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Sample records for associated contagious pruritic

  1. Demodex gatoi -associated contagious pruritic dermatosis in cats - a report from six households in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaniemi Riitta-Liisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demodex gatoi is unique among demodectic mites. It possesses a distinct stubby appearance, and, instead of residing in the hair follicles, it dwells in the keratin layer of the epidermis, causing a pruritic and contagious skin disease in cats. Little is known of the occurrence of D. gatoi in Europe or control of D. gatoi infestation. Case presentation We describe D. gatoi in 10 cats, including five Cornish Rex, two Burmese, one Exotic, one Persian and one Siamese, living in six multi-cat households in different locations in Finland containing 21 cats in total. Intense pruritus was the main clinical sign. Scaling, broken hairs, alopecia and self-inflicted excoriations were also observed. Diagnosis was based on finding typical short-bodied demodectic mites in skin scrapings, skin biopsies or on tape strips. Other pruritic skin diseases, such as allergies and dermatophytoses, were ruled out. In one household, despite finding several mites on one cat, all six cats of the household remained symptomless. Amitraz used weekly at a concentration of 125-250 ppm for 2-3 months, proved successful in three households, 2% lime sulphur weekly dips applied for six weeks in one household and peroral ivermectin (1 mg every other day for 10 weeks in one household. Previous trials in four households with imidacloprid-moxidectin, selamectin or injected ivermectin given once or twice a month appeared ineffective. Conclusion D. gatoi-associated dermatitis is an emerging contagious skin disease in cats in Finland. Although pruritus is common, some cats may harbour the mites without clinical signs. In addition, due to translucency of the mites and fastidious feline grooming habits, the diagnosis may be challenging. An effective and convenient way to treat D. gatoi infestations has yet to emerge.

  2. Etiology and risk factors associated with a pruritic papular eruption in people living with HIV in India

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    Terry T Farsani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Papulopruritic eruption (PPE occurs in people living with HIV in India. Understanding the risk factors associated with this disease may help decrease the prevalence of PPE. Methods: This study was a case-control study performed at the Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine, a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India. Cases included HIV-positive, antiretroviral (ARV therapy-naïve adults experiencing a pruritic skin eruption for longer than one month, with evidence of multiple papular or nodular lesions and biopsy consistent with arthropod bite. Controls included HIV-positive, ARV-naïve patients without active skin rash. Main outcome measures were CD4 cell count, histology, and environmental exposures. We performed statistical analysis using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 11.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Categorical variables such as gender, urban versus rural residence, occupation, treatment history, CD4 count, use of insect repellents, and environmental exposures were evaluated using the χ2 test (or the Fisher exact test when an expected value for a category was less than 5. The t-test was used to evaluate differences in age and the duration since HIV diagnosis. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare non-normally distributed values such as CD4 cell count. A p-value that was less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Forty-one cases and 149 control subjects were included. Subjects with PPE had significantly lower CD4 cell counts compared to controls (225.5 cells/µL vs. 425 cells/µL; p=0.0001. Sixty-six percent of cases had a CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/µL. PPE cases were less likely to use mosquito repellent techniques (odds ratio 2.81, CI = 1.45–5.45. Discussion: PPE may be an altered and exaggerated immune response to arthropod bites in HIV-positive patients. CD4 cell count is significantly lower in patients with PPE, and therefore it may be considered a qualifying clinical

  3. A progressive pruritic rash with blisters.

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    Overcash, Michael D; Ewald, Matt

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a patient with a progressive pruritic rash and fluid-filled blisters. A punch biopsy later confirmed the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid, an inflammatory condition that most commonly occurs in older adults and is treated with corticosteroids. PMID:27124233

  4. Pruritic acquired nevus of Ota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenan, S; Strueven, V; Saxer, N; Laffitte, E; Kaya, G; Krischer, J; Hafezi, F; Le Gal, F-A

    2013-01-01

    Nevus of Ota is a unilateral, asymptomatic cutaneous and mucosal hyperpigmentation of the face that is congenital or may appear during childhood. We present a case of symptomatic acquired nevus of Ota in an adult, associated with intense pruritus, not described in the literature so far. A 32-year-old woman presented with brownish mottled macules which appeared on her face progressively over 8 days, following the distribution of the first and second divisions of the left trigeminal nerve and partially covering the iris and sclera of the left eye. She reported an intense pruritus in this area. We performed a biopsy on the left forehead, which confirmed the diagnosis of nevus of Ota. Specific stains and immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of mast cells. Ophthalmological tests showed acute acquired melanocytosis of the left iris and sclera. The origin of the nevus is still unclear. Several hypotheses suggest a reactivation of melanocytes during their migration from the neural crest. The pruritus reported in our patient may be explained by the increased quantity of mast cells observed in the lesion and/or neuronal stimulation of the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the fifth cranial nerve.

  5. Is healthy behavior contagious: associations of social norms with physical activity and healthy eating

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    McNaughton Sarah A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social norms are theoretically hypothesized to influence health-related behaviors such as physical activity and eating behaviors. However, empirical evidence relating social norms to these behaviors, independently of other more commonly-investigated social constructs such as social support, is scarce and findings equivocal, perhaps due to limitations in the ways in which social norms have been conceptualized and assessed. This study investigated associations between clearly-defined social norms and a range of physical activity and eating behaviors amongst women, adjusting for the effects of social support. Methods Self-report survey data about particular physical activity (leisure-time moderate-vigorous activity; volitional walking; cycling for transport and eating behaviors (fast food, soft drink and fruit and vegetable consumption, and social norms and support for these, were provided by 3,610 women aged 18-46 years living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Results Results of regression analyses showed that social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors predicted these respective behaviors relatively consistently; these associations generally remained significant after adjustment for social support. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, these data confirm theoretical accounts of the importance of social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors, and suggest that this is independent from social support. Intervention strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy eating could incorporate strategies aimed at modifying social norms relating to these behaviors.

  6. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

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    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P cattle was 16.2 % (confidence interval (CI) 13.7-19.0) and 9.6 % (CI 6.9-12.9) in sedentary cattle. The overall cattle-level sero-prevalence for two the cattle production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P cattle into herd (P cattle gifts and dowry payment (P cattle and small ruminants together (P < 0.001), and long trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria.

  7. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees.

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    Anderson, James R; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-12-01

    Six adult female chimpanzees were shown video scenes of chimpanzees repeatedly yawning or of chimpanzees showing open-mouth facial expressions that were not yawns. Two out of the six females showed significantly higher frequencies of yawning in response to yawn videos; no chimpanzees showed the inverse. Three infant chimpanzees that accompanied their mothers did not yawn at all. These data are highly reminiscent of the contagious yawning effects reported for humans. Contagious yawning is thought to be based on the capacity for empathy. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees provides further evidence that these apes may possess advanced self-awareness and empathic abilities. PMID:15801606

  8. Papular pruritic eruptions: A marker of progressive HIV disease in children: Experience from eastern India

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    Samanta Moumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Papular pruritic eruptions (PPEs are a commonly seen dermatological manifestation in children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV stage 2 disease, whereas recurrent upper respiratory tract infection (URTI (>2 episodes in 6 months is the most common presenting illness in this category. Papular pruritic eruptions has been associated with progressive HIV disease in adults though it is categorized in early stage. Aim: To evaluate PPE as a clinical marker for progressive pediatric HIV. Setting and Design: In Pediatric HIV/AIDS clinic, Medical College, Kolkata, a prospective longitudinal hospital-based observational study was carried out. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 children in WHO stage 2 HIV disease aged between 2 and 12 years were selected, of which 58 had recurrent URTI without PPE and another 50 had PPE with or without secondary bacterial infection. Clinico-immunological deterioration was compared between the groups in terms of progression to undernutrition, WHO clinical stage 4 disease, severe immunodeficiency, need for initiation of Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART and mortality over a period of 2 years. Statistical Analysis: SPSS statistical software version 10 was used. P value, relative risk (RR with 95% Confidence Interval (CI, sensitivity and specificity was estimated. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Significantly higher incidence (P < 0.001 of clinico-immunological progression of disease at a significantly shorter time period (P < 0.05 was found in those with PPE in comparison to those without PPE. Papular pruritic eruption has high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value as a clinical marker for severe immunodeficiency. Conclusion: Papular pruritic eruption could be a useful clinical marker of progressive HIV disease in children.

  9. Childhood Contagious Diseases

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    ... these diseases are so common in children. Contagious diseases are often caused by the spread of bacteria (such as in scarlet fever) or viruses (such as in chickenpox, measles, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and quite a few others) in droplets of ...

  10. Is crime contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Jens; Kling, Jeffrey R

    2006-01-01

    Understanding whether criminal behavior is %u201Ccontagious%u201D is important for law enforcement and for policies that affect how people are sorted across social settings. We test the hypothesis that criminal behavior is contagious by using data from the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) randomized housing-mobility experiment to examine the extent to which lower local-area crime rates decrease arrest rates among individuals. Our analysis exploits the fact that the effect of treatment group assign...

  11. Treatment of pruritic diseases with topical calcineurin inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ständer, Sonja; Schürmeyer-Horst, Funda; Luger, Thomas A; Weisshaar, Elke

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of topical calcineurin inhibitors resulted in a significant improvement in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. In addition, rapid amelioration of pruritus could be observed. In case reports, other pruritic dermatoses such as chronic irritative hand dermatitis, rosacea, graft-versus-host-disease, and lichen sclerosus were also treated successfully with pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. Twenty patients were treated with tacrolimus and pimecrolimus in a surveillance study to evaluate...

  12. Early detection of contagious diseases

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    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  13. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

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    Teresa Romero

    Full Text Available On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species.

  14. Factors associated with the presence and prevalence of contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A 2013 study of 1136 random English sheep flocks.

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    Dickins, Alan; Clark, Corinna C A; Kaler, Jasmeet; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Kane, Holly; Green, Laura E

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, a questionnaire was used to gather data on risks for introduction, and factors associated with prevalence, of contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD). There were 1136 (28.4%) usable responses from 4000 randomly selected sheep farmers in England. CODD was present in 58% (662) of flocks, with a reported prevalence of CODD lesions of 2.3%. The geometric mean period prevalence of all lameness was 4.2% and 2.8% in CODD positive and negative flocks respectively. Factors associated with a greater risk of presence of CODD were purchasing replacement ewes, not always checking the feet of sheep before purchase, not isolating purchased sheep, foot bathing returning ewes, foot trimming the flock more than twice in the year all compared with not doing these activities and increasing log10 flock size. Farmers who vaccinated sheep with Footvax™ were less likely to report presence of CODD. Factors associated with increasing prevalence of CODD lesions were not always checking the feet of purchased sheep, flocks that mixed with other flocks and sheep that left the farm for summer grazing and later returned. In addition, flocks where farmers followed the current recommended managements for control of footrot, had a lower prevalence of CODD whilst those who used foot bathing and where feet bled during routine foot trimming had a higher prevalence of CODD. The prevalence of CODD decreased with each log10 increase in flock size. We conclude that CODD is an infectious cause of lameness in sheep of increasing importance in GB. Introduction is linked to poor biosecurity with one likely source of the pathogen being introduction of or mixing with infected sheep. As with footrot, prevalence of CODD was lower in flocks where farmers focused on individual treatment to manage lameness and avoided foot bathing and trimming feet. We conclude that most of the currently recommended biosecurity and treatment approaches to control footrot in GB are also effective for control of CODD

  15. Contagious Depression: Negative Attachment Cognitions as a Moderator of the Temporal Association between Parental Depression and Child Depression

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    Abela, John R. Z.; Zinck, Suzanne; Kryger, Shelley; Zilber, Irene; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether negative attachment cognitions moderate the association between the onset of depressive symptoms in children and their parents using a high-risk sample (parents with a history of major depressive episodes and their children) and a multiwave longitudinal design. During the initial assessment, 140 children (ages 6-14)…

  16. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

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    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (Psharing a water source that caused concentration of stocks in one point was fifty three times more likely (OR 53.08; 95% CI: 14.91, 189.00) to be satisfactory practice that influenced occurrence of the disease in herds. This study highlighted the critical gap that exists in terms of significant influence of socio-cultural factors on CBPP occurrence in pastoral herds in Nigeria. Thus, CBPP surveillance, control and prevention programs that take these factors into consideration will be beneficial to the livestock industry in Nigeria, and indeed Africa.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (Psource that caused concentration of stocks in one point was fifty three times more likely (OR 53.08; 95% CI: 14.91, 189.00) to be satisfactory practice that influenced occurrence of the disease in herds. This study highlighted the critical gap that exists in terms of significant influence of socio-cultural factors on CBPP occurrence in pastoral herds in Nigeria. Thus, CBPP surveillance, control and prevention programs that take these factors into consideration will be beneficial to the livestock industry in Nigeria, and indeed Africa. PMID:27237398

  18. Get Tested. Make it Contagious.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-13

    This podcast is part of the "Get Tested. Make it Contagious" campaign, which is designed to raise awareness of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and increase testing among college students.  Created: 5/13/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/13/2010.

  19. Nineteen cases of persistent pruritic nodules and contact allergy to aluminium after injection of commonly used aluminium-adsorbed vaccines.

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    Bergfors, Elisabet; Björkelund, Cecilia; Trollfors, Birger

    2005-11-01

    Rare cases of persistent pruritic nodules, sometimes associated with aluminium (Al) allergy, have been reported after the use of several Al adsorbed vaccines. During vaccine trials in the 1990s a high incidence of pruritic nodules (645 cases/76,000 recipients), in 77% associated with Al allergy, was observed after the administration of diphtheria-tetanus / acellular pertussis (DT/aP) vaccines from a single producer. In the present report 19 children with pruritic nodules after vaccination with Al hydroxide-adsorbed DTaP/polio+Hib (Infanrix, Pentavac) are described. The children had intensely itching nodules at the injection site, often aggravated during upper respiratory tract infections, and local skin alterations. So far, the symptoms have persisted for up to 7 years. The median time between vaccination and onset of symptoms was 1 month. 16 children were epicutaneously tested for Al, all with positive reactions indicating delayed hypersensitivity to Al. The condition is not commonly known but is important to recognise, as the child and the family may suffer considerably. Future vaccinations with Al-adsorbed vaccines may cause aggravation of the symptoms and the Al allergy. Al-containing skin products, such as antiperspirants, may cause contact dermatitis. Nodules may be mistaken for tumours. Even though the incidence of itching nodules and Al allergy after administration of Infanrix, Pentavac and other Al-adsorbed vaccines is probably low, research to replace Al adjuvants seems appropriate. We conclude that intensely itching subcutaneous nodules, lasting for many years, and hypersensitivity to aluminium may occur after DTaP/polio+Hib vaccination of infants.

  20. Chronic pruritic skin disorders and sleep%睡眠不足在慢性瘙痒性皮肤病中的表现及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鸿达; 邓列华

    2012-01-01

    慢性瘙痒性皮肤病与睡眠不足有一定的联系.已有文献报导睡眠不足对患者的行为、生理及心理健康有不良的影响,降低了患者的生活质量.该文论述了慢性瘙痒性皮肤病引起睡眠不足的病因,对睡眠不足的常规治疗方案进行了概括,对如何治疗受睡眠不足困扰的皮肤病患者给予建议.正确的治疗不仅能改善皮肤病症状且能提高患者的整体生活质量.%Chronic pruritic skin disorder are variably associated with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation has been shown to have detrimental effects on behavioural, physiological and psychological health. This review focuses on the etiology of sleep disoder associated with pruritic skin conditions and also the commonly-seen chronic pruritic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, infestations and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Suggestions and advice on the management of sleep deprivation in patients with skin conditions are also included. Appropriate treatment will not only improve symptoms but also patient's quality of life.

  1. What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious?

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    ... Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious? KidsHealth > For Teens > What's ...

  2. Contagious yawning and seasonal climate variation

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    Andrew C Gallup

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior. To explore this possibility further, the frequency of contagious yawning in humans was measured while outdoors in a desert climate in the United States during two distinct temperature ranges and seasons (winter: 22oC; early summer: 37oC. As predicted, the proportion of pedestrians who yawned in response to seeing pictures of people yawning differed significantly between the two conditions (winter: 45%; summer: 24%. Across conditions yawning occurred at lower ambient temperatures, and the tendency to yawn during each season was associated with the length of time spent outside prior to being tested. Participants were more likely to yawn in the milder climate after spending long periods of time outside, while prolonged exposure to ambient temperatures at or above body temperature was associated with reduced yawning. This is the first report to show that the incidence of yawning in humans is associated with seasonal climate variation, further demonstrating that yawn-induced contagion effects can be mediated by factors unrelated to individual social characteristics or cognitive development.

  3. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome: case report of a pruritic acral exanthema in a child.

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    Llanora, Genevieve Villablanca; Tay, Clifton Ming; van Bever, Hugo Ps

    2012-07-01

    Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is a sporadic dermatosis affecting mainly children. It is characterized by multiple, confluent, monomorphic and pruritic pink to red-brown papules or papulovesicles, distributed symmetrically on the face, extensor surfaces of the extremities and buttocks, commonly sparing the trunk, palms and soles. This can be preceded by a viral infection, and may be accompanied by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, or lymphadenopathy. Personal and family history of atopy appears to be a risk factor in the subsequent development of GCS, thus frequently diagnosed as atopic dermatitis. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy from our institution with generalized, pruritic, papulovesicular rashes on the face and extremities for one month. He was diagnosed to have atopic dermatitis and treated as such, before presentation to our institution. As the signs and symptoms in GCS are similar to atopic dermatitis, we suggest that this diagnosis be considered when presented with a similar case.

  4. No evidence for contagious yawning in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rachna B; Krupenye, Christopher; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Among some haplorhine primates, including humans, relaxed yawns spread contagiously. Such contagious yawning has been linked to social bonds and empathy in some species. However, no studies have investigated contagious yawning in strepsirhines. We conducted an experimental study of contagious yawning in strepsirhines, testing ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs (n = 24) in a paradigm similar to one that has induced contagious yawning in haplorhines. First, in a control experiment, we investigated whether lemurs responded to projected video content in general (experiment 1). We showed them two videos to which we expected differential responses: one featured a terrestrial predator and the other a caretaker holding food. Next, to test for yawn contagion, we showed individual lemurs life-size video projections of groupmates and conspecific strangers yawning, and control footage of the same individuals at rest (experiment 2). Then, to examine whether a group context might enhance or allow for contagion, we exposed subjects to the same videos in a group setting (experiment 3). Lemurs produced alarm vocalizations and moved upward while viewing the predator, but not the caretaker, demonstrating that they do perceive video content meaningfully. However, lemurs did not yawn in response to yawning stimuli when tested alone, or with their groupmates. This study provides preliminary evidence that lemurs do not respond to yawning stimuli similarly to haplorhines, and suggests that this behavior may have evolved or become more exaggerated in haplorhines after the two major primate lineages split. PMID:27075549

  5. [Notalgia paresthetica, "posterior pigmented pruritic patch" and macular amyloidosis. Three stages of a disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerroni, L; Kopera, D; Soyer, H P; Kerl, H

    1993-12-01

    We report on nine cases of notalgia paresthetica, a cutaneous condition that has rarely been described in the dermatological literature and is characterized by localized pruritus, burning and hyperesthesia and/or paresthesia on the back. Histological and immunohistochemical studies have not clarified the pathogenesis of this disease. Several factors might be involved in various cases, including increased cutaneous innervation and neuropathy. The so-called posterior pigmented pruritic patch and macular amyloidosis may be considered as progressive evolutional stages of notalgia paresthetica. PMID:8113041

  6. Correlations of fatty acid supplementation, aeroallergens, shampoo, and ear cleanser with multiple parameters in pruritic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Gene H; Freeman, Lisa M; Hannah, Steven S

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two pruritic dogs were fed one of four diets controlled for n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios and total dietary intake of fatty acids. Multiple parameters were evaluated, including clinical and cytological findings, aeroallergen testing, microbial sampling techniques, and effects of an anti-fungal/antibacterial shampoo and ear cleanser. Significant correlations were observed between many clinical parameters, anatomical sampling sites, and microbial counts when data from the diet groups was combined. There were no statistically significant differences between individual diets for any of the clinical parameters. The importance of total clinical management in the control of pruritus was demonstrated.

  7. Correlations of fatty acid supplementation, aeroallergens, shampoo, and ear cleanser with multiple parameters in pruritic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Gene H; Freeman, Lisa M; Hannah, Steven S

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two pruritic dogs were fed one of four diets controlled for n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios and total dietary intake of fatty acids. Multiple parameters were evaluated, including clinical and cytological findings, aeroallergen testing, microbial sampling techniques, and effects of an anti-fungal/antibacterial shampoo and ear cleanser. Significant correlations were observed between many clinical parameters, anatomical sampling sites, and microbial counts when data from the diet groups was combined. There were no statistically significant differences between individual diets for any of the clinical parameters. The importance of total clinical management in the control of pruritus was demonstrated. PMID:15238557

  8. Educating Children and Youth To Prevent Contagious Disease. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    Twenty-first century contagious diseases require more than basic health lessons to prevent transmission. This Digest examines ways to prevent disease transmission in school settings. Section 1 discusses key concepts in contagion education: all people are potentially contagious; germs that cause diseases are present on many parts of the body; hand…

  9. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J M Massen

    Full Text Available Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour.

  10. Hybridization and the Origin of Contagious Asexuality in Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen; Spitze, Ken; Ackerman, Matthew S; Ye, Zhiqiang; Bright, Lydia; Keith, Nathan; Jackson, Craig E; Shaw, Joseph R; Lynch, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Hybridization plays a potentially important role in the origin of obligate parthenogenesis (OP) in many organisms. However, it remains controversial whether hybridization directly triggers the transition from sexual reproduction to obligate asexuality or a hybrid genetic background enables asexual species to persist. Furthermore, we know little about the specific genetic elements from the divergent, yet still hybridizing lineages responsible for this transition and how these elements are further spread to create other OP lineages. In this study, we address these questions in Daphnia pulex, where cyclically parthenogenetic (CP) and OP lineages coexist. Ancestry estimates and whole-genome association mapping using 32 OP isolates suggest that a complex hybridization history between the parental species D. pulex and D. pulicaria is responsible for the introgression of a set of 647 D. pulicaria single nucleotide polymorphism alleles that show perfect association with OP. Crossing experiments using males of OP lineages and females of CP lineages strongly support a polygenic basis for OP. Single-sperm analyses show that although normal meiotic recombination occurs in the production of haploid sperm by males of OP lineages, a significant proportion of such sperm are polyploid, suggesting that the spread of asexual elements through these males (i.e., contagious asexuality) is much less efficient than previously envisioned. Although the current Daphnia genome annotation does not provide mechanistic insight into the nature of the asexuality-associated alleles, these alleles should be considered as candidates for future investigations on the genetic underpinnings of OP.

  11. Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    , and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default scenario......The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis...... transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model...

  12. Diagnosis of contagious caprine and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) are caused by Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, small colony type (SC), respectively. These species belong to the group of six mycoplasmas referred to as the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. The members of the M. mycoides cluster are closely related, and some of them are very difficult to grow. Diagnosis based on identification of the causative agents by cultivation, biochemical reactions, or serology is therefore difficult, and improved diagnostic methods are sorely needed. Identification methods for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC, based on detection of the 16S rRNA genes from all members of the M. mycoides cluster by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and differentiation of species by restriction enzyme analysis with PstI and AluI, respectively, have been developed in the Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute Laboratory, Sweden. The methods are based on the fact that members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons and that there are sequence differences (polymorphisms) between the two 16S rRNA genes from the two operons. The majority of these polymorphisms are characteristic for each species, and some of them can be utilized for differentiation between the species. Techniques for extraction of DNA from lung tissue and from clinical material dried onto filter paper for preservation are described. Pleural fluid was found to be an ideal sample for direct analysis by PCR, but this material can also be dried onto filter paper for preservation and sent to another laboratory for the PCR analysis. These identification systems designed for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC have been used for diagnosis of CCPP and CBPP, respectively, by analysis of clinical samples brought to the laboratory as frozen lung tissue or preserved by drying onto a filter

  13. Chinese and western medicine research progress of HIV-pruritic papular eruption%HIV相关性痒疹的中西医研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢正; 蒋自强; 李鹏宇; 闫磊; 李政伟

    2012-01-01

    HIV相关性痒疹是HIV/AIDS患者中最常见的炎症性皮肤病之一.中医认为HIV相关性痒疹类似于古代文献中的粟疮、马疥,并主张根据发病机制及临床表现辨证施治.西医认为HIV相关性痒疹病因复杂,可以使用抗组胺药和沙利度胺进行治疗.%HIV-pruritic papular eruption is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases. TCM believes that HTV-pruritic papular eruption is similar to conjunctival follicle or Ma scabies in ancient literatures, and advocates that the treatment and syndrome differentiation based on pathogenesis and clinical manifestation. Western medicine believes that the pathogenesis of HIV-pruritic papular eruption is complicated, HTV- pruritic papular eruption may be treated by antihistamine and thalidomide.

  14. Pricing and Hedging of Derivatives in Contagious Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that stock markets are contagious. A negative shock to one market increases the probability of adverse shocks to other markets. We model this contagion effect by including mutually exciting jump processes in the dynamics of the indexes' log-returns. On top of this we add...

  15. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surve

  16. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainie Alenkær Madsen

    Full Text Available Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  17. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surveillance zones with complete standstill of animals and possible export bans on live animals. Epidemics clearly have a serious impact, in particular on countries with a high farm density and an export- oriented produ...

  18. Absence of contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Senju, Atsushi; Maeda, Makiko; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2007-01-01

    This study is the first to report the disturbance of contagious yawning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-four children with ASD as well as 25 age-matched typically developing (TD) children observed video clips of either yawning or control mouth movements. Yawning video clips elicited more yawns in TD children than in children with ASD, but the frequency of yawns did not differ between groups when they observed control video clips. Moreover, TD children yawned more du...

  19. Development of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Inactivated Vaccine( M1601 Strain)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Ping; He; Ying; Chu; Yuefeng; Gao; Pengcheng; Zhang; Xuan; Lu; Zhongxin

    2014-01-01

    Three batches of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia inactivated vaccine( M1601 strain) developed by the laboratory were studied from the aspects of safety,minimum immune dose,immunity duration and storage life. The results showed that the vaccine was safe to goats under different physiological conditions.Regardless of lambs or adult goats,the minimum immune dose was 3 m L,and the immunity duration and the storage life were 6 and 12 months,respectively.

  20. Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic

  1. Mirror neuron activity during contagious yawning--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Herwig, Uwe; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-03-01

    Yawning is contagious. However, little research has been done to elucidate the neuronal representation of this phenomenon. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated by visually perceived yawning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity during contagious yawning (CY). Signal-dependent changes in blood oxygen levels were compared when subjects viewed videotapes of yawning faces as opposed to faces with a neutral expression. In response to yawning, subjects showed unilateral activation of their Brodmann's area 9 (BA 9) portion of the right inferior frontal gyrus, a region of the MNS. In this way, two individuals could share physiological and associated emotional states based on perceived motor patterns. This is one component of empathy (motor empathy) that underlies the development of cognitive empathy. The BA 9 is reportedly active in tasks requiring mentalizing abilities. Our results emphasize the connection between the MNS and higher cognitive empathic functions, including mentalizing. We conclude that CY is based on a functional substrate of empathy. PMID:22772979

  2. A case of contagious toxicity? Isoprostanes as potential emerging contaminants of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-01

    Isoprostanes are useful biomarkers of human and animal health, being representative of oxidative stress processes, and having biological impacts associated with toxicity and disease. Isoprostanes are also chemically stable, a property facilitating population-level health assessments through wastewater sampling. However, as biologically-active entities, the presence of isoprostanes in domestic effluents could have toxic impacts on biota in receiving environments. As such it is proposed that isoprostanes are emerging organic contaminants of particular concern. Fish and aquatic invertebrates may be affected by the presence of isoprostanes in wastewaters through mechanisms such as reproductive impairment, cardiovascular disturbance and/or oxidative stress. This would represent a unique scenario of "contagious" toxicity, whereby human health has a direct toxicological consequence on aquatic animal health. PMID:27102276

  3. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.;

    2010-01-01

    of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli during lactation and the dry period in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. Input parameters on cure were obtained from recent Dutch field data. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were....... Changing the probability of cure resulted in a nonlinear change in the cumulative incidence of IMI cases and associated costs. Lactational treatment was able to prevent IMI epidemics in dairy herds at high transmission rates of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli. Lactational treatment did......This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics...

  4. Controling contagious processes on temporal networks via adaptive rewiring

    CERN Document Server

    Belik, Vitaly; Hövel, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    We consider recurrent contagious processes on a time-varying network. As a control procedure to mitigate the epidemic, we propose an adaptive rewiring mechanism for temporary isolation of infected nodes upon their detection. As a case study, we investigate the network of pig trade in Germany. Based on extensive numerical simulations for a wide range of parameters, we demonstrate that the adaptation mechanism leads to a significant extension of the parameter range, for which most of the index nodes (origins of the epidemic) lead to vanishing epidemics. We find that diseases with detection times around a week and infectious periods up to 3 months can be effectively controlled. Furthermore the performance of adaptation is very heterogeneous with respect to the index node. We identify index nodes that are most responsive to the adaptation strategy and quantify the success of the proposed adaptation scheme in dependence on the infectious period and detection times.

  5. Contagious architecture: computation, aesthetics, and space (technologies of lived abstraction)

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    In Contagious Architecture, Luciana Parisi offers a philosophical inquiry into the status of the algorithm in architectural and interaction design. Her thesis is that algorithmic computation is not simply an abstract mathematical tool but constitutes a mode of thought in its own right, in that its operation extends into forms of abstraction that lie beyond direct human cognition and control. These include modes of infinity, contingency, and indeterminacy, as well as incomputable quantities underlying the iterative process of algorithmic processing. The main philosophical source for the project is Alfred North Whitehead, whose process philosophy is specifically designed to provide a vocabulary for "modes of thought" exhibiting various degrees of autonomy from human agency even as they are mobilized by it. Because algorithmic processing lies at the heart of the design practices now reshaping our world -- from the physical spaces of our built environment to the networked spaces of digital culture -- the nature o...

  6. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Joel R; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text]) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points), while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

  7. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R Bock

    Full Text Available Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text] were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points, while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

  8. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  9. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M D Rosa

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1 it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2 the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3 deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia"-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy, annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  10. Efficiency of inactive vaccines against contagious agalactia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the efficiency of three inactive vaccines against contagious agalactia prepared with samples of Mycoplasma agalactiae isolated in Brazil and different adjuvants. Vaccine 1 adsorbed with aluminum hydroxide was administered in 23 goats (Gc1 and 13 sheep (Gov1; vaccine 2 containing Montanide IMS-2215-VG was administered in 22 goats (Gc2 and 12 sheep (Gov2 and vaccine 3, containing Montanide Gel-01 was administered in 22 goats (Gc3 and 12 sheep (Gov3. All animals were negative for Ma at indirect ELISA and received two doses of 2mL each, subcutaneously, within a 21 day interval. Five animals from each species were used as control. Seventy-five days after the booster, four animals from each vaccinated group and two from the control group were challenged with 5mL of Ma culture containing 10(7cfu/mL, orally and through immersion of the female's udder in lactation. The serological response was analyzed during vaccination days (0 and 21 and at 51, 81, 111, 141 and 171 days after vaccination. The collection and analysis of the challenged animals were conducted at the day of the challenge (D0 and 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days after the challenge. The three vaccines induced the production of antibodies, having no significant statistical difference (p<0.05. Animals from groups Gc1, Gc2 and Gov2 developed higher levels of antibodies, with significant statistical difference compared to the other vaccinated group and control group (p<0.05. After the challenge, the animals from the control presented an increase in regional lymph nodes and conjunctivitis, mastitis and arthritis. In four vaccinated animals, discrete conjunctivitis and congestion of the episcleral veins was observed. It is concluded that vaccines 1 and 2 induced levels of protective antibodies in goats and sheep, sufficient for clinical protection of the animals submitted to the experimental infection, indicating its use on the prevention of contagious agalactia.

  11. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    CERN Document Server

    Christakis, Nicholas A

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. Individuals at the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner, on average, than those at the periphery. However, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals whom to monitor is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students divided between a random group and a friend group. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 14.7 days (95% C.I. 11.7-17.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significa...

  12. Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Campbell

    Full Text Available Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup over people seen as different (outgroup, even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in response to watching ingroup members yawn than outgroup. Twenty-three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes from two separate groups watched videos of familiar and unfamiliar individuals yawning or at rest (control. The chimpanzees yawned more when watching the familiar yawns than the familiar control or the unfamiliar yawns, demonstrating an ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning. These results provide further empirical support that contagious yawning is a measure of empathy, which may be useful for evolutionary biology and mental health.

  13. Contagious epididymitis due to Brucella ovis: relationship between sexual function, serology and bacterial shedding in semen.

    OpenAIRE

    Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Berthelot, Xavier; Champion, Jean Luc; Eon, Laure; Lyazrhi, Faouzi; Marois, Maxime; Peglion, Marceline; Schuster, Aude; Trouche, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Background Contagious Epididymitis (CE) due to Brucella ovis (B. ovis) is a contagious disease that impairs rams’ fertility due to epididymis, testicle and accessory sexual gland alterations. An increased incidence of CE has been observed in South Eastern France (“PACA” region) since the Rev.1 vaccination against B. melitensis has been stopped in 2008. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the infection by B. ovis and the sexual function of rams. Two-hundred eig...

  14. Catch the wave: prairie dogs assess neighbours’ awareness using contagious displays

    OpenAIRE

    Hare, James F.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Senkiw, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The jump–yip display of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is contagious, spreading through a prairie dog town as ‘the wave’ through a stadium. Because contagious communication in primates serves to assess conspecific social awareness, we investigated whether instigators of jump–yip bouts adjusted their behaviour relative to the response of conspecifics recruited to display bouts. Increased responsiveness of neighbouring town members resulted in bout initiators devoting a signif...

