WorldWideScience

Sample records for associated contagious pruritic

  1. Demodex gatoi -associated contagious pruritic dermatosis in cats - a report from six households in Finland

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    Rajaniemi Riitta-Liisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demodex gatoi is unique among demodectic mites. It possesses a distinct stubby appearance, and, instead of residing in the hair follicles, it dwells in the keratin layer of the epidermis, causing a pruritic and contagious skin disease in cats. Little is known of the occurrence of D. gatoi in Europe or control of D. gatoi infestation. Case presentation We describe D. gatoi in 10 cats, including five Cornish Rex, two Burmese, one Exotic, one Persian and one Siamese, living in six multi-cat households in different locations in Finland containing 21 cats in total. Intense pruritus was the main clinical sign. Scaling, broken hairs, alopecia and self-inflicted excoriations were also observed. Diagnosis was based on finding typical short-bodied demodectic mites in skin scrapings, skin biopsies or on tape strips. Other pruritic skin diseases, such as allergies and dermatophytoses, were ruled out. In one household, despite finding several mites on one cat, all six cats of the household remained symptomless. Amitraz used weekly at a concentration of 125-250 ppm for 2-3 months, proved successful in three households, 2% lime sulphur weekly dips applied for six weeks in one household and peroral ivermectin (1 mg every other day for 10 weeks in one household. Previous trials in four households with imidacloprid-moxidectin, selamectin or injected ivermectin given once or twice a month appeared ineffective. Conclusion D. gatoi-associated dermatitis is an emerging contagious skin disease in cats in Finland. Although pruritus is common, some cats may harbour the mites without clinical signs. In addition, due to translucency of the mites and fastidious feline grooming habits, the diagnosis may be challenging. An effective and convenient way to treat D. gatoi infestations has yet to emerge.

  2. Etiology and risk factors associated with a pruritic papular eruption in people living with HIV in India

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    Terry T Farsani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Papulopruritic eruption (PPE occurs in people living with HIV in India. Understanding the risk factors associated with this disease may help decrease the prevalence of PPE. Methods: This study was a case-control study performed at the Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine, a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India. Cases included HIV-positive, antiretroviral (ARV therapy-naïve adults experiencing a pruritic skin eruption for longer than one month, with evidence of multiple papular or nodular lesions and biopsy consistent with arthropod bite. Controls included HIV-positive, ARV-naïve patients without active skin rash. Main outcome measures were CD4 cell count, histology, and environmental exposures. We performed statistical analysis using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 11.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Categorical variables such as gender, urban versus rural residence, occupation, treatment history, CD4 count, use of insect repellents, and environmental exposures were evaluated using the χ2 test (or the Fisher exact test when an expected value for a category was less than 5. The t-test was used to evaluate differences in age and the duration since HIV diagnosis. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare non-normally distributed values such as CD4 cell count. A p-value that was less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Forty-one cases and 149 control subjects were included. Subjects with PPE had significantly lower CD4 cell counts compared to controls (225.5 cells/µL vs. 425 cells/µL; p=0.0001. Sixty-six percent of cases had a CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/µL. PPE cases were less likely to use mosquito repellent techniques (odds ratio 2.81, CI = 1.45–5.45. Discussion: PPE may be an altered and exaggerated immune response to arthropod bites in HIV-positive patients. CD4 cell count is significantly lower in patients with PPE, and therefore it may be considered a qualifying clinical

  3. A progressive pruritic rash with blisters.

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    Overcash, Michael D; Ewald, Matt

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a patient with a progressive pruritic rash and fluid-filled blisters. A punch biopsy later confirmed the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid, an inflammatory condition that most commonly occurs in older adults and is treated with corticosteroids. PMID:27124233

  4. PCR-based detection and partial characterization of a retrovirus associated with contagious intranasal tumors of sheep and goats

    OpenAIRE

    Cousens, C; Minguijon, E.; M. Garcia; Ferrer, L.M.; Dalziel, R.G.; Palmarini, M.; de las Heras, M.; Sharp, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    A type D-related retrovirus has been demonstrated in enzootic nasal tumors (ENTs) of sheep and goats. This retrovirus, ENT virus (ENTV), has antigenic cross-reactivity with the jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which is associated with a contagious lung tumor of sheep (sheep pulmonary adenomatosis). Here, we present the first report of nucleic acid sequence from ENTV which confirms, at the nucleic acid level, that this retrovirus is related to JSRV yet apparently distinct from it. Reverse t...

  5. Contagious Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Peter T. Leeson; Russell S. Sobel

    2006-01-01

    Is capitalism contagious? Since WWI, global foreign policy has treated economic freedom/repression like a virus that spreads between countries. Most recently, the ?domino theory? of freedom has played prominently in U.S. foreign policy toward Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean during the Cold War, and the Middle East during the War on Terror. This paper investigates the spread of economic freedom between nations. Our analysis considers two potential channels of this spread: geography and ...

  6. Is healthy behavior contagious: associations of social norms with physical activity and healthy eating

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    McNaughton Sarah A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social norms are theoretically hypothesized to influence health-related behaviors such as physical activity and eating behaviors. However, empirical evidence relating social norms to these behaviors, independently of other more commonly-investigated social constructs such as social support, is scarce and findings equivocal, perhaps due to limitations in the ways in which social norms have been conceptualized and assessed. This study investigated associations between clearly-defined social norms and a range of physical activity and eating behaviors amongst women, adjusting for the effects of social support. Methods Self-report survey data about particular physical activity (leisure-time moderate-vigorous activity; volitional walking; cycling for transport and eating behaviors (fast food, soft drink and fruit and vegetable consumption, and social norms and support for these, were provided by 3,610 women aged 18-46 years living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Results Results of regression analyses showed that social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors predicted these respective behaviors relatively consistently; these associations generally remained significant after adjustment for social support. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, these data confirm theoretical accounts of the importance of social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors, and suggest that this is independent from social support. Intervention strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy eating could incorporate strategies aimed at modifying social norms relating to these behaviors.

  7. Papular pruritic eruptions: A marker of progressive HIV disease in children: Experience from eastern India

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    Samanta Moumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Papular pruritic eruptions (PPEs are a commonly seen dermatological manifestation in children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV stage 2 disease, whereas recurrent upper respiratory tract infection (URTI (>2 episodes in 6 months is the most common presenting illness in this category. Papular pruritic eruptions has been associated with progressive HIV disease in adults though it is categorized in early stage. Aim: To evaluate PPE as a clinical marker for progressive pediatric HIV. Setting and Design: In Pediatric HIV/AIDS clinic, Medical College, Kolkata, a prospective longitudinal hospital-based observational study was carried out. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 children in WHO stage 2 HIV disease aged between 2 and 12 years were selected, of which 58 had recurrent URTI without PPE and another 50 had PPE with or without secondary bacterial infection. Clinico-immunological deterioration was compared between the groups in terms of progression to undernutrition, WHO clinical stage 4 disease, severe immunodeficiency, need for initiation of Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART and mortality over a period of 2 years. Statistical Analysis: SPSS statistical software version 10 was used. P value, relative risk (RR with 95% Confidence Interval (CI, sensitivity and specificity was estimated. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Significantly higher incidence (P < 0.001 of clinico-immunological progression of disease at a significantly shorter time period (P < 0.05 was found in those with PPE in comparison to those without PPE. Papular pruritic eruption has high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value as a clinical marker for severe immunodeficiency. Conclusion: Papular pruritic eruption could be a useful clinical marker of progressive HIV disease in children.

  8. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees.

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    Anderson, James R; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-12-01

    Six adult female chimpanzees were shown video scenes of chimpanzees repeatedly yawning or of chimpanzees showing open-mouth facial expressions that were not yawns. Two out of the six females showed significantly higher frequencies of yawning in response to yawn videos; no chimpanzees showed the inverse. Three infant chimpanzees that accompanied their mothers did not yawn at all. These data are highly reminiscent of the contagious yawning effects reported for humans. Contagious yawning is thought to be based on the capacity for empathy. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees provides further evidence that these apes may possess advanced self-awareness and empathic abilities. PMID:15801606

  9. Contagious yawning in chimpanzees.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James R.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2004-01-01

    Six adult female chimpanzees were shown video scenes of chimpanzees repeatedly yawning or of chimpanzees showing open-mouth facial expressions that were not yawns. Two out of the six females showed significantly higher frequencies of yawning in response to yawn videos; no chimpanzees showed the inverse. Three infant chimpanzees that accompanied their mothers did not yawn at all. These data are highly reminiscent of the contagious yawning effects reported for humans. Contagious yawning is thou...

  10. Treatment of pruritic diseases with topical calcineurin inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ständer, Sonja; Schürmeyer-Horst, Funda; Luger, Thomas A; Weisshaar, Elke

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of topical calcineurin inhibitors resulted in a significant improvement in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. In addition, rapid amelioration of pruritus could be observed. In case reports, other pruritic dermatoses such as chronic irritative hand dermatitis, rosacea, graft-versus-host-disease, and lichen sclerosus were also treated successfully with pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. Twenty patients were treated with tacrolimus and pimecrolimus in a surveillance study to evaluate...

  11. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria. PMID:26563271

  12. Childhood Contagious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these diseases are so common in children. Contagious diseases are often caused by the spread of bacteria (such as in scarlet fever) or viruses (such as in chickenpox, measles, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and quite a few others) in droplets of ...

  13. Is crime contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Jens; Kling, Jeffrey R

    2006-01-01

    Understanding whether criminal behavior is %u201Ccontagious%u201D is important for law enforcement and for policies that affect how people are sorted across social settings. We test the hypothesis that criminal behavior is contagious by using data from the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) randomized housing-mobility experiment to examine the extent to which lower local-area crime rates decrease arrest rates among individuals. Our analysis exploits the fact that the effect of treatment group assign...

  14. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species. PMID:25162677

  15. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Romero

    Full Text Available On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species.

  16. Factors associated with the presence and prevalence of contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A 2013 study of 1136 random English sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickins, Alan; Clark, Corinna C A; Kaler, Jasmeet; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Kane, Holly; Green, Laura E

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, a questionnaire was used to gather data on risks for introduction, and factors associated with prevalence, of contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD). There were 1136 (28.4%) usable responses from 4000 randomly selected sheep farmers in England. CODD was present in 58% (662) of flocks, with a reported prevalence of CODD lesions of 2.3%. The geometric mean period prevalence of all lameness was 4.2% and 2.8% in CODD positive and negative flocks respectively. Factors associated with a greater risk of presence of CODD were purchasing replacement ewes, not always checking the feet of sheep before purchase, not isolating purchased sheep, foot bathing returning ewes, foot trimming the flock more than twice in the year all compared with not doing these activities and increasing log10 flock size. Farmers who vaccinated sheep with Footvax™ were less likely to report presence of CODD. Factors associated with increasing prevalence of CODD lesions were not always checking the feet of purchased sheep, flocks that mixed with other flocks and sheep that left the farm for summer grazing and later returned. In addition, flocks where farmers followed the current recommended managements for control of footrot, had a lower prevalence of CODD whilst those who used foot bathing and where feet bled during routine foot trimming had a higher prevalence of CODD. The prevalence of CODD decreased with each log10 increase in flock size. We conclude that CODD is an infectious cause of lameness in sheep of increasing importance in GB. Introduction is linked to poor biosecurity with one likely source of the pathogen being introduction of or mixing with infected sheep. As with footrot, prevalence of CODD was lower in flocks where farmers focused on individual treatment to manage lameness and avoided foot bathing and trimming feet. We conclude that most of the currently recommended biosecurity and treatment approaches to control footrot in GB are also effective for control of CODD

  17. Contagious Depression: Negative Attachment Cognitions as a Moderator of the Temporal Association between Parental Depression and Child Depression

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    Abela, John R. Z.; Zinck, Suzanne; Kryger, Shelley; Zilber, Irene; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether negative attachment cognitions moderate the association between the onset of depressive symptoms in children and their parents using a high-risk sample (parents with a history of major depressive episodes and their children) and a multiwave longitudinal design. During the initial assessment, 140 children (ages 6-14)…

  18. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (Psource that caused concentration of stocks in one point was fifty three times more likely (OR 53.08; 95% CI: 14.91, 189.00) to be satisfactory practice that influenced occurrence of the disease in herds. This study highlighted the critical gap that exists in terms of significant influence of socio-cultural factors on CBPP occurrence in pastoral herds in Nigeria. Thus, CBPP surveillance, control and prevention programs that take these factors into consideration will be beneficial to the livestock industry in Nigeria, and indeed Africa. PMID:27237398

  19. Contagious yawning and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Steven M; Mohamed, Feroze B; Gallup, Gordon G

    2005-05-01

    Contagious yawning, the onset of a yawn triggered by seeing, hearing, reading, or thinking about another person yawn is a well-documented phenomenon. The mechanisms that drive contagious yawning are as yet unknown, but there is recent evidence of a link between contagious yawning and self-processing (S.M. Platek, S.R. Critton, T.E. Myers, G.G. Gallup Jr., Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution, Cogn. Brain Res. 17 (2003) 223-227.) that is negatively impacted by schizotypal personality traits. The neural substrates involved in contagious yawning, however, are unknown. Here, using fMRI, we show that viewing someone yawn evokes unique neural activity in the posterior cingulate and precuneus. Because of the role these areas play in self-processing (e.g., self-referential processing, theory of mind, autobiographical memory), our findings provide further support for the hypothesis that contagious yawning may be part of a neural network involved in empathy. PMID:15820652

  20. An investigation of auditory contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Stephen R; Singhal, Anthony; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2009-09-01

    Despite a widespread familiarity with the often compelling urge to yawn after perceiving someone else yawn, an understanding of the neural mechanism underlying contagious yawning remains incomplete. In the present auditory fMRI study, listeners used a 4-point scale to indicate how much they felt like yawning following the presentation of a yawn, breath, or scrambled yawn sound. Not only were yawn sounds given significantly higher ratings, a trait positively correlated with each individual's empathy measure, but relative to control stimuli, random effects analyses revealed enhanced hemodynamic activity in the right posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) in response to hearing yawns. Moreover, pIFG activity was greatest for yawn stimuli associated with high as opposed to low yawn ratings and for control sounds associated with equally high yawn ratings. These results support a relationship between contagious yawning and empathy and provide evidence for pIFG involvement in contagious yawning. A supplemental figure for this study may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:19679768

  1. Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Swartwood, Lexington; Militello, Janine; Sackett, Serena

    2015-09-01

    Experimental evidence of contagious yawning has only been documented in four mammalian species. Here, we report the results from two separate experimental studies designed to investigate the presence of contagious yawning in a social parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). In Study 1, birds were paired in adjacent cages with and without visual barriers, and the temporal association of yawning was assessed between visual conditions. In Study 2, the same birds were exposed to video stimuli of both conspecific yawns and control behavior, and yawning frequency was compared between conditions. Results from both studies demonstrate that yawning is contagious. To date, this is the first experimental evidence of contagious yawning in a non-mammalian species. We propose that future research could use budgerigars to explore questions related to basic forms of empathic processing. PMID:26012708

  2. Yawn, yawn, yawn, yawn; yawn, yawn, yawn! The social, evolutionary and neuroscientific facets of contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Contagious yawning is a common phenomenon affecting upwards of 60% of healthy humans. It has also been observed, at a lesser rate, in great apes and other primates. Here I summarize the suggestion that contagious yawning is a primitive expression of social cognition, namely empathy. Susceptibility to contagious yawning is correlated with the speed in recognizing one's own face, theory of mind processing, and is also associated with activation in regions of the brain that have been associated with social cognitive processes. This suggests that contagious yawning may be an evolutionarily old process that begot a higher level of social cognition in certain species. PMID:20357468

  3. Contagious Yawning and the Frontal Lobe: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nahab, Fatta B.; Hattori, Noriaki; Saad, Ziad S.; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a slow event-related fMRI experiment with naïve subjects’ passively viewing yawn and various other control videos along with correlative behavioral testing. Specifically associated with the viewing of the contagious yawn was an area of activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest a role for the prefrontal cortex in the processing of contagious yawning, while demonstrating a unique automaticity in the processing of contagious motor programs which take p...

  4. Male Yawning Is More Contagious than Female Yawning among Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Vermunt, Dorith A.; Sterck, Elisabeth H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individ...

  5. Get Tested. Make it Contagious.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-13

    This podcast is part of the "Get Tested. Make it Contagious" campaign, which is designed to raise awareness of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and increase testing among college students.  Created: 5/13/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/13/2010.

  6. Contagious Yawning in Autistic and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helt, Molly S.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Snyder, Peter J.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested susceptibility to contagious yawning in 120 children, 1-6 years, to identify the time course of its emergence during development. Results indicated a substantial increase in the frequency of contagious yawning at 4 years. In a second study, the authors examined contagious yawning in 28 children with autism spectrum disorders…

  7. Chronic pruritic skin disorders and sleep%睡眠不足在慢性瘙痒性皮肤病中的表现及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鸿达; 邓列华

    2012-01-01

    慢性瘙痒性皮肤病与睡眠不足有一定的联系.已有文献报导睡眠不足对患者的行为、生理及心理健康有不良的影响,降低了患者的生活质量.该文论述了慢性瘙痒性皮肤病引起睡眠不足的病因,对睡眠不足的常规治疗方案进行了概括,对如何治疗受睡眠不足困扰的皮肤病患者给予建议.正确的治疗不仅能改善皮肤病症状且能提高患者的整体生活质量.%Chronic pruritic skin disorder are variably associated with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation has been shown to have detrimental effects on behavioural, physiological and psychological health. This review focuses on the etiology of sleep disoder associated with pruritic skin conditions and also the commonly-seen chronic pruritic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, infestations and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Suggestions and advice on the management of sleep deprivation in patients with skin conditions are also included. Appropriate treatment will not only improve symptoms but also patient's quality of life.

  8. The effects of intranasal oxytocin on contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Church, Allyson M

    2015-10-21

    Contagious yawning is thought to represent a basic form of empathy involved in state matching. Despite recent evidence in support of this connection, the neurochemical basis of contagious yawning remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate whether intranasal oxytocin, a hormone and neuropeptide involved in empathic processing, bonding and social affiliation, influences contagious yawning among human participants in a laboratory setting. Using a double blind procedure, 60 male college students received 30 IU of intranasal oxytocin or placebo and were then recorded during exposure to a contagious yawning video stimulus. Contrary to the empathic modeling hypothesis, oxytocin did not increase contagious yawning but rather appeared to modulate its expression in ways indicative of an enhanced awareness of the social stigma associated with this behavior. In particular, individuals in the oxytocin condition were more likely to conceal their yawns and less likely to display overt cues associated with the behavior. Follow-up research could explore how social context and affiliation with the target stimulus alter this response. PMID:26375928

  9. Developmental and comparative perspectives of contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Contagious yawning (i.e. yawning triggered by perceiving others' yawning) is a well-documented phenomenon, but the mechanism underlying it is still unclear. In this chapter, I review the current evidence about: (1) developmental studies with typically and atypically developing populations, and (2) comparative studies in non-human animals. Developmental studies have revealed that contagious yawning is disturbed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that contagious yawning may share a developmental basis with the capacity for theory of mind. Comparative studies have suggested that contagious yawning can be observed in non-primate species, such as domestic dogs. As dogs are known to have exceptional skills in communicating with humans, it has also been suggested that contagious yawning may be related to the capacity for social communication. These results from developmental and comparative studies are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy. PMID:20357469

  10. Contagious yawning: developmental and comparative perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Senju, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Contagious yawning (i.e., yawning triggered by perceiving others’ yawning) is a well-documented phenomenon, but the mechanism underlying it is still unclear. In this chapter, I review the current evidence about (a) developmental studies with typically and atypically developing population and (b) comparative studies in non-human animals. Developmental studies have revealed that contagious yawning is disturbed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders, suggesting that contagi...

  11. Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Steven M; Critton, Samuel R; Myers, Thomas E; Gallup, Gordon G

    2003-07-01

    Contagious yawning is a common, but poorly understood phenomenon. We hypothesized that contagious yawning is part of a more general phenomenon known as mental state attribution (i.e. the ability to inferentially model the mental states of others). To test this hypothesis we compared susceptibility to contagiously yawn with performance on a self-face recognition task, several theory of mind stories, and on a measure of schizotypal personality traits. Consistent with the hypothesis, susceptibility to contagiously yawn was positively related to performance on self-face recognition and faux pas theory of mind stories, and negatively related to schizotypal personality traits. These data suggest that contagious yawning may be associated with empathic aspects of mental state attribution and are negatively affected by increases in schizotypal personality traits much like other self-processing related tasks. PMID:12880893

  12. [Notalgia paresthetica, "posterior pigmented pruritic patch" and macular amyloidosis. Three stages of a disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerroni, L; Kopera, D; Soyer, H P; Kerl, H

    1993-12-01

    We report on nine cases of notalgia paresthetica, a cutaneous condition that has rarely been described in the dermatological literature and is characterized by localized pruritus, burning and hyperesthesia and/or paresthesia on the back. Histological and immunohistochemical studies have not clarified the pathogenesis of this disease. Several factors might be involved in various cases, including increased cutaneous innervation and neuropathy. The so-called posterior pigmented pruritic patch and macular amyloidosis may be considered as progressive evolutional stages of notalgia paresthetica. PMID:8113041

  13. Contagious yawning and the frontal lobe: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahab, Fatta B; Hattori, Noriaki; Saad, Ziad S; Hallett, Mark

    2009-05-01

    We conducted a slow event-related fMRI experiment with naïve subjects' passively viewing yawn and various other control videos along with correlative behavioral testing. Specifically associated with the viewing of the contagious yawn was an area of activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest a role for the prefrontal cortex in the processing of contagious yawning, while demonstrating a unique automaticity in the processing of contagious motor programs which take place independently of mirror neuron networks. PMID:18937281

  14. What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious? KidsHealth > For Teens > What's ...

  15. Social Modulation of Contagious Yawning in Wolves

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skilful at reading human communica...

  16. Contagious yawning and seasonal climate variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Gallup

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior. To explore this possibility further, the frequency of contagious yawning in humans was measured while outdoors in a desert climate in the United States during two distinct temperature ranges and seasons (winter: 22oC; early summer: 37oC. As predicted, the proportion of pedestrians who yawned in response to seeing pictures of people yawning differed significantly between the two conditions (winter: 45%; summer: 24%. Across conditions yawning occurred at lower ambient temperatures, and the tendency to yawn during each season was associated with the length of time spent outside prior to being tested. Participants were more likely to yawn in the milder climate after spending long periods of time outside, while prolonged exposure to ambient temperatures at or above body temperature was associated with reduced yawning. This is the first report to show that the incidence of yawning in humans is associated with seasonal climate variation, further demonstrating that yawn-induced contagion effects can be mediated by factors unrelated to individual social characteristics or cognitive development.

