results demonstrate that the condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere provide more favorable conditions than condensation nuclei associated with a clean atmosphere to produce dense advection fog, and that attaining a certain degree of supersaturation is not necessarily required for the formation of advection fog having condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere.

  1. Note on scalars, perfect fluids, constrained field theories, and all that

    CERN Document Server

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The relation of a scalar field with a perfect fluid has generated some debate along the last few years. In this paper we argue that shift-invariant scalar fields can describe accurately the potential flow of an isentropic perfect fluid, but, in general, the identification is possible only for a finite period of time. After that period in the evolution the dynamics of the scalar field and the perfect fluid branch off. The Lagrangian density for the velocity-potential can be read directly from the expression relating the pressure with the Taub charge and the entropy per particle in the fluid, whereas the other quantities of interest can be obtained from the thermodynamic relations.

  2. Note on scalars, perfect fluids, constrained field theories, and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation of a scalar field with a perfect fluid has generated some debate along the last few years. In this Letter we argue that shift-invariant scalar fields can describe accurately the potential flow of an isentropic perfect fluid, but, in general, the identification is possible only for a finite period of time. After that period in the evolution the dynamics of the scalar field and the perfect fluid branch off. The Lagrangian density for the velocity-potential can be read directly from the expression relating the pressure with the Taub charge and the entropy per particle in the fluid, whereas the other quantities of interest can be obtained from the thermodynamic relations

  3. Theoretical models for fluid thermodynamics based on the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory

    OpenAIRE

    Amadei, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Summary The theoretical modeling of fluid thermodynamics is one of the most challenging fields in physical chemistry. In fact the fluid behavior, except at very low density conditions, is still extremely difficult to be modeled from a statistical mechanical point of view, as for any realistic model Hamiltonian the configurational part of the partition function cannot be evaluated, i.e., the corresponding high dimensional integral is far too complex to be solved. Hence once a molecular Hamilto...

  4. Theory of errors in Coriolis flowmeter readings due to compressibility of the fluid being metered

    OpenAIRE

    Kutin, Jože; Hemp, John

    2015-01-01

    The compressibility of fluids in a Coriolis mass flowmeter can cause errors in the meter's measurements of density and mass flow rate. These errors may be better described as errors due to the finite speed of sound in the fluid being metered, or due to the finite wavelength of sound at the operating frequency of the meter. In this paper, they are investigated theoretically and calculated to a first approximation (small degree of compressibility). The investigation is limited to straight beam-...

  5. A novel approach to gravitation from fluid theory: Titius-Bode structures, flat rotation rate of galaxies and other predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2015-08-01

    The formal analogy between electromagnetism (EM) and gravitation was noted by Maxwell and Faraday, and later on by Heaviside in the 1890s; the analogy was extensively used in the gravito-magnetism of the 20th century. The connection between EM and fluid theory is explicit in Maxwell’s work, and the equivalence of Maxwell equations (ME) to various wave equations is explained in electrodynamics textbooks (say, Jackson’s) additionally, a little-known paper presented by Henri Malet to the Paris Academy of Sciences (1926), demonstrated that the validity of ME concurrently requires the validity of the vector and the scalar homogeneous wave equations.In the 1990s the present author reported in Foundations of Physics Letters the existence of novel solutions for the homogeneous wave equation in spherical coordinates; it turns out that one class of our solutions (the nonharmonic functions of the first-kind, NHFFK) is equivalent to the unified force of nature proposed around 1760 by Boscovich from philosophical considerations, but without a formal mathematical basis. Our finding is significant because it lends a mathematical foundation to Boscovich’s force, which has extremely interesting properties, as quantization in energy and distance —noted by J. J. Thomson before Bohr’s quantum theory.Associated with spherical surfaces in gravitational equilibrium, the family of even NHFFKs described here predict Titius-Body structures at different scales, as the solar system and the moons of Mars, Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn, and Neptune. Each calculated radius is compared to an average distance of moons/planets: the correlation and the R2 coefficients are quite high. The same NHFFK also predict the existence of ring structures, as those observed in Saturn, and in asteroids belts in our solar system. Newtonian gravity appears as the limit at very large distances from the center of force. The family of odd NHFFK exhibits a non-zero limit as distance tends to infinity, feature that

  6. A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term, and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality, are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients (i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field) and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory, simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares.

  7. Cytomegalovirus associated transverse myelitis in an immunocompetent host with DNA detection in cerebrospinal fluid; a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathne Suneth; Govindapala Dumitha; Udayakumara Yapa; Fernando Harshini

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus associated transverse myelitis among immunocompetent adults has been rarely reported. We report a patient presenting with clinical myelitis followed by previously unreported finding of cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid. Case report A forty year old immunocompetent male presented with acute onset progressive bilateral lower limb weakness. His spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and clinical pict...

  8. Theoretical investigation of stationary stellar systems in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation, with applications to perfect fluid interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical study of stationary stars was made in the Brans-Dicke-Jordan theory of gravitation. Specifically, cold superdense perfect fluid configurations were investigated. Exact and approximate solutions have been found, and they suggest that there is a maximum mass for cold matter beyond which equilibrium cannot be achieved. This is well known to be the case in general relativity. Methods for generating Brans-Dicke-Jordan soutions, from known solutions of general relativistic perfect fluids and from Einstein-Maxwell equations, were also developed. The stability of equilbrium configurations was studied by using a criterion based on energy considerations alone. For the case of radial perturbations of spherically symmetric perfect fluids in general relativity, the Newtonian lower limit 4/3, for the ratio of the star's averaged specific heats, anti γ, for ensuring dynamical stability is increased by effects arising from first-order relativistic corrections. The corresponsing problem in the Brans-Dicke-Jordan theory reveals that the scalar field has a stabilizing effect, since the increase in the lower limit of anti γ is not so large as in general relativity. It is shown that this result is equivalent to one derived with Post-Newtonian field equations

  9. Collisionless two-fluid theory of toroidal ηi stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-moment generalization of the 'double-adiabatic' equations is derived, which is to be viewed as a collisionless analogue of the thirteen-moment method. However, truncation is achieved by neglecting only the irreducible part of the fourth-order velocity moment, which is exact linearly within the context of the collisionless Boltzmann equation if wave-particle resonances (parallel transit and field curvature and ∇B resonances) are neglected; but is otherwise arbitrary. The use of the present model is advocated in the study of the dynamics of reactive instabilities and the associated transport in the collisionless regime, because of the advantage of a continuum description with regard to the feasibility of mode-coupling simulations. As an example of its utility, it is presently shown that the marginal stability condition for the 'toroidal', i.e., interchange-type, branch of ηi modes (but, for simplicity without the important effects of gyroviscosity and trapped electrons) agrees well with kinetic theory, both as a function of the ratio εn≡2Ln/Rc of density gradient scale length divided by magnetic field curvature length, and as a function of the temperature ratio τ≡Te/Ti. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. Association of gas hydrate formation in fluid discharges with anomalous hydrochemical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, T.

    2009-04-01

    Numerous investigations worldwide have shown that active underwater fluid discharge produces specific structures on the seafloor such as submarine seepages, vents, pockmarks, and collapse depressions. Intensive fluxes of fluids, especially of those containing hydrocarbon gases, result in specific geochemical and physical conditions favorable for gas hydrate (GH) formation. GH accumulations associated with fluid discharge are usually controlled by fluid conduits such as mud volcanoes, diapirs or faults. During last decade, subaqueous GHs become the subject of the fuel in the nearest future. However, the expediency of their commercial development can be proved solely by revealing conditions and mechanisms of GH formation. Kinetic of GH growth (although it is incompletely understood) is one of the important parameters controlling their formation among with gas solubility, pressure, temperature, gas quantity and others. Original large dataset on hydrate-related interstitial fluids obtained from different fluid discharge areas at the Sea of Okhotsk, Black Sea, Gulf of Cadiz, Lake Baikal (Eastern Siberia) allow to suggest close relation of the subaqueous GH formation process to anomalous hydrochemical profiles. We have studied the chemical and isotopic composition of interstitial fluids from GH-bearing and GH-free sediments obtained at different GH accumulations. Most attention was paid to possible influence of the interstitial fluid chemistry on the kinetic of GH formation in a porous media. The influence of salts on methane solubility within hydrate stability zones was considered by Handa (1990), Zatsepina & Buffet (1998), and later by Davie et al. (2004) from a theoretical point of view. Our idea is based on the experimentally proved fact that fugacity coefficient of methane dissolved in saline gas-saturated water which is in equilibrium with hydrates, is higher than that in more fresh water though the solubility is lower. Therefore, if a gradient of water salinity

  11. THEORY AND EXPERIMENT ON THE VISCOUS HEATING OF FLUID DAMPER UNDER SHOCK ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Deying; ZHANG Zhiyi; WANG Gongxian; HUA Hongxing; WANG Yu

    2008-01-01

    A specially designed fluid damper used as negative shock pulse generator in the shock resistance test system to dissipate the shock input energy in transient time duration is presented. The theoretical modeling based on the three-dimensional equation of heat transfer through a fluid element is created to predict the viscous heating in the fluid damper under shock conditions. A comprehensive experimental program that investigates the problem of viscous heating in the fluid damper under different shock conditions is conducted on the shock test machine to validate the analytical expression. Temperature histories for the fluid within the damper at two locations, the annular-orifice and the-end-of stroke of the damper, are recorded. The experimental results show that the theoretical model can offer a very dependable prediction for the temperature histories in the damper for increasing input velocity. The theoretical model and experimental data both clearly indicate that the viscous heating in the damper is directly related to the maximum shock velocity input and the pressure between the two sides of the piston head.

  12. Quasi-chemical Theory for the Statistical Thermodynamics of the Hard Sphere Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Lawrence R.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Gomez, Maria A.; Gentile, Mary E.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a quasi-chemical theory for the study of packing thermodynamics in dense liquids. The situation of hard-core interactions is addressed by considering the binding of solvent molecules to a precisely defined `cavity' in order to assess the probability that the `cavity' is entirely evacuated. The primitive quasi-chemical approximation corresponds to a extension of the Poisson distribution used as a default model in an information theory approach. This primitive quasi-chemical theory i...

  13. Bianchi Type-I Massive String Magnetized Barotropic Perfect Fluid Cosmological Model in the Bimetric Theory of Gravitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. P. Gaikwad; M. S. Borkar; S. S. Charjan

    2011-01-01

    @@ We investigate the Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid cosmological model in Rosen's bimetric theory of gravitation with and without a magnetic field by applying the techniques used by Latelier(1979,1980) and Stachel(1983).To obtain a deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution.The physical and geometrical significance of the model are discussed.By comparing our model with the model of Bali et al.(2007), it is realized that there are no big-bang and big-crunch singularities in our model and T=0 is not the time of the big bang, whereas the model of Bali et al.starts with a big bang at T=0.Further, our model is in agreement with Bali et al.(2007) as time increases in the presence, as well as in the absence, of a magnetic field.

  14. Bianchi Type-I Massive String Magnetized Barotropic Perfect Fluid Cosmological Model in the Bimetric Theory of Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid cosmological model in Rosen's bimetric theory of gravitation with and without a magnetic field by applying the techniques used by Latelier (1979, 1980) and Stachel (1983). To obtain a deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution. The physical and geometrical significance of the model are discussed. By comparing our model with the model of Bali et al. (2007), it is realized that there are no big-bang and big-crunch singularities in our model and T = 0 is not the time of the big bang, whereas the model of Bali et al. starts with a big bang at T = 0. Further, our model is in agreement with Bali et al. (2007) as time increases in the presence, as well as in the absence, of a magnetic field. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  15. Detected peritoneal fluid in small bowel obstruction is associated with the need for surgical intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2009-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical course in adhesional small bowel obstruction is difficult. There are no validated clinical or radiologic features that allow early identification of patients likely to require surgical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary level teaching hospital over a 3-year period (2002-2004) who had acute adhesional small bowel obstruction and underwent computed tomography (CT). The primary outcomes that we assessed were conservative management or the need for surgical intervention. We investigated time to physiologic gastrointestinal function recovery as a secondary outcome. We examined independent predictors of surgical intervention in a bivariate analysis using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients investigated, we excluded 12. Of the 88 remaining patients, 58 (66%) were managed conservatively and 30 (34%) underwent surgery. Peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan (n = 37) was associated more frequently with surgery than conservative management (46% v. 29%, p = 0.046, chi(2)). Logistical regression identified peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan as an independent predictor of surgical intervention (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.15-7.84). CONCLUSION: The presence of peritoneal fluid on a CT scan in patients with adhesional small bowel obstruction is an independent predictor of surgical intervention and should alert the clinician that the patient is 3 times more likely to require surgery.

  16. Diffusion of particles in simple fluids: A joint theory of kinetics and hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    The particle diffusion in a fluid is a classical topic that dates back to more than one century ago. However, a full solution to this issue still lacks. In this work the velocity autocorrelation function and the diffusion constant are derived analytically, and the hydrodynamics effect on the particle diffusion is analyzed in detail. Unlike previous studies, the ring-collision effect is exhaustively considered in our treatment, and the hydrodynamics approach is extended to the whole time range. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations for the hard-disk fluid show that our analytical results are valid up to the density close to the crystallization point.

  17. [Research on Wang Mengying's theory of nourishing - Yin and protecting - fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chonglian

    2002-01-01

    As a famous physician of Zhejiang and Jiangsu in the late Qing dynasty, Wang Mengying was especially conversant with Wen Bing (Warm Disease). By reading Wang's works and his 16 - volume clinical case records now extant, it can be held that the clinical career of Wang was penetrated with the idea of nourishing - yin and protecting - fluid, which can be summarized into as. plain nourishing, reducing yang to nourish yin, activating Qi and distributing fluid, and protection prior to having been injured. PMID:12015060

  18. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: Multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    per unit mass. In the regime of large moment of inertia the fast relaxation is wave-vector independent and dominated by the coupling between spin and the fluid streaming velocity, whereas for small inertia the relaxation is slow and spin diffusion plays a significant role. The fast wave-vector...... of the coupling in the zero frequency and wave-vector limit is quantified by a characteristic length scale; if the system dimension is comparable to this length the coupling must be included into the fluid dynamical description. It is found that the length scale is independent of moment of inertia but dependent...

  19. Prolonged application of high fluid shear to chondrocytes recapitulates gene expression profiles associated with osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive mechanical loading of articular cartilage producing hydrostatic stress, tensile strain and fluid flow leads to irreversible cartilage erosion and osteoarthritic (OA disease. Since application of high fluid shear to chondrocytes recapitulates some of the earmarks of OA, we aimed to screen the gene expression profiles of shear-activated chondrocytes and assess potential similarities with OA chondrocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a cDNA microarray technology, we screened the differentially-regulated genes in human T/C-28a2 chondrocytes subjected to high fluid shear (20 dyn/cm(2 for 48 h and 72 h relative to static controls. Confirmation of the expression patterns of select genes was obtained by qRT-PCR. Using significance analysis of microarrays with a 5% false discovery rate, 71 and 60 non-redundant transcripts were identified to be ≥2-fold up-regulated and ≤0.6-fold down-regulated, respectively, in sheared chondrocytes. Published data sets indicate that 42 of these genes, which are related to extracellular matrix/degradation, cell proliferation/differentiation, inflammation and cell survival/death, are differentially-regulated in OA chondrocytes. In view of the pivotal role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the pathogenesis and/or progression of OA in vivo and regulation of shear-induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro, we identified a collection of genes that are either up- or down-regulated by shear-induced COX-2. COX-2 and L-prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS induce reactive oxygen species production, and negatively regulate genes of the histone and cell cycle families, which may play a critical role in chondrocyte death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prolonged application of high fluid shear stress to chondrocytes recapitulates gene expression profiles associated with osteoarthritis. Our data suggest a potential link between exposure of chondrocytes/cartilage to abnormal mechanical loading and the pathogenesis

  20. 3D Segmentation of Fluid-Associated Abnormalities in Retinal OCT: Probability Constrained Graph-Search–Graph-Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinjian; Niemeijer, Meindert; Zhang, Li; Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan

    2012-01-01

    An automated method is reported for segmenting 3D fluid and fluid-associated abnormalities in the retina, so-called Symptomatic Exudate-Associated Derangements (SEAD), from 3D OCT retinal images of subjects suffering from exudative age-related macular degeneration. In the first stage of a two-stage approach, retinal layers are segmented, candidate SEAD regions identified, and the retinal OCT image is flattened using a candidate-SEAD aware approach. In the second stage, a probability constrain...

  1. Slovenian Organisation Theory and Its Ties with Associated Theories and Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Rozman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different theories of organisation have developed over time. To distinguish sound theories from others, two criteria should be considered: a clear definition of the subject of the theory, and the method according to which the subject is changing. The author presents the theory of organisation originally designed by a Slovenian, Professor Filip Lipovec. The discussed organisation theory regards an organisation as a set of dynamic relationships between members of a social unit which assure the existence and development of the thus formed social unit and reasonable achievement of the social unit’s goals. It is compared with other ‘grand’ theories of organisation developed in the past. Two main parts of the organisation are presented in more detail: the static or structural part and the dynamic or process part. Uniform and general organisation structures are briefly discussed along with three basic organisational processes determined by purpose, content and process: the governing-managerial process, coordination, and decision-making. A fourth one – the conflict process – is added. After explaining the theory, the author tries to prove its validity in different ways, namely by (1 showing that the whole theory is explained only by organisational elements, all based on a rationality-assuring relationship; (2 emphasising that all organisational phenomena are logically explained by the theory; (3 demonstrating that an organisation determined as a set of dynamic relationships is specific and exists only in this theory and that coordination is the method for establishing and changing it; (4 comparing the theory with other theories of organisation and comparing organisation science with other (related sciences; and (5 presenting the use of organisation so defined in different applications and offering sound solutions to problems discussed in organisation theory. The author believes the stated arguments support the presented organisation theory and

  2. Statistical Field Theory for Simple fluids : Mean Field and Gaussian Approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Caillol, J. -M.

    2002-01-01

    We present an exact field theoretical representation of the statistical mechanics of simple classical liquids with short-ranged pairwise additive interactions. The action of the field theory is obtained by performing a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation of the configurational Boltzmann factor. The mean field and Gaussian approximations of the theory are derived and applications to the liquid-vapour transition considered.

  3. A variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics: Discussion of the multi-dimensional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozan, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics previously introduced is extended to two dimensional flow. The analysis is stable, exactly conservative, adaptable to coarse or fine grids, and very fast. Solutions for two dimensional problems are included. The excellent behavior and results lend further credence to the variational concept and its applicability to the numerical analysis of complex flow fields.

  4. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...

  5. Wall-fluid and liquid-gas interfaces of model colloid-polymer mixtures by simulation and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Andrea; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Schmidt, Matthias; Wessels, Paul P F

    2005-05-01

    We perform a study of the interfacial properties of a model suspension of hard sphere colloids with diameter sigma(c) and nonadsorbing ideal polymer coils with diameter sigma(p) . For the mixture in contact with a planar hard wall, we obtain from simulations the wall-fluid interfacial free energy, gamma(wf) , for size ratios q =sigma(p)/sigma(c) =0.6 and 1, using thermodynamic integration, and study the (excess) adsorption of colloids, Gamma(c) , and of polymers, Gamma(p) , at the hard wall. The interfacial tension of the free liquid-gas interface, gamma(lg) , is obtained following three different routes in simulations: (i) from studying the system size dependence of the interfacial width according to the predictions of capillary wave theory, (ii) from the probability distribution of the colloid density at coexistence in the grand canonical ensemble, and (iii) for state points where the colloidal liquid wets the wall completely, from Young's equation relating gamma(lg) to the difference of wall-liquid and wall-gas interfacial tensions, gamma(wl)-gamma(wg) . In addition, we calculate gamma(wf) ,Gamma(c) , and Gamma(p) using density functional theory and a scaled particle theory based on free volume theory. Good agreement is found between the simulation results and those from density functional theory, while the results from scaled particle theory quantitatively deviate but reproduce some essential features. Simulation results for gamma(lg) obtained from the three different routes are all in good agreement. Density functional theory predicts gamma(lg) with good accuracy for high polymer reservoir packing fractions, but yields deviations from the simulation results close to the critical point. PMID:16089531

  6. Investigation of vapour-liquid nucleation properties for spherical and chain-like fluids by density functional theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Dong; Liao Tao

    2007-01-01

    The excess Helmholtz free energy functional for nonpolar chain-like molecules is formulated in terms of a weighted density approximation (WDA) for short-range interactions and a Weaks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) approximation and a Barker-Henderson (BH) theory for long-range attraction. Within the framework of density functional theory (DFT), vapour-liquid interfacial properties including density profile and surface tension, and vapour-liquid nucleation properties including density profile, work of formation and number of particles are investigated for spherical and chainlike molecules. The obtained vapour-liquid surface tension and the number of particles in critical nucleus for LennardJones (L J) fluids are consistent with the simulation results. The influences of supersaturation, temperature and chain length on vapour-liquid nucleation properties are discussed.

  7. The association between fluid balance and mortality in patients with ARDS was modified by serum potassium levels: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by pulmonary edema and may benefit from conservative fluid management. However, conflicting results exist in the literature. The study aimed to investigate the association between mean fluid balance and mortality outcome in ARDS patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation. Methods. The study was a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected dataset obtained from the NHLBI Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center. ARDS patients with invasive mechanical ventilation were eligible. Demographic and laboratory data were extracted from the dataset. Multivariable regression model was built by stepwise selection of covariates. A fractional polynomial approach was used to test the linearity of mean fluid balance in the model. The potential interactions of mean fluid balance with other variables were tested. Main Results. A total of 282 patients were eligible for the analysis, including 61 non-survivors with a mortality rate of 21.6%. After stepwise regression analysis, mean fluid balance remained to be an independent predictor of death (OR: 1.00057; 95% CI [1.00034–1.00080]. The two-term model obtained using fractional polynomial analysis was not superior to the linear model. There was significant interaction between mean fluid balance and serum potassium levels (p = 0.011. While the risk of death increased with increasing mean fluid balance at potassium levels of 1.9, 2.9 , 3.9 and 4.9 mmol/l, the risk decreased at potassium level of 5.9 mmol/l. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates that more positive fluid balance in the first 8 days is significantly associated with increased risk of death. However, the relationship between mean fluid balance and mortality can be modified by serum potassium levels. With hyperkalemia, more positive fluid balance is associated with reduced risk of death.

  8. Theory for site-site pair distribution functions of molecular fluids. II. Approximations for the Percus--Yevick site-site direct correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.

    1977-01-01

    A theory for site-site pair distribution functions of molecular fluids is derived from the Ornstein-Zernike equation. Atom-atom pair distribution functions of this theory which were obtained by using different approximations for the Percus-Yevick site-site direct correlation functions are compared.

  9. Soluble leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 in amniotic fluid is of fetal origin and positively associates with lung compliance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1 is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that sLAIR-1 is present in amniotic fluid during term parturition and is related to fetal lung function development. sLAIR-1 was detectable in all amniotic fluid samples (n=355 collected during term spontaneous deliveries. First, potential intra-uterine origins of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 were explored. Although LAIR-1 was expressed on the surface of amniotic fluid neutrophils, LAIR-1 was not secreted upon ex vivo neutrophil stimulation with LPS, or PMA/ionomycin. Cord blood concentrations of sLAIR-1 were fourfold lower than and not related to amniotic fluid concentrations and placentas showed no or only sporadic LAIR-1 positive cells. Similarly, in post-mortem lung tissue of term neonates that died of non-pulmonary disorders LAIR-1 positive cells were absent or only sporadically present. In fetal urine samples, however, sLAIR-1 levels were even higher than in amniotic fluid and correlated with amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 concentrations. Second, the potential relevance of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 was studied. sLAIR-1 concentrations had low correlation to amniotic fluid cytokines. We measured neonatal lung function in a convenient subset of 152 infants, using the single occlusion technique, at a median age of 34 days (IQR 30-39. The amniotic fluid concentration of sLAIR-1 was independently correlated to airway compliance (ρ=0.29, P=.001. Taken together, we show the consistent presence of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid, which originates from fetal urine. Concentrations of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid during term deliveries are independent from levels of other soluble immune mediators. The positive association between concentrations of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 and neonatal lung

  10. Dark Fluid: Towards a unification of empirical theories of galaxy rotation, Inflation and Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, H.; Li, B.

    2008-01-01

    Empirical theories of Dark Matter like MOND gravity and of Dark Energy like f(R) gravity were motivated by astronomical data. But could these theories be branches rooted from a more general hence natural framework? Here we propose the natural Lagrangian of such a framework based on simple dimensional analysis and co-variant symmetry requirements, and explore various outcomes in a top-down fashion. Our framework preserves the co-variant formulation of GR, but allows the expanding physical metr...

  11. Fluid-solid transition in simple systems using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A free energy functional for a crystal which contains both the symmetry-conserved and symmetry-broken parts of the direct pair correlation function has been used to investigate the fluid-solid transition in systems interacting via purely repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Anderson Lennard–Jones potential and the full Lennard–Jones potential. The results found for freezing parameters for the fluid-face centred cubic crystal transition are in very good agreement with simulation results. It is shown that although the contribution made by the symmetry broken part to the grand thermodynamic potential at the freezing point is small compared to that of the symmetry conserving part, its role is crucial in stabilizing the crystalline structure and on values of the freezing parameters

  12. Dielectric constant of the polarizable dipolar hard sphere fluid studied by Monte Carlo simulation and theories

    OpenAIRE

    M. Valiskó; D. Boda

    2005-01-01

    A systematic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and perturbation theoretical (PT) study is reported for the dielectric constant of the polarizable dipolar hard sphere (PDHS) fluid. We take the polarizability of the molecules into account in two different ways. In a continuum approach we place the permanent dipole of the molecule into a sphere of dielectric constant ε∞ in the spirit of Onsager. The high frequency dielectric constant ε∞ is calculated from the Clausius-Mosotti relation, while the diele...

  13. Fluid inclusions in minerals associated to uranium mineralization in Jazida do Engenho (anomaly 09), Lagoa Real uranium province - Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engenho deposit (anomaly 09) is south-eastern from Cachoeira Mine (anomaly 13), in the northern part of the Province. The uranium mineralization is associated to 'albitites' (over 70% of albite/oligoclase). Epidosites with uranium may also occur. The 'albitite' main minerals are pyroxene, gamet, albite/oligoclase feldspar, amphibole and biotite. Pyroxene, gamet, plagioclase, titanite and epidote are the minerals associated to the uranium mineralization. The fluids related to pyroxene, gamet and epidote are aqueous-saline, primary and with no carbonic phases and are constant, with small variations. They all present medium to high salinity (14 to 18wt% NaCl eq.), the higher values being related to pyroxene and the lower ones related to gamet and epidote. The fluids associated to albite/oligoclase, although aqua-saline and with no carbonic phases, show salinities much lower than in pyroxene, gamet and epidote, suggesting a intense dilution process indicating dilution toward the later minerals phases. The data suggest the pyroxene formation process occurring under a 3,5 kbar pressure condition which corresponds to approximately 10km depth. The dispersion on Th in albites, due probably to the overheating and non elastic increase in volume, precluded a reliable pressure calculation. The IF's microscopy m plagioclase gneiss (albitites host-rocks) suggests the probability of primary carbonic fluids associated to these minerals. The fluids with CO2 showed in the gneiss maybe also be present in the albitites, probably as late or intergranular fluids. This assumption is based on the fact that signs of carbonic gases were shown during crushing tests. These tendencies suggest the occurrence of two albitization phases in this Lagoa Real area: one associated to a fluid composed by H2O + CO2 + salts (in the gneiss host) and another (in the albitite) formed by an aqueous-saline phase. The data indicate the Brasiliano event as a thermal event without a predominant fluid

  14. Proteomic Assessment of Fluid Shifts and Association with Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure in Twin Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Brinda K.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Macias, Brandon R.; Siamwala, Jamila; Piening, Brian Donald; Hook, Vivian; Ebert, Doug; Patel, Hemal; Smith, Scott; Snyder, Mike; Hargens, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronauts participating in long duration space missions are at an increased risk of physiological disruptions. The development of visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is one of the leading health concerns for crew members on long-duration space missions; microgravity-induced fluid shifts and chronic elevated cabin CO2 may be contributing factors. By studying physiological and molecular changes in one identical twin during his 1-year ISS mission and his ground-based co-twin, this work extends a current NASA-funded investigation to assess space flight induced "Fluid Shifts" in association with the development of VIIP. This twin study uniquely integrates physiological and -omic signatures to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying space flight-induced VIIP. We are: (i) conducting longitudinal proteomic assessments of plasma to identify fluid regulation-related molecular pathways altered by long-term space flight; and (ii) integrating physiological and proteomic data with genomic data to understand the genomic mechanism by which these proteomic signatures are regulated. PURPOSE: We are exploring proteomic signatures and genomic mechanisms underlying space flight-induced VIIP symptoms with the future goal of developing early biomarkers to detect and monitor the progression of VIIP. This study is first to employ a male monozygous twin pair to systematically determine the impact of fluid distribution in microgravity, integrating a comprehensive set of structural and functional measures with proteomic, metabolomic and genomic data. This project has a broader impact on Earth-based clinical areas, such as traumatic brain injury-induced elevations of intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, and glaucoma. HYPOTHESIS: We predict that the space-flown twin will experience a space flight-induced alteration in proteins and peptides related to fluid balance, fluid control and brain injury as compared to his pre-flight protein

  15. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  16. Analytical Thermal Field Theory Applicable to Oil Hydraulic Fluid Film Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    An analytical thermal field theory is derived by a perturbation series expansion solution to the energy conservation equation. The theory is valid for small values of the Brinkman number and the modified Peclet number. This condition is sufficiently satisfied for hydraulic oils, whereby the...... analytical approach provides an alternative to existing computationally expensive numerical methods. The paper presents the dimensional analysis, which provides the foundation for the derivation of the analytical approximation. Subsequently, the perturbation method is applied in order to find an asymptotic...... expansion of the thermal field. The series solution is truncated at first order in order to obtain a closed form approximation. Finally a numerical thermohydrodynamic simulation of a piston-cylinder interface is presented, and the results are used for a comparison with the analytical theory in order to...