  15. Epidemiological survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mali is a major producer of livestock, which plays a predominant role in the economy of the country. It brings about 10% of the GDP, 15% of export incomes and constitutes the main source of incomes for the 30% of the national population. Now that rinderpest is controlled, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) remains the most important infectious disease of cattle not only in Mali, but in most tropical African countries causing great economic losses including mortality, loss of weight, reduced working ability, reduced fertility and indirect costs due to control programs. The disease is characterized by a severe fibrinous exudative pleuropneumonia and is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmCS). It is considered a priority disease by the Office of International Epizootie (OIE), the Pan-African Program for the control of epizootics (PACE) and the FAO-Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal Diseases (FAOEMPRES). All these Institutions have recognized that the lack of information concerning the prevalence and the economic impact of the disease is an obstacle to implement any efficient program for its control in Africa. Therefore, research must be conducted in order to generate accurate data on the incidence and distribution of the disease before any appropriate coordinated control program can be defined for this continent. The present epidemiological study was conducted with the aim of studying the seroprevalence of the disease among cattle in Mali, its geographical distribution and its economical impacts. Serum samples collected from 8000 cattle in different parts of the country were tested for MmmSC specific antibody by the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and the complement fixation test (CFT). In parallel, data of CBPP cases for the past 10 years and the economic impact of the disease, including production losses and control costs were evaluated. The preliminary results of this study will be presented here. (author)

  16. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance by many clinically important bacteria can be traced to horizontal gene transfer (HGT between related or evolutionarily distant microflora. Comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT DNA in emerging pathogens. We have adapted the multi-genome alignment tool EvoPrinter to facilitate discovery of HGT DNA sequences within bacterial genomes and within their mobile genetic elements. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EvoPrinter analysis of 13 different Staphylococcus aureus genomes revealed that one of the human isolates, the hospital epidemic methicillin-resistant MRSA252 strain, uniquely shares multiple putative HGT DNA sequences with different causative agents of bovine mastitis that are not found in the other human S. aureus isolates. MRSA252 shares over 14 different DNA sequence blocks with the bovine mastitis ET3 S. aureus strain RF122, and many of the HGT DNAs encode virulence factors. EvoPrinter analysis of the MRSA252 chromosome also uncovered virulence-factor encoding HGT events with the genome of Listeria monocytogenes and a Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated plasmid. Both bacteria are also causal agents of contagious bovine mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: EvoPrinter analysis reveals that the human MRSA252 strain uniquely shares multiple DNA sequence blocks with different causative agents of bovine mastitis, suggesting that HGT events may be occurring between these pathogens. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that inadvertently enhance the contact of human and livestock bacterial pathogens.

  17. Reversible epigenetic down-regulation of MHC molecules by devil facial tumour disease illustrates immune escape by a contagious cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kreiss, Alexandre; Tovar, Cesar;

    2013-01-01

    Contagious cancers that pass between individuals as an infectious cell line are highly unusual pathogens. Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is one such contagious cancer that emerged 16 y ago and is driving the Tasmanian devil to extinction. As both a pathogen and an allograft, DFTD cells should...

  18. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, A.; Sebanz, N.; Mandl, I.; Huber, L.

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between percept

  19. High Court Rules that Law Bars Bias against Persons with Contagious Ills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    The Supreme Court has ruled that Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which protects disabled people from discrimination, covers persons with contagious diseases. This decision is seen as strengthening the rights of people suffering from AIDS as well as other diseases. (MSE)

  20. Catch It If You Can: How Contagious Motivation Improves Group Projects and Course Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Anjala S.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a theory-based contagious motivation model focusing on enhancing student perceptions of group projects and ultimately course satisfaction. Moreover, drawing from both pedagogical and organizational behavior literatures, a model is presented that ties together intrinsic motivation theory with social contagion and…

  1. SPATIAL CONTAGIOUSNESS OF CANOPY DISTURBANCE IN TROPICAL RAIN FOREST : AN INDIVIDUAL-TREE-BASED TEST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Patrick A.; Van Der Meer, Peter J.; Bongers, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Spatial contagiousness of canopy dynamics-the tendency of canopy disturbances to occur nearby existing canopy openings due to an elevated risk of tree fall around gaps-has been demonstrated in many temperate-zone forests, but only inferentially for tropical forests. Hypothesized mechanisms increasin

  2. A theory and dynamic model of dyadic interaction : Concerns, appraisals, and contagiousness in a developmental context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2007-01-01

    A theory of the dynamics of dyadic interaction is presented, based on the concepts of "concern" (i.e., intentions, goals, and interests), "appraisal" and "contagiousness". Differences between children who participate in a specific interaction are linked to differences in social competence and social

  3. Lifting the veil of ignorance : An experiment on the contagiousness of norm violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek; Rauhut, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Norm violations can be contagious. Previous research analyzed two mechanisms of why knowledge about others’ norm violations triggers its spread: (1) actors lower their subjective beliefs about the probability or severity of punishment or (2) they condition their compliance on others’ compliance. Whi

  4. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy t

  5. Modeling the Effect of Herd Immunity and Contagiousness in Mitigating a Smallpox Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeden, Ellie; Fielding, Russel; Steinhouse, Kyle E; Rubin, Ilan N

    2015-07-01

    The smallpox antiviral tecovirimat has recently been purchased by the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile. Given significant uncertainty regarding both the contagiousness of smallpox in a contemporary outbreak and the efficiency of a mass vaccination campaign, vaccine prophylaxis alone may be unable to control a smallpox outbreak following a bioterror attack. Here, we present the results of a compartmental epidemiological model that identifies conditions under which tecovirimat is required to curtail the epidemic by exploring how the interaction between contagiousness and prophylaxis coverage of the affected population affects the ability of the public health response to control a large-scale smallpox outbreak. Each parameter value in the model is based on published empirical data. We describe contagiousness parametrically using a novel method of distributing an assumed R-value over the disease course based on the relative rates of daily viral shedding from human and animal studies of cognate orthopoxvirus infections. Our results suggest that vaccination prophylaxis is sufficient to control the outbreak when caused either by a minimally contagious virus or when a very high percentage of the population receives prophylaxis. As vaccination coverage of the affected population decreases below 70%, vaccine prophylaxis alone is progressively less capable of controlling outbreaks, even those caused by a less contagious virus (R0 less than 4). In these scenarios, tecovirimat treatment is required to control the outbreak (total number of cases under an order of magnitude more than the number of initial infections). The first study to determine the relative importance of smallpox prophylaxis and treatment under a range of highly uncertain epidemiological parameters, this work provides public health decision-makers with an evidence-based guide for responding to a large-scale smallpox outbreak.

  6. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-04-01

    What, then, is Cook when he is displaced from ‘western’ history and spread around cultures like a virus? How precarious or robust, then, are the historical certainties associated with Cook-monumentalised Kurnell and its place in time as ‘the birthplace of modern Australia’?

  7. Contagious Deposition of Seeds in Spider Monkeys' Sleeping Trees Limits Effective Seed Dispersal in Fragmented Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo González-Zamora; Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez; Federico Escobar; Matthias Rös; Ken Oyama; Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Colin A Chapman

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rai...

  8. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    OpenAIRE

    Anna WILKINSON, Natalie SEBANZ, Isabella MANDL, Ludwig HUBER

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between perception and action or that it is the result of empathy, involving the ability to engage in mental state attribution. This set of experiments sought to distinguish between these hypotheses by examining ...

  9. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of a highly contagious disease in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Camitz, Martin; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Travel restrictions may reduce the spread of a contagious disease that threatens public health. In this study we investigate what effect different levels of travel restrictions may have on the speed and geographical spread of an outbreak of a disease similar to SARS. We use a stochastic simulation model of the Swedish population, calibrated with survey data of travel patterns between municipalities in Sweden collected over three years. We find that a ban on journeys longer than 50 km drastica...

  10. Improved diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) by standard serological techniques and DNA amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to improve the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Botswana by the implementation and establishment of the OIE standard complement fixation test (CFT) method, and to demonstrate a diagnostic system in a 96 well format coupled with a colorimetric detection of the PCR amplified product suitable for moderate to high sample numbers for the detection of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides SC (MmmSC) from nasal swabs, lung tissue and cultures

  11. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maccari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Contagious parthenogenesis—a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring—is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model.

  12. A Rational Approach to Estimating the Surgical Demand Elasticity Needed to Guide Manpower Reallocation during Contagious Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao-Mei Tsao; Ying-Chou Sun; Der-Ming Liou

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging infectious diseases continue to pose serious threats to global public health. So far, however, few published study has addressed the need for manpower reallocation needed in hospitals when such a serious contagious outbreak occurs. Aim To quantify the demand elasticity of the major surgery types in order to guide future manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks. Materials and Methods Based on a nationwide research database in Taiwan, we extracted the monthly volume...

  13. The costs of preventive activities for exotic contagious diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated...... to clean lorries immediately after transportation of live animals. The distribution of costs between stakeholders was estimated to be as follows: pig industry 63%, cattle industry 27%, and the public authorities 10%. Most of the activities focused on reducing the probability of spreading FMD/SF, while only...... by the pig and cattle industries, respectively. Data were retrieved from multiple sources such as databases, legal documents, official statistics, yearly reports and expert opinions. As no previous studies have assessed such costs, data collection and estimation procedures were discussed and decided upon...

  14. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WILKINSON, Natalie SEBANZ, Isabella MANDL, Ludwig HUBER

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between perception and action or that it is the result of empathy, involving the ability to engage in mental state attribution. This set of experiments sought to distinguish between these hypotheses by examining contagious yawning in a species that is unlikely to show nonconscious mimicry and empathy but does respond to social stimuli: the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria. A demonstrator tortoise was conditioned to yawn when presented with a red square-shaped stimulus. Observer tortoises were exposed to three conditions: observation of conditioned yawn, non demonstration control, and stimulus only control. We measured the number of yawns for each observer animal in each condition. There was no difference between conditions. Experiment 2 therefore increased the number of conditioned yawns presented. Again, there was no significant difference between conditions. It seemed plausible that the tortoises did not view the conditioned yawn as a real yawn and therefore a final experiment was run using video recorded stimuli. The observer tortoises were presented with three conditions: real yawn, conditioned yawns and empty background. Again there was no significant difference between conditions. We therefore conclude that the red-footed tortoise does not yawn in response to observing a conspecific yawn. This suggests that contagious yawning is not the result of a fixed action pattern but may involve more complex social processes [Current Zoology 57 (4: 477–484, 2011].

  15. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Cebrian, Manuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks.

  16. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Garcia-Herranz

    Full Text Available Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks.

  17. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA, a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA, have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease.

  18. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; de Farias, Francisca Lucélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%), three (3.2%) with hepatitis C, two (2.2%) with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers. PMID:26771625

  19. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourits, M C M; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Huirne, R B M

    2010-09-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy that best meets all of the conflicting interests. The presented application focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies to control Classical Swine Fever (CSF) epidemics within the European Union (EU) according to the preferences of the European Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO). The performed analysis was centred on the three high-level objectives of epidemiology, economics and social ethics. The appraised control alternatives consisted of the EU compulsory control strategy, a pre-emptive slaughter strategy, a protective vaccination strategy and a suppressive vaccination strategy. Using averaged preference weights of the elicited CVOs, the preference ranking of the control alternatives was determined for six EU regions. The obtained results emphasized the need for EU region-specific control. Individual CVOs differed in their views on the relative importance of the various (sub)criteria by which the performance of the alternatives were judged. Nevertheless, the individual rankings of the control alternatives within a region appeared surprisingly similar. Based on the results of the described application it was concluded that the structuring feature of the MCDM technique provides a suitable tool in assisting the complex decision making process of controlling contagious animal diseases.

  20. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%, three (3.2% with hepatitis C, two (2.2% with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers.

  1. A generic model of contagious disease and its application to human-to-human transmission of avian influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.

    2007-03-01

    Modeling contagious diseases has taken on greater importance over the past several years as diseases such as SARS and avian influenza have raised concern about worldwide pandemics. Most models developed to consider projected outbreaks have been specific to a single disease. This paper describes a generic System Dynamics contagious disease model and its application to human-to-human transmission of a mutant version of avian influenza. The model offers the option of calculating rates of new infections over time based either on a fixed ''reproductive number'' that is traditional in contagious disease models or on contact rates for different sub-populations and likelihood of transmission per contact. The paper reports on results with various types of interventions. These results suggest the potential importance of contact tracing, limited quarantine, and targeted vaccination strategies as methods for controlling outbreaks, especially when vaccine supplies may initially be limited and the efficacy of anti-viral drugs uncertain.

  2. Contagious Fire? An Empirical Assessment of the Problem of Multi-Shooter, Multi-Shot Deadly Force Incidents in Police Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael D.; Klinger, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent police shootings in which multiple officers fired numerous rounds at suspects have led some observers to assert that such situations involve "contagious fire," where an initial officer's shots launch a cascade of gunfire from other officers present. Although there is anecdotal recognition of the contagious fire phenomenon among police and…

  3. Impact of degree truncation on the spread of a contagious process on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Harling, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how person-to-person contagious processes spread through a population requires accurate information on connections between population members. However, such connectivity data, when collected via interview, is often incomplete due to partial recall, respondent fatigue or study design, e.g., fixed choice designs (FCD) truncate out-degree by limiting the number of contacts each respondent can report. Past research has shown how FCD truncation affects network properties, but its implications for predicted speed and size of spreading processes remain largely unexplored. To study the impact of degree truncation on spreading processes, we generated collections of synthetic networks containing specific properties (degree distribution, degree-assortativity, clustering), and also used empirical social network data from 75 villages in Karnataka, India. We simulated FCD using various truncation thresholds and ran a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) process on each network. We found that spreading proce...

  4. Evaluation of the xerovac process for the preparation of heat tolerant contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litamoi, J K; Ayelet, G; Rweyemamu, M M

    2005-04-01

    The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the xerovac process as a method for preparing contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine with increased heat resistance. The thermo-protective effects of various concentrations of trehalose in mycoplasma growth medium, various concentrations of trehalose in the dehydration stabilizer and the importance of some divalent cations were assessed. The results obtained indicate that a rapid dehydration of CBPP vaccine following the xerovac method and in an excipient composed of a high concentration of trehalose, renders the product more heat tolerant than a similar vaccine prepared using a regular or an extended freeze drying regime. It was also demonstrated that the addition of chitosan as a mycoplasma precipitating agent conferred additional heat resistance to the vaccine. It is suggested that the application of the xerovac process in the dehydration of CBPP vaccine offers the advantages of a faster, cheaper and easier process over the conventional dehydration methods like freeze drying.

  5. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of a highly contagious disease in Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Camitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Travel restrictions may reduce the spread of a contagious disease that threatens public health. In this study we investigate what effect different levels of travel restrictions may have on the speed and geographical spread of an outbreak of a disease similar to SARS. We use a stochastic simulation model of the Swedish population, calibrated with survey data of travel patterns between municipalities in Sweden collected over three years. We find that a ban on journeys longer than 50 km drastically reduces the speed and the geographical spread of outbreaks, even with when compliance is less than 100%. The result is found to be robust for different rates of inter-municipality transmission intensities. Travel restrictions may therefore be an effective way to mitigate the effect of a future outbreak.

  6. An observational investigation of behavioural contagion in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus: indications for contagious scent-marking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J.M. Massen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioural contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing and scent-marking. We coded these behaviours from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-minute observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday and afternoon to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns / hour and very little stretching behaviour. For all other behaviours, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, that almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviours in marmosets.

  7. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: A general framework for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-borde

  8. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  9. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE – Infectious, Contagious, Zoonotic or Production Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherr Marcus G

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1986, a new progressive neurological condition similar to scrapie of sheep and goats was recognised in cattle in the United Kingdom (UK, and was named bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. There is an ongoing discussion whether BSE should be classified as infectious, contagious, or zoonotic, and if it fits the definition of a production disease. The objective of this work is to briefly describe the main characteristics of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, to review the epidemiology of BSE, and to address the question of how to classify BSE. TSEs are characterised as chronic wasting diseases with spongiform vacuolation and the accumulation of infectious prion protein (PrPSc in the central nervous system. TSE infectivity is very difficult to inactivate. Cattle BSE most likely originated from sheep scrapie, although this will remain to be an issue for debate. The disease can be transmitted from cattle to a range of species, and has resulted in smaller TSE epidemics in domestic cats, zoo cats and zoo ruminants, and in humans. Transmission in the field occurred through feed containing ruminant-derived protein, and measures to prevent the recycling of infectivity have proven effective to reduce the number of new infections. Mandatory reporting of clinical suspects combined with targeted screening of risk populations is needed to assess the BSE status of a country. Infection studies and the transmissibility to other species classify BSE as infectious and zoonotic. Absence of excretion of the agent, and therefor of horizontal transmission, categorise BSE as non-contagious. However, BSE is a multifactorial infectious disease that is dependent on management factors (mainly feeding, and therefore fits into the broader definition of production diseases.

  10. Production and efficacy of an attenuated live vaccine against contagious ovine ecthyma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Pini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Contagious ecthyma is caused by the orf virus, a member of the family Poxviridae, genus Parapoxvirus. Morbidity in affected sheep flocks is approximately 100%, while mortality varies between 1% and 10%. A live attenuated vaccine was produced by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’. Quality control was performed in accordance with the European Pharmacopoeia. A wild virus strain was attenuated through serial passages on primary chicken embryo fibroblast tissue cultures. The virus suspension was treated according to standard procedures and freeze dried. The immunising dose was 1 ml containing 104,5TCID50, administered intramuscularly. The safety of the vaccine was successfully tested by intramuscular inoculation of 20 susceptible sheep and 20 lambs with the routine dose, 10 times the immunising dose and two normal doses administered at seven-day intervals. The efficacy of the vaccine was tested using three groups of susceptible animals. The first group included 10 lambs and the second 10 adult sheep; the animals were immunised intramuscularly with 1 ml of the reconstituted vaccine. The third group, used as controls, included five sheep and five lambs. Serological reactivity was monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The animals were challenged 30 days later with a pathogenic strain administered intradermally along the labial area. Vaccinated animals did not show any clinical signs of disease, whereas all the controls developed typical signs of contagious ecthyma. To confirm the efficacy of the vaccine, a field trial was conducted in four flocks affected by the disease. The trial showed that the vaccine was able to block the normal course of the disease and induce rapid recovery.

  11. Quantitative risk assessment of entry of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia through live cattle imported from northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woube, Yilkal Asfaw; Dibaba, Asseged Bogale; Tameru, Berhanu; Fite, Richard; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida; Demisse, Amsalu; Habtemariam, Tsegaye

    2015-11-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) bovine biotype (MmmSC). It has been eradicated from many countries; however, the disease persists in many parts of Africa and Asia. CBPP is one of the major trade-restricting diseases of cattle in Ethiopia. In this quantitative risk assessment the OIE concept of zoning was adopted to assess the entry of CBPP into an importing country when up to 280,000 live cattle are exported every year from the northwestern proposed disease free zone (DFZ) of Ethiopia. To estimate the level of risk, a six-tiered risk pathway (scenario tree) was developed, evidences collected and equations generated. The probability of occurrence of the hazard at each node was modelled as a probability distribution using Monte Carlo simulation (@RISK software) at 10,000 iterations to account for uncertainty and variability. The uncertainty and variability of data points surrounding the risk estimate were further quantified by sensitivity analysis. In this study a single animal destined for export from the northwestern DFZ of Ethiopia has a CBPP infection probability of 4.76×10(-6) (95% CI=7.25×10(-8) 1.92×10(-5)). The probability that at least one infected animal enters an importing country in one year is 0.53 (90% CI=0.042-0.97). The expected number of CBPP infected animals exported any given year is 1.28 (95% CI=0.021-5.42). According to the risk estimate, an average of 2.73×10(6) animals (90% CI=10,674-5.9×10(6)) must be exported to get the first infected case. By this account it would, on average, take 10.15 years (90% CI=0.24-23.18) for the first infected animal to be included in the consignment. Sensitivity analysis revealed that prevalence and vaccination had the highest impact on the uncertainty and variability of the overall risk.

  12. [Structural requirements for the management of patients with highly contagious life-threatening infectious diseases: update 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The care of highly contagious life-threatening infectious diseases (HLID) requires specialized treatment facilities that are capable of strict isolation measures and appropriate medical treatment. The German approach to the management of these diseases, which is maintained by the Permanent Working Group of Medical Competence and Treatment Centers for Highly Contagious and Life-Threatening Diseases (STAKOB) is adjusted in the present publication with regards to recent experiences and upcoming needs. Clear synergies in using infrastructures and bundling of resources have led to similar efforts at the European level. The German concept, therefore, has a pioneering role. This update is intended to improve professional patient care and also minimize the risk of disease spread and transmission.

  13. Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Olum, Moses; Attah-Poku, Samuel; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Wesonga, Hezron; Soi, Reuben; Naessens, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa. The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies, but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in this species. Our aim was to induce antibody responses to CPS in cattle, and challenge them when they had specific CPS antibody titres similar or higher than those from cattle vaccinated with the live vaccine. The CPS was linked to the carrier protein ovalbumin via a carbodiimide-mediated condensation with 1-ethyl-3(3-imethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Ten animals were immunized twice and challenged three weeks after the booster inoculation, and compared to a group of challenged non-immunized cattle. When administered subcutaneously to adult cattle, the vaccine elicited CPS-specific antibody responses with the same or a higher titre than animals vaccinated with the live vaccine. Pathology in the group of immunized animals was significantly reduced (57%) after challenge with Mmm strain Afadé compared to the non-immunized group, a figure in the range of the protection provided by the live vaccine. PMID:27496744

  14. The reproduction of borders and the contagiousness of illegalisation: A case of a Belgrade youth hostel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past couple of years, Serbia has become a transit country for the ever increasing number of migrants from Africa and Asia, travelling towards the EU. As part of the process of approaching the EU - first achieving the liberalisation of the visa regime for entry into the Schengen area in 2009 and then getting the official status of a candidate member in 2012 - Serbia needed to harmonise its policies with those of the EU, especially in the areas of border control and migration management. As a result, Serbia adopted a series of laws and policies which effectively illegalise migrants. In this paper, we first look into how migrant “illegality” is produced by Serbian migration legislation and policy, and second, we look at the consequences of this illegalisation. The first set of consequences are those that are felt by migrants themselves, as they are its principle target. The second set of consequences affects those persons that come into contact with the illegalised migrants. We speak of contagiousness of illegalisation, which affects those people who are providing professional services to illegalised persons. Under the treat of possible criminalisation, pressure is put on them to conduct “legality” checks and thus reproduce borders far away from the actual state border. We look particularly at reproduction of borders in the area of accommodation of migrants, taking as a case study a Belgrade youth hostel.

  15. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: a general framework for policy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-border collaboration is to retain the economic advantages of cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities while maintaining a low risk of highly contagious livestock diseases. From these two foci, possibilities for future policy making with respect to highly contagious livestock diseases are discussed: peacetime cross-border cooperation to improve the cost-effectiveness of routine veterinary measures and crisis time cross-border harmonization of current disease control strategies. A general disease management framework was used to describe the way in which these two fields are related to and affect the epidemiological system and, consequently, how they impact the stakeholders. In addition to this framework, the importance of a good understanding of influencing factors, that is, the production structure of livestock, was stressed because these factors are important determinants of the frequency and magnitude of highly contagious livestock diseases and their economic impact. The use of the suggested integrated approach was illustrated for the extended cross-border region of the Netherlands and Germany, that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. For this region, current difficulties in cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities and possibilities for future cross-border collaboration were examined. The concepts and ideas presented in this paper should foster future development of cross-border collaboration in animal health control. PMID:23066698

  16. An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Peyraud, Armelle; Poumarat, Francois; Tardy, Florence; Manso-Silvan, Lucia; Hamroev, Karomatullo; Tilloev, Tillo; Amirbekov, Mullojon; Tounkara, Karim; Bodjo, Charles; Wesonga, Hezron; Nkando, Isabel Gacheri; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Cardinale, Eric; Meenowa, Deodass

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the "mycoides cluster" frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prev...

  17. 约瑟芬.巴特勒与维多利亚时代废除《传染病法》运动%Josephine Butler and the Repeal Movement for the Contagious Diseases Acts in Victorian Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛利霞

    2015-01-01

    约瑟芬。巴特勒是维多利亚时代的女权运动先驱。为了废除针对社会下层女性的《传染病法》,她成立全国妇女协会并出任领导人,通过到处演讲、报刊发文、组织请愿等方式反对国家规范卖淫;她谴责《传染病法》违背道德、法律、歧视社会下层女性,主张提升女性的社会地位,为女性积极参与社会事务、争取男女平等提供了基础。%Josephine Butler was a pioneer in the feminist movement of the Victorian era.To repeal the Contagious Diseases Acts against the women of the lower classes, she founded and served as leader of the Ladies’ National Association for the Repeal for the Contagious Acts, against the state’ regulation of prostitution by the way of speaking everywhere, publishing essays on the press, spon-soring petitions the speech , etc.She condemned the Contagious Diseases Acts against morals and laws, discrimination for the women of the lower classes, while advocating to promotion of the social status of women .What she had done provided the basis for women to take part in social affairs and to fight for gender equality .

  18. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  19. Contagious deposition of seeds in spider monkeys' sleeping trees limits effective seed dispersal in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    Full Text Available The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS and three forest fragments (FF in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥ 5 mm (in length from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can 'force' spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines in fragmented landscapes.

  20. The use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaucourt, F; Bölske, G; Libeau, G; Le Goff, C; Lefèvre, P C

    1994-08-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a severe disease affecting goats in Eastern Africa and the Middle East, caused by Mycoplasma sp. type F38. Its exact geographical distribution is however not exactly known due to the lack of specificity of the available serological tests and the difficulty in cultivating M. sp. F38. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was produced, using crude or membrane proteins antigens from type F38 strains to immunize mice. The reactivity of the mAbs was tested by an immunobinding assay with crude mycoplasma antigens spotted on nitrocellulose filters. One hundred and twelve antigens, standardized at 0.5 mg protein/ml, were used. Mycoplasma strains were chosen among closely related species of the "mycoides cluster", M. capricolum, Group 7 of Leach, M. mycoides mycoides LC, M. mycoides mycoides SC, M. mycoides capri, as well as among species that are isolated from goat lungs, M. arginini, M. ovipneumoniae, M. putrefaciens, M. agalactiae. Out of 60 mAbs, 4 were chosen to build an identification test for mycoplasmas of the "mycoides cluster". Controls showed that accurate identification could be hampered by antigenic heterogeneity within the M. capricolum species. One mAb was used for the direct detection of M. sp. F38 antigen in pleural fluid from goats suspected of CCPP. The sensitivity of the test can be estimated at 0.5 micrograms protein/ml. Comparison with isolation results show a 74% agreement between the two methods. The same mAb was used to build a blocking ELISA. This serological test was strictly specific for CCPP. It detects antibodies in sera of naturally infected or artificially immunized animals while it remained negative with hyperimmune sera to related strains such as PG 50. Direct antigen detection and blocking ELISA are tools that may enable a better assessment of CCPP distribution.

  1. Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: a case study of Narok District of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Heffernan, Claire; Schnier, Christian; Kiara, Henry; Taracha, Evans; McKeever, Declan

    2013-07-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (pnature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p>0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI=43.6%), price was the least important (RI=0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95-100% safety, 2h to greater than 2h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be compensated or persuaded to accept biannual and private vaccination against CBPP. There is need for consideration of farmer preferences for

  2. A rational approach to estimating the surgical demand elasticity needed to guide manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Mei Tsao

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases continue to pose serious threats to global public health. So far, however, few published study has addressed the need for manpower reallocation needed in hospitals when such a serious contagious outbreak occurs.To quantify the demand elasticity of the major surgery types in order to guide future manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks.Based on a nationwide research database in Taiwan, we extracted the monthly volumes of major surgery types for the period 1998-2003, which covered the SARS period, in order to carry out a time series analysis. The demand elasticity of each surgery type was then estimated by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA analysis.During the study period, the surgical volumes of most selected surgery types either increased or remained steady. We categorized these surgery types into low-, moderate- and high-elastic groups according to their demand elasticity. Appendectomy, 'open reduction of fracture with internal fixation' and 'free skin graft' were in the low demand elasticity group. Transurethral prostatectomy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL were in the high demand elasticity group. The manpower of the departments carrying out the surgeries with low demand elasticity should be maintained during outbreaks. In contrast, departments in charge of surgeries mainly with high demand elasticity, like urology departments, may be in a position to have part of their staff reallocated.Taking advantage of the demand variation during the SARS period in 2003, we adopted the concept of demand elasticity and used a time series approach to figure out an effective index of demand elasticity for various types of surgery that could be used as a rational reference to carry out manpower reallocation during contagious outbreak situations.

  3. Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: a case study of Narok District of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Heffernan, Claire; Schnier, Christian; Kiara, Henry; Taracha, Evans; McKeever, Declan

    2013-07-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (pvaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p>0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI=43.6%), price was the least important (RI=0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95-100% safety, 2h to greater than 2h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be compensated or persuaded to accept

  4. An outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and post outbreak sero-surveillance in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was never reported in Eritrea for the last 20 to 30 years. A major incursion of CBPP was reported from illegally smuggled Raya Azebo type cattle from Ethiopia, introduced through the Southern Red Sea administrative region of Eritrea (the Afar area bordering Ethiopia). The first case was detected in the Asmara abattoir during post mortem inspection. Characteristic CBPP clinical signs and post-mortem lesions were observed in affected herd during the outbreak of the disease. Significant number of in-contact indigenous cattle was infected by the disease. Samples were first sent to OIE reference laboratory CIRADEMVT in France for confirmation. The disease was confirmed by PCR on 15 January 2003.Samples of Pleural fluids and lung tissues were collected from CBPP infected animals and tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The affected cattle herds were held in an isolation pen and eventually destroyed following confirmation of the disease. Following this incident, surveillance of CBPP was stepped-up and a total of 4,695 serum samples were collected from 313 sampling units or villages and submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory for testing in 2004 one year after the outbreak of the disease as part of the epidemiosurveillance. Serum samples collected for sero-surveillance were tested for CBPP antibodies by the use of the monoclonal antibody specific for Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides sc as described in the competitive ELISA kit manual from CIRAD-EMVT, France. During this post outbreak sero-surveillance sampling season, all age group animals were eligible for sampling. Out of the total sampled animals 67 (1.43%) were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides sc antibodies using the cELISA test. This result suggested that very low lateral infectious agent transmission could have taken place. Vaccination as a control measure had never

  5. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölske G

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact. Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response.

  6. The Creation of a Contagious H5N1 Influenza Virus: Implications for the Education of Life Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novossiolova, Tatyana; Minehata, Masamichi; Dando, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    The paper contends that the ongoing controversy surrounding the creation of a contagious H5N1 influenza virus has already exposed the severe limitations of the possibility of preventing the hostile misuse of the life sciences by dint of oversight of proposals and publications. It further argues that in order to prevent the potential wholesale militarisation of the life sciences, it is essential that life scientists become aware of their responsibilities within the context of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) and actively contribute their expertise to strengthening the biological weapons non-proliferation regime .

  7. The Creation of a Contagious H5N1 Influenza Virus: Implications for the Education of Life Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Novossiolova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 'The paper contends that the ongoing controversy surrounding the creation of a contagious H5N1 influenza virus has already exposed the severe limitations of the possibility of preventing the hostile misuse of the life sciences by dint of oversight of proposals and publications. It further argues that in order to prevent the potential wholesale militarisation of the life sciences, it is essential that life scientists become aware of their responsibilities within the context of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC and actively contribute their expertise to strengthening the biological weapons non-proliferation regime .'

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri to assess its genetic variability in a contagious agalactia endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Paterna, Ana; Corrales, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is one of the main causative agents of caprine contagious agalactia. Besides, the absence of accurate control methods eases its dispersion between different herds within endemic areas of this disease. In this context, there is a need to implement molecular typing schemes which offer valuable information useful to establish control measures and enables the surveillance of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variability of different strains of Mmc from a contagious agalactia endemic area through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For this purpose, five house-keeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA, rpoB) from 39 field isolates were analysed. These isolates were obtained from different geographic areas of Spain, between the years 2004 and 2015. The results obtained in this study suggest that the selected MLST scheme could be a useful technique to monitor the genetic variability of Mmc in endemic areas. Despite the significant differences found between the assessed field isolates, they could be classified according to their geographical origin. Moreover, it was also possible to detect genetic differences between Mmc strains coming from the same herd at the same sampling time, which may need to be taken into consideration when designing or arranging prophylactic strategies. PMID:27374908

  9. Benefits of lethal pandemics: direct impact of contagious diseases on public administration in Hungary (1867-1914).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palvolgyi, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    The reconciliation of 1867 between Austria and Hungary brought great changes to Hungarian public administration: the way towards the building up of a modern public administration had been opened. Although there was a functioning public health system and a related legislation from the late 18th century, major issues - such as balanced geographical distribution of medical personnel, fair access to medical services even in the poorer regions of the country, and the effective protection against some contagious diseases - were not resolved for decades. During the reform work of public administration since the 1870s, the lawmakers touched repeatedly the framework and functioning of the public health as well. Although the general conditions of the domain depended traditionally on the municipalities and counties due to the national importance of the matter, the government made efforts to make the functioning of the public health more efficient through centralisation. The contagious diseases continuously endangered the population, revealing the weak points in the existing public health system, thereby giving a momentum to the reforms and helping the government in its organization of prevention and clearly contributing to the legislation work.

  10. An abattoir survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia lesions in slaughtered cattle in selected districts in Northern Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Swai; Isidory Mwezimpya; Edward Ulicky; Adam Mbise; Winford Moshy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish and estimate incidence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), using abattoir survey as a diagnostic tool in slaughtered cattle in Northern Tanzania. Methods:A total of 4 460 cattle were slaughtered in five abattoirs in 3 northern zone regions (Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Tanga) during the period of January to May 2004. They were examined ante-mortem for ‘pneumonia signs’, and ‘characteristic contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) lung lesions’. Results: Forty-one (0.91%) of the slaughtered cattle, the majority of which were Tanzania short horn zebu, had gross lung lesions suggestive of CBPP. The prevalence of lesions was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Karatu abattoir compared to others. No animal was detected to have lesion in Bomang’ ombe abattoir. The most observed pneumonic signs included labored breathing (90%), dry cough (57%) and mucopurulent nasal discharge (47%). The gross characteristic CBPP pathological lesion, frequently encountered was left lung lesion (47%), pinkish lung (71%) and pleural adhesion (98%). Epidemiological reports show that the CBPP reported outbreaks increased from 19 in 2002, 65 in 2003 and 18 in 2004 (January-March). The corresponding number of reported deaths increased from 137 in 2002, 269 in 2003 and 77 in 2004 (January-March). Conclusions: It’s concluded from this study that CBPP is a problem in spite of the extensive awareness and vaccination campaigns. Nevertheless, a continued surveillance programme including routine checks of all cattle carcasses at the abattoir and subsequent epidemiological investigation of suspected cases are recommended.

  11. An abattoir survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia lesions in slaughtered cattle in selected districts in Northern Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel; Swai; Isidory; Mwezimpya; Edward; Ulicky; Adam; Mbise; Winford; Moshy

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish and estimate incidence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP),using abattoir survey as a diagnostic tool in slaughtered cattle in Northern Tanzania.Methods:A total of 4460 cattle were slaughtered in five abattoirs in 3 northern zone regions(Arusha,Kilimanjaro and Tanga)during the period of January to May 2004.They were examined ante-mortem for‘pneumonia signs’,and‘characteristic contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP)lung lesions’.Results:Forty-one(0.91%)of the slaughtered cattle,the majority of which were Tanzania short horn zebu,had gross lung lesions suggestive of CBPP.The prevalence of lesions was significantly(P<0.05)higher in Karatu abattoir compared to others.No animal was detected to have lesion in Bomang’ombe abattoir.The most observed pneumonic signs included labored breathing(90%),dry cough(57%)and mucopurulent nasal discharge(47%).The gross characteristic CBPP pathological lesion,frequently encountered was left lung lesion(47%),pinkish lung(71%)and pleural adhesion(98%).Epidemiological reports show that the CBPP reported outbreaks increased from 19 in 2002,65 in 2003 and 18 in 2004(January-March).The corresponding number of reported deaths increased from 137 in 2002,269 in 2003 and 77 in 2004(January-March).Conclusions:It’s concluded from this study that CBPP is a problem in spite of the extensive awareness and vaccination campaigns.Nevertheless,a continued surveillance programme including routine checks of all cattle carcasses at the abattoir and subsequent epidemiological investigation of suspected cases are recommended.