  17. Contagious yawning and seasonal climate variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Eldakar, Omar Tonsi

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior. To explore this possibility further, the frequency of contagious yawning in humans was measured while outdoors in a desert climate in the United States during two distinct temperature ranges and seasons (winter: 22°C; early summer: 37°C). As predicted, the proportion of pedestrians who yawned in response to seeing pictures of people yawning differed significantly between the two conditions (winter: 45%; summer: 24%). Across conditions yawning occurred at lower ambient temperatures, and the tendency to yawn during each season was associated with the length of time spent outside prior to being tested. Participants were more likely to yawn in the milder climate after spending long periods of time outside, while prolonged exposure to ambient temperatures at or above body temperature was associated with reduced yawning. This is the first report to show that the incidence of yawning in humans is associated with seasonal climate variation, further demonstrating that yawn-induced contagion effects can be mediated by factors unrelated to individual social characteristics or cognitive development. PMID:21960970

  18. [Contagious agalactia of small ruminants: epidemiology, diagnosis and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonier, D; Poumarat, F

    1996-12-01

    Contagious agalactia of small ruminants is a syndrome which affects mainly the mammary glands, joints and eyes. The principal causal agents are Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep and M. agalactiae, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type and M. capricolum subsp. capricolum in goats. In addition, M. putrefaciens can produce a similar clinical picture, particularly in goats. Contagious agalactia occurs on all five continents and is often enzootic. These infections are chronic in animals and in flocks. Symptomless shedding of mycoplasmas, mainly in the milk, may persist for a long time. Associated with carriage in the ears of healthy animals, these insidious infections are difficult to diagnose and control. The sale of carrier animals and contact during transhumance are the main modes of transmission between flocks, while transmission within a flock occurs through contact, suckling and milking. This review discusses clinical features, epidemiology, treatment, prevention and control. PMID:9527414

  19. Yearning to yawn: the neural basis of contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Martin; Hesse, Maike D; Stephan, Klaas E; Saarela, Miiamaaria; Zilles, Karl; Hari, Riitta; Fink, Gereon R

    2005-02-15

    Yawning is contagious: Watching another person yawn may trigger us to do the same. Here we studied brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects watched videotaped yawns. Significant increases in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, specific to yawn viewing as contrasted to viewing non-nameable mouth movements, were observed in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) and bilaterally in the anterior STS, in agreement with the high affinity of STS to social cues. However, no additional yawn-specific activation was observed in Broca's area, the core region of the human mirror-neuron system (MNS) that matches action observation and execution. Thus, activation associated with viewing another person yawn seems to circumvent the essential parts of the MNS, in line with the nature of contagious yawns as automatically released behavioural acts-rather than truly imitated motor patterns that would require detailed action understanding. The subjects' self-reported tendency to yawn covaried negatively with activation of the left periamygdalar region, suggesting a connection between yawn contagiousness and amygdalar activation. PMID:15670705

  20. No evidence for contagious yawning in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rachna B; Krupenye, Christopher; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Among some haplorhine primates, including humans, relaxed yawns spread contagiously. Such contagious yawning has been linked to social bonds and empathy in some species. However, no studies have investigated contagious yawning in strepsirhines. We conducted an experimental study of contagious yawning in strepsirhines, testing ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs (n = 24) in a paradigm similar to one that has induced contagious yawning in haplorhines. First, in a control experiment, we investigated whether lemurs responded to projected video content in general (experiment 1). We showed them two videos to which we expected differential responses: one featured a terrestrial predator and the other a caretaker holding food. Next, to test for yawn contagion, we showed individual lemurs life-size video projections of groupmates and conspecific strangers yawning, and control footage of the same individuals at rest (experiment 2). Then, to examine whether a group context might enhance or allow for contagion, we exposed subjects to the same videos in a group setting (experiment 3). Lemurs produced alarm vocalizations and moved upward while viewing the predator, but not the caretaker, demonstrating that they do perceive video content meaningfully. However, lemurs did not yawn in response to yawning stimuli when tested alone, or with their groupmates. This study provides preliminary evidence that lemurs do not respond to yawning stimuli similarly to haplorhines, and suggests that this behavior may have evolved or become more exaggerated in haplorhines after the two major primate lineages split. PMID:27075549

  1. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2009-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008). PMID:19452178

  2. Contagious Yawning and Seasonal Climate Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Eldakar, Omar Tonsi

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior. To explore this possibility further, the frequency of contagious yawning in humans was measured while outdoors in a desert climate in the United States during two distinct temperature ranges and seasons (winter: 22°C; early summer: 37°C). As predicted, the proportion of pedestrians who yawned in response to seeing pictures of people yawning differed significantly between the two conditions (winter: 45%; summer: 24%). Across...

  3. Contagious yawning and seasonal climate variation

    OpenAIRE

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Omar Tonsi Eldakar

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior. To explore this possibility further, the frequency of contagious yawning in humans was measured while outdoors in a desert climate in the United States during two distinct temperature ranges and seasons (winter: 22oC; early summer: 37oC). As predicted, the proportion of pedestrians who yawned in response to seeing pictures of people yawning differed significantly between the two conditions (winter: 45%; summer: 24%). Acr...

  4. Contagious yawning in gelada baboons as a possible expression of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, E; Leone, A; Mancini, G; Ferrari, P F

    2009-11-17

    Yawn contagion in humans has been proposed to be related to our capacity for empathy. It is presently unclear whether this capacity is uniquely human or shared with other primates, especially monkeys. Here, we show that in gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada) yawning is contagious between individuals, especially those that are socially close, i.e., the contagiousness of yawning correlated with the level of grooming contact between individuals. This correlation persisted after controlling for the effect of spatial association. Thus, emotional proximity rather than spatial proximity best predicts yawn contagion. Adult females showed precise matching of different yawning types, which suggests a mirroring mechanism that activates shared representations. The present study also suggests that females have an enhanced sensitivity and emotional tuning toward companions. These findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning reveals an emotional connection between individuals. This phenomenon, here demonstrated in monkeys, could be a building block for full-blown empathy. PMID:19889980

  5. [Importation of rare but life-threatening and highly contagious diseases. Current situation and outlook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, G D

    2015-10-01

    Internists should expect to be the first contact for patients with rare, but highly contagious, life-threatening illnesses. Although certainly not encountered often, it is associated with significant consequences. Thus, physicians should be familiar with viral hemorrhagic fevers: filoviruses cause Ebola and Marburg fever, arenaviruses cause Lassa fever and South American hemorrhagic fevers, and the bunyaviruses cause among others Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Furthermore, physicians should be familiar with highly contagious respiratory infections, such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, pneumonic plague, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). PMID:26391557

  6. Contagious and spontaneous yawning in autistic and typically developing children

    OpenAIRE

    Giganti, Fiorenza; ESPOSITO ZIELLO, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the absence of a contagious effect when autistic children view another’s yawning. This result could be due to the difficulty of autistic children in establishing reciprocal gaze behaviour with human partners. Furthermore, the presence of a contagious effect in autistic children could change according their degree of functioning. We evaluated the contagious effect of yawning in both autistic children with different degrees of functioning and in typically developi...

  7. Computer animations stimulate contagious yawning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew W; Carter, J Devyn; Proctor, Darby; Eisenberg, Michelle L; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-12-01

    People empathize with fictional displays of behaviour, including those of cartoons and computer animations, even though the stimuli are obviously artificial. However, the extent to which other animals also may respond empathetically to animations has yet to be determined. Animations provide a potentially useful tool for exploring non-human behaviour, cognition and empathy because computer-generated stimuli offer complete control over variables and the ability to program stimuli that could not be captured on video. Establishing computer animations as a viable tool requires that non-human subjects identify with and respond to animations in a way similar to the way they do to images of actual conspecifics. Contagious yawning has been linked to empathy and poses a good test of involuntary identification and motor mimicry. We presented 24 chimpanzees with three-dimensional computer-animated chimpanzees yawning or displaying control mouth movements. The apes yawned significantly more in response to the yawn animations than to the controls, implying identification with the animations. These results support the phenomenon of contagious yawning in chimpanzees and suggest an empathic response to animations. Understanding how chimpanzees connect with animations, to both empathize and imitate, may help us to understand how humans do the same. PMID:19740888

  8. Social Presence Diminishes Contagious Yawning in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew; Church, Allyson M; Miller, Heather; Risko, Evan F; Kingstone, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Contagious yawning may be a useful measure of social psychological functioning, and thus it is important to evaluate the variables influencing its expression in laboratory settings. Previous research has documented that humans yawn less frequently in crowded environments and when under direct observation, but the impact of social presence on contagious yawning remains unknown. Here we present the first study to systematically alter the degree of social presence experienced by participants in the laboratory to determine its effect on contagious yawning frequency. Our results demonstrate that both implied and actual social presence significantly diminish yawn contagion in comparison to a control condition, indicating a key social component to contagious yawning. These findings provide a framework for pursuing additional research investigating the social factors influencing contagious yawning, while also offering applications for measuring this response in laboratory settings. PMID:27112374

  9. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J M Massen

    Full Text Available Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour.

  10. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Jorg J M; Vermunt, Dorith A; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  11. Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study of yawning and stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Vicario, Shannon M; Clark, Anne B

    2012-03-01

    Yawning is contagious in humans and some non-human primates. If there are social functions to contagious behaviors, such as yawning, they might occur in other highly social vertebrates. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an observational study of yawning and an associated behavior, stretching, in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social, flock-living parrot. Flock-housed budgerigars were videotaped for 1.5h at three time-blocks during the day (early morning, afternoon and early evening), and the times of all yawns and stretches for each bird were recorded. Both yawning and stretching were temporally clumped within sessions, but were uniformly distributed across the trials of a particular time-block. This suggests that clumping was not a result of circadian patterning and that both behaviors could be contagious. There was additional evidence of contagion in stretching, which occurred in two forms - a posterior-dorsal extension of either one foot or both feet. Birds that could have observed a conspecific stretch, and that then stretched themselves within 20s, replicated the form of the earlier stretch significantly more often than expected by chance. This study provides the first detailed description of temporal patterns of yawning under social conditions in a flock-living species as well as the first support for contagious yawning and stretching in a non-primate species in a natural context. Experimental evidence will be necessary to confirm the extent of contagion in either behavior. PMID:22209955

  12. Contagious behavior: an alternative approach to mirror-like phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provine, Robert R

    2014-04-01

    Contagious behaviors such as yawning and itching/scratching have mirror-like properties and clearly defined stimulus and motor parameters; they are also relatively easy to study and should be part of the debate about mirror neurons and the neurological mechanisms of social behavior. The broadly tuned, multimodal stimuli of contagious behavior challenge present accounts of mirror mechanisms that focus on specific, mirrored acts. PMID:24775173

  13. Visualization of contagious disease outbreak information for primary care physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsen, Gudleif

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a part of an ongoing project at NST. This ongoing project has the intention to make a system for early detection of contagious diseases based on symptoms and diagnosis. The main goal of this project is to develop a system that will help detect outbreaks of contagious diseases. The system intends to create a logic model based on collected data from symptoms and diagnosis entered into the primary health care physicians electronic health record system. They will again exchange dat...

  14. Chinese and western medicine research progress of HIV-pruritic papular eruption%HIV相关性痒疹的中西医研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢正; 蒋自强; 李鹏宇; 闫磊; 李政伟

    2012-01-01

    HIV相关性痒疹是HIV/AIDS患者中最常见的炎症性皮肤病之一.中医认为HIV相关性痒疹类似于古代文献中的粟疮、马疥,并主张根据发病机制及临床表现辨证施治.西医认为HIV相关性痒疹病因复杂,可以使用抗组胺药和沙利度胺进行治疗.%HIV-pruritic papular eruption is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases. TCM believes that HTV-pruritic papular eruption is similar to conjunctival follicle or Ma scabies in ancient literatures, and advocates that the treatment and syndrome differentiation based on pathogenesis and clinical manifestation. Western medicine believes that the pathogenesis of HIV-pruritic papular eruption is complicated, HTV- pruritic papular eruption may be treated by antihistamine and thalidomide.

  15. Smell facilitates auditory contagious yawning in stranger rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaho, Alejandro; Rivas-Zamudio, Xaman; Ugarte, Araceli; Eguibar, José R; Valencia, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrates yawn in situations ranging from relaxation to tension, but only humans and other primate species that show mental state attribution skills have been convincingly shown to display yawn contagion. Whether complex forms of empathy are necessary for yawn contagion to occur is still unclear. As empathy is a phylogenetically continuous trait, simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, might be sufficient for non-primate species to show contagious yawning. In this study, we exposed pairs of male rats, which were selected for high yawning, with each other through a perforated wall and found that olfactory cues stimulated yawning, whereas visual cues inhibited it. Unexpectedly, cage-mate rats failed to show yawn contagion, although they did show correlated emotional reactivity. In contrast, stranger rats showed auditory contagious yawning and greater rates of smell-facilitated auditory contagious yawning, although they did not show correlated emotional reactivity. Strikingly, they did not show contagious yawning to rats from a low-yawning strain. These findings indicate that contagious yawning may be a widespread trait amongst vertebrates and that mechanisms other than empathy may be involved. We suggest that a communicatory function of yawning may be the mechanism responsible for yawn contagion in rats, as contagiousness was strain-specific and increased with olfactory cues, which are involved in mutual recognition. PMID:25156806

  16. Chimpanzees Show a Developmental Increase in Susceptibility to Contagious Yawning: A Test of the Effect of Ontogeny and Emotional Closeness on Yawn Contagion

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others’ emotions begin to clearly evince...

  17. Contagious agalactia of small ruminants: current knowledge concerning epidemiology, diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonier, D; Berthelot, X; Poumarat, F

    1997-12-01

    Contagious agalactia of small ruminants is a syndrome which principally affects the mammary glands, joints and eyes. The main causal agents are Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep, and M. agalactiae, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type and M. capricolum subsp. capricolum in goats. In addition, M. putrefaciens can produce a similar clinical picture, particularly in goats. Contagious agalactia occurs on all five continents and is often enzootic. The evolution of the infection tends to be chronic in affected animals and herds. Symptomless shedding of mycoplasmas, mainly in the milk, may persist for a long time. These insidious infections, associated with carriage in the ears of healthy animals, are difficult to diagnose and to control. The main mode of transmission between flocks is related to the sale of carrier animals and contact during transhumance, whereas transmission within a flock occurs through contact, suckling and milking. This review discusses the clinical features, epidemiology, treatment, prevention and control of the disease. PMID:9567311

  18. Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of intervention against contagious clinical mastitis during lactation. A bioeconomic model of intramammary infections (IMI) was used to simulate contagious spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis......, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and an environmental spread of Escherichia coli IMI in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were calculated into the total annual net costs of IMI during lactation per scenario and compared with a default...... transmission, number of IMI cases, and persistent subclinical IMI cases. Nonetheless, the high associated costs of culling bacteriologically unrecovered clinical IMI cows made the other scenarios with a long and intensive antibiotic treatment, but without culling, the most cost effective. The model was...

  19. Diagnosis of contagious caprine and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) are caused by Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, small colony type (SC), respectively. These species belong to the group of six mycoplasmas referred to as the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. The members of the M. mycoides cluster are closely related, and some of them are very difficult to grow. Diagnosis based on identification of the causative agents by cultivation, biochemical reactions, or serology is therefore difficult, and improved diagnostic methods are sorely needed. Identification methods for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC, based on detection of the 16S rRNA genes from all members of the M. mycoides cluster by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and differentiation of species by restriction enzyme analysis with PstI and AluI, respectively, have been developed in the Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute Laboratory, Sweden. The methods are based on the fact that members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons and that there are sequence differences (polymorphisms) between the two 16S rRNA genes from the two operons. The majority of these polymorphisms are characteristic for each species, and some of them can be utilized for differentiation between the species. Techniques for extraction of DNA from lung tissue and from clinical material dried onto filter paper for preservation are described. Pleural fluid was found to be an ideal sample for direct analysis by PCR, but this material can also be dried onto filter paper for preservation and sent to another laboratory for the PCR analysis. These identification systems designed for M. capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides ssp. mycoides SC have been used for diagnosis of CCPP and CBPP, respectively, by analysis of clinical samples brought to the laboratory as frozen lung tissue or preserved by drying onto a filter

  20. Absence of contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Atsushi; Maeda, Makiko; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2007-12-22

    This study is the first to report the disturbance of contagious yawning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-four children with ASD as well as 25 age-matched typically developing (TD) children observed video clips of either yawning or control mouth movements. Yawning video clips elicited more yawns in TD children than in children with ASD, but the frequency of yawns did not differ between groups when they observed control video clips. Moreover, TD children yawned more during or after the yawn video clips than the control video clips, but the type of video clips did not affect the amount of yawning in children with ASD. Current results suggest that contagious yawning is impaired in ASD, which may relate to their impairment in empathy. It supports the claim that contagious yawning is based on the capacity for empathy. PMID:17698452

  1. Contagious cancer: lessons from the devil and the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    Cancer is generally defined as uncontrollable growth of cells caused by genetic aberrations and/or environmental factors. Yet contagious cancers also occur. The recent emergence of a contagious cancer in Tasmanian devils has reignited interest in transmissible cancers. Two naturally occurring transmissible cancers are known: devil facial tumour disease and canine transmissible venereal tumour. Both cancers evolved once and have then been transmitted from one individual to another as clonal cell lines. The dog cancer is ancient; having evolved more than 6,000 years ago, while the devil disease was first seen in 1996. In this review I will compare and contrast the two diseases focusing on the life histories of the clonal cell lines, their evolutionary trajectories and the mechanisms by which they have achieved immune tolerance. A greater understanding of these contagious cancers will provide unique insights into the role of the immune system in shaping tumour evolution and may uncover novel approaches for treating human cancer. PMID:22383221

  2. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surve

  3. Brief Report: Does Eye Contact Induce Contagious Yawning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Akechi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly fail to show contagious yawning, but the mechanism underlying the lack of contagious yawning is still unclear. The current study examined whether instructed fixation on the eyes modulates contagious yawning in ASD. Thirty-one children with ASD, as well as 31 age-matched typically…

  4. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  5. Presence of contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Saori; Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Akechi, Hironori; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies suggest diminished susceptibility to contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it could be driven by their atypical attention to the face. To test this hypothesis, children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children were shown yawning and control movies. To ensure participants' attention to the face, an eye tracker controlled the onset of the yawning and control stimuli. Results demonstrated that both TD children and children with ASD yawned more frequently when they watched the yawning stimuli than the control stimuli. It is suggested therefore that the absence of contagious yawning in children with ASD, as reported in previous studies, might relate to their weaker tendency to spontaneously attend to others' faces. PMID:23970970

  6. Methodological problems in the study of contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew W; de Waal, Frans B M

    2010-01-01

    The recent interest in contagious yawning has raised several challenges as the varied methods of testing have left some unresolved issues. We do not know how differences in key variables affect the observed rates of yawning, and we highlight these as being in need of direct testing. Different researchers analyze their results differently, and we make some recommendations for more rigorous, thorough and informative analyses. Ultimately, problems arise when authors compare studies that used different methods and different analyses without acknowledging how these differences may have affected the results. In these cases, authors make inappropriate comparisons, which lead to conclusions that add confusion to the literature. Our goal in raising awareness of these issues is to generate new experiments and improve the discussion of existing research. With its link to empathy, a more standardized study of contagious yawning may be a useful tool for a variety of disciplines. PMID:20357470

  7. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surveillance zones with complete standstill of animals and possible export bans on live animals. Epidemics clearly have a serious impact, in particular on countries with a high farm density and an export- oriented produ...

  8. Presence of Contagious Yawning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Saori Usui; Atsushi Senju; Yukiko Kikuchi; Hironori Akechi; Yoshikuni Tojo; Hiroo Osanai; Toshikazu Hasegawa

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies suggest diminished susceptibility to contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it could be driven by their atypical attention to the face. To test this hypothesis, children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children were shown yawning and control movies. To ensure participants' attention to the face, an eye tracker controlled the onset of the yawning and control stimuli. Results demonstrated that both TD children and children with ...

  9. Development of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Inactivated Vaccine( M1601 Strain)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Ping; He; Ying; Chu; Yuefeng; Gao; Pengcheng; Zhang; Xuan; Lu; Zhongxin

    2014-01-01

    Three batches of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia inactivated vaccine( M1601 strain) developed by the laboratory were studied from the aspects of safety,minimum immune dose,immunity duration and storage life. The results showed that the vaccine was safe to goats under different physiological conditions.Regardless of lambs or adult goats,the minimum immune dose was 3 m L,and the immunity duration and the storage life were 6 and 12 months,respectively.

  10. Absence of contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Senju, Atsushi; Maeda, Makiko; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2007-01-01

    This study is the first to report the disturbance of contagious yawning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-four children with ASD as well as 25 age-matched typically developing (TD) children observed video clips of either yawning or control mouth movements. Yawning video clips elicited more yawns in TD children than in children with ASD, but the frequency of yawns did not differ between groups when they observed control video clips. Moreover, TD children yawned more du...

  11. Familiarity-connected or stress-based contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)? Some additional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

    2013-11-01

    The present short note aimed at further exploring data from a recent study showing socially modulated auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Two independent observers further extended the analysis of all video recordings made in the previous study and coded both the number of yawns performed by the dogs and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors exhibited throughout the presentation of familiar and unfamiliar yawns. By showing no significant difference between conditions in the frequencies or durations of the coded behaviors, nor any association between the number of yawns and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors, results raised doubt on the stress-induced yawn hypothesis, thus supporting social modulation. The exact mechanism underlying contagious yawning, however, needs further research. PMID:23982621

  12. Mirror neuron activity during contagious yawning--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Herwig, Uwe; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-03-01

    Yawning is contagious. However, little research has been done to elucidate the neuronal representation of this phenomenon. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated by visually perceived yawning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity during contagious yawning (CY). Signal-dependent changes in blood oxygen levels were compared when subjects viewed videotapes of yawning faces as opposed to faces with a neutral expression. In response to yawning, subjects showed unilateral activation of their Brodmann's area 9 (BA 9) portion of the right inferior frontal gyrus, a region of the MNS. In this way, two individuals could share physiological and associated emotional states based on perceived motor patterns. This is one component of empathy (motor empathy) that underlies the development of cognitive empathy. The BA 9 is reportedly active in tasks requiring mentalizing abilities. Our results emphasize the connection between the MNS and higher cognitive empathic functions, including mentalizing. We conclude that CY is based on a functional substrate of empathy. PMID:22772979

  13. Discrete dynamics of contagious social diseases: Example of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Taramasco, C

    2016-02-17

    Modeling contagious diseases needs to incorporate information about social networks through which the disease spreads as well as data about demographic and genetic changes in the susceptible population. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework (conceptualization and formalization) which seeks to model obesity as a process of transformation of one's own body determined by individual (physical and psychological), inter-individual (relational, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and others) and socio-cultural (environmental, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and his milieu) factors. Individual and inter-individual factors are tied to each other in a socio-cultural context whose impact is notably related to the visibility of anybody being exposed on the public stage in a non-contingent way. The question we are dealing with in this article is whether such kind of social diseases, i.e., depending upon socio-environmental exposure, can be considered as "contagious". In other words, can obesity be propagated from individual to individual or from environmental sources throughout an entire population? PMID:26375495

  14. A case of contagious toxicity? Isoprostanes as potential emerging contaminants of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-01

    Isoprostanes are useful biomarkers of human and animal health, being representative of oxidative stress processes, and having biological impacts associated with toxicity and disease. Isoprostanes are also chemically stable, a property facilitating population-level health assessments through wastewater sampling. However, as biologically-active entities, the presence of isoprostanes in domestic effluents could have toxic impacts on biota in receiving environments. As such it is proposed that isoprostanes are emerging organic contaminants of particular concern. Fish and aquatic invertebrates may be affected by the presence of isoprostanes in wastewaters through mechanisms such as reproductive impairment, cardiovascular disturbance and/or oxidative stress. This would represent a unique scenario of "contagious" toxicity, whereby human health has a direct toxicological consequence on aquatic animal health. PMID:27102276

  15. Uses of serology for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, F R

    1995-09-01

    A serological test involves detection of specific changes, induced by a pathogen, in the properties or actions of serum of an infected host. The test may detect the presence in serum of either antibodies to the pathogen (produced by the host) or antigens (i.e. the infecting agent itself and/or its components). The many serological tests which have been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) are classified into two groups on the basis of this distinction. To date, no single serological test is able to detect all stages of the disease. Thus the choice of serological test (or combination of tests) will depend on the specific aim of the investigation. Meanwhile, a sensitive, specific and simple 'pen-side' test for the diagnosis of all forms of CBPP is still lacking. PMID:8593394

  16. Genomic insights into a contagious cancer in Tasmanian devils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueber, Catherine E; Peel, Emma; Gooley, Rebecca; Belov, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    The Tasmanian devil faces extinction due to a contagious cancer. Genetic and genomic technologies revealed that the disease arose in a Schwann cell of a female devil. Instead of dying with the original host, the tumour was passed from animal to animal, slipping under the radar of the immune system. Studying the genomes of the devil and the cancer has driven our understanding of this unique disease. From characterising immune genes and immune responses to studying tumour evolution, we have begun to uncover how a cancer can be 'caught' and are using genomic data to manage an insurance population of disease-free devils for the long-term survival of the species. PMID:26027792

  17. Contagious architecture: computation, aesthetics, and space (technologies of lived abstraction)

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    In Contagious Architecture, Luciana Parisi offers a philosophical inquiry into the status of the algorithm in architectural and interaction design. Her thesis is that algorithmic computation is not simply an abstract mathematical tool but constitutes a mode of thought in its own right, in that its operation extends into forms of abstraction that lie beyond direct human cognition and control. These include modes of infinity, contingency, and indeterminacy, as well as incomputable quantities underlying the iterative process of algorithmic processing. The main philosophical source for the project is Alfred North Whitehead, whose process philosophy is specifically designed to provide a vocabulary for "modes of thought" exhibiting various degrees of autonomy from human agency even as they are mobilized by it. Because algorithmic processing lies at the heart of the design practices now reshaping our world -- from the physical spaces of our built environment to the networked spaces of digital culture -- the nature o...