  17. A Rare Case of Spontaneous Pneumocephalus Associated with Nontraumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spontaneous nontraumatic pneumocephalus (PNC and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leaks are both very uncommon conditions. We report a rare case of spontaneous pneumocephalus associated with CSF leak secondary to right sphenoid sinus bony defect without history of trauma. Case Description. 51-year-old Hispanic female with past medical history of hypertension and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri presented to the emergency room complaining of headache and clear discharge from the right nostril. Physical examination was significant for right frontal sinus tenderness and clear discharge from right nostril. Computed Tomography (CT scan of the brain showed moderate amount of extra-axial air within the right cerebral hemisphere indicative of pneumocephalus. CT scan of facial bones showed bony defect along the right sphenoid sinus with abnormal CSF collection. The patient was started on intravenous antibiotics for meningitis prophylaxis and subsequently underwent transsphenoidal repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak with abdominal fat graft. CSF rhinorrhea stopped completely after the surgery with near complete resolution of pneumocephalus before discharge. Conclusions. Early identification of pneumocephalus and surgical intervention can help decrease the morbidity and avoid possible complications. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, although rare, can lead to CSF leak and pneumocepahlus.

  18. Mathematical Models of Fluid Dynamics Modeling, Theory, Basic Numerical Facts An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ansorge, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Without sacrificing scientific strictness, this introduction to the field guides readers through mathematical modeling, the theoretical treatment of the underlying physical laws and the construction and effective use of numerical procedures to describe the behavior of the dynamics of physical flow. The book is carefully divided into three main parts:. - The design of mathematical models of physical fluid flow;. - A theoretical treatment of the equations representing the model, as Navier-Stokes, Euler, and boundary layer equations, models of turbulence, in order to gain qualitative as well as q

  19. 46 CFR 61.20-3 - Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-3 Main and auxiliary machinery and associated equipment, including fluid control...

  20. Improved Diagnosis of Orthopedic Implant-Associated Infection by Inoculation of Sonication Fluid into Blood Culture Bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, María Eugenia; Salvadó, Margarita; Trampuz, Andrej; Siverio, Ana; Alier, Albert; Sorli, Lluisa; Martínez, Santos; Pérez-Prieto, Daniel; Horcajada, Juan P.; Puig-Verdie, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    Sonication improved the diagnosis of orthopedic implant-associated infections (OIAI). We investigated the diagnostic performance of sonication fluid inoculated into blood culture bottles in comparison with that of intraoperative tissue and sonication fluid cultures. Consecutive patients with removed orthopedic hardware were prospectively included and classified as having OIAI or aseptic failure (AF) according to standardized criteria. The diagnostic procedure included the collection of five i...

  1. Improved diagnosis of orthopedic implant-associated infection by inoculation of sonication fluid into blood culture bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, Mar??a Eugenia; Salvad??, Margarita; Trampuz, Andrej; Siverio, Ana; Alier, Albert; Sorli Red??, M. Luisa; Mart??nez, Santos; P??rez, Daniel; Horcajada Gallego, Juan Pablo; Puig Verdi??, Lu??s

    2015-01-01

    Sonication improved the diagnosis of orthopedic implant-associated infections (OIAI). We investigated the diagnostic performance of sonication fluid inoculated into blood culture bottles in comparison with that of intraoperative tissue and sonication fluid cultures. Consecutive patients with removed orthopedic hardware were prospectively included and classified as having OIAI or aseptic failure (AF) according to standardized criteria. The diagnostic procedure included the collection of five i...

  2. Tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) in human ovarian cyst fluid. Comparison with CA 125 and CEA.

    OpenAIRE

    Halila, H.; Huhtala, M. L.; Haglund, C.; Nordling, S.; Stenman, U. H.

    1987-01-01

    The levels of tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI), CA 125 and CEA were measured in ovarian cyst fluids from 21 patients. TATI in cyst fluid was immunologically and physicochemically similar to the peptide originally isolated from the urine of a patient with ovarian cancer. Mucinous cysts contained significantly higher levels of TATI than did serous cysts. Immunohistochemically TATI was localized in the apical parts of cells of mucinous ovarian cysts. These results suggest that this tum...

  3. Understanding the fluid nature of personhood - the ring theory of personhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Alsuwaigh, Rayan

    2015-03-01

    Familial determination, replete with its frequent usurping of patient autonomy, propagation of collusion, and circumnavigation of direct patient involvement in their own care deliberations, continues to impact clinical practice in many Asian nations. Suggestions that underpinning this practice, in Confucian-inspired societies, is the adherence of the populace to the familial centric ideas of personhood espoused by Confucian ethics, provide a novel means of understanding and improving patient-centred care at the end of life. Clinical experience in Confucian-inspired Singapore, however, suggests that personhood is conceived in broader terms. This diverging view inspired a study of local conceptions of personhood and scrutiny of the influence of the family upon it. From the data gathered, a culturally appropriate, clinically relevant and ethically sensitive concept of personhood was proposed: the Ring Theory of Personhood (Ring Theory) that better captures the nuances of local conceptions of personhood. The Ring Theory highlights the fact that, far from being solely dependent upon familial centric ideals, local conceptions of personhood are dynamic, context dependent, evolving ideas delineated by four dimensions. Using the Ring Theory, the nature of familial influences upon the four dimensions of personhood - the Innate, Individual, Relational and Societal - are examined to reveal that, contrary to perceived knowledge, conceptions of personhood within Confucian societies are not the prime reason for the continued presence of this decision-making model but remain present within local thinking and practices as a sociocultural residue and primarily because of inertia in updating ideas. PMID:24547934

  4. Geophysical and Geochemical Signatures Associated with Mantle Fluids Beneath an Active Shear Zone, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, K.; Asamori, K.; Sueoka, S.; Tamura, H.; Shimizu, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 1997, the Kagoshima earthquake doublet, consisting of two closely associated Mw ~ 6 strike-slip events, five km and 48 days apart, has occurred in southwest Japan. The location is where an E-W trending discontinuity along 32°N latitude on southern Kyushu Island is clearly defined in GPS velocities, indicating the presence of a highly active left-lateral shear zone. However, there have not been any obvious indications of active faulting at the surface prior to the earthquake doublet, which could be associated with this shear zone. Three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric sounding data obtained in the source region of the earthquake doublet reveals a near-vertical conductive zone with a width of 20 km, extending down to the base of the crust and perhaps into the upper mantle toward the Okinawa trough. The prominent conductor corresponds to the western part of the active shear zone. Elevated 3He/4He ratios in groundwaters sampled from hot spring and drinking water wells suggest the emission of mantle-derived helium from the seismic source region. The geophysical and geochemical observations are significant indications that the invasion of mantle fluids into the crust, driven by upwelling asthenosphere from the Okinawa trough, triggers the notable left-lateral shearing in the zone in the present-day subduction system. In addition, the existence of aqueous fluids in and below the seismogenic layer could change the strength of the zones, and alter the local stress regime, resulting in the occurrence of the 1997 earthquake doublet.

  5. Fluid intelligence and empathy in association with personality disorder trait-scores: exploring the link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rodgers, Stephanie; Müller, Mario; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-08-01

    There is some evidence that fluid intelligence as well as empathy may be significantly related to personality disorders (PDs). To our knowledge, no study has addressed those issues simultaneously in all 10 DSM PDs in a sample of the general population. We analysed data from 196 participants aged 20–41 from the Epidemiology Survey of the Zurich Programme for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services (ZInEP), a comprehensive psychiatric survey in the general population of Zurich, Switzerland. We assessed the digit symbol-coding test (DSCT), the “reading the mind in the eyes” test (RMET) and the interpersonal reactivity index (IRI). Both measures of cognitive empathy (i.e. RMET and IRI perspective taking) were not related to any PD trait-score. The total PD trait-score was significantly associated with low scores on DSCT and IRI empathic concern and high scores on IRI personal distress, which indicates a dose–response relationship in those measures. DSCT was particularly related to borderline PD, IRI empathic concern to schizoid and narcissistic PDs, and IRI personal distress to avoidant PD. The proportion of variance explained in the total PD trait-score accounted for by DSCT, IRI empathic concern and IRI personal distress was 2.6, 2.3 and 13.3 %, respectively. Symptomatology and severity of PDs are related to low fluid intelligence and reduced emotional empathy as characterized by low empathic concern and high personal distress towards emotional expressions of others. Further research is needed that examines the association between cognitive empathy and personality pathology as well as potential clinical applications. PMID:24022591

  6. Dielectric constant of the polarizable dipolar hard sphere fluid studied by Monte Carlo simulation and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Valiskó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic Monte Carlo (MC simulation and perturbation theoretical (PT study is reported for the dielectric constant of the polarizable dipolar hard sphere (PDHS fluid. We take the polarizability of the molecules into account in two different ways. In a continuum approach we place the permanent dipole of the molecule into a sphere of dielectric constant ε∞ in the spirit of Onsager. The high frequency dielectric constant ε∞ is calculated from the Clausius-Mosotti relation, while the dielectric constant of the polarizable fluid is obtained from the Kirkwood-Fröhlich equation. In the molecular approach, the polarizability is built into the model on the molecular level, which makes the interactions non-pairwise additive. Here we use Wertheim's renormalized PT method to calculate the induced dipole moment, while the dielectric constant is calculated from our recently introduced formula. We also apply a series expansion for the dielectric constant both in the continuum and the molecular approach. These series expansions ensure a better agreement with simulation results. The agreement between our MC data and the PT results in the molecular approach is excellent for low to moderate dipole moments and polarizabilities. At stronger dipolar interactions ergodicity problems and anizotropic behaviour appear where simulation results become uncertain and the theoretical approach becomes invalid.

  7. Theory and simulation of time-fractional fluid diffusion in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We simulate a fluid flow in inhomogeneous anisotropic porous media using a time-fractional diffusion equation and the staggered Fourier pseudospectral method to compute the spatial derivatives. A fractional derivative of the order of 0 < ν < 2 replaces the first-order time derivative in the classical diffusion equation. It implies a time-dependent permeability tensor having a power-law time dependence, which describes memory effects and accounts for anomalous diffusion. We provide a complete analysis of the physics based on plane waves. The concepts of phase, group and energy velocities are analyzed to describe the location of the diffusion front, and the attenuation and quality factors are obtained to quantify the amplitude decay. We also obtain the frequency-domain Green function. The time derivative is computed with the Grünwald–Letnikov summation, which is a finite-difference generalization of the standard finite-difference operator to derivatives of fractional order. The results match the analytical solution obtained from the Green function. An example of the pressure field generated by a fluid injection in a heterogeneous sandstone illustrates the performance of the algorithm for different values of ν. The calculation requires storing the whole pressure field in the computer memory since anomalous diffusion ‘recalls the past’. (paper)

  8. Collapse and dispersal of a homogeneous spin fluid in Einstein-Cartan theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, M.; Jalalzadeh, S.; Ziaie, A.H. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, we revisit the process of gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric homogeneous dust fluid which is described by the Oppenheimer-Snyder (OS) model (Oppenheimer and Snyder in Phys Rev D 56:455, 1939). We show that such a scenario would not end in a spacetime singularity when the spin degrees of freedom of fermionic particles within the collapsing cloud are taken into account. To this purpose, we take the matter content of the stellar object as a homogeneous Weyssenhoff fluid. Employing the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW metric for the interior spacetime setup, it is shown that the spin of matter, in the context of a negative pressure, acts against the pull of gravity and decelerates the dynamical evolution of the collapse in its later stages. Our results show a picture of gravitational collapse in which the collapse process halts at a finite radius, whose value depends on the initial configuration. We thus show that the spacetime singularity that occurs in the OS model is replaced by a non-singular bounce beyond which the collapsing cloud re-expands to infinity. Depending on the model parameters, one can find a minimum value for the boundary of the collapsing cloud or correspondingly a threshold value for the mass content below which the horizon formation can be avoided. Our results are supported by a thorough numerical analysis. (orig.)

  9. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with cerebral spinal fluid hypovolemia as initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Me; Gomez-Delgado, F; Gomez-Garduño, A; Blanco-Molina, A; Puebla, Ra Fernandez de la

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man with thickening of the dura mater associated with the presence of subdural collections as a consequence of cerebral spinal fluid hypovolemia (CSFH) and hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) as presentation of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). The patient complained about fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, headache and skin lesions. In the laboratory tests minimal normocytic anemia, mild leukopenia, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (dsDNA), antibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) type SSA-Ro, anti-Smith antigen antibodies (anti-Sm) and anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-RNP) were detected. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with and without gadolinium enhancement, revealed generalized thickening of the dura mater more severe at the right parieto-occipital lobes with the presence of subdural collections. The patient was diagnosed with SLE associated both with CSFH and HP. A conservative treatment with prednisone 60 mg daily, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 1 g daily and hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice a day was started with significant clinical and radiological improvement (almost complete resolution of the subdural collections and clear decrease of meningeal thickness). The authors emphasize that HP associated with CSFH in the context of SLE is a rare entity, which makes this case unique. PMID:24351279

  10. Driven colloidal fluids: construction of dynamical density functional theories from exactly solvable limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Alberto; Krüger, Matthias; Brader, Joseph M

    2016-06-22

    The classical dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) provides an approximate extension of equilibrium DFT to treat nonequilibrium systems subject to Brownian dynamics. However, the method fails when applied to driven systems, such as sheared colloidal dispersions. The breakdown of DDFT can be traced back to an inadequate treatment of the flow-induced distortion of the pair correlation functions. By considering the distortion of the pair correlations to second order in the flow-rate we show how to systematically correct the DDFT for driven systems. As an application of our approach we consider Poiseuille flow. The theory predicts that the particles will accumulate in spatial regions where the local shear rate is small, an effect known as shear-induced migration. We compare these predictions to Brownian dynamics simulations with generally good agreement. PMID:27115521

  11. Selection principles and pattern formation in fluid mechanics and nonlinear shell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Duane P.

    1987-01-01

    Wave theories of vortex breakdown were studied. A setting which involved dynamical systems and bifurcations of homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits in infinite-dimensional spaces was investigated. The determination of axisymmetric inviscid flows bifurcating from the primary flow lead to the study of a system of ordinary differential equations. The problem of rotating plane Couette flow was solved by means of the structure parameter approach.

  12. A Statistical Theory of Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    de Divitiis, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The present work proposes a theory of isotropic and homogeneous turbulence for incompressible fluids, which assumes that the turbulence is due to the bifurcations associated to the velocity field. The theory is formulated using a representation of the fluid motion which is more general than the classical Navier-Stokes equations, where the fluid state variables are expressed in terms of the referential coordinates. The theory is developed according to the following four items: 1) Study of the ...

  13. Embedded Zassenhaus Expansion to Operator Splitting Schemes: Theory and Application in Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we contribute operator-splitting methods improved by the Zassenhaus product for the numerical solution of linear partial differential equations. We address iterative splitting methods, that can be improved by means of the Zassenhaus product formula, which is a sequnential splitting scheme. The coupling of iterative and sequential splitting techniques are discussed and can be combined with respect to their compuational time. While the iterative splitting schemes are cheap to compute, the Zassenhaus product formula is more expensive, based on the commutators but achieves higher order accuracy. Iterative splitting schemes and also Zassenhaus products are applied in physics and physical chemistry are important and are predestinated to their combinations of each benefits. Here we consider phase models in CFD (computational fluid dynamics). We present an underlying analysis for obtaining higher order operator-splitting methods based on the Zassenhaus product. Computational benefits are given with spa...

  14. Collapse and dispersal of a homogeneous spin fluid in Einstein-Cartan theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi, Mostafa; Ziaie, Amir Hadi

    2014-01-01

    We study the collapse process of a massive star whose matter content is a Weyssenhoff fluid and show that the spin of matter, in the context of a negative pressure, acts against the pull of gravity. Such a mechanism and decelerates the collapse dynamics to finally replace the spacetime singularity by a bounce after which an expanding phase starts. We analyze the solutions in the large and small scale factor regimes and show that the scale factor never vanishes but reaches a minimum in the later one. Depending on the model parameters, there can be found a minimum value for the boundary of the collapsing star or correspondingly a threshold value for the mass content below which the formation of a dynamical horizon can be avoided. Our results are supported by a thorough numerical analysis.

  15. Two-Yukawa fluid at a hard wall: Field theory treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsiv, I.; Patsahan, T.; Holovko, M. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences, 1 Svientsitskii St., 79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Caprio, D. di [Institute of Research of Chimie Paris, CNRS-Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-05-21

    We apply a field-theoretical approach to study the structure and thermodynamics of a two-Yukawa fluid confined by a hard wall. We derive mean field equations allowing for numerical evaluation of the density profile which is compared to analytical estimations. Beyond the mean field approximation, analytical expressions for the free energy, the pressure, and the correlation function are derived. Subsequently, contributions to the density profile and the adsorption coefficient due to Gaussian fluctuations are found. Both the mean field and the fluctuation terms of the density profile are shown to satisfy the contact theorem. We further use the contact theorem to improve the Gaussian approximation for the density profile based on a better approximation for the bulk pressure. The results obtained are compared to computer simulation data.

  16. Two- and three-dimensional nonlocal density functional theory for inhomogeneous fluids. 2. Solvated polymers as a benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous companion paper, the authors presented the details of the algorithms for performing nonlocal density functional theory calculations in complex two- and three-dimensional geometries. The authors discussed scaling and parallelization, but did not discuss other issues of performance. In this paper, they detail the precision of the methods with respect to changes in the mesh spacing. This is a complex issue because given a Cartesian mesh, changes in mesh spacing will result in changes in surface geometry. The authors discuss these issues using a series of rigid solvated polymer models including square rod polymers, cylindrical polymers, and bead-chain polymers. In comparing the results of the various models, it becomes clear that surface curvature or roughness plays an important role in determining the strength of structural solvation forces between interacting solvated polymers. The results in this paper serve as benchmarks for future applications of these algorithms to complex fluid systems

  17. Stimulus Representation and Processing in Human Associative Learning: An evaluation of current elemental and configural associative learning theories

    OpenAIRE

    Thorwart, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Theories of associative learning describe learning about the relationship between two events, e.g. the eating of an apple and subsequent stomach ache. One important classification of these models is based on the stimulus representation they suppose. Whereas elemental models assume that the representations of a stimulus compound consist of representations of its components establishing associations, configural models propose that s...

  18. Wide range equation of state for fluid hydrogen within density functional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Wide range equation of state (EOS) for liquid hydrogen is ultimately built by combining two kinds of density functional theory (DFT) molecular dynamics simulations, namely, first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations. Specially, the present introduction of short cutoff radius pseudopotentials enables the hydrogen EOS to be available in the range $9.82\\times10^{-4}$ to $1.347\\times10^{3}$ g/cm$^{3}$ and up to $5\\times10^{7}$ K. By comprehensi...

  19. Fluid damping phenomena in a slender microbeam modelled on nonclassical theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belardinelli P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the evaluation of the squeeze-film damping in an electrically-actuated microbeam considering the effects of an imposed static deflection. The model presents a reliable modelling of the mechanical behaviour by improving the classical approach with the features of the strain-gradient elasticity theory. Taking into account a correction of the electric actuation for the fringing field effects, a parametric analysis is performed. The work pays attention to evaluate the damping force on the beam surface both in small static deflection regime and near the static pull-in. The results show that the correction for the finiteness of beam edges and the high-order material parameters affect the response only at large deflections. A brief study on the static behaviour is carried out highlighting how the response is affected by the strain-gradient elasticity theory. A parametric analysis of the damping force is presented and the properties of the cut-off point are studied.

  20. Fluid models for kinetic effects on coherent nonlinear Alfvacute en waves. I. Fundamental theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collisionless regime kinetic models for coherent nonlinear Alfvacute en wave dynamics are studied using fluid moment equations with an approximate closure anzatz. Resonant particle effects are modeled by incorporating an additional term representing dissipation akin to parallel heat conduction. Unlike collisional dissipation, parallel heat conduction is presented by an integral operator. The modified derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation thus has a spatially nonlocal nonlinear term describing the long-time evolution of the envelope of parallel-propagating Alfvacute en waves, as well. Coefficients in the nonlinear terms are free of the (1-β)-1 singularity usually encountered in previous analyses, and have a very simple form that clarifies the physical processes governing the large-amplitude Alfvacute enic nonlinear dynamics. The nonlinearity appears via coupling of an Alfvacute enic mode to a kinetic ion-acoustic mode. Damping of the nonlinear Alfvacute en wave appears via strong Landau damping of the ion-acoustic wave when the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is close to unity. For a (slightly) obliquely propagating wave, there are finite Larmor radius corrections in the dynamical equation. This effect depends on the angle of wave propagation relative to B0 and vanishes for the limit of strictly parallel propagation. Explicit magnetic perturbation envelope equations amenable to further analysis and numerical solution are obtained. Implications of these models for collisionless shock dynamics are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. MFGA-IDT2 workshop: Astrophysical and geophysical fluid mechanics: the impact of data on turbulence theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schertzer

    1996-01-01

    . It had an appropriate editorial structure, in particular a large number of editors covering a wide range of methodologies, expertises and schools. At least two of its sections (Scaling and Multifractals, Turbulence and Diffusion were directly related to the topics of the workshop, in any case contributors were invited to choose their editor freely. 2 Goals of the Workshop The objective of this meeting was to enhance the confrontation between turbulence theories and empirical data from geophysics and astrophysics fluids with very high Reynolds numbers. The importance of these data seems to have often been underestimated for the evaluation of theories of fully developed turbulence, presumably due to the fact that turbulence does not appear as pure as in laboratory experiments. However, they have the great advantage of giving access not only to very high Reynolds numbers (e.g. 1012 for atmospheric data, but also to very large data sets. It was intended to: (i provide an overview of the diversity of potentially available data, as well as the necessary theoretical and statistical developments for a better use of these data (e.g. treatment of anisotropy, role of processes which induce other nonlinearities such as thermal instability, effect of magnetic field and compressibility ... , (ii evaluate the means of discriminating between different theories (e.g. multifractal intermittency models or to better appreciate the relevance of different notions (e.g. Self-Organized Criticality or phenomenology (e.g. filaments, structures, (iii emphasise the different obstacles, such as the ubiquity of catastrophic events, which could be overcome in the various concerned disciplines, thanks to theoretical advances achieved. 3 Outlines of the Workshop During the two days of the workshop, the series of presentations covered many manifestations of turbulence in geophysics, including: oceans, troposphere, stratosphere, very high atmosphere, solar wind, giant planets, interstellar clouds

  2. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  3. Recurrent purulent meningitis associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak from the idiopathic oval window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purulent meningitis recurred 6 times in a 7-year-old boy. There was unilateral serous rhinorrhea, for which right cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea was suspected on 111In DTPA cisternogram. Examination of the right tympanum through the mastoid antrum revealed a fistula in the stapes foot plate, causing cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The stapes was removed and was replaced with the muscle and fascia. As a result, cerebrospinal fluid leakage discontinued, followed by a satisfactory course. (Chiba, N.)

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid soluble TREM2 is higher in Alzheimer disease and associated with mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccio, Laura; Deming, Yuetiva; Del-Águila, Jorge L; Ghezzi, Laura; Holtzman, David M; Fagan, Anne M; Fenoglio, Chiara; Galimberti, Daniela; Borroni, Barbara; Cruchaga, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Low frequency coding variants in TREM2 are associated with increased Alzheimer disease (AD) risk, while loss of functions mutations in the gene lead to an autosomal recessive early-onset dementia, named Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD). TREM2 can be detected as a soluble protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma, and its CSF levels are elevated in inflammatory CNS diseases. We measured soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) in the CSF of a large AD case-control dataset (n = 180) and 40 TREM2 risk variant carriers to determine whether CSF sTREM2 levels are associated with AD status or mutation status. We also performed genetic studies to identify genetic variants associated with CSF sTREM2 levels. CSF, but not plasma, sTREM2 was highly correlated with CSF total tau and phosphorylated-tau levels (r = 0.35, P < 1×10(-4); r = 0.40, P < 1×10(-4), respectively), but not with CSF Aβ42. AD cases presented higher CSF sTREM2 levels than controls (P = 0.01). Carriers of NHD-associated TREM2 variants presented significantly lower CSF sTREM2 levels, supporting the hypothesis that these mutations lead to reduced protein production/function (R136Q, D87N, Q33X or T66M; P = 1×10(-3)). In contrast, CSF sTREM2 levels were significantly higher in R47H carriers compared to non-carriers (P = 6×10(-3)), suggesting that this variant does not impact protein expression and increases AD risk through a different pathogenic mechanism than NHD variants. In GWAS analyses for CSF sTREM2 levels the most significant signal was located on the MS4A gene locus (P = 5.45 × 10(-07)) corresponding to one of the SNPs reported to be associated with AD risk in this locus. Furthermore, SNPs involved in pathways related to virus cellular entry and vesicular trafficking were overrepresented, suggesting that CSF sTREM2 levels could be an informative phenotype for AD. PMID:26754641

  5. Some Deviations Associated With Vector Perturbation Diffraction Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, John C.; Hourmand, Bahrarr

    1985-01-01

    Last year at this conference our lab presented some data which strongly supports the use of the vector perturbation relationship between light scattered from smooth surfaces and the surface power spectral density (PSD). Last year's data showed that a consistent answer was obtained for the PSD for measurements taken with S and P polarization, with incident angles up to 45', for positive and negative sweeps, and for one and two dimensional samples. If in fact the theoretical relationship is correct then this must be the case, as the PSD is determined by a combination of surface topography and the scattering situation (geometry, polarization, wavelength, etc.). It appears, however that for large scatter angles (>700) and for large angles of incidence (>60 °) there is some deviation in the calculated PSD. In addition, the high angle scatter region is an area where a scatterometer with a semicircular detector sweep loses the one-to-one relationship between detector position and surface spatial frequency. Or, in other words, light diffracted to high scatter angles from single spatial frequencies appears over a small band on the observation semicircle instead of a diffraction limited point. Fata supporting these two deviations is presented. Although they are not regarded as serious violations of the vector perturbation theory they do impose a limit on the useful range over which the PSD may be calculated.

  6. High levels of sulfated mucins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennesen, P.; Veerman, E.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van; Jacobs, J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Keijbus, P. van den; Ramsay, G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of sulfated mucins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with those in non-infectious controls, i.e., ventilated ICU patients without VAP, and nonventilated patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in

  7. Effects of periodic boundary conditions on equilibrium properties of computer simulated fluids. I. Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, L.R.; Haan, S.W.

    1981-02-01

    An exact formal theory for the effects of periodic boundary conditions on the equilibrium properties of computer simulated classical many-body systems is developed. This is done by observing that use of the usual periodic conditions is equivalent to the study of a certain supermolecular liquid, in which a supermolecule is a polyatomic molecule of infinite extent composed of one of the physical particles in the system plus all its periodic images. For this supermolecular system in the grand ensemble, all the cluster expansion techniques used in the study of real molecular liquids are directly applicable. As expected, particle correlations are translationally uniform, but explicitly anisotropic. When the intermolecular potential energy functions are of short enough range, or cut off, so that the minimum image method is used, evaluation of the cluster integrals is dramatically simplified. In this circumstance, a large and important class of cluster expansion contributions can be summed exactly, and expressed in terms of the correlation functions which result when the system size is allowed to increase without bound. This result yields a simple and useful approximation to the corrections to the particle correlations due to the use of periodic boundary conditions with finite systems. Numerical application of these results are reported in the following paper.

  8. The fluid mechanics of dark matter formation Why does Jeans's (1902 and 1929) theory fail?

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    1999-01-01

    Jeans's (1902 & 1929) linear gravitational instability criterion gives truly spectacular errors in its predictions of cosmological structure formation according to Gibson's (1996) new nonlinear theory. Scales are determined by viscous or turbulent forces, or by diffusivity, at Schwarz length scales L_SV, L_ST, or L_SD, respectively, whichever is larger. By these new criteria, void formation begins in the plasma epoch soon after matter dominates energy, at L approx L_SV = (gamma nu / rho G)^1/2 scales corresponding to protosuperclusters, decreasing to protogalaxies at the plasma-gas transition, where gamma is the rate-of-strain of the expanding universe, nu is the kinematic viscosity, rho is the density, and G is Newton's gravitational constant. Condensation of the primordial gas occurs at mass scales a trillion times less than the Jeans mass to form a `fog' of micro-brown-dwarf (MBD) particles that persist as the galactic baryonic dark matter, as reported by Schild (1996) from quasar-microlensing studies....