  12. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  13. Contagious Ecthyma, Rangiferine Brucellosis, and Lungworm Infection in a Muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) from the Canadian Arctic, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Matilde; Dalton, Chimoné; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank; Kafle, Pratap; Surujballi, Om; Turcotte, Claude; Checkley, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    An adult male muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ), harvested on 26 August 2014 on Victoria Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian Arctic, had proliferative dermatitis on the muzzle and fetlocks suggestive of contagious ecthyma or orf (Parapoxvirus). Histopathologic features of the lesions were consistent with this diagnosis. Orf virus DNA, phylogenetically similar to an isolate from a captive muskox of the Minnesota Zoo, US, was detected in the lesions by PCR using Parapoxvirus primers. Additionally, there was a metaphyseal abscess with a cortical fistula in the right metacarpus from which Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated and identification supported by PCR. Brucella spp. antibodies were detected in serum. Finally, 212 nodules were dissected from the lungs. Fecal analysis and lung examination demonstrated co-infection with the lungworms Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis. The zoonotic potential of orf and rangiferine brucellosis adds an important public health dimension to this case, particularly given that muskoxen are a valuable source of food for Arctic residents. Careful examination of these pathogens at a population level is needed as they may contribute to muskox population decline and potentially constitute a driver of food insecurity for local communities. This case underscores the importance of wildlife health surveillance as a management tool to conserve wildlife populations and maintain food security in subsistence-oriented communities. PMID:27285415

  14. Seroprevalence of contagious ecthyma in goats of Assam: An analysis by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mousumi; Bora, Durlav Prasad; Barman, Nagendra Nath; Borah, Biswajyoti; Das, Sutopa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to screen the prevalence of contagious ecthyma (CE) among the goat population of Assam owing to its high prevalence rate. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 231 serum samples were collected from 12 districts of Assam during September 2013 to July 2014. The serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against Orf virus (ORFV) by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Indirect ELISA was standardized using purified Orf reference virus produced in bulk in primary lamb testes cells. Results: Studies on seroprevalence showed 76.62% of goats were seropositive. The total number of animals were divided into different age groups starting from 0-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, and above 8 months and accordingly highest prevalence of antibodies against ORFV was recorded in the age-group above 8 months of age. Significantly, lower rates of infection were observed in goats of age group 2-4 months. This study recorded that seropositivity from naturally infected animals and in contact apparently healthy animals to be 53.67% and 46.32%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that CE is a prevalent infection in goats of Assam, and the healthy population is at increased risk of infection.

  15. Contagious agalactia due to Mycoplasma spp. in small dairy ruminants: epidemiology and prospects for diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Angel; Amores, Joaquín; Paterna, Ana; De la Fe, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Contagious agalactia (CA) is a serious disease of small dairy ruminants that has a substantial economic impact on the goat and sheep milk industries. The main aetiological agent of the disease is Mycoplasma agalactiae, although other species, such as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and Mycoplasma putrefaciens, are pathogenic in goats. There are two clinical-epidemiological states of CA in sheep and goats; herds and flocks may exhibit outbreaks of CA or may be chronically infected, the latter with a high incidence of subclinical mastitis and only occasional clinical cases. The complex epidemiology of CA is related to the genetic characteristics and mechanisms of molecular variation of the Mycoplasma spp. involved, along with presence of CA-mycoplasmas in wild ruminant species. In goats, the situation is particularly complex and asymptomatic carriers have been detected in chronically infected herds. The coexistence of other non-pathogenic mycoplasmas in the herd further complicates the diagnosis of CA and the design of efficient strategies to control the disease. Routes of infection, such as the venereal route, may be involved in the establishment of chronic infection in herds. Current challenges include the need for improved diagnostic methods for detection of chronic and subclinical infections and for the design of more efficient vaccines. PMID:23759248

  16. Prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in pastoral flocks of goats in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipronoh, Alexander Kipruto; Ombui, Jackson Nyarongi; Kiara, Henry Kimathi; Binepal, Yatinder Singh; Gitonga, Eric; Wesonga, Hezron Okwako

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted between the months of March 2014 and March 2015 to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goat populations in pastoral flocks in three sub-counties of the Rift Valley region. A total of 432 serum samples were collected from goats from 54 flocks and tested for the presence of antibodies against mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (mccp) using monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Sero-prevalence recorded for Turkana West was 63.9%, Kajiado Central was 48.6%, while Pokot East was 29.2% which was statistically significant (χ2 = 34.997; P = 0.000) in the study sites. The results of this study confirmed that CCPP is widespread and endemic in the pastoral production systems studied in the Rift Valley region. The results confirmed that regions sharing international boundaries are at a higher risk of CCPP hence the need for a unified cross-border approach to disease control measures in the border areas. PMID:26516086

  17. Presence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of contagious mastitis agents (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) isolated from milks of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    İKİZ, Serkan; BAŞARAN, Beren; BİNGÖL, Enver Barış; ÇETİN, Ömer; KAŞIKÇI, Güven; ÖZGÜR, Naciye Yakut; UÇMAK, Melih; Yilmaz, Özge; GÜNDÜZ, Mehmet Can; SABUNCU, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is recognized as one of the most important diseases affecting the dairy industry. The antibiotic susceptibility test is important to achieve accurate treatment in subclinical mastitis. This study was conducted to determine the presence of contagious mastitis agents (Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus) in 270 bovine milk samples collected from 132 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in 15 different dairy farms located in the Marmara Region of Turkey. A total of 256 ba...

  18. Is fertility contagious? Using panel data to disentangle mechanisms of social network influences on fertility decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lois, Daniel; Arránz Becker, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Using panel data (N = 1.679 married and cohabiting couples), this paper investigates the presence and causal mechanisms of social contagion processes regarding first births. Results confirmed the hypothesized positive association between the number of network members (friends, acquaintances, siblings) with young children and the respondents' transition rate into parenthood, particularly among younger couples. Several potential intervening mechanisms underlying this social contagion effect were tested. First, evidence was found for observational learning processes in which Ego obtained information on the joys and challenges of parenthood from network members with children. Second, childless respondents tended to feel pressured from couples with children in the network to start a family. Third, results supported the notion of social opportunity costs in that the anticipated loss of social ties after becoming a parent was more likely the fewer parents there were in the network. All three mechanisms exerted a positive impact on both fertility intentions and behavior. Panel regression models relying on intraindividual change scores showed that social learning was the most robust mechanism. An additional indirect test for causality suggested that the findings were unlikely to merely reflect parental status homophily (i.e., selection effects). PMID:26047547

  19. A large-scale genomic approach affords unprecedented resolution for the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary history of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Virginie; Verdier, Axel; Thiaucourt, François; Manso-Silván, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp), is a devastating disease of domestic goats and of some wild ungulate species. The disease is currently spreading in Africa and Asia and poses a serious threat to disease-free areas. A comprehensive view of the evolutionary history and dynamics of Mccp is essential to understand the epidemiology of CCPP. Yet, analysing the diversity of genetically monomorphic pathogens, such as Mccp, is complicated due to their low variability. In this study, the molecular epidemiology and evolution of CCPP was investigated using a large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies, applied to a sample of strains representing the global distribution of this disease. A highly discriminatory multigene typing system was developed, allowing the differentiation of 24 haplotypes among 25 Mccp strains distributed in six genotyping groups, which showed some correlation with geographic origin. A Bayesian approach was used to infer the first robust phylogeny of the species and to date the principal events of its evolutionary history. The emergence of Mccp was estimated only at about 270 years ago, which explains the low genetic diversity of this species despite its high mutation rate, evaluated at 1.3 × 10(-6) substitutions per site per year. Finally, plausible scenarios were proposed to elucidate the evolution and dynamics of CCPP in Asia and Africa, though limited by the paucity of Mccp strains, particularly in Asia. This study shows how combining large-scale genomic data with spatial and temporal data makes it possible to obtain a comprehensive view of the epidemiology of CCPP, a precondition for the development of improved disease surveillance and control measures. PMID:26149260

  20. Orf: contagious pustular dermatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, M

    2010-05-01

    Orf is a common viral infection in sheep. It spreads to humans by direct contact. It is self-limiting, treatment having no beneficial effect. Misdiagnosis by those unfamiliar with its characteristic features is common, and may result in unnecessary treatment with antibiotics or surgery. We present a series of five cases of Orf in children of farmers in the west of Ireland, seen over a 10 year period.

  1. [Disease in the cloisters: requests to leave Convento da Ajuda, Rio de Janeiro, for the treatment of contagious diseases, c.1750-1780].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, William de Souza

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the requests submitted by nuns from Convento da Ajuda (Ajuda Convent) to leave their life of enclosure to receive treatment for contagious diseases. Disease was one of the few cases in which nuns were granted permission to leave. The female orders were strictly cloistered in order to preserve their purity as virgins consecrated to Christ. Extant documents detail the causes of the diseases, the ways they were transmitted, and the treatments used to fight them. These processes shed light on the procedures adopted outside the cloisters so that the nuns did not jeopardize their reclusion and honor when they went to distant places in search of treatment. PMID:27438730

  2. Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, L Y; Fox, L K; Warf, C C; Kempt, G K

    2002-01-01

    Two acidified sodium chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants were evaluated for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by using National Mastitis Council experimental challenge procedures. The effect of these teat dips on teat skin and teat end condition was also determined. Both dips contained 0.32% sodium chlorite, 1.32% lactic, and 2.5% glycerin. Dips differed in the amount of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (0.53 or 0.27%) added as a surfactant. Both dips significantly reduced new intramammary infection (IMI) rates compared with undipped controls. The dip containing 0.53% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 72% and Strep. agalactiae by 75%. The dip containing 0.27% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 100% and by Strep. agalactiae by 88%. Changes in teat skin and teat end condition for treatment and control groups varied in parallel over time. Teats treated with either teat dip had higher mean teat skin and teat end scores than control teats at some weeks. However, teat skin and teat end condition did not tend to change from the start to the completion of the trial. Application of the two new postmilking teat dips was effective in reducing new IMI from contagious mastitis pathogens. (Key words: teat dip, contagious mastitis, chlorous acid) PMID:11860118

  3. Distribution of contagious and environmental mastitis agents isolated from milk samples collected from clinically health buffalo cows between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Maia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of clinically health quarters submitted to milking and also to observe the distribution of contagious and environmental agents between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year. During nine months 734 quarters from 37 buffalo cows were submitted monthly to udder inspection, palpation and strip cup test before milking. 734 asseptic milk samples were inoculated in 10% ovine blood agar and in MacConkey agar media, then incubated for 72 hours at 37oC. Among the 580 isolated microrganisms, 182 (31,38% were recovered from samples collected during the rainy season and 398 (68,62% from the dry season. In the rainy period the most prevalent agents were: bacteria from the genus Corynebacterium sp (53,30%, Staphylococcus sp (19,78% and Rhodococcus equi (13,74%. In the dry period, the commonest ones were: Corynebacterium sp (44,97%, Staphylococcus sp (18,84% and Micrococcus sp (9,55%. The results demonstrated that the methods used to select health quarters in brazilian dairy buffalo farms allow the transmission of contagious bacteria during both seasons of the year, maintaining Ital.J.Anim.Sci. vol. 6, (Suppl. 2, 896-899, 2007 897 VIII World Buffalo Congress agents known to cause mainly subclinical inflammatory reactions that compromise cronically the physiology and production of the mammary gland.

  4. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri associated with goat respiratory disease and high flock mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Laura; Lopez, Jose; St-Jacques, Marcel; Ontiveros, Lourdes; Acosta, Jorge; Handel, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    A high mortality outbreak of respiratory mycoplasmosis occurred in goats in Mexico. The clinicopathologic presentation resembled contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae. By using a battery of polymerase chain reaction assays, the mycoplasma associated with this outbreak was identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

  5. Blood discard rate and the prevalence of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Donizete Borelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: So that an improvement in the selection of donors can be achieved and the risk to the recipient of transfused blood can be reduced, prospective donors are submitted to clinical and serological screening. Objective: This study investigated the blood discard rate and the rate of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: This study was an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive investigation with a quantitative approach of donations between January and December 2011. Results: In the study period the Regional Blood center in Maringá, Brazil received 8337 blood donations from people living in the city and neighboring towns. However, 278 (3.33% donations were discarded during serological screening owing to one or more positive serological markers. A total of 46.4% of the discarded blood units were confirmed positive by serology with anti-HBc being the most common (66.7%, followed by syphilis (22.5%, HBsAg (4.7%, anti-hepatitis C virus (3.1%, human immunodeficiency virus (1.5% and Chagas' disease (1.5%. The rate of infectious-contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusions was 1.55% (129/8337 of the donor population with a frequency of 1.03% for anti-HBc and 0.35% for syphilis. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of the anti-HBc marker in prospective blood donors from provincial towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

  6. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma agalactiae by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR from affected sheep to Contagious agalactia of Khuzestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooladgar, A.R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma agalactiae (M. agalactiae is one of the main causes of contagious agalactia, an infectious syndrome of sheep and goats in Khuzestan province –southwest of Iran that is characterized by mastitis and subsequent failure of milk production, arthritis, abortion and keratoconjunctivitis. This study was carried out to isolation and identification of M. agalactiae with culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR method from sheep in Khuzestan province, Iran. A total of 91 samples were collected from milk secretion, eye, ear, nose and joint exudates of sheep. All samples were cultured in PPLO broth supplemented for isolation of M. agalaciae. Extraction of the DNA of bacteria was done by phenol/chloroform method and the PCR assay was applied for detection of Mycoplasma genus in 163bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene and M. agalactiae in 375bp fragment of lipoprotein gene from culture as same as in clinical samples. Out of the 91 samples, 34(37.36% cultures were shown positive and typical Mycoplasma colonies in PPLO agar culture diagnostic method and 47(51.65% were scored positive by Mycoplasma genus PCR, 8(8.79% of the samples were scored positive by using M. agalactiae PCR as diagnostic method. Out of the 91 samples, 26 samples were shown both positive in the culture and PCR, 5 samples were shown both positive in the culture, MPCR and MAPCR. 15 samples were negative in the culture and positive in PCR whereas only 3 samples were positive in culture and negative in PCR. The results showed that the more isolations of M. agalactiae were taken from eye and less in ear and nose samples. M. agalactiae was one of the main factors of contagious agalactia that was detected for the first time from sheep in Khuzestan province.

  7. Development of a Novel Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a Field-Applicable Lateral-Flow Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Martin; Gicheru, Nimmo; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Muriuki, Cecilia; Yu, Mingyan; Botelho, Ana; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg; Liljander, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, a bacterium belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the absence of an efficient CBPP vaccine, improved and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for recurrent testing combined with isolation and treatment of positive animals represent an option for CBPP control in Africa. Here we describe the comprehensive screening of 17 immunogenic Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides proteins using well-characterized bovine sera for the development of a novel cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for laboratory use. Two recombinant Mycoplasma immunogens, MSC_0136 and MSC_0636, were used to set up a standardized cocktail ELISA protocol. According to the results from more than 100 serum samples tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the novel cocktail ELISA were 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, with an overall diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-prescribed serological assays. In addition, we provide a proof of principle for a field-applicable, easy-to-use commercially produced prototype lateral-flow test for rapid (<30-min) diagnosis of CBPP.

  8. Development of a Novel Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a Field-Applicable Lateral-Flow Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Martin; Gicheru, Nimmo; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Muriuki, Cecilia; Yu, Mingyan; Botelho, Ana; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg; Liljander, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, a bacterium belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the absence of an efficient CBPP vaccine, improved and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for recurrent testing combined with isolation and treatment of positive animals represent an option for CBPP control in Africa. Here we describe the comprehensive screening of 17 immunogenic Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides proteins using well-characterized bovine sera for the development of a novel cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for laboratory use. Two recombinant Mycoplasma immunogens, MSC_0136 and MSC_0636, were used to set up a standardized cocktail ELISA protocol. According to the results from more than 100 serum samples tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the novel cocktail ELISA were 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, with an overall diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-prescribed serological assays. In addition, we provide a proof of principle for a field-applicable, easy-to-use commercially produced prototype lateral-flow test for rapid (<30-min) diagnosis of CBPP. PMID:27053669

  9. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Bölske G; Thiaucourt F; Wesonga HO; Wanjohi C; Lindberg R

    2004-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats w...

  10. 出疹性传染病的预防与控制措施%Investigation of the prevention and control measures of eruptive contagious disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海燕

    2015-01-01

    Eruptive contagious diseases is relatively complex and diversified.The medical personnel need to attach great importance to the differential diagnosis,early detection,diagnosed as soon as possible.Once diagnosed with infectious diseases,we must implemented the isolation measures as soon as possible,at the same time of ensure the symptomatic treatment of patients timely,to strictly control the spread outward in a short period of time.In this paper,through the analysis of the rash of infectious diseases,including the characteristics and prevention and control measures of hand foot mouth disease,chicken pox,measles, rubella,eczema,papular urticaria and other infectious diseases,puts forward the countermeasures on how to prevent and control,so as to safeguard the health of patients,improve the quality of life of residents.%出疹性传染病相对复杂多样化,在鉴别诊断时需要医护人员高度重视,及早发现、尽快诊断.一旦确诊为传染性疾病,必须尽快实施隔离措施,在保证对患者进行及时对症治疗的同时,短时间内严格控制向外传播.本文通过对出疹性传染病情况的分析,包括手足口病、水痘、麻疹、风疹、湿疹、丘疹性荨麻疹等传染病的特点以及防控措施,提出关于预防和控制的对策,从而保障患者的健康,提高居民的生活质量.

  11. First report on the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) in goats the cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Balochistan province of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Mohammad Arif; Abbas, Ferhat; Yasinzai, Masoom; Nicholas, Robin A J; Babar, Shakeel; Ayling, Roger D; Attique, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmed, Zafar; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Faisal Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) is a disease of goats which causes high morbidity and mortality and is reported in many countries of the world. There are probably no reports on the molecular prevalence of Mccp, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp) in Balochistan and any other part of Pakistan. Thirty goats (n = 30) with marked respiratory symptoms were selected and procured from forty goat flocks in Pishin district of Balochistan in 2008. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from the lung samples (n = 30) of the slaughtered goats was purified and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the presence of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster members and Mp. The PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was also used to further confirm the Mccp. Of the thirty lung samples 17 (56.67%) were positive for the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp and Mp. In total the molecular prevalence was observed as 17.65% for Mccp (n = 3), 70.59% for Mcc (n = 12) and 11.76% for Mp (n = 2). The RFLP profile has also validated the PCR results of Mccp by yielding two bands of 190 and 126 bp. The results of PCR-RFLP coupled with the presence of fibrinous pleuropneumonia and pleurisy during postmortem of goats (n = 3) strongly indicated the prevalence of CCPP in this part of world. Moreover the prevalence of Mcc and Mp is also alarming in the study area. We report for the very first time the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp, and Mp in the lung tissues of goats in the Pishin district of Balochistan, Pakistan.

  12. Development of an Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Seromonitoring Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Using Recombinant Lipoprotein LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides SC as Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Jiu-qing; GAO Yun-long; LI Yuan; WANG Yan-fan; QIAN Ai-dong

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides SC (MmmSC) is the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The lipoprotein LppQ encoded by lppQ gene is specific to MmmSC and is found in the type strain and in field strains isolated in Europe, Africa, and Australia, as well as in vaccine strains. No serological cross-reactions were observed with the related mycoplasmas of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. The N-terminal domain of the mature lipoprotein LppQ is hydrophilic, and it induces a strong, specific, early, and persistent immune response in naturally and experimentally infected animals. Mycoplasma-specific TGA (Trp) codons are utilized as stop codons in most other organisms. The lppQ N-terminal fragment from MmmSC HVRI Ⅹ strain, the Chinese strain for CF antigen production, was mutated with one-step overlapping extension PCR. Sequence analysis confirmed the successful mutation from A to G in codon 198 in the lppQ gene. The fragment containing the mutation site was subcloned into the pET32a expression vector. The recombinant protein with molecular weight of 42 kDa was purified using the Ni-NTA His.Bind purification kit, with a purity of up to 95%. Western blot indicated that the standard positive serum of CBPP could react with the recombinant protein. The purified protein was diluted to 0.35 μg mL-1, and coated to microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates. Indirect ELISA reaction conditions were optimized. The value of P/N was determined to be 4.8 (0.934/0.193), the sensitivity to be 95.8% (46/48), and the specificity to be 98.9% (161/163). 3 817 cattle serum samples from three different provinces were detected by the indirect ELISA and CFT. The Kappa value is 0.63, which is middle or high agreement between the two methods.

  13. Contagious agalactia by Mycoplasma agalactiae in small ruminants in Brazil: first report Agalaxia contagiosa por Mycoplasma agalactiae em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil: primeiro relato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisio Oliveira de Azevedo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of contagious agalactia by Mycoplasma agalactiae occurred in Paraíba State, Northeastern Region of Brazil are reported. The disease was characterized by mastitis, agalactia and polyarthritis in does and polyarthritis and conjunctivitis in kids and lambs. Fever and anorexia were also observed. Morbidy was from 26.1% to 100% in does, 36.5 to 100% in kids and 49% in lambs. In one farm 14.3% of the lactating goats and 6.4% of the kids died or were euthanized. In the other, 3.3% of the does, 36.5% of the kids and 22.9% of the lambs died and 84 affected goats were euthanized to control the disease. M. agalactiae was isolated from milk, joint exudates, nasal swabs and ear washings. The colonies were characteristic of Mycoplasma and the agent did not ferment both glucose and arginin. It was typed as Mycoplasma agalactiae by immunoperoxidase and PCR. This is the first report of M. agalactiae infection in Brazil, but the source of the infection remains unknown.Dois surtos de agalaxia contagiosa causada por Mycoplasma agalactiae são descritos no Estado da Paraíba, região Nordeste do Brasil. A doença caracterizou-se por mastite, agalaxia e poliartrite em cabras e poliartrite e cerato-conjuntivite em cabritos e cordeiros. Febre e anorexia também foram observadas. A morbidade variou de 26,1% a 100% nas cabras, 36,5% a 100% em cabritos e 49,0% em cordeiros. Na primeira fazenda, 14,3% das cabras em lactação e 6,4% dos cabritos morreram ou foram sacrificados. Na outra propriedade, 3,3% dos caprinos adultos, 36,5% dos cabritos e 22,9% dos cordeiros morreram e outros 84 caprinos foram sacrificados para controle da doença. M. agalactiae foi isolado a partir de leite, líquido articular, suabe nasal e lavado do conduto auditivo externo. Colônias características de Mycoplasma e que não fermentaram a glicose e arginina foram observadas. A identificação de M. agalactiae foi realizada por imunoperoxidase indireta e PCR. Sendo assim, M

  14. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Porcine Contagious Pleuropneumonia%猪传染性胸膜肺炎的实验室诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范国英; 朱忠珂; 钟华; 陈俊杰

    2011-01-01

    The biochemistry test and indirect hemagglutination test were used to check the samples and serum of pigs suspected as porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP) The results indicated that a suspected Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from the pig lung. It was Gram staining negative coccobacillus, and could not grow in ordinary nutrient agar and McConkey's agar. It could grow and form a opaque ocean grey, moist, smooth conoly with upheaval at surface in TSA plate;and the hemagglutination test was positive. It was confirmed that the isolated bacterium was Actinobacillus pleuropneurnoniae.12 blood samples were randomly selected and examined by PCP indirect hemagglutination assay kit. The results indicated that the positive ratio of PCP antibody was 8.3%. The result of susceptibility test indicated that sulfamonomethoxine sodium and long-acted Liqing were sensitive drugs.%采用生化试验、间接血凝试验对送检的疑似猪传染性胸膜肺炎病猪的病料及血清进行诊断和药敏试验.结果表明,从病猪肺脏中分离到1株疑似胸膜肺炎放线杆菌,其革兰氏染色为阴性球杆茵,在普通营养琼脂和麦康凯培养基上不能生长,在TSA平板上形成不透明的淡灰色、湿润、光滑、表面隆起的茵落,血凝试验为阳性,确定所分离菌为胸膜肺炎放线杆菌.同时对该猪群随机抽检12份血样,用猪胸膜肺炎间接血凝试剂盒检测胸膜肺炎抗体,其阳性率为8.3%.药教试验表明,磺胺间甲氧嘧啶钠和长效痢清为敏感药物.

  15. An analysis of the spread pattern of contagious diseases emerging in China from year 2008 to 2012%2008-2012年中国法定传染病的流行态势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婕; 袁静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the spread patterns and characteristics of contagious diseases emerging in China from year 2008 to 2012 and develop scientific prevention and control measures for countering the diseases.Method The data of contagious diseases emerging in China from year 2008 to 2012 were collected and analyzed.Findings 39 strains of diseases from Class A, B and C were reported during the five years.34,122,500 cases altogether had been identified during the years and the yearly incidence rate on average was 508.95/10 million.The incidence rate was found to keep increasing.The five most infectious diseases were viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacillary and amebic dysentery, and gonorrhea. Conclusion The incidence of contagious diseases in China kept increasing over the past five years.The countermeasures for preventing and controlling the contagious diseases should be strengthened.%目的:了解中国2008-2012年传染病发病特点和流行趋势,为制定防制措施提供依据。方法收集2008-2012年中国法定传染病疫情资料,对流行病学情况进行分析。结果5年间共报告甲乙丙类传染病39种,累计发病3412.25万例,年平均发病率为508.95/10万;5年间发病率、死亡率均呈上升趋势(均P<0.001);年发病率居于前5位的为病毒性肝炎、肺结核、梅毒、细菌性和阿米巴性痢疾、淋病。结论近五年来,中国传染病发病率总体呈上升趋势,应加强对传染病的防控。

  16. Características clínicas e epidemiológicas do adulto contagiante da criança com tuberculose Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of contagious adult of tuberculosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João AB Lima

    2004-06-01

    of cohabitation with a contagious adult. OBJECTIVE: To create a profile of a typical adult with contagious tuberculosis (as identified through the public health system living with a child who has been diagnosed with tuberculosis. METHOD: Case study. Children younger than 14 years of age who were diagnosed with tuberculosis were included. Parents were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Means and standard deviations were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Fisher's exact test or the Dz test was used for comparisons. RESULTS: Fifty children, representing 96% of those diagnosed with tuberculosis in the Porto Alegre health care system between July 20, 2001 and August 10, 2002, were included. The mean age was 76 months, and 60% were girls. The classic forms of pulmonary presentation (consolidation or cavitation were seen in 38%. The majority of the children were diagnosed in the hospital and came from homes in which there were (a mean of 6 cohabitants and a total family income less than 2 times the local minimum wage. Using ELISA, HIV co-infection was identified in 25% (although not all were tested. The children regularly visited places other than their homes. In 78% of cases, the contagious adult was identified. These contagious adults were mostly males (56%, and the mean age was 32. In most cases (79%, the contagious adult was a relative, usually a parent. Within this group of adults with contagious tuberculosis, HIV co-infection was identified in 43% of those tested. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with contagious tuberculosis living in the home continue to be the most likely source of tuberculosis infection in children. Co-infection with HIV in these pediatric patients, as well as in the cohabiting adults with contagious tuberculosis, is a significant finding. It must be emphasized that the possibility of contact with contagious individuals in the home should be explored in every diagnosed case of pediatric tuberculosis.

  17. Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis associated with textile dye at an unusual location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kevser Uzunçakmak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis (LCD is a rare variant of noneczematous allergic contact dermatitis, which can mimick parapsoriasis or early-stage mycosis fungoides with its atypical clinical and histopathological manifestation. Many different haptens have been reported to be associated with this reaction. Histopathological examination, immunhistochemistry, clonality tests, and patch tests are mandatory for diagnosis and differential diagnosis. We present a 48-year-old male with a four years history of a relapsing erythematous plaque on the glans penis. Topical corticosteroids had been prescribed but he complained of relapse upon withdrawal. Histopathological examination was consistent with LCD. Thin layer rapid use epicutaneous patch test result was (++ for disperse blue and nickel sulfate. We present this case because of its rarity and unusual localization. This kind of allergic contact dermatitis should be remembered in differential diagnosis of nonspesific pruritic plaques over the genital region.

  18. Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis associated with textile dye at an unusual location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunçakmak, Tuğba Kevser; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Türkoğlu, Zafer; Zemheri, Ebru Itır; Ka Radağ, Ayşe Serap

    2015-12-01

    Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis (LCD) is a rare variant of noneczematous allergic contact dermatitis, which can mimick parapsoriasis or early-stage mycosis fungoides with its atypical clinical and histopathological manifestation. Many different haptens have been reported to be associated with this reaction. Histopathological examination, immunhistochemistry, clonality tests, and patch tests are mandatory for diagnosis and differential diagnosis. We present a 48-year-old male with a four years history of a relapsing erythematous plaque on the glans penis. Topical corticosteroids had been prescribed but he complained of relapse upon withdrawal. Histopathological examination was consistent with LCD. Thin layer rapid use epicutaneous patch test result was (++) for disperse blue and nickel sulfate. We present this case because of its rarity and unusual localization. This kind of allergic contact dermatitis should be remembered in differential diagnosis of nonspesific pruritic plaques over the genital region. PMID:26904444

  19. Echovirus 4 associated to hand, foot and mouth disease Echovirus 4 associado à doença de mão, pé e boca

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Hage Russo; Adriana Luchs; Bráulio Caetano Machado; Rita de Cássia Carmona; Maria do Carmo Sampaio Timenetsky

    2006-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral infection occurring primarily in children and characterized by vesicular palmoplantar eruptions and erosive stomatitis. Echovirus 4 (EV-4) has been commonly associated with aseptic meningitis. The association of HFMD with EV-4 has not been reported previously. Two samples of a 14-month child who presented mild fever, sores in the mouth, rash with blisters on the palm of hands and soles of feet were sent to Enteric Viruses Laborat...

  20. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. PMID:22830565

  1. Analysis on the Financial Crisis Contagious Path with Hierarchical Conditional Copula%基于分层条件Copula的金融危机传染路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜子平; 高立宝

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposes a hierarchical conditional Copula to study financial crisis contagious path. By modeling daily st-ock Indexes returns of every financial market with t-GARCH(1,1) in the research, the paper analyzes financial contagion relation-ships among Chinese, American, English, Japanese, taiwan's and Hong Kong stock market in the interval from Jan 2005 to July 2012. The empirical study shows that: the crisis was contaminated from American stock market to Hong Kong stock market , and then from Hong Kong stock market to other Asian stock markets in the sub-prime debt crisis. While in the European debt period , the crisis was contaminated form English stock market to Hong Kong stock market and American stock market , and then from Hong Kong stock market to other Asian stock market. Hong Kong stock market is the media to contaminate Asian stock markets in the financial crisis, it makes that we should pay more attention to Hong Kong stock market in policy formulation, control it in the contagious period and lesson the impact to our financial system.%本文采用分层条件Copula理论来研究次贷危机和欧债危机下的危机传染路径问题。在研究中采用t-GARCH (1,1)模型拟合各个金融市场的股指日收益率,以条件Copula分析两次危机下中国大陆股市与美国股市、英国股市、日本股市、台湾股市、香港股市2005年1月至2012年7月间的风险传染关系。实证研究表明:次贷危机期间美国股票市场将危机传染到香港股票市场,再由香港股票市场传染其他亚洲股票市场。而在欧债危机期间英国股票市场分别直接传染美国股票市场和香港股票市场,再通过香港股票市场对其他亚洲股票市场传染。两次危机下香港股票市场均是亚洲股票市场受到危机传染的媒介,因此我国在制定防范金融危机传染政策时应考虑对香港股票市场的控制,在传播层面上控制金融危机对我国的传染,

  2. 传染病医院医务人员职业暴露原因及防护对策%The cause and prevention on occupational exposure of medical personnel in contagious hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新丽; 刘卫华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause and prevention measures to occupational exposure of doctors and nurses in contagious hospital. Methods A statistics of“report card of occupational exposure on medical personnel” was made from January 2009 to October 2013 in our hospital. The reasons of occupational exposure to blood-borne diseases have been analyzed from the data. So the preventive actions were suggested. Results Total of 13 exposure cases to blood-borne diseases had been found in doctors and nurses. There were 11 (84.6%) cases of them were needle injury, one (7.7%) case was skin exposure and one (7.7%) case was mucosal exposure. Most cases (84.6%) of the personnel were nurses, others were technicians (15.4%). Among all the cases, 9 of them were exposure to HIV, 2 cases were to hepatitis C and one was to hepatitis B. In all these cases, 9 cases had been given access to medicine. There were 6 cases had used the drugs for HIV prevention. The whole process follow up to the 13 cases showed that no one has been injured from occupational exposure. Conclusions There were certain risks to occupational exposure in doctors and nurses, especially the exposure to blood-borne diseases in contagious hospital. Preventive actions, including the better training on medical personnel to occupational exposure, making the specification operation, correcting the defect on operation skills, replacing effectively protective equipment in time, are all important measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure.%目的:分析传染病医院医务人员发生职业暴露的原因并制定相应的防护对策。方法通过调查和整理本院2009年1月至2013年10月上报院感科的《医务人员职业暴露报告卡》资料,对医务人员发生血液传播性疾病职业暴露的相关因素进行分析,提出针对性的防护措施。结果本研究共发生血液传播性疾病职业暴露13人,其中针刺伤11人(84.6%)、皮肤暴露1人(7.7%

  3. Ectima contagioso em ovinos e caprinos no semi-árido da Paraíba Contagious echtyma in sheep and goats in the semiarid of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandui E. Nóbrega Jr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se dez surtos de ectima contagioso em caprinos e dois em ovinos no semi-árido da Paraíba. Os animais jovens foram os mais afetados, mas em oito surtos animais adultos também foram afetados, principalmente cabras lactantes que apresentavam lesões no úbere. Em nenhum dos rebanhos afetados havia antecedentes de vacinação contra ectima contagioso. Histologicamente a epiderme apresentava acantose com hiperplasia pseudoepiteliomatosa e com múltiplos focos de degeneração hidrópica formando vesículas ou pústulas. Inclusões intracitoplasmáticas eosinofílicas foram observadas em queratinócitos. Havia restos celulares necróticos formando crostas, hiperqueratose e microabscessos intracorneais ou extensas áreas ulceradas. Na derme observou-se infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear difuso. Também foi registrado um caso humano em um pesquisador que tinha administrado planta por via oral a um caprino que, posteriormente, apresentou lesões de ectima contagioso. Neste caso, também foram observadas lesões características em uma biopsia e o vírus foi identificado por microscopia eletrônica. Conclui-se que a doença é endêmica no semi-árido e que é necessária a vacinação sistemática dos rebanhos para diminuir os prejuízos econômicos causados pela mesma. A utilização de luvas para o manuseio de animais afetados é necessária para evitar casos humanos da enfermidade.Ten outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in goats and two in sheep in the semiarid of Paraíba State are reported. Young animals were more frequently affected, but in 8 outbreaks adult animals were also affected, mainly lactating goats which developed udder lesions. None of the affected flocks had been vaccinated. Upon histologic examination the epidermis showed acanthosis with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and multifocal ballooning degeneration forming vesicles or pustules. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in keratinocytes. Crust of necrotic cells

  4. The costs of preventive activities for exotic contagious diseases-A Danish case study of foot and mouth disease and swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette; Houe, Hans; Mortensen, Sten; Rattenborg, Erik; Tamstorf, Trine Vig; Zobbe, Henrik; Christensen, Tove

    2016-09-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the costs of preventive activities, currently undertaken in Denmark, related to foot and mouth disease (FMD) and classical and African swine fever (SF). Only costs held between outbreaks were included. Costs were divided into public costs and costs paid by the pig and cattle industries, respectively. Data were retrieved from multiple sources such as databases, legal documents, official statistics, yearly reports and expert opinions. As no previous studies have assessed such costs, data collection and estimation procedures were discussed and decided upon in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated in the analysis by assuming that the FMD/SF shares of costs as well as total costs for each activity could take on a most likely as well as a minimum and maximum value. A high degree of transparency was prioritized in the cost analysis, which enables reproducibility and easy access to conducting sensitivity analyses. A total of 27 FMD/SF preventive activities were identified. The estimated median (minimum-maximum) of total costs amounted to €32 (18-50) million in 2013. The single most costly FMD/SF related activity, amounting to €8 (5-13) million or 26% of total costs, was a national legal requirement to clean lorries immediately after transportation of live animals. The distribution of costs between stakeholders was estimated to be as follows: pig industry 63%, cattle industry 27%, and the public authorities 10%. Most of the activities focused on reducing the probability of spreading FMD/SF, while only a few activities were directed mainly towards reducing the probability of introduction. Legally required FMD/SF activities (mainly based on EU legislation) accounted

  5. [Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasms type 2A (Sipple's syndrome). An early clinical marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabre, O; Labat-Moleur, F; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Stoebner, P; Sobol, H; Bachelot, I

    1992-02-22

    We report the association of a cutaneous lesion with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) in three patients from a French family. These lesions are very similar to those previously described in an Italian and an American MEN 2A family and called cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. In all three families the patients presented with a pruritic and pigmented cutaneous lesion localized unilaterally on the upper back. However, in the French family the patients also complained of paroxysmal pain in the same area, in which we could elicit a touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features in the upper back is known as Notalgia Paresthetica (NP). NP is believed to represent a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal nerve rami. Unlike the two previously reported families, the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the skin biopsies of the French patients did not show any amyloid material. This suggests that the presence of amyloid may not be a constant feature of the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A. We consider these lesions as a form of dorsal neuropathy rather than a cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. Whatever their origin, these cutaneous lesion usually precede the appearance of the neoplastic lesions of MEN 2A. They may act as an early clinical marker that must be searched for in each subject at risk for MEN 2A. In addition, all patients presenting with NP should be screened for MEN 2A. PMID:1348355

  6. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A. PMID:1362414

  7. [Diagnosis of caprine contagious pleuropneumonia: recent improvements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaucourt, F; Guérin, C; Mady, V; Lefèvre, P C

    1992-09-01

    Due to the difficulty in isolating Mycoplasma sp. type F38, two techniques for rapid detection are proposed in order to identify the presence of mycoplasmas of the mycoides group in samples of pleural fluid. A modification in the composition of isolation media promotes the growth of type F38 mycoplasmas and inhibits the growth of M. ovipneumoniae strains.