  18. Controling contagious processes on temporal networks via adaptive rewiring

    CERN Document Server

    Belik, Vitaly; Hövel, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    We consider recurrent contagious processes on a time-varying network. As a control procedure to mitigate the epidemic, we propose an adaptive rewiring mechanism for temporary isolation of infected nodes upon their detection. As a case study, we investigate the network of pig trade in Germany. Based on extensive numerical simulations for a wide range of parameters, we demonstrate that the adaptation mechanism leads to a significant extension of the parameter range, for which most of the index nodes (origins of the epidemic) lead to vanishing epidemics. We find that diseases with detection times around a week and infectious periods up to 3 months can be effectively controlled. Furthermore the performance of adaptation is very heterogeneous with respect to the index node. We identify index nodes that are most responsive to the adaptation strategy and quantify the success of the proposed adaptation scheme in dependence on the infectious period and detection times.

  19. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R Bock

    Full Text Available Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text] were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points, while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

  20. Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Contagious yawning is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and has recently attracted much attention from developmental and comparative sciences. The function, development and underlying mechanisms of the phenomenon, however, remain largely unclear. Contagious yawning has been demonstrated in dogs and several non-human primate species, and theoretically and empirically associated with empathy in humans and non-human primates. Evidence of emotional closeness modulating contagious yawning in dogs has, nonetheless, been contradictory. Humans show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with typically developing children displaying a substantial increase at the age of four, when a number of cognitive abilities (e.g. accurate identification of others' emotions) begin to clearly manifest. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human animals have, however, thus far only involved adult individuals. Here, we report a study of the ontogeny of domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) susceptibility to yawn contagion, and whether emotional closeness to the yawning model affects this. Thirty-five dogs, aged 4-14 months, observed a familiar and unfamiliar human repeatedly yawn or gape. The dogs yawned contagiously, but emotional closeness with the model did not affect the strength of contagion, raising questions as to recent evidence of emotionally modulated auditory contagious yawning in dogs. The dogs showed a developmental effect, with only dogs above 7 months evidencing contagion. The results support the notion of a developmental increase in dogs' attention to others and identification of others' emotional states and suggest that yawn contagion is underpinned by developmental processes shared by humans and other animals. PMID:23076724

  1. Efficiency of inactive vaccines against contagious agalactia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the efficiency of three inactive vaccines against contagious agalactia prepared with samples of Mycoplasma agalactiae isolated in Brazil and different adjuvants. Vaccine 1 adsorbed with aluminum hydroxide was administered in 23 goats (Gc1 and 13 sheep (Gov1; vaccine 2 containing Montanide IMS-2215-VG was administered in 22 goats (Gc2 and 12 sheep (Gov2 and vaccine 3, containing Montanide Gel-01 was administered in 22 goats (Gc3 and 12 sheep (Gov3. All animals were negative for Ma at indirect ELISA and received two doses of 2mL each, subcutaneously, within a 21 day interval. Five animals from each species were used as control. Seventy-five days after the booster, four animals from each vaccinated group and two from the control group were challenged with 5mL of Ma culture containing 10(7cfu/mL, orally and through immersion of the female's udder in lactation. The serological response was analyzed during vaccination days (0 and 21 and at 51, 81, 111, 141 and 171 days after vaccination. The collection and analysis of the challenged animals were conducted at the day of the challenge (D0 and 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days after the challenge. The three vaccines induced the production of antibodies, having no significant statistical difference (p<0.05. Animals from groups Gc1, Gc2 and Gov2 developed higher levels of antibodies, with significant statistical difference compared to the other vaccinated group and control group (p<0.05. After the challenge, the animals from the control presented an increase in regional lymph nodes and conjunctivitis, mastitis and arthritis. In four vaccinated animals, discrete conjunctivitis and congestion of the episcleral veins was observed. It is concluded that vaccines 1 and 2 induced levels of protective antibodies in goats and sheep, sufficient for clinical protection of the animals submitted to the experimental infection, indicating its use on the prevention of contagious agalactia.

  2. Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew W; de Waal, Frans B M

    2011-01-01

    Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup) over people seen as different (outgroup), even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in response to watching ingroup members yawn than outgroup. Twenty-three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from two separate groups watched videos of familiar and unfamiliar individuals yawning or at rest (control). The chimpanzees yawned more when watching the familiar yawns than the familiar control or the unfamiliar yawns, demonstrating an ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning. These results provide further empirical support that contagious yawning is a measure of empathy, which may be useful for evolutionary biology and mental health. PMID:21494669

  3. Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Campbell

    Full Text Available Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup over people seen as different (outgroup, even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in response to watching ingroup members yawn than outgroup. Twenty-three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes from two separate groups watched videos of familiar and unfamiliar individuals yawning or at rest (control. The chimpanzees yawned more when watching the familiar yawns than the familiar control or the unfamiliar yawns, demonstrating an ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning. These results provide further empirical support that contagious yawning is a measure of empathy, which may be useful for evolutionary biology and mental health.

  4. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    CERN Document Server

    Christakis, Nicholas A

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. Individuals at the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner, on average, than those at the periphery. However, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals whom to monitor is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students divided between a random group and a friend group. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 14.7 days (95% C.I. 11.7-17.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significa...

  5. Contagious yawning in gelada baboons as a possible expression of empathy

    OpenAIRE

    Palagi, E.; Leone, A.; Mancini, G; Ferrari, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    Yawn contagion in humans has been proposed to be related to our capacity for empathy. It is presently unclear whether this capacity is uniquely human or shared with other primates, especially monkeys. Here, we show that in gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada) yawning is contagious between individuals, especially those that are socially close, i.e., the contagiousness of yawning correlated with the level of grooming contact between individuals. This correlation persisted after controlling for...

  6. Familiarity Bias and Physiological Responses in Contagious Yawning by Dogs Support Link to Empathy

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, ...

  7. Catch the wave: prairie dogs assess neighbours’ awareness using contagious displays

    OpenAIRE

    Hare, James F.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Senkiw, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The jump–yip display of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is contagious, spreading through a prairie dog town as ‘the wave’ through a stadium. Because contagious communication in primates serves to assess conspecific social awareness, we investigated whether instigators of jump–yip bouts adjusted their behaviour relative to the response of conspecifics recruited to display bouts. Increased responsiveness of neighbouring town members resulted in bout initiators devoting a signif...

  8. A tale of two tumours: Comparison of the immune escape strategies of contagious cancers ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The adaptive immune system should prevent cancer cells passing from one individual to another, in much the same way that it protects against pathogens. However, in rare cases cancer cells do not die within a single individual, but successfully pass between individuals, escaping the adaptive immune response and becoming a contagious cancer. There are two naturally occurring contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), found in Tasmanian devils, and Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumo...

  9. Contagious epididymitis due to Brucella ovis: relationship between sexual function, serology and bacterial shedding in semen.

    OpenAIRE

    Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Berthelot, Xavier; Champion, Jean Luc; Eon, Laure; Lyazrhi, Faouzi; Marois, Maxime; Peglion, Marceline; Schuster, Aude; Trouche, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Background Contagious Epididymitis (CE) due to Brucella ovis (B. ovis) is a contagious disease that impairs rams’ fertility due to epididymis, testicle and accessory sexual gland alterations. An increased incidence of CE has been observed in South Eastern France (“PACA” region) since the Rev.1 vaccination against B. melitensis has been stopped in 2008. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the infection by B. ovis and the sexual function of rams. Two-hundred eig...

  10. Ingroup-Outgroup Bias in Contagious Yawning by Chimpanzees Supports Link to Empathy

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Matthew W.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup) over people seen as different (outgroup), even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in ...

  11. Effect of Contagious Skin Necrosis and Trypanosomosis on Health Status of Camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Contagious Skin Necrosis (CSN with or without trypanosomosis on blood oxidative status in camels. A total of 15 camels were subjected to the study. Out of them, 10 camels were suffered from CSN. Sterile bacteriological swabs from skin necrosed area whole blood samples for hematological analysis and for diagnosis of trypanosomosis and serum samples for measuring lipid peroxidation product (Malondialdehyde were collected. The bacteriological examination revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant bacterial isolate alone in 6 cases and coupled with other bacteria in the remained 4 cases, the latter was coupled with coagulase negative staphylococci in 3 cases and coupled with Streptococcus agalactiae in one case. Trypanosoma evansi infection was identified using polymerase chain reaction in 5 camels that had CSN. Malondialdehyde showed significant increase in camels affected with CSN that associated with trypanosomosis. The current study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant bacterial isolate in camels with CSN. Lipid peroxidation products increased in the blood of camels with CSN that associated with trypanosomosis, It is recommended to supply camels suffering from CSN with antioxidants to overcome the deterioration of blood oxidative status.

  12. Epidemiological survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mali is a major producer of livestock, which plays a predominant role in the economy of the country. It brings about 10% of the GDP, 15% of export incomes and constitutes the main source of incomes for the 30% of the national population. Now that rinderpest is controlled, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) remains the most important infectious disease of cattle not only in Mali, but in most tropical African countries causing great economic losses including mortality, loss of weight, reduced working ability, reduced fertility and indirect costs due to control programs. The disease is characterized by a severe fibrinous exudative pleuropneumonia and is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmCS). It is considered a priority disease by the Office of International Epizootie (OIE), the Pan-African Program for the control of epizootics (PACE) and the FAO-Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal Diseases (FAOEMPRES). All these Institutions have recognized that the lack of information concerning the prevalence and the economic impact of the disease is an obstacle to implement any efficient program for its control in Africa. Therefore, research must be conducted in order to generate accurate data on the incidence and distribution of the disease before any appropriate coordinated control program can be defined for this continent. The present epidemiological study was conducted with the aim of studying the seroprevalence of the disease among cattle in Mali, its geographical distribution and its economical impacts. Serum samples collected from 8000 cattle in different parts of the country were tested for MmmSC specific antibody by the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and the complement fixation test (CFT). In parallel, data of CBPP cases for the past 10 years and the economic impact of the disease, including production losses and control costs were evaluated. The preliminary results of this study will be presented here. (author)

  13. Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  14. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: Seroprevalence and risk factors in Western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Garuma; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Tuli, Getachew; Deresa, Benti

    2016-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is one of the most important threats to cattle health and production in Ethiopia. At the livestock farm of the Bako Agricultural Research Center, an outbreak of respiratory disease of cattle occurred in May 2011, and many animals were affected and died before the disease was diagnosed. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CBPP antibodies in selected districts of Western Oromia Region and to assess the potential risk factors for the occurrence of the disease. A crosssectional study was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 in three selected districts of Western Oromia Region. A total of 386 sera were examined for the presence of specific antibodies against Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony (MmmSC), using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The risk factors that were evaluated in this study were geographical location, age, sex, breed and body condition. The overall seroprevalence in this study was 28.5%. The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony antibodies at the district level was 40.3%, 19.0% and 5.7% in Gobbu Sayyo, BakoTibbe and Horro districts, respectively. There was a statistically significant variation ( p 0.05) with the serological status of the animal. This study showed that the overall prevalence of CBPP in Western Oromia Zones was high. This warrants the implementation of appropriate preventive and control measures to minimise the economic losses associated with the disease. PMID:27247066

  15. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance by many clinically important bacteria can be traced to horizontal gene transfer (HGT between related or evolutionarily distant microflora. Comparative genomic analysis has become an important tool for identifying HGT DNA in emerging pathogens. We have adapted the multi-genome alignment tool EvoPrinter to facilitate discovery of HGT DNA sequences within bacterial genomes and within their mobile genetic elements. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EvoPrinter analysis of 13 different Staphylococcus aureus genomes revealed that one of the human isolates, the hospital epidemic methicillin-resistant MRSA252 strain, uniquely shares multiple putative HGT DNA sequences with different causative agents of bovine mastitis that are not found in the other human S. aureus isolates. MRSA252 shares over 14 different DNA sequence blocks with the bovine mastitis ET3 S. aureus strain RF122, and many of the HGT DNAs encode virulence factors. EvoPrinter analysis of the MRSA252 chromosome also uncovered virulence-factor encoding HGT events with the genome of Listeria monocytogenes and a Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated plasmid. Both bacteria are also causal agents of contagious bovine mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: EvoPrinter analysis reveals that the human MRSA252 strain uniquely shares multiple DNA sequence blocks with different causative agents of bovine mastitis, suggesting that HGT events may be occurring between these pathogens. These findings have important implications with regard to animal husbandry practices that inadvertently enhance the contact of human and livestock bacterial pathogens.

  16. Reversible epigenetic down-regulation of MHC molecules by devil facial tumour disease illustrates immune escape by a contagious cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kreiss, Alexandre; Tovar, Cesar; Yuen, Chun Kit; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine; Swift, Kate; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna E; Skjødt, Karsten; Woods, Gregory M; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-03-26

    Contagious cancers that pass between individuals as an infectious cell line are highly unusual pathogens. Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is one such contagious cancer that emerged 16 y ago and is driving the Tasmanian devil to extinction. As both a pathogen and an allograft, DFTD cells should be rejected by the host-immune response, yet DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils with no apparent rejection of tumor cells. Why DFTD cells are not rejected has been a question of considerable confusion. Here, we show that DFTD cells do not express cell surface MHC molecules in vitro or in vivo, due to down-regulation of genes essential to the antigen-processing pathway, such as β2-microglobulin and transporters associated with antigen processing. Loss of gene expression is not due to structural mutations, but to regulatory changes including epigenetic deacetylation of histones. Consequently, MHC class I molecules can be restored to the surface of DFTD cells in vitro by using recombinant devil IFN-γ, which is associated with up-regulation of the MHC class II transactivator, a key transcription factor with deacetylase activity. Further, expression of MHC class I molecules by DFTD cells can occur in vivo during lymphocyte infiltration. These results explain why T cells do not target DFTD cells. We propose that MHC-positive or epigenetically modified DFTD cells may provide a vaccine to DFTD. In addition, we suggest that down-regulation of MHC molecules using regulatory mechanisms allows evolvability of transmissible cancers and could affect the evolutionary trajectory of DFTD. PMID:23479617

  17. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, A.; Sebanz, N.; Mandl, I.; Huber, L.

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between percept

  18. A theory and dynamic model of dyadic interaction : Concerns, appraisals, and contagiousness in a developmental context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2007-01-01

    A theory of the dynamics of dyadic interaction is presented, based on the concepts of "concern" (i.e., intentions, goals, and interests), "appraisal" and "contagiousness". Differences between children who participate in a specific interaction are linked to differences in social competence and social

  19. SPATIAL CONTAGIOUSNESS OF CANOPY DISTURBANCE IN TROPICAL RAIN FOREST : AN INDIVIDUAL-TREE-BASED TEST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Patrick A.; Van Der Meer, Peter J.; Bongers, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Spatial contagiousness of canopy dynamics-the tendency of canopy disturbances to occur nearby existing canopy openings due to an elevated risk of tree fall around gaps-has been demonstrated in many temperate-zone forests, but only inferentially for tropical forests. Hypothesized mechanisms increasin

  20. Catch It If You Can: How Contagious Motivation Improves Group Projects and Course Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Anjala S.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a theory-based contagious motivation model focusing on enhancing student perceptions of group projects and ultimately course satisfaction. Moreover, drawing from both pedagogical and organizational behavior literatures, a model is presented that ties together intrinsic motivation theory with social contagion and…

  1. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations regarding the importation of horses from countries... imported horses 731 days of age or less and adding new testing protocols for test mares and...

  2. Modeling the Effect of Herd Immunity and Contagiousness in Mitigating a Smallpox Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeden, Ellie; Fielding, Russel; Steinhouse, Kyle E; Rubin, Ilan N

    2015-07-01

    The smallpox antiviral tecovirimat has recently been purchased by the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile. Given significant uncertainty regarding both the contagiousness of smallpox in a contemporary outbreak and the efficiency of a mass vaccination campaign, vaccine prophylaxis alone may be unable to control a smallpox outbreak following a bioterror attack. Here, we present the results of a compartmental epidemiological model that identifies conditions under which tecovirimat is required to curtail the epidemic by exploring how the interaction between contagiousness and prophylaxis coverage of the affected population affects the ability of the public health response to control a large-scale smallpox outbreak. Each parameter value in the model is based on published empirical data. We describe contagiousness parametrically using a novel method of distributing an assumed R-value over the disease course based on the relative rates of daily viral shedding from human and animal studies of cognate orthopoxvirus infections. Our results suggest that vaccination prophylaxis is sufficient to control the outbreak when caused either by a minimally contagious virus or when a very high percentage of the population receives prophylaxis. As vaccination coverage of the affected population decreases below 70%, vaccine prophylaxis alone is progressively less capable of controlling outbreaks, even those caused by a less contagious virus (R0 less than 4). In these scenarios, tecovirimat treatment is required to control the outbreak (total number of cases under an order of magnitude more than the number of initial infections). The first study to determine the relative importance of smallpox prophylaxis and treatment under a range of highly uncertain epidemiological parameters, this work provides public health decision-makers with an evidence-based guide for responding to a large-scale smallpox outbreak. PMID:25480757

  3. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-04-01

    What, then, is Cook when he is displaced from ‘western’ history and spread around cultures like a virus? How precarious or robust, then, are the historical certainties associated with Cook-monumentalised Kurnell and its place in time as ‘the birthplace of modern Australia’?

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  5. Contagious Deposition of Seeds in Spider Monkeys' Sleeping Trees Limits Effective Seed Dispersal in Fragmented Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo González-Zamora; Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez; Federico Escobar; Matthias Rös; Ken Oyama; Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Colin A Chapman

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rai...

  6. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    OpenAIRE

    Anna WILKINSON, Natalie SEBANZ, Isabella MANDL, Ludwig HUBER

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between perception and action or that it is the result of empathy, involving the ability to engage in mental state attribution. This set of experiments sought to distinguish between these hypotheses by examining ...

  7. Auditory Contagious Yawning in Humans: An Investigation into Affiliation and Status Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Church, Allyson M.; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    While comparative research on contagious yawning has grown substantially in the past few years, both the interpersonal factors influencing this response and the sensory modalities involved in its activation in humans remain relatively unknown. Extending upon previous studies showing various in-group and status effects in non-human great apes, we performed an initial study to investigate how the political affiliation (Democrat vs. Republican) and status (high vs. low) of target stimuli influen...

  8. MHC gene copy number variation in Tasmanian devils: implications for the spread of a contagious cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Siddle, Hannah V; Marzec, Jolanta; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Tasmanian devils face extinction owing to the emergence of a contagious cancer. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a clonal cancer spread owing to a lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers in Tasmanian devil populations. We present a comprehensive screen of MHC diversity in devils and identify 25 MHC types and 53 novel sequences, but conclude that overall levels of MHC diversity at the sequence level are low. The majority of MHC Class I variation can be explained by allelic...

  9. Evolution of a contagious cancer: epigenetic variation in Devil Facial Tumour Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Peck, Sarah; Harmsen, Collette; Taylor, Robyn; Pyecroft, Stephen; Madsen, Thomas; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Belov, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a highly contagious cancer, is driving Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) to extinction. The cancer is a genetically and chromosomally stable clonal cell line which is transmitted by biting during social interactions. In the present study, we explore the Devil Facial Tumour (DFT) epigenome and the genes involved in DNA methylation homeostasis. We show that tumour cells have similar levels of methylation to peripheral nerves, the tissue...

  10. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of a highly contagious disease in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Camitz, Martin; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Travel restrictions may reduce the spread of a contagious disease that threatens public health. In this study we investigate what effect different levels of travel restrictions may have on the speed and geographical spread of an outbreak of a disease similar to SARS. We use a stochastic simulation model of the Swedish population, calibrated with survey data of travel patterns between municipalities in Sweden collected over three years. We find that a ban on journeys longer than 50 km drastica...

  11. Improved diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) by standard serological techniques and DNA amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to improve the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Botswana by the implementation and establishment of the OIE standard complement fixation test (CFT) method, and to demonstrate a diagnostic system in a 96 well format coupled with a colorimetric detection of the PCR amplified product suitable for moderate to high sample numbers for the detection of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides SC (MmmSC) from nasal swabs, lung tissue and cultures

  12. A tale of two tumours: comparison of the immune escape strategies of contagious cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-09-01

    The adaptive immune system should prevent cancer cells passing from one individual to another, in much the same way that it protects against pathogens. However, in rare cases cancer cells do not die within a single individual, but successfully pass between individuals, escaping the adaptive immune response and becoming a contagious cancer. There are two naturally occurring contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), found in Tasmanian devils, and Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT), found in dogs. Despite sharing an ability to pass as allografts, these cancers have a very different impact on their hosts. While DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils and has had a devastating impact on the devil population, CTVT co-exists with its host in a manner that does not usually cause death of the dog. Although immune evasion strategies for CTVT have been defined, why DFTD is not rejected as an allograft is not understood. We have made progress in revealing mechanisms of immune evasion for DFTD both in vitro and in vivo, and here we compare how DFTD and CTVT interact with their respective hosts and avoid rejection. Our findings highlight factors that may be important for the evolution of contagious cancers and cancer more generally. Perhaps most importantly, this work has opened up important areas for future research, including the effect of epigenetic factors on immune escape mechanisms and the basis of a vaccine strategy that may protect Tasmanian devils against DFTD. PMID:23200636

  13. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maccari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Contagious parthenogenesis—a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring—is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model.

  14. Auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): first evidence for social modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

    2012-07-01

    Dogs' capacity to 'catch' human yawns has recently attracted the attention of researchers in the field of animal cognition. Following recent studies suggesting that contagion yawning in humans, and some other primates, is empathy-related, some authors have considered the possibility that the same mechanism may underlie contagious yawning in dogs. To date, however, no positive evidence has been found, and more parsimonious hypotheses have been put forward. The present study explored the 'contagion-only' hypothesis by testing whether the mere sound of a human yawn can be sufficient to elicit yawning in dogs, in a way that is unaffected by social-emotional factors. Unexpectedly, results showed an interesting interplay between contagion and social effects. Not only were dogs found to catch human yawns, but they were also found to yawn more at familiar than unfamiliar yawns. Although not allowing for conclusive inferences about the mechanisms underlying contagious yawning in dogs, this study provides first data that renders plausible empathy-based, emotionally connected, contagious yawning in these animals. PMID:22526686

  15. A Rational Approach to Estimating the Surgical Demand Elasticity Needed to Guide Manpower Reallocation during Contagious Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao-Mei Tsao; Ying-Chou Sun; Der-Ming Liou

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging infectious diseases continue to pose serious threats to global public health. So far, however, few published study has addressed the need for manpower reallocation needed in hospitals when such a serious contagious outbreak occurs. Aim To quantify the demand elasticity of the major surgery types in order to guide future manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks. Materials and Methods Based on a nationwide research database in Taiwan, we extracted the monthly volume...

  16. Reversible epigenetic down-regulation of MHC molecules by devil facial tumour disease illustrates immune escape by a contagious cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kreiss, Alexandre; Tovar, Cesar; Yuen, Chun Kit; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine; Swift, Kate; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna E.; Skjødt, Karsten; Woods, Gregory M.; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Contagious cancers that pass between individuals as an infectious cell line are highly unusual pathogens. Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is one such contagious cancer that emerged 16 y ago and is driving the Tasmanian devil to extinction. As both a pathogen and an allograft, DFTD cells should be rejected by the host–immune response, yet DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils with no apparent rejection of tumor cells. Why DFTD cells are not rejected has been a question of consider...

  17. The costs of preventive activities for exotic contagious diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the costs of preventive activities, currently undertaken in Denmark, related to foot and mouth disease (FMD) and classical and African swine fever (SF). Only costs held between outbreaks were included. Costs were divided into public costs and costs paid...... in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated...... in the analysis by assuming that the FMD/SF shares of costs as well as total costs for each activity could take on a most likely as well as a minimum and maximum value. A high degree of transparency was prioritized in the cost analysis, which enables reproducibility and easy access to conducting sensitivity...