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in children with enterovirus 71-associated meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajun; Li, Shuxian; Zheng, Jianfeng; Cai, Chunyan; Ye, Bin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe neurological complications including meningoencephalitis (ME) in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, to date no studies have reported changes in cytokine concentrations and their correlations with clinical variables in patients with ME following EV71 infection. In this study, responses of Th1/Th2 cytokine, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with EV71-related HFMD with ME and patients with febrile convulsions (FC) were analyzed using cytometric bead array technology. It was found that CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were significantly higher in patients with EV71-related ME than in those with FC. Additionally, both CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were correlated with CSF cytology, fever duration and duration of hospital stay. More interestingly, a positive correlation between CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations was observed. Finally, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that when a cutoff value of 9.40 pg/mL was set for IL-6, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.5% and 85.5%, respectively, for discriminating EV71-related ME from FC. In conclusion, IL-6 and IFN-γ may be associated with EV71-induced neuropathology. PMID:25611005

  10. Low Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-Beta Concentration Is Associated with Poorer Delayed Memory Recall in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni Haapalinna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the association of memory performance with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD are inconsistent. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NB is a commonly used validated cognitive tool; however, only few studies have examined its relationship with CSF biomarkers for AD. We studied the correlation of pathological changes in CSF biomarkers with various CERAD-NB subtests and total scores. Methods: Out of 79 subjects (36 men, mean age 70.5 years, 63 had undergone an assessment of cognitive status with CERAD-NB and a CSF biomarker analysis due to a suspected memory disorder, and 16 were controls with no memory complaint.Results: In women we found a significant correlation between CSF amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42 and several subtests measuring delayed recall. Word List Recall correlated with all markers: Aβ1-42 (r = 0.323, p = 0.035, tau (r = -0.304, p = 0.050 and hyperphosphorylated tau (r = -0.331, p = 0.046. No such correlations were found in men. Conclusions: CSF biomarkers correlate with delayed memory scores in CERAD-NB in women, and women may have more actual AD pathology at the time of the investigations than men.

  11. Associations of fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with peripheral glucose concentrations and energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Jumpertz

    Full Text Available Rodent experiments have emphasized a role of central fatty acid (FA species, such as oleic acid, in regulating peripheral glucose and energy metabolism. Thus, we hypothesized that central FAs are related to peripheral glucose regulation and energy expenditure in humans. To test this we measured FA species profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of 32 individuals who stayed in our clinical inpatient unit for 6 days. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and glucose regulation by an oral glucose test (OGTT followed by measurements of 24 hour (24EE and sleep energy expenditure (SLEEP as well as respiratory quotient (RQ in a respiratory chamber. CSF was obtained via lumbar punctures; FA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As expected, FA concentrations were higher in plasma compared to CSF. Individuals with high concentrations of CSF very-long-chain saturated FAs had lower rates of SLEEP. In the plasma moderate associations of these FAs with higher 24EE were observed. Moreover, CSF monounsaturated long-chain FA (palmitoleic and oleic acid concentrations were associated with lower RQs and lower glucose area under the curve during the OGTT. Thus, FAs in the CSF strongly correlated with peripheral metabolic traits. These physiological parameters were most specific to long-chain monounsaturated (C16:1, C18:1 and very-long-chain saturated (C24:0, C26:0 FAs.Together with previous animal experiments these initial cross-sectional human data indicate that central FA species are linked to peripheral glucose and energy homeostasis.

  12. Risk Associated With The Decompression Of High Pressure High Temperature Fluids - Study On Black Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, D. C.; Fosbøl, P. L.; Thomsen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluids produced from deep underground reservoirs may result in exponential increase in temperature. It is a consequence of adiabatic fluid decompression from the inverse Joule Thomson Effect (JTE). The phenomenon requires analysis in order to avoid any operational risks. This study evaluates the ...

  13. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2011-02-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated.

  14. A descriptive study of variables associated with obtaining nipple aspirate fluid in a cohort of non-lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrensch Margaret

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for biologic endpoints and biomarkers in the study of breast cancer risk assessment and risk reduction strategies has led to an interest in obtaining cytologic information and other biomarkers from nipple aspirate fluid (NAF. Methods This descriptive study examined factors associated with an increased ability to obtain NAF in a cohort of 3043 women between the ages of 15 and 89 years of age. The majority of women were between the ages of 30–49 (N = 1529/50.2%. Variables examined in relation to obtaining fluid include: age, marital status, age at menarche, menopausal status, a history of pregnancy, a history of breast-feeding, estrogen use, oral contraceptive use, endocrine disorders and tranquilizer use. Results On average, women from whom breast fluid was obtained were younger than women from whom breast fluid was attempted but not obtained (mean = 41.9 years versus 46.5 years, p Conclusion Four variables (being married, history of pregnancy, tranquilizer use and endocrine disorders remained positively associated with the ability to obtain NAF in all analyses. A younger age was consistently associated with a greater ability to obtain NAF in this and other studies.

  15. Risk factors associated with uterine fluid after breeding caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Söderlind, Maja; Rudefalk, Sofia Rydemann; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Allen, Joanne; Krekeler, Natali

    2015-11-01

    Infectious endometritis is a major cause of infertility in the mare and inflicts major losses on the equine breeding industry. The ability of the mare to eliminate uterine infections has been studied intensively for decades; however, despite identification of several factors contributing to the multifactorial pathogenesis and improved treatment, infectious endometritis remains a significant problem in a subpopulation of broodmares. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares, suffering from infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the present study was to correlate different mare risk factors to infectious endometritis and pregnancy rates in broodmares and to investigate whether clonal or genetically distinct S. zooepidemicus strains isolated from mares with endometritis were associated with mare risk factors and the outcome of insemination. Mares (N = 152) were examined after natural cover, and 20% (31 mares) had intrauterine fluid (IUF) accumulation. Fifty-five percent (16 of 29) of the mares with IUF had infectious endometritis, and S. zooepidemicus was isolated in 81% (13 of 16) of these mares. Significantly more resting mares had IUF compared with foaling mares, and the foaling mares had the highest prevalence of positive bacterial growth from the uterine swab. The per-cycle pregnancy rate for the study was 63%. Pregnancy rate was significantly negatively affected by increased age (>12 years) and increased parity (>4), and the lowest pregnancy rate was observed in resting mares compared with foaling, barren, and maiden mares. Up to four S. zooepidemicus isolates were selected from each mare with growth of S. zooepidemicus from the uterine swab sample and further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In total, S. zooepidemicus isolates from

  16. Statistical theory for hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type (I): The geometrical phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haijun; HONG Xiaozhong; GU Fang; BA Xinwu

    2006-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen bonds on the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type is investigated from two viewpoints by the principle of statistical mechanics. In detail, we proposed two new ways that can be used to obtain the equilibrium size distribution of the hydrogen bonding clusters, and derived the analytical expression of a relationship between the hydrogen bonding free energy and hydrogen bonding degree. For the nonlinear hydrogen bonding systems, it is shown that the sol-gel phase transition can take place under proper conditions, which is further proven to be a kind of geometrical phase transition rather than a thermodynamic one. Moreover, several problems associated with the geometrical phase transition and liquid-solid phase transition in nonlinear hydrogen bonding systems are discussed.

  17. Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.

    2014-08-01

    The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ∼350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid δD values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 μM) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 μM). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed

  18. Solvation phenomena in association theories with applications to oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria;

    2008-01-01

    Association theories e.g. those belonging to the SAFT family account explicitly for self- and cross-association (solvation) phenomena. Such phenomena are of great practical importance as they affect, often dramatically, the phase behaviour of many mixtures of industrial relevance. From the scient...

  19. Geochronology and Fluid-Rock Interaction Associated with the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca District, Mexico, largely consists of secondary U6+ minerals, which occur within a breccia pipe mainly hosted by the 44 Ma Nopal and Colorados volcanic formations. These two units overly the Pozos conglomerate formation and Cretaceous limestone. Three new vertical diamond drill holes (DDHs) were recently drilled at Nopal I. DDH-PB1 with continuous core was drilled through the Nopal I deposit and two additional DDHs were drilled ∼50 m on either side of the cored hole. These DDHs terminate 20 m below the current water table, thus allowing the detection of possible gradients in radionuclide contents resulting from transport from the overlying uranium deposit. Primary uraninite within the main ore body is rare and fine-grained (∼50 micrometers), thus making geochronology of the Nopal I deposit very difficult. Uranium, lead and oxygen isotopes can be used to study fluid-uraninite interaction, provided that the analyses are obtained on the micro-scale. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) permits in situ measurement of isotopic ratios with a spatial resolution on the scale of a few (micro)m. Preliminary U-Pb results show that uraninite from the main ore body gives an age of 32 ± 8 Ma, whereas uraninite from the uraniferous Pozos conglomerate that lies nearly 100 m below the main ore body and 25 meters above the water table, gives a U-Pb age that is 18O = -10.8(perthousand), whereas the uraninite within the Pozos conglomerate has a (delta)18O = +1.5(perthousand). If it is assumed that both uraninites precipitated from meteoric water ((delta)18O = -7(perthousand)), then calculated precipitation temperatures are 55 C for the uraninite from the ore body and 20 C for uraninite hosted by the Pozos conglomerate. These temperatures are consistent with previous studies that calculated precipitation temperatures for clay minerals associated with uraninite

  20. A new thermo-hydrodynamic method for estimating convective heat flux associated with vertical fluid migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, O.; Kovalchuk, L.

    2002-12-01

    Ample field observations in areas of known oil and gas deposists reveal an existence of excess temperature anomalies associated with the hydrocarbon-bearing structures. These observations are explained in terms of upward migration of heated fluids. In this case there is a deviation from a linear temperature distribution with depth due to a convective component of the heat flux. We propose a new method based on in situ measurements of the thermal field that allows one to take into account both conductive and convective components of the heat flow. In addition to the usual measurements of temperature, we determine the the curvature of the geothermograms, which characterizes the degree of deviation of the heat transfer from a conductive regime. Correspondingly, in addition to the commonly used geothermal gradient, we introduce new parameters, such as the radius of curvature of the geotherms (R), the coefficient of curvature of the geotherms (K), the Knudsen criterion (Kn), and parameter F. We present analytic expressions for the determination of these parameters, and evaluate these parameters for several natural objects. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method for 1) forecasts of the presence of the deep-seated hydrocarbon deposits; 2) estimates of the abnornally elevated gas content in the deep-seated coal deposits, and determination of zones with high risk of methane bursts; 3) studies of the hydro-geothermal conditions of the geothermal areas; 4) determination and localization of leaks along the buried industrial pipelines. We present examples illustrating the application of our method for the abovementioned tasks.

  1. MFGA-IDT2 workshop: Astrophysical and geophysical fluid mechanics: the impact of data on turbulence theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D.; Falgarone, E.

    appropriate editorial structure, in particular a large number of editors covering a wide range of methodologies, expertises and schools. At least two of its sections (Scaling and Multifractals, Turbulence and Diffusion) were directly related to the topics of the workshop, in any case contributors were invited to choose their editor freely. 2 Goals of the Workshop The objective of this meeting was to enhance the confrontation between turbulence theories and empirical data from geophysics and astrophysics fluids with very high Reynolds numbers. The importance of these data seems to have often been underestimated for the evaluation of theories of fully developed turbulence, presumably due to the fact that turbulence does not appear as pure as in laboratory experiments. However, they have the great advantage of giving access not only to very high Reynolds numbers (e.g. 1012 for atmospheric data), but also to very large data sets. It was intended to: (i) provide an overview of the diversity of potentially available data, as well as the necessary theoretical and statistical developments for a better use of these data (e.g. treatment of anisotropy, role of processes which induce other nonlinearities such as thermal instability, effect of magnetic field and compressibility ... ), (ii) evaluate the means of discriminating between different theories (e.g. multifractal intermittency models) or to better appreciate the relevance of different notions (e.g. Self-Organized Criticality) or phenomenology (e.g. filaments, structures), (iii) emphasise the different obstacles, such as the ubiquity of catastrophic events, which could be overcome in the various concerned disciplines, thanks to theoretical advances achieved. 3 Outlines of the Workshop During the two days of the workshop, the series of presentations covered many manifestations of turbulence in geophysics, including: oceans, troposphere, stratosphere, very high atmosphere, solar wind, giant planets, interstellar clouds... up to the

  2. Characterisation of soluble and cell associated phospholipase A2 from rheumatoid synovial fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Buritica, H; D M Smith; Turner, R A

    1989-01-01

    The hydrolysis of radiolabelled Escherichia coli phospholipids, and micellar dispersions of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, were used to characterise the phospholipase A2 activity in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cell free fractions of synovial fluid contain a phospholipase A2 enzyme that preferentially releases [14C]oleic acid from E coli biomembranes (specific activity 291.3 (SEM 27.6) pmol/min/mg). This enzyme requires calcium and is optimally ac...

  3. Maternal and fetal characteristics associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balchin, Imelda; Whittaker, John C; Lamont, Ronald F;

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF.......To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF....

  4. Lattice Boltzmann method for binary fluids based on mass-conserving quasi-incompressible phase-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model is proposed for binary fluids based on a quasi-incompressible phase-field model [J. Shen et al., Commun. Comput. Phys. 13, 1045 (2013), 10.4208/cicp.300711.160212a]. Compared with the other incompressible LBE models based on the incompressible phase-field theory, the quasi-incompressible model conserves mass locally. A series of numerical simulations are performed to validate the proposed model, and comparisons with an incompressible LBE model [H. Liang et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 053320 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.053320] are also carried out. It is shown that the proposed model can track the interface accurately. As the stationary droplet and rising bubble problems, the quasi-incompressible LBE gives nearly the same predictions as the incompressible model, but the compressible effect in the present model plays a significant role in the phase separation problem. Therefore, in general cases the present mass-conserving model should be adopted.

  5. Efficient numerical methods for simulating surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-08-01

    Surface tension significantly impacts subsurface flow and transport, and it is the main cause of capillary effect, a major immiscible two-phase flow mechanism for systems with a strong wettability preference. In this paper, we consider the numerical simulation of the surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces. Major numerical challenges include that the system of the Euler-Lagrange equations is solved on the infinite interval and the coefficient matrix is not positive definite. We construct a linear transformation to reduce the Euler-Lagrange equations, and naturally introduce a path function, which is proven to be a monotonic function of the spatial coordinate variable. By using the linear transformation and the path function, we overcome the above difficulties and develop the efficient methods for calculating the interface and its interior compositions. Moreover, the computation of the surface tension is also simplified. The proposed methods do not need to solve the differential equation system, and they are easy to be implemented in practical applications. Numerical examples are tested to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Attributional Style in Healthy Persons: Its Association with 'Theory of Mind' Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Im Hong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Mikyung; Jo, Hye Hyun; Koo, Se Jun; Jeong, Yu Jin; Song, Yun Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Su Young; Lee, Eun; An, Suk Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    Objective Attributional style, especially external personal attribution bias, was found to play a pivotal role in clinical and non-clinical paranoia. The study of the relationship of the tendency to infer/perceive hostility and blame with theory of mind skills has significant theoretical importance as it may provide additional information on how persons process social situations. The aim of this study was whether hostility perception bias and blame bias might be associated with theory of mind...

  7. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  8. Peritoneal Fluid Transport rather than Peritoneal Solute Transport Associates with Dialysis Vintage and Age of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Waniewski; Stefan Antosiewicz; Daniel Baczynski; Jan Poleszczuk; Mauro Pietribiasi; Bengt Lindholm; Zofia Wankowicz

    2016-01-01

    During peritoneal dialysis (PD), the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21–87) years; median time on PD 19 (3–100) months) underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient ag...

  9. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Portelius, Erik; Andreasson, Ulf; Ringman, John M.; Buerger, Katharina; Daborg, Jonny; Buchhave, Peder; Hansson, Oskar; Harmsen, Andreas; Gustavsson, Mikael K; Hanse, Eric; Galasko, Douglas; Hampel, Harald; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the Aβ1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 additional Aβ peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of Aβ. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF Aβ isoform pattern that is ...

  10. Tear fluid signs associated with filtration blebs, as demonstrated by three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima S; Inoue T.; Kawaji T; Tanihara H

    2014-01-01

    Sachi Kojima, Toshihiro Inoue, Takahiro Kawaji, Hidenobu TaniharaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, JapanPurpose: To determine the clinical features of tear fluid signs associated with filtration blebs via three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography (3D AS-OCT).Methods: In total, 152 eyes (130 patients) with glaucoma that underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were evaluated retrospectively. We investigated tea...

  11. Factors associated with ovarian structures and intrauterine fluid in the postpartum period in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Helguera, I; Colazo, M G; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2016-05-01

    The objective was to examine risk factors for the interval to resumption of ovarian cyclicity (ROC), multiple ovulations (MCL), ovarian follicular cysts (OC), and presence of intrauterine fluid (IUF) at 22 to 28 [visit (V) 1] and 36 to 42 (V2) days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. The study was conducted retrospectively by evaluating records from 1,155 Holstein cows from 3 herds. Ovaries and uteri were examined at V1 and V2 by transrectal ultrasonography to determine ovarian structures and IUF. Based on the odds ratio, multiparous cows were more likely to have ROC at V1 by a factor of 1.79 compared with primiparous cows. The likelihood of ROC at V1 was lower in cows with higher milk production, in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) or cows with IUF at V1 by factors of 0.98 (for each kg of milk increased), 0.52, and 0.61, respectively. Based on the odds ratio, cows diagnosed with IUF at V2 were 2.85 times more likely to have attained ROC at V2. Multiparous cows and cows that delivered twins were 2.73 and 2.16 times, respectively, more likely to have MCL at V1, whereas cows with RFM were 0.38 times less likely to have MCL at V1. The likelihood of MCL at V2 was higher in cows with MCL and OC at V1 by factors of 2.67 and 1.91, respectively. Multiparous cows were 8.51 times more likely to have OC at V1 than primiparous cows. Higher producing cows were more likely to have OC at V2 by a factor of 1.04 compared with lower producing cows. Parity, stillbirth, RFM, and ROC at V1 were all identified as risk factors for IUF at V1. Cows with RFM and delivering twins were more likely to be diagnosed with IUF at V2 by a factor of 3.43 and 4.07, respectively. In summary, parity, twinning, RFM, metritis, IUF, and milk production were all associated with altered ovarian structures, and the presence of IUF was related to parity, twinning, RFM, and ROC in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:26947303

  12. Geochronology and Fluid-Rock Interaction Associated with the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fayek; P. Goodell; M. Ren; A. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca District, Mexico, largely consists of secondary U{sup 6+} minerals, which occur within a breccia pipe mainly hosted by the 44 Ma Nopal and Colorados volcanic formations. These two units overly the Pozos conglomerate formation and Cretaceous limestone. Three new vertical diamond drill holes (DDHs) were recently drilled at Nopal I. DDH-PB1 with continuous core was drilled through the Nopal I deposit and two additional DDHs were drilled {approx}50 m on either side of the cored hole. These DDHs terminate 20 m below the current water table, thus allowing the detection of possible gradients in radionuclide contents resulting from transport from the overlying uranium deposit. Primary uraninite within the main ore body is rare and fine-grained ({approx}50 micrometers), thus making geochronology of the Nopal I deposit very difficult. Uranium, lead and oxygen isotopes can be used to study fluid-uraninite interaction, provided that the analyses are obtained on the micro-scale. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) permits in situ measurement of isotopic ratios with a spatial resolution on the scale of a few {micro}m. Preliminary U-Pb results show that uraninite from the main ore body gives an age of 32 {+-} 8 Ma, whereas uraninite from the uraniferous Pozos conglomerate that lies nearly 100 m below the main ore body and 25 meters above the water table, gives a U-Pb age that is <1 Ma. Oxygen isotopic analyses show that uraninite from the ore body has a {delta}{sup 18}O = -10.8{per_thousand}, whereas the uraninite within the Pozos conglomerate has a {delta}{sup 18}O = +1.5{per_thousand}. If it is assumed that both uraninites precipitated from meteoric water ({delta}{sup 18}O = -7{per_thousand}), then calculated precipitation temperatures are 55 C for the uraninite from the ore body and 20 C for uraninite hosted by the Pozos conglomerate. These temperatures are consistent with previous studies that calculated precipitation

  13. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS infection is a nearly universal feature of untreated systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. Results After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral therapy and correlated abundances of identified proteins a within and between subjects, b with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and c with "external" CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA, immune activation (neopterin and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL. We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's ≤ -0.3 and ≥0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting

  14. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Spudich, Serena S.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Liegler, Teri; Zetterberg, Henrik; Camp, David G.; Price, Richard W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-03-20

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a constant feature of systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral and correlated abundances of identified proteins (a) within and between subjects, (b) with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and (c) with 'external' CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA), immune activation (neopterin) and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL). We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD) peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's) {le}0.3 and {ge}0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations) and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting the identified proteins, including one with

  15. Energy variational analysis of ions in water and channels: Field theory for primitive models of complex ionic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Bob; Hyon, Yunkyong; Liu, Chun

    2010-09-14

    Ionic solutions are mixtures of interacting anions and cations. They hardly resemble dilute gases of uncharged noninteracting point particles described in elementary textbooks. Biological and electrochemical solutions have many components that interact strongly as they flow in concentrated environments near electrodes, ion channels, or active sites of enzymes. Interactions in concentrated environments help determine the characteristic properties of electrodes, enzymes, and ion channels. Flows are driven by a combination of electrical and chemical potentials that depend on the charges, concentrations, and sizes of all ions, not just the same type of ion. We use a variational method EnVarA (energy variational analysis) that combines Hamilton's least action and Rayleigh's dissipation principles to create a variational field theory that includes flow, friction, and complex structure with physical boundary conditions. EnVarA optimizes both the action integral functional of classical mechanics and the dissipation functional. These functionals can include entropy and dissipation as well as potential energy. The stationary point of the action is determined with respect to the trajectory of particles. The stationary point of the dissipation is determined with respect to rate functions (such as velocity). Both variations are written in one Eulerian (laboratory) framework. In variational analysis, an "extra layer" of mathematics is used to derive partial differential equations. Energies and dissipations of different components are combined in EnVarA and Euler-Lagrange equations are then derived. These partial differential equations are the unique consequence of the contributions of individual components. The form and parameters of the partial differential equations are determined by algebra without additional physical content or assumptions. The partial differential equations of mixtures automatically combine physical properties of individual (unmixed) components. If a new

  16. Informatic system for a global tissue-fluid biorepository with a graph theory-oriented graphical user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, William E; Atai, Nadia; Carter, Bob; Hochberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features. Clinical data are recorded in relation to molecular EV attributes and may be tagged with terms drawn from a network of externally maintained ontologies thus offering expansion of the system as the field matures. We fashioned the graphical user interface (GUI) around a web-based data visualization package. This system is now in an early stage of deployment, mainly focused on specimen tracking and clinical, laboratory, and imaging data capture in support of studies to optimize detection and analysis of brain tumour-specific mutations. It currently includes 4,392 specimens drawn from 611 subjects, the majority with brain tumours. As EV science evolves, we plan biorepository changes which may reflect multi-institutional collaborations, proteomic interfaces, additional biofluids, changes in operating procedures and kits for specimen handling, novel procedures for detection of tumour-specific EVs, and for RNA extraction and changes in the taxonomy of EVs. We have used an ontology-driven data model and web-based architecture with a graph theory-driven GUI to accommodate and stimulate the semantic web of EV science. PMID:25317275

  17. Factors associated with willingness to accept oral fluid HIV rapid testing among most-at-risk populations in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmiao Xun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The availability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing provides an approach that may have the potential to expand HIV testing in China, especially among most-a-risk populations. There are few investigations about the acceptability of oral fluid HIV testing among most-at-risk populations in China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clients was conducted in three cities of Shandong province, China from 2011 to 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face questionnaire. RESULTS: About 71% of participants were willing to accept the oral fluid HIV rapid testing, and home HIV testing was independently associated with acceptability of the new testing method among MSM, FSW and VCT clients (AOR of 4.46, 3.19 and 5.74, respectively. Independent predictors of oral fluid HIV rapid testing acceptability among MSM were having ever taken an oral fluid HIV rapid test (AOR= 15.25, having ever taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.07, and education level (AOR= 1.74. Engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors (AOR= 1.68 was an independent predictor of acceptability for FSW. Having taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.85 was an independent predictor of acceptability for VCT clients. The primary concern about the oral fluid HIV testing was accuracy. The median price they would pay for the testing ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 U.S. dollars. CONCLUSION: High acceptability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing was shown among most-at-risk populations. Findings provide support for oral rapid HIV testing as another HIV prevention tool, and provide a backdrop for the implementation of HIV home testing in the near future. Appropriate pricing and increased public education through awareness campaigns that address concerns about the accuracy and safety of the oral fluid HIV rapid testing may help increase acceptability and use among most-at-risk populations in China.

  18. Peritoneal Fluid Transport rather than Peritoneal Solute Transport Associates with Dialysis Vintage and Age of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Waniewski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During peritoneal dialysis (PD, the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21–87 years; median time on PD 19 (3–100 months underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient age did not correlate. Estimation of parameters of the two-pore model of peritoneal transport was performed. The estimated fluid transport parameters, including hydraulic permeability (LpS, fraction of ultrasmall pores (αu, osmotic conductance for glucose (OCG, and peritoneal absorption, were generally independent of solute transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters. Fluid transport parameters correlated whereas transport parameters for small solutes and proteins did not correlate with dialysis vintage and patient age. Although LpS and OCG were lower for older patients and those with long dialysis vintage, αu was higher. Thus, fluid transport parameters—rather than solute transport parameters—are linked to dialysis vintage and patient age and should therefore be included when monitoring processes linked to ageing of the peritoneal membrane.

  19. Peritoneal Fluid Transport rather than Peritoneal Solute Transport Associates with Dialysis Vintage and Age of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniewski, Jacek; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Baczynski, Daniel; Poleszczuk, Jan; Pietribiasi, Mauro; Lindholm, Bengt; Wankowicz, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    During peritoneal dialysis (PD), the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21-87) years; median time on PD 19 (3-100) months) underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient age did not correlate. Estimation of parameters of the two-pore model of peritoneal transport was performed. The estimated fluid transport parameters, including hydraulic permeability (LpS), fraction of ultrasmall pores (α u), osmotic conductance for glucose (OCG), and peritoneal absorption, were generally independent of solute transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters). Fluid transport parameters correlated whereas transport parameters for small solutes and proteins did not correlate with dialysis vintage and patient age. Although LpS and OCG were lower for older patients and those with long dialysis vintage, αu was higher. Thus, fluid transport parameters--rather than solute transport parameters--are linked to dialysis vintage and patient age and should therefore be included when monitoring processes linked to ageing of the peritoneal membrane. PMID:26989432

  20. Altered distribution of NK and NKT cells in follicular fluid is associated with IVF outcome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křižan, Jiří; Cuchalová, Lucie; Šíma, Petr; Králíčková, M.; Madar, J.; Větvička, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2009), s. 84-88. ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nk * nkt * follicular fluid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2009

  1. The Alzheimer's Association external quality control program for cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Andreasson, Ulf; Persson, Staffan;

    2011-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid β (Aβ)-42, total-tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) demonstrate good diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements between studies, and between and within laboratories. The...

  2. Numerical investigations of the fluid flows at deep oceanic and arctic permafrost-associated gas hydrate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jennifer Mary

    older than the host sediment. Old pore fluid age may reflect complex flow patterns, such a fluid focusing, which can cause significant lateral migration as well as regions where downward flow reverses direction and returns toward the seafloor. Longer pathlines can produce pore fluid ages much older than that expected with a one-dimensional compaction model. For steady-state models with geometry representative of Blake Ridge (USA), a well-studied hydrate province, pore fluid ages beneath regions of topography and within fractured zones can be up to 70 Ma old. Results suggest that the measurements of 129-I/127-I reflect a mixture of new and old pore fluid. However, old pore fluid need not originate at great depths. Methane within pore fluids can travel laterally several kilometers, implying an extensive source region around the deposit. Iodine age measurements support the existence of fluid focusing beneath regions of seafloor topography at Blake Ridge, and suggest that the methane source at Blake Ridge is likely shallow. The response of methane hydrate reservoirs to warming is poorly understood. The great depths may protect deep oceanic hydrates from climate change for the time being because transfer of heat by conduction is slow, but warming will eventually be felt albeit in the far future. On the other hand, unique permafrost-associated methane hydrate deposits exist at shallow depths within the sediments of the circum-Arctic continental shelves. Arctic hydrates are thought to be a relict of cold glacial periods, aggrading when sea levels are much lower and shelf sediments are exposed to freezing air temperatures. During interglacial periods, rising sea levels flood the shelf, bringing dramatic warming to the permafrost- and hydrate-bearing sediments. Permafrost-associated methane hydrate deposits have been responding to warming since the last glacial maximum ~18 kaBP as a consequence of these natural glacial cycles. This `experiment,' set into motion by nature itself

  3. Comment on 'Vibration analysis of fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotubes based on nonlocal elastic theory'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tounsi, Abdeloauhed; Mechab, Ismail [Laboratoire des Materiaux et Hydrologie, Universite de Sidi Bel Abbes, BP 89 Cite Ben M' hidi, 22000 Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Heireche, Houari; Benzair, Abdelnour, E-mail: tou_abdel@yahoo.co [Departement de physique, Universite de Sidi Bel Abbes, BP 89 Cite Ben M' hidi, 22000 Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria)

    2009-11-04

    Most recently, Lee and Chang (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 115302) combined nonlocal theory and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in the study of the vibration of the fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotube. In this recent published work, the importance of using nonlocal stress tensors consistently has been overlooked, and some ensuring relations were still presented based on the local stress components. Therefore, the governing equations and applied forces obtained in this manner are either inconsistent or incomplete. In this comment, the consistent governing equations for modelling free transverse vibration of the fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotube using the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model are derived. (comment)

  4. Untangling Word Webs: Graph Theory and the Notion of Density in Second Language Word Association Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Clarissa; Meara, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Examines the implications of the metaphor of the vocabulary network. Takes a formal approach to the exploration of this metaphor by applying the principles of graph theory to word association data to compare the relative densities of the first language and second language lexical networks. (Author/VWL)

  5. Shaggy Photoreceptors with Subfoveal Fluid Associated with a Distant Choroidal Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Q. Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT findings in a patient with an extra macula choroidal melanoma before and after treatment. Methods. Observational case report. Results. A 45 year-old Caucasian male patient was referred to retina clinic for management of choroidal melanoma. Examination revealed a nasal choroidal melanoma while EDI-OCT illustrated subfoveal fluid pocket with elongated shaggy photoreceptors distant and separate from the tumor. The patient was treated with plaque brachytherapy and intravitreal bevacizumab. One week after plaque removal, there was a dramatic reduction in the shaggy photoreceptors. Conclusion. Choroidal melanomas have effects that are not localized to the area of the tumor. This loculated pocket of subretinal fluid and coinciding changes to photoreceptor morphology may be related to global changes in choroidal function or release of tumor related cytokines.