  8. Reporting Sick: Are Sporting Events Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Moral hazard is easy to justify theoretically but difficult to detect empirically. Individuals may report sick due to illness as well as for moral hazard reasons. Potential abuse of the sickness insurance system in Sweden is estimated by comparing the change between the number of men and women who report sick during a popular sporting event and a preceding time period. Difference-in- difference estimates provide clear evidence that the number of men who reported sick increased in order to wat...

  9. Contagious cooperation, temptation and ecosystem collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, A.P.; Soest, van D.; Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Real world observations suggest that social norms of cooperation can be effective in overcoming social dilemmas such as the joint management of a common pool resource—but also that they can be subject to slow erosion and sudden collapse. We show that these patterns of erosion and collapse emerge end

  10. Heterotopic pruritic conditioning and itch--analogous to DNIC in pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, A.I.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Evers, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pain can be endogenously modulated by heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation (HNCS) through a mechanism which is known as diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC). Since DNIC can be impaired in patients suffering from chronic pain, a comparable impaired itch inhibition may exist in patients s

  11. Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B, C, D Infections and Their Associated Risk Factors among Prisoners in Southern Khorasan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Ziaee; Gholamreza Sharifzadeh; Mohammad Hasan Namaee; Mohammad Fereidouni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Prison inmates are among the high risk population for dangerous infections such HIV, HBV, HCV and other contagious diseases. In spit of many data about the prevalence and risk factors for blood born diseases among prisoners in the world, such data are spares from Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for HIV, HBV, HCV and HDV infections among a large sample of prison inmates in Iran. Methods In a cross-sectional study in 20...

  12. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  13. Aspectos inmunológicos en el diagnóstico y control de la Epidemitis contagiosa del carnero por Brucella ovis Imunological aspects inthe diagnosis and control of contagious epidymitis of rams by Brucella ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. ESTEIN

    1999-01-01

    de vacunas subcelulares que no presenten las desventajas de Rev. 1. Con ese objetivo se han desarrollado ensayos de inmunización pasiva con mezclas de anticuerpos monoclonales anti-proteínas de la membrana externa y anti-lipopolisacárido rugoso que han otorgado protección en el ratón contra B. ovisBrucella ovis is the aethiological agent of ram contagious epididymitis, an infectious disease causing reproductive failure in sheep. Control measures include elimination of rams found positive in serological tests and/or bacteriological culture of semen, and vaccination when the prevalence is high. The principal vaccine used against ovine brucellosis is B. melitensis Rev. 1, a live attenuated strain of B. melitensis. However Rev. 1 evokes antibodies interfering with the interpretation of serological tests used to diagnose infection by B. ovis and B. melitensis. B. ovis is a natural rough species so lacks O polisaccharide chain. The outer membrane proteins of B.ovis have been studied by several groups searching for antigens useful for diagnosis and protection. A hot saline extract fron B. ovis contains rough lipopolysaccharide and several proteins, including abundant group 3 outer membrane proteins The most efficient and widely used tests for serodiagnosis of B. ovis infection are double gel diffusion, complement fixation test and ELISA. Hot saline extract has provided best diagnostic results in all tests. However some cross-reactivity in these tests can be seen with sera of sheep naturally infected with B. melitensis or after B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccination. Less information is available on internal B. ovis antigens. Recently, an indirect ELISA using BP26 (periplasmic protein has been developed for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated rams. The identification of B. ovis antigens able to elicit a protective immune response is of great interest for the development of subcellular vaccines avoiding the drawbacks of living attenuated vaccine. In the mouse model

  14. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidis...

  15. Whole Genome Association Study of Johne's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Paratuberculosis, commonly referred to as Johne's disease, is a contagious bacterial disease estimated to be present in over 65% of US dairy herds and results in annual losses in the hundreds of millions of US dollars. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the bacteria resp...

  16. Quantitative analysis of risk factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenga, Justine A; Matemba, Lucas E; Malakalinga, Joseph J; Muller, Shabani K; Kazwala, Rudovick R

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected contagious bacterial disease of public health and economic importance. Nevertheless, its spread is not well known to many livestock farmers. Unmatched case control study was carried out to identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle and goats at the herd level in Mpanda, Mlele and Nsimbo districts of Katavi region, in Tanzania between September 2012 and July 2013. A total of 138 adult respondents were selected randomly for the interview using a structured questionnaire. The criterion for inclusion was to have at least one Brucella-positive animal in the herd while the control was chosen from among the herds which these animals tested negative. The presence of seropositive herds were statistically linked (P brucellosis between animals and humans and the implementation of disease prevention and control programmes.

  17. Prevalence of contagious and environmental mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk tank milk and its relationships with milking practices of dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island (Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carla; Pacheco, Diana; Soares, Luísa; Romão, Ricardo; Moitoso, Mónica; Maldonado, Jaime; Guix, Roger; Simões, João

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated.

  18. ASSOCIATION INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing Charity Association Beijing Charity Association (BCA), a non-profit mass organization, is willing to serve Beijing’s lowincome people and promote local reforms and development, in a bid to construct a harmonious society.

  19. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Drew Purves; Carlos Souza; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (...

  20. Are stock market crises contagious? The role of crisis definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierau, Jochen O.; Mink, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Financial contagion studies generally examine whether co-movement between markets increases during a crisis. We use a flexible co-movement measure to examine how conclusions of such analyses depend on the sample chosen as the 'crisis'. To this end, we analyse stock market co-movement during the 1997

  1. Contagious Tolerance: Creating Safe Schools for Our Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is premised on a research study that was conducted with a group of secondary teachers. The study examined how teachers grappled with issues surrounding homophobia and heterosexism in their schools. For the purpose of this presentation, some of the findings from this study have been applied to the college campus. Specifically, the…

  2. A contagious disease of salmon, possibly of virus origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R.R.; Whipple, W.J.; Parvin, J.R.; Evans, C.A.

    1953-01-01

    Production records for 1885, 1891–1908, and 1929–49, indicate cyclic fluctuations for several important species of fish. The average annual take (all species) of 3,582,000 pounds in 1929–49 was 3,503,000 pounds below the 1891–1908 mean of 7,085,000 pounds. Decline in the output of lake herring alone from 5,841,000 pounds in 1891–1908 to 1,070,000 pounds in 1929–49—a drop of 4,771,000 pounds—more than accounted for the decrease. For species other than lake herring the combined output increased from 1,244,000 pounds in 1891–1908 to 2,512,000 in 1929–49—a rise of 1,268,000 pounds. The 1929–49 fluctuations of abundance (as estimated from records of catch per unit of effort) were considerable for all principal species. In the late years of the period, lake trout were scarce as the result of sealamprey depredations, but the abundance levels of whitefish, lake herring, and walleyes were extremely high; at the same time the smelt was showing good recovery from the disastrous 1943 mortality. With certain exceptions, correlations between fluctuations of fishing intensity and the abundance of individual species were low, probably because most operations are based on several species and hence not ordinarily sensitive to changes in the abundance of a particular one. A combination of intensive fishing and high abundance of three principal species carried the production to 5% million pounds in 1947 and the modern record high of between 7% and 8 million pounds in 1948 and 1949. With this prosperity has developed a most difficult situation arising from friction between local commercial fishermen and newcomers from other areas and from the activities of sport fishermen and resort owners who believe that drastic restrictions on commercial fishing will insure a perpetual high level of abundance of walleyes. Statistics for 1950 are given in a supplement.

  3. Contagious Communications : The role of emotion in viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, Elsie Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    The “connection generation” craves interaction with and connection to vast social networks through the sharing of information, photos, opinions, entertainment and news. This sharing comes in the form of electronic word-of-mouth or eWOM, and provides marketing and communication managers with an unparalleled opportunity to reach a large number of consumers quickly. With the ever increasing growth of the internet and the rise of social media and social network sites, viral marketing has cemented...

  4. Contagious herding and endogenous network formation in financial networks

    OpenAIRE

    Georg, Co-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    When banks choose similar investment strategies, the financial system becomes vulnerable to common shocks. Banks decide about their investment strategy ex-ante based on a private belief about the state of the world and a social belief formed from observing the actions of peers. When the social belief is strong and the financial network is fragmented, banks follow their peers and their investment strategies synchronize. This effect is stronger for less informative private signals. For endogeno...

  5. When and How Goals Are Contagious in Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Goal contagion occurs when a perceiver interacts with a partner whose behavior implies he/she is pursuing a particular goal and the perceiver accurately infers and subsequently pursues the partner's goal. Goal contagion was assessed in conversations between unacquainted individuals. In 2 experiments, the ways in which goal specificity, inference…

  6. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-01-01

    For how long can history, as it is conceived in ‘the West’, continue to attach itself to an exhausted humanism, where ‘man’ is central and all the natural and inanimate objects surrounding humans (and linked intimately to human activity) are relegated to the function of support act?This essay argues from anthropological theory that there are fundamentally different sorts of relationships that humans can entertain with non-humans, and that these relationships can have a...

  7. Is Conflict Contagious? Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Crost; Felter, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    The fact that conflicts tend to cluster in space is well documented. It remains unclear, however, whether this clustering is a result of contagion or of unobserved shocks that are correlated across space. We present new evidence for contagion by exploiting a natural experiment that increased the intensity of one conflict but had no direct effect on a second ongoing conflict in the same area. In particular, we analyze a ruling by the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which disallowed a propose...

  8. Contagious Synchronization and Endogenous Network Formation in Financial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Aymanns and Co-Pierre Georg

    2014-01-01

    When banks choose similar investment strategies the financial system becomes vulnerable to common shocks. We model a simple financial system in which banks decide about their investment strategy based on a private belief about the state of the world and a social belief formed from observing the actions of peers. Observing a larger group of peers conveys more information and thus leads to a stronger social belief. Extending the standard model of Bayesian updating in social networks, we show th...

  9. Contagious bank failures in a free banking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghion, P.; Bolton, P.; Dewatripont, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a model of an unregulated banking system based around a private clearing house arrangement. Whilst such a system may dominate one with a public safety net in reducing moral hazard in lending and therefore the scope for individual bank insolvency, it also increases the likelihood

  10. Volatility Spillover Effects and Risk Contagious:Evidence from the Domestic and Foreign Stock Markets Based on the MGARCH Mode%国内外股市波动溢出效应——基于多元GARCH模型的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀良; 曹凤岐

    2009-01-01

    通过对多个股票市场间波动溢出效应的研究,可以了解波动风险在市场间的传导路径和方向,以及在股市因外部冲击动荡前做出短期预测.本文以美国、日本、香港和我国沪市作为研究对象,采用多元GARCH模型对国内外股市波动溢出关系进行了研究.结果表明:只有香港股市对沪市具有显著的波动溢出,美、日股市对沪市的波动溢出则不显著,但由于美、日股市波动均对香港股市具有传染效应,它们可以借助对香港股市波动的影响间接地引起我国沪市的波动.所以,对我国沪市外部波动风险的把握在短期上应主要关注香港股市波动,其次还必须关注日本和美国股市的波动,尤其是美国股市的波动.%Through the study on the volatility spillover effects between stock markets,we can gain an insight into the paths and directions of risk contagious,and we can also make a short-term prediction under external shocks.This paper investigates the volatility spillover between the equity markets in U.S.A,Japan,Hongkong and Shanghai.The empirical study shows that there only exists the unidirectional spillover from Hongkong market to Shanghai Share A market,and there are not significant spillover effects between Share A and U.S.A.market,and no between Share A and Japan market.But Japan and U.S.A.stock market indirectly influence Share A because of the spillover from the stock markets in Japan and U.S.A.to Hongkong market.Conclusively,we should pay more attention to the volatility of Hongkong maket in the short term when we consider the external volatility risk to Share A,furthermore is the volatility from Japan and U.S.A.market,especially from U.S.A.market.

  11. Evolução dos isolamentos em doenças transmissíveis: os saberes na prática contemporânea Evolución del aislamiento en las enfermedades transmisibles: los saberes en la práctica contemporánea Evolution of the isolation of contagious diseases: knowledge in contemporary practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Yasuko Izumi Nichiata

    2004-03-01

    that were formulated and implemented. Since the beginning of the modern nursing, in the XIX century, the elements of the isolation practice for contagious diseases have remained basically the same. In other words, the emphasis on the use of mechanical, chemical and environmental barriers are given, based on inherent specificities of each part of the infectious chain process.

  12. Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Remove of the staff association office   The Staff Association offices are going to be renovated during the coming four months, February to May 2014. The physical move from our current premises 64/R-002 to our temporary office in  510/R-010 will take place on Friday January 31st, so the Secretariat will be closed on that day. Hence, from Monday February 3rd until the end of May 2014 the Staff Association Secretariat will be located in 510/R-010 (entrance just across the CERN Printshop).    

  13. Alzheimer's Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not share your information. * Required. View archives. Alzheimer's impact is growing Alzheimer's disease is the sixth- ... Last Updated: Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association advances research ...

  14. Associational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Grosen, Sidsel Lond;

    2010-01-01

    significance in the modern workplace which is simultaneously characterized by self-management and standardization. It is concluded that the concept of control remains important, but needs to evolve from its focus on the work of individuals to a focus on the associational aspects of work if it is to retain its......Over the last 30 years, the concept of control has had a central position in research into the psychological working environment. Control has been understood as individual autonomy and individual opportunities for development. This article examines whether the concept of control has the same key...

  15. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  16. Measles outbreaks in displaced populations: a review of transmission, morbidity and mortality associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamigaki Taro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease with a significant public health impact especially among displaced populations due to their characteristic mass population displacement, high population density in camps and low measles vaccination coverage among children. While the fatality rate in stable populations is generally around 2%, evidence shows that it is usually high among populations displaced by disasters. In recent years, refugees and internally displaced persons have been increasing. Our study aims to define the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors associated with measles outbreaks in displaced populations. Methods We reviewed literature in the PubMed database, and selected articles for our analysis that quantitatively described measles outbreaks. Results A total of nine articles describing 11 measles outbreak studies were selected. The outbreaks occurred between 1979 and 2005 in Asia and Africa, mostly during post-conflict situations. Seven of eight outbreaks were associated with poor vaccination status (vaccination coverage; 17-57%, while one was predominantly due to one-dose vaccine coverage. The age of cases ranged from 1 month to 39 years. Children aged 6 months to 5 years were the most common target group for vaccination; however, 1622 cases (51.0% of the total cases were older than 5 years of age. Higher case-fatality rates (>5% were reported for five outbreaks. Consistent factors associated with measles transmission, morbidity and mortality were vaccination status, living conditions, movements of refugees, nutritional status and effectiveness of control measures including vaccination campaigns, surveillance and security situations in affected zones. No fatalities were reported in two outbreaks during which a combination of active and passive surveillance was employed. Conclusion Measles patterns have varied over time among populations displaced by natural and man-made disasters. Appropriate

  17. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates associated with a resurgence in pertussis: elucidation of factors involved in the increased fitness of epidemic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Audrey J; van der Lee, Saskia; Mohangoo, Archena; van Gent, Marjolein; van der Ark, Arno; van de Waterbeemd, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) is the causative agent of whooping cough, which is a highly contagious disease in the human respiratory tract. Despite vaccination since the 1950s, pertussis remains the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in developed countries. A recent resurgence pertussis is associated with the expansion of B. pertussis strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin (ptx) promoter ptxP3 in place of resident ptxP1 strains. The recent expansion of ptxP3 strains suggests that these strains carry mutations that have increased their fitness. Compared to the ptxP1 strains, ptxP3 strains produce more Ptx, which results in increased virulence and immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the contribution of gene expression changes of various genes on the increased fitness of the ptxP3 strains. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we show that several virulence genes had higher expression levels in the ptxP3 strains compared to the ptxP1 strains. We provide the first evidence that wildtype ptxP3 strains are better colonizers in an intranasal mouse infection model. This study shows that the ptxP3 mutation and the genetic background of ptxP3 strains affect fitness by contributing to the ability to colonize in a mouse infection model. These results show that the genetic background of ptxP3 strains with a higher expression of virulence genes contribute to increased fitness.

  18. Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B, C, D Infections and Their Associated Risk Factors among Prisoners in Southern Khorasan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Ziaee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prison inmates are among the high risk population for dangerous infections such HIV, HBV, HCV and other contagious diseases. In spit of many data about the prevalence and risk factors for blood born diseases among prisoners in the world, such data are spares from Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for HIV, HBV, HCV and HDV infections among a large sample of prison inmates in Iran.In a cross-sectional study in 2009-2010, 881 inmates in three prisons of Southern Khorasan Province in Iran were selected based on a systematic, stratified random sampling method. Sera were analyzed for HBV, HDV, HCV and HIV infections by appropriate commercial ELISA kits. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and information about risk factors.Overall, 881 prisoners (mean age: 34.7±11.4 years, range: 11-84 years, M/F ratio:4.5/1 were participated in this study. The prevalence of HBV and HCV infection was 6.9% and 7.7%, respectively. Among the HBsAg positive subjects, 6.6% (4/61 and 9.8% (6/61 had HDV and HCV super-infection, respectively. Only one case (0.1% had HIV infection that was co-infection with HCV. Drug abuse and history of traditional phlebotomy were associated risk factors for HBV infection (P<0.05 and history of drug injection was associated with HCV infection (P<0.05.This study show fairly higher prevalence of blood borne infections among prisoners and indicate drug abuse and phlebotomy as the associated risk factor. Implementation of appropriate screening tests and preventive programs is suggested in prisons.

  19. National Stroke Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Go National Stroke Association Our mission is to reduce the incidence ... for all impacted by stroke. Featured Campaign World Stroke Day is Oct. 29 National Stroke Association is ...

  20. Search of associative memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.W. Raaijmakers; R.M. Shiffrin

    1981-01-01

    Describes search of associative memory (SAM), a general theory of retrieval from long-term memory that combines features of associative network models and random search models. It posits cue-dependent probabilistic sampling and recovery from an associative network, but the network is specified as a

  1. Intended Brand Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koll, Oliver; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Brand managers exhibit considerable effort to define intended brand associations to anchor in consumers' minds. They follow a credo deeply rooted in branding literature: intended brand associations drive consumer response and brand equity. This article investigates the benefits of a strong overlap...... of actual consumer brand associations and management-intended brand associations (brand association match). The article presents results from two large-scale studies (3353 and 1201 respondents) involving one consumer goods and one service brand with multiple operationalizations of consumer response...... (attitudinal and behavioral). The results show that consumers with high brand association match show more positive brand response. However, after accounting for the valence of associations match does not add explanatory power. This outcome challenges a key foundation of brand management. The discussion...

  2. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. IMPORTANCE EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a

  3. Italian library associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Petaros-Kmetec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, five library associations of national significance function at present. There are special associations of ecclesiastic libraries, prison libraries, architecture libraries and libraries with artistic material. The role of the general national association, covering all types of libraries including documentation centres, is played by the Italian Library Association. It strive for the development of a contemporary Italian library system comparable to international standards, monitors library legislation, promotes education for librarians and keeps the librarians and the broader public informed about the importance of libraries and librarianship for society. The activity and efforts of the association are reflected through their website offering much information and links to similar sites. ILA presents and realises its activities for both, the librarians and the public users. A great deal of actions promoting libraries and the Library Association might be interesting for Slovenia and perhaps transferred to our environment.

  4. Linguistic Valued Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-jiang; QIAN Zuo-ping

    2002-01-01

    Association rules discovering and prediction with data mining method are two topics in the field of information processing. In this paper, the records in database are divided into many linguistic values expressed with normal fuzzy numbers by fuzzy c-means algorithm, and a series of linguistic valued association rules are generated. Then the records in database are mapped onto the linguistic values according to largest subject principle, and the support and confidence definitions of linguistic valued association rules are also provided. The discovering and prediction methods of the linguistic valued association rules are discussed through a weather example last.

  5. American Hospital Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    About AHA AHA Engaged Vision & Mission Organization Membership Careers Member Center The Value of Membership Constituency Sections Personal Membership Groups Associate Membership Regional Executives State Issues ...

  6. Associative Analysis in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Muntean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the interest in technologies such as in-memory analytics and associative search has increased. This paper explores how you can use in-memory analytics and an associative model in statistics. The word “associative” puts the emphasis on understanding how datasets relate to one another. The paper presents the main characteristics of “associative” data model. Also, the paper presents how to design an associative model for labor market indicators analysis. The source is the EU Labor Force Survey. Also, this paper presents how to make associative analysis.

  7. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  8. Molecular Characterization of Reptile Pathogens Currently Known as Members of the Chrysosporium Anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii Complex and Relationship with Some Human-Associated Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Sarah; Paré, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), Chrysosporium guarroi, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, and Chrysosporium species have been reported as the causes of dermal or deep lesions in reptiles. These infections are contagious and often fatal and affect both captive and wild animals. Forty-nine CANV isolates from reptiles and six isolates from human sources were compared with N. vriesii based on their cultural characteristics and DNA sequence data. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales. One lineage represents the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. vriesii, N. guarroi, and six additional species encompassing isolates from chameleons and geckos, crocodiles, agamid and iguanid lizards, and humans. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. nov., with three new species infecting squamates and tuataras. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea. Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. N. guarroi causes yellow fungus disease, a common infection in bearded dragons and green iguanas, and O. ophiodiicola is an emerging pathogen of captive and wild snakes. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis. PMID:23926168

  9. Generalized granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-years-old female patient had generalized pruritic papular lesions, distributed like dermatitis herpetiformis for last 4 years. Histopathologic changes were typical of granuloma annulare with negative results of direct immunofluorescence. The patient did not have association of diabetes mellitus or any other systemic disease. She failed to respond to dapsone therapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid.

  10. Migraine Associated Vertigo

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Yoon-Hee (Laureate Institute for Brain Research); Baloh, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The interrelations of migraine and vertigo are complex, eluding a simple localization either centrally or peripherally. Spontaneous episodic vertigo, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and Meniere's disease all occur more frequently in patients with migraine than in those without. Family studies support a hereditary predisposition to migraine associated vertigo. In this review, we discuss definitions, epidemiology, associated syndromes, neurootological abnormalities, genetics and treatment...

  11. Network Consistent Data Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases. PMID:26485472

  12. Neuroscience: Incepting Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBettencourt, Megan T; Norman, Kenneth A

    2016-07-25

    A recent study has used real-time fMRI neurofeedback to induce color-specific activity patterns in early visual cortex as participants viewed achromatic gratings. This procedure resulted in an association between the color and the displayed grating orientation, suggesting that early visual cortex can support associative learning of this type. PMID:27458913

  13. Civic Engagement and Associationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Damon Timothy; Barraket, Jo; Lewis, Jenny;

    2012-01-01

    that individuals are involved with (associational scope). Does it matter in terms of civic engagement, for example, whether one is a member of a quilting-circle or trade union? Does it matter whether association ‘membership’ is simply an annual payment or a major commitment of time and energy? In this article, we...... use a large survey to explore these questions empirically by focusing on the membership patterns and civic engagement practices of 4,001 citizens drawn from eight suburbs across Greater Melbourne, Australia. Our findings indicate that, while associational intensity is positively related to civic...... engagement, associational scope (the number of group memberships per person), is a more influential determinant of the level of civic and political participation. The results also suggest that while all forms of associationalism are important in terms of fostering greater levels of civic activity, not all...

  14. Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ) is the institution which main task is to maintain the optimum conditions for dynamic development of its members' activities, their business activities and to maintain the common or individual interests o fits members. To meet this objective, the association: - maintains the interests of association members during discussions with representative authorities, central state administration bodies and the trade unions regarding the economic and social policy and the questions which are to be the subject matter of collective bargaining, conclusion of contracts and the collective agreements of higher force; - is the member of enterprising, negotiating and advisory authorities; - coordinates the procedure and promotes the common interests of its members in relation to the representative authorities and the central state administration bodies, central trade union authorities and in relation to the international organisation of employers and the International Labour Organisation; maintains the commercial and business activities of the members of association; submits the proposals, filling with the courts and makes interventions regarding the preparation of economic and political decisions on the national and international level; engages with the legal entities in the Slovak Republic and enters the foreign international organisations. ZPZ, originally Gas Association (PZ), was founded by the General Assembly on 27th January 1995. It was registered in compliance with the Act No. 83/1990 Coll. on Association of Citizens as amended by the act No. 300/90 Coll., as the organisation of employers with the legal personality. The Employer's Gas Association was a member of the Employers' Associations in Slovak Republic till 31st March 2004, after this date it is represented by the Republican Union of Employers in SR (RUZ SR), which was established to maintain employer's associations interests on more qualitative level. The list of members

  15. Syndicats et associations

    OpenAIRE

    Bars, Loïc Le; Barthélémy, Martine; Bellanger, Emmanuel; Béroud, Sophie; Béthouart, Bruno; Boussion, Samuel; Brodiez, Axelle; Brouster, Pascale Le; Capdevielle, Jacques; Chatriot, Alain; Coffin, Jean-Christophe; Diebolt, Évelyne; Dreyfus, Michel; Faniel, Jean; Frajerman, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Les syndicats sont et demeurent des associations dans la large acceptiondu terme. Ils émergent et se développent dans l'espace du travail où préexistent nombre d'associations, d'initiatives et d'intitulés divers. Syndicats et associations remplissent de surcroît, souvent, les mêmes fonctions et nourrissent, parfois, des objectifs similaires. L'ouvrage qui rassemble des contributions émanant d'historiens, de sociologues et de politistes s'essaie à analyser la diversité des relations qui se son...

  16. Associative Analysis in Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Muntean

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, the interest in technologies such as in-memory analytics and associative search has increased. This paper explores how you can use in-memory analytics and an associative model in statistics. The word “associative” puts the emphasis on understanding how datasets relate to one another. The paper presents the main characteristics of “associative” data model. Also, the paper presents how to design an associative model for labor market indicators analysis. The source is the EU L...

  17. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  18. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  19. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  20. Generalized Multidimensional Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周傲英; 周水庚; 金文; 田增平

    2000-01-01

    The problem of association rule mining has gained considerable prominence in the data mining community for its use as an important tool of knowl-edge discovery from large-scale databases. And there has been a spurt of research activities around this problem. Traditional association rule mining is limited to intra-transaction. Only recently the concept of N-dimensional inter-transaction as-sociation rule (NDITAR) was proposed by H.J. Lu. This paper modifies and extends Lu's definition of NDITAR based on the analysis of its limitations, and the general-ized multidimensional association rule (GMDAR) is subsequently introduced, which is more general, flexible and reasonable than NDITAR.

  1. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... manipulate salary data through various categories... AT Halloween Costume Idea Last year we conducted a contest to ... Privacy Policy About Contact NATA Careers Feedback © 2016 National Athletic Trainers' Association. All Rights Reserved, Worldwide. DO ...

  2. European Hematology Association

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Attendees at the 19th Congress of the European Hematology Association in Milan, Italy, heard reports on new therapies for acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, β-thalassemia, multiple myeloma, and polycythemia vera.

  3. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Professionals Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Let’s Teach Our Children About Sleep How ...

  4. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 931.6632 info@MilitaryFamily.org © 2016 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  5. Overcoming associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986019

  6. American Association of Orthodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... step for patients wishing to resolve issues of crowding, misalignment and the burden of feeling self-conscious ... The American Association of Orthodontists does not provide funding for orthodontic treatment. There are several programs that ...

  7. Star clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)

  8. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  9. Government, Marketplace, and Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes events at the 1988 Canadian Library Association (CLA) annual conference, which addressed such issues as access to information, CLA finances, and the information marketplace. A list of CLA officers and awards is included. (MES)

  10. American Tinnitus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  11. Overcoming associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Staff Association Information Meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Staff Association Information Meetings: - Thursday 29 September at 2 p.m., Meyrin, Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-017 (in French) - Friday 30 September at 10 a.m., Prévessin, BE Auditorium, 864-1-D02 (in French) - Monday 3 October at 2 p.m., Meyrin, IT Auditorium, 31-3-004 (in French) - Tuesday 4 October at 2 p.m., Meyrin, Filtration Plant, 222-R-001 (in English)   Staff Association

  13. Robot Mood is Contagious: Effects of Robot Body Language in the Imitation Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, D.J.; Hindriks, K.V.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mood contagion is an automatic mechanism that induces a congruent mood state by means of the observation of another person's emotional expression. In this paper, we address the question whether robot mood displayed during an imitation game can (a) be recognized by participants and (b) produce contag

  14. Robot mood is contagious : Effects of robot body language in the imitation game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, J.; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mood contagion is an automatic mechanism that induces a congruent mood state by means of the observation of another person's emotional expression. In this paper, we address the question whether robot mood displayed during an imitation game can (a) be recognized by participants and (b) produce contag

  15. Contagious risk taking: social information and context influence wild jackdaws' responses to novelty and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggor, Alison L; McIvor, Guillam E; Clayton, Nicola S; Thornton, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although wild animals increasingly encounter human-produced food and objects, it is unknown how they learn to discriminate beneficial from dangerous novelty. Since social learning allows animals to capitalize on the risk-taking of others, and avoid endangering themselves, social learning should be used around novel and unpredictable stimuli. However, it is unclear whether animals use social cues equally around all types of novelty and at all times of year. We assessed whether wild, individually marked jackdaws-a highly neophobic, yet adaptable species-are equally influenced by social cues to consume novel, palatable foods and to approach a startling object. We conducted these tests across two seasons, and found that in both seasons observers were more likely to consume novel foods after seeing a demonstrator do so. In contrast, observers only followed the demonstrator in foraging next to the object during breeding season. Throughout the year more birds were wary of consuming novel foods than wary of approaching the object, potentially leading to jackdaws' greater reliance on social information about food. Jackdaws' dynamic social cue usage demonstrates the importance of context in predicting how social information is used around novelty, and potentially indicates the conditions that facilitate animals' adjustment to anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27282438

  16. Molecular and virological studies on contagious pustular dermatitis isolates from Egyptian sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed; Abdelrahman, Khaled; Soliman, Hatem

    2010-10-01

    Orf virus was clinically diagnosed from different field cases of sheep and goat in Hawamdia, Giza, Egypt during the summer 2006. Skin scabs were collected and used for virus isolation, electron microscopy, PCR and sequencing for confirmation, and differential diagnosis. The aetiological virus was fruitfully isolated on the chorio-allantoic membrane of SPF embryonated chicken eggs indicated by expressing the characteristic pock lesions of Poxviridae family. Electron microscopy examination exposed negatively stained oval-shape virus particles trait for members of the genus Parapoxvirus. A 392 bp fragment of the late transcription factor (VLTF-1) gene of orf virus was amplified by PCR from the DNA extracted from the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 99% identity with other orf virus strains reported worldwide. Selection and processing of clinical specimens and PCR assay applied in this endeavor, presented a reliable laboratory diagnostic tool for orf infections and first molecular characterization of Egyptian orf isolates. PMID:20304450

  17. Is obesity contagious?: social networks vs. environmental factors in the obesity epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan Cohen-Cole; Fletcher, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    This note’s aim is to investigate the sensitivity of Christakis and Fowler’s claim (NEJM July 26, 2007) that obesity has spread through social networks. It is well known in the economics literature that failure to include contextual effects can lead to spurious inference on “social network effects.” We replicate the NEJM results using their specification and a complementary dataset. We find that point estimates of the “social network effect” are reduced and become statistically indistinguisha...