  18. Individual variation in contagious yawning susceptibility is highly stable and largely unexplained by empathy or other known factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological functioning of humans. We administered 328 participants a 3-minute yawning video stimulus, a cognitive battery, and a comprehensive questionnaire that included measures of empathy, emotional contagion, circadian energy rhythms, and sleepiness. Individual contagious yawning measurements were found to be highly stable across testing sessions, both in a lab setting and if administered remotely online, confirming that certain healthy individuals are less susceptible to contagious yawns than are others. Additionally, most individuals who failed to contagiously yawn in our study were not simply suppressing their reaction, as they reported not even feeling like yawning in response to the stimulus. In contrast to previous studies indicating that empathy, time of day, or intelligence may influence contagious yawning susceptibility, we found no influence of these variables once accounting for the age of the participant. Participants were less likely to show contagious yawning as their age increased, even when restricting to ages of less than 40 years. However, age was only able to explain 8% of the variability in the contagious yawn response. The vast majority of the variability in this extremely stable trait remained unexplained, suggesting that studies of its inheritance are warranted. PMID:24632594

  19. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WILKINSON, Natalie SEBANZ, Isabella MANDL, Ludwig HUBER

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between perception and action or that it is the result of empathy, involving the ability to engage in mental state attribution. This set of experiments sought to distinguish between these hypotheses by examining contagious yawning in a species that is unlikely to show nonconscious mimicry and empathy but does respond to social stimuli: the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria. A demonstrator tortoise was conditioned to yawn when presented with a red square-shaped stimulus. Observer tortoises were exposed to three conditions: observation of conditioned yawn, non demonstration control, and stimulus only control. We measured the number of yawns for each observer animal in each condition. There was no difference between conditions. Experiment 2 therefore increased the number of conditioned yawns presented. Again, there was no significant difference between conditions. It seemed plausible that the tortoises did not view the conditioned yawn as a real yawn and therefore a final experiment was run using video recorded stimuli. The observer tortoises were presented with three conditions: real yawn, conditioned yawns and empty background. Again there was no significant difference between conditions. We therefore conclude that the red-footed tortoise does not yawn in response to observing a conspecific yawn. This suggests that contagious yawning is not the result of a fixed action pattern but may involve more complex social processes [Current Zoology 57 (4: 477–484, 2011].

  20. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Garcia-Herranz

    Full Text Available Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks.

  1. The revival of Lucretian atomism and contagious diseases during the renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Marco

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the influence of Lucretius' De rerum natura on the theory of contagious diseases which Girolamo Fracastoro developed during the second decade of the 16th century. It is apparent that the use of the concept of semina morbi was neither an anticipation of modern germ theory, nor a mere adaptation of the terminology of classical atomism. In fact, the combination of the humanist interest in the poem of Lucretius with a renewed attention towards direct observation resulted in the publication in of Fracastoro's De morbo gallico (1530), containing an innovative and effective interpretation of the notion of contagion. PMID:15309812

  2. Contagious Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in ...

  3. Contagious cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in dogs. There is a vast difference in prognosis between these two conditions. DFTD is often fatal within 6 months, whereas most cases of CTVT are eventually rejected by the host dog, who then is conferred lifelong immunity. In man, only scattered case reports exist about such communicable cancers, most often in the setting of organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cancers arising during pregnancy that are transmitted to the fetus. In about one third of cases, transplant recipients develop cancers from donor organs from individuals who were found to harbor malignancies after the transplantation. The fact that two thirds of the time cancer does not develop, along with the fact that cancer very rarely is transmitted from person to person, supports the notion that natural immunity prevents such cancers from taking hold in man. These observations might hold invaluable clues to the immunobiology and possible immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:21212437

  4. A generic model of contagious disease and its application to human-to-human transmission of avian influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.

    2007-03-01

    Modeling contagious diseases has taken on greater importance over the past several years as diseases such as SARS and avian influenza have raised concern about worldwide pandemics. Most models developed to consider projected outbreaks have been specific to a single disease. This paper describes a generic System Dynamics contagious disease model and its application to human-to-human transmission of a mutant version of avian influenza. The model offers the option of calculating rates of new infections over time based either on a fixed ''reproductive number'' that is traditional in contagious disease models or on contact rates for different sub-populations and likelihood of transmission per contact. The paper reports on results with various types of interventions. These results suggest the potential importance of contact tracing, limited quarantine, and targeted vaccination strategies as methods for controlling outbreaks, especially when vaccine supplies may initially be limited and the efficacy of anti-viral drugs uncertain.

  5. Auditory Contagious Yawning in Humans: An Investigation into Affiliation and Status Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Jorg J M; Church, Allyson M; Gallup, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    While comparative research on contagious yawning has grown substantially in the past few years, both the interpersonal factors influencing this response and the sensory modalities involved in its activation in humans remain relatively unknown. Extending upon previous studies showing various in-group and status effects in non-human great apes, we performed an initial study to investigate how the political affiliation (Democrat vs. Republican) and status (high vs. low) of target stimuli influences auditory contagious yawning, as well as the urge to yawn, in humans. Self-report responses and a subset of video recordings were analyzed from 118 undergraduate students in the US following exposure to either breathing (control) or yawning (experimental) vocalizations paired with images of former US Presidents (high status) and their respective Cabinet Secretaries of Commerce (low status). The overall results validate the use of auditory stimuli to prompt yawn contagion, with greater response in the experimental than the control condition. There was also a negative effect of political status on self-reported yawning and the self-reported urge to yawn irrespective of the condition. In contrast, we found no evidence for a political affiliation bias in this response. These preliminary findings are discussed in terms of the existing comparative evidence, though we highlight limitations in the current investigation and we provide suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:26617557

  6. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%, three (3.2% with hepatitis C, two (2.2% with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers.

  7. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.;

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics of Staphylo......This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics of...... Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli during lactation and the dry period in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. Input parameters on cure were obtained from recent Dutch field data. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were...... calculated into the combined total annual net costs of IMI per herd. The cost effectiveness of 4 scenarios with lactational intervention was determined; scenarios included no intervention, treatment after 1 mo of infection, treatment after 2 mo of infection, and treatment after 1 mo of infection and culling...

  8. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; de Farias, Francisca Lucélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%), three (3.2%) with hepatitis C, two (2.2%) with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers. PMID:26771625

  9. Reversible epigenetic down-regulation of MHC molecules by devil facial tumour disease illustrates immune escape by a contagious cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kreiss, Alexandre; Tovar, Cesar;

    2013-01-01

    Contagious cancers that pass between individuals as an infectious cell line are highly unusual pathogens. Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is one such contagious cancer that emerged 16 y ago and is driving the Tasmanian devil to extinction. As both a pathogen and an allograft, DFTD cells should be...... rejected by the host-immune response, yet DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils with no apparent rejection of tumor cells. Why DFTD cells are not rejected has been a question of considerable confusion. Here, we show that DFTD cells do not express cell surface MHC molecules in vitro or in vivo...

  10. Contagious Fire? An Empirical Assessment of the Problem of Multi-Shooter, Multi-Shot Deadly Force Incidents in Police Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael D.; Klinger, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent police shootings in which multiple officers fired numerous rounds at suspects have led some observers to assert that such situations involve "contagious fire," where an initial officer's shots launch a cascade of gunfire from other officers present. Although there is anecdotal recognition of the contagious fire phenomenon among police and…

  11. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: A general framework for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-borde

  12. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  13. Using Participatory Epidemiology Tools to Investigate Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP in Maasai Flocks, Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Senyael

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Participatory Epidemiology (PE was applied on the Maasai rangeland of northern Tanzania to understand pastoralist’s perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP. The study was conducted during the period of April 2008 and caprine disease event was directed during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. Participatory methods such as Focus Group Discussion (FGD, proportional piling and matrix scoring were used to characterize pastoralist perceived clinical signs and risk factors for CCPP. The estimated mean incidence and case mortality rate of CCPP was 31.6 and 61.4%, respectively. Matrix scoring showed moderate to good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs and risk factors. It was concluded that PE complimented with local knowledge could generally be used to generate disease information at low cost and therefore assist the design of feasible disease surveillance systems and control programmes at local and national level.

  14. Impact of degree truncation on the spread of a contagious process on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Harling, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how person-to-person contagious processes spread through a population requires accurate information on connections between population members. However, such connectivity data, when collected via interview, is often incomplete due to partial recall, respondent fatigue or study design, e.g., fixed choice designs (FCD) truncate out-degree by limiting the number of contacts each respondent can report. Past research has shown how FCD truncation affects network properties, but its implications for predicted speed and size of spreading processes remain largely unexplored. To study the impact of degree truncation on spreading processes, we generated collections of synthetic networks containing specific properties (degree distribution, degree-assortativity, clustering), and also used empirical social network data from 75 villages in Karnataka, India. We simulated FCD using various truncation thresholds and ran a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) process on each network. We found that spreading proce...

  15. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of a highly contagious disease in Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Camitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Travel restrictions may reduce the spread of a contagious disease that threatens public health. In this study we investigate what effect different levels of travel restrictions may have on the speed and geographical spread of an outbreak of a disease similar to SARS. We use a stochastic simulation model of the Swedish population, calibrated with survey data of travel patterns between municipalities in Sweden collected over three years. We find that a ban on journeys longer than 50 km drastically reduces the speed and the geographical spread of outbreaks, even with when compliance is less than 100%. The result is found to be robust for different rates of inter-municipality transmission intensities. Travel restrictions may therefore be an effective way to mitigate the effect of a future outbreak.

  16. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE – Infectious, Contagious, Zoonotic or Production Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherr Marcus G

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1986, a new progressive neurological condition similar to scrapie of sheep and goats was recognised in cattle in the United Kingdom (UK, and was named bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. There is an ongoing discussion whether BSE should be classified as infectious, contagious, or zoonotic, and if it fits the definition of a production disease. The objective of this work is to briefly describe the main characteristics of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, to review the epidemiology of BSE, and to address the question of how to classify BSE. TSEs are characterised as chronic wasting diseases with spongiform vacuolation and the accumulation of infectious prion protein (PrPSc in the central nervous system. TSE infectivity is very difficult to inactivate. Cattle BSE most likely originated from sheep scrapie, although this will remain to be an issue for debate. The disease can be transmitted from cattle to a range of species, and has resulted in smaller TSE epidemics in domestic cats, zoo cats and zoo ruminants, and in humans. Transmission in the field occurred through feed containing ruminant-derived protein, and measures to prevent the recycling of infectivity have proven effective to reduce the number of new infections. Mandatory reporting of clinical suspects combined with targeted screening of risk populations is needed to assess the BSE status of a country. Infection studies and the transmissibility to other species classify BSE as infectious and zoonotic. Absence of excretion of the agent, and therefor of horizontal transmission, categorise BSE as non-contagious. However, BSE is a multifactorial infectious disease that is dependent on management factors (mainly feeding, and therefore fits into the broader definition of production diseases.

  17. Individual Variation in Contagious Yawning Susceptibility Is Highly Stable and Largely Unexplained by Empathy or Other Known Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomew, Alex J.; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological func...

  18. An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Peyraud, Armelle; Poumarat, Francois; Tardy, Florence; Manso-Silvan, Lucia; Hamroev, Karomatullo; Tilloev, Tillo; Amirbekov, Mullojon; Tounkara, Karim; Bodjo, Charles; Wesonga, Hezron; Nkando, Isabel Gacheri; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Cardinale, Eric; Meenowa, Deodass

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the "mycoides cluster" frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prev...

  19. The reproduction of borders and the contagiousness of illegalisation: A case of a Belgrade youth hostel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past couple of years, Serbia has become a transit country for the ever increasing number of migrants from Africa and Asia, travelling towards the EU. As part of the process of approaching the EU - first achieving the liberalisation of the visa regime for entry into the Schengen area in 2009 and then getting the official status of a candidate member in 2012 - Serbia needed to harmonise its policies with those of the EU, especially in the areas of border control and migration management. As a result, Serbia adopted a series of laws and policies which effectively illegalise migrants. In this paper, we first look into how migrant “illegality” is produced by Serbian migration legislation and policy, and second, we look at the consequences of this illegalisation. The first set of consequences are those that are felt by migrants themselves, as they are its principle target. The second set of consequences affects those persons that come into contact with the illegalised migrants. We speak of contagiousness of illegalisation, which affects those people who are providing professional services to illegalised persons. Under the treat of possible criminalisation, pressure is put on them to conduct “legality” checks and thus reproduce borders far away from the actual state border. We look particularly at reproduction of borders in the area of accommodation of migrants, taking as a case study a Belgrade youth hostel.

  20. Evolution of a contagious cancer: epigenetic variation in Devil Facial Tumour Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Peck, Sarah; Harmsen, Collette; Taylor, Robyn; Pyecroft, Stephen; Madsen, Thomas; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a highly contagious cancer, is driving Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) to extinction. The cancer is a genetically and chromosomally stable clonal cell line which is transmitted by biting during social interactions. In the present study, we explore the Devil Facial Tumour (DFT) epigenome and the genes involved in DNA methylation homeostasis. We show that tumour cells have similar levels of methylation to peripheral nerves, the tissue from which DFTD originated. We did not observe any strain or region-specific epimutations. However, we revealed a significant increase in hypomethylation in DFT samples over time (p < 0.0001). We propose that loss of methylation is not because of a maintenance deficiency, as an upregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 gene was observed in tumours compared with nerves (p < 0.005). Instead, we believe that loss of methylation is owing to active demethylation, supported by the temporal increase in MBD2 and MBD4 (p < 0.001). The implications of these changes on disease phenotypes need to be explored. Our work shows that DFTD should not be treated as a static entity, but rather as an evolving parasite with epigenetic plasticity. Understanding the role of epimutations in the evolution of this parasitic cancer will provide unique insights into the role of epigenetic plasticity in cancer evolution and progression in traditional cancers that arise and die with their hosts. PMID:23135679

  1. MHC gene copy number variation in Tasmanian devils: implications for the spread of a contagious cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Marzec, Jolanta; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine

    2010-07-01

    Tasmanian devils face extinction owing to the emergence of a contagious cancer. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a clonal cancer spread owing to a lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers in Tasmanian devil populations. We present a comprehensive screen of MHC diversity in devils and identify 25 MHC types and 53 novel sequences, but conclude that overall levels of MHC diversity at the sequence level are low. The majority of MHC Class I variation can be explained by allelic copy number variation with two to seven sequence variants identified per individual. MHC sequences are divided into two distinct groups based on sequence similarity. DFTD cells and most devils have sequences from both groups. Twenty per cent of individuals have a restricted MHC repertoire and contain only group I or only group II sequences. Counterintuitively, we postulate that the immune system of individuals with a restricted MHC repertoire may recognize foreign MHC antigens on the surface of the DFTD cell. The implication of these results for management of DFTD and this endangered species are discussed. PMID:20219742

  2. Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Olum, Moses; Attah-Poku, Samuel; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Wesonga, Hezron; Soi, Reuben; Naessens, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa. The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies, but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in this species. Our aim was to induce antibody responses to CPS in cattle, and challenge them when they had specific CPS antibody titres similar or higher than those from cattle vaccinated with the live vaccine. The CPS was linked to the carrier protein ovalbumin via a carbodiimide-mediated condensation with 1-ethyl-3(3-imethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Ten animals were immunized twice and challenged three weeks after the booster inoculation, and compared to a group of challenged non-immunized cattle. When administered subcutaneously to adult cattle, the vaccine elicited CPS-specific antibody responses with the same or a higher titre than animals vaccinated with the live vaccine. Pathology in the group of immunized animals was significantly reduced (57%) after challenge with Mmm strain Afadé compared to the non-immunized group, a figure in the range of the protection provided by the live vaccine. PMID:27496744

  3. Challenges of controlling contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa: a Zambian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuka, Geoffrey; Songolo, Nadi; Kabilika, Swithine; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan African and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. Control of CBPP offers a number of challenges as a result many developing countries in Africa are still struggling with this disease. In this study, we look at the challenges encountered in CBPP control in sub-Saharan Africa from the Zambian perspective. In conducting this study, we reviewed scientific literature and reports from the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock and related animal institutions, and also made interviews with experts and key government officials involved in CBPP control in Zambia. Among the challenges identified for the successful control of CBPP were as follows: failure in the delivery of veterinary services, lack of a cattle identification system, natural phenomenon, livestock husbandry systems in the traditional sector, human movements, traditional practices among cattle farmers and cattle marketing systems. It was seen that the epidemiology of CBPP in Zambia is influenced by both ecological and anthological factors. Therefore, design and implementation of any control or eradication programme should be area/regional-dependent taking into account the different factors influencing disease transmission and maintenance. PMID:22843213

  4. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

  5. A meta-analysis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Mekuria, Solomon; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Skjerve, Eystein; Szonyi, Barbara; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This systematic literature review was initiated due to lack of comprehensive information on the status and distribution of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia. The objectives of the review were thus to provide a pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP in the country and asses the level of in between study variance among the available reports. Manual and electronic search was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. A total of twelve published articles and one MSc thesis was retrieved from19 initially identified studies. Twenty five animal level datasets were extracted at regional level considering some hypothesized predictors. The retrieved data were summarized in a meta-analytical approach. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP was 25.7% (95% CI:20.9,31.0). The inverse variance square (I(2)) that explains the variation in effect size attributed to reports true heterogeneity was 95.7%.The sub-group analysis was also computed for assumed predictors including, age, sex, type of study population, production systems and regional states. Among these predictors, study population type revealed statistically significant difference (Paccounting for 22.87% of the explainable proportion of heterogeneity among the presumed predictors. Evidence on isolation and confirmation of Mycoplasma capricolum subspp. capripneumonie in the country was obtained from five regional states. In conclusion, it is recommended to further investigate facilities related with transportation and collection premises along with potential role of sheep in the epidemiology of CCPP. Finally, the review emphasizes the need for monitoring the ongoing CCPP control intervention and introduces amendments based on the findings. Besides more surveys are needed in some of the regions where no or few valid data was available. PMID:26943994

  6. Contagious deposition of seeds in spider monkeys' sleeping trees limits effective seed dispersal in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    Full Text Available The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS and three forest fragments (FF in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥ 5 mm (in length from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can 'force' spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines in fragmented landscapes.

  7. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  8. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315

  9. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölske G

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact. Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response.

  10. An outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and post outbreak sero-surveillance in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was never reported in Eritrea for the last 20 to 30 years. A major incursion of CBPP was reported from illegally smuggled Raya Azebo type cattle from Ethiopia, introduced through the Southern Red Sea administrative region of Eritrea (the Afar area bordering Ethiopia). The first case was detected in the Asmara abattoir during post mortem inspection. Characteristic CBPP clinical signs and post-mortem lesions were observed in affected herd during the outbreak of the disease. Significant number of in-contact indigenous cattle was infected by the disease. Samples were first sent to OIE reference laboratory CIRADEMVT in France for confirmation. The disease was confirmed by PCR on 15 January 2003.Samples of Pleural fluids and lung tissues were collected from CBPP infected animals and tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The affected cattle herds were held in an isolation pen and eventually destroyed following confirmation of the disease. Following this incident, surveillance of CBPP was stepped-up and a total of 4,695 serum samples were collected from 313 sampling units or villages and submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory for testing in 2004 one year after the outbreak of the disease as part of the epidemiosurveillance. Serum samples collected for sero-surveillance were tested for CBPP antibodies by the use of the monoclonal antibody specific for Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides sc as described in the competitive ELISA kit manual from CIRAD-EMVT, France. During this post outbreak sero-surveillance sampling season, all age group animals were eligible for sampling. Out of the total sampled animals 67 (1.43%) were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides sc antibodies using the cELISA test. This result suggested that very low lateral infectious agent transmission could have taken place. Vaccination as a control measure had never

  11. Rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in Jilin Province China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Shao, Hongze; Pei, Zhihua; Hu, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in Jilin Province, China, using the assay. A LAMP assay targeting a highly conserved region of the F1L gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (CEV). Three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of Jilin Province, China, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the LAMP assay. The results showed that the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 100 copies of the standard plasmid, which is 100-fold higher than the sensitivity of PCR. No cross-reactivity was observed with capripoxvirus, fowlpox virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia I and bluetongue virus. The average positive rate was 19.73% (72/365), and the positive rate was highest in lambs aged 1-6 months. Our results demonstrated that CEV infection was very widespread in the flocks of Jilin Province and that the LAMP assay allows for easy, rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of CEV infection. PMID:26346652

  12. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri to assess its genetic variability in a contagious agalactia endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Paterna, Ana; Corrales, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is one of the main causative agents of caprine contagious agalactia. Besides, the absence of accurate control methods eases its dispersion between different herds within endemic areas of this disease. In this context, there is a need to implement molecular typing schemes which offer valuable information useful to establish control measures and enables the surveillance of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variability of different strains of Mmc from a contagious agalactia endemic area through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For this purpose, five house-keeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA, rpoB) from 39 field isolates were analysed. These isolates were obtained from different geographic areas of Spain, between the years 2004 and 2015. The results obtained in this study suggest that the selected MLST scheme could be a useful technique to monitor the genetic variability of Mmc in endemic areas. Despite the significant differences found between the assessed field isolates, they could be classified according to their geographical origin. Moreover, it was also possible to detect genetic differences between Mmc strains coming from the same herd at the same sampling time, which may need to be taken into consideration when designing or arranging prophylactic strategies. PMID:27374908

  13. An abattoir survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia lesions in slaughtered cattle in selected districts in Northern Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel; Swai; Isidory; Mwezimpya; Edward; Ulicky; Adam; Mbise; Winford; Moshy

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish and estimate incidence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP),using abattoir survey as a diagnostic tool in slaughtered cattle in Northern Tanzania.Methods:A total of 4460 cattle were slaughtered in five abattoirs in 3 northern zone regions(Arusha,Kilimanjaro and Tanga)during the period of January to May 2004.They were examined ante-mortem for‘pneumonia signs’,and‘characteristic contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP)lung lesions’.Results:Forty-one(0.91%)of the slaughtered cattle,the majority of which were Tanzania short horn zebu,had gross lung lesions suggestive of CBPP.The prevalence of lesions was significantly(P<0.05)higher in Karatu abattoir compared to others.No animal was detected to have lesion in Bomang’ombe abattoir.The most observed pneumonic signs included labored breathing(90%),dry cough(57%)and mucopurulent nasal discharge(47%).The gross characteristic CBPP pathological lesion,frequently encountered was left lung lesion(47%),pinkish lung(71%)and pleural adhesion(98%).Epidemiological reports show that the CBPP reported outbreaks increased from 19 in 2002,65 in 2003 and 18 in 2004(January-March).The corresponding number of reported deaths increased from 137 in 2002,269 in 2003 and 77 in 2004(January-March).Conclusions:It’s concluded from this study that CBPP is a problem in spite of the extensive awareness and vaccination campaigns.Nevertheless,a continued surveillance programme including routine checks of all cattle carcasses at the abattoir and subsequent epidemiological investigation of suspected cases are recommended.

  14. Distribution of contagious and environmental mastitis agents isolated from milk samples collected from clinically health buffalo cows between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, R.P.; D.J. Sturion; D.L. Ravena; E.B.S. Ferreira; H. Tonhati; H Langoni; T.A.B. Santos; A. Nader Filho; G. Mendoza-Sánchez; R. Bonini Pardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of clinically health quarters submitted to milking and also to observe the distribution of contagious and environmental agents between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year. During nine months 734 quarters from 37 buffalo cows were submitted monthly to udder inspection, palpation and strip cup test before milking. 734 asseptic milk samples were inoculated in 10% ovine blood agar and in MacConkey agar media, ...

  15. Presence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of contagious mastitis agents (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) isolated from milks of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    İKİZ, Serkan; BAŞARAN, Beren; BİNGÖL, Enver Barış; ÇETİN, Ömer; KAŞIKÇI, Güven; ÖZGÜR, Naciye Yakut; UÇMAK, Melih; Yilmaz, Özge; GÜNDÜZ, Mehmet Can; SABUNCU, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is recognized as one of the most important diseases affecting the dairy industry. The antibiotic susceptibility test is important to achieve accurate treatment in subclinical mastitis. This study was conducted to determine the presence of contagious mastitis agents (Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus) in 270 bovine milk samples collected from 132 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in 15 different dairy farms located in the Marmara Region of Turkey. A total of 256 ba...

  16. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the Maasai ecosystem of south-western Kenya: Evaluation of seroprevalence, risk factors and vaccine safety and efficacy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mtui-Malamsha, Niwael Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a bovine bacterial disease of major economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccination has been recommended to control the disease in endemic areas such as the Maasai ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania; however, the currently used live attenuated vaccine has been reported to have poor vaccine safety and efficacy. To compare standard (current) and an improved (buffered) version of the live CBPP-vaccine, several epidemiological studie...