  6. Ferrofluid-associated Cutaneous Dyschromia: Discoloration of Hand and Fingers Following Accidental Exposure to Ferromagnetic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R; Arfa, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ferrofluid is a colloidal suspension that usually consists of surfactant-coated nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a carrier liquid. Ferromagnetic fluid forms spikes when the liquid is exposed to a magnetic field. Purpose: The authors describe a man who developed temporary discoloration of his right palm and fingers after accidental cutaneous contact with ferrofluid and discuss some of the current and potential applications of this unique liquid. Methods: A 28-year-old man was ...

  7. Banking of biological fluids for studies of disease-associated protein biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Kohn, Elise;

    2008-01-01

    biological fluids, especially serum and plasma, intended for study of protein biomarkers. In biomarker studies the process from the decision to take a sample from an individual to the moment the sample is safely placed in the biobank consists of several phases including collection of samples, transport of...... biobank as well as conclusions and clinical recommendations based on analysis of such material may be severely affected....

  8. Fluid Shifts Before, During, and After Prolonged Space Flight and their Association with Intracranial Pressure and Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M.; Lee, S.; Platts, S.; Macias, B.; Lui, J.; Ebert, D.; Sargsyan, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Alferova, I.; Yarmanova, E.; Bogomolov, V.

    2013-01-01

    With the conclusion of the Space Shuttle program, NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed in Space Shuttle crewmembers after their short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound changes in vision, some with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds on ophthalmologic examination. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilatation, optic nerve tortuosity, and other findings have been noted in imaging studies. This pattern is referred to as visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested. The purpose of this study is to objectively characterize the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate the findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted by crewmember baseline data and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt tests) obtained before flight. Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in astronaut subjects on the ISS during the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and respiratory maneuvers to characterize and explain general and individual responses during space flight.

  9. Some elements of a theory of multidimensional complex variables. I - General theory. II - Expansions of analytic functions and application to fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1989-01-01

    The paper introduces a new theory of N-dimensional complex variables and analytic functions which, for N greater than 2, is both a direct generalization and a close analog of the theory of ordinary complex variables. The algebra in the present theory is a commutative ring, not a field. Functions of a three-dimensional variable were defined and the definition of the derivative then led to analytic functions.

  10. The unsteady flow of a weakly compressible fluid in a thin porous layer. I: Two-dimensional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Needham, D. J.; Langdon, Stephen; Busswell, G. S.; Gilchrist, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of determining the pressure and velocity fields for a weakly compressible fluid flowing in a two-dimensional reservoir in an inhomogeneous, anisotropic porous medium, with vertical side walls and variable upper and lower boundaries, in the presence of vertical wells injecting or extracting fluid. Numerical solution of this problem may be expensive, particularly in the case that the depth scale of the layer h is small compared to the horizontal length scale l. This is...

  11. MFGA-IDT2 workshop: Astrophysical and geophysical fluid mechanics: the impact of data on turbulence theories

    OpenAIRE

    Schertzer, D.; Falgarone, E.

    1996-01-01

    1 Facts about the Workshop This workshop was convened on November 13-15 1995 by E. Falgarone and D. Schertzer within the framework of the Groupe de Recherche Mecanique des Fluides Geophysiques et Astrophysiques (GdR MFGA, Research Group of Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Mechanics) of Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, (French) National Center for Scientific Research). This Research Group is chaired by A. Babiano and the meeting was held at Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris...

  12. MFGA-IDT2 workshop: Astrophysical and geophysical fluid mechanics: the impact of data on turbulence theories

    OpenAIRE

    Schertzer, D.; Falgarone, E.

    1996-01-01

    International audience 1 Facts about the Workshop This workshop was convened on November 13-15 1995 by E. Falgarone and D. Schertzer within the framework of the Groupe de Recherche Mecanique des Fluides Geophysiques et Astrophysiques (GdR MFGA, Research Group of Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Mechanics) of Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, (French) National Center for Scientific Research). This Research Group is chaired by A. Babiano and the meeting was held at Ecole...

  13. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Portelius, Erik; Andreasson, Ulf; Ringman, John M.; Buerger, Katharina; Daborg, Jonny; Buchhave, Peder; Hansson, Oskar; Harmsen, Andreas; Gustavsson, Mikael K; Hanse, Eric; Galasko, Douglas; Hampel, Harald; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid beta (A beta) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the A beta 1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 additional A beta peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of A beta. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF A beta isoform pattern that is distinct when comparing ...

  14. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Galasko Douglas; Hanse Eric; Gustavsson Mikael K; Harmsen Andreas; Hansson Oskar; Buchhave Peder; Daborg Jonny; Buerger Katharina; Ringman John M; Andreasson Ulf; Portelius Erik; Hampel Harald; Blennow Kaj; Zetterberg Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the Aβ1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 additional Aβ peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of Aβ. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF Aβ isoform pattern that is distinct when comparing sporadic AD (SAD...

  15. Correlation of Critical Loci for Water-Hydrocarbon Binary Systems by EOS Based on the Multi-Fluid Nonrandom Lattice Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hun; Yong; SHIN; Hwayong; KIM; 等

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative representation of complicated behavior of fluid mixtures in the critical region by any of equation-of-state theories remains as a difficults thermodynamic topics to date.In the present work,a computational efforts were made for representing various types of critical loci of binary water with hydrocarbon systems showing Type Ⅱ and Type Ⅲ phase behavior by an elementary equation of state[called multi-fluid nonrandom lattice fluid EOS(MF-NLF EOS)]based on the lattice statistical mechanical theory.The model EOS requires two molecular parameters which representing molecular size and interaction energy for a pure component and single adjustable interaction energy parameter for binary mixtures.Critical temperature and pressure data were used to obtain molecular size parameter and vapor pressure data were used to obtain interaction energy parameter.The MF-NLF EOS model adapted in the present study correlated quantitatively well the critical loci of various binary water with hydrocarbon systems.

  16. Composition and origin of fluids associated with lode gold deposits in a Mesoarchean greenstone belt (Warrawoona Syncline, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia) using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaud, Nicolas; Philippot, Pascal; Rey, Patrice; Cauzid, Jean

    2006-10-01

    Microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy techniques are routinely use to constrain ore-fluids δ18O and molar proportions of anhydrous gas species (CO2, CH4, N2). However, these methods remain imprecise concerning the ore-fluids composition and source. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence allows access to major and trace element concentrations (Cl, Br and K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr) of single fluid inclusion. In this paper, we present the results of the combination of these routine and newly developed techniques in order to document the fluids composition and source associated with a Mesoarchaean lode gold deposit (Warrawoona Syncline, Western Australia). Fluid inclusion analyses show that quartz veins preserved records of three fluid inclusion populations. Early fluids inclusions, related to quartz veins precipitation, are characterized by a moderate to high Br/Cl ratio relative to modern seawater, CO2 ± CH4 ± N2, low to moderate salinities and significant base metal (Fe, Cu, Zn) and metalloid (As) concentrations. Late fluid inclusions trapped in secondary aqueous fluid inclusions are divided into two populations with distinct compositions. The first population consists of moderately saline aqueous brines, with a Br/Cl ratio close to modern seawater and a low concentration of base metals and metalloids. The second population is a fluid of low to moderate salinity, with a low Br/Cl ratio relative to modern seawater and significant enrichment in Fe, Zn, Sr and Rb. These three fluid inclusion populations point to three contrasting sources: (1) a carbonic fluid of mixed metamorphic and magmatic origin associated with the gold-bearing quartz precipitation; (2) a secondary aqueous fluid with seawater affinity; and (3) a surface-derived secondary aqueous fluid modified through interaction with felsic lithologies, before being flushed into the syncline. Primary carbonic fluids present similar characteristics than those ascribed to Mesoarchaean lode gold deposits

  17. Canine cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell counts and cytology associations with the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo TB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timothy B Hugo, Kathryn L Heading, Robert H Labuc Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, Glen Waverley, Vic, Australia Introduction: The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are often used to investigate intracranial disease in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if the total nucleated cell count (TNCC or cytology findings in abnormal CSF are associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. Materials and methods: For each case, the TNCC was categorized into one of three groups: A (<25×106/L; B (25–100×106/L; and C (>100×106/L. Cytology findings were categorized by the predominant cell type as lymphocytic, monocytoid, neutrophilic, or eosinopilic. MRI descriptions were classified as either normal or abnormal, and abnormal studies were further evaluated for the presence of specific characteristics (multifocal or diffuse disease versus focal disease, positive T2-weighted hyperintensity, positive FLAIR hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, mass effect, and the presence of poorly or well-defined lesion margins. Results: Forty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria and MRI abnormalities were found in 29/45 (64% dogs. TNCCs were not associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities or specific characteristics. Cytology categories were significantly associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities (P<0.001. Specifically, monocytoid cytology was 22.8 times more likely to have an abnormal MRI than lymphocytic cytology. CSF cytology was not significantly associated with specific abnormal MRI characteristics. Conclusion: There are minimal associations between CSF abnormalities and the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. These results support the continued importance of utilizing both tests when investigating intracranial disease. When CSF analysis must be performed initially, this study has demonstrated that an abnormal CSF with a monocytoid cytology supports the value of

  18. Density gradient theory combined with the PC-SAFT equation of state used for modeling the surface tension of associating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinš Václav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The density gradient theory (GT combined with a SAFT-type (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory equation of state has been used for modeling the surface tension of associating fluids represented by a series of six alkanols ranging from methanol to 1-pentanol. The effect of nonzero dipole moment of the selected alkanols on the predicted surface tension was investigated in this study. Results of the GT + non-polar Perturbed Chain (PC SAFT equation of state were compared to predictions of GT combined with the PC-polar-SAFT, i.e. PCP-SAFT, equation. Both GT + PC-SAFT and GT + PCP-SAFT give reasonable prediction of the surface tension for pure alkanols. Results of both models are comparable as no significant difference in the modeled saturation properties and in the predicted surface tension using GT was found. Consideration of dipolar molecules of selected alkanols using PCP-SAFT had only minor effect on the predicted properties compared to the non-polar PC-SAFT model.

  19. Association of Brucella Meningoencephalitis with Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt in A Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak ABDINIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic zoonosis in Iran. It is a systemic infection that can involve any organs or systems of the body and have variable presentations. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt infections due to brucellosis have been rarely reported in the literatures.This is the history of a four years old boy who developed Brucella meningoencephalitis at the age of 42 months, whilst he had a VP shunt in situ for hydrocephalus treatment. Also, he presented brucellosis as acute abdomen. This patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and rifampicin. The shunt was extracted and all clinical and laboratory test abnormalities subsided through this management.We propose that in a patient with Brucella meningoencephalitis, the cerebrospinal fluid shunt system can be extracted and treatment with appropriate combination of antibiotics could be successful. Moreover, it shows that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute abdomen and ascites in endemic regions.

  20. Electro-thermal vibration of visco-elastically coupled BNNT systems conveying fluid embedded on elastic foundation via strain gradient theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electro-thermal vibration of the double of Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) which are coupled by visco-Pasternak medium is carried out based on strain gradient theory. Two BNNTs are placed in uniform temperature and electric fields, the latter being applied through attached electrodes at both ends. Moreover, one of the BNNT is under conveying fluid. Considering Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB) model and Knudsen number, the higher-order equations of motion are derived base on the Hamilton's principle where differential quadrature method (DQM) is applied to obtain the frequency of coupled BNNTs system. The detailed parametric study is conducted, focusing on the combined effects of the Knudsen number, aspect ratio, thermal and electric fields, velocity of conveying fluid and visco-Pasternak coefficients on the stability of coupled system. Also, it is found that trend of figures have good agreement with the other studies

  1. Generalized mapping of multi-body dissipative particle dynamics onto fluid compressibility and the Flory-Huggins theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Khani, Shaghayegh; Wagner, Jacob; Yamanoi, Mikio; Maia, Joao

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a generalized relation between the fluid compressibility, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), and the simulation parameters in multi-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) is established. This required revisiting the MDPD equation of state previously reported in the literature and developing general relationships between the parameters used in the MDPD model. We derive a relationship to the Flory-Huggins χ parameter for incompressible fluids similar to the work previously done in dissipative particle dynamics by Groot and Warren. The accuracy of this relationship is evaluated using phase separation in small molecules and the solubility of polymers in dilute solvent solutions via monitoring the scaling of the radius of gyration (Rg) for different solvent qualities. Finally, the dynamics of the MDPD fluid is studied with respect to the diffusion coefficient and the zero shear viscosity.

  2. The Inviscid, Compressible and Rotational, 2D Isotropic Burgers and Pressureless Euler-Coriolis Fluids; Theory and Illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Choquard, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The coupling between dilatation and vorticity, two coexisting and fundamental processes in fluid dynamics is investigated here, in the simplest cases of inviscid 2D isotropic Burgers and pressureless Euler-Coriolis fluids respectively modeled by single vortices confined in compressible, local, inertial and global, rotating, environments. The field equations are established, inductively, starting from the equations of the characteristics solved with an initial Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity fields namely a vorticity free and a divergence free part and, deductively, by means of a canonical Hamiltonian Clebsch like formalism, implying two pairs of conjugate variables. Two vector valued fields are constants of the motion: the velocity field in the Burgers case and the momentum field per unit mass in the Euler-Coriolis one. Taking advantage of this property, a class of solutions for the mass densities of the fluids is given by the Jacobian of their sum with respect to the actual coordinates. Implementatio...

  3. Buoyancy-driven instability in a vertical cylinder: Binary fluids with Soret effect. I - General theory and stationary stability results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, G. R.; Sani, R. L.; Henry, D.; Roux, B.

    1990-01-01

    The buoyancy-driven instability of a monocomponent or binary fluid completely contained in a vertical circular cylinder is investigated, including the influence of the Soret effect for the binary mixture. The Boussinesq approximation is used, and the resulting linear stability problem is solved using a Galerkin technique. The analysis considers fluid mixtures ranging from gases to liquid metals. The flow structure is found to depend strongly on both the cylinder aspect ratio and the magnitude of the Soret effect. The predicted stability limits are shown to agree closely with experimental observations.

  4. Microbial Communities Associated with Holothurians: Presence of Unique Bacteria in the Coelomic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Masaki; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates interact with various microorganisms ranging from pathogens to symbionts. One-to-one symbiosis between a single microbial species and a single host animal has served as a model for the study of host-microbe interactions. In addition, increasing attention has recently been focused on the complex symbiotic associations, e.g., associations between sponges and their symbionts, due to their biotechnological potential; however, relatively little is known about the microbial div...

  5. Reduced Levels of Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid Are Associated with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku, Chinedu J.; Saville, William J. A.; Reed, Stephen M.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J.; Stich, Roger W

    2002-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a disease of horses that is primarily associated with infection with the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona. Infection with this parasite alone is not sufficient to induce the disease, and the mechanism of neuropathogenesis associated with EPM has not been reported. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a neurotransmitter, a vasodilator, and an immune effector and is produced in response to several parasitic protozoa. The purpose of this work was to determin...

  6. Comments on ''theory of dissipative density-gradient-driven turbulence in the tokamak edge'' [Phys. Fluids 28, 1419 (1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author critiques the model of tokamak edge turbulence by P.W. Terry and P.H. Diamond (Phys. Fluids 28, 1419, 1985). The critique includes a discussion of the physical basis, consistency and quantitative accuracy of the Terry-Diamond model. 19 refs

  7. Fluid structure in the immediate vicinity of an equilibrium three-phase contact line and assessment of disjoining pressure models using density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nold, Andreas; Goddard, Benjamin D; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-01-01

    We examine the nanoscale behavior of an equilibrium three-phase contact line in the presence of long-ranged intermolecular forces by employing a statistical mechanics of fluids approach, namely density functional theory (DFT) together with fundamental measure theory (FMT). This enables us to evaluate the predictive quality of effective Hamiltonian models in the vicinity of the contact line. In particular, we compare the results for mean field effective Hamiltonians with disjoining pressures defined through (I) the adsorption isotherm for a planar liquid film, and (II) the normal force balance at the contact line. We find that the height profile obtained using (I) shows good agreement with the adsorption film thickness of the DFT-FMT equilibrium density profile in terms of maximal curvature and the behavior at large film heights. In contrast, we observe that while the height profile obtained by using (II) satisfies basic sum rules, it shows little agreement with the adsorption film thickness of the DFT results...

  8. Theory and Modelling of Electrolytes and Chain Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    An aqueous solution of electrolytes can be modelled simplistically as charged hard spheresdispersed in a dielectric continuum. We review various classical theories for hard sphere systems including the Percus-Yevick theory, the mean spherical approximation, the Debye-Hückel theory and the hyper-netted chain theory, and we compare the predictions of the theories with simulation results. The statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) has proved to be accurate for neutral polymers. It is mo...

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is increased in serum, but not in cerebrospinal fluid in HIV associated CNS diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, B; Koedel, U; Paul, R; Eberle, J; Arendt, G; Pfister, H-W

    2004-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic and mitogenic peptide, which also induces several mediators that may play a role in HIV induced CNS damage. VEGF levels were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 19) directly HIV associated CNS disorders and HIV negative control patients (n = 18). VEGF serum but not CSF levels were significantly increased in HIV infected patients with (381.1 (78.9) pg/ml) HIV associated CNS diseases compared with those without (120.8 (13.1) pg/ml) and HIV negative control patients (133.1(14.8) pg/ml). Serum samples from patients with untreated HIV associated encephalopathy (HIVE, n = 3) contained the highest VEGF levels (583.9 (71.5) pg/ml). In two patients VEGF serum levels were reduced during antiretroviral therapy. However, regardless of effective viral suppression, patients with HIVE still had higher levels compared with HIV infected patients without HIVE. A relevant increase of serum VEGF was not observed in patients without HIVE though high HI viral load. We conclude that HIVE is associated with increased serum VEGF levels. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of VEGF in HIVE. PMID:14742610

  10. Thermodynamics of Simple Models of Associating Fluids: Primitive Models of Ammonia, Methanol, Ethanol, and Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Lukáš; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 8 (2004), s. 771-781. ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : associations * primitive model * state behaviour Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.406, year: 2004

  11. An experimental study of the fluid mechanics associated with porous walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.; Heaman, J.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    The fluid mechanics of air exiting from a porous material is investigated. The experiments are filter rating dependent, as porous walls with filter ratings differing by about three orders of magnitude are studied. The flow behavior is investigated for its spatial and temporal stability. The results from the investigation are related to jet behavior in at least one of the following categories: (1) jet coalescence effects with increasing flow rate; (2) jet field decay with increasing distance from the porous wall; (3) jet field temporal turbulence characteristics; and (4) single jet turbulence characteristics. The measurements show that coalescence effects cause jet development, and this development stage can be traced by measuring the pseudoturbulence (spatial velocity variations) at any flow rate. The pseudoturbulence variation with increasing mass flow reveals an initial increasing trend followed by a leveling trend, both of which are directly proportional to the filter rating. A critical velocity begins this leveling trend and represents the onset of fully developed jetting action in the flow field. A correlation is developed to predict the onset of fully developed jets in the flow emerging from a porous wall. The data further show that the fully developed jet dimensions are independent of the filter rating, thus providing a length scale for this type of flow field (1 mm). Individual jet characteristics provide another unifying trend with similar velocity decay behavior with distance; however, the respective turbulence magnitudes show vast differences between jets from the same sample. Measurements of the flow decay with distance from the porous wall show that the higher spatial frequency components of the jet field dissipate faster than the lower frequency components. Flow turbulence intensity measurements show an out of phase behavior with the velocity field and are generally found to increase as the distance from the wall is increased.

  12. High Salt Intake Increases Copeptin but Salt Sensitivity Is Associated with Fluid Induced Reduction of Copeptin in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tasevska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if copeptin is affected by high salt intake and whether any salt-induced changes in copeptin are related to the degree of salt sensitivity. The study was performed on 20 men and 19 women. In addition to meals containing 50 mmol NaCl daily, capsules containing 100 mmol NaCl and corresponding placebo capsules were administered during 4 weeks each, in random order. Measurements of 24 h blood pressure, body weight, 24 h urinary volume, and fasting plasma copeptin were performed at high and low salt consumption. Copeptin increased after a high compared to low dietary salt consumption in all subjects 3,59 ± 2,28 versus 3,12 ± 1,95 (P = 0,02. Copeptin correlated inversely with urinary volume, at both low (r = −0,42; P = 0,001 and high (r = −0,60; P < 0,001 salt consumption, as well as with the change in body weight (r = −0,53; P < 0,001. Systolic salt sensitivity was inversely correlated with salt-induced changes of copeptin, only in females (r = −0,58; P = 0,017. As suppression of copeptin on high versus low salt intake was associated with systolic salt sensitivity in women, our data suggest that high fluid intake and fluid retention may contribute to salt sensitivity.

  13. A reactive transport modelling approach to assess the leaching potential of hydraulic fracturing fluids associated with coal seam gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallants, Dirk; Simunek, Jirka; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal Seam Gas production generates large volumes of "produced" water that may contain compounds originating from the use of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Such produced water also contains elevated concentrations of naturally occurring inorganic and organic compounds, and usually has a high salinity. Leaching of produced water from storage ponds may occur as a result of flooding or containment failure. Some produced water is used for irrigation of specific crops tolerant to elevated salt levels. These chemicals may potentially contaminate soil, shallow groundwater, and groundwater, as well as receiving surface waters. This paper presents an application of scenario modelling using the reactive transport model for variably-saturated media HP1 (coupled HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC). We evaluate the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and naturally occurring chemicals in soil as a result of unintentional release from storage ponds or when produced water from Coal Seam Gas operations is used in irrigation practices. We present a review of exposure pathways and relevant hydro-bio-geo-chemical processes, a collation of physico-chemical properties of organic/inorganic contaminants as input to a set of generic simulations of transport and attenuation in variably saturated soil profiles. We demonstrate the ability to model the coupled processes of flow and transport in soil of contaminants associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids and naturally occurring contaminants.

  14. Statistical theory for hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type (Ⅲ): Equation of state and fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiJun; GU Fang; HONG XiaoZhong; BA XinWu

    2007-01-01

    The equation of the state of the hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type is studied by the principle of statistical mechanics. The influences of hydrogen bonds on the equation of state of the system are obtained based on the change in volume due to hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the number density fluctuations of both molecules and hydrogen bonds as well as their spatial correlation property are investigated. Furthermore, an equation describing relation between the number density correlation function of "molecules-hydrogen bonds" and that of molecules and hydrogen bonds is derived. As application,taking the van der Waals hydrogen bonding fluid as an example, we considered the effect of hydrogen bonds on its relevant statistical properties.

  15. Exploratory study of the association of steroid profiles in stimulated ovarian follicular fluid with outcomes of IVF treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Mark M; Naessén, Tord; Wanggren, Kjell; Hreinsson, Julius; Rockwood, Alan L; Meikle, A Wayne; Bergquist, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    Steroid concentrations in stimulated follicular fluid (sFF) samples have been linked to the quality of oocytes used in IVF treatments. Most of the published studies focused on evaluating the association of the IVF outcomes with only a few of the steroids, measured by immunoassays (IA). We performed a treatment outcome, prospective cohort study using stimulated FF sampled from 14 infertile women undergoing IVF treatment; single oocyte was used per IVF cycle. Fourteen endogenous steroids were analyzed in 22 ovarian follicle aspirations, which corresponded to the embryos used in the IVF. Ten oocytes were associated with live birth (LB) and 12 with no pregnancy (NP). Steroids were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. Differences in distribution of concentrations in association with the pregnancy outcome (LB or NP), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis were performed for the entire cohort and for within-women data. The predominant androgen and estrogen in stimulated sFF were androstenedione (A4) and estradiol (E2), respectively. Lower concentrations of pregnenolone (Pr), lower ratios of A4/ dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (Te)/DHEA, and greater ratios of E2/Te, and estrone/A4 were observed in sFF samples associated with LB. Among the oocytes associated with NP, in four out of 12 samples total concentration of androgens was above the distribution of the concentrations in the oocytes corresponding to the LB group. Observations of the study indicated increased consumption of precursors and increased biosynthesis of estrogens in the follicles associated with LB. Our data suggest that potentially steroid profiles in sFF obtained during oocyte retrieval may serve as biomarkers for selection of the best embryo to transfer after IVF. PMID:26388251

  16. Application of Group Theory of the Similarity Solutions of the Power law Fluids Flow Past a Suddenly Accelerating Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Lal

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of a power law fluid past a suddenly accelerated wall which moves with a constant velocity U (t parallel to the wall has been considered for the similarity analysis. Recently this problem has been discussed and two possible group of transformation have been used by T.Y. Na/sup 1/. In this paper the third possible transformation has been found. The variation of the wall velocity U (t with time, t, has been worked out.

  17. Informatic system for a global tissue-fluid biorepository with a graph theory-oriented graphical user interface

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, William E.; Atai, Nadia; Carter, Bob; Hochberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and e...

  18. A pressure consistent bridge correction of Kovalenko-Hirata closure in Ornstein-Zernike theory for Lennard-Jones fluids by apparently adjusting sigma parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebato, Yuki; Miyata, Tatsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) integral equation theory is known to overestimate the excess internal energy, Uex, pressure through the virial route, Pv, and excess chemical potential, μex, for one-component Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluids under hypernetted chain (HNC) and Kovalenko-Hirata (KH) approximatons. As one of the bridge correction methods to improve the precision of these thermodynamic quantities, it was shown in our previous paper that the method to apparently adjust σ parameter in the LJ potential is effective [T. Miyata and Y. Ebato, J. Molec. Liquids. 217, 75 (2016)]. In our previous paper, we evaluated the actual variation in the σ parameter by using a fitting procedure to molecular dynamics (MD) results. In this article, we propose an alternative method to determine the actual variation in the σ parameter. The proposed method utilizes a condition that the virial and compressibility pressures coincide with each other. This method can correct OZ theory without a fitting procedure to MD results, and possesses characteristics of keeping a form of HNC and/or KH closure. We calculate the radial distribution function, pressure, excess internal energy, and excess chemical potential for one-component LJ fluids to check the performance of our proposed bridge function. We discuss the precision of these thermodynamic quantities by comparing with MD results. In addition, we also calculate a corrected gas-liquid coexistence curve based on a corrected KH-type closure and compare it with MD results.

  19. PORFLO: A continuum model for fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transport in porous media. Model theory, numerical methods and computational tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runchal, A. K.; Sagar, B.; Baca, R. G.; Kline, N. W.

    1985-09-01

    Postclosure performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository in flood basalts at Hanford requires that the processes of fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport be numerically modeled at appropriate space and time scales. A suite of computer models has been developed to meet this objective. The theory of one of these models, named PORFLO, is described in this report. Also presented are a discussion of the numerical techniques in the PORFLO computer code and a few computational test cases. Three two-dimensional equations, one each for fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport, are numerically solved in PORFLO. The governing equations are derived from the principle of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in a stationary control volume that is assumed to contain a heterogeneous, anisotropic porous medium. Broad discrete features can be accommodated by specifying zones with distinct properties, or these can be included by defining an equivalent porous medium. The governing equations are parabolic differential equations that are coupled through time-varying parameters. Computational tests of the model are done by comparisons of simulation results with analytic solutions, with results from other independently developed numerical models, and with available laboratory and/or field data. In this report, in addition to the theory of the model, results from three test cases are discussed. A users' manual for the computer code resulting from this model has been prepared and is available as a separate document.

  20. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.

    2009-10-15

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

  1. Positron-acoustic shock waves associated with cold viscous positron fluid in superthermal electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M. J., E-mail: josim.phys2007@gmail.com; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh)

    2015-06-15

    A theoretical investigation is made on the positron-acoustic (PA) shock waves (SHWs) in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma containing immobile positive ions, cold mobile positrons, and hot positrons and electrons following the kappa (κ) distribution. The cold positron kinematic viscosity is taken into account, and the reductive perturbation method is used to derive the Burgers equation. It is found that the viscous force acting on cold mobile positron fluid is a source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the PA SHWs. It is also observed that the fundamental properties of the PA SHWs are significantly modified by the effects of different parameters associated with superthermal (κ distributed) hot positrons and electrons.

  2. Associative memory in a volume holographic medium: a new approach based on operator theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we present a new method for holographic implementation of associative memories. In the current approach, the memory capacity is implemented in the form of spatial perturbation of refractive index within the volume of a three dimensional holographic material. We use operator theory to solve the inverse problem and compute a closed-form solution for the spatial distribution of the perturbation considering any arbitrary set of input–output prototype vectors. Simplicity of the hardware is the major advantage of the current method. (papers)

  3. Associative memory in a volume holographic medium: a new approach based on operator theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaie, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we present a new method for holographic implementation of associative memories. In the current approach, the memory capacity is implemented in the form of spatial perturbation of refractive index within the volume of a three dimensional holographic material. We use operator theory to solve the inverse problem and compute a closed-form solution for the spatial distribution of the perturbation considering any arbitrary set of input-output prototype vectors. Simplicity of the hardware is the major advantage of the current method.