  18. "Contagious love": a qualitative study of the couple relationships of ten AIDS carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Doron; Noa, Teichner; Adi, Grey; Yehudit, Goldstein

    2008-01-01

    The qualitative study in this article portrays the couple relationship among AIDS carriers, based on Sternberg's triangular love theory (involving domains of intimacy, passion and commitment). The central study hypothesis is that certain components of the Sternberg model will be more significant than others among the AIDS carrier population. The study was conducted on ten AIDS carriers aged 21-37 who had experienced a couple relationship. Six men and four women participated; most of them were in a romantic couple relationship of homosexual orientation.The interviewees answered a questionnaire that included the three domains-- intimacy, passion and commitment--in the personal interview technique. The interview focused on interviewee's attitude towards his/her relationship with a partner, as he/she understood it. The findings of the study focus on relevant content that was gathered from the interviews and these portray a limited view of couple patterns in the world of AIDS carriers. The study reveals two major findings regarding the carrier's desires: On the one hand, the carrier describes a powerful need for a stable, permanent relationship--from the diagnosis of AIDS and throughout the subsequent years. On the other hand, the carrier also expresses powerful sexual desires that are not necessarily limited to a permanent partner. Thus passion is the dominant among the three domains.The intimacy domain is mainly affected by disclosure of the disease and the joint coping that follows.The findings are discussed in the context of the romantic internalized model theory and Sternberg's triangular love theory.

  19. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ..., published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, and delayed until July 25, 2011, in a document published at 76 FR 31220-31221 on May 31, 2011, is delayed until further notice. We will consider all comments... equigenitalis. On March 25, 2011, we published an interim rule in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  20. 76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... part 93, published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, is delayed until July 25, 2011. FOR FURTHER... the Federal Register (76 FR 16683-16686, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0112) to amend the regulations... 93, published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, until July 25, 2011. Authority: 7 U.S.C....

  1. The Current Global Financial Crisis: do Asian Stock Markets show Contagious or Interdependency Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia; Andreosso-O'Callaghan, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the current global economic crisis, a pertinent question is whether the world economies are suffering from contagion or interdependency effects. With its origins in the US sub-prime mortgage market crisis starting at the end of 2007, when a loss of confidence by investors in the value of securitized mortgages resulted in a liquidity crisis, hard-hitting the banking system and rapidly spreading into the financial markets, the effects of the crisis were automatically reflect...

  2. [Relations between official and private veterinary services in epidemiology and the control of contagious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, J A; Bedoya, M; Agudelo, M P

    2004-04-01

    Growing budget restrictions in many countries have meant that official Veterinary Services cannot assume responsibility for any new activities. The natural reaction is to turn to private veterinary services to provide the support needed to strengthen the control and surveillance of priority diseases and thereby support the development of the livestock sector and the establishment of safe international trade. In this context, official Veterinary Services must work together with private veterinarians, delegating various technical animal health activities, so that they may focus their efforts on those tasks that cannot be delegated: standardisation, control, auditing, general system co-ordination, epidemiological surveillance, etc., as well as organising veterinary policy in order to make best use of budget resources. For these relations to be efficient, a dynamic, two-way epidemiological information mechanism must be created, whereby private veterinarians periodically keep governments informed, on the basis of an agreed methodology. Moreover, the official Veterinary Services must systematically transmit information on List A and B diseases of the OIE (World organisation for animal health), and perform detailed analyses of epidemiologically significant events. The article proposes the establishment of relations between public and private veterinary services as a way in which to provide the livestock sector with the health and hygiene conditions that are necessary for effective disease control, which in turn provides greater security for international trade and increased consumer protection. PMID:15200088

  3. A deterministic model for highly contagious diseases: The case of varicella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, L.; Moraño, J.-A.; Santonja, F.-J.; Villanueva, R.-J.

    2016-05-01

    The classic nonlinear Kermack-McKendrick model based upon a system of differential equations has been widely applied to model the rise and fall of global pandemic and also seasonal epidemic by introducing a forced harmonic infectivity which would change throughout the year. These methods work well in their respective domains of applicability, and for certain diseases, but they fail when both seasonality and high infectivity are combined. In this paper we consider a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered, or SIR, model with two latent states to model the propagation and evolutionary history of varicella in humans. We show that infectivity can be calculated from real data and we find a nonstandard seasonal variation that cannot be fitted with a single harmonic. Moreover, we show that infectivity for the present strains of the virus has raised following a sigmoid function in a period of several centuries. This could allow the design of vaccination strategies and the study of the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster.

  4. Outline for an integrated modelling approach concerning risks and economic consequences of contagious animal diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Management decisions on control of major infectious animal diseases may have a large impact, but are usually based on scarce and unreliable information. An integrated model which combines the various aspects of outbreaks and risks with economic consequences has yet to be developed. A flexible model

  5. Senator Barbara Mikulski and the Contagious “Learning Bug” | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen. Barbara Mikulski came to NIH on April 11 to say goodbye. Following this fall’s election, the longest-serving woman in congressional history will relinquish her Maryland Senate seat, bringing to a close a 40-year national political career in which she staunchly supported NIH and biomedical research.

  6. Knitted patterns or contagious hotspots?: Linking views on knowledge and organizational networked learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Frank; Jong, de Tjip; Kessels, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to propose a framework which connects perspectives on knowledge and learning to various approaches of social networks studies. The purpose is twofold: providing input for the discourse in organizational studies about the way different views on knowledge and networks drive d

  7. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement for imported horses 731 days of age... 731 days of age. This document revises certain CEM-testing requirements for imported stallions and... Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National Center for Import and Export, VS, APHIS, 4700 ] River Road Unit...

  8. Contagious Comments: What Was the Online Buzz About the 2011 Quebec Measles Outbreak?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jennifer A; Susan Quach; Huy Hao Dao; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Quan, Sherman D; Maryse Guay

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing t...

  9. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly controlled. Illustrating the dangers of measles through personal stories, rather than scientific data only, may also serve to strengthen messaging.

  10. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Avenue, SW., Washington, DC. Normal reading room hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday... exam of an imported stallion that had been released from CEM quarantine in 2004 after testing negative... Organization for Animal Health's (OIE) Manual of Diagnostic Tests,\\1\\ which recommends screening mares...

  11. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates associated with a resurgence in pertussis: elucidation of factors involved in the increased fitness of epidemic strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey J King

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, which is a highly contagious disease in the human respiratory tract. Despite vaccination since the 1950s, pertussis remains the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in developed countries. A recent resurgence pertussis is associated with the expansion of B. pertussis strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin (ptx promoter ptxP3 in place of resident ptxP1 strains. The recent expansion of ptxP3 strains suggests that these strains carry mutations that have increased their fitness. Compared to the ptxP1 strains, ptxP3 strains produce more Ptx, which results in increased virulence and immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the contribution of gene expression changes of various genes on the increased fitness of the ptxP3 strains. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we show that several virulence genes had higher expression levels in the ptxP3 strains compared to the ptxP1 strains. We provide the first evidence that wildtype ptxP3 strains are better colonizers in an intranasal mouse infection model. This study shows that the ptxP3 mutation and the genetic background of ptxP3 strains affect fitness by contributing to the ability to colonize in a mouse infection model. These results show that the genetic background of ptxP3 strains with a higher expression of virulence genes contribute to increased fitness.

  12. Intracellular membrane association of the N-terminal domain of classical swine fever virus NS4B determines viral genome replication and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Ruggli, Nicolas; Nagashima, Naofumi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Manabu; Mine, Junki; Hofmann, Martin A; Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease in pigs that can range from a severe haemorrhagic fever to a nearly unapparent disease, depending on the virulence of the virus strain. Little is known about the viral molecular determinants of CSFV virulence. The nonstructural protein NS4B is essential for viral replication. However, the roles of CSFV NS4B in viral genome replication and pathogenesis have not yet been elucidated. NS4B of the GPE-  vaccine strain and of the highly virulent Eystrup strain differ by a total of seven amino acid residues, two of which are located in the predicted trans-membrane domains of NS4B and were described previously to relate to virulence, and five residues clustering in the N-terminal part. In the present study, we examined the potential role of these five amino acids in modulating genome replication and determining pathogenicity in pigs. A chimeric low virulent GPE- -derived virus carrying the complete Eystrup NS4B showed enhanced pathogenicity in pigs. The in vitro replication efficiency of the NS4B chimeric GPE-  replicon was significantly higher than that of the replicon carrying only the two Eystrup-specific amino acids in NS4B. In silico and in vitro data suggest that the N-terminal part of NS4B forms an amphipathic α-helix structure. The N-terminal NS4B with these five amino acid residues is associated with the intracellular membranes. Taken together, this is the first gain-of-function study showing that the N-terminal domain of NS4B can determine CSFV genome replication in cell culture and viral pathogenicity in pigs. PMID:26018962

  13. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  14. Fibromyalgia syndrome. New associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylonis, G W; Heck, W

    1992-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a number of conditions, such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, spastic colon and mitral valve prolapse, associated with fibromyalgia. The present report describes additional symptoms and medical conditions that appear to be associated with the syndrome based on a survey of 554 individuals with fibromyalgia compared with a group of 169 controls. Individuals with fibromyalgia self report a greater incidence of bursitis, chondromalacia, constipation, diarrhea, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, vertigo, sinus and thyroid problems. Symptomatic complaints found statistically more prevalent in fibromyalgia patients included concentration problems, sensory symptoms, swollen glands and tinnitus. Other associations occurring with significant increased frequency were chronic cough, coccygeal and pelvic pain, tachycardia and weakness. Our previous report on inheritance patterns in fibromyalgia was reaffirmed with 12% reporting symptomatic children and 25% reporting symptomatic parents. Of the respondents, 70% noted that their symptoms were aggravated by noise, lights, stress, posture and weather. PMID:1466872

  15. Acromegaly associated with gangliocytoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, R K

    2009-09-30

    BACKGROUND: Acromegaly secondary to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) excess is rare. AIMS\\/CASE DESCRIPTION: We report two patients with acromegaly who were diagnosed with sellar gangliocytomas that were immunopositive for GHRH. Tumour tissue persisted after debulking surgery and in the second case this was associated with persistent growth hormone hypersecretion, successfully suppressed by a somatostatin analogue. CONCLUSIONS: The development of functional pituitary adenomas in association with sellar gangliocytomas is poorly understood. We present a brief discussion of the possible aetiology of these unusual pituitary tumours.

  16. Substratum-Associated Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Paula C; Deininger, Anne; Liess, Antonia

    2016-10-01

    This survey of literature on substratum associated microbiota from 2015 highlights research findings associated with benthic algae and bacteria from a variety of aquatic environments, but primarily freshwaters. It focuses on topics of interest to the Water Environment Federation along with those of current emerging interest such as global change, oil spills, and environmental contaminants like pharmaceutical compounds, microplastics, nanoparticles and organic pollutants. Other interesting findings briefly covered include areas of general ecology, nutrient cycling, trophic interactions, water quality, nuisance and invasive species, bioindicators, and bioremediation. PMID:27620106

  17. Wilson's Disease Association International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated before serious illness from copper poisoning develops. Wilson disease affects approximately one in 30,000 people worldwide. The genetic defect causes excessive copper accumulation in the liver or brain. Read More Membership Wilson Disease Association Membership As a member, you have ...

  18. The National Education Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Gilbert

    1983-01-01

    Examines how the National Education Association (NEA) has shifted from a conservative position to a more progressive one, which emphasizes militancy on such issues as equity and abolition of normative testing. Suggests that, in concentrating on politically charged matters, NEA has neglected a more important concern: the successful schooling of…

  19. Lenalidomide-Associated ITP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina I. Herold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lenalidomide is a potent immunomodulatory agent being used increasingly for treatment of hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma and myelodysplasia. The common toxicities of lenalidomide, including dose-limiting myelosuppression, are well described. However, the immunomodulatory properties of lenalidomide may give rise to unexpected autoimmune complications. Herein, we describe a case of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP associated with use of lenalidomide.

  20. Children's Craniofacial Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemifacial Moebius syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome Pierre Robin Sequence Treacher Collins syndrome Other syndromes Wonder News & Events Help CCA Shop ... Pierre Robin Sequence • Pfeiffer syndrome • Saethre-Chotzen syndrome • Treacher Collins syndrome Children's Craniofacial Association is a national, 501(c) ...

  1. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles; WOOD; William; HARRINGTON; Jr

    2005-01-01

    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  2. Towards Predictive Association Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2011-01-01

    Association equations of state like SAFT, CPA and NRHB have been previously applied to many complex mixtures. In this work we focus on two of these models, the CPA and the NRHB equations of state and the emphasis is on the analysis of their predictive capabilities for a wide range of applications...

  3. Amenorrhea associated with carotenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmann, E; Pasquale, S A; Skaf, R

    1983-02-18

    Data are presented for ten women with anovulation, nine of them with amenorrhea, who have associated carotenemia. Classic explanations for carotenemia in amenorrheic patients have been weight loss or anorexia nervosa, yet carotenemia in our patients appeared to be diet induced. All patients consumed a pure or predominantly vegetarian diet; there was no intake of red meats. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients are presented. The amenorrhea of the patient is consistent with hypothalamic hypogonadotropic anovulation (HHA). It appeared that diet modification not only led to reduction in carotene levels, but also improved the menstrual status. The association of carotenemia and menstrual disorders is reviewed. The possibility that carotenemia is related to the development of HHA is discussed. PMID:6823046

  4. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  5. Infliximab-associated Chiasmopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Erin; Sacks, Joel G.

    2008-01-01

    Optic neuropathy has been reported in association with the use of tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists such as etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab. This is a report of a patient who began experiencing decreased vision approximately 1 month after starting infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Visual field testing showed bitemporal hemianopic scotomas, indicating involvement of the nerve fibers in the optic chiasm. The infliximab was discontinued, and the patient experienced substa...

  6. Time and Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Balsam, Peter D; Drew, Michael R.; Gallistel, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    In a basic associative learning paradigm, learning is said to have occurred when the conditioned stimulus evokes an anticipatory response. This learning is widely believed to depend on the contiguous presentation of conditioned and unconditioned stimulus. However, what it means to be contiguous has not been rigorously defined. Here we examine the empirical bases for these beliefs and suggest an alternative view based on the hypothesis that learning about the temporal relationships between eve...

  7. Myeloma associated systemic amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kumari N

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of myeloma associated systemic amyloidosis in a 45 years old man. The patient presented with asymptomatic plaques and papules around the eyes, nostrils, anus, inguinal region and tongue. Purpuric lesions were noticed on and off over the lesions. When thorough investigations were undertaken they revealed multiple myeloma. Histopathology with amyloid stain positivity and bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis.

  8. Hom-power associative algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Donald

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of power associative algebra, called Hom-power associative algebra, is studied. The main result says that a multiplicative Hom-algebra is Hom-power associative if and only if it satisfies two identities of degrees three and four. It generalizes Albert's result that power associativity is equivalent to third and fourth power associativity. In particular, multiplicative right Hom-alternative algebras and non-commutative Hom-Jordan algebras are Hom-power associative.

  9. Blocking and associability change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter M; Haselgrove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Blocking of learning about a conditioned stimulus (the "blocked" cue) occurs when it is trained alongside an additional stimulus (the "blocking" cue) that has been previously presented with the outcome. A number of theories (e.g., N. J. Mackintosh. 1975a. A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli With Reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298; J. M. Pearce & G. Hall. 1980. A Model for Pavlovian Learning: Variation in the Effectiveness of Conditioned But Not Unconditioned Stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552) account for this attenuation in learning by proposing that attention paid to the blocked cue is restricted. In three experiments, we examined the associability of both blocked and blocking cues. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with a blocking protocol before being given a test discrimination composed of two components; one of these components required the use of the previously blocked cue as a discriminative stimulus, and the other component was soluble by using the blocking cue. To our surprise, the component that depended on the blocked cue was more readily solved than the component dependent on the blocking cue. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggest that this is due to the quantity of exposure that each stimulus received during initial training. Implications for theories of blocking, and more widely associative learning, are discussed. PMID:23668185

  10. Scoliosis Associated With Syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Fathi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The differential diagnosis of idiopathic and syringomyelia associated scoliosis is important because corrective surgery for scoliosis associated with syringomyelia prior to management of syringomyelia can be dangerous. There are important imaging indicators for diagnosis of syringomyelia associated with scoliosis. A few of these indicators have been assessed in our study. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study including 38 patients with both scoliosis and syringomyelia was performed at the Shafa Yahyaeian center. Standard scoliosis series radiographs and MRI of all patients were studied. The type of scoliosis, location and magnitude of deformity, kyphosis or lordosis in the sagittal plane, location and size of syrinx were assessed. Results: Thoracic kyphosis was present in 94.7% of patients. 37% of patients had scoliosis with convexity to left. Arnold –chiari malformation was present in 36% and cord tethering in 21% of patients. The locations of syrinx were as follows: 47.4%cervical, 44.6 thoracic, 2.7% lumbar and 5.3% were holocord. Conclusion: Kyphosis, abscence of lordosis in sagittal plane, progressive scoliosis and scoliosis with convexity to left are atypical findings and could be indicators of the presence of syringomyelia. If these indicators are present, a diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis should be made with caution.

  11. Blocking and associability change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter M; Haselgrove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Blocking of learning about a conditioned stimulus (the "blocked" cue) occurs when it is trained alongside an additional stimulus (the "blocking" cue) that has been previously presented with the outcome. A number of theories (e.g., N. J. Mackintosh. 1975a. A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli With Reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298; J. M. Pearce & G. Hall. 1980. A Model for Pavlovian Learning: Variation in the Effectiveness of Conditioned But Not Unconditioned Stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552) account for this attenuation in learning by proposing that attention paid to the blocked cue is restricted. In three experiments, we examined the associability of both blocked and blocking cues. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with a blocking protocol before being given a test discrimination composed of two components; one of these components required the use of the previously blocked cue as a discriminative stimulus, and the other component was soluble by using the blocking cue. To our surprise, the component that depended on the blocked cue was more readily solved than the component dependent on the blocking cue. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggest that this is due to the quantity of exposure that each stimulus received during initial training. Implications for theories of blocking, and more widely associative learning, are discussed.

  12. Reminders Through Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Milkman, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    People often fail to follow through on good intentions. While limited self-control is frequently the culprit, another cause is simply forgetting to enact intentions when opportunities arise. We introduce a novel, potent approach to facilitating follow-through: the reminders-through-association approach. This approach involves associating intentions (e.g., to mail a letter on your desk tomorrow) with distinctive cues that will capture attention when you have opportunities to act on those intentions (e.g., Valentine's Day flowers that arrived late yesterday, which are sitting on your desk). We showed that cue-based reminders are more potent when the cues they employ are distinctive relative to (a) other regularly encountered stimuli and (b) other stimuli encountered concurrently. Further, they can be more effective than written or electronic reminder messages, and they are undervalued and underused. The reminders-through-association approach, developed by integrating and expanding on past research on self-control, reminders, and prospective memory, can be a powerful tool for policymakers and individuals. PMID:27207873

  13. VACTERL/VATER Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Benjamin D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract VACTERL/VATER association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. In addition to these core component features, patients may also have other congenital anomalies. Although diagnostic criteria vary, the incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 40,000 live-born infants. The condition is ascertained clinically by the presence of the above-mentioned malformations; importantly, there should be no clinical or laboratory-based evidence for the presence of one of the many similar conditions, as the differential diagnosis is relatively large. This differential diagnosis includes (but is not limited to Baller-Gerold syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Currarino syndrome, deletion 22q11.2 syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Feingold syndrome, Fryns syndrome, MURCS association, oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, Opitz G/BBB syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, and VACTERL with hydrocephalus. Though there are hints regarding causation, the aetiology has been identified only in a small fraction of patients to date, likely due to factors such as a high degree of clinical and causal heterogeneity, the largely sporadic nature of the disorder, and the presence of many similar conditions. New genetic research methods offer promise that the causes of VACTERL association will be better defined in the relatively near future. Antenatal diagnosis can be challenging, as certain component features can be difficult to ascertain prior to birth. The management of patients with VACTERL/VATER association typically centers around surgical correction of the specific congenital anomalies (typically anal atresia, certain types of cardiac malformations, and/or tracheo-esophageal fistula in the immediate postnatal period, followed by long-term medical management of sequelae of

  14. Nodular Prurigo Associated with Mycosis Fungoides - Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković Gulin, Sandra; Čeović, Romana; Lončarić, Davorin; Ilić, Ivana; Radman, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common type of cutaneous lymphoma and accounts for approximately 50% of all lymphomas arising primarily in the skin. The three types of MF lesions are patches, plaques, and tumors, according to which the disease is traditionally divided into three clinical stages. The clinical course can be protracted and take years or decades. In the final stage, MF evolves to a systemic form of the disease. Nodular prurigo (NP) is still a condition of unknown etiology characterized by papulonodular eruption and intense pruritus. Multiple diseases, including dermatological, systemic, and psychiatric diseases, have been assumed to cause NP. Pruritic skin lesions have been known to precede clinically evident B and T cell lymphomas for years. In the literature, pruritus and NP have been reported in patients affected by systemic Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Only two cases of cutaneous lymphoma as underlying disease in patients with PN have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of a patient with concomitant non-Hodgkin skin lymphoma - MF and NP. Our female patient with a 10-year history of MF stage IIb during the last three years had been presenting for regular check-up with itchy, newly formed, rarely disseminated nodules 5-8 mm in diameter on the forearms and lower legs. Sharply limited erythematosquamous, slightly infiltrated foci (as part of MF as the underlying disease) were visible on the trunk and extremities. Extracutaneous involvement of MF was excluded. We performed a biopsy on a nodule from the lower leg to rule out tumor stage MF; the biopsy confirmed NP. We conclude that prurigo nodules should not be confused with tumor stage MF. NP is a therapeutic challenge for any dermatologist. Any underlying diseases should be treated first. PMID:26476905

  15. Perindopril-associated pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, A; Melloni, B; Gosselin, B; Bonnaud, F; Wallaert, B

    1996-06-01

    We report two cases of perindopril-associated pneumonitis with typical drug-induced clinical features. In the first case, biopsies showed granulomatous sarcoid-like lesions; in the second, bronchial wall eosinophil infiltratf2p4was reported with increased blood eosinophil count. In these two cases, improvement was obtained by withdrawal of the drug and was completed with steroids. All other causes were ruled out. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced pneumonitis is still rare but has to be recognized as a real side-effect. PMID:8804953

  16. Osteosarcoma associated with hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jutte, Paul C. [Istituti Orthopedici Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136, Bologna (Italy); University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen (Netherlands); Rosso, Renato [Anatomia Patologica Universita di Pavia, via Forlanini 16, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Paolis, Massimiliano de; Errani, Costatino; Pasini, Elisabetta; Campanacci, Laura; Bacci, Gaetano; Bertoni, Franco; Mercuri, Mario [Istituti Orthopedici Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-08-01

    The fourth case in the literature is presented of a patient with the rare association of hyperparathyroidism and osteosarcoma. A 56-year-old woman presented with hyperparathyroidism and a lesion in the tibia. Initial diagnosis was brown tumor. Histology, however, revealed osteosarcoma, and the patient was treated accordingly. The experimental induction of osteosarcoma by parathormone in rodent studies makes this finding alarming, considering the increasing use of parathormone in the treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism by which osteosarcoma is induced in humans cannot be explained based on current knowledge of mechanisms of action of parathyroid hormone. (orig.)

  17. Pentatomids associated with blackberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the presence of stink bugs in blackberry (Rubus spp. in Brazil is sparse. This study aimed to identify the stink bug species associated with blackberry, to establish the daily dynamics and evaluate the fruits damage. The experiment was conducted in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in blackberry orchard. Presence and evaluations of stink bugs were done weekly through visual and sweeping samplings at different day times. Five species of pentatomids were identified: Piezodorus guildinii, Nezara viridula, Euschistus heros, Dichelops furcatus and Edessa meditabunda. The bugs attack the drupelets producing a dark brown spot and wrinkled berries.

  18. Associative asymmetry of compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

    2014-07-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A →?) and backward (?← B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure.

  19. Associative learning in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert D; Byrne, John H

    2015-05-01

    This work reviews research on neural mechanisms of two types of associative learning in the marine mollusk Aplysia, classical conditioning of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex and operant conditioning of feeding behavior. Basic classical conditioning is caused in part by activity-dependent facilitation at sensory neuron-motor neuron (SN-MN) synapses and involves a hybrid combination of activity-dependent presynaptic facilitation and Hebbian potentiation, which are coordinated by trans-synaptic signaling. Classical conditioning also shows several higher-order features, which might be explained by the known circuit connections in Aplysia. Operant conditioning is caused in part by a different type of mechanism, an intrinsic increase in excitability of an identified neuron in the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. However, for both classical and operant conditioning, adenylyl cyclase is a molecular site of convergence of the two signals that are associated. Learning in other invertebrate preparations also involves many of the same mechanisms, which may contribute to learning in vertebrates as well. PMID:25877219

  20. Evolution of reproductive mode variation and host associations in a sexual-asexual complex of aphid parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrock Christoph

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lysiphlebus fabarum group is a taxonomically poorly resolved complex of aphid parasitoids, presently split into three described species that comprise sexual (arrhenotokous and asexual (thelytokous lineages of unknown relationship. Specifically, it is unclear how asexuals evolved from sexuals in this system, to what extent reproductive modes are still connected by genetic exchange, how much the complex is structured by geography or by host-associated differentiation, and whether species designations are valid. Using a combination of population genetic and phylogenetic approaches, we addressed these issues in a comprehensive sample of parasitoid wasps from across Europe. Results Asexual reproduction predominated in parasitoids of the L. fabarum group, with asexual populations exhibiting high genotypic diversity. Sexual populations were only common in southern France; elsewhere sexual reproduction was restricted to specific aphid hosts. Although reproductive modes were aggregated on the mitochondrial genealogy and significantly differentiated at nuclear microsatellite loci, there was clear evidence for genetic exchange, especially on hosts attacked by sexual and asexual parasitoids. The microsatellite data further revealed that parasitoids collected from certain host aphids were significantly differentiated, yet the mitochondrial sequence variation across the entire L. fabarum group did not exceed 1.32% and exhibited a very shallow topology. Morphological characters used for delineation of described species were found to be phylogenetically non-conservative. Conclusions Our results suggest that the sexual-asexual L. fabarum group represents a young complex of lineages with incomplete isolation between reproductive modes. We propose three mechanisms of genetic exchange that may jointly explain the high genotypic diversity observed in asexual parasitoids: (i the formation of new asexual lineages via 'contagious parthenogenesis

  1. The All Sky Young Association (ASYA): a new young association

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, C A O; Montes, D

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young stars) survey we developed a method to find young associations and to define their high probability members. These bona fide members enable to obtain the kinematical and the physical properties of each association in a proper way. Recently we noted a concentration in the UV plane and we found a new association we are calling ASYA (All Sky Young Association) for its overall distribution in the sky with a total of 38 bonafide members and an estimated age of 110 Myr, the oldest young association found in the SACY survey. We present here its kinematical, space and Li distributions and its HR diagram.

  2. MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, M L

    2008-01-01

    MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP), a Polyposis predisposition caused by biallelic mutations in the Base Excision Repair (BER) gene MUTYH, confers a marked risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The MAP phenotype is difficult to distinguish from other hereditary CRC syndromes. Especially from Familial...... Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and to a lesser extend Lynch Syndrome, which are caused by germline mutations in the APC and Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes, respectively.Here we review research findings regarding MUTYH interactions, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MAP, as well as surveillance...... and treatment of the disease. The applied papers, published between 1/1 2002- 1/2 2008, were found through PubMed.The exact role of MUTYH in CRC tumorgenesis is still uncertain, although MAP tumors show distinct molecular features, including somatic G:C>T:A transversions in the APC gene. Furthermore...

  3. TILLING and Associated Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Wang; Cristobal Uauy; Brad Till; Chun-Ming Liu

    2010-01-01

    @@ As part of a collaboration between the John Innes Centre(JIC),Norwich,UK and the Centre for Signal Transduction and Metabolomics(C-STM)at the Institute of Botany(IOB),the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,a workshop on 'TILLING and Associated Technologies' was held at the IOB on 15-16 April 2010.Through sponsorship from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(BBSRC),Resarch Councils UK,China Office,and the Transgenic Research Project of China,experts were drawn from the USA,Europe and China to present their latest information on technology development for targeted single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)detection to over 60 registered participants.

  4. Urolithiasis associated with topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide anticonvulsant used as adjunctive therapy for intractable refractory seizures. It is report a case of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old man presented with acute, right-sided, colicky flank pain. He denied hematuria or dysuria. He was in use of phenytoin, risperidone, phenobarbital, and topiramate. The total daily dose of topiramate was 375 mg. A CT scan showed a 7 x 1 mm curvilinear density at the right ureterovesical junction with proximal hydrouretronephrosis. He was managed with rigid ureteroscopic stone extraction and the calculus metabolic analysis revealed the stone was composed of carbonate apatite (70%, calcium oxalate dihydrate (20%, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (10%. COMMENTS: The present case typifies many features of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. Those who care for patients with urinary stone disease should be aware of this association.

  5. Transfusion associated circulatory overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Agnihotri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO is an established, but grossly under diagnosed and underreported complication of blood transfusion. We present the case of a 46-year-old diabetic and hypertensive patient admitted to our hospital for recurrent episodes of urinary retention. Over initial 3 days of the admission, the patient received multiple units of packed red blood cells (RBC and fresh frozen plasma, uneventfully. However, the patient developed signs and symptoms suggestive of TACO with only small amount of the 4 th unit of RBC. The patient had to be shifted to the Intensive Care Unit for further management of this complication. Etiology of TACO is more complex than a mere circulatory overload and is still not completely understood. TACO leads to a prolonged hospital stay and morbidity in the patients developing this complication. TACO thus needs to be suspected in patients at risk for this complication.

  6. HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2011-01-01

    The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6. PMID:20871843

  7. Pancytopenia associated with clonazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh Chung-Tsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a 48-year-old Chinese female with end-stage renal disease and chronic anemia on hemodialysis. Clonazepam was prescribed for myoclonus disorder two weeks prior to her hospitalization. Subsequently, she was hospitalized for neutropenic fever with thrombocytopenia and worsening anemia. Bone marrow examination demonstrated a markedly hypocellular marrow (10-20% total cellularity. Clonazepam was discontinued, with gradual improvement of thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia in 1-2 weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pancytopenia associated with clonazepam. We recommend patients taking clonazepam to be monitored with regular complete blood count to check for clinically significant pancytopenia or thrombocytopenia.

  8. Echovirus 4 associated to hand, foot and mouth disease Echovirus 4 associado à doença de mão, pé e boca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Hage Russo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is a contagious enteroviral infection occurring primarily in children and characterized by vesicular palmoplantar eruptions and erosive stomatitis. Echovirus 4 (EV-4 has been commonly associated with aseptic meningitis. The association of HFMD with EV-4 has not been reported previously. Two samples of a 14-month child who presented mild fever, sores in the mouth, rash with blisters on the palm of hands and soles of feet were sent to Enteric Viruses Laboratory of Adolfo Lutz Institute. Clinical samples were inoculated in three different cell lines, and those which presented cytopathic effect (CPE, were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and "one step" RT-PCR. Agarose gel electrophoresis from RT-PCR product, showed a product with 437 bp, which is characteristic of Enterovirus group. Echovirus 4 was identified by IFA. Although HFMD is a viral infection associated mainly with Enterovirus 71 (HEV-71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, our results demonstrate a diversity of serotype related to HFMD and stress the importance of epidemiological surveillance to this disease and its complications.A Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca (DMPB é uma infecção enteroviral contagiosa que ocorre principalmente em crianças sendo caracterizada por erupções palmoplantares vesiculares e estomatite. Echovirus 4 (EV-4 é comumente associado a meningite asséptica. A associação de DMPB por EV-4 não foi descrita anteriormente. Duas amostras provenientes de uma criança de 14 meses apresentando febre, secreções na garganta e exantemas nas palmas das mãos e dos pés, foram enviadas para o Laboratório de Vírus Entéricos do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. As amostras foram inoculadas em três diferentes linhagens celulares; aquelas que apresentaram efeito citopático (ECP, foram submetidas a ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e "one step" RT-PCR. A eletroforese em gel de agarose realizada com o produto de PCR apresentou

  9. The Association's awards and medals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2000-02-01

    The Association's first award was inaugurated and funded by Walter Goodacre in 1929. Since then, four other awards have been introduced to honour the names of prominent figures in the Association, and to acknowledge those whose work and achievements have benefited the Association or astronomy in general.

  10. Submanifolds Weakly Associated with Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Carriazo; L M Fernández; A Rodríguez-Hidalgo

    2009-06-01

    We establish an interesting link between differential geometry and graph theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low dimensions or belonging to some special families.

  11. The Growth-Inequality Association:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This note suggests that the association between income inequality and economic growth rates might arguably depend on the political ideology of incumbent governments. Estimates indicate that under leftwing governments, inequality is negatively associated with growth while the association is positive...... under rightwing governments. This may provide a qualification to recent studies of inequality....

  12. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Kumar Garg; Hardeep Singh Malhotra; Amita Jain; Kiran Preet Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evo...

  13. Hiding Sensitive Association Rule Using Clusters of Sensitive Association Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay keer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The security of the large database that contains certain crucialinformation, it will become a serious issue when sharing data to thenetwork against unauthorized access. Association rules hidingalgorithms get strong and efficient performance for protectingconfidential and crucial data. The objective of the proposedAssociation rule hiding algorithm for privacy preserving datamining is to hide certain information so that they cannot bediscovered through association rule mining algorithm. The mainapproached of association rule hiding algorithms to hide somegenerated association rules, by increase or decrease the support orthe confidence of the rules. The association rule items whether inLeft Hand Side (LHS or Right Hand Side (RHS of the generatedrule, that cannot be deduced through association rule miningalgorithms. The concept of Increase Support of Left Hand Side(ISL algorithm is decrease the confidence of rule by increase thesupport value of LHS. It doesn’t work for both side of rule. Itworks only for modification of LHS. In this paper, we propose aheuristic algorithm named ISLRC (Increase Support of L.H.S. itemof Rule Clusters based on ISL approach to preserve privacy forsensitive association rules in database. Proposed algorithmmodifies fewer transactions and hides many rules at a time. Theefficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with ISLalgorithms.

  14. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  15. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  16. Domain Bridging Associations Support Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Kötter, Tobias; Thiel, Kilian; Berthold, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to support creativity through assisting the discovery of unexpected associations across different domains. This is achieved by integrating information from heterogeneous domains into a single network, enabling the interactive discovery of links across the corresponding information resources. We discuss three different pattern of domain crossing associations in this context.

  17. Gay and Lesbian Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Click here to learn more. GLMA and Other Associations Speak Out On Religious Freedom Laws As the Governors of and legislators in Arkansas and Indiana work to address the concerns about how religious freedom ... professional associations to join a letter sharing their perspectives as ...

  18. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). PMID:23245971

  19. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kupriyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  20. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev-Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  1. Associative concept learning in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R; Wasserman, Edward A; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing associative concepts in nonhuman animals and evaluate data documenting the development of associative classes of stimuli. We also examine the nature of the common within-class representation of samples that have been associated with the same reinforced comparison response (i.e., many-to-one matching) by describing manipulations for distinguishing possible representations. Associative concepts provide one foundation for human language such that spoken and written words and the objects they represent become members of a class of interchangeable stimuli. The mechanisms of associative concept learning and the behavioral flexibility it allows, however, are also evident in the adaptive behaviors of animals lacking language.

  2. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow). Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods.

  3. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    Full Text Available Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow. Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods.