  17. Contagious agalactia due to Mycoplasma spp. in small dairy ruminants: epidemiology and prospects for diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Angel; Amores, Joaquín; Paterna, Ana; De la Fe, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Contagious agalactia (CA) is a serious disease of small dairy ruminants that has a substantial economic impact on the goat and sheep milk industries. The main aetiological agent of the disease is Mycoplasma agalactiae, although other species, such as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and Mycoplasma putrefaciens, are pathogenic in goats. There are two clinical-epidemiological states of CA in sheep and goats; herds and flocks may exhibit outbreaks of CA or may be chronically infected, the latter with a high incidence of subclinical mastitis and only occasional clinical cases. The complex epidemiology of CA is related to the genetic characteristics and mechanisms of molecular variation of the Mycoplasma spp. involved, along with presence of CA-mycoplasmas in wild ruminant species. In goats, the situation is particularly complex and asymptomatic carriers have been detected in chronically infected herds. The coexistence of other non-pathogenic mycoplasmas in the herd further complicates the diagnosis of CA and the design of efficient strategies to control the disease. Routes of infection, such as the venereal route, may be involved in the establishment of chronic infection in herds. Current challenges include the need for improved diagnostic methods for detection of chronic and subclinical infections and for the design of more efficient vaccines. PMID:23759248

  18. [Epidemiology of Ebola virus disease and of other highly contagious, life-threatening diseases with low incidence in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlkes, L; Kreuels, B; Schwarz, N G; May, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Apart from sporadic exported cases, the occurrence of Ebola, Marburg and Lassa virus diseases is limited to the African continent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurs in Southeastern Europe but, so far, not in Germany. Other hemorrhagic fever disease-viruses occur in distinct regions in South America. Pulmonary plague is the bacterial infectious disease with the most contagious and lethal course and it is endemic to Madagascar and East Africa, but also occurs in other countries (e.g. India, USA). Monkey pox epidemics have occurred in remote areas of the Congo Basin. Such outbreaks could potentially become more common with the discontinuation of the cross-protective smallpox vaccination. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that emerged in 2002/2003 is another pathogen with significant epidemic potential. Typical for these diseases is a natural circulation between reservoir animals in remote areas. Sporadic transmission to humans can occur through contact with an infected animal. Subsequent human-to-human transmission can lead to epidemics, such as the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa. PMID:25997608

  19. Contagious Ecthyma, Rangiferine Brucellosis, and Lungworm Infection in a Muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) from the Canadian Arctic, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Matilde; Dalton, Chimoné; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank; Kafle, Pratap; Surujballi, Om; Turcotte, Claude; Checkley, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    An adult male muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ), harvested on 26 August 2014 on Victoria Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian Arctic, had proliferative dermatitis on the muzzle and fetlocks suggestive of contagious ecthyma or orf (Parapoxvirus). Histopathologic features of the lesions were consistent with this diagnosis. Orf virus DNA, phylogenetically similar to an isolate from a captive muskox of the Minnesota Zoo, US, was detected in the lesions by PCR using Parapoxvirus primers. Additionally, there was a metaphyseal abscess with a cortical fistula in the right metacarpus from which Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated and identification supported by PCR. Brucella spp. antibodies were detected in serum. Finally, 212 nodules were dissected from the lungs. Fecal analysis and lung examination demonstrated co-infection with the lungworms Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis. The zoonotic potential of orf and rangiferine brucellosis adds an important public health dimension to this case, particularly given that muskoxen are a valuable source of food for Arctic residents. Careful examination of these pathogens at a population level is needed as they may contribute to muskox population decline and potentially constitute a driver of food insecurity for local communities. This case underscores the importance of wildlife health surveillance as a management tool to conserve wildlife populations and maintain food security in subsistence-oriented communities. PMID:27285415

  20. Sero-prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bulls originated from Borena pastoral area of Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Leta, Samson; Hailu, Berhanu

    2015-06-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly infectious cattle disease, which is widespread in pastoral areas of Africa, and it imposes a major problem on Ethiopian livestock export market. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on bulls originated from Borena pastoral area to determine seroprevalence of CBPP. Forty batches of bulls containing 38,187 Borana bulls were tested using c-ELISA. Of the total 40 batches tested for the presence of antibodies, 25 (62.5 %) of them contained at least one seropositive bull. From the total of 38,187 bulls tested, 150 (0.4 %) bulls were positive. The number of seropositive animals increases as the herd size increases (P 1000, and the difference was found statistically significant (P opportunity to livestock producers and live animal and meat exporters by improving the demand of Ethiopian livestock on international market. Regular reintroduction of infected cattle from neighboring countries or herds where the disease remains endemic may change the disease dynamics again. Therefore, mass blanket vaccinations coupled with prompt diagnosis, isolation and stamping out of the outbreaks, intensive surveillance, followed by strict cattle movement control should be implemented by concerned parties. PMID:25863957

  1. Prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in pastoral flocks of goats in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipronoh, Alexander Kipruto; Ombui, Jackson Nyarongi; Kiara, Henry Kimathi; Binepal, Yatinder Singh; Gitonga, Eric; Wesonga, Hezron Okwako

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted between the months of March 2014 and March 2015 to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goat populations in pastoral flocks in three sub-counties of the Rift Valley region. A total of 432 serum samples were collected from goats from 54 flocks and tested for the presence of antibodies against mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (mccp) using monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Sero-prevalence recorded for Turkana West was 63.9%, Kajiado Central was 48.6%, while Pokot East was 29.2% which was statistically significant (χ2 = 34.997; P = 0.000) in the study sites. The results of this study confirmed that CCPP is widespread and endemic in the pastoral production systems studied in the Rift Valley region. The results confirmed that regions sharing international boundaries are at a higher risk of CCPP hence the need for a unified cross-border approach to disease control measures in the border areas. PMID:26516086

  2. Bridging a yawning chasm: EEG investigations into the debate concerning the role of the human mirror neuron system in contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Nicholas R; Puzzo, Ignazio; Pawley, Adam D; Bowes-Mulligan, Ruby A; Kirkpatrick, Emma V; Antoniou, Pavlina A; Kennett, Steffan

    2012-06-01

    Ongoing debate in the literature concerns whether there is a link between contagious yawning and the human mirror neuron system (hMNS). One way of examining this issue is with the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure changes in mu activation during the observation of yawns. Mu oscillations are seen in the alpha bandwidth of the EEG (8-12 Hz) over sensorimotor areas. Previous work has shown that mu suppression is a useful index of hMNS activation and is sensitive to individual differences in empathy. In two experiments, we presented participants with videos of either people yawning or control stimuli. We found greater mu suppression for yawns than for controls over right motor and premotor areas, particularly for those scoring higher on traits of empathy. In a third experiment, auditory recordings of yawns were compared against electronically scrambled versions of the same yawns. We observed greater mu suppression for yawns than for the controls over right lateral premotor areas. Again, these findings were driven by those scoring highly on empathy. The results from these experiments support the notion that the hMNS is involved in contagious yawning, emphasise the link between contagious yawning and empathy, and stress the importance of good control stimuli. PMID:22198677

  3. Is fertility contagious? Using panel data to disentangle mechanisms of social network influences on fertility decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lois, Daniel; Arránz Becker, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Using panel data (N = 1.679 married and cohabiting couples), this paper investigates the presence and causal mechanisms of social contagion processes regarding first births. Results confirmed the hypothesized positive association between the number of network members (friends, acquaintances, siblings) with young children and the respondents' transition rate into parenthood, particularly among younger couples. Several potential intervening mechanisms underlying this social contagion effect were tested. First, evidence was found for observational learning processes in which Ego obtained information on the joys and challenges of parenthood from network members with children. Second, childless respondents tended to feel pressured from couples with children in the network to start a family. Third, results supported the notion of social opportunity costs in that the anticipated loss of social ties after becoming a parent was more likely the fewer parents there were in the network. All three mechanisms exerted a positive impact on both fertility intentions and behavior. Panel regression models relying on intraindividual change scores showed that social learning was the most robust mechanism. An additional indirect test for causality suggested that the findings were unlikely to merely reflect parental status homophily (i.e., selection effects). PMID:26047547

  4. An agent-based approach for modeling dynamics of contagious disease spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragicevic Suzana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The propagation of communicable diseases through a population is an inherent spatial and temporal process of great importance for modern society. For this reason a spatially explicit epidemiologic model of infectious disease is proposed for a greater understanding of the disease's spatial diffusion through a network of human contacts. Objective The objective of this study is to develop an agent-based modelling approach the integrates geographic information systems (GIS to simulate the spread of a communicable disease in an urban environment, as a result of individuals' interactions in a geospatial context. Methods The methodology for simulating spatiotemporal dynamics of communicable disease propagation is presented and the model is implemented using measles outbreak in an urban environment as a case study. Individuals in a closed population are explicitly represented by agents associated to places where they interact with other agents. They are endowed with mobility, through a transportation network allowing them to move between places within the urban environment, in order to represent the spatial heterogeneity and the complexity involved in infectious diseases diffusion. The model is implemented on georeferenced land use dataset from Metro Vancouver and makes use of census data sets from Statistics Canada for the municipality of Burnaby, BC, Canada study site. Results The results provide insights into the application of the model to calculate ratios of susceptible/infected in specific time frames and urban environments, due to its ability to depict the disease progression based on individuals' interactions. It is demonstrated that the dynamic spatial interactions within the population lead to high numbers of exposed individuals who perform stationary activities in areas after they have finished commuting. As a result, the sick individuals are concentrated in geographical locations like schools and universities. Conclusion

  5. [Disease in the cloisters: requests to leave Convento da Ajuda, Rio de Janeiro, for the treatment of contagious diseases, c.1750-1780].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, William de Souza

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the requests submitted by nuns from Convento da Ajuda (Ajuda Convent) to leave their life of enclosure to receive treatment for contagious diseases. Disease was one of the few cases in which nuns were granted permission to leave. The female orders were strictly cloistered in order to preserve their purity as virgins consecrated to Christ. Extant documents detail the causes of the diseases, the ways they were transmitted, and the treatments used to fight them. These processes shed light on the procedures adopted outside the cloisters so that the nuns did not jeopardize their reclusion and honor when they went to distant places in search of treatment. PMID:27438730

  6. Orf: contagious pustular dermatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, M

    2010-05-01

    Orf is a common viral infection in sheep. It spreads to humans by direct contact. It is self-limiting, treatment having no beneficial effect. Misdiagnosis by those unfamiliar with its characteristic features is common, and may result in unnecessary treatment with antibiotics or surgery. We present a series of five cases of Orf in children of farmers in the west of Ireland, seen over a 10 year period.

  7. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri associated with goat respiratory disease and high flock mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Laura; Lopez, Jose; St-Jacques, Marcel; Ontiveros, Lourdes; Acosta, Jorge; Handel, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    A high mortality outbreak of respiratory mycoplasmosis occurred in goats in Mexico. The clinicopathologic presentation resembled contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae. By using a battery of polymerase chain reaction assays, the mycoplasma associated with this outbreak was identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

  8. Complete Sequence of Enzootic Nasal Tumor Virus, a Retrovirus Associated with Transmissible Intranasal Tumors of Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cousens, Christina; Minguijon, Esmeralda; Dalziel, Robert G.; Ortin, Aurora; Garcia, Mercedes; Park, Jane; Gonzalez, Lorenzo; Sharp, J. Michael; De las Heras, Marcelo

    1999-01-01

    The sequence of the complete genome of ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus, an exogenous retrovirus associated exclusively with contagious intranasal tumors of sheep, was determined. The genome is 7,434 nucleotides long and exhibits a genetic organization characteristic of type B and D oncoviruses. Enzootic nasal tumor virus is closely related to the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and to sheep endogenous retroviruses.

  9. Genome-Wide SNP Association Analysis for Loci Conferring Marek's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a T cell lymphoma of domestic chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic and contagious cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus. Since the 1970s, MD has been controlled by vaccination. However, due to continuous viral evolution with increasing virulence, and...

  10. Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, L Y; Fox, L K; Warf, C C; Kempt, G K

    2002-01-01

    Two acidified sodium chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants were evaluated for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by using National Mastitis Council experimental challenge procedures. The effect of these teat dips on teat skin and teat end condition was also determined. Both dips contained 0.32% sodium chlorite, 1.32% lactic, and 2.5% glycerin. Dips differed in the amount of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (0.53 or 0.27%) added as a surfactant. Both dips significantly reduced new intramammary infection (IMI) rates compared with undipped controls. The dip containing 0.53% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 72% and Strep. agalactiae by 75%. The dip containing 0.27% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 100% and by Strep. agalactiae by 88%. Changes in teat skin and teat end condition for treatment and control groups varied in parallel over time. Teats treated with either teat dip had higher mean teat skin and teat end scores than control teats at some weeks. However, teat skin and teat end condition did not tend to change from the start to the completion of the trial. Application of the two new postmilking teat dips was effective in reducing new IMI from contagious mastitis pathogens. (Key words: teat dip, contagious mastitis, chlorous acid) PMID:11860118

  11. Distribution of contagious and environmental mastitis agents isolated from milk samples collected from clinically health buffalo cows between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Maia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of clinically health quarters submitted to milking and also to observe the distribution of contagious and environmental agents between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year. During nine months 734 quarters from 37 buffalo cows were submitted monthly to udder inspection, palpation and strip cup test before milking. 734 asseptic milk samples were inoculated in 10% ovine blood agar and in MacConkey agar media, then incubated for 72 hours at 37oC. Among the 580 isolated microrganisms, 182 (31,38% were recovered from samples collected during the rainy season and 398 (68,62% from the dry season. In the rainy period the most prevalent agents were: bacteria from the genus Corynebacterium sp (53,30%, Staphylococcus sp (19,78% and Rhodococcus equi (13,74%. In the dry period, the commonest ones were: Corynebacterium sp (44,97%, Staphylococcus sp (18,84% and Micrococcus sp (9,55%. The results demonstrated that the methods used to select health quarters in brazilian dairy buffalo farms allow the transmission of contagious bacteria during both seasons of the year, maintaining Ital.J.Anim.Sci. vol. 6, (Suppl. 2, 896-899, 2007 897 VIII World Buffalo Congress agents known to cause mainly subclinical inflammatory reactions that compromise cronically the physiology and production of the mammary gland.

  12. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma agalactiae by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR from affected sheep to Contagious agalactia of Khuzestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooladgar, A.R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma agalactiae (M. agalactiae is one of the main causes of contagious agalactia, an infectious syndrome of sheep and goats in Khuzestan province –southwest of Iran that is characterized by mastitis and subsequent failure of milk production, arthritis, abortion and keratoconjunctivitis. This study was carried out to isolation and identification of M. agalactiae with culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR method from sheep in Khuzestan province, Iran. A total of 91 samples were collected from milk secretion, eye, ear, nose and joint exudates of sheep. All samples were cultured in PPLO broth supplemented for isolation of M. agalaciae. Extraction of the DNA of bacteria was done by phenol/chloroform method and the PCR assay was applied for detection of Mycoplasma genus in 163bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene and M. agalactiae in 375bp fragment of lipoprotein gene from culture as same as in clinical samples. Out of the 91 samples, 34(37.36% cultures were shown positive and typical Mycoplasma colonies in PPLO agar culture diagnostic method and 47(51.65% were scored positive by Mycoplasma genus PCR, 8(8.79% of the samples were scored positive by using M. agalactiae PCR as diagnostic method. Out of the 91 samples, 26 samples were shown both positive in the culture and PCR, 5 samples were shown both positive in the culture, MPCR and MAPCR. 15 samples were negative in the culture and positive in PCR whereas only 3 samples were positive in culture and negative in PCR. The results showed that the more isolations of M. agalactiae were taken from eye and less in ear and nose samples. M. agalactiae was one of the main factors of contagious agalactia that was detected for the first time from sheep in Khuzestan province.

  13. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Bölske G; Thiaucourt F; Wesonga HO; Wanjohi C; Lindberg R

    2004-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats w...

  14. Development of a Novel Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a Field-Applicable Lateral-Flow Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Martin; Gicheru, Nimmo; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Muriuki, Cecilia; Yu, Mingyan; Botelho, Ana; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg; Liljander, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, a bacterium belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the absence of an efficient CBPP vaccine, improved and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for recurrent testing combined with isolation and treatment of positive animals represent an option for CBPP control in Africa. Here we describe the comprehensive screening of 17 immunogenic Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides proteins using well-characterized bovine sera for the development of a novel cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for laboratory use. Two recombinant Mycoplasma immunogens, MSC_0136 and MSC_0636, were used to set up a standardized cocktail ELISA protocol. According to the results from more than 100 serum samples tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the novel cocktail ELISA were 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, with an overall diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-prescribed serological assays. In addition, we provide a proof of principle for a field-applicable, easy-to-use commercially produced prototype lateral-flow test for rapid (<30-min) diagnosis of CBPP. PMID:27053669

  15. Association of LMP/TAP Gene Polymorphisms with Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Li Population in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Danmei; Zhou, Yue; Ji, Limin; He, Tong; Lin, Feng; Lin, Rong; Lin, Tangchang; Mo, Yanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Several association studies have suggested that cellular immune response is vital for controlling and preventing of tuberculosis infection. Low molecular weight polypeptides (LMPs) and transporters with antigen processing (TAPs) are the main molecules in the processing and presentation pathway for intracellular antigens. This study was performed to elucidate whether these antigen-proce...

  16. An analysis of the spread pattern of contagious diseases emerging in China from year 2008 to 2012%2008-2012年中国法定传染病的流行态势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婕; 袁静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the spread patterns and characteristics of contagious diseases emerging in China from year 2008 to 2012 and develop scientific prevention and control measures for countering the diseases.Method The data of contagious diseases emerging in China from year 2008 to 2012 were collected and analyzed.Findings 39 strains of diseases from Class A, B and C were reported during the five years.34,122,500 cases altogether had been identified during the years and the yearly incidence rate on average was 508.95/10 million.The incidence rate was found to keep increasing.The five most infectious diseases were viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacillary and amebic dysentery, and gonorrhea. Conclusion The incidence of contagious diseases in China kept increasing over the past five years.The countermeasures for preventing and controlling the contagious diseases should be strengthened.%目的:了解中国2008-2012年传染病发病特点和流行趋势,为制定防制措施提供依据。方法收集2008-2012年中国法定传染病疫情资料,对流行病学情况进行分析。结果5年间共报告甲乙丙类传染病39种,累计发病3412.25万例,年平均发病率为508.95/10万;5年间发病率、死亡率均呈上升趋势(均P<0.001);年发病率居于前5位的为病毒性肝炎、肺结核、梅毒、细菌性和阿米巴性痢疾、淋病。结论近五年来,中国传染病发病率总体呈上升趋势,应加强对传染病的防控。

  17. Características clínicas e epidemiológicas do adulto contagiante da criança com tuberculose Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of contagious adult of tuberculosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João AB Lima

    2004-06-01

    of cohabitation with a contagious adult. OBJECTIVE: To create a profile of a typical adult with contagious tuberculosis (as identified through the public health system living with a child who has been diagnosed with tuberculosis. METHOD: Case study. Children younger than 14 years of age who were diagnosed with tuberculosis were included. Parents were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Means and standard deviations were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Fisher's exact test or the Dz test was used for comparisons. RESULTS: Fifty children, representing 96% of those diagnosed with tuberculosis in the Porto Alegre health care system between July 20, 2001 and August 10, 2002, were included. The mean age was 76 months, and 60% were girls. The classic forms of pulmonary presentation (consolidation or cavitation were seen in 38%. The majority of the children were diagnosed in the hospital and came from homes in which there were (a mean of 6 cohabitants and a total family income less than 2 times the local minimum wage. Using ELISA, HIV co-infection was identified in 25% (although not all were tested. The children regularly visited places other than their homes. In 78% of cases, the contagious adult was identified. These contagious adults were mostly males (56%, and the mean age was 32. In most cases (79%, the contagious adult was a relative, usually a parent. Within this group of adults with contagious tuberculosis, HIV co-infection was identified in 43% of those tested. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with contagious tuberculosis living in the home continue to be the most likely source of tuberculosis infection in children. Co-infection with HIV in these pediatric patients, as well as in the cohabiting adults with contagious tuberculosis, is a significant finding. It must be emphasized that the possibility of contact with contagious individuals in the home should be explored in every diagnosed case of pediatric tuberculosis.

  18. Development of an Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Seromonitoring Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Using Recombinant Lipoprotein LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides SC as Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Jiu-qing; GAO Yun-long; LI Yuan; WANG Yan-fan; QIAN Ai-dong

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides SC (MmmSC) is the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The lipoprotein LppQ encoded by lppQ gene is specific to MmmSC and is found in the type strain and in field strains isolated in Europe, Africa, and Australia, as well as in vaccine strains. No serological cross-reactions were observed with the related mycoplasmas of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. The N-terminal domain of the mature lipoprotein LppQ is hydrophilic, and it induces a strong, specific, early, and persistent immune response in naturally and experimentally infected animals. Mycoplasma-specific TGA (Trp) codons are utilized as stop codons in most other organisms. The lppQ N-terminal fragment from MmmSC HVRI Ⅹ strain, the Chinese strain for CF antigen production, was mutated with one-step overlapping extension PCR. Sequence analysis confirmed the successful mutation from A to G in codon 198 in the lppQ gene. The fragment containing the mutation site was subcloned into the pET32a expression vector. The recombinant protein with molecular weight of 42 kDa was purified using the Ni-NTA His.Bind purification kit, with a purity of up to 95%. Western blot indicated that the standard positive serum of CBPP could react with the recombinant protein. The purified protein was diluted to 0.35 μg mL-1, and coated to microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates. Indirect ELISA reaction conditions were optimized. The value of P/N was determined to be 4.8 (0.934/0.193), the sensitivity to be 95.8% (46/48), and the specificity to be 98.9% (161/163). 3 817 cattle serum samples from three different provinces were detected by the indirect ELISA and CFT. The Kappa value is 0.63, which is middle or high agreement between the two methods.

  19. Contagious agalactia by Mycoplasma agalactiae in small ruminants in Brazil: first report Agalaxia contagiosa por Mycoplasma agalactiae em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil: primeiro relato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisio Oliveira de Azevedo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of contagious agalactia by Mycoplasma agalactiae occurred in Paraíba State, Northeastern Region of Brazil are reported. The disease was characterized by mastitis, agalactia and polyarthritis in does and polyarthritis and conjunctivitis in kids and lambs. Fever and anorexia were also observed. Morbidy was from 26.1% to 100% in does, 36.5 to 100% in kids and 49% in lambs. In one farm 14.3% of the lactating goats and 6.4% of the kids died or were euthanized. In the other, 3.3% of the does, 36.5% of the kids and 22.9% of the lambs died and 84 affected goats were euthanized to control the disease. M. agalactiae was isolated from milk, joint exudates, nasal swabs and ear washings. The colonies were characteristic of Mycoplasma and the agent did not ferment both glucose and arginin. It was typed as Mycoplasma agalactiae by immunoperoxidase and PCR. This is the first report of M. agalactiae infection in Brazil, but the source of the infection remains unknown.Dois surtos de agalaxia contagiosa causada por Mycoplasma agalactiae são descritos no Estado da Paraíba, região Nordeste do Brasil. A doença caracterizou-se por mastite, agalaxia e poliartrite em cabras e poliartrite e cerato-conjuntivite em cabritos e cordeiros. Febre e anorexia também foram observadas. A morbidade variou de 26,1% a 100% nas cabras, 36,5% a 100% em cabritos e 49,0% em cordeiros. Na primeira fazenda, 14,3% das cabras em lactação e 6,4% dos cabritos morreram ou foram sacrificados. Na outra propriedade, 3,3% dos caprinos adultos, 36,5% dos cabritos e 22,9% dos cordeiros morreram e outros 84 caprinos foram sacrificados para controle da doença. M. agalactiae foi isolado a partir de leite, líquido articular, suabe nasal e lavado do conduto auditivo externo. Colônias características de Mycoplasma e que não fermentaram a glicose e arginina foram observadas. A identificação de M. agalactiae foi realizada por imunoperoxidase indireta e PCR. Sendo assim, M

  20. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... en español ¿Por cuánto tiempo es contagiosa la mononucleosis? The way mono works in the body is ... Here's how it works: Mono is short for mononucleosis . It is caused by an infection with the ...

  1. Is mental effort exertion contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Desender, Kobe; Beurms, Sarah; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The presence of another person can influence task performance. What is, however, still unclear is whether performance also depends on what this other person is doing. In two experiments, two participants (A and B) jointly performed a Simon task, and we selectively manipulated the difficulty of the task for participant A only. This was achieved by presenting A with 90% congruent trials (creating an easy task requiring low effort investment) or 10% congruent trials (creating a difficult task re...