  4. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  5. Indicators of Early and Late Processing Reveal the Importance of Within-Trial-Time for Theories of Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lachnit, Harald; Thorwart, Anna; Schultheis, Holger; Lotz, Anja; Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin

    2013-01-01

    In four human learning experiments (Pavlovian skin conductance, causal learning, speeded classification task), we evaluated several associative learning theories that assume either an elemental (modified unique cue model and Harris’ model) or a configural (Pearce’s configural theory and an extension of it) form of stimulus processing. The experiments used two modified patterning problems (A/B/C+, AB/BC/AC+ vs. ABC-; A+, BC+ vs. ABC-). Pearce’s configural theory successfully predicted all of o...

  6. Distributed interacted multisensor joint probabilistic data association algorithm based on D-S theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to resolve the multisensor multiplied maneuvering target tracking problem, this paper presents a distributed interacted multiple model multisensor joint probabilistic data association algorithm (DIMM-MSJPDA). First of all, the interacted multiple model joint probabilistic data association algorithm is applied to each sensor, and then the state estimation, estimation covariance, model probability, combined innovation, innovation covariance are delivered to the fusion center. Then, the tracks from each sensor are correlated and the D-S evidence theory is used to gain the model probability of an identical target. Finally, the ultimate state estimation of each target is calculated according to the new model probability, and the state estimation is transmitted to each sensor. Simulations are designed to test the tracking performance of DIMM-MSJPDA algorithm. The results show that the use of DIMM-MSJPDA algorithm enables the distributed multisensor system to track multiplied maneuvering targets and its tracking performance is much better than that of IMMJPDA algorithm.

  7. Range of applicability of the linear fluid slosh theory for predicting transient lateral slosh and roll stability of tank vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaei, Amir; Rakheja, Subhash; Richard, Marc J.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model is developed to study the transient lateral sloshing in horizontal cylindrical containers assuming inviscid, incompressible and irrotational flows. The model is derived by implementing the linearized free-surface boundary condition and bipolar coordinate transformation, resulting in a truncated system of linear ordinary differential equations, which is numerically solved to determine the fluid velocity potentials followed by the hydrodynamic forces and moment. The model results are compared with those obtained from the multimodal solution. The free-surface elevation and hydrodynamic coefficients are also compared with the reported experimental and analytical data as well as numerical simulations to establish validity of the model. The capability of the model for predicting non-resonant slosh is also evaluated using the critical free-surface amplitude. The model validity is further illustrated by comparing the transient liquid slosh responses of a partially filled tank subject to steady lateral acceleration characterizing a vehicle turning maneuver with those obtained from fully nonlinear CFD simulations and pendulum models. It is shown that the linear slosh model yields more accurate prediction of dynamic slosh than the pendulum models and it is significantly more computationally efficient than the nonlinear CFD model. The slosh model is subsequently applied to roll plane model of a suspended tank vehicle to study the effect of dynamic liquid slosh on steady-turning roll stability limit of the vehicle under constant and variable axle load conditions. The results suggest that the roll moment arising from the dynamic fluid slosh yields considerably lower roll stability limit of the partly-filled tank vehicle compared to that predicted from the widely reported quasi-static fluid slosh model.

  8. Application of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to model the fluid phase behaviour of binary mixtures of water and tetrahydrofuran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    The complex fluid phase behaviour, of the binary system comprised of water and tetrahydrofuran (THF) is modelled by use of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state. A total of seven modelling approaches are analysed, differing only in their way of describing THF and its interactions...... (hydrogen bonding) with water.The qualitative behaviour of the fluid phase equilibria in this system can only be described by CPA when cross-association between water and THF is allowed.Six of the seven tested modelling scenarios allow for cross-association between the two compounds. These scenarios are...... named Case 2 to Case 7. Case 2 treats THF as non self-associating, but applies a single association site on the THF oxygen atom, that allows for cross-linking with a single water molecule. Case 3 is identical to Case 2 but applies two association sites on THF, allowing for simultaneous cross...

  9. Error analysis for reducing noisy wide-gap concentric cylinder rheometric data for nonlinear fluids - Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Andrea; Spera, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    This work discusses the propagation of errors for the recovery of the shear rate from wide-gap concentric cylinder viscometric measurements of non-Newtonian fluids. A least-square regression of stress on angular velocity data to a system of arbitrary functions is used to propagate the errors for the series solution to the viscometric flow developed by Krieger and Elrod (1953) and Pawlowski (1953) ('power-law' approximation) and for the first term of the series developed by Krieger (1968). A numerical experiment shows that, for measurements affected by significant errors, the first term of the Krieger-Elrod-Pawlowski series ('infinite radius' approximation) and the power-law approximation may recover the shear rate with equal accuracy as the full Krieger-Elrod-Pawlowski solution. An experiment on a clay slurry indicates that the clay has a larger yield stress at rest than during shearing, and that, for the range of shear rates investigated, a four-parameter constitutive equation approximates reasonably well its rheology. The error analysis presented is useful for studying the rheology of fluids such as particle suspensions, slurries, foams, and magma.

  10. Fluid retention associated with imatinib treatment in patients with gastroenterol stromal: Quantitative radiologic assessment and implications for management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Ramaiya, Nikihil H. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Pyo, Jun Hee [The Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We aimed to describe radiologic signs and time-course of imatinib-associated fluid retention (FR) in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and its implications for management. In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study of 403 patients with GIST treated with imatinib, 15 patients with imaging findings of FR were identified by screening radiology reports, followed by manual confirmation. Subcutaneous edema, ascites, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion were graded on a four-point scale on CT scans; total score was the sum of these four scores. The most common radiologic sign of FR was subcutaneous edema (15/15, 100%), followed by ascites (12/15, 80%), pleural effusion (11/15, 73%), and pericardial effusion (6/15, 40%) at the time of maximum FR. Two distinct types of FR were observed: 1) acute/progressive FR, characterized by acute aggravation of FR and rapid improvement after management, 2) intermittent/steady FR, characterized by occasional or persistent mild FR. Acute/progressive FR always occurred early after drug initiation/dose escalation (median 1.9 month, range 0.3-4.0 months), while intermittent/steady FR occurred at any time. Compared to intermittent/steady FR, acute/progressive FR was severe (median score, 5 vs. 2.5, p = 0.002), and often required drug-cessation/dose-reduction. Two distinct types (acute/progressive and intermittent/steady FR) of imatinib-associated FR are observed and each type requires different management.

  11. The associated factors to endometrial cavity fluid and the relevant impact on the IVF-ET outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ya-Qiong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial cavity fluid (ECF is a fluid accumulation within the endometrial cavity. The significance of ECF remains unclear during the program of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associated factors to ECF, visualized through ultrasound at the day of oocyte retrieval, and the relevant impact on the outcome of IVF-ET. Methods From the clinical data of 1557 infertility patients for IVF-ET program, 46 ECF patients were retrospectively selected as the ECF group; and another 134 patients with a bilateral salpingectomy and without ECF, selected as the control group. The demographics and the outcome of IVF-ET were compared between the two groups. Results The incidence of ECF was 2.95% (46/1557. Over half (28/46, 60.87% of ECF patients had tubal infertility. Only 12 Of 46 ECF patients (26.09% had visible hydrosalpinx on ultrasonography before ovarian stimulation. The cycle cancellation rate (4/46, 8.69% of ECF group was not significantly higher than that of the control group (6/134, 4.48%; P > 0.05. Reasons for cycle cancellation in both groups were all the high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. No significant difference was found in clinical pregnancy rate between the patients with their ECF 0.05. No clinical pregnancy was found among those patients with their ECF equal or higher 3.5 mm in APD. Conclusions It was tubal infertility, not hydrosalpinx, which was related to the development of ECF. Excessive ECF (equal or higher 3.5 mm in APD at the day of oocyte retrieval would have a negative impact on the outcome of IVF-ET.

  12. Theory of complex fluids in the warm-dense-matter regime, and application to phase-transitions in liquid carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Dharma-wardana, M W C

    2016-01-01

    Using data from recent laser-shock experiments and related density-functional molecular-dynamics simulations on carbon, we demonstrate that the ionic structures predicted within the neutral-pseudo-atom approach for a complex liquid in the warm-dense matter regime are in good agreement with available data, even where transient covalent bonding dominates ionic correlations. Evidence for an unusual phase transition of a liquid $\\to$ vapor with an abrupt decrease in ionization occurring simultaneously is presented. Here a covalently-bonded metallic-liquid, i.e., carbon of density 1.0 g/cm$^3$, transits to a disordered mono-atomic fluid at 7 eV. Other transitions where the mean ionization $Z$ drops abruptly are also uncovered

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Joseph N; Meintjes, Graeme; Bicanic, Tihana; Buffa, Viviana; Hogan, Louise; Mo, Stephanie; Tomlinson, Gillian; Kropf, Pascale; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Harrison, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N Jarvis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA. PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL-6 and interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α. High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS, more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and

  15. Associations between belief in conspiracy theories and the maladaptive personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-02-28

    Conspiracy theories can be treated as both rational narratives of the world as well as outcomes of underlying maladaptive traits. Here, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and individual differences in personality disorders. An Internet-based sample (N=259) completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories and the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Preliminary analyses showed no significant differences in belief in conspiracy theories across participant sex, ethnicity, and education. Regression analyses showed that the PID-5 facets of Unusual Beliefs and Experiences and, to a lesser extent, Suspiciousness, significantly predicted belief in conspiracy theories. These findings highlight a role for maladaptive personality traits in understanding belief in conspiracy theories, but require further investigation. PMID:26776299

  16. Analysis on probability of water inrush and quicksand in different mining sequences under an unconsolidated alluvium aquifer by fluid-solid coupling theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lu-wang; QIN Yuan; GUI He-rong; ZHANG Shi-lei

    2012-01-01

    To study the behavior of overlying strata and the likelihood of water inrush and quicksand with different mining sequences under an unconsolidated alluvium aquifer,a numerical model based on the fluid-solid coupling theory was constructed by FLAC3D.Simulation results revealed that the mining sequences had a significant influence on the seepage,displacement and failure characteristics of the overlying strata.In this kind of geological and hydrogeological conditions,the workface close to the outcrop of coal seam easily suffers from water inrush and quicksand during mining.In the simulation resuits,the plastic zone,vertical displacement and pore water pressure in the overlying strata of the workface decrease more or less using the upward mining sequence than using the downward mining sequence.Therefore,the application of the upward mining sequence in the process of mining is preferential to prevent water inrush and quicksand.

  17. Theory of anomalous resistivity associated with structural phase transitions in IV-VI compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, S.; Mills, D. L.

    1980-07-01

    A theoretical description of electrical-resistivity anomalies associated with structural phase transitions of IV-VI compound semiconductors is presented, taking account of interband electron-soft-TO-phonon scattering. The sublattice displacement and rhombohedral strain in the low-temperature phase are calculated within the framework of a self-consistent mean-field theory, with emphasis on the effect of electron-phonon couplings. The resistivity due to the scattering of free carriers from acoustic phonons and optic phonons is examined, including the carrier transfer among the four valleys due to valley splitting below the transition temperature (Tc). The theoretical calculations of electrical resistivity as well as order parameters are in good accord with data on p-type SnTe at the quantitative level.

  18. The complete structure of the cohomology ring and associated symmetries in D = 2 string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine explicitly all structure constants of the whole chiral BRST cohomology ring in D=2 string theory including both the discrete states and tachyon states. This is made possible by establishing several identities for Schur polynomials with operator argument and exploring associativity. Furthermore we find that the (chiral) symmetry algebra of the charges obtained by using the descent equations can actually be read off from the cohomology ring structure by simple operation involving the ghost field b. We also determine the enlarged symmetry algebra which contains the charges having ghost number -1 and 1. Finally the complete symmetry transformation rules are derived for closed string discrete states by carefully combining the left and right sectors. It turns out that the new states introduced recently by Witten and Zwiebach are naturally created when symmetries act on the old states. (orig.)

  19. The Cassie-Wenzel transition of fluids on nanostructured substrates: Macroscopic force balance versus microscopic density-functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakov, Nikita; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Dünweg, Burkhard; Daoulas, Kostas Ch

    2016-01-01

    Classical density functional theory is applied to investigate the validity of a phenomenological force-balance description of the stability of the Cassie state of liquids on substrates with nanoscale corrugation. A bulk free-energy functional of third order in local density is combined with a square-gradient term, describing the liquid-vapor interface. The bulk free energy is parameterized to reproduce the liquid density and the compressibility of water. The square-gradient term is adjusted to model the width of the water-vapor interface. The substrate is modeled by an external potential, based upon Lennard-Jones interactions. The three-dimensional calculation focuses on substrates patterned with nanostripes and square-shaped nanopillars. Using both the force-balance relation and density-functional theory, we locate the Cassie-to-Wenzel transition as a function of the corrugation parameters. We demonstrate that the force-balance relation gives a qualitatively reasonable description of the transition even on t...

  20. Bianchi type-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow in Saez–Ballester theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shri Ram; M Zeyauddin; C P Singh

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the variation law for Hubble's parameter with average scale factor in a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V space-time model, which yields constant value of the deceleration parameter. We derive two laws of variation of the average scale factor with cosmic time, one is of power-law type and the other is of exponential form. Exact solutions of Einstein field equations with perfect fluid and heat conduction are obtained for Bianchi type-V space-time in these two types of cosmologies. In the cosmology with the power-law, the solutions correspond to a cosmological model which starts expanding from the singular state with positive deceleration parameter. In the case of exponential cosmology, we present an accelerating non-singular model of the Universe. We find that the constant value of deceleration parameter is reasonable for the present day Universe and gives an appropriate description of evolution of Universe. We have also discussed different types of physical and kinematical behaviour of the models in these two types of cosmologies.

  1. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galasko Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is associated with deposition of amyloid β (Aβ in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the Aβ1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. There are at least 15 additional Aβ peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of Aβ. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF Aβ isoform pattern that is distinct when comparing sporadic AD (SAD and familial AD (FAD due to different mechanisms underlying brain amyloid pathology in the two disease groups. Results We measured Aβ isoform concentrations in CSF from 18 patients with SAD, 7 carriers of the FAD-associated presenilin 1 (PSEN1 A431E mutation, 17 healthy controls and 6 patients with depression using immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry. Low CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and high levels of Aβ1-16 distinguished SAD patients and FAD mutation carriers from healthy controls and depressed patients. SAD and FAD were characterized by similar changes in Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-16, but FAD mutation carriers exhibited very low levels of Aβ1-37, Aβ1-38 and Aβ1-39. Conclusion SAD patients and PSEN1 A431E mutation carriers are characterized by aberrant CSF Aβ isoform patterns that hold clinically relevant diagnostic information. PSEN1 A431E mutation carriers exhibit low levels of Aβ1-37, Aβ1-38 and Aβ1-39; fragments that are normally produced by γ-secretase, suggesting that the PSEN1 A431E mutation modulates γ-secretase cleavage site preference in a disease-promoting manner.

  2. Elevated Levels of Cytokines Associated with Th2 and Th17 Cells in Vitreous Fluid of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Macrophages are involved in low-grade inflammation in diabetes, and play pathogenic roles in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR by producing proinflammatory cytokines. T cells as well as other cells are also activated by proinflammatory cytokines, and infiltration into the vitreous of patients with PDR has been shown. In this study, we measured helper T (Th cell-related cytokines in the vitreous of PDR patients to define the characteristics of Th-mediated immune responses associated with PDR. The study group consisted of 25 type 2 diabetic patients (25 eyes with PDR. The control group consisted of 27 patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM, 26 patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH, and 26 patients with uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. Vitreous fluid was obtained at the beginning of vitrectomy, and centrifuging for cellular removals was not performed. Serum was also collected from PDR patients. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble sCD40L, and TNFα in the vitreous and serum samples were measured. Both percent detectable and levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, and TNFα in the vitreous were significantly higher than those in the serum in PDR patients. Vitreous levels of these cytokines and IL-31 were significantly higher in PDR than in ERM or MH patients. Vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα in PDR patients were also significantly higher than those of sarcoidosis patients. In PDR patients, vitreous IL-17A level correlated significantly with vitreous levels of IL-22 and IL-31, and especially with IL-4 and TNFα. Although it is unclear whether these cytokines play facilitative roles or inhibitory roles for the progression of PDR, the present study indicated that Th2- and Th17-related immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  3. Modeling liquid-vapor equilibria with an equation of state taking into account dipolar interactions and association by hydrogen bonding; Modelisation des proprietes PVTX des fluides du systeme H{sub 2}O-gaz prenant en compte l'association par liaisons hydrogenes et les interactions dipolaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perfetti, E

    2006-11-15

    Modelling fluid-rock interactions as well as mixing and unmixing phenomena in geological processes requires robust equations of state (EOS) which must be applicable to systems containing water, gases over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. Cubic equations of state based on the Van der Waals theory (e. g. Soave-Redlich-Kwong or Peng-Robinson) allow simple modelling from the critical parameters of the studied fluid components. However, the accuracy of such equations becomes poor when water is a major component of the fluid since neither association trough hydrogen bonding nor dipolar interactions are accounted for. The Helmholtz energy of a fluid may be written as the sum of different energetic contributions by factorization of partition function. The model developed in this thesis for the pure H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S considers three contributions. The first contribution represents the reference Van der Waals fluid which is modelled by the SRK cubic EOS. The second contribution accounts for association through hydrogen bonding and is modelled by a term derived from Cubic Plus Association (CPA) theory. The third contribution corresponds to the dipolar interactions and is modelled by the Mean Spherical Approximation (MSA) theory. The resulting CPAMSA equation has six adjustable parameters, which three represent physical terms whose values are close to their experimental counterpart. This equation results in a better reproduction of the thermodynamic properties of pure water than obtained using the classical CPA equation along the vapour-liquid equilibrium. In addition, extrapolation to higher temperatures and pressure is satisfactory. Similarly, taking into account dipolar interactions together with the SRK cubic equation of state for calculating molar volume of H{sub 2}S as a function of pressure and temperature results in a significant improvement compared to the SRK equation alone. Simple mixing rules between dipolar molecules are proposed to model the H

  4. Detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from neurological complications associated with chicken pox or herpes zoster.

    OpenAIRE

    Puchhammer-Stöckl, E; Popow-Kraupp, T; Heinz, F X; Mandl, C W; Kunz, C.

    1991-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with VZV infection associated with neurological symptoms. Positive results were obtained in three of five children with post-chicken pox cerebellitis and in seven of seven herpes zoster patients with neurological symptoms. The PCR thus provides a useful tool for the early diagnosis of VZV-associated neurological disease.

  5. Characterization of fluids associated to mineral paragenesis of uraniferous albitites and their gnessic embedding rocks from Lagoa da Rabicha Uranium Deposit, Lagoa Real, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has now the seventh largest uranium reserve in the world. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province (PULR) is located in central-south region of Bahia State. Along a helical structure, north-south oriented, with approximately 33 km long, there are 34 known uranium mineralized areas. In its central-south portion is located anomaly 03 (AN03), named Lagoa da Rabicha, discovered and mapped by NUCLEBRAS (Brazilian Nuclear Enterprises), in the 80s. The Cachoeira Mine (AN13), located in northern PULR, is currently the only uranium mine in production in Brazil and even in South America. Nowadays it is observed a growth in energy demand in Brazil and also worldwide and studies and research applied to the petrogenetic uranium deposits are relevant both to be able to increase their potential for exploration and to assist in the possible future occurrences discovery. In recent years, fluid inclusions analysis (FI) have been widely used to study the genesis of uranium deposits in PULR and even thought there are still doubts about the uranium mineralization metallogenesis at Lagoa Real. Therefore, this work aimed to study the minerals and fluids associated with Lagoa da Rabicha albitites uraniferous and gneissic host rocks. In this way it was prepared an overview of the fluids found in this sector, establishing a comparison with several authors' studies in this and others Lagoa Real anomalies, trying to show the solutions evolution, at the same time that happened the uraninite precipitation. Petrography, electronic microprobe, laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS) and fluid inclusion studies were the applied methodologies. The fluids inclusions assemblages present in pyroxene, garnet and plagioclase, the main mineralogical constituents, were studied. The older fluid was found in aegirine-augite pyroxene and had aquo-saline composition (without carbonic phases) with Ca, Fe and Mg, 9-13 wt% NaCl salinities and homogenization temperatures between 220 and 290 deg C. Concomitantly, occurred a

  6. Determination of Transport Properties From Flowing Fluid Temperature Logging In Unsaturated Fractured Rocks: Theory And Semi-Analytical Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) has been recently proposed as a method to locate flowing fractures. We argue that FFTL, backed up by data from high-precision distributed temperature sensors, can be a useful tool in locating flowing fractures and in estimating the transport properties of unsaturated fractured rocks. We have developed the theoretical background needed to analyze data from FFTL. In this paper, we present a simplified conceptualization of FFTL in unsaturated fractured rock, and develop a semianalytical solution for spatial and temporal variations of pressure and temperature inside a borehole in response to an applied perturbation (pumping of air from the borehole). We compare the semi-analytical solution with predictions from the TOUGH2 numerical simulator. Based on the semi-analytical solution, we propose a method to estimate the permeability of the fracture continuum surrounding the borehole. Using this proposed method, we estimated the effective fracture continuum permeability of the unsaturated rock hosting the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Our estimate compares well with previous independent estimates for fracture permeability of the DST host rock. The conceptual model of FFTL presented in this paper is based on the assumptions of single-phase flow, convection-only heat transfer, and negligible change in system state of the rock formation. In a sequel paper (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2008), we extend the conceptual model to evaluate some of these assumptions. We also perform inverse modeling of FFTL data to estimate, in addition to permeability, other transport parameters (such as porosity and thermal conductivity) of unsaturated fractured rocks

  7. Origin of the fluids associated with granodiorite-hosted, Sb-As-Au-W mineralisation at Dúbrava (Nízke Tatry Mts, Western Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovan, M.; Hurai, V.; Sachan, H. K.; Kantor, J.

    1995-02-01

    Mineral parageneses of the polymetallic, Sbrich deposit at Dúbrava has been formed during five separated stages. A fluid inclusion study demonstrates that the earliest stages with scheelite, molybdenite and arsenopyrite have been associated with immiscible CO2 (± CH4)-rich, low-saline fluids at temperatures between 300 and 400 °C and pressures as much as 2 kbar. Deposition of the main, superimposed ores, stibnite and zinckenite, has been intimately connected with circulation of aqeuous, moderately saline fluids (15.5 23.5 wt% NaCl equiv.) upon epithermal conditions. Salinity of the aqueous fluids associated with tetrahedrite is clustered around 10 wt% NaCl equiv. Quartz from the latest, barite stage has precipitated from aqueous fluids enriched in divalent cations. These fluids are believed to be genetically linked with Triassic evaporite formations preserved in the region. Temperature-salinity diagrams constructed from microthermometry data indicate influx of diluted meteorite water in the stibnite, tetrahedrite and barite stages. Isotopic data are in accordance with model. The δ 18O values between -9.3‰ and +1.5‰ have been derived for water in equilibrium with quartz, coexisting with sphalerite, tetrahedrite and barite, thus confirming the participation of isotopically lighter meteoric waters in the mineral-forming solutions. The ( δ 18O) values between +3.3‰ and +8.5‰ estimated for the water associated with the scheelite and arsenopyrite stages, are suggestive for the majority of metamorphic and/or magmatic water in the mineral-forming, CO2-rich solutions.

  8. Microcontinuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1999-01-01

    Microcontinuum field theories constitute an extension of classical field theories -- of elastic bodies, deformations, electromagnetism, and the like -- to microscopic spaces and short time scales. Material bodies are here viewed as collections of large numbers of deformable particles, much as each volume element of a fluid in statistical mechanics is viewed as consisting of a large number of small particles for which statistical laws are valid. Classical continuum theories are valid when the characteristic length associated with external forces or stimuli is much larger than any internal scale of the body under consideration. When the characteristic lengths are comparable, however, the response of the individual constituents becomes important, for example, in considering the fluid or elastic properties of blood, porous media, polymers, liquid crystals, slurries, and composite materials. This volume is concerned with the kinematics of microcontinua. It begins with a discussion of strain, stress tensors, balanc...

  9. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  10. Fluid migration associated with allochthonous salt in the Northern Gulf of mexico: an analysis using 3D depth migrated seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, William H.; Pritchett, John A. [Amoco Production Co. (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The emplacement of allochthonous salt bodies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, and their subsequent deformation to form secondary salt features involves the upward movement of salt along discrete feeder conduits. The detachment of allochthonous salt from a deeper source results in the collapse of these conduits. Structural disruption associated with this collapse creates a permeability pathway to allow enhanced fluid migration from depth into shallower section. Some of the high pressure fluids migration upward along these permeability conduits will impinge on a permeability barrier created by the horizontal to sub-horizontal base of allochthonous salt sheets. Additional high pressure fluids associated with shale compaction and dewatering will also move upward to the base of salt permeability barrier. The constant influx of high pressure fluids into the zone immediately below salt prevents the shale in this zone from undergoing normal compaction, resulting in the formation of a lithologically distinct gumbo zone. This gumbo zone has been encountered in many of the subsalt wells drilled in the Gulf of Mexico. Abnormally high pore pressures are often associated with this gumbo zone beneath the salt sheets covering the southern shelf area, offshore Louisiana. Formation pressure gradients within this zone can be as much as 0.04 psi/ft (0.8 ppg) above the regional pressure gradient. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid volume depletion in chronic whiplash-associated disorders from motor vehicle-related spinal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume depletion in chronic cases of whiplash-associated disorders, 111In radioisotope (RI) cisternography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lumbar MR myelography were consecutively conducted on 460 individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders resulting from motor vehicle collision (Group A, n=225) and other traumatic injuries (Group B, n=57), spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndromes and other miscellaneous disorders (Group C, n=155), iatrogenic intracranial hypotension syndrome (Group D, n=11), and communicating hydrocephalus (Group E, n=12). Movement of intrathecally administered RI via a lumbar puncture was sequentially scanned at 1, 2 or 3, 5 and 24 hours. A whole body neuroaxis scanned figure showing high spinal parathecal activity at any time was considered to be a CSF leak, if small enough meningeal diverticula evidenced by MR myelography were present. Retention rate (%) of intrathecal RI for each scan was calculated using the formula: (whole body count-urinary bladder count)/whole body count (cpm) at 1 h x 100. All CSF leaks, although having single to multiple poles, were located in the spinal canal. CSF leakage was observed in 99/225 (44%), 24/57 (42%), 61/155 (39%), 9/11 (82%), and 4/12 (33%), in Groups A, B, C, D and E respectively. All CSF leakages was involved with the lumbar spine in Group A, although 20 cases extended to mid-thoracic levels. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concomitantly injured in 7 cases (1 cervical spine dislocation, 1 cervical spine fracture, 2 thoracic and 1 lumbar compression fracture (s), and 2 lumbar disc hernia). CSF leakage for 2 cervical spine injuries was not at the injured site but at the lumbar spinal canal. CSF leakage limited to the lumbar spine involved 22 and 43 cases in groups B and C, respectively. Of all CSF leaks, 24 h retention rates less than 30% accounted for 90% of cases. In Group A, early CSF excretion and less than a 30% retention rate at 24

  12. GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 1: Theory and Computational Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior (1) in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and (2) during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included

  13. Dense ionic fluids confined in planar capacitors: in- and out-of-plane structure from classical density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Andreas; Samin, Sela; van Roij, René

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing scientific interest in the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs) stems from their pivotal role in (super)capacitive energy storage, energy harvesting, and water treatment technologies. Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a promising framework for the study of the in- and out-of-plane structural properties of double layers. Supported by molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate the adequate performance of DFT for analyzing charge layering in the EDL perpendicular to the electrodes. We discuss charge storage and capacitance of the EDL and the impact of screening due to dielectric solvents. We further calculate, for the first time, the in-plane structure of the EDL within the framework of DFT. While our out-of-plane results already hint at structural in-plane transitions inside the EDL, which have been observed recently in simulations and experiments, our DFT approach performs poorly in predicting in-plane structure in comparison to simulations. However, our findings isolate fundamental issues in the theoretical description of the EDL within the primitive model and point towards limitations in the performance of DFT in describing the out-of-plane structure of the EDL at high concentrations and potentials.