  4. Sarcoidosis associated with neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Raja; Radwan, Wael

    2013-08-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder diagnosed by an elongated spinal cord lesion associated with unilateral or bilateral optic neuritis and anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies in the serum. It is triggered by or associated with several autoimmune diseases, but not with sarcoidosis. It responds to immunomodulators better than to steroid treatment. Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disorder which manifests as non-caseating granulomas, usually in the lung parenchyma, but also in other tissues, including the brain. The involvement of the central nervous system in neurosarcoidosis differs considerably from that in neuromyelitis optica and the association of these two diseases concurrently in the same patient is unusual.

  5. Marijuana effects on associative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, R I; Wittenborn, J R

    1985-01-01

    Acute marijuana effects on associative processes involved in long-term memory retrieval were studied. Results were partially consistent with expectations based on previous subjective reports that marijuana promotes more uncommon associations. Marijuana altered responses when people gave as many examples of a specified category (e.g., CLOTHING) as they could for 2 min, and when they gave an example of a specified category beginning with a specified letter (e.g., WEAPON - G). Reaction time in the latter task and in prior studies was not altered in the expected manner, a finding problematic for some theoretic interpretations of marijuana's effects on associative processes.

  6. Papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome caused by parvovirus B19 infection in Brazil: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Tadashi Kakitani Toyoshima; Lilian Walsh Keller; Maria Luisa Barbosa; Edison Luiz Durigon

    2006-01-01

    Papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome (PPGSS) is a novel, rare, self-limiting dermatosis caused by human parvovirus B19. It consists of pruritic edema and erythema of the hands and feet in a gloves-and-socks distribution, and it is associated with oral lesions and fever. We present a case of PPGSS in a 22-year-old Brazilian woman. Clinical and laboratory evaluation, including serological tests, PCR and gene sequencing, confirmed the presence of human parvovirus B19.

  7. Notalgia Paresthetica and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome 2A: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Francisco; Feito, Marta; Albizuri, Fátima; Beato, María; De Lucas, Raúl

    2016-09-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is characterized by a hyperpigmented macular pruritic skin lesion most commonly localized unilaterally in the middle and upper back region. This condition has been reported in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A (MEN 2A) in several families; it rarely affects children and it may serve as an early marker of MEN 2A. We report a 9-year-old girl diagnosed with MEN 2A and notalgia paresthetica. PMID:27396529

  8. Business Associations and Private Ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the capacity of business associations - private, formal, noncommercial organizations designed to promote the common business interests of their members - to support contract enforcement and collective action. Inspired by recent empirical literature, our theoretical framework conne

  9. Discovering fuzzy spatial association rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Esen; Cicekli, Nihan K.

    2002-03-01

    Discovering interesting, implicit knowledge and general relationships in geographic information databases is very important to understand and use these spatial data. One of the methods for discovering this implicit knowledge is mining spatial association rules. A spatial association rule is a rule indicating certain association relationships among a set of spatial and possibly non-spatial predicates. In the mining process, data is organized in a hierarchical manner. However, in real-world applications it may not be possible to construct a crisp structure for this data, instead some fuzzy structures should be used. Fuzziness, i.e. partial belonging of an item to more than one sub-item in the hierarchy, could be applied to the data itself, and also to the hierarchy of spatial relations. This paper shows that, strong association rules can be mined from large spatial databases using fuzzy concept and spatial relation hierarchies.

  10. Information Retrieval Using Association Lists

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Gajecki

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the main models of information retrieval in text. The idea of association list and its use for information retrieval is introduced. The paper contains the evaluation results of the algorithms under discussion.

  11. Microtubules, Tubulins and Associated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raxworthy, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews much of what is known about microtubules, which are biopolymers consisting predominantly of subunits of the globular protein, tubulin. Describes the functions of microtubules, their structure and assembly, microtube associated proteins, and microtubule-disrupting agents. (TW)

  12. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your area. Read more » AAGP Journal Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Read more ... RESEARCHERS GMHF Scholars Since my program is so small and there is not much interest among my ...

  13. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  14. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static (Stud

  15. Learning Disabilities Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... purchases to benefit LDA. Shop Now October is Learning Disabilities Awareness Month Learning Disabilities Association of America ( ... children's health and reduce toxic exposures. Learn More Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal Committed to the study ...

  16. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  17. Health Conditions Associated with Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zipcode Comorbidities Associated with Psoriatic Disease People with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are at an elevated risk ... conditions. Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriasis Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Cancer A number of studies ...

  18. Associated with Health Care-Associated Infections in Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Giampaolo; Shi, Wei; Michler, Robert E.; Meltzer, David O.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Hohmann, Samuel F.; Thourani, Vinod; Argenziano, Michael; Alexander, John; Sankovic, Kathy; Gupta, Lopa; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Acker, Michael A.; Russo, Mark J.; Lee, Albert; Burks, Sandra G.; Gelijns, Annetine C.; Bagiella, Emilia; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are the most common noncardiac complications after cardiac surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current information about their economic burden is limited. OBJECTIVES To determine the cost associated with major types of HAIs during the first 2 months after cardiac surgery. METHODS Prospectively collected data from a multicenter observational study of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Clinical Trials Network, in which patients were monitored for infections for 65 days after surgery, were merged with related financial data, routinely collected by the University HealthSystem Consortium. Incremental length of stay (LOS) and cost associated with HAIs were estimated using generalized linear models, adjusting for patient demographics, clinical history, baseline laboratory values, and surgery type. RESULTS Among 4,320 cardiac surgery patients, mean age of 64 ± 13 years, 119 (2.8%) experienced a major HAI during the index hospitalization. The most common HAIs were pneumonia (48%), sepsis (20%) and C. Difficile colitis (18%). On average, the estimated incremental cost associated with a major HAI was nearly $38,000, of which 47% was related to intensive care unit services. The incremental LOS was 14 days. Overall, there were 849 readmissions, among these, 8.7% were attributed to major HAIs. The cost of readmissions due to major HAI was on average nearly three times as much as readmissions not related to HAI. CONCLUSIONS Hospital cost, length of stay, and readmissions are strongly associated with HAIs. These associations suggest the potential for large reductions in costs if HAIs following cardiac surgery can be reduced. PMID:25572505

  19. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, N.; Curtis, H.; Hyde, J.; Borriello, S P; Mahida, Y R

    1998-01-01

    At our hospital, the number of cases of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea increased from 29 in 1993 to 210 in 1995. The case notes of 110 patients with C difficile-associated diarrhoea during the first 6 months of 1995 were analysed retrospectively. The majority of the patients (106) had received antibiotics before the onset of diarrhoea; 46 had received three or more different antibiotics and 28 had received metronidazole. In 19 patients, the first stool sample after the onset of di...

  20. The Associative Nature of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    The overarching objective of this doctoral dissertation is to advance our understanding of the role of associations in creative thought and creativity training. While research in associative abilities and creativity has a long history and lies at the heart of many prevailing theories of creativit......, Thomas Z. Ramsøy, Hartwig Siebner: Viewing objects activates the creative mind. III: Balder Onarheim & Morten Friis-Olivarius (2013): Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 7, Article 656...

  1. Disability associated with mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Pranit K.; Deka, Kamala; Chetia, Dhrubajyoti

    2006-01-01

    Background: Disability associated with mental illness is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. The present study looks at some aspects of disability associated with 7 psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, dementia, and mental and behavioural disorders due to the use of alcohol. Aims: (i) To evaluate the nature and quantity of disabilities in the study groups; (ii) to compare the degree of ...

  2. Vitiligo associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a disease that results in depigmented areas in the skin. It may develop at any age but the average age at onset is 20 years. Association of vitiligo and melanoma has been commonly reported, but malignancies other than melanoma have been rarely associated with vitiligo. We report a 73-year-old patient with new onset vitiligo who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma in the following years.

  3. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  4. HIV-associated anal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, Thomas; Bower, Mark

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiqui...

  5. Associative Concept Learning in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zentall, Thomas R; Wasserman, Edward A.; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing asso...

  6. Associative processing and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.

  7. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Kupriyanov, V G

    2016-01-01

    Non-commutativity is quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-commutativity. Except for some specific cases, like the constant $B$-field in open strings, the string coordinates are not only non-commutative, but also non-associative. It manifests the non-geometric nature of the consistent string vacua. The aim of this paper is to study the mathematical tools necessary to deal with non-associativity in physics. Working in the framework of deformation quantization we admit non-associative star products, but keep the violation of associativity under control. We require that the star associator of three functions should vanish whenever each two of them are iqual. Such a star product is called alternative. This condition imposes the restriction on non-associative algebras, the star commutator should...

  8. Family-based association tests for genomewide association scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Min; Abecasis, Goncalo R

    2007-11-01

    With millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified and characterized, genomewide association studies have begun to identify susceptibility genes for complex traits and diseases. These studies involve the characterization and analysis of very-high-resolution SNP genotype data for hundreds or thousands of individuals. We describe a computationally efficient approach to testing association between SNPs and quantitative phenotypes, which can be applied to whole-genome association scans. In addition to observed genotypes, our approach allows estimation of missing genotypes, resulting in substantial increases in power when genotyping resources are limited. We estimate missing genotypes probabilistically using the Lander-Green or Elston-Stewart algorithms and combine high-resolution SNP genotypes for a subset of individuals in each pedigree with sparser marker data for the remaining individuals. We show that power is increased whenever phenotype information for ungenotyped individuals is included in analyses and that high-density genotyping of just three carefully selected individuals in a nuclear family can recover >90% of the information available if every individual were genotyped, for a fraction of the cost and experimental effort. To aid in study design, we evaluate the power of strategies that genotype different subsets of individuals in each pedigree and make recommendations about which individuals should be genotyped at a high density. To illustrate our method, we performed genomewide association analysis for 27 gene-expression phenotypes in 3-generation families (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain pedigrees), in which genotypes for ~860,000 SNPs in 90 grandparents and parents are complemented by genotypes for ~6,700 SNPs in a total of 168 individuals. In addition to increasing the evidence of association at 15 previously identified cis-acting associated alleles, our genotype-inference algorithm allowed us to identify associated alleles at 4

  9. Recurrent prurigo nodularis related to infected tonsils: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katotomichelakis Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Prurigo nodularis is an unusual disorder of unknown aetiology, which is notoriously resistant to therapy, and is characterized by extremely pruritic nodules with well-defined clinical symptoms and histopathological findings. Case presentation We report the case of a patient presenting with pruritic papules and nodules on his legs, arms and trunk over the past 4 years, recurring after episodes of acute tonsillitis. Although oral and topical corticosteroids, oral antibiotics and emollients were used in his therapy, only tonsillectomy finally proved the definitive treatment. Conclusion We discuss the aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of prurigo nodularis associated with chronic tonsillitis, and we further review the literature on this rare condition.

  10. Spectrum of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and its correlation with CD4 lymphocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Michelle S; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2015-05-01

    In this study, 100 HIV-positive cases (63 men, 37 women) with skin findings were included. The mean CD4 T cell count was 253 cells/mm(3). A total of 235 dermatological manifestations were seen. The common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis (21%), Staphylococcal skin infections (20%), dermatophytoses (14%) and herpes zoster (6%). Among the non-infectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions (20%), xerosis/ichthyosis (20%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (16%). Statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with CD4 T cell count was seen in pyodermas, dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions. Adverse drug reactions, diffuse hair loss, straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted. Although there was an absence of Kaposi's sarcoma in our study, a case of verrucous carcinoma of penis was noted.

  11. [Direct oral anticoagulant associated bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier, A; Martin, A-C; Rosencher, N; Susen, S

    2016-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are recommended for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, they are associated with hemorrhagic complications. Management of DOAC-induced bleeding remains challenging. Activated or non-activated prothrombin concentrates are proposed, although their efficacy to reverse DOAC is uncertain. Therapeutic options also include antidotes: idarucizumab, antidote for dabigatran, has been approved for use whereas andexanet alpha, antidote for anti-Xa agents, and aripazine, antidote for all DOAC, are under development. Other options include hemodialysis for the treatment of dabigatran-associated bleeding and administration of oral charcoal if recent DOAC ingestion. DOAC plasma concentration measurement is necessary to guide DOAC reversal. We propose an update on DOAC-associated bleeding, integrating the availability of dabigatran antidote and the critical place of DOAC concentration measurements. PMID:27297642

  12. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... thermodynamic models like cubic equations of state have been the dominating tools in the petroleum industry, the focus of this review is on the association models. Association models are defined as the models of SAFT/CPA family (and others) which incorporate hydrogen bonding and other complex interactions....... Such association models have been, especially over the last 20 years, proved to be very successful in predicting many thermodynamic properties in the oil & gas industry. They have not so far replaced cubic equations of state, but the results obtained by using these models are very impressive in many cases, e...

  13. Dissecting hydrophobic hydration and association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsing, Richard C; Weeks, John D

    2013-12-12

    We use appropriately defined short-ranged reference models of liquid water to clarify the different roles local hydrogen bonding, van der Waals attractions, and long-ranged electrostatic interactions play in the solvation and association of apolar solutes in water. While local hydrogen bonding interactions dominate hydrophobic effects involving small solutes, longer-ranged electrostatic and dispersion interactions are found to be increasingly important in the description of interfacial structure around large solutes. The hydrogen bond network sets the solute length scale at which a crossover in solvation behavior between these small and large length scale regimes is observed. Unbalanced long-ranged forces acting on interfacial water molecules are also important in hydrophobic association, illustrated here by analysis of the association of model methane and buckminsterfullerene solutes. PMID:23944226

  14. The Staff Association and you

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The Staff Association, your representative with the Management and the Member States The article VII 1.01 of the Staff Rules and Regulations (SR&R) provides that “the relations between the Director-General and the personnel shall be established either on an individual basis or on a collective basis with the Staff Association as intermediary”. This essential role of the Staff representatives, of being the spokesperson of the entire staff of the Organization vis-à-vis the Director-General and the Members States, is achieved through regular participation in the various joint advisory committees defined in the SR&R. The most important are the Standing Concertation Committee and the TREF, tripartite forum where your representatives meet with the Member States delegates, in the presence of the Management, to explain the position of the staff on the various issues concerning employment conditions. The Finance Committee also gives the opportunity to the Staff Association to ...

  15. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  16. The contagious nature of imprisonment: an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James

    2014-09-01

    We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible-infected-suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology.

  17. Why is no financial crisis a dress rehearsal for the next? Exploring contagious heterogeneities across major Asian stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Masih, Rumi; Masih, A. Mansur M.

    2015-02-01

    Our study attempts to discover pure contagion or interdependence amongst the Asian equity markets (China, India, Taiwan and South Korea) due to the shocks stemming from eleven major crises around the world. We apply wavelet decomposition in both its discrete and continuous forms to unveil the multi-horizon nature of co-movement, volatility and lead-lag relationship. We find that most of the earlier shocks were transmitted via excessive linkages or pure contagion, while the recent subprime crisis appears to have resulted mostly in fundamentals-based contagion or interdependence. This assertion is based mainly on the deepening fundamental integration particularly after the Asian financial crisis period. We also find the relatively dominating role of China and South Korea after this crisis.

  18. Is Depression Contagious? A Test of Alternative Peer Socialization Mechanisms of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Peer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Nurmi, J.E.; Salmela-Aro, K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the role of two different types of peer socialization (convergence, contagion) in adolescents' depression, adjusting for the effects of peer selection and deselection. Methods: The sample used in this study comprised 949 Finnish adolescents (56% females; mean age: 16 yea

  19. Dutch Disease in the Post-Soviet Countries of Central and South-West Asia: How Contagious is it?

    OpenAIRE

    Egert, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the extent to which the former communist states of Central and South-West Asia are “infected” by the Dutch Disease. We take a detailed look at the functioning of the transmission mechanism of the Dutch Disease, i.e. the chains that run from commodity prices to real output in manufacturing. We complement this with two econometric exercises. First, we estimate nominal and real exchange rate models to see whether commodity prices are correlated with the exchange rat...

  20. Is your mood more contagious if you are likeable? The role of liking in the social induction of affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we explored the role of liking in the social induction of affect. Dispositional likeability was manipulated by written reports describing a sender as a likeable or dislikeable character. Afterwards participants watched short videos presenting the sender displaying happy or sad emotional expressions. We expected that exposure to the likeable sender would lead to reactions concordant with his emotional expression (assimilation, whereas exposure to the dislikeable sender would result in discordant reactions (contrast. The results indicated that dispositional likeability influenced the social induction of affect when the sender expressed positive emotions. Moreover, liking mediated the effects of the happy sender’s dispositional likeability on participants’ affective state. Exposure to the sad sender, however, led to assimilation regardless of the sender’s dispositional likeability.

  1. Is your mood more contagious if you are likeable? The role of liking in the social induction of affect

    OpenAIRE

    Wróbel Monika; Królewiak Klara

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the role of liking in the social induction of affect. Dispositional likeability was manipulated by written reports describing a sender as a likeable or dislikeable character. Afterwards participants watched short videos presenting the sender displaying happy or sad emotional expressions. We expected that exposure to the likeable sender would lead to reactions concordant with his emotional expression (assimilation), whereas exposure to the dislikeable sender w...

  2. Asymptotics for Associated Random Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The book concerns the notion of association in probability and statistics. Association and some other positive dependence notions were introduced in 1966 and 1967 but received little attention from the probabilistic and statistics community. The interest in these dependence notions increased in the last 15 to 20 years, and many asymptotic results were proved and improved. Despite this increased interest, characterizations and results remained essentially scattered in the literature published in different journals. The goal of this book is to bring together the bulk of these results, presenting

  3. Pregnancy risks associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mission, John F; Marshall, Nicole E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the last several decades, with approximately 40% of pregnant women now considered overweight or obese. Obesity has been shown to be associated with numerous poor pregnancy outcomes, including increased rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia, stillbirth, postterm pregnancy, and increased rates of cesarean delivery. Many of these complications have been found to increase even further with increasing body mass index in a dose-response fashion. In this review, the association of obesity with maternal, fetal, and pregnancy outcomes is discussed as are the recommendations for caring for the obese gravida.

  4. [Nephrotic syndrome associated with ampulloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Navidad, A; Colomina, J; Domingo, P; Franco, M; Algaba, F

    1989-06-01

    A patient is reported who presented simultaneously classic nephrotic syndrome and adenocarcinoma of the Vater ampulla. Morphological study of the renal biopsy revealed changes characteristic of membranous glomerulonephritis and subepithelial deposits. These deposits stained specifically for IgG and C'3 with a granular pattern, but deposits of CEA-antiCEA immune complexes were not found in glomerular capillaries. The association of nephrotic syndrome with lymphoproliferative diseases and a large variety of solid tumors, like carcinoma of the breast, bronchogenic, colon and stomach has been communicated, but the present case constitutes the first known association with adenocarcinoma of the Vater ampulla. PMID:2772382

  5. WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of new college Englishtextbooks,vocabulary learning seems a more important taskthan ever before for college students.This paper is about aresearch on how to help students learn English words moremeaningfully and enlarge their vocabulary more efficiently.This paper first discusses word meaning,concept,andconcept network,then explores the associative network of wordsand their associations,which corresponds to English lexicalrelations.The lexical network can be realized onto a computer tobenefit students in their learning.

  6. Factors associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W

    1991-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with host factors that enhance susceptibility and environmental factors that increase food intake and decrease energy expenditure. Obese children underreport food intake and probably consume more food to maintain their weight at increased levels. Prevalence of obesity is related to family variables, including parental obesity, family size and age, and socioeconomic status. Television viewing is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity through its impact on food intake and activity. How these environmental variables are behaviorally interrelated to the genesis of obesity is unclear.

  7. Pattern Discovery Using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Kiruthika M,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of Internet has given rise to many websites which maintain large amount of user information. To utilize this information, identifying usage pattern of users is very important. Web usage mining is one of the processes of finding out this usage pattern and has many practical applications. Our paper discusses how association rules can be used to discover patterns in web usage mining. Our discussion starts with preprocessing of the given weblog, followed by clustering them and finding association rules. These rules provide knowledge that helps to improve website design, in advertising, web personalization etc.

  8. Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shia, Jinru; Holck, Susanne; Depetris, Giovanni;

    2013-01-01

    of such information. This article provides an overview of the development of histopathology and immunohistochemistry in Lynch syndrome-associated tumors, particularly in colorectal and endometrial cancers, and outlines the issues and current status of these specific pathologic aspects in not only the major tumors...

  9. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Associative Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K.E. Koekkoek (Bas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis primarily attempts to solve some long standing issues regarding classical eyelid conditioning. More specifically, what is the specific role of cerebellar LTD in classical eyeblink conditioning, and how does the answer change the view on cerebellar functioning on associative mot

  10. Factors associated with asthma control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.P. de; Bemt, E.A.J.M. van den; Lince, S.; Muris, J.W.M.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors are associated with asthma control experienced by asthma patients. In a cross-sectional study patients aged 16-60 years with mild to moderate asthma were selected. The influence of the following factors on asthma control was studied in a multivaria

  11. Association between attachment and schizotypy

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Colm

    2011-01-01

    Background: The human genome project has affirmed the importance of non-genetic factors in human development. Attachment style is considered to be a diathesis for psychopathology and an important determinant regarding interpersonal functioning. Epidemiological research has indicated that there is significant aetiological continuity between symptoms of schizotypy and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Limited research has investigated the association between attachment and schi...

  12. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  13. Spina Bifida Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

  14. Microfibrillar-Associated Protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sækmose, Susanne Gjørup; Mössner, Belinda; Christensen, Peer Brehm;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A method for assessment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis without the need for a liver biopsy is desirable. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a suggested biomarker for identification of high-risk patients with severe fibrosis stages. This study aimed to examine...

  15. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofie Lock; Roberts, Nassim Bazeghi; Schlosser, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a matricellular glycoprotein that co-localises with elastic fibres and is highly expressed in the lungs. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma MFAP4 (pMFAP4) reflects clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  16. Montessori Transformation at Computer Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Describes the growth of the all-day Montessori program for children ages 6 weeks to 6 years at Computer Associates' corporate headquarters and multiple sites worldwide. Focuses on placement of AMI Montessori-trained teachers, refurbishing of the child development centers to fit Montessori specifications, and the Nido--the children's community--and…

  17. A European Social Simulation Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, S

    2002-01-01

    This is a proposal to form a European Social Simulation Association (ESSA). ESSA is intended to coordinate with similar organisations in North America, Latin America and Australasia and other regions to organise an international federation to support the development of social simulation research, ed

  18. Congenital anomalies associated with hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Bamforth, J S; Hughes, I; Lazarus, J; John, R.

    1986-01-01

    Seven of the 34 infants identified through the Welsh Hypothyroid Screening Programme have additional congenital abnormalities. Two infants have a previously undescribed syndrome, two have chromosomal abnormalities, two have congenital heart disease, and one has a myelomeningocoele. Congenital hypothyroidism often seems to be associated with other congenital abnormalities.

  19. Automatic Association of News Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...

  1. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  2. Bullous Scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Di-Qing; Huang, Mei-Xing; Liu, Juan-Hua; Tang, Wen; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-09-01

    Scabies is a common contagious cutaneous disease and usually affects the young, characterized by polymorphous lesions that may present as burrows, pruritic papules, and inflammatory nodules. Bullous scabies (BS) is its rather rare subtype, mimicking bullous pemphigoid. We report a 15-year-old Chinese boy presenting with 1-month history of pruritic bullae on his penile skin, showing poor response to both topical steroids and systemic antihistamines, but cured by sulfur ointment alone. No recurrence occurred in the 5 years of follow-up. We also reviewed the published cases. Up to date, 44 cases, including the present, have been reported. Of them, 30 were male and 14 were female. The age range was from 1 to 89 years old, with a median age of 70.6 years. The bullous lesions may involve the arms, legs, trunk, genitals, feet, buttocks, thighs, neck, inguinal folds, and may even be generalized. Trunk and extremities are the most common involved locations. Facial or mucosa involvement had never been reported. The histological findings present as a subepidermal split with variable inflammatory infiltrate predominantly neutrophils, and eosinophilic spongiosis, or both. Eighteen of 32 patients showed positive deposition of linear-granular IgG or complement 3 alone or in various combinations, and five of 24 patients revealed circulating IgG. All the 40 cases with therapeutic details were cured by antiscabietic remedy. BS always involves the trunk and extremities. It has a predilection for elderlies and males. The treatments for BS are similar to those of classical scabies. PMID:27402514

  3. Clinical Aspects of Dermatitis Associated with Dirofilaria repens in Pets: A Review of 100 Canine and 31 Feline Cases (1990–2010 and a Report of a New Clinic Case Imported from Italy to Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Tarello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria (Nochtiella repens, living in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs, cats, wild carnivores, and humans. Cases have been recently reported also from Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia, Austria, Switzerland, France, The Netherlands, and the Middle East. D. repens is not widely known to cause chronic pruritic dermatitis in animals. Dermatological signs observed in 100 canine clinic cases were pruritus (100%, erythema (79%, papulae (62%, focal or multifocal alopecia (55%, hyperkeratosis (18%, crusting (14%, nodules (12%, acantosis (5%, and eczema (3%. Signs other than dermatological were conjunctivitis (46%, anorexia (35%, vomiting (26%, fever (25%, lethargy (20%, and lymph-adenomegaly (10%. A case imported from Italy to Dubai is described. The opportunistic role of D. repens might explain the presence of asymptomatic carriers, the concurrent observation of nondermatological signs, and the development of dermatitis in a subgroup of parasitized dogs.

  4. Clinical Aspects of Dermatitis Associated with Dirofilaria repens in Pets: A Review of 100 Canine and 31 Feline Cases (1990-2010) and a Report of a New Clinic Case Imported from Italy to Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarello, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens, living in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs, cats, wild carnivores, and humans. Cases have been recently reported also from Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia, Austria, Switzerland, France, The Netherlands, and the Middle East. D. repens is not widely known to cause chronic pruritic dermatitis in animals. Dermatological signs observed in 100 canine clinic cases were pruritus (100%), erythema (79%), papulae (62%), focal or multifocal alopecia (55%), hyperkeratosis (18%), crusting (14%), nodules (12%), acantosis (5%), and eczema (3%). Signs other than dermatological were conjunctivitis (46%), anorexia (35%), vomiting (26%), fever (25%), lethargy (20%), and lymph-adenomegaly (10%). A case imported from Italy to Dubai is described. The opportunistic role of D. repens might explain the presence of asymptomatic carriers, the concurrent observation of nondermatological signs, and the development of dermatitis in a subgroup of parasitized dogs.

  5. A PROPOSAL OF FUZZY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSOCIATION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolly Intan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules, in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are multidimensional association rules with no repeated predicates. This paper introduces a method for generating interdimension association rules. A more meaningful association rules can be provided by generalizing crisp value of attributes to be fuzzy value. To generate the multidimensional association rules implying fuzzy value, this paper introduces an alternative method for mining the rules by searching for the predicate sets.

  6. Association between Frailty and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, J; Nykänen, I; Mänty, Minna Regina;

    2014-01-01

    and cognition has not yet been fully established. Objective: To investigate cross-sectionally whether frailty is associated with cognitive impairment or clinically diagnosed dementia in older people. Methods: The study included a total of 654 persons aged 76-100 years (mean 82 ± 4.6). Frailty status...... of the participants was assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Clinically diagnosed dementia was assessed by specialists using diagnostic criteria. The associations between frailty and cognition were investigated using...... logistic regression. Results: A total of 93 (14%) participants were classified as frail. Cognitive impairment (MMSE score dementia. 97 (15%) persons had Alzheimer's disease, 19 (3%) had vascular dementia, 12 (2%) had...

  7. Associativity and normative credal probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, P

    2002-01-01

    Cox's Theorem is a widely cited motivation for probabilistic models of uncertain belief. The theorem relates the associativity of the logical connectives to that of the arithmetic operations of probability. Recent questions about the correctness of Cox's Theorem have been resolved, but there are new questions about one functional equation used by Cox in 1946. This equation is missing from his later work. Advances in knowledge since 1946 and changes in Cox's research interests explain the equation's disappearance. Other associativity-based motivations avoid functional equations altogether, and so may be more transparently applied to finite domains and discrete beliefs. A discrete counterpart of Cox's Theorem can be assembled from results that have been in the literature since 1959. PMID:18238098

  8. Waardenburg syndrome associated with laryngomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, R; Mallick, D; Ghosh, A; Ghosh, A

    2009-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterised by sensorineural hearing loss, in conjunction with pigmentary abnormalities and defects of the neural crest-derived tissues. Depending on the additional phenotypic characteristics, WS is classified into four types, viz. WS1, WS2, WS3 and WS4. We report a 45-day-old male infant with WS1, who presented with inspiratory stridor associated with difficulty in respiration. Direct flexible laryngoscopic examination during evaluation confirmed laryngomalacia as the cause of the symptoms. The baby was managed conservatively and was discharged with appropriate advice to the mother, including the need for evaluation at regular intervals. There was gradual improvement in his symptoms, and by one year of age, he was completely symptom free. To our knowledge, laryngomalacia as a part of WS has not been documented to date in the English literature. We also briefly discussed the probable embryological basis for the observed association. PMID:20087539

  9. Radiation-Associated Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients.

  10. Clostridium difficile-associated colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Mark W.; Beck, Paul L

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the basic microbiology, pathogenesis of disease, and diagnosis of the nosocomial pathogen Clostridium difficile and to examine therapies recommended by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE: was searched using MeSH headings. Controlled trials for therapy were sought, but case-control studies and observational reviews were included. MAIN MESSAGE: Clostridium difficile causes approximately 20% of cases of diarrhea associated with ant...

  11. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Tuazon; David Casalino; Ehteshamuddin Syed; Daniel Batlle

    2008-01-01

    Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly ca...

  12. Stimulus control and associative learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in operant research on stimulus control has declined at the same time that much interest has burgeoned in nonoperant areas. Several examples of this shift toward traditional learning theory are considered, all of which have sponsored theoretical approaches that attempt to characterize the underlying associative units. These theoretical approaches are defended on the grounds that they have generated a deeper understanding of a variety of often puzzling phenomena. My projection is that...

  13. Histograms and Associated Point Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Pierre; Oliveira, Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Non parametric inference for point processes is approached using histograms, which provide a nice tool for the analysis of on-line data. The construction of histograms depend on a sequence of partitions, which we take to be non embedded. This is quite natural in what regards applications, but presents some theoretical problems. On another direction, we drop the usual independence assumption on the sample, replacing it by an association hypothesis. Under this setting, we study t...

  14. Chylothorax associated with child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Atsuo; Sato, Kodai; Nakamura, Kaori; Kitagawa, Norihiko; Tanoue, Koji; Shiro, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of right chylothorax associated with physical abuse in a 10-month-old boy who presented with respiratory decompensation. Chylothorax was improved by thoracic drainage and nutrition management, such as fasting followed by medium-chain triglyceride milk. Chest computed tomography on admission showed bilateral old rib fractures. Accordingly, physical abuse was suspected. Chylothorax of unknown cause in infancy, especially in those with coexisting rib fractures, must be scrutinized for child abuse. PMID:26388541

  15. Psoriasis and Associated Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, José Luís Pio Da Costa; Reis, José Pedro Gaspar Dos; Figueiredo, Américo Manuel Da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with a high impact on self-esteem and patients’ health-related quality of life. In the last decades some studies have pointed out mental disorders associated with psoriasis and the etiopathogenic mechanisms behind that co-existence. This work compiles psychopathology associated with psoriasis and further analyzes the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and mental disorders. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and using the “5S” levels of organization of evidence from healthcare research, as previously described. Results: Psoriasis is linked with many mental disorders, both in the psychotic and neurotic sprectrum. Chronic stress diminishes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulates sympathetic-adrenal-medullary responses, stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Then, it maintains and exacerbates psoriasis and some of its mental disorders. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines connect psoriasis, psychiatric conditions, and other comorbidities of psoriasis (such as atherosclerosis) within a vicious cycle. Furthermore, the etiopathogenesis of the link between each psychiatric comorbidity and psoriasis has its own subtleties, including the cooccurrence of other comorbidities, the parts of the body affected by psoriasis, treatments, and biological and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: The study of psychopathology can amplify our understanding about the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and associated mental disorders. Patients would benefit from a psychodermatologic approach. The adequate treatment should take into account the mental disorders associated with psoriasis as well as the circumstances under which they occur.

  16. Ion association in natural brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  17. Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Hartig, Monika B.; Klopstock, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a hereditary progressive disorder and the most frequent form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). PKAN patients present with a progressive movement disorder, dysarthria, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. In magnetic resonance imaging, PKAN patients exhibit the pathognonomic "eye of the tiger" sign in the globus pallidus which corresponds to iron accumulation and gliosis as shown in neuropathological e...

  18. Sweet syndrome associated with interferon

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Lojo, Romina; Castineiras, Iria; Juarez, Yolanda; Lueiro, Mercedes; Armesto, Ana; Fernandez-Diaz, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although still very rare, drug-related cases of Sweet’s syndrome have been reported. The more frequent associated medications with drug induced Sweet´s syndrome was: tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulphamethaxazol, azatioprine, all trans retinoic acid, nitrofurantoin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, hydralazine, tripharil, lithium, oral contraceptives, furosemide, celecoxib and azathioprine. We only found one case of drug-induced Sweet´s syndrome secondary to pegylated interferon...

  19. Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksandar Grubic

    2006-01-01

    @@ Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association (CBGA), according to its Statute, "is non-governmental, international, scientific, non-political and non-profit making union of geoscientists working in the Carpathian-Balkan realm" and surrounding areas. The membership of CBGA is collective and it is "open to geoscientists of all countries of the Carpathian-Balkan" and neighboring countries. Application of collective membership "should be submitted by competent scientific bodies".

  20. Dissecting Hydrophobic Hydration and Association

    OpenAIRE

    Remsing, Richard C.; Weeks, John D.

    2015-01-01

    We use appropriately defined short ranged reference models of liquid water to clarify the different roles local hydrogen bonding, van der Waals attractions, and long ranged electrostatic interactions play in the solvation and association of apolar solutes in water. While local hydrogen bonding in- teractions dominate hydrophobic effects involving small solutes, longer ranged electrostatic and dis- persion interactions are found to be increasingly important in the description of interfacial st...

  1. Why join the Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Becoming a member of the Staff Association (SA) is above all a personal choice, showing that the joining person’s commitment and adherence to values such as solidarity, social cohesion, etc.In September, the SA launches a membership campaign to convince a maximum number to join, to inform, arouse interest and support. Posters, emails and individual contacts are part of the campaign programme, just like this editorial. As far as individual contacts are concerned, we ask you to give time and lend an ear to the delegates of your department in the Staff Council, who will approach you, in order to make an open and constructive discussion possible. Do not hesitate to ask questions and let them know your thoughts about the SA, as (constructive) criticism enables us to progress. The Staff Association and its role of collective representation The Staff Association, via its delegates, represents collectively all staff of the Organization before the Director-General and Member States. To do this, staff rep...