  2. Echovirus 4 associated to hand, foot and mouth disease Echovirus 4 associado à doença de mão, pé e boca

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Hage Russo; Adriana Luchs; Bráulio Caetano Machado; Rita de Cássia Carmona; Maria do Carmo Sampaio Timenetsky

    2006-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral infection occurring primarily in children and characterized by vesicular palmoplantar eruptions and erosive stomatitis. Echovirus 4 (EV-4) has been commonly associated with aseptic meningitis. The association of HFMD with EV-4 has not been reported previously. Two samples of a 14-month child who presented mild fever, sores in the mouth, rash with blisters on the palm of hands and soles of feet were sent to Enteric Viruses Laborat...

  3. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. PMID:22830565

  4. Heterotopic pruritic conditioning and itch--analogous to DNIC in pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, A.I.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Evers, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pain can be endogenously modulated by heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation (HNCS) through a mechanism which is known as diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC). Since DNIC can be impaired in patients suffering from chronic pain, a comparable impaired itch inhibition may exist in patients s

  5. [Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasms type 2A (Sipple's syndrome). An early clinical marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabre, O; Labat-Moleur, F; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Stoebner, P; Sobol, H; Bachelot, I

    1992-02-22

    We report the association of a cutaneous lesion with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) in three patients from a French family. These lesions are very similar to those previously described in an Italian and an American MEN 2A family and called cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. In all three families the patients presented with a pruritic and pigmented cutaneous lesion localized unilaterally on the upper back. However, in the French family the patients also complained of paroxysmal pain in the same area, in which we could elicit a touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features in the upper back is known as Notalgia Paresthetica (NP). NP is believed to represent a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal nerve rami. Unlike the two previously reported families, the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the skin biopsies of the French patients did not show any amyloid material. This suggests that the presence of amyloid may not be a constant feature of the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A. We consider these lesions as a form of dorsal neuropathy rather than a cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. Whatever their origin, these cutaneous lesion usually precede the appearance of the neoplastic lesions of MEN 2A. They may act as an early clinical marker that must be searched for in each subject at risk for MEN 2A. In addition, all patients presenting with NP should be screened for MEN 2A. PMID:1348355

  6. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A. PMID:1362414

  7. Analysis on the Financial Crisis Contagious Path with Hierarchical Conditional Copula%基于分层条件Copula的金融危机传染路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜子平; 高立宝

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposes a hierarchical conditional Copula to study financial crisis contagious path. By modeling daily st-ock Indexes returns of every financial market with t-GARCH(1,1) in the research, the paper analyzes financial contagion relation-ships among Chinese, American, English, Japanese, taiwan's and Hong Kong stock market in the interval from Jan 2005 to July 2012. The empirical study shows that: the crisis was contaminated from American stock market to Hong Kong stock market , and then from Hong Kong stock market to other Asian stock markets in the sub-prime debt crisis. While in the European debt period , the crisis was contaminated form English stock market to Hong Kong stock market and American stock market , and then from Hong Kong stock market to other Asian stock market. Hong Kong stock market is the media to contaminate Asian stock markets in the financial crisis, it makes that we should pay more attention to Hong Kong stock market in policy formulation, control it in the contagious period and lesson the impact to our financial system.%本文采用分层条件Copula理论来研究次贷危机和欧债危机下的危机传染路径问题。在研究中采用t-GARCH (1,1)模型拟合各个金融市场的股指日收益率,以条件Copula分析两次危机下中国大陆股市与美国股市、英国股市、日本股市、台湾股市、香港股市2005年1月至2012年7月间的风险传染关系。实证研究表明:次贷危机期间美国股票市场将危机传染到香港股票市场,再由香港股票市场传染其他亚洲股票市场。而在欧债危机期间英国股票市场分别直接传染美国股票市场和香港股票市场,再通过香港股票市场对其他亚洲股票市场传染。两次危机下香港股票市场均是亚洲股票市场受到危机传染的媒介,因此我国在制定防范金融危机传染政策时应考虑对香港股票市场的控制,在传播层面上控制金融危机对我国的传染,

  8. The costs of preventive activities for exotic contagious diseases-A Danish case study of foot and mouth disease and swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette; Houe, Hans; Mortensen, Sten; Rattenborg, Erik; Tamstorf, Trine Vig; Zobbe, Henrik; Christensen, Tove

    2016-09-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the costs of preventive activities, currently undertaken in Denmark, related to foot and mouth disease (FMD) and classical and African swine fever (SF). Only costs held between outbreaks were included. Costs were divided into public costs and costs paid by the pig and cattle industries, respectively. Data were retrieved from multiple sources such as databases, legal documents, official statistics, yearly reports and expert opinions. As no previous studies have assessed such costs, data collection and estimation procedures were discussed and decided upon in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated in the analysis by assuming that the FMD/SF shares of costs as well as total costs for each activity could take on a most likely as well as a minimum and maximum value. A high degree of transparency was prioritized in the cost analysis, which enables reproducibility and easy access to conducting sensitivity analyses. A total of 27 FMD/SF preventive activities were identified. The estimated median (minimum-maximum) of total costs amounted to €32 (18-50) million in 2013. The single most costly FMD/SF related activity, amounting to €8 (5-13) million or 26% of total costs, was a national legal requirement to clean lorries immediately after transportation of live animals. The distribution of costs between stakeholders was estimated to be as follows: pig industry 63%, cattle industry 27%, and the public authorities 10%. Most of the activities focused on reducing the probability of spreading FMD/SF, while only a few activities were directed mainly towards reducing the probability of introduction. Legally required FMD/SF activities (mainly based on EU legislation) accounted

  9. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msami, H M; Ponela-Mlelwa, T; Mtei, B J; Kapaga, A M

    2001-02-01

    CBPP reappeared in Arusha, Northern Tanzania in 1990, having been introduced from Kenya. The disease spread rapidly to Mara region through rustling of sick or infected animals. In November 1992, an unrelated outbreak occurred in Kagera, having spread from Southern Uganda. Up to the end of December 1994, the disease appeared to be confined to Kagera and Arusha. In January 1995, CBPP was observed in Morogoro region, south of the central railway line. Thereafter, the disease spread through western Tanzania. More recently, further disease has occurred in the Southern Highlands and Central regions. The contaminated area now stretches roughly between latitudes 1 degree and 9 degrees S and longitudes 30 degrees and 37 degrees E, with a cattle population of about 10 million. The direct losses incurred as a result of animal mortality, and vaccination campaign and disease surveillance costs have been assessed at over US$11 million. Indirect losses resulting from chronic disease are much more difficult to assess but are believed to be even higher. Control of the disease has been through restricting animal movements and a mass vaccination campaign. Uncontrolled animal movement during transhumance, trade, cattle thefts and vaccination breakthroughs facilitated the spread of the disease. PMID:11234189

  10. Reporting Sick: Are Sporting Events Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Moral hazard is easy to justify theoretically but difficult to detect empirically. Individuals may report sick due to illness as well as for moral hazard reasons. Potential abuse of the sickness insurance system in Sweden is estimated by comparing the change between the number of men and women who report sick during a popular sporting event and a preceding time period. Difference-in- difference estimates provide clear evidence that the number of men who reported sick increased in order to wat...

  11. Computer animations stimulate contagious yawning in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Matthew W.; Carter, J. Devyn; Proctor, Darby; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2009-01-01

    People empathize with fictional displays of behaviour, including those of cartoons and computer animations, even though the stimuli are obviously artificial. However, the extent to which other animals also may respond empathetically to animations has yet to be determined. Animations provide a potentially useful tool for exploring non-human behaviour, cognition and empathy because computer-generated stimuli offer complete control over variables and the ability to program stimuli that could not...

  12. O alcoolismo é uma doença contagiosa? Representações sobre o contágio e a doença de ex-bebedores Is alcoholism a contagious disease? Representations on contagion and disease of ex-drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edemilson Antunes de Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca estabelecer os contornos de uma teoria cultural do contágio a propósito da doença alcoólica. Assim, ao contrário do modelo biomédico, que circunscreve o contágio ao âmbito biológico e fisiológico atestado clinicamente, busca-se refletir sobre as concepções do contágio ligadas a um contexto sociocultural específico, tal como o proposto pela associação de ex-bebedores dos Alcoólicos Anônimos (AA. A partir de pesquisa etnográfica realizada com familiares e membros do grupo Sapopemba de AA, localizado em bairro da periferia da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, enfatiza-se o papel desta entidade como um espaço privilegiado para o estudo antropológico da experiência do alcoolismo, entendido como uma doença "contagiosa", a partir de um estudo das representações culturais, das práticas sociais e da (reconstrução da identidade, ligadas ao par alcoolismo/doença. Com efeito, evidencia-se que, para os membros de AA e seus familiares, as possibilidades de contágio da doença alcoólica estão diretamente ligadas às representações construídas sobre o álcool e o alcoolismo, entendido como uma doença física e moral e a seus efeitos sobre o conjunto de relações sociais - familiares e profissionais -, nas quais o ex-bebedor está envolvido.This article is an attempt to set the contours of a cultural theory of contagion about alcoholism. This way, instead of the biomedical model, which circumscribes contagion to the clinically confirmed biological and physiological environment, we try to reflect on the conceptions of contagion associated to a specific social and cultural context, like the one proposed by the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA association of ex-drinkers. From the ethnographic research conducted within family in the Sapopemba group of AA, located in a neighbourhood in the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, the role of this agency as a privileged place for anthropological study of alcoholism is

  13. Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B, C, D Infections and Their Associated Risk Factors among Prisoners in Southern Khorasan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Ziaee; Gholamreza Sharifzadeh; Mohammad Hasan Namaee; Mohammad Fereidouni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Prison inmates are among the high risk population for dangerous infections such HIV, HBV, HCV and other contagious diseases. In spit of many data about the prevalence and risk factors for blood born diseases among prisoners in the world, such data are spares from Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for HIV, HBV, HCV and HDV infections among a large sample of prison inmates in Iran. Methods In a cross-sectional study in 20...

  14. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  15. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidis...

  16. Aspectos inmunológicos en el diagnóstico y control de la Epidemitis contagiosa del carnero por Brucella ovis Imunological aspects inthe diagnosis and control of contagious epidymitis of rams by Brucella ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. ESTEIN

    1999-01-01

    de vacunas subcelulares que no presenten las desventajas de Rev. 1. Con ese objetivo se han desarrollado ensayos de inmunización pasiva con mezclas de anticuerpos monoclonales anti-proteínas de la membrana externa y anti-lipopolisacárido rugoso que han otorgado protección en el ratón contra B. ovisBrucella ovis is the aethiological agent of ram contagious epididymitis, an infectious disease causing reproductive failure in sheep. Control measures include elimination of rams found positive in serological tests and/or bacteriological culture of semen, and vaccination when the prevalence is high. The principal vaccine used against ovine brucellosis is B. melitensis Rev. 1, a live attenuated strain of B. melitensis. However Rev. 1 evokes antibodies interfering with the interpretation of serological tests used to diagnose infection by B. ovis and B. melitensis. B. ovis is a natural rough species so lacks O polisaccharide chain. The outer membrane proteins of B.ovis have been studied by several groups searching for antigens useful for diagnosis and protection. A hot saline extract fron B. ovis contains rough lipopolysaccharide and several proteins, including abundant group 3 outer membrane proteins The most efficient and widely used tests for serodiagnosis of B. ovis infection are double gel diffusion, complement fixation test and ELISA. Hot saline extract has provided best diagnostic results in all tests. However some cross-reactivity in these tests can be seen with sera of sheep naturally infected with B. melitensis or after B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccination. Less information is available on internal B. ovis antigens. Recently, an indirect ELISA using BP26 (periplasmic protein has been developed for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated rams. The identification of B. ovis antigens able to elicit a protective immune response is of great interest for the development of subcellular vaccines avoiding the drawbacks of living attenuated vaccine. In the mouse model

  17. Whole Genome Association Study of Johne's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Paratuberculosis, commonly referred to as Johne's disease, is a contagious bacterial disease estimated to be present in over 65% of US dairy herds and results in annual losses in the hundreds of millions of US dollars. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the bacteria resp...

  18. Prevalence of contagious and environmental mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk tank milk and its relationships with milking practices of dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island (Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carla; Pacheco, Diana; Soares, Luísa; Romão, Ricardo; Moitoso, Mónica; Maldonado, Jaime; Guix, Roger; Simões, João

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated. PMID:26719295

  19. Hunting association

    OpenAIRE

    Marval, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Czech hunting has come during its existence through substantial changes dependent on the political development in the country. Hunting as we know it presently has evolved since 1993 when hunting districts started to be leased to hunting associations as well as to individuals or companies. This is one of the reasons why hunting districts in the Czech Republic are most often used by hunting associations. These associations are founded by members on the ground of articles written with regard to ...

  20. Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Remove of the staff association office   The Staff Association offices are going to be renovated during the coming four months, February to May 2014. The physical move from our current premises 64/R-002 to our temporary office in  510/R-010 will take place on Friday January 31st, so the Secretariat will be closed on that day. Hence, from Monday February 3rd until the end of May 2014 the Staff Association Secretariat will be located in 510/R-010 (entrance just across the CERN Printshop).    

  1. Sarcoptic mange in raccoons in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Cooley, Thomas M; Murphy, Alice; Cosgrove, Melinda K; King, Betty A

    2004-04-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a cause of pruritic skin disease in domestic dogs and a wide range of wildlife species. We describe sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Three adult raccoons from upper Wayne County, Michigan (USA), were captured, killed, and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. The animals were intensely pruritic, and two had advanced alopecic and crusting lesions over their dorsum and hind limbs. Skin scrapings and skin biopsies revealed crusting and hyperkeratotic dermatitis with high numbers of Sarcoptes scabiei adults, larvae, nymphs, and eggs. These raccoons were not otherwise debilitated, with minimal internal parasites, good body condition, and no evidence of infectious bacterial or viral diseases. Because sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and affects many species, including humans, transiently, it is important that wildlife biologists and rehabilitators include sarcoptic mange in their differential list for raccoons exhibiting pruritus and alopecia. PMID:15362840

  2. Alzheimer's Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not share your information. * Required. View archives. Alzheimer's impact is growing Alzheimer's disease is the sixth- ... Last Updated: Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association advances research ...

  3. Emergence of sfrp5 as a pleiotropic adipocytokine and its association with wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikanth, C; Gurumurthy, P; Indhumathi, T; Cherian, K M

    2014-07-01

    The status of being a non communicable disease held by obesity is slowly fading . It is gaining a more contagious , literally communicable and deadly status . The downstream co--morbidities associated with it are endless. Hence the world is promoting the slogan "FAT TO FIT" . The view on the white adipose tissue as a fat storage organ is now being changed to an endocrine organ. The secreted hormones are called adipocytokines which act in an autocrine/paracine/endocrine fashion to exhibit its effects. Like any hormone it has positive as well as negative influence over the body. SFRP5 is a recently identified novel adipocytokine and it falls under the category of being a good adipokine proving a positive influence . Plasma SFRP5 levels are significantly decreased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes that contribute to the major components of the metabolic syndrome and other disease conditions like atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorders etc. This review article focuses on the comprehensive effects of SFRP5 on all the major systems of the body and its association with the Wnt signalling pathways. PMID:25003224

  4. Evolução dos isolamentos em doenças transmissíveis: os saberes na prática contemporânea Evolución del aislamiento en las enfermedades transmisibles: los saberes en la práctica contemporánea Evolution of the isolation of contagious diseases: knowledge in contemporary practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Yasuko Izumi Nichiata

    2004-03-01

    that were formulated and implemented. Since the beginning of the modern nursing, in the XIX century, the elements of the isolation practice for contagious diseases have remained basically the same. In other words, the emphasis on the use of mechanical, chemical and environmental barriers are given, based on inherent specificities of each part of the infectious chain process.

  5. Is Conflict Contagious? Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Crost; Felter, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    The fact that conflicts tend to cluster in space is well documented. It remains unclear, however, whether this clustering is a result of contagion or of unobserved shocks that are correlated across space. We present new evidence for contagion by exploiting a natural experiment that increased the intensity of one conflict but had no direct effect on a second ongoing conflict in the same area. In particular, we analyze a ruling by the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which disallowed a propose...

  6. Pricing and Hedging of Derivatives in Contagious Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    stochastic volatility component to the dynamics. It is important to take the contagion effect into account if derivatives written on a basket of assets are to be priced or hedged. Due to the affine model specification the joint characteristic function of the log-returns is known analytically, and for two...

  7. Contagious Synchronization and Endogenous Network Formation in Financial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Aymanns and Co-Pierre Georg

    2014-01-01

    When banks choose similar investment strategies the financial system becomes vulnerable to common shocks. We model a simple financial system in which banks decide about their investment strategy based on a private belief about the state of the world and a social belief formed from observing the actions of peers. Observing a larger group of peers conveys more information and thus leads to a stronger social belief. Extending the standard model of Bayesian updating in social networks, we show th...

  8. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-01-01

    For how long can history, as it is conceived in ‘the West’, continue to attach itself to an exhausted humanism, where ‘man’ is central and all the natural and inanimate objects surrounding humans (and linked intimately to human activity) are relegated to the function of support act?This essay argues from anthropological theory that there are fundamentally different sorts of relationships that humans can entertain with non-humans, and that these relationships can have a...

  9. Contagious herding and endogenous network formation in financial networks

    OpenAIRE

    Georg, Co-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    When banks choose similar investment strategies, the financial system becomes vulnerable to common shocks. Banks decide about their investment strategy ex-ante based on a private belief about the state of the world and a social belief formed from observing the actions of peers. When the social belief is strong and the financial network is fragmented, banks follow their peers and their investment strategies synchronize. This effect is stronger for less informative private signals. For endogeno...

  10. Are stock market crises contagious? The role of crisis definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierau, Jochen O.; Mink, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Financial contagion studies generally examine whether co-movement between markets increases during a crisis. We use a flexible co-movement measure to examine how conclusions of such analyses depend on the sample chosen as the 'crisis'. To this end, we analyse stock market co-movement during the 1997

  11. Hitting Is Contagious in Baseball: Evidence from Long Hitting Streaks

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, Joel R.; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that “hitting is contagious”. A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates’ batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising streaks of length games, including a total observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ( ) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter’s team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calcu...

  12. Plagued by kindness: contagious sympathy in Shakespearean drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Eric

    2011-12-01

    This article considers Shakespeare's metaphors of transmission, contagion and infection in the light of period plague tracts, medical treatises and plague time literature. The author demonstrates how period conceptions of disease are predicated upon a notion of sympathetic transference and, consequently, how kindness, likeness and communication between characters in Shakespearean drama are complicated and fraught with period specific anxiety. This article situates Shakespearean literary texts within a precise historical and medical moment, considering how scientific conceptions contaminate dramatic text. PMID:21890861

  13. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Drew Purves; Carlos Souza; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (...

  14. Contagious Communications : The role of emotion in viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, Elsie Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    The “connection generation” craves interaction with and connection to vast social networks through the sharing of information, photos, opinions, entertainment and news. This sharing comes in the form of electronic word-of-mouth or eWOM, and provides marketing and communication managers with an unparalleled opportunity to reach a large number of consumers quickly. With the ever increasing growth of the internet and the rise of social media and social network sites, viral marketing has cemented...

  15. Potential Networks, Contagious Communities, and Understanding Social Network Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenebeck, Grant

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study how the network of agents adopting a particular technology relates to the structure of the underlying network over which the technology adoption spreads. We develop a model and show that the network of agents adopting a particular technology may have characteristics that differ significantly from the social network of agents over which the technology spreads. For example, the network induced by a cascade may have a heavy-tailed degree distribution even if the original n...

  16. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  17. Screening and identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-specific CTL epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghai; Xu, Dongping; Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Hongtao; Shan, Ming; Tang, Jiaren; Wang, Min; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Zhu, Xiaodong; Tao, Hua; He, Wei; Tien, Po; Gao, George F

    2006-08-15

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious and life-threatening disease that emerged in China in November 2002. A novel SARS-associated coronavirus was identified as its principal etiologic agent; however, the immunopathogenesis of SARS and the role of special CTLs in virus clearance are still largely uncharacterized. In this study, potential HLA-A*0201-restricted spike (S) and nucleocapsid protein-derived peptides were selected from an online database and screened for potential CTL epitopes by in vitro refolding and T2 cell-stabilization assays. The antigenicity of nine peptides which could refold with HLA-A*0201 molecules was assessed with an IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay to determine the capacity to stimulate CTLs from PBMCs of HLA-A2(+) SARS-recovered donors. A novel HLA-A*0201-restricted decameric epitope P15 (S411-420, KLPDDFMGCV) derived from the S protein was identified and found to localize within the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor-binding region of the S1 domain. P15 could significantly enhance the expression of HLA-A*0201 molecules on the T2 cell surface, stimulate IFN-gamma-producing CTLs from the PBMCs of former SARS patients, and induce specific CTLs from P15-immunized HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice in vivo. Furthermore, significant P15-specific CTLs were induced from HLA-A2.1-transgenic mice immunized by a DNA vaccine encoding the S protein; suggesting that P15 was a naturally processed epitope. Thus, P15 may be a novel SARS-associated coronavirus-specific CTL epitope and a potential target for characterization of virus control mechanisms and evaluation of candidate SARS vaccines. PMID:16887973

  18. Association of LMP/TAP gene polymorphisms with tuberculosis susceptibility in Li population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a contagious disease affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Several association studies have suggested that cellular immune response is vital for controlling and preventing of tuberculosis infection. Low molecular weight polypeptides (LMPs and transporters with antigen processing (TAPs are the main molecules in the processing and presentation pathway for intracellular antigens. This study was performed to elucidate whether these antigen-processing genes (LMP/TAP polymorphisms could be associated with the risk of tuberculosis infection in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited 205 active pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 217 normal controls from Li population for this study. Four polymorphisms of LMP/TAP genes were determined by PCR-RFLP assay and haplotypes were constructed by software PHASE 1.0. Of the total four polymorphisms, genotype frequencies of LMP7 AA homozygote and CA heterozygote were significantly greater among cases compared to controls, with odds ratio of 3.77 (95% CI: 1.60-8.89; P = 0.002 and 2.97 (95% CI: 1.80-4.90; P<0.0001, respectively. The genotypes of TAP1-2 GG homozygote and AG heterozygote were more frequent in subjects with TB than in controls, with odds ratio of 3.94 (95% CI: 1.82-8.53; P = 0.001 and 2.87 (95% CI: 1.75-4.71; P<0.0001, respectively. Similarly, we found that haplotype B which carried LMP7 and TAP1-2 variations significantly increased the susceptibility to TB (OR = 3.674, 95% CI: 2.254-5.988; P<0.0001. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the homozygote of wild haplotype A (A/A may be a strong protection for TB infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that LMP/TAP gene polymorphisms might be risk factors for TB infection among Li population in China.

  19. Evidence for an ancestral association of human coronavirus 229E with bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corman, V. M.; Baldwin, H. J.; Tateno, A. F.; Zerbinati, R. M.; Annan, A.; Owusu, M.; Nkrumah, E. E.; Maganga, G. D.; Oppong, S.; Adu-Sarkodie, Y.; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, L. V. R. F.; Leroy, E. M.; Thiel, V.; van der Hoek, L.; Poon, L. L. M.; Tschapka, M.; Drosten, C.; Drexler, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 23 (2015), s. 11858-11870. ISSN 0022-538X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : respiratory syndrome coronavirus * SARS-coronavirus * genomic characterization * dromedary camels * clinical impact * virus * children * protein * spike * classification Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 4.439, year: 2014

  20. Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B, C, D Infections and Their Associated Risk Factors among Prisoners in Southern Khorasan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Ziaee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prison inmates are among the high risk population for dangerous infections such HIV, HBV, HCV and other contagious diseases. In spit of many data about the prevalence and risk factors for blood born diseases among prisoners in the world, such data are spares from Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for HIV, HBV, HCV and HDV infections among a large sample of prison inmates in Iran.In a cross-sectional study in 2009-2010, 881 inmates in three prisons of Southern Khorasan Province in Iran were selected based on a systematic, stratified random sampling method. Sera were analyzed for HBV, HDV, HCV and HIV infections by appropriate commercial ELISA kits. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and information about risk factors.Overall, 881 prisoners (mean age: 34.7±11.4 years, range: 11-84 years, M/F ratio:4.5/1 were participated in this study. The prevalence of HBV and HCV infection was 6.9% and 7.7%, respectively. Among the HBsAg positive subjects, 6.6% (4/61 and 9.8% (6/61 had HDV and HCV super-infection, respectively. Only one case (0.1% had HIV infection that was co-infection with HCV. Drug abuse and history of traditional phlebotomy were associated risk factors for HBV infection (P<0.05 and history of drug injection was associated with HCV infection (P<0.05.This study show fairly higher prevalence of blood borne infections among prisoners and indicate drug abuse and phlebotomy as the associated risk factor. Implementation of appropriate screening tests and preventive programs is suggested in prisons.