  14. Dense ionic fluids confined in planar capacitors: in- and out-of-plane structure from classical density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Andreas; Samin, Sela; van Roij, René

    2016-06-22

    The ongoing scientific interest in the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs) stems from their pivotal role in (super)capacitive energy storage, energy harvesting, and water treatment technologies. Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a promising framework for the study of the in- and out-of-plane structural properties of double layers. Supported by molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate the adequate performance of DFT for analyzing charge layering in the EDL perpendicular to the electrodes. We discuss charge storage and capacitance of the EDL and the impact of screening due to dielectric solvents. We further calculate, for the first time, the in-plane structure of the EDL within the framework of DFT. While our out-of-plane results already hint at structural in-plane transitions inside the EDL, which have been observed recently in simulations and experiments, our DFT approach performs poorly in predicting in-plane structure in comparison to simulations. However, our findings isolate fundamental issues in the theoretical description of the EDL within the primitive model and point towards limitations in the performance of DFT in describing the out-of-plane structure of the EDL at high concentrations and potentials. PMID:27116552

  15. Neonatal high pressure hydrocephalus is associated with elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IFNγ in cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller Carlo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In human neonatal high pressure hydrocephalus (HPHC, diffuse white matter injury and gliosis predispose to poor neuro-developmental outcome. The underlying mechanism for diffuse white matter damage in neonatal HPHC is still unclear. Analogous to inflammatory white matter damage after neonatal hypoxemia/ischemia, we hypothesized that pro-inflammatory cytokines could be involved in neonatal HPHC. If so, early anti-inflammatory therapy could ameliorate white matter damage in HPHC, before irreversible apoptosis has occurred. In HPHC and control neonates, we therefore aimed to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations of IL18, IFNγ and sFasL (interleukin 18, interferon gamma and apoptosis marker soluble-Fas ligand, respectively. Methods In neonatal HPHC (n = 30 and controls (n = 15, we compared CSF concentrations of IL18, IFNγ and sFasL using sandwich ELISA. HPHC was grouped according to etiology: spina bifida aperta (n = 20, aqueduct stenosis (n = 4, and fetal intra-cerebral haemorrhage (n = 6. Neonatal control CSF was derived from otherwise healthy neonates (n = 15, who underwent lumbar puncture for exclusion of meningitis. Results In all three HPHC groups, CSF IL18 concentrations were significantly higher than control values, and the fetal intracranial haemorrhage group was significantly higher than SBA group. Similarly, in all HPHC groups CSF-IFNγ concentrations significantly exceeded the control group. In both HPHC and control neonates, CSF FasL concentrations remained within the range of reference values. Conclusion Independent of the pathogenesis, neonatal HPHC is associated with the activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-18 and IFNγ in the CSF, whereas CSF apoptosis biomarkers (sFasL were unchanged. This suggests that anti-inflammatory treatment (in addition to shunting could be helpful to preserve cerebral white matter.

  16. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  17. Spin fluids and hyperfluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brocato Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The general theory of continua with microstructure reviewed in [2] (and, in particular, the theory of gyrocontinua studied in [1] is adapted to apply to perfect spin fluids and hyperuids [10]. Obvious changes are needed due to the prevailing interest for solids in [1] and to some extent in [2]; here, in addition, the conservative character of the continuum is exploited. Finally, the roles of metric, coframe, connection, torsion and curvature in fluids are explored. .

  18. Spin fluids and hyperfluids

    OpenAIRE

    Brocato Maurizio; Capriz Gianfranco

    2002-01-01

    The general theory of continua with microstructure reviewed in [2] (and, in particular, the theory of gyrocontinua studied in [1]) is adapted to apply to perfect spin fluids and hyperuids [10]. Obvious changes are needed due to the prevailing interest for solids in [1] and to some extent in [2]; here, in addition, the conservative character of the continuum is exploited. Finally, the roles of metric, coframe, connection, torsion and curvature in fluids are explored. .

  19. An orbifold theory of genus zero associated to the sporadic group M24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let VΓl be the self-dual (or holomorphic) bosonic conformal field theory associated with the spin lattice Γl of rank l divisible by 24. In earlier work of the authors we showed how it is possible to establish the existence and uniqueness of irreducible g-twisted sectors for VΓl, for certain automorphisms g of VΓl, and to establish the modular invariance of the space of partition functions Z (g,h,τ) corresponding to commuting pairs g, h of elements in certain groups G of automorphisms of VΓl. In the present work we show that if we take l=24 and G the sporadic simple group M24, then the corresponding orbifold has the genus zero property. That is, each Z (g,h,τ) is either identically zero or a hauptmodul, i.e., it generates the field of functions on the subgroup of SL2(R) which fixes Z (g,h,τ), which then necessarily has genus zero. (orig.)

  20. Linking the Developmental and Degenerative Theories of Schizophrenia: Association Between Infant Development and Adult Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jones, Peter B.; Murray, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We aimed to examine the association between age of learning to stand in infancy and deterioration of cognitive function in adulthood. Participants were nonpsychotic control subjects (n = 76) and participants with schizophrenia (n = 36) drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study. The schizophrenia group showed greater deterioration in abstraction with memory than controls, but there were no differences between schizophrenia and controls in rate of change of other cognitive measures. Age of learning to stand in infancy significantly inversely predicted later deterioration of abstraction with memory in adult schizophrenia (later infant development linked to greater subsequent cognitive deterioration during adulthood), possibly suggesting a link between abnormal neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes in schizophrenia. PMID:24583905

  1. Association of neuroelectrophysiology and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin with pathogenetic conditions of patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin Huang; Xunliang Mai; Xiaohong Ye

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease which is characterized by demyelination of peripheral nerve and nerve root, and inflammatory reaction of lymphocyte and macrophage. Neuroelectrophysiological examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis are of significance for its diagnosis.OBJECTIVE: To study the association of neuroelectrophysiology and cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin (CSF-Ig) with pathogenetic conditions of patients with GBS.DESIGN: Case control study.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Shenzhen Municipal Shekou Group Hospital; Department of Neuroelectrophysiology, People's Hospital of Guangdong Province.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 32 GBS patients including 18 males and 14 females who aged from 17 to 72 years were selected as experimental group from the Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Guangdong Province from January 2004 to December 2005. All cases conformed with GBS diagnostic criteria established by Asbury in 1990 and they were divided into three types according to neurological criteria established by Chinese Neurology and Psychology Journal in 1993: mild, moderate and severe types. Another 30 patients with vascular headache were selected as control group from the same hospital including 14 males and 16 females who aged from 17 to 79 years.METHODS: ① Neuroelectrophysiological examination: Multiple-functional electromyography device provided by Nicolet Company, USA was used to measure nerve conduction velocity (NCV), including motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV); meanwhile, electromyologram (EMG), somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were also measured. ② Detection of CSF-Ig: Concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM were measured with immunofixation electrophoresis. ③ Follow-up: Among 32 GBS patients, 14 cases received follow-up after treatment and the longest follow-up time was 1 year after onset. Among them, 8 cases were reexaminined

  2. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  3. Accurate Calculation of Solvation Free Energies in Supercritical Fluids by Fully Atomistic Simulations: Probing the Theory of Solutions in Energy Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Andrey I

    2015-05-12

    Accurate calculation of solvation free energies (SFEs) is a fundamental problem of theoretical chemistry. In this work we perform a careful validation of the theory of solutions in energy representation (ER method) developed by Matubayasi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 113, 6070-6081] for SFE calculations in supercritical solvents. This method can be seen as a bridge between the molecular simulations and the classical (not quantum) density functional theory (DFT) formulated in energy representation. We performed extensive calculations of SFEs of organic molecules of different chemical natures in pure supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) and in sc-CO2 with addition of 6 mol % of ethanol, acetone, and n-hexane as cosolvents. We show that the ER method reproduces SFE data calculated by a method free of theoretical approximations (the Bennett's acceptance ratio) with the mean absolute error of only 0.05 kcal/mol. However, the ER method requires by an order less computational resources. Also, we show that the quality of ER calculations should be carefully monitored since the lack of sampling can result into a considerable bias in predictions. The present calculations reproduce the trends in the cosolvent-induced solubility enhancement factors observed in experimental data. Thus, we think that molecular simulations coupled with the ER method can be used for quick calculations of the effect of variation of temperature, pressure, and cosolvent concentration on SFE and hence solubility of bioactive compounds in supercritical fluids. This should dramatically reduce the burden of experimental work on optimizing solvency of supercritical solvents. PMID:26574423

  4. Pressure in the Landau-Ginzburg functional: Pascal's law, nucleation in fluid mixtures, a meanfield theory of amphiphilic action, and interface wetting in glassy liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ho Yin; Lubchenko, Vassiliy

    2015-09-28

    We set up the problem of finding the transition state for phase nucleation in multi-component fluid mixtures, within the Landau-Ginzburg density functional. We establish an expression for the coordinate-dependent local pressure that applies to mixtures, arbitrary geometries, and certain non-equilibrium configurations. The expression allows one to explicitly evaluate the pressure in spherical geometry, à la van der Waals. Pascal's law is recovered within the Landau-Ginzburg density functional theory, formally analogously to how conservation of energy is recovered in the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics. We establish proper boundary conditions for certain singular functional forms of the bulk free energy density that allow one to obtain droplet solutions with thick walls in essentially closed form. The hydrodynamic modes responsible for mixing near the interface are explicitly identified in the treatment; the composition at the interface is found to depend only weakly on the droplet size. Next we develop a Landau-Ginzburg treatment of the effects of amphiphiles on the surface tension; the amphiphilic action is seen as a violation of Pascal's law. We explicitly obtain the binding potential for the detergent at the interface and the dependence of the down-renormalization of the surface tension on the activity of the detergent. Finally, we argue that the renormalization of the activation barrier for escape from long-lived structures in glassy liquids can be viewed as an action of uniformly seeded, randomly oriented amphiphilic molecules on the interface separating two dissimilar aperiodic structures. This renormalization is also considered as a "wetting" of the interface. The resulting conclusions are consistent with the random first order transition theory. PMID:26429019

  5. Mechanics of couple-stress fluid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The formal development of a theory of viscoelastic surface fluids with bending resistance - their kinematics, dynamics, and rheology are discussed. It is relevant to the mechanics of fluid drops and jets coated by a thin layer of immiscible fluid with rather general rheology. This approach unifies the hydrodynamics of two-dimensional fluids with the mechanics of an elastic shell in the spirit of a Cosserat continuum. There are three distinct facets to the formulation of surface continuum mechanics. Outlined are the important ideas and results associated with each: the kinematics of evolving surface geometries, the conservation laws governing the mechanics of surface continua, and the rheological equations of state governing the surface stress and moment tensors.

  6. Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M G

    2004-01-01

    The relation between two different methods of membrane fluid description is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

  7. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  8. A classical-map simulation of two-dimensional electron fluid: an extension of classical-map hypernetted-chain theory beyond the hypernetted-chain approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for numerically simulating quantum systems is proposed and applied to the two-dimensional electron fluid at T = 0. This method maps quantum systems onto classical ones in the spirit of the classical-map hypernetted-chain theory and performs simulations on the latter. The results of the simulations are free from the assumption of the hypernetted-chain approximation and the neglect of the bridge diagrams. A merit of this method is the applicability to systems with geometrical complexity and finite sizes including the cases at finite temperatures. Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations are performed corresponding to two previous proposals for the 'quantum' temperature and an improvement in the description of the diffraction effect. It is shown that one of these two proposals with the improved diffraction effect gives significantly better agreement with quantum Monte Carlo results reported previously for the range of 5≤rs≤40. These results may serve as the basis for the application of this method to finite non-periodic systems like quantum dots and systems at finite temperatures.

  9. Factors Associated with Teenagers' Willingness to Volunteer with Elderly Persons: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Yehudit; Werner, Perla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with teenagers' willingness to volunteer with elderly persons using an expanded model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Participants consisted of 258 ninth-grade students at a large high school in the northern part of Israel. Participants completed a structured…

  10. Intra-field variability in microbial community associated with phase-separation-controlled hydrothermal fluid chemistry in the Mariner field, the southern Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, K.; Ishibashi, J.; Lupton, J.; Ueno, Y.; Nunoura, T.; Hirayama, H.; Horikoshi, K.; Suzuki, R.; Hamasaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A newly discovered hydrothermal field called the Mariner field at the northernmost central Valu Fa Ridge (VFR) in the Lau Basin was explored and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The hydrothermal fluid (max. 365 u^C) emitting from the most vigorous vent site (Snow chimney) was boiling just beneath the seafloor at a water depth of 1908 m and two end-members of hydrothermal fluid were identified. Mineral and fluid chemistry of typical brine-rich (Snow chimney and Monk chimney) and vapor-rich (Crab Restaurant chimney) hydrothermal fluids and the host chimney structures were analyzed. Microbial community structures in three chimney structures were also investigated by culture-dependent and - independent analyses. The 16S rRNA gene clone analysis revealed that both bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities at the chimney surface zones were different among three chimneys. The bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities of the Snow chimney surface were very similar with those in the dead chimneys, suggesting concurrence of metal sulfide deposition at the inside and weathering at the surface potentially due to its large structure and size. Cultivation analysis demonstrated the significant variation in culturability of various microbial components, particularly of thermophilic H2- and/or S-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs such as the genera Aquifex and Persephonella, among the chimney sites. The culturability of these chemolithoautotrophs might be associated with the input of gaseous energy and carbon sources like H2S, H2 and CH4 from the hydrothermal fluids, and might be affected by phase-separation- controlled fluid chemistry. In addition, inter-fields comparison of microbial community structures determined by cultivation analysis revealed novel characteristics of the microbial communities in the Mariner field of the Lau Basin among the global deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  11. Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 gene (DTNBP1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Kähler, Anna K;

    2011-01-01

    The dystrobrevin binding protein-1 (DTNBP1) gene encodes dysbindin-1, a protein involved in neurodevelopmental and neurochemical processes related mainly to the monoamine dopamine. We investigated possible associations between eleven DTNBP1 polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations...... of the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and the major noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy human subjects (n=132). Two polymorphisms, rs2619538 and rs760666, were nominally...

  12. Poor outcome is associated with less negative fluid balance in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated with prophylactic vasopressor-induced hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Sakr, Yasser; Dünisch, Pedro; Santos, Clesar; Matthes, Lena; Zeidan, Mohamed; Reinhart, Konrad; Kalff, Rolf; Ewald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious condition associated with high mortality rates and long-term disability. We investigated the impact of fluid balance on neurologic outcome after adjustment for possible confounders related to intensive care therapy and extra-cerebral organ failure during the early phase after SAH. Methods In this retrospective study, we analyzed data from all 142 adult patients admitted to our university hospital surgical intensive care unit (IC...

  13. Reator de membrana enzimático e fluidos supercríticos: associação de processos Enzymatic membrane reactor and supercritical fluids: process association

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Maria Leite Nóbrega de Moura; Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro; Renato Grimaldi; Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonçalves

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the new applications of membrane technology in fat and oil processing, with emphasis on development and applications of the enzymatic membrane reactor and its association with extraction and purification technology by supercritical fluids (SCF). Combining the extraction by SCFs and the separation by membranes allows the integration of extractions reactions with selective separation by membranes through filtration of the supercritical mixture (SCF + extracted...

  14. Thermal Fluid Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is made up of 5 chapters. They are fluid mechanics, fluid machines, Industrial thermodynamics, steam boiler and steam turbine. It introduces hydrostatics, basic theory of fluid movement and law of momentum. It also deals with centrifugal pump, axial flow pump, general hydraulic turbine, and all phenomena happening in the pump. It covers the law of thermodynamics, perfect gas, properties of steam, and flow of gas and steam and water tube boiler. Lastly it explains basic format, theory, loss and performance as well as principle part of steam turbine.

  15. Cosmic constraint on the unified model of dark sectors with or without a cosmic string fluid in the varying gravitational constant theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations indicate that most of the universal matter is invisible and the gravitational constant G(t) maybe depends on time. A theory of the variational G (VG) is explored in this paper, naturally producing the useful dark components in the universe. We utilize the following observational data: lookback time data, model-independent gamma ray bursts, growth function of matter linear perturbations, type Ia supernovae data with systematic errors, CMB, and BAO, to restrict the unified model (UM) of dark components in VG theory. Using the best-fit values of the parameters with the covariance matrix, constraints on the variation of G are ((G)/(G0))z=3.5 ≅ 1.0015-0.0075+0.0071 and ((G)/(G))today ≅ -0.7252-2.3645+2.3645 x 10-13 year-1, with small uncertainties around the constants. The limit on the equation of state of dark matter is w0dm = 0.0072-0.0170+0.0170, assuming w0de = -1 in the unified model, and the dark energy is w0de = -0.9986-0.0011+0.0011, assuming w0dm = 0 a priori. The restrictions on the UM parameters are Bs = 0.7442-0.0132-0.0292+0.0137+0.0262 and α =0.0002-0.0209-0.0422+0.0206+0.0441 with 1σ and 2σ confidence level. In addition, the effects of a cosmic string fluid on the unified model in VG theory are investigated. In this case it is found that the Λ CDM (Ωs = 0, β = 0, and α = 0) is included in this VG-UM model at 1σ confidence level, and larger errors are given: Ωs = -0.0106-0.0305-0.0509+0.0312+0.0582 (dimensionless energy density of cosmic string), ((G)/(G0))z=3.5 ≅ 1.0008-0.0584+0.0620, and ((G)/(G))today ≅ -0.3496-26.3135+26.3135 x 10-13 year-1. (orig.)

  16. Cosmic constraint on the unified model of dark sectors with or without a cosmic string fluid in the varying gravitational constant theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Yanfeng; Wu, Yabo [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China)

    2015-10-15

    Observations indicate that most of the universal matter is invisible and the gravitational constant G(t) maybe depends on time. A theory of the variational G (VG) is explored in this paper, naturally producing the useful dark components in the universe. We utilize the following observational data: lookback time data, model-independent gamma ray bursts, growth function of matter linear perturbations, type Ia supernovae data with systematic errors, CMB, and BAO, to restrict the unified model (UM) of dark components in VG theory. Using the best-fit values of the parameters with the covariance matrix, constraints on the variation of G are ((G)/(G{sub 0})){sub z=3.5} ≅ 1.0015{sub -0.0075}{sup +0.0071} and ((G)/(G)){sub today} ≅ -0.7252{sub -2.3645}{sup +2.3645} x 10{sup -13} year{sup -1}, with small uncertainties around the constants. The limit on the equation of state of dark matter is w{sub 0dm} = 0.0072{sub -0.0170}{sup +0.0170}, assuming w{sub 0de} = -1 in the unified model, and the dark energy is w{sub 0de} = -0.9986{sub -0.0011}{sup +0.0011}, assuming w{sub 0dm} = 0 a priori. The restrictions on the UM parameters are B{sub s} = 0.7442{sub -0.0132-0.0292}{sup +0.0137+0.0262} and α =0.0002{sub -0.0209-0.0422}{sup +0.0206+0.0441} with 1σ and 2σ confidence level. In addition, the effects of a cosmic string fluid on the unified model in VG theory are investigated. In this case it is found that the Λ CDM (Ω{sub s} = 0, β = 0, and α = 0) is included in this VG-UM model at 1σ confidence level, and larger errors are given: Ω{sub s} = -0.0106{sub -0.0305-0.0509}{sup +0.0312+0.0582} (dimensionless energy density of cosmic string), ((G)/(G{sub 0})){sub z=3.5} ≅ 1.0008{sub -0.0584}{sup +0.0620}, and ((G)/(G)){sub today} ≅ -0.3496{sub -26.3135}{sup +26.3135} x 10{sup -13} year{sup -1}. (orig.)

  17. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing. PMID:21467048

  18. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    2013-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  19. Association of theory of mind with social relations and child's social competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuša Skubic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews and evaluates the findings from the research in the field of theory of mind; how the theory of mind is connected to social relationships and how a child's social competence reflects his/hers theory of mind. It points to those factors that contribute most to considerable individual differences among children when developing a theory of mind and it stresses out the reciprocity of effects between child's social understanding and social relations with others. Positive factors for developing a theory of mind are first of all child's early quality experiences about mental states which predict a child's performance on the false belief test later on. Social-economic status, parental behavior and talk (for example appropriate use of mental states and appropriate disciplining of a child and presence of sibling of appropriate age (usually older one with whom a child develops a quality relationship are most important family factors for theory of mind development. The role of peers is most important factor outside the family, emphasized by studies. In accordance with these factors a child develops more or less successfully his/hers social understanding which plays an important part in his/hers daily life. Children with well developed theory of mind can use it in a pro-social way, or it can serve proactive or reactive aggression when children use their understanding of others as a way of manipulating and bullying, especially inside their peer group. Poorly developed theory of mind can prove to be a risk factor especially in a bad family situation, while a well developed theory of mind can play a protective role in child's development. The article points out some of the deficiencies of reviewed studies and proposes options for more complex future research of child's theory of mind.

  20. Geochronology (Re–Os and U–Pb) and fluid inclusion studies of molybdenite mineralisation associated with the Shap, Skiddaw and Weardale granites, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, D.; Conliffe, J.; Q. G. Crowley; Feely, M

    2008-01-01

    Late Devonian magmatism in Northern England records key events associated with the Acadian phase of the Caledonian-Appalachian Orogen (C-AO). Zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology date emplacement and mineralisation in the Shap (405·2±1·8 Ma), Skiddaw (398·8±0·4 and 392·3±2·8 Ma) and Weardale granites (398·3±1·6 Ma). For the Shap granite, mineralisation and magmatism are contemporaneous, with mineralisation being directly associated with the boiling of CO2-rich magmatic fluids betwe...

  1. Genome-wide association reveals genetic effects on human Aβ42 and τ protein levels in cerebrospinal fluids: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg Gerard D; Han Mi-Ryung; Wang Li-San

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is common and highly heritable with many genes and gene variants associated with AD in one or more studies, including APOE ε2/ε3/ε4. However, the genetic backgrounds for normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD in terms of changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ1-42, T-tau, and P-tau181P, have not been clearly delineated. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in order to better define the genetic background...

  2. Genome-wide association reveals genetic effects on human Aβ42 and τ protein levels in cerebrospinal fluids: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Mi-Ryung; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Wang, Li-San

    2010-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is common and highly heritable with many genes and gene variants associated with AD in one or more studies, including APOE ε2/ε3/ε4. However, the genetic backgrounds for normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD in terms of changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ1-42, T-tau, and P-tau181P, have not been clearly delineated. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in order to better define the genetic backgrounds to thes...

  3. Reator de membrana enzimático e fluidos supercríticos: associação de processos Enzymatic membrane reactor and supercritical fluids: process association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Leite Nóbrega de Moura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the new applications of membrane technology in fat and oil processing, with emphasis on development and applications of the enzymatic membrane reactor and its association with extraction and purification technology by supercritical fluids (SCF. Combining the extraction by SCFs and the separation by membranes allows the integration of extractions reactions with selective separation by membranes through filtration of the supercritical mixture (SCF + extracted solutes. This association provides important energy savings regarding the SCF recompression costs.

  4. Follicular fluid and serum levels of Inhibin A and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in patients undergoing IVF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moos, J.; Filová, V.; Pavelková, J.; Moosová, M.; Pěknicová, Jana; Řežábek, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 5 (2009), s. 1739-1744. ISSN 0015-0282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Follicular fluid / blood barier * PAPP-A * Inhibin A Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.970, year: 2009

  5. Fluid Shifts Before, During and After Prolonged Space Flight and Their Association with Intracranial Pressure and Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Future human space travel will primarily consist of long duration missions onboard the International Space Station or exploration class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. Current evidence suggests that long duration missions might increase risk of permanent ocular structural and functional changes, possibly due to increased intracranial pressure resulting from a spaceflight-induced cephalad (headward) fluid shift.

  6. How life is associated with colors in Chinese culture: utilizing colors based on Chinese five-essence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    Chinese believe that Feng-shui, Ch'i, Tao, Yin and Yang are major components rooted in Chinese culture. Many people know life has to balance and harmonize with nature and the universe through the Five-essence. Ancient wisdom is successfully interwoven with mankind and the natural world. Elements such as orientation, season, color, sound, facial organs, viscera, stars, and numbers can be associated with life through the Five-essence Theory. Since color is one of the major components of the Five-essence Theory, everything in our life can be associated with colors through a conjoined covering process. Color selection process is part of the interaction between human beings and the universe. Depending on the achievement one is pursuing, the Five- essence Theory model can be treated as an interface between destiny and human beings. This study reports how life is associated with Chinese Five-essence based paradigms. Models were used to explain how Chinese utilize Five-essence Theory to select colors in their daily lives.

  7. Genistein-induced fluid accumulation in ovariectomised rats' uteri is associated with increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Chinigarzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High genistein doses have been reported to induce fluid accumulation in the uteri of ovariectomised rats, although the mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. Because genistein binds to the oestrogen receptor and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator mediates uterine fluid secretion, we hypothesised that this genistein effect involves both the oestrogen receptor and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. METHODS: Ovariectomised adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein for three consecutive days with and without the ER antagonist ICI 182780. One day after the final drug injection, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and the uteri were removed for histology and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator mRNA and protein expression analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein distribution was analysed visually by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The histological analysis revealed an increase in the circumference of the uterine lumen with increasing doses of genistein, which was suggestive of fluid accumulation. Moreover, genistein stimulated a dose-dependent increase in the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein and mRNA, and high-intensity cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator immunostaining was observed at the apical membrane of the luminal epithelium following 50 and 100 mg/kg/day genistein treatment. The genistein-induced increase in uterine luminal circumference and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator expression was antagonised by treatment with ICI 182780. CONCLUSION: Genistein-induced luminal fluid accumulation in ovariectomised rats' uteri involves the oestrogen receptor and up-regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator expression, and these findings reveal the mechanism underlying the effect of this compound on changes in fluid volume in

  8. A Theory of Music Analysis: On Segmentation and Associative Organization by Dora A. Hanninen (review)

    OpenAIRE

    Exarchos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Comprising research spanning over a decade, A Theory of Music Analysis constitutes a comprehensive account and a culmination of Dora A. Hanninen’s work to date. To the extent that no theory of music is independent of analysis, this work is indispensable as a theory of analysis. The main (philosophical) concern of the book is how to create a precise analytical language, one that can secure a credible interpretation; intertwined...

  9. Beyond generalized Proca theories

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the maximally symmetric space-time, we perform the Hessian and Hamiltonian analysis and show the presence of a second-class constraint that removes the would-be ghost associated with the temporal component of the vector field. Furthermore, we study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the homogeneous and isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories. Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar per...

  10. Modeling of dielectric properties of complex fluids with an equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Thomsen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    of state that includes the Wertheim association model as formulated in the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) to account for hydrogen bonding molecules. We show that, by using a simple description of the geometry of the association, we may calculate the Kirkwood g-factor as a function of the...

  11. A Statistical Theory of Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    de Divitiis, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The present work proposes a theory of isotropic and homogeneous turbulence for incompressible fluids, which assumes that the turbulence is due to the bifurcations associated to the velocity field. The theory is formulated using a representation of the fluid motion which is more general than the classical Navier-Stokes equations, where the fluid state variables are expressed in terms of the referential coordinates. The theory is developed according to the following four items: 1) Study of the route toward the turbulence through the bifurcations analysis of the kinematic equations. 2) Referential description of the motion and calculation of the velocity fluctuation using the Lyapunov analysis of the local deformation. 3) Study of the mechanism of the energy cascade from large to small scales through the Lyapunov analysis of the relative kinematics equations of motion. 4) Determination of the statistics of the velocity difference with the Fourier analysis. Each item contributes to the formulation of the theory. ...

  12. The distribution of prime numbers and associated problems in number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some problems in number theory, namely the gaps between consecutive primes, the distribution of primes in arithmetic progressions, Brun-Titchmarsh theorem, Fermat's last theorem, The Thue equation, the gaps between square-free numbers are discussed

  13. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by t...

  14. A coupled rod and fluid dynamic model for predicting the behavior of sucker-rod pumping systems. Part 1: Model theory and solution methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekia, S.D.L. (Unocal Production and Development Technology, Brea, CA (United States)); Evans, R.D. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Equations are derived from first principles for predicting the behavior of sucker-rod pumping systems including the effects of rod and fluid dynamics, and kinematics of the surface pumping unit. Equations are also developed for both incompressible and slightly compressible fluid flow scenarios. The resulting composite rod and fluid dynamic model is solved using the MacCormack Explicit Numerical Scheme. Example problems used to validate this model are presented in a companion paper.

  15. Liver fluid collection in neonates and its association with the use of a specific umbilical vein catheter: Report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vikas; Rahman, Asad; Tarawneh, Amjad; Sant'anna, Guilherme Mendes

    2011-01-01

    In newborns, the presence of liver fluid collection is a rare event. The reported cases are isolated or described over long periods. Within four months, five neonates were diagnosed with liver fluid collection from safety occurrence reports. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data were extracted from medical records. The definite diagnosis was made by ultrasound. Four of the patients were preterm, male and had very low birth weights. The osmolality of the infused solution was within the acceptable range. Investigations revealed that the use of a new brand of umbilical vein catheter introduced in the neonatal intensive care unit, one month before the first case, was associated with this cluster. Low positioning of the umbilical vein catheter tip appeared to be a second contributory factor. Neonatal practitioners may benefit from the present report when facing the occurrence of similar lesions. PMID:22211066

  16. Intention to comply with post-exposure management among nurses exposed to blood and body fluids in Taiwan: application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, N-Y; Yeh, S-H; Tsay, S-L; Ma, H-J; Chen, C-H; Pan, S-M; Feng, M-C; Chiang, M-C; Lee, Y-W; Chang, L-H; Jang, J-F

    2011-04-01

    Nurses are at significant risk from occupationally acquired bloodborne virus infections following a needlestick and sharps injury. This study aimed to apply the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict nurses' intention to comply with occupational post-exposure management. A cross-sectional survey was applied to select registered nurses who worked in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-designated hospitals. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire based on the TPB was distributed to 1630 nurses and 1134 (69.5%) questionnaires were returned. From these, a total of 802 nurses (71%) reported blood and body fluid exposure incidents during 2003-2005 and this group was used for analysis. Only 44.6% of the 121 exposed nurses who were prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) by infectious disease doctors returned to the clinic for interim monitoring, and only 56.6% of exposed nurses confirmed their final serology status. Structural equation modelling was used to test the TPB indicating perceived behavioural control (the perception of the difficulty or ease of PEP management, β=0.58), subjective norm (the perception of social pressure to adhere to PEP, β=0.15), and attitudes (β=0.12) were significant direct effects on nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The hypothesised model test indicated that the model fitted with the expected relationships and directions of theoretical constructs [χ(2) (14, N=802)=23.14, P=0.057, GFI=0.987, RMSEA=0.039]. The TPB model constructs accounted for 54% of the variance in nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The TPB is an appropriate model for predicting nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. Healthcare facilities should have policies to decrease the inconvenience of follow-up to encourage nurses to comply with post-exposure management. PMID:21276639

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Concentration is Associated with Pain but not Fatigue Symptoms in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Samuel A.; Williams, David A.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Harris, Richard E.; Lyden, Angela K; Whalen, Gail; Park, Karen M; Liberzon, Israel; Sen, Ananda; Gracely, Richard H.; Baraniuk, James N.; Clauw, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have identified stress system dysregulation in fibromyalgia (FM) patients; such dysregulation may be involved in the generation and/or maintenance of pain and other symptoms. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the principal known central nervous system mediator of the stress response; however, to date no studies have examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRF levels in patients with FM. The relationship between CSF CRF level, heart rate variability (HRV), and pain, fatigue, ...