  2. Clinical characteristics and causes of pruritus in cats: a multicentre study on feline hypersensitivity-associated dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobi, Stefan; Linek, Monika; Marignac, Geneviève; Olivry, Thierry; Beco, Luc; Nett, Claudia; Fontaine, Jacques; Roosje, Petra; Bergvall, Kerstin; Belova, Sveta; Koebrich, Stefanie; Pin, Didier; Kovalik, Marcel; Meury, Sabrina; Wilhelm, Sylvie; Favrot, Claude

    2011-10-01

    Hypersensitivity dermatitides (HD) are often suspected in cats. Cats with HD are reported to present with one or more of the following patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, self-induced symmetrical alopecia or head and/or neck excoriations. Previous reports on feline HD included small numbers of animals, took place in geographically restricted areas or did not compare these conditions with other causes of pruritus. The goal of the present study was to analyse 72 parameters covering signalment, clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics from a large group of pruritic cats from different geographical areas. Of the 502 cats, the following diagnoses were made: flea HD (29% of cases), food HD (12%) nonflea/nonfood HD (20%) and other diseases in which pruritus was a feature (24%). Cats with signs consistent with a HD but which did not complete a food trial were not analysed further (15% of cases). Most cats with nonflea HD exhibited signs compatible with one or more of the four typical lesional patterns, but none of these patterns was found to be pathognomonic for any specific diagnosis. Food HD and nonflea/nonfood HD were found to be clinically undistinguishable. Young adult, purebred and female cats appeared predisposed to nonflea/nonfood HD. As many diagnoses presented with similar lesional patterns, a thorough clinical work-up is required for establishment of a specific diagnosis.

  3. Establishment of diagnostic criteria for feline nonflea-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Claude; Steffan, Jean; Seewald, Wolfgang; Hobi, Stefan; Linek, Monika; Marignac, Geneviève; Olivry, Thierry; Beco, Luc; Nett, Claudia; Fontaine, Jacques; Roosje, Petra; Bergvall, Kerstin; Belova, Svetlana; Koebrich, Stefanie; Pin, Didier; Kovalik, Marcel; Meury, Sabrina; Wilhelm, Sylvia

    2012-02-01

    Hypersensitivity dermatitides (HD) are commonly seen in cats, and they are usually caused by environmental, food and/or flea allergens. Affected cats normally present with one of the following clinical reaction patterns: head and neck excoriations, usually symmetrical self-induced alopecia, eosinophilic skin lesions or miliary dermatitis. Importantly, none of these clinical presentations is considered to be pathognomonic for HD skin diseases, and the diagnosis of HD is usually based on the exclusion of other pruritic diseases and on a positive response to therapy. The objectives of this study were to propose sets of criteria for the diagnosis of nonflea-induced HD (NFHD). We recruited 501 cats with pruritus and skin lesions and compared clinical parameters between cats with NFHD (encompassing those with nonflea, nonfood HD and those with food HD), flea HD and other pruritic conditions. Using simulated annealing techniques, we established two sets of proposed criteria for the following two different clinical situations: (i) the diagnosis of NFHD in a population of pruritic cats; and (ii) the diagnosis of NFHD after exclusion of cats with flea HD. These criteria sets were associated with good sensitivity and specificity and may be useful for homogeneity of enrolment in clinical trials and to evaluate the probability of diagnosis of NFHD in clinical practice. Finally, these criteria were not useful to differentiate cats with NFHD from those with food HD.

  4. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz;

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...

  5. Cancer-associated lysosomal changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallunki, T; Olsen, O D; Jaattela, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly dividing and invasive cancer cells are strongly dependent on effective lysosomal function. Accordingly, transformation and cancer progression are characterized by dramatic changes in lysosomal volume, composition and cellular distribution. Depending on one's point of view, the cancer......-targeting anti-cancer drugs. In this review we compile our current knowledge on cancer-associated changes in lysosomal composition and discuss the consequences of these alterations to cancer progression and the possibilities they can bring to cancer therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 July 2012; doi...

  6. Idiosyncratic Pancreatitis Associated with Perindopril

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Famularo; Giovanni Minisola; Giulio Cesare Nicotra; Claudio De Simone

    2005-01-01

    The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis [1] and, so far, only one case has been linked with the use of perindopril [2]. We report on a second patient with perindopril-induced pancreatitis. A 72-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of nausea, vomiting, and constant pain in the epigastrium which radiated to the sides. Four weeks before admission, perindopril (4 mg/day) had been added to the usual regimen of...

  7. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  8. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmarti, Montserrat; Ibáñez, Laura; Huertas, Sonia; Badenes, Dolors; Dalmau, David; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Jaen, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Currently, neuropsychological impairment among HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy leads to a reduction in the quality of life and it is an important challenge due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and its concomitant consequences in relation to morbidity and mortality- including those HIV+ patients with adequate immunological and virological status. The fact that the virus is established in CNS in the early stages and its persistence within the CNS can help us to understand HIV-related brain injury even when highly active antiretroviral therapy is effective. The rising interest in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders has let to development new diagnostic tools, improvement of the neuropsychological tests, and the use of new biomarkers and new neuroimaging techniques that can help the diagnosis. Standardization and homogenization of neurocognitive tests as well as normalizing and simplification of easily accessible tools that can identify patients with increased risk of cognitive impairment represent an urgent requirement. Future efforts should also focus on diagnostic keys and searching for useful strategies in order to decrease HIV neurotoxicity within the CNS. PMID:25945248

  9. Genetic Syndromes Associated with Craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung Min

    2016-05-01

    Craniosynostosis is defined as the premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures. It leads not only to secondary distortion of skull shape but to various complications including neurologic, ophthalmic and respiratory dysfunction. Craniosynostosis is very heterogeneous in terms of its causes, presentation, and management. Both environmental factors and genetic factors are associated with development of craniosynostosis. Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis accounts for more than 70% of all cases. Syndromic craniosynostosis with a certain genetic cause is more likely to involve multiple sutures or bilateral coronal sutures. FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR1, TWIST1 and EFNB1 genes are major causative genes of genetic syndromes associated with craniosynostosis. Although most of syndromic craniosynostosis show autosomal dominant inheritance, approximately half of patients are de novo cases. Apert syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Antley-Bixler syndrome are related to mutations in FGFR family (especially in FGFR2), and mutations in FGFRs can be overlapped between different syndromes. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, Muenke syndrome, and craniofrontonasal syndrome are representative disorders showing isolated coronal suture involvement. Compared to the other types of craniosynostosis, single gene mutations can be more frequently detected, in one-third of coronal synostosis patients. Molecular diagnosis can be helpful to provide adequate genetic counseling and guidance for patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. PMID:27226847

  10. Association theories for complex thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial applicat......Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...... models, we have now come to the understanding that simple one-fluid theories like the cubic equations of state or the various forms of local composition models will never be able to model a wide range of complex systems with sufficient accuracy. While various modern approaches have appeared, one very...

  11. Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Jernej; Korva, Misa; Tul, Nataša; Popović, Mara; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja; Mraz, Jerica; Kolenc, Marko; Resman Rus, Katarina; Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina; Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna; Vizjak, Alenka; Pižem, Jože; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2016-03-10

    A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

  12. Genetic Syndromes Associated with Craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung Min

    2016-05-01

    Craniosynostosis is defined as the premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures. It leads not only to secondary distortion of skull shape but to various complications including neurologic, ophthalmic and respiratory dysfunction. Craniosynostosis is very heterogeneous in terms of its causes, presentation, and management. Both environmental factors and genetic factors are associated with development of craniosynostosis. Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis accounts for more than 70% of all cases. Syndromic craniosynostosis with a certain genetic cause is more likely to involve multiple sutures or bilateral coronal sutures. FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR1, TWIST1 and EFNB1 genes are major causative genes of genetic syndromes associated with craniosynostosis. Although most of syndromic craniosynostosis show autosomal dominant inheritance, approximately half of patients are de novo cases. Apert syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Antley-Bixler syndrome are related to mutations in FGFR family (especially in FGFR2), and mutations in FGFRs can be overlapped between different syndromes. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, Muenke syndrome, and craniofrontonasal syndrome are representative disorders showing isolated coronal suture involvement. Compared to the other types of craniosynostosis, single gene mutations can be more frequently detected, in one-third of coronal synostosis patients. Molecular diagnosis can be helpful to provide adequate genetic counseling and guidance for patients with syndromic craniosynostosis.

  13. Random Distances Associated with Rhombuses

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Yanyan

    2011-01-01

    Parallelograms are one of the basic building blocks in two-dimensional tiling. They have important applications in a wide variety of science and engineering fields, such as wireless communication networks, urban transportation, operations research, etc. Different from rectangles and squares, the coordinates of a random point in parallelograms are no longer independent. As a case study of parallelograms, the explicit probability density functions of the random Euclidean distances associated with rhombuses are given in this report, when both endpoints are randomly distributed in 1) the same rhombus, 2) two parallel rhombuses sharing a side, and 3) two rhombuses having a common diagonal, respectively. The accuracy of the distance distribution functions is verified by simulation, and the correctness is validated by a recursion and a probabilistic sum. The first two statistical moments of the random distances, and the polynomial fit of the density functions are also given in this report for practical uses.

  14. Planctomycetes diversity associated with macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Olga Maria; Bondoso, Joana

    2011-11-01

    Planctomycetes associated with 12 macroalgae from the north coast of Portugal were isolated, using an improved method. A total of 138 isolates were found to comprise 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with 65% of the strains being closely related to the species Rhodopirellula baltica. The other strains are probably new species or genera related to Rhodopirellula, Blastopirellula and Planctomyces. Some of the OTUs isolated are unique and have never been found before in previous studies. Catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH confirmed the presence of Planctomycetes on macroalgal surfaces. This study provides the first report of the cultured diversity of Planctomycetes on the epiphytic macroalgae community and presents clear evidence of their nutritional and intimate relationship. PMID:21726244

  15. Pseudopheochromocytoma Associated with Domestic Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H. M.; Carbutti, G.; Ilisei, D.; Bouccin, E.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudopheochromocytoma has a clinical presentation that is similar to pheochromocytoma. It manifests itself with paroxysmal hypertension crises, associated with various symptoms such as headaches, chest pain, nausea, palpitations, and dizziness. Patients are usually asymptomatic in between the crises. Unlike pheochromocytoma, there is no catecholamines overproduction in this pathology: hypertensive peaks are caused by a hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is often triggered by a psychological trauma in the past. Treatment of pseudopheochromocytoma can be challenging due to normal blood pressure values in between the hypertensive peaks; it includes alpha- and beta-blockers for moderate crises and prevention and must be combined with psychopharmacologic agents such as anxiolytics or antidepressant drugs. Psychotherapy and dietetic treatment are also crucial in pseudopheochromocytoma management.

  16. [Cystic fibrosis and associated complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, C; Staab, D

    2015-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disease. The mutation is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Due to a defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, chloride ion transport is reduced across the cell membrane. As a result, the disease can be described as an exocrinopathy. In all organs with exocrine glands, disorders occur in association with the defective chloride transport. The main impact of this defect is manifested in the lungs. Therefore, the most common cause of death is pulmonary disease with respiratory insufficiency due to recurrent infections. Unfortunately, a cure for the disease is still not available. However, new therapies that may affect the CFTR mutation more specifically give new hope for better therapeutic options in the future. The long-term goal of therapy is to develop a causal therapy for all six different mutation classes and thus for about 2000 mutations. PMID:25693903

  17. Tilings and associated relational structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oger, Francis

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, as we did previously in [5], we investigate the relations between the geometric properties of tilings and the algebraic and model-theoretic properties of associated relational structures. Our study is motivated by the existence of aperiodic tilings. In [5], we considered tilings of the euclidean spaces of finite dimension, and isomorphism was defined up to translation. Here, we consider, more generally, tilings of a metric space, and isomorphism is defined modulo an arbitrary group of isometries. The results of Sections 1 and 2 concern, in particular, the characterization of relational structures which can be represented by tilings of some given type, local isomorphism and the extraction preorder. In Section 3, we show that the notions of periodicity and invariance through a translation, defined for tilings of the euclidean spaces of finite dimension, can be generalized, with appropriate hypotheses, to relational structures, and in particular to tilings of non-euclidean spaces. In Sectio...

  18. Corneal amyloidosis associated with keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, G A; Knapp, A; Hood, C I

    1988-01-01

    Nodular, gray-white, central corneal opacities which extended from the subepithelial zone through the anterior four fifths of the stroma developed in a 50-year-old man with a longstanding history of hard contact lens wear for keratoconus. Results of histopathologic analysis of the corneal button obtained at the time of penetrating keratoplasty disclosed that the opacities were composed of amyloid. Corneal amyloidosis is rarely found in association with keratoconus. Although there were some similarities in the pattern of amyloid deposition to that seen in primary familial amyloidosis of the cornea, the authors believe that their patient is more likely to have had a secondary amyloidosis. Corneal amyloidosis should be considered in keratoconus patients with development of unusual forms of central corneal opacification. PMID:3278260

  19. Obesity associated noncommunicable disease burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala Banjare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing rapid transition in health sector for under nutrition and over nutrition. Obesity is a challenging epidemic and increased Body Mass Index (BMI influences on almost all body systems leading to development of non-communicable diseases. Chronic but slow growing non-infectious pathology of body organization give upsurge onset of non-communicable disorders. Obesity related Non-communicable diseases (NCDs leads to millions of deaths all around the world, rapidly becoming economic burden worldwide. Pathophysiology and extend of obesity is responsible for ill effects of health. In obesity Low grade Inflammation and antioxidant disproportion plays vital role in development of NCDs. Effective health education, professional counselling from public health authorities, free health care, and social insurance can be effective in controlling growing non communicable disease globally. The present analysis attempts to study association of obesity with different NCDs in terms of prevalence and underlying mechanisms.

  20. Diseases associated with leaky hemichannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Mauricio A.; Reyes, Edison P.; García, Isaac E.; Pinto, Bernardo; Martínez, Agustín D.; González, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) and gap junction channels (GJCs) formed by protein subunits called connexins (Cxs) are major pathways for intercellular communication. While HCs connect the intracellular compartment with the extracellular milieu, GJCs allow the interchange of molecules between cytoplasm of two contacting cells. Under physiological conditions, HCs are mostly closed, but they can open under certain stimuli allowing the release of autocrine and paracrine molecules. Moreover, some pathological conditions, like ischemia or other inflammation conditions, significantly increase HCs activity. In addition, some mutations in Cx genes associated with human diseases, such as deafness or cataracts, lead to the formation of more active HCs or “leaky HCs.” In this article we will revise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the appearance of leaky HCs, and the consequences of their expression in different cellular systems and animal models, in seeking a common pattern or pathological mechanism of disease. PMID:26283912

  1. Gastrointestinal lesions associated with spondyloarthropathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambrogio Orlando; Sara Renna; Giovanni Perricone; Mario Cottone

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical gut inflammation has been described in up to two-thirds of patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Arthritis represents an extra-intestinal manifestation of several gastrointestinal diseases,including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Whipple's disease, Behcet's disease, celiac disease, intestinal bypass surgery, parasitic infections of the gut and pseudomembranous colitis. Moreover about twothirds of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users demonstrate intestinal inflammation. Arthritis may manifest as a peripheral or axial arthritis. The spondyloarthropathy family consists of the following entities:ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloar thr i t is, react ive ar thr i t is, psor iat i c arthritis, spondyloarthritis associated with IBD,juvenile onset spondyloarthritis. This topic reviews the major gastrointestinal manifestations that can occur in patients with SpA and in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs users.

  2. Association between Perioperative Parameters and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Ghaffary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD has been an important complication of cardiac surgery over the years. Neurocognitive dysfunction can affect quality of life and lead to social, functional, emotional, and financial problems in the patient’s life. To reduce POCD, we sought to identify the association between cognitive dysfunction and perioperative factors in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.Methods: One hundred one patients aged between 45 and 75 years undergoing elective cardiac surgery were enrolled in this study. All the surgeries were performed on-pump by the same medical team. A brief Wechsler Memory Test (WMT was administered before surgery, 3 to 5 days after the surgery, and 3 months after discharge. All related perioperative parameters were collected in order to study the effect of these parameters on the postoperative WMT scores and WMT score change.Results: The study population consisted of 101 patients, comprising 14 (13.8% females and 87 (86.2% males aged between 45 and 75 years. In univariate analysis, the baseline WMT score, serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and T3, cross-clamp time, and preexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease showed significant effects on the postoperative WMT score (p value < 0.05, whereas only the baseline WMT score and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease showed strong effects on the postoperative WMT score in the multiple regression model. In addition, the multiple regression model demonstrated a significant association between the baseline WMT score, serum creatinine level, and nitrate administration and the WMT score change.Conclusion: Our study showed that preexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and preoperative high serum creatinine levels negatively affected cognitive function after surgery. In addition, there was a strong relationship between the patients’ basic cognition and POCD. Preoperative nitrate administration led to a significant improvement

  3. Ketamine-snorting associated cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Huei; Chen, Yi-Chang; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2011-12-01

    Ketamine hydrochloride, commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic agent, is an N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) acid receptor antagonist with rapid onset and short duration of action. It produces a cataleptic-like state where the patient is dissociated from the surrounding environment by direct action on the cortex and limbic system. It has emerged as an increasingly popular choice among young drug users, especially within dance club venues. Cases of bladder dysfunction among recreational ketamine users were reported since Shahani et al first reported nine cases of ketamine-associated ulcerative cystitis in 2007. We report on four patients who had history of ketamine abuse, presenting with dysuria, fluctuating lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), lower abdominal or perineal pain, and impaired functional bladder capacities. Urinalysis showed pyuria and microhematuria. Urine culture was sterile. Bladder ulceration with severe diffuse hemorrhage and low bladder capacity were noted under anesthetized cystoscopic examination. Transurethral bladder mucosa biopsy was consistent with chronic cystitis. Cessation of ketamine abuse was the milestone of treatment, followed by the administration of mucosal protective agents, such as pentosan polysulphate or hyaluronic acid. Suprapubic pain was improved in three patients during follow-up. However, the outcome of treatment depends on the severity of the disease process, similar to that of interstitial cystitis (IC). PMID:22248834

  4. Microdomains Associated to Lipid Rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Jonathan; Ramírez-Jarquín, Josué O; Vaca, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Store Operated Ca(2+) Entry (SOCE), the main Ca(2+) influx mechanism in non-excitable cells, is implicated in the immune response and has been reported to be affected in several pathologies including cancer. The basic molecular constituents of SOCE are Orai, the pore forming unit, and STIM, a multidomain protein with at least two principal functions: one is to sense the Ca(2+) content inside the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum(ER) and the second is to activate Orai channels upon depletion of the ER. The link between Ca(2+) depletion inside the ER and Ca(2+) influx from extracellular media is through a direct association of STIM and Orai, but for this to occur, both molecules have to interact and form clusters where ER and plasma membrane (PM) are intimately apposed. In recent years a great number of components have been identified as participants in SOCE regulation, including regions of plasma membrane enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, the so called lipid rafts, which recruit a complex platform of specialized microdomains, which cells use to regulate spatiotemporal Ca(2+) signals.

  5. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tuazon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly capable of defining renal morphological features and has been demonstrated to be superior to US and CT scan for the visualization of small renal cysts. The microcysts are found in both cortex and medulla, particularly in the regions with extensive atrophy and fibrosis, and can be multiple and bilateral. They tend to be sparse and do not normally exceed 1–2 mm in diameter. The renal microcysts in the image here reported are subtle, but consistent with lithium-induced chronic nephropathy. An MRI of the kidneys provides noninvasive evidence that strengthens the diagnosis of lithium-induced nephropathy.

  6. Discoid Meniscus Associated With Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoernschemeyer, Daniel G; Atanda, Alfred; Dean-Davis, Ellen; Gupta, Sumit K

    2016-05-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. This form of dwarfism is caused by a point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, leading to inhibition of endochondral ossification for these patients. This results in a normal trunk height but shortened limbs. The discoid meniscus may be an important associated finding to better understand the common complaints of leg pain for these patients. Although the incidence for a discoid meniscus is between 3% and 5% for the general population, it is unknown with achondroplasia. This case series includes 4 patients, with ages ranging from adolescence to early adulthood, with symptoms of knee pain that were not attributable to some of the more common findings seen in this patient population. Typically, patients with achondroplasia who experience knee pain are evaluated for more common and well-known etiologies such as genu varum, ligamentous instability, and neurogenic claudication. However, the authors propose that symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus should be added to the differential diagnosis for lower-extremity pain in the achondroplasia population. A thorough history and physical examination, in combination with magnetic resonance imaging, can aid in making the diagnosis. Treatment with arthroscopic debridement, saucerization of the meniscus, and repair for unstable injuries has yielded good outcomes for this patient population. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e498-e503.]. PMID:27135452

  7. [Isaacs's syndrome and associated diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Isaacs' syndrome is an antibody-mediated potassium channel disorder. Clinical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome are characterized by muscle cramp, slow relaxation following muscle contraction, and hyperhidrosis. Hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve cause these symptoms, which are relieved by administration of Na channel blockers and immunotherapy.The target channel proteins are voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). The suppression of voltage-gated outward K(+) current by antibodies induces hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Electrophysiological findings show that antibodies may not directly block the kinetics of VGKCs, but may decrease channel density. From the electrophysiological, pharmacologic and immunologic view points, the site of origin of spontaneous discharges is located principally in the distal portion of the motor nerve."VGKC antibodies" are also detected in Morvan syndrome (severe insomnia with neuromyotonia and various autonomic disorders) and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC antibodies" are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1, CASPR-2) that complex with VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC antibodies" are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan syndrome.

  8. [Autoimmune Associated Encephalitis and Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks. Typical cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. In recent years, the true target antigens of the anti-VGKC antibody of this VGKC limbic encephalitis have been recognized as leucine rich glioma inactivated protein (LGI)-1 and others. These antibodies to amnesia-related LGI-1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize the LGI-1-ADAM22 (an anchor protein) interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors. There have been reports of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Less than 2% of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) develop serum anti-VGKC complex antibodies and, when positive, only at low titres. Low titres of these antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD, and when present, should be interpreted with caution.

  9. [Isaacs's syndrome and associated diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Isaacs' syndrome is an antibody-mediated potassium channel disorder. Clinical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome are characterized by muscle cramp, slow relaxation following muscle contraction, and hyperhidrosis. Hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve cause these symptoms, which are relieved by administration of Na channel blockers and immunotherapy.The target channel proteins are voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). The suppression of voltage-gated outward K(+) current by antibodies induces hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Electrophysiological findings show that antibodies may not directly block the kinetics of VGKCs, but may decrease channel density. From the electrophysiological, pharmacologic and immunologic view points, the site of origin of spontaneous discharges is located principally in the distal portion of the motor nerve."VGKC antibodies" are also detected in Morvan syndrome (severe insomnia with neuromyotonia and various autonomic disorders) and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC antibodies" are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1, CASPR-2) that complex with VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC antibodies" are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan syndrome. PMID:24291881

  10. Seven fatalities associated with ethylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskell, P D; Smith, P R; Cole, R; Hikin, L; Morley, S R

    2016-08-01

    Ethylphenidate is a stimulant novel psychoactive substance that is an analogue of the prescription drug methylphenidate (Ritalin(®)). Methylphenidate is used commonly for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Due to its stimulant effects ethylphenidate is being abused. There is a single case report of a death associated with ethylphenidate in Germany, and a case series of 19 deaths in the East of Scotland, but otherwise, the contribution of ethylphenidate to death is poorly documented. We report the analytical results of 7 cases (between February 2013 and January 2015) in which ethylphenidate was detected and quantitated with a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS). The individuals (all male) ranged in age from 23 to 49 years (median 25 years). The concentration of ethylphenidate in the cases ranged from 0.026mg/L to 2.18mg/L in unpreserved post-mortem femoral blood. Only one case had ethylphenidate present as a sole drug. All other cases had at least 2 other drug classes present (benzodiazepines, heroin, methadone antipsychotics, other new psychoactive compounds). Ethylphenidate toxicity was the sole contribution to the cause of death in one case. Hanging was the cause of death in 2 cases, with the other 4 cases being reported as having occurred due to mixed drug toxicity. These data will further help with the interpretation of post-mortem ethylphenidate levels. PMID:26829338

  11. Associated strangeness production at threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Kowina, P; Adam, H H; Budzanowski, A; Czyzykiewicz, R; Grzonka, D; Janusz, M; Jarczyk, L; Kamys, B; Khoukaz, A; Kilian, K; Lister, T A; Moskal, P; Oelert, Walter; Rozek, T; Santo, R; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Siemaszko, M; Smyrski, J; Steltenkamp, S; Strzalkowski, A; Winter, P; Wüstner, P; Zipper, W

    2003-01-01

    The associated strangeness dissociation at threshold has been studied at the COSY-11 facility measuring the hyperon - and the K+K- meson pair production. Measurements of the near threshold Lambda and Sigma0 production via the pp -> pK+ Lambda / Sigma0 reaction at COSY-11 have shown that the Lambda / Sigma0 cross section ratio exceeds the value at high excess energies (Q >= 300 MeV) by an order of magnitude. For a better understanding additional data have been taken between 13 MeV and 60 MeV excess energy. The near threshold production of the charged kaon-antikaon pair is related to the discussion about the nature of the scalar states in the 1 GeV/c^2 mass range, i.e. the f0(980) and a0(980). The interpretation as a K anti-K molecule is strongly dependent on the K anti-K interaction which can be studied via the production channel. A first total cross section value on the reaction pp -> ppK+K- at an excess energy of 17 MeV i.e. below the phi production threshold was measured.

  12. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Monika B; Prokisch, Holger; Meitinger, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a hereditary progressive disorder and the most frequent form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). PKAN patients present with a progressive movement disorder, dysarthria, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. In magnetic resonance imaging, PKAN patients exhibit the pathognonomic "eye of the tiger" sign in the globus pallidus which corresponds to iron accumulation and gliosis as shown in neuropathological examinations. The discovery of the disease causing mutations in PANK2 has linked the disorder to coenzyme A (CoA) metabolism. PANK2 is the only one out of four PANK genes encoding an isoform which localizes to mitochondria. At least two other NBIA genes (PLA2G6, C19orf12) encode proteins that share with PANK2 a mitochondrial localization and all are suggested to play a role in lipid homeostasis. With no causal therapy available for PKAN until now, only symptomatic treatment is possible. A multi-centre retrospective study with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with NBIA revealed a significant improvement of dystonia. Recently, studies in the PANK Drosophila model "fumble" revealed improvement by the compound pantethine which is hypothesized to feed an alternate CoA biosynthesis pathway. In addition, pilot studies with the iron chelator deferiprone that crosses the blood brain barrier showed a good safety profile and some indication of efficacy. An adequately powered randomized clinical trial will start in 2012. This review summarizes clinical presentation, neuropathology and pathogenesis of PKAN. PMID:22515741

  13. Alagille Syndrome Associated with Xerophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Moisseiev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the occurrence of xerophthalmia and keratomalacia in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Methods: The patient's record and relevant literature were reviewed. Results: A 3-year-old boy with Alagille syndrome was examined at our institution due to severe bilateral ocular irritation. A corneal ulcer and keratomalacia were found in the right eye and severe dryness with corneal opacification was found in the left eye. He was treated with topical fortified antibiotics in the right eye, followed by amniotic membrane transplantation. Due to his systemic condition, characterized by severe cholestasis and intestinal malabsorption, a suspicion of vitamin A deficiency was raised and was later confirmed in serum analysis. Conclusion: This is the first report of xerophthalmia in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Vitamin A deficiency leading to xerophthalmia is common in developing countries; however, its occurrence in the West is rare, leading to a reduced awareness of this disorder amongst clinicians. Unusual eating habits, intestinal malabsorption and liver disease are possible causes for such a deficiency. The purpose of this case report is to raise awareness to the possibility of vitamin A deficiency in children with keratopathy, especially when associated with these disorders.

  14. [Autoimmune Associated Encephalitis and Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks. Typical cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. In recent years, the true target antigens of the anti-VGKC antibody of this VGKC limbic encephalitis have been recognized as leucine rich glioma inactivated protein (LGI)-1 and others. These antibodies to amnesia-related LGI-1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize the LGI-1-ADAM22 (an anchor protein) interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors. There have been reports of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Less than 2% of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) develop serum anti-VGKC complex antibodies and, when positive, only at low titres. Low titres of these antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD, and when present, should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27056852

  15. Nelarabine Associated Myotoxicity and Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnur Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nelarabine (ara-G; Arranon; compound 506U78 is an antineoplastic purine analog used for the treatment of refractory or relapsed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL. The drug was granted accelerated approval in October 2005 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA given the efficacy (induction of complete responses noted in 2 single-arm trials (one in pediatric setting and one in adult patient population. The main spectra of toxicities that have been reported in these clinical trials and subsequent studies are hematological and neurological. Nelarabine induced rhabdomyolysis and increased creatinine phosphokinase (CK; CPK levels apparently have been reported and this side effect has been added as an adverse reaction in the product monograph from the drug company during postmarketing surveillance. However, the true extent and incidence of the myotoxicity from the drug are unclear. In this paper we report a grade IV CK elevation and rhabdomyolysis in a patient with T-ALL treated with nelarabine. Given the reported finding, we examined the literature further for myotoxicity, increased CK, and/or rhabdomyolysis associated with the use of the nelarabine and report our findings.

  16. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.2 - Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.2 Association. Association means an avocado organization established by State statute in a State with...

  18. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  19. Association Between Diabetes Mellitus And Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Oshitari T

    2014-01-01

    It has not been determined definitively whether there is a significant association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and glaucoma. Some population-based studies have shown a positive association between diabetes and glaucoma, and others have shown negative association between diabetes and glaucoma. However in many studies that showed a lack of a significant association between diabetes and glaucoma, the diagnosis of DM was made by self-presentation.

  20. SNP Set Association Analysis for Familial Data

    OpenAIRE

    Schifano, Elizabeth D.; Epstein, Michael P.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jhun, Min A; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Peyser, Patricia A; Lin, Xihong

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a popular approach for identifying common genetic variants and epistatic effects associated with a disease phenotype. The traditional statistical analysis of such GWAS attempts to assess the association between each individual Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and the observed phenotype. Recently, kernel machine-based tests for association between a SNP set (e.g., SNPs in a gene) and the disease phenotype have been proposed as a useful alternative...

  1. Autoimmune diseases associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Arti

    2008-01-01

    Associations of autoimmune diseases with neurofibromatosis type 1 have been rarely described. In the present report, we describe two patients of neurofibromatosis type 1 having an association with vitiligo in one, and alopecia areata and autoimmune thyroiditis in another. The associations of neurofibromatosis type 1 with vitiligo, alopecia areata, and autoimmune thyroiditis have not been reported earlier. Whether these associations reflect a causal relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1 or are coincidental needs to be settled.

  2. Exploring branding associations in festival branding

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer, Adriana; Slabbert, Elmarie

    2012-01-01

    Arts festivals in South Africa are growing tremendously and it has become more important for these types of tourism products to position themselves competitively. Branding plays a major role in positioning and the associations made with the brand. It is necessary to understand these associations as well as factors influencing the associations. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to explore brand associations in festival branding and to determine the influence of demographic characteris...

  3. Histopathology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.

    2006-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a generalized term incorporating a disseminated collection of lymphoid tissues in multiple sites throughout the body. MALT sites that have been/are primarily studied include bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT),

  4. 27 CFR 10.22 - Employee associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.22 Employee associations. Gifts... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee associations. 10... employee associations are considered the same as bonuses, premiums, compensation, or other things of...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.25 - State association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State association. 1230.25 Section 1230.25... association. State association means the single organization of producers in a State that is organized under the laws of that State and is recognized by the chief executive officer of such State as...

  6. Efficient Mining of Intertransaction Association Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tung, A.K.H.; Lu, H.J.; Han, J.W.; Feng, L.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the previous studies on mining association rules are on mining intratransaction associations, i.e., the associations among items within the same transaction where the notion of the transaction could be the items bought by the same customer, the events happened on the same day, etc. In this s

  7. Analyze of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Sunnetcioglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the infection that is an important cause of morbidity and mortality developed in patients whom the invasive mechanical ventilation (MV were performed in intensive care units (ICU. In this study, the factors of VAP developing in patients whom the mechanical ventilation of ICU performed, antibiotic susceptibility to these factors and determining the risk factors were aimed. Material and Method: Between January 2009 and March 2013, 79 cases, followed with the mechanical ventilation for at least for 48 hours and developed VAP, were retrospectively reviewed at Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of Reanimation at Faculty of Medicine at Yuzuncu Yil University, performing endotracheal intubation. The cases were evaluated in terms of microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors. Results: The rate of our VAP speed was calculated to be 19.68 on the day of 1000 ventilator. While a single microorganism could be isolated in 81.1% of the 74 VAP cases whose the active pathogen could be isolated, two or more than two microorganisms were isolated in 18.9% of them.While 83 of the strains (90.2% were gram-negative bacteria, 7 of them (7.6% were gram-positive bacteria. Acinetobacter spp. (40.2% was most commonly isolated as a gram-negative factor, but methicillin-resistant S. aureus (4.3% was isolated as a gram-positive factor. It was determined that the isolated factors in VAP cases were significantly resistant to the broad-spectrum antibiotics. Discussion: As a result, in patients with high-risk factors for the development of VAP, early and appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment should be started according to the results of the sensitivity of the unit and for the multi-drug-resistant microorganisms with common and high mortality.

  8. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  9. Idiosyncratic Pancreatitis Associated with Perindopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Famularo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors is not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis [1] and, so far, only one case has been linked with the use of perindopril [2]. We report on a second patient with perindopril-induced pancreatitis. A 72-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of nausea, vomiting, and constant pain in the epigastrium which radiated to the sides. Four weeks before admission, perindopril (4 mg/day had been added to the usual regimen of glyburide (5 mg/day, metformin (1 g/day and carvedilol (6.25 mg/day which the patient had been taking for three years for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and moderate hypertension. His previous history was otherwise unremarkable, except for psoriasis; he did not report any acute or chronic pancreatic disease and denied alcohol use, toxic habits or taking any other medications including over-the-counter medications or herbal remedies. Upon admission, the patient was fully alert and oriented, apyrexial and had normal vital parameters; physical examination yielded normal findings apart from a severely tender abdomen with no bowel sounds. Laboratory data showed increased blood amylase (556 IU/L; reference range: 0-115 IU/L and lipase (1,396 IU/L; reference range: 0-190 IU/L levels; electrolytes, hematological variables, cholesterol, triglycerides, liver and renal function tests, and blood gases were normal. The results of serologic tests for the Mycoplasma and Chlamydia species, viral hepatitis, and a wide range of other viral infections were also negative. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a moderately enlarged and edematous pancreas; furthermore, at imaging techniques no alterations such as stones or sludge of the gallbladder and of the common bile duct were detected. A chest X-ray was also normal.