  1. IC Associated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intimacy & IC Support for Men Children & IC La Cistitis Intersticial IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and ... Intimacy & IC Support for Men Children & IC La Cistitis Intersticial IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and ...

  2. Associated Health Allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Associated Health Allocation Database is used to determine the allocation of positions and funds for VA Associated Health programs offered by Veterans Affairs...

  3. Intended Brand Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koll, Oliver; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    (attitudinal and behavioral). The results show that consumers with high brand association match show more positive brand response. However, after accounting for the valence of associations match does not add explanatory power. This outcome challenges a key foundation of brand management. The discussion......Brand managers exhibit considerable effort to define intended brand associations to anchor in consumers' minds. They follow a credo deeply rooted in branding literature: intended brand associations drive consumer response and brand equity. This article investigates the benefits of a strong overlap...... of actual consumer brand associations and management-intended brand associations (brand association match). The article presents results from two large-scale studies (3353 and 1201 respondents) involving one consumer goods and one service brand with multiple operationalizations of consumer response...

  4. Simian virus 40 infection in humans and association with human diseases: results and hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was introduced in the human population by contaminated poliovaccines, produced in SV40-infected monkey cells, between 1955 and 1963. Epidemiological evidence now suggests that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independent of the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated poliovaccines. This evidence includes detection of SV40 DNA sequences in human tissues and of SV40 antibodies in human sera, as well as rescue of infectious SV40 from a human tumor. Detection of SV40 DNA sequences in blood and sperm and of SV40 virions in sewage points to the hematic, sexual, and orofecal routes as means of virus transmission in humans. The site of latent infection in humans is not known, but the presence of SV40 in urine suggests the kidney as a possible site of latency, as it occurs in the natural monkey host. SV40 in humans is associated with inflammatory kidney diseases and with specific tumor types: mesothelioma, lymphoma, brain, and bone. These human tumors correspond to the neoplasms that are induced by SV40 experimental inoculation in rodents and by generation of transgenic mice with the SV40 early region gene directed by its own early promoter-enhancer. The mechanisms of SV40 tumorigenesis in humans are related to the properties of the two viral oncoproteins, the large T antigen (Tag) and the small t antigen (tag). Tag acts mainly by blocking the functions of p53 and RB tumor suppressor proteins, as well as by inducing chromosomal aberrations in the host cell. These chromosome alterations may hit genes important in oncogenesis and generate genetic instability in tumor cells. The clastogenic activity of Tag, which fixes the chromosome damage in the infected cells, may explain the low viral load in SV40-positive human tumors and the observation that Tag is expressed only in a fraction of tumor cells. 'Hit and run' seems the most plausible mechanism to support this situation. The small tag

  5. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. IMPORTANCE EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a

  6. Italian library associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Petaros-Kmetec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, five library associations of national significance function at present. There are special associations of ecclesiastic libraries, prison libraries, architecture libraries and libraries with artistic material. The role of the general national association, covering all types of libraries including documentation centres, is played by the Italian Library Association. It strive for the development of a contemporary Italian library system comparable to international standards, monitors library legislation, promotes education for librarians and keeps the librarians and the broader public informed about the importance of libraries and librarianship for society. The activity and efforts of the association are reflected through their website offering much information and links to similar sites. ILA presents and realises its activities for both, the librarians and the public users. A great deal of actions promoting libraries and the Library Association might be interesting for Slovenia and perhaps transferred to our environment.

  7. Associative Analysis in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Muntean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the interest in technologies such as in-memory analytics and associative search has increased. This paper explores how you can use in-memory analytics and an associative model in statistics. The word “associative” puts the emphasis on understanding how datasets relate to one another. The paper presents the main characteristics of “associative” data model. Also, the paper presents how to design an associative model for labor market indicators analysis. The source is the EU Labor Force Survey. Also, this paper presents how to make associative analysis.

  8. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  9. Today's Associations, Tomorrow's Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichniowski, Casey; Zax, Jeffrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of census data on local government departments investigated the effects of association-style unionism on union membership. Found that in all local government services, the presence of an association in 1977 was a strong predictor of the formation of a bargaining unit by 1982--holding constant other important determinants of public…

  10. Neuroscience: Incepting Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBettencourt, Megan T; Norman, Kenneth A

    2016-07-25

    A recent study has used real-time fMRI neurofeedback to induce color-specific activity patterns in early visual cortex as participants viewed achromatic gratings. This procedure resulted in an association between the color and the displayed grating orientation, suggesting that early visual cortex can support associative learning of this type. PMID:27458913

  11. Civic Engagement and Associationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Damon Timothy; Barraket, Jo; Lewis, Jenny;

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between participation in civic and political activities and membership of voluntary associations is now well established. What is less clear is the relative impacts of how much time people spend on group activities (associational intensity), and the number and type of groups...... forms have the same impact....

  12. Graphs: Associated Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Garimella Rama

    2012-01-01

    In this research paper, weighted / unweighted, directed / undirected graphs are associated with interesting Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMCs) as well as Continuous Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). The equilibrium / transient behaviour of such Markov chains is studied. Also entropy dynamics (Shannon entropy) of certain structured Markov chains is investigated. Finally certain structured graphs and the associated Markov chains are studied.

  13. Migraine Associated Vertigo

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Yoon-Hee (Laureate Institute for Brain Research); Baloh, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The interrelations of migraine and vertigo are complex, eluding a simple localization either centrally or peripherally. Spontaneous episodic vertigo, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and Meniere's disease all occur more frequently in patients with migraine than in those without. Family studies support a hereditary predisposition to migraine associated vertigo. In this review, we discuss definitions, epidemiology, associated syndromes, neurootological abnormalities, genetics and treatment...

  14. Network Consistent Data Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases. PMID:26485472

  15. Molecular characterization of reptile pathogens currently known as members of the chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii complex and relationship with some human-associated isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Lynne; Hambleton, Sarah; Paré, Jean A

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), Chrysosporium guarroi, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, and Chrysosporium species have been reported as the causes of dermal or deep lesions in reptiles. These infections are contagious and often fatal and affect both captive and wild animals. Forty-nine CANV isolates from reptiles and six isolates from human sources were compared with N. vriesii based on their cultural characteristics and DNA sequence data. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales. One lineage represents the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. vriesii, N. guarroi, and six additional species encompassing isolates from chameleons and geckos, crocodiles, agamid and iguanid lizards, and humans. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. nov., with three new species infecting squamates and tuataras. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea. Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. N. guarroi causes yellow fungus disease, a common infection in bearded dragons and green iguanas, and O. ophiodiicola is an emerging pathogen of captive and wild snakes. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis. PMID:23926168

  16. Molecular Characterization of Reptile Pathogens Currently Known as Members of the Chrysosporium Anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii Complex and Relationship with Some Human-Associated Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Sarah; Paré, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), Chrysosporium guarroi, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, and Chrysosporium species have been reported as the causes of dermal or deep lesions in reptiles. These infections are contagious and often fatal and affect both captive and wild animals. Forty-nine CANV isolates from reptiles and six isolates from human sources were compared with N. vriesii based on their cultural characteristics and DNA sequence data. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales. One lineage represents the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. vriesii, N. guarroi, and six additional species encompassing isolates from chameleons and geckos, crocodiles, agamid and iguanid lizards, and humans. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. nov., with three new species infecting squamates and tuataras. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea. Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. N. guarroi causes yellow fungus disease, a common infection in bearded dragons and green iguanas, and O. ophiodiicola is an emerging pathogen of captive and wild snakes. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis. PMID:23926168

  17. Generalized granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-years-old female patient had generalized pruritic papular lesions, distributed like dermatitis herpetiformis for last 4 years. Histopathologic changes were typical of granuloma annulare with negative results of direct immunofluorescence. The patient did not have association of diabetes mellitus or any other systemic disease. She failed to respond to dapsone therapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid.

  18. Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employers' Gas Association (ZPZ) is the institution which main task is to maintain the optimum conditions for dynamic development of its members' activities, their business activities and to maintain the common or individual interests o fits members. To meet this objective, the association: - maintains the interests of association members during discussions with representative authorities, central state administration bodies and the trade unions regarding the economic and social policy and the questions which are to be the subject matter of collective bargaining, conclusion of contracts and the collective agreements of higher force; - is the member of enterprising, negotiating and advisory authorities; - coordinates the procedure and promotes the common interests of its members in relation to the representative authorities and the central state administration bodies, central trade union authorities and in relation to the international organisation of employers and the International Labour Organisation; maintains the commercial and business activities of the members of association; submits the proposals, filling with the courts and makes interventions regarding the preparation of economic and political decisions on the national and international level; engages with the legal entities in the Slovak Republic and enters the foreign international organisations. ZPZ, originally Gas Association (PZ), was founded by the General Assembly on 27th January 1995. It was registered in compliance with the Act No. 83/1990 Coll. on Association of Citizens as amended by the act No. 300/90 Coll., as the organisation of employers with the legal personality. The Employer's Gas Association was a member of the Employers' Associations in Slovak Republic till 31st March 2004, after this date it is represented by the Republican Union of Employers in SR (RUZ SR), which was established to maintain employer's associations interests on more qualitative level. The list of members

  19. Associative Analysis in Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Muntean

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, the interest in technologies such as in-memory analytics and associative search has increased. This paper explores how you can use in-memory analytics and an associative model in statistics. The word “associative” puts the emphasis on understanding how datasets relate to one another. The paper presents the main characteristics of “associative” data model. Also, the paper presents how to design an associative model for labor market indicators analysis. The source is the EU L...

  20. Syndicats et associations

    OpenAIRE

    Bars, Loïc Le; Barthélémy, Martine; Bellanger, Emmanuel; Béroud, Sophie; Béthouart, Bruno; Boussion, Samuel; Brodiez, Axelle; Brouster, Pascale Le; Capdevielle, Jacques; Chatriot, Alain; Coffin, Jean-Christophe; Diebolt, Évelyne; Dreyfus, Michel; Faniel, Jean; Frajerman, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Les syndicats sont et demeurent des associations dans la large acceptiondu terme. Ils émergent et se développent dans l'espace du travail où préexistent nombre d'associations, d'initiatives et d'intitulés divers. Syndicats et associations remplissent de surcroît, souvent, les mêmes fonctions et nourrissent, parfois, des objectifs similaires. L'ouvrage qui rassemble des contributions émanant d'historiens, de sociologues et de politistes s'essaie à analyser la diversité des relations qui se son...

  1. Algae associated with mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The algae associated with mangroves is described. Substrate plays very important role in algal establishment in intertidal and subtidal areas. Algae colonising the mud surface are seasonal because of the unstable conditions causEd. by the erosion...

  2. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  3. American Therapeutic Recreation Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Remember Me I forgot my password American Therapeutic Recreation Association Promoting Health & Wellness Services Annual Conference 2016 ... and leave your opinion Join thousands of Therapeutic Recreation specialists today Join Now Renew your membership today ...

  4. European Hematology Association

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Attendees at the 19th Congress of the European Hematology Association in Milan, Italy, heard reports on new therapies for acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, β-thalassemia, multiple myeloma, and polycythemia vera.

  5. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Professionals Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Share What is Sleep ? Insight into the ... Forums Contact Us Login Join ASA – for FREE Sleep Blog ASA Charitable Work – Sleeping Children Around the ...

  6. Interstitial Cystitis Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video ICA’s Online Support Community A place for peace, hope, and advice. Join the Community ICA’s Healthcare ... urine test for diagnosing IC (similar to a pregnancy test), the Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) partnered with ...

  7. Generalized Multidimensional Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周傲英; 周水庚; 金文; 田增平

    2000-01-01

    The problem of association rule mining has gained considerable prominence in the data mining community for its use as an important tool of knowl-edge discovery from large-scale databases. And there has been a spurt of research activities around this problem. Traditional association rule mining is limited to intra-transaction. Only recently the concept of N-dimensional inter-transaction as-sociation rule (NDITAR) was proposed by H.J. Lu. This paper modifies and extends Lu's definition of NDITAR based on the analysis of its limitations, and the general-ized multidimensional association rule (GMDAR) is subsequently introduced, which is more general, flexible and reasonable than NDITAR.

  8. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promoting scientific advances. Featured LBD Stories & Tributes Dad's Dementia Journey It's been years since my father passed ... I received an email from the Lewy Body Dementia Association about a benefit... Read Story The Lewy ...

  9. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  10. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  11. National Rural Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Overview State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health Fellows Program Application Volunteer Options NRHA Social Media Rural Health Students Education Liason Program National Rural Task Force NRHA Internships Government Affairs Save Rural ...

  12. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  13. Medical Library Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11th, 2016 Patricia Flatley Brennan, registered nurse, informatician, industrial engineer, and renowned researcher is appointed as Director of the National Library of Medicine Tweets Copyright © 2016 Medical Library Association. ...

  14. Muscular Dystrophy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 26.2 Miles For a Cure: Runner With Muscular Dystrophy Joins Team Momentum Ahead of Chicago Marathon Michelle ... FAQs Media Careers Contact Us Connect with MDA Muscular Dystrophy Association USA National Office 222 S. Riverside Plaza, Suite ...

  15. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 931.6632 info@MilitaryFamily.org © 2016 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  16. American Tinnitus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  17. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association's 'Tobacco 21' Initiative to Save Lives of Millennials, Future Generations by Raising Tobacco Sales Age to ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $ ...

  18. Star clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)

  19. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TS in a classroom Symptoms occurring in classroom Executive Function Challenges Speech Therapies and Pathologies ADHD and OCD/ ... com/groups/311427567715/ Tourette Association Center of Excellence University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA Director: ...

  20. Transverse Myelitis Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first large-scale North-American study of pediatric transverse myelitis LEARN MORE We are seeking over 100 patients ... TMA QUALITY OF LIFE FAMILY CAMP 2016 THE TRANSVERSE MYELITIS ASSOCIATION ADVOCATING FOR THOSE WITH ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ...

  1. Thyroid associated orbitopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Maheshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid associated orbitopathy, also known as Graves′ orbitopathy, is typically a self-limiting autoimmune process associated with dysthyroid states. The clinical presentation may vary from very mild disease to severe irreversible sight-threatening complications. Despite ongoing basic science and clinical research, the pathogenesis and highly effective therapeutic strategies remain elusive. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this common, yet poorly understood disease, which remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist.

  2. Priapism Associated with Olanzapine

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. Hosseini; A.K. Polonowita

    2009-01-01

    Priapism is a rare but serious adverse effect of psychotropic drugs where antipsychotic agents were implicated in 15 to 26% of priapism associated with medications. Among atypical antipsychotic, clozapine, risperidone and olanzapine have been reported to be associated with the condition. The patient was a 24 years old male referred to the OPD Clinic at Zare Psychiatry Hospital in 2007 with symptoms of delusion of control, delusion of persecution, delusion of somatic and auditory hallucination...

  3. Staff Association Information Meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Staff Association Information Meetings: - Thursday 29 September at 2 p.m., Meyrin, Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-017 (in French) - Friday 30 September at 10 a.m., Prévessin, BE Auditorium, 864-1-D02 (in French) - Monday 3 October at 2 p.m., Meyrin, IT Auditorium, 31-3-004 (in French) - Tuesday 4 October at 2 p.m., Meyrin, Filtration Plant, 222-R-001 (in English)   Staff Association

  4. Blastogenetic associations: General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinsky, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Associations of anomalies, with VACTERL as the prototype, have been the source of much debate, including questions about the validity and definition of this category. Evidence is presented for a teratologic basis for associations involving interactions between disruptive events and specific vulnerabilities. Because the embryo is organized in time and space, differences in the timing, location, and severity of exposures will create variable sequelae for any specific vulnerability, creating associations. The blastogenetic stage of development involves distinct properties that affect the nature of associations arising during this time, including relatively undifferentiated developmental fields and causally nonspecific malformations. With this, single anomalies can be part of the spectrum of findings that comprise a specific association. A specific defect defines a subset of disturbances, biasing frequencies of other defects. Processes are basic, integrated, and general, so disruptions are often lethal, and can have multiple effects, accounting for high incidences of multiple anomalies, and overlaps between associations. Blastogenetic disturbances also do not affect the late "fine tuning" of minor anomalies, although pathogenetic sequences can occur. This model suggests that certain combinations of congenital anomalies can arise from causally nonspecific teratogenetic fields determined by timing, location, and vulnerabilities, rather than polytopic developmental fields. PMID:26174333

  5. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  6. Fibromyalgia syndrome. New associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylonis, G W; Heck, W

    1992-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a number of conditions, such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, spastic colon and mitral valve prolapse, associated with fibromyalgia. The present report describes additional symptoms and medical conditions that appear to be associated with the syndrome based on a survey of 554 individuals with fibromyalgia compared with a group of 169 controls. Individuals with fibromyalgia self report a greater incidence of bursitis, chondromalacia, constipation, diarrhea, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, vertigo, sinus and thyroid problems. Symptomatic complaints found statistically more prevalent in fibromyalgia patients included concentration problems, sensory symptoms, swollen glands and tinnitus. Other associations occurring with significant increased frequency were chronic cough, coccygeal and pelvic pain, tachycardia and weakness. Our previous report on inheritance patterns in fibromyalgia was reaffirmed with 12% reporting symptomatic children and 25% reporting symptomatic parents. Of the respondents, 70% noted that their symptoms were aggravated by noise, lights, stress, posture and weather. PMID:1466872

  7. S2k guideline on diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis--short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Thomas; Heratizadeh, Annice; Aberer, Werner; Ahrens, Frank; Augustin, Matthias; Biedermann, Tilo; Diepgen, Thomas; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Gieler, Uwe; Kahle, Julia; Kapp, Alexander; Nast, Alexander; Nemat, Katja; Ott, Hagen; Przybilla, Bernhard; Roecken, Martin; Schlaeger, Martin; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schmitt, Jochen; Schwennesen, Thomas; Staab, Doris; Worm, Margitta

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) represents a pruritic, non-contagious, chronic or chronically relapsing, inflammatory skin disease. The course of the disease may be complicated by bacterial or viral superinfections. The first manifestation of the disease and further flare-ups are due to genetic predisposition and also to a variety of further trigger factors. The therapy regimen should be adapted to disease symptoms that are actually present and consider individual features of the disease as reported by the patients or their parents. This short version of the German guideline on AD provides an overview of evidence-based diagnostic and treatment options. All recommendations made here are the result of a consensus of the scientific medical societies, working groups and support groups based on scientific data published to date. Abstracts and details of the studies cited are provided in the long version of this guideline (see: www.awmf.org). PMID:26713654

  8. Towards Predictive Association Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2011-01-01

    Association equations of state like SAFT, CPA and NRHB have been previously applied to many complex mixtures. In this work we focus on two of these models, the CPA and the NRHB equations of state and the emphasis is on the analysis of their predictive capabilities for a wide range of applications...... phase equilibria in mixtures containing glycols. The importance of considering the solvation of CO2–water (in CPA) when the model is applied to multicomponent mixtures as well as of the multiple associations in heavy glycol–water mixtures (in NRHB) is investigated....

  9. Vaccine-Associated Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, Matthew; Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2016-01-01

    All of the widely administered vaccines have been reported to cause uveitis. The ocular inflammation is usually temporary and resolves with topical ocular steroids. During a 26-year period, a total of 289 cases of vaccine-associated uveitis were reported to three adverse reaction reporting databases. Hepatitis B vaccine, either alone or administered with other vaccines, appears to be the leading offender. Clinicians are encouraged to report cases of vaccine- or drug-associated ocular adverse reactions to www.eyedrugregistry.com. PMID:27039491

  10. Acromegaly associated with gangliocytoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, R K

    2009-09-30

    BACKGROUND: Acromegaly secondary to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) excess is rare. AIMS\\/CASE DESCRIPTION: We report two patients with acromegaly who were diagnosed with sellar gangliocytomas that were immunopositive for GHRH. Tumour tissue persisted after debulking surgery and in the second case this was associated with persistent growth hormone hypersecretion, successfully suppressed by a somatostatin analogue. CONCLUSIONS: The development of functional pituitary adenomas in association with sellar gangliocytomas is poorly understood. We present a brief discussion of the possible aetiology of these unusual pituitary tumours.

  11. Intracellular membrane association of the N-terminal domain of classical swine fever virus NS4B determines viral genome replication and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Ruggli, Nicolas; Nagashima, Naofumi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Manabu; Mine, Junki; Hofmann, Martin A; Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease in pigs that can range from a severe haemorrhagic fever to a nearly unapparent disease, depending on the virulence of the virus strain. Little is known about the viral molecular determinants of CSFV virulence. The nonstructural protein NS4B is essential for viral replication. However, the roles of CSFV NS4B in viral genome replication and pathogenesis have not yet been elucidated. NS4B of the GPE-  vaccine strain and of the highly virulent Eystrup strain differ by a total of seven amino acid residues, two of which are located in the predicted trans-membrane domains of NS4B and were described previously to relate to virulence, and five residues clustering in the N-terminal part. In the present study, we examined the potential role of these five amino acids in modulating genome replication and determining pathogenicity in pigs. A chimeric low virulent GPE- -derived virus carrying the complete Eystrup NS4B showed enhanced pathogenicity in pigs. The in vitro replication efficiency of the NS4B chimeric GPE-  replicon was significantly higher than that of the replicon carrying only the two Eystrup-specific amino acids in NS4B. In silico and in vitro data suggest that the N-terminal part of NS4B forms an amphipathic α-helix structure. The N-terminal NS4B with these five amino acid residues is associated with the intracellular membranes. Taken together, this is the first gain-of-function study showing that the N-terminal domain of NS4B can determine CSFV genome replication in cell culture and viral pathogenicity in pigs. PMID:26018962

  12. The National Education Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Gilbert

    1983-01-01

    Examines how the National Education Association (NEA) has shifted from a conservative position to a more progressive one, which emphasizes militancy on such issues as equity and abolition of normative testing. Suggests that, in concentrating on politically charged matters, NEA has neglected a more important concern: the successful schooling of…

  13. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles; WOOD; William; HARRINGTON; Jr

    2005-01-01

    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  14. JWST Associated Science Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swade, D.; Alexov, A.; Bushouse, H.; Greene, G.; Swam, M.

    2015-09-01

    Associated science data products for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be generated within the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) of the Science and Operations Center at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Associations capture the relationship between exposures and higher level data products. Association Pools are generated to capture a list of exposures that could potentially form an association and provide relevant information about those exposures. The Association Generator runs within the calibration software to generate association definitions in an Association Table format. Based on the Association Table content, the calibration software creates the Associated Science Data Products.

  15. Molecular and virological studies on contagious pustular dermatitis isolates from Egyptian sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed; Abdelrahman, Khaled; Soliman, Hatem

    2010-10-01

    Orf virus was clinically diagnosed from different field cases of sheep and goat in Hawamdia, Giza, Egypt during the summer 2006. Skin scabs were collected and used for virus isolation, electron microscopy, PCR and sequencing for confirmation, and differential diagnosis. The aetiological virus was fruitfully isolated on the chorio-allantoic membrane of SPF embryonated chicken eggs indicated by expressing the characteristic pock lesions of Poxviridae family. Electron microscopy examination exposed negatively stained oval-shape virus particles trait for members of the genus Parapoxvirus. A 392 bp fragment of the late transcription factor (VLTF-1) gene of orf virus was amplified by PCR from the DNA extracted from the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 99% identity with other orf virus strains reported worldwide. Selection and processing of clinical specimens and PCR assay applied in this endeavor, presented a reliable laboratory diagnostic tool for orf infections and first molecular characterization of Egyptian orf isolates. PMID:20304450

  16. Is obesity contagious?: social networks vs. environmental factors in the obesity epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan Cohen-Cole; Fletcher, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    This note’s aim is to investigate the sensitivity of Christakis and Fowler’s claim (NEJM July 26, 2007) that obesity has spread through social networks. It is well known in the economics literature that failure to include contextual effects can lead to spurious inference on “social network effects.” We replicate the NEJM results using their specification and a complementary dataset. We find that point estimates of the “social network effect” are reduced and become statistically indistinguisha...

  17. Bank Failures in Theory and History: The Great Depression and Other "Contagious" Events

    OpenAIRE

    Calomiris, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Bank failures during banking crises, in theory, can result either from unwarranted depositor withdrawals during events characterized by contagion or panic, or as the result of fundamental bank insolvency. Various views of contagion are described and compared to historical evidence from banking crises, with special emphasis on the U.S. experience during and prior to the Great Depression. Panics or "contagion" played a small role in bank failure, during or before the Great Depression-era distre...