  18. Boundary conditions for fluids with internal orientational degrees of freedom: Apparent velocity slip associated with the molecular alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boundary effects are investigated for fluids with internal orientational degrees of freedom such as molecular liquids, thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals, and polymeric fluids. The orientational degrees of freedom are described by the second rank alignment tensor which is related to the birefringence. We use a standard model to describe the orientational dynamics in the presence of flow, the momentum balance equations, and a constitutive law for the pressure tensor to describe our system. In the spirit of irreversible thermodynamics, boundary conditions are formulated for the mechanical slip velocity and the flux of the alignment. They are set up such that the entropy production at the wall inferred from the entropy flux is positive definite. Even in the absence of a true mechanical slip, the coupling between orientation and flow leads to flow profiles with an apparent slip. This has consequences for the macroscopically measurable effective velocity. In analytical investigations, we consider the simplified case of an isotropic fluid in the Newtonian and stationary flow regime. For special geometries such as plane and cylindrical Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, and a flow down an inclined plane, we demonstrate explicitly how the boundary conditions lead to an apparent slip. Furthermore, we discuss the dependence of the effective viscosity and of the effective slip length on the model parameters

  19. The Application of SILAC Mouse in Human Body Fluid Proteomics Analysis Reveals Protein Patterns Associated with IgA Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Body fluid proteome is the most informative proteome from a medical viewpoint. But the lack of accurate quantitation method for complicated body fluid limited its application in disease research and biomarker discovery. To address this problem, we introduced a novel strategy, in which SILAC-labeled mouse serum was used as internal standard for human serum and urine proteome analysis. The SILAC-labeled mouse serum was mixed with human serum and urine, and multidimensional separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (IEF-LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. The shared peptides between two species were quantified by their SILAC pairs, and the human-only peptides were quantified by mouse peptides with coelution. The comparison for the results from two replicate experiments indicated the high repeatability of our strategy. Then the urine from Immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients treated and untreated was compared by this quantitation strategy. Fifty-three peptides were found to be significantly changed between two groups, including both known diagnostic markers for IgAN and novel candidates, such as Complement C3, Albumin, VDBP, ApoA,1 and IGFBP7. In conclusion, we have developed a practical and accurate quantitation strategy for comparison of complicated human body fluid proteome. The results from such strategy could provide potential disease-related biomarkers for evaluation of treatment.

  20. Density Functional Theory for Liquid−Liquid Interfaces of Mixtures Using the Perturbed-Chain Polar Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Equation of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klink, Ch.; Planková, Barbora; Gross, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 16 (2015), s. 4633-4642. ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : interfacial tension * liquid-liquid equilibira * PCP-SAFT Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2014 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.iecr.5b00445

  1. Neutral and Charged Anyon Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    1993-01-01

    (Review) Properties of neutral and charged anyon fluids are examined, with the main focus on the question whether or not a charged anyon fluid exhibits a superconductivity at zero and finite temperature. Quantum mechanics of anyon fluids is precisely described by Chern-Simons gauge theory. The random phase approximation (RPA), the linearized self-consistent field method (SCF), and the hydrodynamic approach employed in the early analysis of anyon fluids are all equivalent. Relations and differ...

  2. A genome-wide association study of kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid: implications for psychosis and cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, CM; Kegel, ME; Bergen, SE; Ekman, CJ; Olsson, S; Larsson, M; Vawter, MP; Backlund, L; Sullivan, PF; Sklar, P; Smoller, JW; Magnusson, PKE; Hultman, CM; Walther-Jallow, L; Svensson, CI; Lichtenstein, P; Schalling, M; Engberg, G; Erhardt, S; Landén, M

    2016-01-01

    Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the glia-derived N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) have consistently been implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study based on CSF KYNA in bipolar disorder and found support for an association with a common variant within 1p21.3. After replication in an independent cohort, we linked this genetic variant—associated with reduced SNX7 expression—to positive psychotic symptoms and executive function deficits in bipolar disorder. A series of post-mortem brain tissue and in vitro experiments suggested SNX7 downregulation to result in a caspase-8-driven activation of interleukin-1β and a subsequent induction of the brain kynurenine pathway. The current study demonstrates the potential of using biomarkers in genetic studies of psychiatric disorders, and may help to identify novel drug targets in bipolar disorder. PMID:23459468

  3. Microbial biofilms associated with fluid chemistry and megafaunal colonization at post-eruptive deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Charles E.; Giovannelli, Donato; Govenar, Breea; Luther, George W.; Lutz, Richard A.; Shank, Timothy M.; Vetriani, Costantino

    2015-11-01

    At deep-sea hydrothermal vents, reduced, super-heated hydrothermal fluids mix with cold, oxygenated seawater. This creates temperature and chemical gradients that support chemosynthetic primary production and a biomass-rich community of invertebrates. In late 2005/early 2006 an eruption occurred on the East Pacific Rise at 9°50‧N, 104°17‧W. Direct observations of the post-eruptive diffuse-flow vents indicated that the earliest colonizers were microbial biofilms. Two cruises in 2006 and 2007 allowed us to monitor and sample the early steps of ecosystem recovery. The main objective of this work was to characterize the composition of microbial biofilms in relation to the temperature and chemistry of the hydrothermal fluids and the observed patterns of megafaunal colonization. The area selected for this study had local seafloor habitats of active diffuse flow (in-flow) interrupted by adjacent habitats with no apparent expulsion of hydrothermal fluids (no-flow). The in-flow habitats were characterized by higher temperatures (1.6-25.2 °C) and H2S concentrations (up to 67.3 μM) than the no-flow habitats, and the microbial biofilms were dominated by chemosynthetic Epsilonproteobacteria. The no-flow habitats had much lower temperatures (1.2-5.2 °C) and H2S concentrations (0.3-2.9 μM), and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the biofilms. Siboglinid tubeworms colonized only in-flow habitats, while they were absent at the no-flow areas, suggesting a correlation between siboglinid tubeworm colonization, active hydrothermal flow, and the composition of chemosynthetic microbial biofilms.

  4. Localized energy associated with Bianchi-Type VI universe in $f(R)$ theory of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Korunur, M

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, focusing on one of the most popular problems in modern gravitation theories, we consider generalized Lanndau-Liftshitz energy-momentum relation to calculate energy distribution of the Bianchi-Type VI spacetime in $f(R)$ gravity. Additionally, the results are specified by using some well-known $f(R)$-gravity models.

  5. Sex, Society, and Association: A Cross-National Examination of Status Construction Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Status construction theory (SCT) has established a set of sufficient conditions for the formation of status characteristics that define informal hierarchies. However, while it has proven successful in explaining the development of status-laden personal characteristics in the laboratory, relatively less attention has been devoted to its predictions…

  6. Evaluations of Radionuclides of Uranium, Thorium, and Radium Associated with Produced Fluids, Precipitates, and Sludges from Oil, Gas, and Oilfield Brine Injection Wells in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericksen, R.L.

    1999-10-28

    There is an unsurpassed lack of scientific data with respect to the concentrations and isotopic compositions of uranium, thorium, and radium in the produced formation fluids (brine), precipitates, and sludges generated with the operation of oil and gas wells in Mississippi. These radioactive elements when contained in the formation fluids have been given the term NORM, which is an acronym for naturally occurring radioactive materials. When they are technologically enhanced during oil and gas production activities resulting in the formation of scale (precipitates) and sludges they are termed TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials). As used in this document, NORM and TENORM will be considered equivalent terms and the occurrence of NORM in the oilfield will be considered the result of production operations. As a result of the lack of data no scientifically sound theses may be developed concerning the presence of these radionuclides in the fluid brine, precipitate (scale), or sludge phases. Over the period of just one year, 1997 for example, Mississippi produced over 39,372,963,584 liters (10,402,368,186 gallons or 247,675,433 barrels) of formation water associated with hydrocarbon production from 41 counties across the state.

  7. String-fluid transition in systems with aligned anisotropic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P C; Ivlev, A V; Morfill, G E

    2010-06-21

    Systems with aligned anisotropic interactions between particles exhibit numerous phase transitions. A remarkable example of the fluid phase transition occurring in such systems is the formation of particle strings--the so-called "string" or "chain" fluids. We employ an approach based on the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation, which allows us to calculate structural properties of fluids with aligned anisotropic interactions. We show that the string-fluid transition can be associated with the bifurcation of the "isotropic" correlation length into two distinct scales which characterize the longitudinal and transverse order in string fluids and, hence, may be used as a fingerprint of this transition. The comparison of the proposed OZ theory with the Monte Carlo simulations reveals fairly good agreement. PMID:20572736

  8. The origin of the mineralizing fluids in different type mineralizations associated with the Upper Cretaceous Elazig Magmatic Complex, Turkey; an isotopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Muharrem

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the origin and properties of mineralized fluids by using C, O and S isotopes in different type mineralizations associated with the Upper Cretaceous Elazig Magmatic Complex. The isotopic compositions of vein type mineralizations show that the thrust zone affects the formation of the Karakas iron mineralization by meteoric and magmatic hydrothermal solution mixtures due to the average δ18OH2O value 6.40‰. The calculated δ18OH2O composition values is 5.20‰ in biotite from the Kızıldag vein type Cu-Pb-Zn mineralizations, which is consistent with a magmatic origin of the fluids. The calculated δ18OH2O composition is 4.30‰ that indicates a medium and low temperature magmatic hydrothermal fluid effect. The skarn type mineralizations isotopic compositions indicate that the calculated δ13CCO2 values are between -12.70‰ and -36.39‰ that could be late magmatic fluids that were modified by interaction with the host meta-sedimentary rocks and with meteoric water at the Birvan and Asvan iron mineralizations. Also the δ18OH2Ovalues in quartz of the Meseli iron mineralization are between 0.70‰ and 1.30‰. The lower δ18OH2O oxygen isotope composition compared to magmatic origins must be hydrothermal solutions mixing with meteoric waters. In the massive sulfide type Kavallı and Derince pyrite samples, δ34SH2S values are between 17.73‰ and 20.63‰. These values clearly indicate the volcano-sedimentary effect on hydrothermal solutions, which form the mineralization. The first findings of this study present information that all of the measured isotopic composition was modified by mixing metamorphic, magmatic and meteoric waters in the final stages of the hydrothermal solutions circulation.

  9. Noncommutative fluid dynamics in the Kaehler parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a first-order action functional for a large class of systems that generalize the relativistic perfect fluids in the Kaehler parametrization to noncommutative spacetimes. The noncommutative action is parametrized by two arbitrary functions K(z,z) and f(√(-)j2) that depend on the fluid potentials and represent the generalization of the Kaehler potential of the complex surface parametrized by z and z, respectively, and the characteristic function of each model. We calculate the equations of motion for the fluid potentials and the energy-momentum tensor in the first order in the noncommutative parameter. The density current does not receive any noncommutative corrections and it is conserved under the action of the commutative generators Pμ but the energy-momentum tensor is not. Therefore, we determine the set of constraints under which the energy-momentum tensor is divergenceless. Another set of constraints on the fluid potentials is obtained from the requirement of the invariance of the action under the generalization of the volume preserving transformations of the noncommutative spacetime. We show that the proposed action describes noncommutative fluid models by casting the energy-momentum tensor in the familiar fluid form and identifying the corresponding energy and momentum densities. In the commutative limit, they are identical to the corresponding quantities of the relativistic perfect fluids. The energy-momentum tensor contains a dissipative term that is due to the noncommutative spacetime and vanishes in the commutative limit. Finally, we particularize the theory to the case when the complex fluid potentials are characterized by a function K(z,z) that is a deformation of the complex plane and show that this model has important common features with the commutative fluid such as infinitely many conserved currents and a conserved axial current that in the commutative case is associated to the topologically conserved linking number.

  10. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Germine; Dunn, Erin C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in ch...

  11. Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were female college students from a university in Seoul, Korea. The survey questionnaire was composed of items examining general characteristics, nutrition label use, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, co...

  12. Cognitive Factors and Family Structure Associated with Theory of Mind Development in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Astington, Janet Wilde

    1996-01-01

    Examined factors associated with individual variation in false belief understanding in three- to five-year olds. Found that family size was strongly associated with false belief understanding in children who were less competent linguistically, suggesting that the presence of siblings can compensate for slower language development in developing…

  13. Equations of State: From the Ideas of van der Waals to Association Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2010-01-01

    The ideas of van der Waals have resulted to cubic equations of state like Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK) and Peng–Robinson (PR) which are widely used in the petroleum and chemical industries. It is often thought that the range of applicability of van der Waals-type models is limited to mixtures of...... compounds relatively similar in size. We employ in this work an approach for investigating the various terms of cubic equations of state by looking at the excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficient expressions which are derived from these equations of state. We illustrate that the results of cubic...... equations of state are sensitive to the mixing and combining rules used. Moreover, it is shown that previously reported deficiencies for size-asymmetric systems are more related to the van der Waals one fluid mixing rules used rather than the functionality of the cubic equation of state itself. Improved...

  14. Anisotropic fluids with two-perfect-fluid components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-perfect-fluid model of an anisotropic fluid is presented. The energy-momentum tensor associated with the sum of two perfect fluids, one perfect and one null fluid, and two null fluids is examined. Special attention is devoted to the study of the stress tensor. The special case wherein the two perfect fluids are irrotational is studied. A relation between the Einstein equations for this particular case and the Einstein equations for a massless complex scalar field is found. The general solution of Einstein equations for an anisotropic fluid constructed with two-null-fluid components in the plane-symmetric case is discussed. The energy-momentum tensor of a cloud of strings and the energy-momentum tensor of an anisotropic fluid formed by two null fluids are compared

  15. Supersymmetric sound in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Oz, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    We consider hydrodynamics in the context of spontaneously broken supersymmetry, which includes a massless fermionic mode, the phonino. We use two complementary approaches to describe the system: First, we construct a generating functional from which we derive the equations of motion of the fluid and of the phonino propagating through the fluid. Second, we use an effective field theory approach which utilizes a non-linear realization of supersymmetry to analyze the interactions between phoninos and phonons, and demonstrate the conservation of entropy in ideal fluids. We comment on possible phenomenological consequences for gravitino physics in the early universe.

  16. Bacterial communities associated with the pitcher fluids of three Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) pitcher plant species growing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Clarke, Charles M; Dykes, Gary A

    2014-10-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants produce modified jug-shaped leaves to attract, trap and digest insect prey. We used 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing to compare bacterial communities in pitcher fluids of each of three species, namely Nepenthes ampullaria, Nepenthes gracilis and Nepenthes mirabilis, growing in the wild. In contrast to previous greenhouse-based studies, we found that both opened and unopened pitchers harbored bacterial DNA. Pitchers of N. mirabilis had higher bacterial diversity as compared to other Nepenthes species. The composition of the bacterial communities could be different between pitcher types for N. mirabilis (ANOSIM: R = 0.340, p Nepenthes species had similar bacterial composition between pitcher types. SIMPER showed that more than 50 % of the bacterial taxa identified from the open pitchers of N. mirabilis were not found in other groups. Our study suggests that bacteria in N. mirabilis are divided into native and nonnative groups. PMID:25005571

  17. Microforces and the Theory of Solute Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Eliot; Sellers, Shaun

    1999-01-01

    A generalized continuum framework for the theory of solute transport in fluids is proposed and systematically developed. This framework rests on the introduction of a generic force balance for the solute, a balance distinct from the macroscopic momentum balance associated with the mixture. Special forms of such a force balance have been proposed and used going back at least as far as Nernst's 1888 theory of diffusion. Under certain circumstances, this force balance yields a Fickian constituti...

  18. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in synovial fluid are associated with progression of radiographic knee osteoarthritis in subjects with previous meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, S; Englund, M; Struglics, A;

    2015-01-01

    concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by multiplex immunoassay, graded radiographic features of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral OA according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas, scored patient-reported outcomes using the Knee Injury and...... (odds ratios (OR); 95% confidence intervals 1.05; 1.00-1.09 and 1.35; 1.03-1.75). Higher second examination concentrations of TNF-α were associated with having progressed in loss of joint space (OR 1.70; 1.15-2.52) or having worsened in the activity of daily living subscale of KOOS (OR 1.50; 1.......32-18.92). CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with previous meniscectomy, higher or over time increasing synovial fluid levels of IL-6 and TNF-α seems to be associated with increased risk for progression of radiographic OA....

  19. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  20. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    that leads to splitting (fluid separation). We investigate the interaction of these prominent interfacial instabilities in the absence of gravity, concentrating on harmonically vibrated rectangular containers of fluid. We compare vibroequilibria theory with direct numerical simulations and consider the effect of surfaces waves, which can excite sloshing motion of the vibroequilibria. We systematically investigate the saddle-node bifurcation experienced by a symmetric singly connected vibroequilibria solution, for sufficiently deep containers, as forcing is increased. Beyond this instability, the fluid rapidly separates into (at least) two distinct masses. Pronounced hysteresis is associated with this transition, even in the presence of gravity. The interaction of vibroequilibria and frozen waves is investigated in two-fluid systems. Preparations for a parabolic flight experiment on fluids vibrated at high frequencies are discussed.

  1. Contributions to the Theory of Measures of Association for Ordinal Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider measures of association for ordinal variables from a theoretical perspective. In particular, we study the phi-coefficient, the tetrachoric correlation coefficient and the polychoric correlation coefficient. We also introduce a new measure of association for ordinal variables, the empirical polychoric correlation coefficient, which has better theoretical properties than the polychoric correlation coefficient, including greatly enhanced robustness. In the first artic...

  2. An associative-activation theory of children's and adults' memory illusions

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.; Wimmer, M. C.; Gagnon, N.; Plumpton, S.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of associative strength and gist relations on rates of children’s and adults’ true and false memories were examined in three experiments. Children aged 5–11 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese/Roediger–McDermott false memory task using DRM and category lists in two experiments and in the third, children memorized lists that differed in associative strength and semantic cohesion. In the first two experiments, half of the participants were primed before list ...

  3. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  4. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  5. The theory of rotational flow of drilling fluids inside the oil well and its applications for obtaining the relation between angular velocity of the drill pipe string and the torque acting on it; part two: visco-plastic drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slawomirski, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    An examination is made of the flow of viscoplastic fluids in the space between two coaxial pipes with regard for rotation of the inner pipe. An analytical solution is provided for the task to determine the nature of distribution of flow velocity of the drilling fluid in the annular space and distribution of angular velocities in the flow. A relationship is obtained between the angular velocity of the drilling string and the torque acting on it. In this case, cases are examined where there is no flow nucleus, where the flow nucleus occupies the entire section of the annular space and an intermediate case where the flow nucleus only occupies part of the annular space limited by a certain radius. The solutions are given for different rheological models: Bingam, Khershel-Balkli and Kasson.

  6. Fluid inclusions in minerals associated to uranium mineralization in Jazida do Engenho (anomaly 09), Lagoa Real uranium province - Bahia, Brazil; Inclusoes fluidas nos minerais associados a mineralizacao uranifera da Jazida do Engenho (Anomalia 09), provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Aurelio da Silva de

    2009-07-01

    The Engenho deposit (anomaly 09) is south-eastern from Cachoeira Mine (anomaly 13), in the northern part of the Province. The uranium mineralization is associated to 'albitites' (over 70% of albite/oligoclase). Epidosites with uranium may also occur. The 'albitite' main minerals are pyroxene, gamet, albite/oligoclase feldspar, amphibole and biotite. Pyroxene, gamet, plagioclase, titanite and epidote are the minerals associated to the uranium mineralization. The fluids related to pyroxene, gamet and epidote are aqueous-saline, primary and with no carbonic phases and are constant, with small variations. They all present medium to high salinity (14 to 18wt% NaCl eq.), the higher values being related to pyroxene and the lower ones related to gamet and epidote. The fluids associated to albite/oligoclase, although aqua-saline and with no carbonic phases, show salinities much lower than in pyroxene, gamet and epidote, suggesting a intense dilution process indicating dilution toward the later minerals phases. The data suggest the pyroxene formation process occurring under a 3,5 kbar pressure condition which corresponds to approximately 10km depth. The dispersion on Th in albites, due probably to the overheating and non elastic increase in volume, precluded a reliable pressure calculation. The IF's microscopy m plagioclase gneiss (albitites host-rocks) suggests the probability of primary carbonic fluids associated to these minerals. The fluids with CO{sub 2} showed in the gneiss maybe also be present in the albitites, probably as late or intergranular fluids. This assumption is based on the fact that signs of carbonic gases were shown during crushing tests. These tendencies suggest the occurrence of two albitization phases in this Lagoa Real area: one associated to a fluid composed by H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + salts (in the gneiss host) and another (in the albitite) formed by an aqueous-saline phase. The data indicate the Brasiliano event as a thermal

  7. Dielectric constant of fluids and fluid mixtures at criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Pérez-Sánchez, Germán; Cerdeiriña, Claudio A; Thoen, Jan

    2010-04-01

    The behavior of the dielectric constant epsilon of pure fluids and binary mixtures near liquid-gas and liquid-liquid critical points is studied within the concept of complete scaling of asymmetric fluid-fluid criticality. While mixing of the electric field into the scaling fields plays a role, pressure mixing is crucial as the asymptotic behavior of the coexistence-curve diameter in the epsilon-T plane is concerned. Specifically, it is found that the diameters, characterized by a |T-Tc|1-alpha singularity in the previous scaling formulation [J. V. Sengers, D. Bedeaux, P. Mazur, and S. C. Greer, Physica A 104, 573 (1980)], gain a more dominant |T-Tc|2beta term, whose existence is shown to be supported by literature experimental data. The widely known |T-Tc|1-alpha singularity of epsilon along the critical isopleth in the one-phase region is found to provide information on the effect of electric fields on the liquid-liquid critical temperature: from experimental data it is inferred that Tc usually decreases as the magnitude of the electric field is enhanced. Furthermore, the behavior of mixtures along an isothermal path of approach to criticality is also analyzed: theory explains why the observed anomalies are remarkably higher than those associated to the usual isobaric path. PMID:20481691

  8. A Perron-Frobenius theory for block matrices associated to a multiplex network

    CERN Document Server

    Romance, Miguel; Flores, Julio; García, Esther; del Amo, Alejandro García; Criado, Regino

    2014-01-01

    The uniqueness of the Perron vector of a nonnegative block matrix associated to a multiplex network is discussed. The conclusions come from the relationships between the irreducibility of some nonnegative block matrix associated to a multiplex network and the irreducibility of the corresponding matrices to each layer as well as the irreducibility of the adjacency matrix of the projection network. In addition the computation of that Perron vector in terms of the Perron vectors of the blocks is also addressed. Finally we present the precise relations that allow to express the Perron eigenvector of the multiplex network in terms of the Perron eigenvectors of its layers.

  9. Torsion as a source of expansion in a Bianchi type-I universe in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan theory of a perfect fluid with spin density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that a generalized (or ''power law'') inflationary phase arises naturally and inevitably in a simple (Bianchi type-I) anisotropic cosmological model in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory with the improved stress-energy-momentum tensor with the spin density of Ray and Smalley. This is made explicit by an analytical solution of the field equations of motion of the fluid variables. The inflation is caused by the angular kinetic energy density due to spin. The model further elucidates the relationship between fluid vorticity, the angular velocity of the inertially dragged tetrads, and the precession of the principal axes of the shear ellipsoid. Shear is not effective in damping the inflation

  10. Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreter, Simon; Woolcock, Michael

    2004-08-01

    Three perspectives on the efficacy of social capital have been explored in the public health literature. A "social support" perspective argues that informal networks are central to objective and subjective welfare; an "inequality" thesis posits that widening economic disparities have eroded citizens' sense of social justice and inclusion, which in turn has led to heightened anxiety and compromised rising life expectancies; a "political economy" approach sees the primary determinant of poor health outcomes as the socially and politically mediated exclusion from material resources. A more comprehensive but grounded theory of social capital is presented that develops a distinction between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. It is argued that this framework helps to reconcile these three perspectives, incorporating a broader reading of history, politics, and the empirical evidence regarding the mechanisms connecting types of network structure and state-society relations to public health outcomes. PMID:15282219

  11. Associative Symmetry, Antisymmetry, and a Theory of Pigeons' Equivalence-Class Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcuioli, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments assessed associative symmetry in pigeons. In Experiments 1A, 1B and 2, pigeons learned two-alternative symbolic matching with identical sample- and comparison-response requirements and with matching stimuli appearing in all possible locations. Despite controlling for the nature of the functional stimuli and insuring all requisite…

  12. An Associative-Activation Theory of Children's and Adults' Memory Illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Gagnon, Nadine; Plumpton, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The effects of associative strength and gist relations on rates of children's and adults' true and false memories were examined in three experiments. Children aged 5-11 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott false memory task using DRM and category lists in two experiments and in the third, children…

  13. Comparing the first- and second-order theories of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics using the 1+1 dimensional relativistic flux corrected transport algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing on the numerical aspects and accuracy we study a class of bulk viscosity driven expansion scenarios using the relativistic Navier-Stokes and truncated Israel-Stewart form of the equations of relativistic dissipative fluids in 1+1 dimensions. The numerical calculations of conservation and transport equations are performed using the numerical framework of flux corrected transport. We show that the results of the Israel-Stewart causal fluid dynamics are numerically much more stable and smoother than the results of the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes equations. (orig.)

  14. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  15. Nonlinear free vibration of single walled Carbone NanoTubes conveying fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrar A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear free vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs conveying fluid are modeled and numerically simulated based on von Kármán geometric nonlinearity and Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. The CNTs are modelled as nanobeams where the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are considered within the framework of Timoshenko beam theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions are derived using the Hamilton’s principle and the nonlinear equation of motion is solved by the Galerkin’s method. The small scale parameter and the fluid-tube interaction effects on the dynamic behaviours of the CNT-fluid system as well as the instabilities induced by the fluid-velocity can be investigated. The critical fluid-velocity and frequency-amplitude relationships as well as the flutter and divergence instability types and the associated time responses are obtained based on the presented methodological approach.

  16. Age-Related Decrease in Heat Shock 70-kDa Protein 8 in Cerebrospinal Fluid Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, David A; Klaver, Andrea C; Coffey, Mary P; Aasly, Jan O; LeWitt, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated declines in protein homeostasis mechanisms ("proteostasis") are thought to contribute to age-related neurodegenerative disorders. The increased oxidative stress which occurs with aging can activate a key proteostatic process, chaperone-mediated autophagy. This study investigated age-related alteration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of heat shock 70-kDa protein 8 (HSPA8), a molecular chaperone involved in proteostatic mechanisms including chaperone-mediated autophagy, and its associations with indicators of oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] and 8-isoprostane) and total anti-oxidant capacity. We examined correlations between age, HSPA8, 8-OHdG, 8-isoprostane, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in CSF samples from 34 healthy subjects ranging from 20 to 75 years of age. Age was negatively associated with HSPA8 (ρ = -0.47; p = 0.005). An age-related increase in oxidative stress was indicated by a positive association between age and 8-OHdG (ρ = 0.61; p = 0.0001). HSPA8 was moderately negatively associated with 8-OHdG (ρ = -0.58; p = 0.0004). Age and HSPA8 were weakly associated with 8-isoprostane and TAC (range of ρ values: -0.15 to 0.16). Our findings in this exploratory study suggest that during healthy aging, CSF HSPA8 may decrease, perhaps due in part to an increase in oxidative stress. Our results also suggest that 8-OHdG may be more sensitive than 8-isoprostane for measuring oxidative stress in CSF. Further studies are indicated to determine if our findings can be replicated with a larger cohort, and if the age-related decrease in HSPA8 in CSF is reflected by a similar change in the brain. PMID:27507943

  17. B Cell, Th17, and Neutrophil Related Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine/Chemokines Are Elevated in MOG Antibody Associated Demyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothur, Kavitha; Wienholt, Louise; Tantsis, Esther M; Earl, John; Bandodkar, Sushil; Prelog, Kristina; Tea, Fiona; Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Brilot, Fabienne; Dale, Russell C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG Ab) associated demyelination represents a subgroup of autoimmune demyelination that is separate from multiple sclerosis and aquaporin 4 IgG-positive NMO, and can have a relapsing course. Unlike NMO and MS, there is a paucity of literature on immunopathology and CSF cytokine/chemokines in MOG Ab associated demyelination. Aim To study the differences in immunopathogenesis based on cytokine/chemokine profile in MOG Ab-positive (POS) and -negative (NEG) groups. Methods We measured 34 cytokines/chemokines using multiplex immunoassay in CSF collected from paediatric patients with serum MOG Ab POS [acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM = 8), transverse myelitis (TM = 2) n = 10] and serum MOG Ab NEG (ADEM = 5, TM = 4, n = 9) demyelination. We generated normative data using CSF from 20 non-inflammatory neurological controls. Results The CSF cytokine and chemokine levels were higher in both MOG Ab POS and MOG Ab NEG demyelination groups compared to controls. The CSF in MOG Ab POS patients showed predominant elevation of B cell related cytokines/chemokines (CXCL13, APRIL, BAFF and CCL19) as well as some of Th17 related cytokines (IL-6 AND G-CSF) compared to MOG Ab NEG group (all p<0.01). In addition, patients with elevated CSF MOG antibodies had higher CSF CXCL13, CXCL12, CCL19, IL-17A and G-CSF than patients without CSF MOG antibodies. Conclusion Our findings suggest that MOG Ab POS patients have a more pronounced CNS inflammatory response with elevation of predominant humoral associated cytokines/chemokines, as well as some Th 17 and neutrophil related cytokines/chemokines suggesting a differential inflammatory pathogenesis associated with MOG antibody seropositivity. This cytokine/chemokine profiling provides new insight into disease pathogenesis, and improves our ability to monitor inflammation and response to treatment. In addition, some of these molecules may represent potential immunomodulatory targets

  18. B Cell, Th17, and Neutrophil Related Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine/Chemokines Are Elevated in MOG Antibody Associated Demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Kothur

    Full Text Available Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG Ab associated demyelination represents a subgroup of autoimmune demyelination that is separate from multiple sclerosis and aquaporin 4 IgG-positive NMO, and can have a relapsing course. Unlike NMO and MS, there is a paucity of literature on immunopathology and CSF cytokine/chemokines in MOG Ab associated demyelination.To study the differences in immunopathogenesis based on cytokine/chemokine profile in MOG Ab-positive (POS and -negative (NEG groups.We measured 34 cytokines/chemokines using multiplex immunoassay in CSF collected from paediatric patients with serum MOG Ab POS [acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM = 8, transverse myelitis (TM = 2 n = 10] and serum MOG Ab NEG (ADEM = 5, TM = 4, n = 9 demyelination. We generated normative data using CSF from 20 non-inflammatory neurological controls.The CSF cytokine and chemokine levels were higher in both MOG Ab POS and MOG Ab NEG demyelination groups compared to controls. The CSF in MOG Ab POS patients showed predominant elevation of B cell related cytokines/chemokines (CXCL13, APRIL, BAFF and CCL19 as well as some of Th17 related cytokines (IL-6 AND G-CSF compared to MOG Ab NEG group (all p<0.01. In addition, patients with elevated CSF MOG antibodies had higher CSF CXCL13, CXCL12, CCL19, IL-17A and G-CSF than patients without CSF MOG antibodies.Our findings suggest that MOG Ab POS patients have a more pronounced CNS inflammatory response with elevation of predominant humoral associated cytokines/chemokines, as well as some Th 17 and neutrophil related cytokines/chemokines suggesting a differential inflammatory pathogenesis associated with MOG antibody seropositivity. This cytokine/chemokine profiling provides new insight into disease pathogenesis, and improves our ability to monitor inflammation and response to treatment. In addition, some of these molecules may represent potential immunomodulatory targets.