  10. Associative learning for a robot intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Andreae, John H

    1998-01-01

    The explanation of brain functioning in terms of the association of ideas has been popular since the 17th century. Recently, however, the process of association has been dismissed as computationally inadequate by prominent cognitive scientists. In this book, a sharper definition of the term "association" is used to revive the process by showing that associative learning can indeed be computationally powerful. Within an appropriate organization, associative learning can be embodied in a robot to realize a human-like intelligence, which sets its own goals, exhibits unique unformalizable behaviou

  11. Priming in a free association task as a function of association directionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Zeelenberg; R.M. Shiffrin; J.G.W. Raaijmakers

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments investigated priming in free association, a conceptual implicit memory task. The stimuli consisted of bidirectionally associated word pairs (e.g., BEACH-SAND) and unidirectionally associated word pairs that have no association from the target response back to the stimulus cue (e.g.,

  12. Non-Associativity of Lorentz Transformation and Associative Reciprocal Symmetric Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mushfiq; Alam, Muhammad Shah

    2014-01-01

    Lorentz transformation is not associative. The non-associativity makes it frame dependent; and it does not fulfill relativistic requirements including reciprocity principle. The non associativity also leads to ambiguities when three or more velocities are involved. We have proposed an associative Reciprocal Symmetric Transformation (RST) to replace Lorentz transformation. RST is complex and is compatible with Pauli and Dirac algebra.

  13. Image segmentation using association rule features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, John A; Ranganath, Heggere; Hinke, Thomas H; Graves, Sara J

    2002-01-01

    A new type of texture feature based on association rules is described. Association rules have been used in applications such as market basket analysis to capture relationships present among items in large data sets. It is shown that association rules can be adapted to capture frequently occurring local structures in images. The frequency of occurrence of these structures can be used to characterize texture. Methods for segmentation of textured images based on association rule features are described. Simulation results using images consisting of man made and natural textures show that association rule features perform well compared to other widely used texture features. Association rule features are used to detect cumulus cloud fields in GOES satellite images and are found to achieve higher accuracy than other statistical texture features for this problem.

  14. Mesh Association by Projection along Smoothed-Normal-Vector Fields: Association of Closed Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    van Brummelen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    The necessity to associate two geometrically distinct meshes arises in many engineering applications. Current mesh-association algorithms are generally unsuitable for the high-order geometry representations associated with high-order finite-element discretizations. In the present work we therefore propose a mesh-association method for high-order geometry representations. The associative map defines the image of a point on a mesh as its projection along a so-called smoothed normal-vector field...

  15. An Improved Technique for Ranking Semantic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Narayana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of the search techniques in the first generation of the Web is accessing relevant documents from the Web. Though it satisfies user requirements, but it is insufficient as the user sometimes wishes to access actionable information involving complex relationships between two given entities. Finding such complex relationships (also known as semantic associations is especially useful in applications such as National Security, Pharmacy, Business Intelligence etc. Therefore the next frontier is discovering relevant semantic associations between two entities present in large semantic metadata repositories. Given two entities, there exist a huge number of semantic associations between two entities. Hence ranking of these associations is required in order to find more relevant associations. For this Aleman Meza et al. proposed a method involving six metrics viz. context, subsumption, rarity, popularity, association length and trust. To compute the overall rank of the associations this method computes context, subsumption, rarity and popularity values for each component of the association and for all the associations. However it is obvious that, many components appears repeatedly in many associations therefore it is not necessary to compute context, subsumption, rarity, popularity, and trust values of the components every time for each association rather the previously computed values may be used while computing the overall rank of the associations. This paper proposes a method to reuse the previously computed values using a hash data structure thus reduce the execution time. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments were conducted on SWETO ontology. Results show that the proposed method is more efficient than the other existing methods.

  16. Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika, PS; Tan, AK; Aziz, S.; Alwi, SAR Syed; Chong, MS; Vanitha, R.; Intan, G

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder affecting the orbital and periorbital tissues. Hyperthyroidism is commonly associated with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, however in 5% to 10% of cases it is euthyroid. Genetic, environmental and endogenous factors play a role in the initiation of the thyroid ophthalmopathy. Smoking has been identified as the strongest risk factor for the development of the disorder. The pathogenesis involves activation of both humoral and cell m...

  17. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    and analyze the structural richness required to model and investigate criminal network entities and their associations. We demonstrate a need to rethink entity associations with one specific case (inspired by \\textit{The Wire}, a tv series about organized crime in Baltimore, United States) and corroborated...... three of these associations and extend and test two centrality measures using CrimeFighter Investigator, a novel tool for criminal network investigation. Our findings show that the extended centrality measures offer new insights into criminal networks....

  18. Multi-Valued Associative Memory Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修春波; 刘向东; 张宇河

    2003-01-01

    A novel learning method for multi-valued associative memory network is introduced, which is based on Hebb rule, but utilizes more information. According to the current probe vector, the connection weights matrix could be chosen dynamically. Double-valued and multi-valued associative memory are all realized in our simulation experiment. The experimental results show that the method could enhance the associative success rate.

  19. Measuring degree-degree association in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raschke, Mathias; Schläpfer, Markus; Nibali, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The Pearson correlation coefficient is commonly used for quantifying the global level of degree-degree association in complex networks. Here, we use a probabilistic representation of the underlying network structure for assessing the applicability of different association measures to heavy-tailed degree distributions. Theoretical arguments together with our numerical study indicate that Pearson's coefficient often depends on the size of networks with equal association structure, impeding a sy...

  20. Reliability analysis of an associated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长杰; 魏一鸣; 蔡嗣经

    2002-01-01

    Based on engineering reliability of large complex system and distinct characteristic of soft system, some new conception and theory on the medium elements and the associated system are created. At the same time, the reliability logic model of associated system is provided. In this paper, through the field investigation of the trial operation, the engineering reliability of the paste fill system in No.2 mine of Jinchuan Non-ferrous Metallic Corporation is analyzed by using the theory of associated system.

  1. Breast fibromatosis associated with breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yoon Nae; Park, Young Mi; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Ryu, Ji Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Fibromatosis refers to an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor or aggressive fibromatosis. Breast fibromatosis can develop in association with the capsule around a breast implant, although reports of cases of fibromatosis associated with breast implants are rare. As the demand for breast augmentation has increased, it is important to understand the diseases associated with breast implants. In the present report, we describe a case of breast fibromatosis that developed adjacent to a breast implant and demonstrated a relatively well-defined border even though it invaded the surrounding structures. We also explore the specific imaging features for diagnosing breast fibromatosis in association with implants by reviewing previous literature.

  2. Association Rule Mining and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several algorithms in data mining technique have been studied recently, among which association is one of the most important techniques. In this paper, we introduce theory of association rule in data mining, and analyze the characteristics of postal EMS service. We create a data warehouse model for EMS services and give the procedure of applying association rule mining based on it. In the end, we give an example of the whole mining procedure. This EMS-Data warehouse model and association rule mining technique have been applied in a practical Postal CRM System.

  3. Pancreatitis associated with the use of itraconazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passier, J L M; van Puijenbroek, E P; Jonkers, G J P M; van Grootheest, A C

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We call attention to the assumed association between itraconazole and pancreatitis by presentation of four Dutch case reports. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received four reports of pancreatitis associated with the use of itraconazole, all reported b

  4. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine, J C; Mosnier, J. F.; Lapras, J; Convers, P.; Absi, L; Laurent, B.; Michel, D

    1996-01-01

    The association of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and carcinoma has rarely been reported and its relevance is debated. Thirty three consecutive patients with probable or definite CIDP (idiopathic or associated with M protein) were investigated. Three patients with definite CIDP had a concomitant carcinoma. One had an IgM paraprotein. Steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins were effective.

  5. Complex radiation diagnosis of associated intracardiac abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that patients with congenital heart diseases having signs of cardiodismorphic complex in form of associated intercardiac abnormalities require special attention after surgical correction of the principal defect. It is connected with the fact that the associated abnormalities may become with time the basic factors influencing the progress and forecast of the disease

  6. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  7. Neutron Star/Supernova Remnant Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence for associations between neutron stars and supernova remnants is reviewed. After summarizing the situation for young radio pulsars, I consider the evidence from associations that young neutron stars can have properties very different from those of radio pulsars. This, though still controversial, shakes our simple perception of the Crab pulsar as prototypical of the young neutron star population.

  8. Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghritlaharey R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

  9. Genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskola, Pasi J; Lemmelä, Susanna; Kjaer, Per;

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans....

  10. Hierarchical document categorization using associative networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, Niels; Theune, Mariët; Jong, de Franciska; Klement, E.P.; Borutzky, W.; Fahringer, T.; Hamza, M.H.; Uskov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Associative networks are a connectionist language model with the ability to handle dynamic data. We used two associative networks to categorize random sets of related Wikipedia articles with only their raw text as input. We then compared the resulting categorization to a gold standard: the manual ca

  11. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615.5142 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association...

  12. Sequential association rules in atonal music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Honingh; T. Weyde; D. Conklin

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study on the structure of atonal music. In the same way as sequential association rules of chords can be found in tonal music, sequential association rules of pitch class set categories can be found in atonal music. It has been noted before that certain pitch class

  13. Hearing impairment associated with oral terbinafine use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, Joep; Van Grootheest, Kees; Van Puijenbroek, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received six reports of hearing impairment in association with oral terbinafine use. This study describes these cases and provides support for this association from the Lareb database of spontaneous ADR reporting and from Vigibase, the adver

  14. Gallstones are associated with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben M; Vindsand Naver, Astrid; Mogensen, Ulla B;

    2015-01-01

    significant evidence was found with regard to hepatic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an association of HS with gallstones, but not with hepatic dysfunction. The association with gallstones may be partly explained by the comorbidity of hypertriglyceridemia and obesity as a part of MetS....

  15. Theory of chain association versus liquid condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roij, R. van

    1996-01-01

    We combine the original van der Waals description for liquid condensation with the association theory of ideal particles into a simple association theory of nonideal chains. The theory shows that vapor-liquid coexistence becomes metastable if the tendency to form weakly interacting chains is suffici

  16. Cross-cultural color-odor associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitan, C.A.; Ren, J.; Boesveldt, S.; Chan, J.; McKenzie, K.J.; Levin, J.A.; Leong, C.X.; Bosch, van den J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e.

  17. Bovine Necrotic Vulvovaginitis Associated with Porphyromonas levii

    OpenAIRE

    Elad, Daniel; Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis.

  18. Monoclonal gammopathy associated with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal gammopathy can accompany diverse conditions and is usually benign. It should be distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS which can rarely turn malignant. Visceral leishmaniasis has only rarely been associated with monoclonal gammopathy. We describe the case of a 55-year-old male who had monoclonal gammopathy associated with visceral leishmanisais, which reversed with stibogluconate therapy.

  19. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F

    1993-09-01

    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  20. Clavicular osteoma associated with bronchial osteomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saglik, Yener; Yiliz, H. Yusuf; Erakar, Aziz [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ankara University School of Medicine, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Kendi, Tuba Karaguelle [Integra MR Imaging Center, Ankara (Turkey); CMRR, University of Minnesota, 2021 6th Street SE, MN 55455, Minneapolis (United States); Guengoer, Adem [Department of Chest Surgery, Ankara University School of Medicine, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Erekul, Selim [Department of Pathology, Ankara University School of Medicine, 06100, Ankara (Turkey)

    2004-04-01

    Osteoma is a rare benign tumor, composed of bony tissues. It predominantly involves the skull but rarely the long bones. In this report we present a case of clavicular osteoma associated with bronchial osteomas. This association has not previously been reported. There was no evidence of Gardner's syndrome. (orig.)

  1. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  2. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Roefs; J. Huijding; F.T.Y. Smulders; C.M. MacLeod; P.J. de Jong; R.W. Wiers; A.T.M. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  3. Southern Rural Education Association Journal, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulick, Chuck, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This journal contains the following articles pertaining to education in rural areas: (1) "The State of the Association" (William Peter) reviews the mission and progress of the Southern Rural Education Association; (2) "Arts Enrichment Programs in Middle Tennessee Rural Schools" (Howard Brahmstedt and Patricia Brahmstedt) describes how these…

  4. Association Rule Discovery and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Data mining, i.e. , mining knowledge from large amounts of data, is a demanding field since huge amounts of data have been collected in various applications. The collected data far exceed peoples ability to analyze it. Thus, some new and efficient methods are needed to discover knowledge from large database. Association rule discovery is an important problem in knowledge discovery and data mining.The association mining task consists of identifying the frequent item sets and then forming conditional implication rule among them. In this paper, we describe and summarize recent work on association rule discovery, offer a new method to association rule mining and point out that association rule discovery can be applied in spatial data mining. It is useful to discover knowledge from remote sensing and geographical information system.``

  5. Holographic associative memories in document retrieval systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was the implementation of a holographic memory with associative readout for a document retrieval system. Taking advantage of the favourable properties of holography - associative readout of the memory, parallel processing in the response store - may give shorter response times than sequentially organized data memories. Such a system may also operate in the interactive mode including chain associations. In order to avoid technological difficulties, the experimental setup made use of commercially available components only. As a result an improved holographic structure is proposed which uses volume holograms in photorefractive crystals as storage device. In two chapters of appendix we give a review of the state of the art of electrooptic devices for coherent optical data processing and of competing technologies (semiconductor associative memories and associative program systems). (orig.)

  6. The different roles of the Staff association

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The statutory role of the CERN Staff Association is defined in Chapter VII of the Staff Rules and Regulations. The means of the Association to realize its aims are described in Article I.1.3 of the Statutes of the CERN Staff Association. Generally speaking, its aims are “To serve and defend the economic, social, professional and moral interests of its members and all CERN staff“. Usually we deal with professional and social issues (employment conditions, defence of collective or individual rights, promotion of basic research...). But the Association also plays a role of integration (clubs promoting cultural, humanitarian, and sport or offering entertainment, organizing exhibitions and conferences) and it can promote actions to provide its members with material or social advantages (Interfon, commercial offers). Advantageous commercial offers In recent years the Association was able to negotiate with business or cultural partners benefits for its members. A full list can be found on our...

  7. Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Rujescu, Dan; Cichon, Sven;

    2008-01-01

    Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account...... and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33......,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses...

  8. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K

    2014-12-12

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063

  9. The Staff Association and its history

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Association will celebrate its 60th birthday in the spring of 2015. We are collecting all information about the sixty years of the Staff Association. In particular, we are looking at publications of the Staff Association, which started with the “Staff Association Journal”, in 1955, which later became “Le Proton déchainé”, then, more simply, “Proton” in 1982 (the figure on the left shows the different mutations of our magazine). In our collection we are missing a few issues, in particular № 1 (dated mid-1955).     Dear reader, if have any old issues of this magazine, or of Graviton (figure on the right), another magazine edited by the Staff Association, or any other material or information that might help us document the history of the Staff Association, we would very much like to have a copy of the material or your contribution (written or oral). Please contact the Staff Association Sec...

  10. MRI features associated with acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M.N. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (G1-223.1), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jensch, Sebastiaan [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gratama, Jan W.C. [Gelre Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Spilt, Aart [Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Wiarda, Bart M. [Alkmaar Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Es, H.W. van [Sint Antonius Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Cobben, Lodewijk P.J. [Haaglanden Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leidschendam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boermeester, Marja A. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the OPTIMAP study group

    2014-01-15

    To identify MRI features associated with appendicitis. Features expected to be associated with appendicitis were recorded in consensus by two expert radiologists on 223 abdominal MRIs in patients with suspected appendicitis. Nine MRI features were studied: appendix diameter >7 mm, appendicolith, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration, peri-appendiceal fluid, absence of gas in the appendix, appendiceal wall destruction, restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall, lumen or focal fluid collections. Appendicitis was assigned as the final diagnosis in 117/223 patients. Associations between imaging features and appendicitis were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. All investigated features were significantly associated with appendicitis in univariate analysis. Combinations of two and three features were associated with a probability of appendicitis of 88 % and 92 %, respectively. In patients without any of the nine features, appendicitis was present in 2 % of cases. After multivariate analysis, only an appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall were significantly associated with appendicitis. The probability of appendicitis was 96 % in their presence and 2 % in their absence. An appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall have the strongest association with appendicitis on MRI. (orig.)

  11. Associative learning and perceptual style: Are associated events perceived analytically or as a whole?

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakanikos, Elias

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined whether the formation of associations is affected by individual differences in perceptual style (analytic vs. holistic). Ninety undergraduate students were tested on their ability to associate concurrent events (i.e. word—colour) and were assessed on measures of field dependence and intelligence. The analysis revealed that analytic perceptual style (field independence) was associated with better performance on associative learning, and that this relationship was retain...

  12. Novel hydrophobically associative polyacrylamide with tunable viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng Zhang; Wen Hui Wu

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophobically associative polyacrylamide (HAPAM) were prepared in aqueous solution by radical copolymerization of novel cationic surface-active monomer, dimethylhexadecyl(3-acrylamidopropyl)ammonium bromide (DMHAB), with acrylarnide (AM) in the presence of DMHAB/CTAB mixed micelles. The length of hydrophobic microblock (N_H) in HAPAM is controlled by the molar fraction of DMHAB in mixed micelles, which can be mediated by the ratio of CTAB to DMHAB. The results of steady-state fluorescence probe and viscometry experiments showed the ability of HAPAM association was determined by the length of the hydrophobic microblock. HAPAM with tunable association ability are promising materials for thickening agent.

  13. Hypophosphatemic rickets associated with giant hairy nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of multisystem pathologic conditions and epidermal nevi, known as the epidermal nevus syndrome, includes disorders of bone, central nervous system, eye, kidney, vasculature and skin. Rarely, congenital nevomelanocytic nevus also known as hairy nevus has also been reported in association with hypophosphatemic rickets. Studies suggest that phosphaturia, caused by circulating factors, called "phosphatonins" may be secreted by an epidermal or hairy nevus. We report here, a rare case of hypophosphatemic rickets associated with a giant hairy nevus in a 10-year-old boy.

  14. Contrast-associated Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Palevsky, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CAAKI) is a common iatrogenic condition. The principal risk factors for CAAKI are underlying renal impairment; diabetes in the setting of kidney disease; and intravascular volume depletion, effective or absolute. CAAKI is associated with serious adverse short-term and long-term outcomes, including mortality and more rapidly progressive chronic kidney disease, although the causal nature of these associations remains unproved. Patients with chronic kidney disease and other risk factors for CAAKI who present with acute coronary syndrome should undergo indicated angiographic procedures.

  15. Antidepressants and testicular cancer: cause versus association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-03-01

    A data mining study that examined associations between 105 drugs and 55 cancer sites found significant associations between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and testicular cancer. The study suggested several reasons why these associations merited further investigation. A later study tested specific relationships between 12 antidepressant drugs and testicular cancer and subtypes thereof; whereas significant relationships were again found, these disappeared after adjusting for confounding variables. These 2 studies are educative because they illustrate how false-positive results can easily arise in exploratory research and how confounding may be responsible for statistically significant relationships in study designs that are not randomized controlled trials. PMID:24717391

  16. [The centenary of the Israel Medical Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Nissim

    2012-01-01

    On January 12th 1912, six Jewish physicians and one pharmacist assembled in Tel-Aviv to proclaim the founding of the Jaffa Hebrew Medical Society. One year later the Jewish doctors of Jerusalem established the "Society of Hebrew Speaking Physicians". On 28th December, 1918 a few weeks after the end of World War 1, both organizations merged into the Hebrew Medical Association which later became the Israel Medical Association (I.M.A.). The Association played a leading role in the advancement of medicine in the Holy Land and was instrumental in imposing the Hebrew medical terminology in the newly founded State of Israel.

  17. [The Taiwan Nurses Association and professional diplomacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheuan

    2014-08-01

    The Taiwan Nurses Association (TWNA) is publishing a special centenary issue to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the association in 2014. For this issue, TWNA invited the author to write a review article that addresses the involvement of the TWNA in professional diplomacy and international exchange over the past century. The author reviews the history of both TWNA and the International Council of Nurses and introduces the contributions of the association in the field of professional diplomacy and the positive contributions of many Taiwan nursing leaders to global healthcare and society. The purpose of the paper is to convey the traditions and experiences of TWNA forward to the next generation. PMID:25125155

  18. Genetic variants associated with lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Wojczynski, Mary; Minster, Ryan L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) are strong predictors of mortality and lung function is higher among individuals with exceptional longevity. However, genetic factors associated with lung function in individuals...... with exceptional longevity have not been identified. METHOD: We conducted a genome wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with lung function in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n = 3,899). Replication was performed using data from the CHARGE/SpiroMeta consortia...

  19. Molecular Thermodynamic Model for Associated Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Chang-Jun(彭昌军); LIU,Hong-Lai(刘洪来); HU,Ying(胡英)

    2001-01-01

    A molecular thermedynmnic model for homopolyrner and copolymer systems with association segments was establishedby adopting the molecular thermodynamic model for hard-sphere-chain fluid as a reference,a perturbation term contributed by the square-well potential and a contribution of as sociation terms.The latter considers the multi-associated-seg-ments in a chain-like molecule based on the shield-sticky model of chemical association.The model can be used to correlate the pVT of melten homopolymer and copolymer.Good agree-ments with experimental data have been obtained.

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  1. Functional imaging of implicit marijuana associations during performance on an Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Ames; J.L. Grenard; A.W. Stacy; L. Xiao; Q. He; S.W Wong; G. Xue; R.W. Wiers; A. Bechara

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe difference

  2. PYLORIC ATRESIA IN ASSOCIATION WITH MULTIPLE COLONIC ATRESIAS IN A NEONATE: AN UNREPORTED ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay C Pujar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyloric atresia is rare cause of gastrointestinal obstruction in neonates and usually occurs as an isolated anomaly. They have been associated with multiple small bowel and colonic atresias but not reported in association with isolated multiple colonic atresias. A case of pyloric atresia oc-curring in association with multiple colonic atresias is being reported here.

  3. Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Lung Cancer: A Rare Case of Malignancy Associated with AA Amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueutin, Victor; Langlois, Anne-Lyse; Shehwaro, Nathalie; Elharraqui, Ryme; Rouvier, Philippe; Izzedine, Hassane

    2013-01-01

    Nonhematologic malignancies are rarely reported to be associated with AA amyloidosis. Although the association between renal cell carcinoma and systemic AA amyloidosis has been established, the evidence linking pulmonary cancer to AA amyloidosis is scarce. Here, a case of biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis complicated with nephrotic syndrome associated with lung carcinoma is reported. PMID:24558629

  4. Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Lung Cancer: A Rare Case of Malignancy Associated with AA Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Gueutin; Anne-Lyse Langlois; Nathalie Shehwaro; Ryme Elharraqui; Philippe Rouvier; Hassane Izzedine

    2013-01-01

    Nonhematologic malignancies are rarely reported to be associated with AA amyloidosis. Although the association between renal cell carcinoma and systemic AA amyloidosis has been established, the evidence linking pulmonary cancer to AA amyloidosis is scarce. Here, a case of biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis complicated with nephrotic syndrome associated with lung carcinoma is reported.

  5. Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Lung Cancer: A Rare Case of Malignancy Associated with AA Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gueutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonhematologic malignancies are rarely reported to be associated with AA amyloidosis. Although the association between renal cell carcinoma and systemic AA amyloidosis has been established, the evidence linking pulmonary cancer to AA amyloidosis is scarce. Here, a case of biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis complicated with nephrotic syndrome associated with lung carcinoma is reported.

  6. Bacterial diversity associated with freshwater zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dziallas, Claudia; Tang, Kam W.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial community compositions (BCC) associated with the cladoceran Bosmina coregoni and the cyclopoid copepod Thermocyclops oithonoides in oligotrophic Lake Stechlin versus eutrophic Lake Dagow (northeastern Germany) were compared using molecular techniques. We also transplanted the zooplankton...

  7. Waardenburg's syndrome associated with total aganglionosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Farndon, P A; Bianchi, A.

    1983-01-01

    A Pakistani child of consanguineous parents had signs of Waardenburg's syndrome and total intestinal aganglionosis. This association seems to be a distinct clinical entity with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.

  8. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  9. Sources and Information on Transfer Associate Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayon, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of articles about the effects of transfer associate degrees and related statewide transfer and articulation policies. It also provides links to transfer degree legislation in several states.

  10. Higher potato intake associated with hypertension risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The aim of three US prospective longitudinal cohort studies was to determine whether a higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries or chips and mashed potatoes was associated with incidence of hypertension. PMID:27353785

  11. Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wormser, David;

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using i...

  12. Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wormser, David; Willeit, Peter; Butterworth, Adam S; Bansal, Narinder; O'Keeffe, Linda M; Gao, Pei; Wood, Angela M; Burgess, Stephen; Freitag, Daniel F; Pennells, Lisa; Peters, Sanne A; Hart, Carole L; Håheim, Lise Lund; Gillum, Richard F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Psaty, Bruce M; Yeap, Bu B; Knuiman, Matthew W; Nietert, Paul J; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Kuller, Lewis H; Simons, Leon A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Selmer, Randi; Crespo, Carlos J; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Verschuren, W M Monique; Salomaa, Veikko; Svärdsudd, Kurt; van der Harst, Pim; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Wallace, Robert B; Brenner, Hermann; Amouyel, Philippe; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Iso, Hiroyasu; Onat, Altan; Trevisan, Maurizio; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Cooper, Cyrus; Kavousi, Maryam; Welin, Lennart; Roussel, Ronan; Hu, Frank B; Sato, Shinichi; Davidson, Karina W; Howard, Barbara V; Leening, Maarten J G; Leening, Maarten; Rosengren, Annika; Dörr, Marcus; Deeg, Dorly J H; Kiechl, Stefan; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kromhout, Daan; Price, Jackie F; Peters, Annette; Meade, Tom W; Casiglia, Edoardo; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gallacher, John; Nagel, Dorothea; Franco, Oscar H; Assmann, Gerd; Dagenais, Gilles R; Jukema, J Wouter; Sundström, Johan; Woodward, Mark; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitsel, Eric A; Njølstad, Inger; Hedblad, Bo; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Engström, Gunnar; Rosamond, Wayne D; Selvin, Elizabeth; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, Simon G; Danesh, John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using indi

  13. The GRB/XRF-SN Association

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon

    2004-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that long duration gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) are produced by highly relativistic and narrowly collimated jets ejected in core collapse supernova (SN) explosions akin to SN 1998bw. We review the history of the GRB-SN association idea and its observational verification. We summarize the present evidence for a GRB/XRF-SN association. We comment on the possibility that most, perhaps all, SN explosions produce GRBs, including SNe of Type Ia which may produce short GRBs/XRFs. We list the major open questions that follow from a GRB/XRF-SN association. Possible uses of the GRB-SN association in cosmology are pointed out.

  14. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.; Johansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    : Seven allergens - parabens mix, N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, sesquiterpene lactone mix, wool alcohols, potassium dichromate, Myroxylon pereirae, and cobalt chloride - showed statistically significant positive associations to polysensitization. Five allergens p-phenylenediamine, neomycin...

  15. Controlling False Positives in Association Rule Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guimei; Wong, Limsoon

    2011-01-01

    Association rule mining is an important problem in the data mining area. It enumerates and tests a large number of rules on a dataset and outputs rules that satisfy user-specified constraints. Due to the large number of rules being tested, rules that do not represent real systematic effect in the data can satisfy the given constraints purely by random chance. Hence association rule mining often suffers from a high risk of false positive errors. There is a lack of comprehensive study on controlling false positives in association rule mining. In this paper, we adopt three multiple testing correction approaches---the direct adjustment approach, the permutation-based approach and the holdout approach---to control false positives in association rule mining, and conduct extensive experiments to study their performance. Our results show that (1) Numerous spurious rules are generated if no correction is made. (2) The three approaches can control false positives effectively. Among the three approaches, the permutation...

  16. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Certification APRN Resources Education State-of-the-art educational programs provide evidence- based knowledge, directly applicable to practice ... Policy Disclaimer © American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Learn ...

  17. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  18. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  19. Erythema nodosum associated with Salmonella enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantadakis, E; Arvanitidou, V; Tsalkidis, A.; Thomaidis, S.; A. Chatzimichael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Erythema nodosum (EN) is the most frequent type of panniculitis in childhood. Although frequently idiopathic, it may be associated with a wide variety of conditions ranging from infections, to sarcoidosis, to collagen vascular diseases to drugs.

  20. Introduction to China Association for Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Association for Standardization (CAS), consisting of organizations and individuals engaged in standardization in China based on the voluntary participation, is a public society of standardization erjoying a 1egal status approved by the Ministry of Civil Affairs.

  1. Segmental neurofibromatosis associated with renal angiomyolipomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim-Tan; Chiu, Melvin

    2008-07-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis (SN) is a rare disorder characterized by neurofibromas or neurofibromas with café-au-lait spots limited to one region of the body without crossing the midline. Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are rare benign neoplasms usually found in association with tuberous sclerosis (TS). Similar to neurofibromatosis (NF), TS has a high spontaneous mutation rate and a family history often is absent. Although both are autosomal dominant diseases with neural involvement, there are few reports in the literature demonstrating a link between the 2 disorders. We report a case of SN associated with renal AMLs. To our knowledge, there has been only 1 prior report of renal AML associated with NF type 1 (NF1), and there have been no prior reports of SN associated with AML. PMID:18712027

  2. Syndrome-Associated Tumors by Organ System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Riddle, Nicole D

    2016-06-01

    Certain tumors suggest the possibility of a patient harboring a genetic syndrome, particularly in children. Syndrome-associated tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, gynecologic tract, heart, lungs, brain, eye, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic system will be briefly discussed.

  3. Inguinal lymphadenitis associated with Capnocytophaga bacilli.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, C. C.; Poupard, J

    1991-01-01

    Capnocytophaga organisms are capnophilic, gram-negative bacilli that have been associated with infections deriving from the flora of the oropharynx. We report a case of inguinal adenitis caused by Capnocytophaga species that probably represents sexual transmission of the pathogen.

  4. Sweet's syndrome in association with Crohn's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, A; Kramer, K.; Kalish, R.

    2000-01-01

    A case of Sweet's syndrome in association with Crohn's disease in a young woman is reported. Sweet's syndrome is a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. 


Keywords: Sweet's syndrome; Crohn's disease

  5. Sweet's syndrome in association with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, A; Kramer, K; Kalish, R A

    2000-11-01

    A case of Sweet's syndrome in association with Crohn's disease in a young woman is reported. Sweet's syndrome is a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:11060149

  6. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Edmond CH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.

  7. THYROID ASSOCIATED ORBITOPATHY – UNILATERAL PRESENT ATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO, frequently te rmed Graves ophthalmopathy, is part of an autoimmune process that can affect the orbital and periorbital tissue, the thyroid gland, and, rarely, the pretibial skin or digits (th yroid acropachy, Although the use of the term thyroid ophthalmopathy is pervasive, the disease proce ss is actually an orbitopathy in which the orbital and periocular soft tissues are primarily af fected with secondary effects on the eye. Thyroid orbitopathy (TO is most prevalent among fema les in the fourth and fifth decades and is usually associated with thyroid dysfunction. Thyroi d-associated orbitopathy may precede, coincide, or follow the systemic complications of dy sthyroidism. The ocular manifestations of thyroid-associated orbitopathy include eyelid retrac tion, proptosis, chemosis, periorbital edema, and altered ocular motility with significant functional, social, and cosmetic consequences. we describe a unique case of unilater al exophthalmos in a young male patient.

  8. Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rules and regulations that govern and enforce the laws that grant the privilege to practice optometry, which are enacted by state legislatures. Mission Statement The mission of the Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry is to represent ...

  9. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Practice Management Research American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Making effective communication, a human right, accessible and ... for focused information and more. Join a SIG ASHA Corporate Partners Become A Corporate Partner Policies  About ...

  10. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  11. Transverse myelitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, P I; Miller, V

    1984-01-01

    A case of acute transverse myelitis associated with respiratory infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is described. Circulating antibodies to myelin were detected suggesting that mycoplasma related neurological damage is mediated by producing an immunological myelopathy.

  12. [Clinical psychopathological types associated with smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, M

    1992-06-01

    Dependence and withdraw syndromes related with tobacco are mentioned. Clinical forms and types associated to tabagism considered are: psychopathic, borderline, neurotic, narcisic, psychotic, depressive, hedonic, and bulimic. Psychopathological and etiopathogenic factors of tabagism are listed. PMID:1308399

  13. Seizures associated with Lupus during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Shigeru; KOBAYASHI, Natsuko; Mochimaru, Aya; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A sudden flare of previously stable SLE may give rise to CNS lupus. During pregnancy, seizures associated with CNS lupus can cause hypoxic‐ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the infant.

  14. Pulmonary vasculitis associated with cholangiocarcinoma of liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, E L; Evans, S; Hanley, S. P.

    1989-01-01

    A 62 year old woman presented with an acute pulmonary vasculitis which responded to treatment with oral steroids. Investigations over one year revealed a cholangiocarcinoma of the liver. The association of vasculitis with neoplastic diseases remains a diagnostic challenge.

  15. Is hidradenitis suppurativa associated with anaemia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Johansen, M E; Mogensen, U B;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases may be associated with anaemia of inflammation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease associated with metabolic comorbidities, low quality of life and fatigue. Anaemia may cause fatigue, and it has been hypothesized...... that HS-related fatigue may be partly due to anaemia. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate a possible association between HS and anaemia. METHODS: We performed a hospital-based and population-based cross-sectional study investigating the red blood cell profile, i.e. haemoglobin. RESULTS: We...... revealed that 60% had normocytic anaemia and 40% microcytic anaemia, in concordance with anaemia of inflammation. CONCLUSION: In contrast to our hypothesis, this study showed that HS is not associated with anaemia. Thus, anaemia may not be the cause of the described fatigue in HS patients. Furthermore...

  16. American Association of Colleges of Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Interprofessional Education Public Health Nursing QSEN Module Series NURSING SHORTAGE RESOURCES About the Nursing Shortage I mpact ... Social Media Communities American Association of Colleges of Nursing One Dupont Circle, NW Suite 530 Washington, DC ...

  17. China-South Africa Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 24, the founding ceremony of the China-South Africa Friendship Association (CSAFA) was held in Beijing on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa.

  18. Alopecia Areata Associated with Localized Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchabal, Shankarling D.; Kuchabal, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common cause of noncicatricial alopecia that occurs in a patchy, confluent or diffuse pattern. It may occur as a single, self-limiting episode or may recur at varying intervals over many years. The association of alopecia areata with localized vitiligo has not been reported. The association of alopecia areata with localized vitiligo in the same patient is documented here; it is the first of its kind.

  19. Secondary Retroperitoneal Fibrosis Associated with Generalized Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Barbullushi Myftar; Pasko Nevi; Bezhani Edip; Duraku Ahmet; Rusi Reza; Hoti Klit; Bakalli Vaso; Idrizi Alma

    1999-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is an uncommon disease that often presents in a subtle manner. Only a few cases of the combined association of generalized atherosclerosis and retroperitoneal fibrosis are reported in the recent literature, supporting the view that the condition is probably an autoimmune periaortitis. We describe a typical case of retroperitoneal fibrosis associated with generalized atherosclerosis with clinical presentation of progressive renal insufficiency, and claudication from ar...

  20. Secondary Retroperitoneal Fibrosis Associated with Generalized Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbullushi Myftar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal fibrosis is an uncommon disease that often presents in a subtle manner. Only a few cases of the combined association of generalized atherosclerosis and retroperitoneal fibrosis are reported in the recent literature, supporting the view that the condition is probably an autoimmune periaortitis. We describe a typical case of retroperitoneal fibrosis associated with generalized atherosclerosis with clinical presentation of progressive renal insufficiency, and claudication from arterial compromise.