  19. Distinct BK polyomavirus non-coding control region (NCCR) variants in oral fluids of HIV- associated Salivary Gland Disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Ramsey, Kathy J; Dolittle-Hall, Janet M; Seaman, William T; Jeffers-Francis, Liesl K; Tesfu, Daniel; Nickeleit, Volker; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    HIV-associated Salivary Gland Disease (HIVSGD) is among the most common salivary gland-associated complications in HIV positive individuals and was associated with the small DNA tumorvirus BK polyomavirus (BKPyV). The BKPyV non-coding control region (NCCR) is the main determinant of viral replication and rearranges readily. This study analyzed the BKPyV NCCR architecture and viral loads of 35 immunosuppressed individuals. Throatwash samples from subjects diagnosed with HIVSGD and urine samples from transplant patients were BKPyV positive and yielded BKPyV NCCR sequences. 94.7% of the BKPyV HIVSGD NCCRs carried a rearranged OPQPQQS block arrangement, suggesting a distinct architecture among this sample set. BKPyV from HIV positive individuals without HIVSGD harbored NCCR block sequences that were distinct from OPQPQQS. Cloned HIVSGD BKPyV isolates displayed active promoters and efficient replication capability in human salivary gland cells. The unique HIVSGD NCCR architecture may represent a potentially significant oral-tropic BKPyV substrain. PMID:27085139

  20. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  1. Morphologies, classification and genesis of pockmarks, mud volcanoes and associated fluid escape features in the northern Zhongjiannan Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangxin; Song, Haibin; Guan, Yongxian; Yang, Shengxiong; Pinheiro, Luis M.; Bai, Yang; Liu, Boran; Geng, Minghui

    2015-12-01

    Based on new high-resolution multi-beam bathymetry and multichannel seismic reflection data, two new groups of numerous pockmarks and mud volcanoes were discovered in the northern Zhongjiannan Basin at water depths between 600 and 1400 m. Individual pockmarks are circular, elliptical, crescent-shaped or elongated, with diameters ranging from several hundreds to thousands of meters and tens or hundreds of meters in depth, and they often form groups or strings. Crescent pockmarks, approximately 500-1500 m wide in cross-section and 50-150 m deep, occur widely in the southern study area, both as individual features and in groups or curvilinear chains, and they are more widespread and unique in this area than anywhere else in the world. Conical mud volcanoes, mostly with kilometer-wide diameters and ca. 100 m high, mainly develop in the northern study area as individual features or in groups. Seismic data show that the observed pockmarks are associated with different kinds of fluid escape structures and conduits, such as gas chimneys, diapirs, zones of acoustic blanking, acoustic turbidity and enhanced reflections, inclined faults, small fractures and polygonal faults. The mapped mud volcanoes appear to be fed from deep diapirs along two main conduit types: the conventional conduits with downward tapering cones and another other conduit type with a narrow conduit in the lower half and emanative leakage passages in the upper half. Various types of pockmarks are found and a comprehensive pockmark classification scheme is proposed, according to: (a) their shape in plan view, which includes circular, elliptical, crescent, comet-shape, elongated and irregular; (b) their magnitude, which includes small, normal, giant and mega-pockmarks; and (c) their composite pattern, which includes composite pockmarks, pockmark strings and pockmark groups. For the genesis of the crescent pockmark (strings), a 5-stage speculative formation model is proposed, implying possible controlling

  2. Multiple carbon and nitrogen sources associated with the parental mantle fluids of fibrous diamonds from Diavik, Canada, revealed by SIMS microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, D. C.; Stachel, T.; Stern, R. A.; Hunt, L.; Fomradas, G.

    2016-02-01

    -crystal cuboid and fibrous rim data were observed, including a consistent ~1.3 ‰ offset in δ 15N values between the two growth types. This bimodal N-isotope distribution is interpreted as formation from separate parental fluids, associated with distinct nitrogen sources. The bimodal N-isotope distribution could also be explained by differences in N-speciation between the respective parental fluids, which would largely be controlled by the oxidation state of the fibrous rim and cuboid growth environments (i.e., N2 vs. NH4 + or NH3). We also note that this C- and N-isotope variability could indicate temporal changes to the source(s) of the respective parental fluids, such that each stage of fibrous diamond growth reflects the emplacement of separate pulses of proto-kimberlitic fluid—from distinct carbon and nitrogen sources, and/or with varying N-species—into the lithospheric mantle.

  3. MEMORY, ASSOCIATIVE AND SYNTAGMATIC COORDINATIONS, AND LINGUISTIC MICROGENESIS: IMPLICATIONS AND PROSPECTS FOR SAUSSURE’S THEORY OF LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Thibault

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available I take Saussure’s distinction between associative and syntagmatic relations in la langue as the starting point for a re-examination of the relationship between memory and language. Saussure’s remarks on this relationship are sparse and fragmentary, cast in terms of the now largely abandoned classical accounts of early neurologists such as Broca and Wernicke, who saw language in the brain as a series of interconnected cortical areas that were presumed to be the repositories of the neurophysiological processes of language function. I draw on Andy Clark’s (1993 idea of ‘associative engines’ to consider how the associative coordination of linguistic items involves (1 the potential for evolution to exploit the gap between gross environmental input to the organism and the input to specific neural networks; and (2 the potential for the language learner qua active agent to create some of its own learning environment. I then look at the ways in which the principle of the associative coordination of diverse series stored in long-term memory makes possible and gives rise to the analysis and segmentation of linguistic syntagms. This development, in turn, makes possible the detecting of the common part of diverse syntagms such that they can be replaced with more schematic ones. The resulting linguistic schema embodies functional constraints on the input data that are available to the learner and thus serve as a pedagogical device, which I call TEACHER FUNCTION. Jason Brown’s (1988 theory of microgenesis together with Deacon’s (1989 account of the dually ‘centrifugal’ and ‘centripetal’ flows of information in the brain provide the basis of a more coherent and complete account of the neural structure of language: The utterance is microgenetically elaborated as it ‘centrifugally’ unfolds over a sequence of neuroanatomical levels (e.g., limbic, generalised neocortex, sensorimotor cortex. On this basis, I articulate some links between

  4. Fluids in the continental crust

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, BWD; Bodnar, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Fluids play a critical role in the geochemical and geodynamical evolution of the crust, and fluid flow is the dominant process associated with mass and energy transport in the crust. In this Perspectives, we summarise the occurrence, properties and role that fluids play in crustal processes, as well as how geoscientists’ understanding of these various aspects of fluids have evolved during the past century and how this evolution in thinking has influenced our own research careers. Despite the ...

  5. Clinical signs of pneumonia in children: association with and prediction of diagnosis by fuzzy sets theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira J.C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares the performance of stochastic and fuzzy models for the analysis of the relationship between clinical signs and diagnosis. Data obtained for 153 children concerning diagnosis (pneumonia, other non-pneumonia diseases, absence of disease and seven clinical signs were divided into two samples, one for analysis and other for validation. The former was used to derive relations by multi-discriminant analysis (MDA and by fuzzy max-min compositions (fuzzy, and the latter was used to assess the predictions drawn from each type of relation. MDA and fuzzy were closely similar in terms of prediction, with correct allocation of 75.7 to 78.3% of patients in the validation sample, and displaying only a single instance of disagreement: a patient with low level of toxemia was mistaken as not diseased by MDA and correctly taken as somehow ill by fuzzy. Concerning relations, each method provided different information, each revealing different aspects of the relations between clinical signs and diagnoses. Both methods agreed on pointing X-ray, dyspnea, and auscultation as better related with pneumonia, but only fuzzy was able to detect relations of heart rate, body temperature, toxemia and respiratory rate with pneumonia. Moreover, only fuzzy was able to detect a relationship between heart rate and absence of disease, which allowed the detection of six malnourished children whose diagnoses as healthy are, indeed, disputable. The conclusion is that even though fuzzy sets theory might not improve prediction, it certainly does enhance clinical knowledge since it detects relationships not visible to stochastic models.

  6. Fluid mechanics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)

  7. The quantum field theory associated with the infinite lattice two-dimensional Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the Schwinger functions associated with the infinite lattice correlation functions of the periodic two-dimensional Ising model can be represented by a Feynmann-Kac (F-K) formula in a Fermion Fock space H. The energy-momentum and field operators are expressed in terms of two sets of canonical Fermion free field operator-valued distributions acting in H. These two sets are related by a proper linear canonical transformation (pclt), i.e. there is a unitary operator U which implements the transformation. Series representation for the Schwinger functions are obtained by substituting the spectral representations of the energy-momentum operators in the F-K formula. Below the critical temperature orthogonal projections which reduce the algebra are commuting and give an explicit decomposition of the periodic states into two, translationally invariant, pure states. (Author)

  8. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  9. The quantum mechanics of perfect fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Endlich, Solomon; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Wang, Junpu

    2010-01-01

    We consider the canonical quantization of an ordinary fluid. The resulting long-distance effective field theory is derivatively coupled, and therefore strongly coupled in the UV. The system however exhibits a number of peculiarities, associated with the vortex degrees of freedom. On the one hand, these have formally a vanishing strong-coupling energy scale, thus suggesting that the effective theory's regime of validity is vanishingly narrow. On the other hand, we prove an analog of Coleman's theorem, whereby the semiclassical vacuum has no quantum counterpart, thus suggesting that the vortex premature strong-coupling phenomenon stems from a bad identification of the ground state and of the perturbative degrees of freedom. Finally, vortices break the usual connection between short distances and high energies, thus potentially impairing the unitarity of the effective theory.

  10. Why are Fluid Densities So Low in Carbon Nanotubes?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gerald J

    2014-01-01

    The equilibrium density of fluids under nanoconfinement can differ substantially from their bulk density. Using a mean-field approach to describe the energetic landscape near the carbon nanotube (CNT) wall, we obtain analytical results describing the lengthscales associated with the layering observed at the fluid-CNT interface. When combined with molecular simulation results for the fluid density in the layered region, this approach allows us to derive a closed-form prediction for the overall equilibrium fluid density as a function of the CNT radius that is in excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. We also show how aspects of this theory can be extended to describe water confined within CNTs and find good agreement with results from the literature.

  11. Statistical theory for hydrogen bonding fluid system of A_aD_d type(Ⅲ):Equation of state and fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The equation of the state of the hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type is studied by the principle of statistical mechanics. The influences of hydrogen bonds on the equation of state of the system are obtained based on the change in volume due to hydrogen bonds. Moreover,the number density fluc-tuations of both molecules and hydrogen bonds as well as their spatial correlation property are inves-tigated. Furthermore,an equation describing relation between the number density correlation function of "molecules-hydrogen bonds" and that of molecules and hydrogen bonds is derived. As application,taking the van der Waals hydrogen bonding fluid as an example,we considered the effect of hydrogen bonds on its relevant statistical properties.

  12. Implicit theories of online trolling: Evidence that attention-seeking conceptions are associated with increased psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hatcher, Ruth M; Tazzyman, Sarah; Flowe, Heather D; Palmer, Emma J; Frosch, Caren A; O'Reilly, Michelle; Jones, Ceri; Buckley, Chloe; Knieps, Melanie; Cutts, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate people's conceptions of online trolls, particularly conceptions associated with psychological resilience to trolling. In Study 1, a factor analysis of participants' ratings of characteristics of online trolls found a replicable bifactor model of conceptions of online trolls, with a general factor of general conceptions towards online trolls being identified, but five group factors (attention-conflict seeking, low self-confidence, viciousness, uneducated, amusement) as most salient. In Study 2, participants evaluated hypothetical profiles of online trolling messages to establish the validity of the five factors. Three constructs (attention-conflict seeking, viciousness, and uneducated) were actively employed when people considered profiles of online trolling scenarios. Study 3 introduced a 20-item 'Conceptions of Online Trolls scale' to examine the extent to which the five group factors were associated with resilience to trolling. Results indicated that viewing online trolls as seeking conflict or attention was associated with a decrease in individuals' negative affect around previous trolling incidents. Overall, the findings suggest that adopting an implicit theories approach can further our understanding and measurement of conceptions towards trolling through the identification of five salient factors, of which at least one factor may act as a resilience strategy. PMID:26403842

  13. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23801523

  14. Transport between two fluids across their mutual flow interface: the streakline approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    Mixing between two different miscible fluids with a mutual interface must be initiated by fluid transporting across this fluid interface, caused for example by applying an unsteady velocity agitation. In general, there is no necessity for this physical flow barrier between the fluids to be associated with extremal or exponential attraction as might be revealed by applying Lagrangian coherent structures, finite-time Lyapunov exponents or other methods on the fluid velocity. It is shown that streaklines are key to understanding the breaking of the interface under velocity agitations, and a theory for locating the relevant streaklines is presented. Simulations of streaklines in a cross-channel mixer and a perturbed Kirchhoff's elliptic vortex are quantitatively compared to the theoretical results. A methodology for quantifying the unsteady advective transport between the two fluids using streaklines is presented.

  15. Fluid pumping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  16. [Neuro-otological Studies of Patients Suffering from Dizziness with Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypovolemia after Traffic Accident-associated Whiplash Injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shimoda, Satoe

    2015-05-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are common clinical manifestations after traffic accident-associated whiplash injury. Recently, Shinonaga et al. (2001) suggested that more than 80% of patients with whiplash injury complaining of these symptoms showed cerebrospinal (CSF) hypovolemia on radioisotope (RI) cisternography (111In-DTPA). However, neuro-otological studies to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these symptoms have been insufficient. In the present study, patients complaining of these symptoms with CSF hypovolemia after traffic accidents were investigated with posturography and electronystagmography (ENG). Fourteen patients (4 men, 10 women; 24-52 yr) were examined with posturography and showed parameters (tracking distance & area) significantly (pwomen; 31-52 yr) were further investigated with ENG. The slow phase peak velocities of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and optokinetic-after nystagmus (OKAN) were significantly (p<0.01) reduced (62.64±6.9 SD deg/sec, 60.76±10.74 SD deg/sec, respectively) and frequencies of OKN were reduced (139.7±10.75 SD), while the ocular smooth pursuit was relatively preserved. Magnetic resonance images (sagittal view) of these five patients demonstrated the downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and flattening of the pons, which are characteristic features of CSF hypovolemia, called "brain sagging." Our results suggest that brain sagging due to CSF hypovolemia impairs vestibular and vestibulocerebellar functions, which may cause dizziness and vertigo. PMID:25957209

  17. Caractérisation géochimique des fluides associés aux minéralisations Pb sbnd Zn de Bou-Dahar (Maroc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Samira; Bouabdellah, Mohammed; Grandia, Fidel; Cardellach, Esteve; Canals, Àngel

    2004-11-01

    The Bou-Dahar Pb sbnd Zn Mississippi Valley deposits located in the eastern part of the High Atlas Range (Morocco) are hosted by a Liassic reefal complex. Fluid inclusion and 'crush-leach' data show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralisation deposition: a warmer, more saline fluid (180 °C, >25 wt% NaCl equivalent) and a cooler, less saline fluid (70 °C, 16 wt% equivalent NaCl). Mixing of these two fluids resulted in the precipitation of the ore. The solute composition of the ore-forming brine suggests that the MVT mineralising fluids were probably a mixture of halite-dissolution fluids and evaporated seawater. To cite this article: S. Adil et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  18. Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories

    OpenAIRE

    De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-Li

    2016-01-01

    We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic v...

  19. Research of ultrasonic attenuation theory in drilling fluid%超声波在钻井液中传播衰减理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 付建红; 张智; 许亮斌

    2012-01-01

    超声波流量计是现阶段精度最高、通用性好、灵敏度最高的流量计,但由于超声波在钻井液中衰减很大,使其未能测出钻井液的环空返出流量.通过Urick模型研究了超声波流量计在测量钻井液流量中超声波的衰减规律,分析了传播距离、超声波频率、液体密度等因素对超声波衰减的影响.通过研究得出钻井液中固相颗粒的数量每增加1个数量级,超声波能量衰减也增加一个数量级,超声波能量衰减随钻井液中固相颗粒直径、钻井液密度、传播距离的增加而增大,超声波频率越大,超声波能量衰减越快.该研究结果为超声波在钻井液测量中的进一步应用提供了理论基础.%At present, the return of drilling mud is measured by target type meter, but the result is not very accurate because of environment. The ultrasonic flowmeter is the most accurate, normal and sensitive apparatus, but the return flow of drilling mud can not be measured by ultrasonic flowmeter because of the huge ultrasonic attenuation in drilling fluid. The ultrasonic attenuation law was researched with the Urick Model when the flow of drilling fluid was measured by ultrasonic flowmeter. The effects of the factors on ultrasonic attenuation were analyzed, such as ultrasonic propagation distance, frequency, and liquid density..It was concluded that the ultrasonic attenuation would increase by one order of magnitude with the increase of the quantity of solid-phase pellet in the drilling fluid by one order of magnitude, and the ultrasonic attenuation increased with the increase of the diameter of solid-phase particles in the drilling fluid, the drilling fluid density and the prorogation distance. The larger ultrasonic frequency is, the quicker ultrasonic attenuation is.

  20. Basic developments in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds

  1. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L

    2013-01-01

    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  2. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  3. Textured fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Gerhard K.

    1995-01-01

    The rheology and development morphology of textured fluids have been investigated. The first fluid considered in this work was a liquid crystalline polymer consisting of isotropic and anisotropic solutions of poly-p-phenyleneterephthalamide (PPT) in sulfuric acid. The second textured fluid considered in this work was an immiscible polymer blend consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon 6,6. The role played by liquid crystalline order (LCO) and a polydomain ...

  4. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  5. Methods of deriving exact solutions of spherical symmetry in the Einstein-Cartan theory for a perfect fluid with a 'classical description' of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation allows for avoiding singularities. This idea is supported by giving exact solution of cosmological equations which are extensions of the Friedmannian cosmology. Various singularity-free models of dust and radiative universes are constructed. Two general relations are given which allow for a transition from dust-filled to radiation-filled universes with the same value of the scale factor. These relations are characteristic of the Einstein-Cartan theory, and cannot be brought over into general relativity. It is shown how exact solutions of the Einstein-Cartan theory can be derived from known solutions of general rela tivity. This procedure which may be applied to material spheres, is simple enough to generate a large set of useful solutions. Two examples are given. (author)

  6. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  7. Genome-wide association reveals genetic effects on human Aβ42 and τ protein levels in cerebrospinal fluids: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg Gerard D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is common and highly heritable with many genes and gene variants associated with AD in one or more studies, including APOE ε2/ε3/ε4. However, the genetic backgrounds for normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD in terms of changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of Aβ1-42, T-tau, and P-tau181P, have not been clearly delineated. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS in order to better define the genetic backgrounds to these three states in relation to CSF levels. Methods Subjects were participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI. The GWAS dataset consisted of 818 participants (mainly Caucasian genotyped using the Illumina Human Genome 610 Quad BeadChips. This sample included 410 subjects (119 Normal, 115 MCI and 176 AD with measurements of CSF Aβ1-42, T-tau, and P-tau181P Levels. We used PLINK to find genetic associations with the three CSF biomarker levels. Association of each of the 498,205 SNPs was tested using additive, dominant, and general association models while considering APOE genotype and age. Finally, an effort was made to better identify relevant biochemical pathways for associated genes using the ALIGATOR software. Results We found that there were some associations with APOE genotype although CSF levels were about the same for each subject group; CSF Aβ1-42 levels decreased with APOE gene dose for each subject group. T-tau levels tended to be higher among AD cases than among normal subjects. From adjusted result using APOE genotype and age as covariates, no SNP was associated with CSF levels among AD subjects. CYP19A1 'aromatase' (rs2899472, NCAM2, and multiple SNPs located on chromosome 10 near the ARL5B gene demonstrated the strongest associations with Aβ1-42 in normal subjects. Two genes found to be near the top SNPs, CYP19A1 (rs2899472, p = 1.90 × 10-7 and NCAM2 (rs1022442, p = 2.75 × 10-7 have been reported as genetic

  8. Fingering instability in the flow of a power-law fluid on a rotating disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Akash; Doshi, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    A computational study of the flow of a non-Newtonian power law fluid on a spinning disc is considered here. The main goal of this work is to examine the effect of non-Newtonian nature of the fluid on the flow development and associated contact line instability. The governing mass and momentum balance equations are simplified using the lubrication theory. The resulting model equation is a fourth order non-linear PDE which describes the spatial and temporal evolutions of film thickness. The movement of the contact line is modeled using a constant angle slip model. To solve this moving boundary problem, a numerical method is developed using a Galerkin/finite element method based approach. The numerical results show that the spreading rate of the fluid strongly depends on power law exponent n. It increases with the increase in the shear thinning character of the fluid (n fluid (n > 1). It is also observed that the capillary ridge becomes sharper with the value of n. In order to examine the stability of these ridges, a linear stability theory is also developed for these power law fluids. The dispersion relationship depicting the growth rate for a given wave number has been reported and compared for different power-law fluids. It is found that the growth rate of the instability decreases as the fluid becomes more shear thinning in nature, whereas it increases for more shear thickening fluids.

  9. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Bellazzini, Brando, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@unige.ch, E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  10. Accuracy of temperature-derivative of radial distribution function calculated under approximations in Ornstein-Zernike theory for one-component Lennard-Jones fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Tatsuhiko; Miyazaki, Sanae

    2016-08-01

    The accuracy of the temperature derivative of radial distribution function obtained under hypernetted chain (HNC), Kovalenko-Hirata (KH), Percus-Yevick (PY) and Verlet-modified (VM) closure approximations is examined for one-component Lennard-Jones fluid. As relevant thermodynamic quantities, constant-volume heat capacity and thermal pressure coefficient are investigated in terms of their accuracy under the above four approximations. It is found that HNC and KH closures overestimate these quantities, whereas PY closure tends to underestimate them. VM closure predicts rather accurately the quantities. A significant cancellation is observed along the integration for the above quantities under HNC and KH closures, especially at high density state.

  11. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  12. Perturbation Theory for Fluids of Polar and Polarizable Convex Molecules: Application to Linear Chloroalkanes and Their Mixtures with n-Alkanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jan; Aim, Karel

    2002. s. 1. [Liblice Conference on Statistical Mechanics of Liquids /6./. 09.06.2002-14.06.2002, Špindlerův Mlýn] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : statistical thermodynamics * perturbation theory Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  13. Molecular mapping of movement-associated areas in the avian brain: a motor theory for vocal learning origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor

  14. Relative entropies in thermodynamics of complete fluid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Feireisl, E.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of relative entropy in the framework of thermodynamics of compressible, viscous and heat conducting fluids. The relative entropy is constructed on the basis of a thermodynamic potential called ballistic free energy and provides stability of solutions to the associated Navier-Stokes-Fourier system with respect to perturbations. The theory is illustrated by applications to problems related to the long time behavior of solutions and the problem of weak-strong uniqueness.

  15. Colloquium: Transport in strongly correlated two dimensional electron fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, B.; Kravchenko, S. V.; Kivelson, S. A.; Gao, X. P. A.

    2010-04-01

    An overview of the measured transport properties of the two dimensional electron fluids in high mobility semiconductor devices with low electron densities is presented as well as some of the theories that have been proposed to account for them. Many features of the observations are not easily reconciled with a description based on the well understood physics of weakly interacting quasiparticles in a disordered medium. Rather, they reflect new physics associated with strong correlation effects, which warrant further study.

  16. Chronic whiplash-associated disorder and traumatic cerebrospinal fluid leak. Analysis of cases with radioisotope cisternography, epidural blood patch, and cervical facet joint blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes RI cisternographic (RIC) examinations of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) and results of their treatment with nerve block and epidural blood patch (EBP) conducted in authors' facilities. Subjects were 40 chronic (av. symptomatic period of 3.1 y) WAD patients (av. age 34 y) with traffic (28 cases), sports (7) and falling (5) causes with complication of suspicious cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. RIC was done 2.5-24 hr after injection of 37 MBq of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the medullary space through epidural puncturing needle. Positive finding of clear leak or early accumulation of RI in the bladder was seen in 21 cases and negative, in 19. Positive patients had significantly higher rates of headache, abnormal vision and fatigue than negative ones. EBP was conducted through X-ray to all positive patients and to negative ones with strongly suspicious leak complication (7 cases), which resulted in improvement of symptoms like headache and vision in the former, but no improvement in the latter cases. Repeated RIC of the patients with poor improvement in the former was suggested effective for judgment of repetition of EBP treatment. Cervical facet joint blocks were found effective in cases with posterior cervical pain. Symptoms in WAD accompanying headache should be differentially diagnosed whether it is derived from posttraumatic CSF leak or from pain due to cervical facet arthritis. (R.T.)

  17. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the......A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and...

  18. Fluid juggling

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 66th Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamics Division of the American Physical Society. We show the curious behaviour of a light ball interacting with a liquid jet. For certain conditions, a ball can be suspended into a slightly inclined liquid jet. We studied this phenomenon using a high speed camera. The visualizations show that the object can be `juggled' for a variety of flow conditions. A simple calculation showed that the ball remains at a stable position due to a Bernoulli-like effect. The phenomenon is very stable and easy to reproduce.

  19. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3d fluid-structure interaction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canton Gador

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS and flow shear stress (FSS. Methods In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 5 patients with intraplaque hemorrhage confirmed by histology were acquired. 3D multi-component FSI models were constructed for each plaque to obtain mechanical stresses. Plaque Wall Stress (PWS and Flow Shear Stress (FSS were extracted from all nodal points on the lumen surface of each plaque for analysis. Results The mean PWS value from all hemorrhage nodes of the 5 plaques combined was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes (75.6 versus 68.1 kPa, P = 0.0003. The mean PWS values from hemorrhage nodes for each of the 5 plaques were all significantly higher (5 out of 5 than those from non-hemorrhage nodes (P 2, P = 0.0002. However, the mean flow shear stress values from individual cases showed mixed results: only one out of five plaques showed mean FSS value from hemorrhage nodes was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes; three out of five plaques showed that their mean FSS values from hemorrhage nodes were lower than those from non-hemorrhage nodes; and one plaque showed that the difference had no statistical significance. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that intraplaque hemorrhage nodes were associated with higher plaque wall stresses. Compared to flow shear stress, plaque wall stress has a better correlation with plaque component feature (hemorrhage linked to plaque progression and vulnerability. With further validation, plaque stress analysis may provide

  20. Sir James Lighthill and modern fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2008-01-01

    This is perhaps the first book containing biographical information of Sir James Lighthill and his major scientific contributions to the different areas of fluid mechanics, applied mathematics, aerodynamics, linear and nonlinear waves in fluids, geophysical fluid dynamics, biofluiddynamics, aeroelasticity, boundary layer theory, generalized functions, and Fourier series and integrals. Special efforts is made to present Lighthill's scientific work in a simple and concise manner, and generally intelligible to readers who have some introduction to fluid mechanics. The book also includes a list of