  18. The Current Global Financial Crisis: do Asian Stock Markets show Contagious or Interdependency Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia; Andreosso-O'Callaghan, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the current global economic crisis, a pertinent question is whether the world economies are suffering from contagion or interdependency effects. With its origins in the US sub-prime mortgage market crisis starting at the end of 2007, when a loss of confidence by investors in the value of securitized mortgages resulted in a liquidity crisis, hard-hitting the banking system and rapidly spreading into the financial markets, the effects of the crisis were automatically reflect...

  19. Outline for an integrated modelling approach concerning risks and economic consequences of contagious animal diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Management decisions on control of major infectious animal diseases may have a large impact, but are usually based on scarce and unreliable information. An integrated model which combines the various aspects of outbreaks and risks with economic consequences has yet to be developed. A flexible model

  20. A deterministic model for highly contagious diseases: The case of varicella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, L.; Moraño, J.-A.; Santonja, F.-J.; Villanueva, R.-J.

    2016-05-01

    The classic nonlinear Kermack-McKendrick model based upon a system of differential equations has been widely applied to model the rise and fall of global pandemic and also seasonal epidemic by introducing a forced harmonic infectivity which would change throughout the year. These methods work well in their respective domains of applicability, and for certain diseases, but they fail when both seasonality and high infectivity are combined. In this paper we consider a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered, or SIR, model with two latent states to model the propagation and evolutionary history of varicella in humans. We show that infectivity can be calculated from real data and we find a nonstandard seasonal variation that cannot be fitted with a single harmonic. Moreover, we show that infectivity for the present strains of the virus has raised following a sigmoid function in a period of several centuries. This could allow the design of vaccination strategies and the study of the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster.

  1. Contagious risk taking: social information and context influence wild jackdaws' responses to novelty and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggor, Alison L; McIvor, Guillam E; Clayton, Nicola S; Thornton, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although wild animals increasingly encounter human-produced food and objects, it is unknown how they learn to discriminate beneficial from dangerous novelty. Since social learning allows animals to capitalize on the risk-taking of others, and avoid endangering themselves, social learning should be used around novel and unpredictable stimuli. However, it is unclear whether animals use social cues equally around all types of novelty and at all times of year. We assessed whether wild, individually marked jackdaws-a highly neophobic, yet adaptable species-are equally influenced by social cues to consume novel, palatable foods and to approach a startling object. We conducted these tests across two seasons, and found that in both seasons observers were more likely to consume novel foods after seeing a demonstrator do so. In contrast, observers only followed the demonstrator in foraging next to the object during breeding season. Throughout the year more birds were wary of consuming novel foods than wary of approaching the object, potentially leading to jackdaws' greater reliance on social information about food. Jackdaws' dynamic social cue usage demonstrates the importance of context in predicting how social information is used around novelty, and potentially indicates the conditions that facilitate animals' adjustment to anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27282438

  2. Senator Barbara Mikulski and the Contagious “Learning Bug” | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen. Barbara Mikulski came to NIH on April 11 to say goodbye. Following this fall’s election, the longest-serving woman in congressional history will relinquish her Maryland Senate seat, bringing to a close a 40-year national political career in which she staunchly supported NIH and biomedical research.

  3. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly controlled. Illustrating the dangers of measles through personal stories, rather than scientific data only, may also serve to strengthen messaging.

  4. Selective and contagious prosocial resource donation in capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Claidière, Nicolas; Whiten, Andrew; Mareno, Mary C; Messer, Emily J. E.; Sarah F. Brosnan; Hopper, Lydia M.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Steven J. Schapiro; McGuigan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial acts benefitting others are widespread amongst humans. By contrast, chimpanzees have failed to demonstrate such a disposition in several studies, leading some authors to conclude that the forms of prosociality studied evolved in humans since our common ancestry. However, similar prosocial behavior has since been documented in other primates, such as capuchin monkeys. Here, applying the same methodology to humans, chimpanzees, and capuchins, we provide evidence that all three species...

  5. [General procedures in response to suspected attacks with highly contagious and pathogenic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Martin; Herzog, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of undefined powders that are content of letters or parcels with or without threats in writing addressed to institutions, groups or persons, often raises the suspicion of an attack involving biological agents such as anthrax. Subsequent investigations and analyses by local authorities often aim at excluding anthrax or anthrax spores. Suspicion and actions are then mistakenly justified by referring to the 2001 anthrax letter attacks in the USA, which now lie more than 10 years in the past. In Germany to date there has never been a terrorist attack involving dangerous biological agents, neither in letters nor in any other possible form. In addition, it cannot be assumed that anthrax bacteria or spores will be used again in a bioterrorist event. In the case of a valid suspicion of a threatening letter, neither analyses to exclude only a certain group of substances (e.g. biological, chemical or radiological) nor analyses to exclude only one biological agent (e.g. anthrax) in particular would provide sufficient information for decision makers to conduct further actions in coping with the given situation. Moreover, a sequence of procedures such as consultation, exclusion, and analyses should be followed in order to systematically exclude all relevant threats. Therefore, and in respect to the current CBRNE threat assessment for Germany, the following article provides recommendations of actions to be taken for coping with a valid suspicion of an intentional release of biological agents utilizing powder letters as an example. PMID:25963640

  6. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ..., published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, and delayed until July 25, 2011, in a document published at 76 FR 31220-31221 on May 31, 2011, is delayed until further notice. We will consider all comments... equigenitalis. On March 25, 2011, we published an interim rule in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  7. 76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... part 93, published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, is delayed until July 25, 2011. FOR FURTHER... the Federal Register (76 FR 16683-16686, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0112) to amend the regulations... 93, published at 76 FR 16683-16686 on March 25, 2011, until July 25, 2011. Authority: 7 U.S.C....

  8. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... equigenitalis. In an interim rule \\1\\ effective and published in the Federal Register on March 25, 2011 (76 FR... on May 31, 2011 (76 FR 31220-31221, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0112), in which we announced that we were... implemented. In a subsequent document published in the Federal Register on August 23, 2011 (76 FR...

  9. An agent-based approach for modeling dynamics of contagious disease spread

    OpenAIRE

    Dragicevic Suzana; Perez Liliana

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The propagation of communicable diseases through a population is an inherent spatial and temporal process of great importance for modern society. For this reason a spatially explicit epidemiologic model of infectious disease is proposed for a greater understanding of the disease's spatial diffusion through a network of human contacts. Objective The objective of this study is to develop an agent-based modelling approach the integrates geographic information systems (GIS) to...

  10. Amenorrhea associated with carotenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmann, E; Pasquale, S A; Skaf, R

    1983-02-18

    Data are presented for ten women with anovulation, nine of them with amenorrhea, who have associated carotenemia. Classic explanations for carotenemia in amenorrheic patients have been weight loss or anorexia nervosa, yet carotenemia in our patients appeared to be diet induced. All patients consumed a pure or predominantly vegetarian diet; there was no intake of red meats. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients are presented. The amenorrhea of the patient is consistent with hypothalamic hypogonadotropic anovulation (HHA). It appeared that diet modification not only led to reduction in carotene levels, but also improved the menstrual status. The association of carotenemia and menstrual disorders is reviewed. The possibility that carotenemia is related to the development of HHA is discussed. PMID:6823046

  11. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  12. Hom-power associative algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Donald

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of power associative algebra, called Hom-power associative algebra, is studied. The main result says that a multiplicative Hom-algebra is Hom-power associative if and only if it satisfies two identities of degrees three and four. It generalizes Albert's result that power associativity is equivalent to third and fourth power associativity. In particular, multiplicative right Hom-alternative algebras and non-commutative Hom-Jordan algebras are Hom-power associative.

  13. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  14. Myeloma associated systemic amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kumari N

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of myeloma associated systemic amyloidosis in a 45 years old man. The patient presented with asymptomatic plaques and papules around the eyes, nostrils, anus, inguinal region and tongue. Purpuric lesions were noticed on and off over the lesions. When thorough investigations were undertaken they revealed multiple myeloma. Histopathology with amyloid stain positivity and bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis.

  15. Infliximab-associated Chiasmopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Erin; Sacks, Joel G.

    2008-01-01

    Optic neuropathy has been reported in association with the use of tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists such as etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab. This is a report of a patient who began experiencing decreased vision approximately 1 month after starting infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Visual field testing showed bitemporal hemianopic scotomas, indicating involvement of the nerve fibers in the optic chiasm. The infliximab was discontinued, and the patient experienced substa...

  16. Time and Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Balsam, Peter D; Drew, Michael R.; Gallistel, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    In a basic associative learning paradigm, learning is said to have occurred when the conditioned stimulus evokes an anticipatory response. This learning is widely believed to depend on the contiguous presentation of conditioned and unconditioned stimulus. However, what it means to be contiguous has not been rigorously defined. Here we examine the empirical bases for these beliefs and suggest an alternative view based on the hypothesis that learning about the temporal relationships between eve...

  17. Angioedema Associated with Haloperidol

    OpenAIRE

    AlMadhyan, Abdulmajeed Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Haloperidol is one of the antipsychotic medications which are widely used in the emergency department and its association with angioedema which is very rarely reported in scientific literature. One of the serious situations in the emergency department is angioedema and it bends airway obstruction which is need early attention and treatment. A case was reported which was observed at a governmental hospital in Riyadh. An adult female developed angioedema after single dose of Haloperidol intramu...

  18. Quantum Associative Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Dan; Martinez, Tony

    1998-01-01

    This paper combines quantum computation with classical neural network theory to produce a quantum computational learning algorithm. Quantum computation uses microscopic quantum level effects to perform computational tasks and has produced results that in some cases are exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. The unique characteristics of quantum theory may also be used to create a quantum associative memory with a capacity exponential in the number of neurons. This paper combi...

  19. Reminders Through Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Milkman, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    People often fail to follow through on good intentions. While limited self-control is frequently the culprit, another cause is simply forgetting to enact intentions when opportunities arise. We introduce a novel, potent approach to facilitating follow-through: the reminders-through-association approach. This approach involves associating intentions (e.g., to mail a letter on your desk tomorrow) with distinctive cues that will capture attention when you have opportunities to act on those intentions (e.g., Valentine's Day flowers that arrived late yesterday, which are sitting on your desk). We showed that cue-based reminders are more potent when the cues they employ are distinctive relative to (a) other regularly encountered stimuli and (b) other stimuli encountered concurrently. Further, they can be more effective than written or electronic reminder messages, and they are undervalued and underused. The reminders-through-association approach, developed by integrating and expanding on past research on self-control, reminders, and prospective memory, can be a powerful tool for policymakers and individuals. PMID:27207873

  20. Scoliosis Associated With Syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Fathi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The differential diagnosis of idiopathic and syringomyelia associated scoliosis is important because corrective surgery for scoliosis associated with syringomyelia prior to management of syringomyelia can be dangerous. There are important imaging indicators for diagnosis of syringomyelia associated with scoliosis. A few of these indicators have been assessed in our study. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study including 38 patients with both scoliosis and syringomyelia was performed at the Shafa Yahyaeian center. Standard scoliosis series radiographs and MRI of all patients were studied. The type of scoliosis, location and magnitude of deformity, kyphosis or lordosis in the sagittal plane, location and size of syrinx were assessed. Results: Thoracic kyphosis was present in 94.7% of patients. 37% of patients had scoliosis with convexity to left. Arnold –chiari malformation was present in 36% and cord tethering in 21% of patients. The locations of syrinx were as follows: 47.4%cervical, 44.6 thoracic, 2.7% lumbar and 5.3% were holocord. Conclusion: Kyphosis, abscence of lordosis in sagittal plane, progressive scoliosis and scoliosis with convexity to left are atypical findings and could be indicators of the presence of syringomyelia. If these indicators are present, a diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis should be made with caution.

  1. Osteosarcoma associated with hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jutte, Paul C. [Istituti Orthopedici Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136, Bologna (Italy); University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen (Netherlands); Rosso, Renato [Anatomia Patologica Universita di Pavia, via Forlanini 16, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Paolis, Massimiliano de; Errani, Costatino; Pasini, Elisabetta; Campanacci, Laura; Bacci, Gaetano; Bertoni, Franco; Mercuri, Mario [Istituti Orthopedici Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-08-01

    The fourth case in the literature is presented of a patient with the rare association of hyperparathyroidism and osteosarcoma. A 56-year-old woman presented with hyperparathyroidism and a lesion in the tibia. Initial diagnosis was brown tumor. Histology, however, revealed osteosarcoma, and the patient was treated accordingly. The experimental induction of osteosarcoma by parathormone in rodent studies makes this finding alarming, considering the increasing use of parathormone in the treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism by which osteosarcoma is induced in humans cannot be explained based on current knowledge of mechanisms of action of parathyroid hormone. (orig.)

  2. Osteosarcoma associated with hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth case in the literature is presented of a patient with the rare association of hyperparathyroidism and osteosarcoma. A 56-year-old woman presented with hyperparathyroidism and a lesion in the tibia. Initial diagnosis was brown tumor. Histology, however, revealed osteosarcoma, and the patient was treated accordingly. The experimental induction of osteosarcoma by parathormone in rodent studies makes this finding alarming, considering the increasing use of parathormone in the treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism by which osteosarcoma is induced in humans cannot be explained based on current knowledge of mechanisms of action of parathyroid hormone. (orig.)

  3. Perindopril-associated pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, A; Melloni, B; Gosselin, B; Bonnaud, F; Wallaert, B

    1996-06-01

    We report two cases of perindopril-associated pneumonitis with typical drug-induced clinical features. In the first case, biopsies showed granulomatous sarcoid-like lesions; in the second, bronchial wall eosinophil infiltratf2p4was reported with increased blood eosinophil count. In these two cases, improvement was obtained by withdrawal of the drug and was completed with steroids. All other causes were ruled out. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced pneumonitis is still rare but has to be recognized as a real side-effect. PMID:8804953

  4. Selective association rule generation

    CERN Document Server

    Hahsler, Michael; Hornik, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Mining association rules is a popular and well researched method for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases. A practical problem is that at medium to low support values often a large number of frequent itemsets and an even larger number of association rules are found in a database. A widely used approach is to gradually increase minimum support and minimum confidence or to filter the found rules using increasingly strict constraints on additional measures of interestingness until the set of rules found is reduced to a manageable size. In this paper we describe a different approach which is based on the idea to first define a set of ``interesting'' itemsets (e.g., by a mixture of mining and expert knowledge) and then, in a second step to selectively generate rules for only these itemsets. The main advantage of this approach over increasing thresholds or filtering rules is that the number of rules found is significantly reduced while at the same time it is not necessary to increa...

  5. Hemimyeloschisis associated with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izci, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Hemimyeloschisis is a very rare congenital malformation of the spine which is characterized by a split cord malformation associated with complete exposureof the one hemicord to the exterior. We report a case of hemimyeloschisis on the right hemicord in a patient with hydrocephalus. The patient was a female neonate with myeloschisis, skin defect, and hypertrichosis visible at birth in the upper lumbar region. There was also skin defect around the myeloschisis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a bony septum at the L2 level as well as the myeloschisis on the right hemicord, which enabled us to make a precise preoperative diagnosis of this rare malformation. There was also mild hydrocephalus in cranial CT scan. Closure of the myeloschisis and removal of the septum were successfully performed associated with the closure of the skin in one stage surgery to prevent subsequent infection and neurological deterioration. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion was performed for hydrocephalus. The presence of combined split cord malformation and myeloschisis is consistent with the hypothesis of an ontogenic basis of development. This combination also emphasizes the importance of early imaging for diagnosis in this complex malformation. PMID:26607795

  6. The All Sky Young Association (ASYA): a new young association

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, C A O; Montes, D

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young stars) survey we developed a method to find young associations and to define their high probability members. These bona fide members enable to obtain the kinematical and the physical properties of each association in a proper way. Recently we noted a concentration in the UV plane and we found a new association we are calling ASYA (All Sky Young Association) for its overall distribution in the sky with a total of 38 bonafide members and an estimated age of 110 Myr, the oldest young association found in the SACY survey. We present here its kinematical, space and Li distributions and its HR diagram.

  7. Urolithiasis associated with topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide anticonvulsant used as adjunctive therapy for intractable refractory seizures. It is report a case of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old man presented with acute, right-sided, colicky flank pain. He denied hematuria or dysuria. He was in use of phenytoin, risperidone, phenobarbital, and topiramate. The total daily dose of topiramate was 375 mg. A CT scan showed a 7 x 1 mm curvilinear density at the right ureterovesical junction with proximal hydrouretronephrosis. He was managed with rigid ureteroscopic stone extraction and the calculus metabolic analysis revealed the stone was composed of carbonate apatite (70%, calcium oxalate dihydrate (20%, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (10%. COMMENTS: The present case typifies many features of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. Those who care for patients with urinary stone disease should be aware of this association.

  8. MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, M L

    2008-01-01

    MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP), a Polyposis predisposition caused by biallelic mutations in the Base Excision Repair (BER) gene MUTYH, confers a marked risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The MAP phenotype is difficult to distinguish from other hereditary CRC syndromes. Especially from Familial...... Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and to a lesser extend Lynch Syndrome, which are caused by germline mutations in the APC and Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes, respectively.Here we review research findings regarding MUTYH interactions, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MAP, as well as surveillance and...... treatment of the disease. The applied papers, published between 1/1 2002- 1/2 2008, were found through PubMed.The exact role of MUTYH in CRC tumorgenesis is still uncertain, although MAP tumors show distinct molecular features, including somatic G:C>T:A transversions in the APC gene. Furthermore...

  9. Pancytopenia associated with clonazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh Chung-Tsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a 48-year-old Chinese female with end-stage renal disease and chronic anemia on hemodialysis. Clonazepam was prescribed for myoclonus disorder two weeks prior to her hospitalization. Subsequently, she was hospitalized for neutropenic fever with thrombocytopenia and worsening anemia. Bone marrow examination demonstrated a markedly hypocellular marrow (10-20% total cellularity. Clonazepam was discontinued, with gradual improvement of thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia in 1-2 weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pancytopenia associated with clonazepam. We recommend patients taking clonazepam to be monitored with regular complete blood count to check for clinically significant pancytopenia or thrombocytopenia.

  10. TILLING and Associated Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Wang; Cristobal Uauy; Brad Till; Chun-Ming Liu

    2010-01-01

    @@ As part of a collaboration between the John Innes Centre(JIC),Norwich,UK and the Centre for Signal Transduction and Metabolomics(C-STM)at the Institute of Botany(IOB),the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,a workshop on 'TILLING and Associated Technologies' was held at the IOB on 15-16 April 2010.Through sponsorship from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(BBSRC),Resarch Councils UK,China Office,and the Transgenic Research Project of China,experts were drawn from the USA,Europe and China to present their latest information on technology development for targeted single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)detection to over 60 registered participants.

  11. HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2011-01-01

    The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6. PMID:20871843

  12. Echovirus 4 associated to hand, foot and mouth disease Echovirus 4 associado à doença de mão, pé e boca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Hage Russo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is a contagious enteroviral infection occurring primarily in children and characterized by vesicular palmoplantar eruptions and erosive stomatitis. Echovirus 4 (EV-4 has been commonly associated with aseptic meningitis. The association of HFMD with EV-4 has not been reported previously. Two samples of a 14-month child who presented mild fever, sores in the mouth, rash with blisters on the palm of hands and soles of feet were sent to Enteric Viruses Laboratory of Adolfo Lutz Institute. Clinical samples were inoculated in three different cell lines, and those which presented cytopathic effect (CPE, were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and "one step" RT-PCR. Agarose gel electrophoresis from RT-PCR product, showed a product with 437 bp, which is characteristic of Enterovirus group. Echovirus 4 was identified by IFA. Although HFMD is a viral infection associated mainly with Enterovirus 71 (HEV-71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, our results demonstrate a diversity of serotype related to HFMD and stress the importance of epidemiological surveillance to this disease and its complications.A Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca (DMPB é uma infecção enteroviral contagiosa que ocorre principalmente em crianças sendo caracterizada por erupções palmoplantares vesiculares e estomatite. Echovirus 4 (EV-4 é comumente associado a meningite asséptica. A associação de DMPB por EV-4 não foi descrita anteriormente. Duas amostras provenientes de uma criança de 14 meses apresentando febre, secreções na garganta e exantemas nas palmas das mãos e dos pés, foram enviadas para o Laboratório de Vírus Entéricos do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. As amostras foram inoculadas em três diferentes linhagens celulares; aquelas que apresentaram efeito citopático (ECP, foram submetidas a ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e "one step" RT-PCR. A eletroforese em gel de agarose realizada com o produto de PCR apresentou

  13. On the associative Nijenhuis Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch

    2003-01-01

    In this brief note we would like to give the construction of a free commutative unital associative Nijenhuis algebra on a commutative unital associative algebra based on an augmented modified quasi-shuffle product.

  14. Submanifolds Weakly Associated with Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Carriazo; L M Fernández; A Rodríguez-Hidalgo

    2009-06-01

    We establish an interesting link between differential geometry and graph theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low dimensions or belonging to some special families.

  15. The Growth-Inequality Association:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This note suggests that the association between income inequality and economic growth rates might arguably depend on the political ideology of incumbent governments. Estimates indicate that under leftwing governments, inequality is negatively associated with growth while the association is positive...... under rightwing governments. This may provide a qualification to recent studies of inequality....

  16. Associative Hierarchical Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladický, L'ubor; Russell, Chris; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S

    2014-06-01

    This paper makes two contributions: the first is the proposal of a new model-The associative hierarchical random field (AHRF), and a novel algorithm for its optimization; the second is the application of this model to the problem of semantic segmentation. Most methods for semantic segmentation are formulated as a labeling problem for variables that might correspond to either pixels or segments such as super-pixels. It is well known that the generation of super pixel segmentations is not unique. This has motivated many researchers to use multiple super pixel segmentations for problems such as semantic segmentation or single view reconstruction. These super-pixels have not yet been combined in a principled manner, this is a difficult problem, as they may overlap, or be nested in such a way that the segmentations form a segmentation tree. Our new hierarchical random field model allows information from all of the multiple segmentations to contribute to a global energy. MAP inference in this model can be performed efficiently using powerful graph cut based move making algorithms. Our framework generalizes much of the previous work based on pixels or segments, and the resulting labelings can be viewed both as a detailed segmentation at the pixel level, or at the other extreme, as a segment selector that pieces together a solution like a jigsaw, selecting the best segments from different segmentations as pieces. We evaluate its performance on some of the most challenging data sets for object class segmentation, and show that this ability to perform inference using multiple overlapping segmentations leads to state-of-the-art results. PMID:26353271

  17. Associated particle imaging (API)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Associated Particle Imaging (API) is an active neutron probe technique that provides a 3-D image with elemental composition of the material under interrogation, and so occupies a unique niche in the interrogation of unknown objects. The highly penetrating nature of neutrons enables API to provide detailed information about targets of interest that are hidden from view. Due to the isotropic nature of the induced reactions, radiation detectors can be set on the same side of the object as the neutron source, so that the object can be interrogated from a single side. At the heat of the system is a small generator that produces a continuous, monoenergetic flux of neutrons. By measuring the trajectory of coincident alpha particles that are produced as part of the process, the trajectory of the neutron can be inferred. Interactions between a neutron and the material in its path often produce a gamma ray whose energy is characteristic of that material. When the gamma ray is detected, its energy is measured and combined with the trajectory information to produce a 3-D image of the composition of the object being interrogated. During the course of API development, a number of improvements have been made. A new, more rugged sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and fabricated that is less susceptible to radiation damage and better able to withstand the rigors of fielding than earlier designs. A specialized high-voltage power supply for the STNG has also been designed and built. A complete package of software has been written for the tasks of system calibration, diagnostics and data acquisition and analysis. A portable system has been built and field tested, proving that API can be taken out of the lab and into real-world situations, and that its performance in the field is equal to that in the lab.

  18. Influence of observable and unobservable exposure on the patient's risk of acquiring influenza-like illness at hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, C; Voirin, N; Ecochard, R; Vanhems, P

    2016-07-01

    During outbreaks of hospital-acquired influenza-like illness (HA-ILI) healthcare workers (HCWs), patients, and visitors are each a source of infection for the other. Quantifying the effects of these various exposures will help improve prevention and control of HA-ILI outbreaks. We estimated the attributability of HA-ILI to: (1) exposure to recorded or unrecorded sources; (2) exposure to contagious patient or contagious HCW; (3) exposure during observable or unobservable contagious period of the recorded sources; and, (4) the moment of exposure. Among recorded sources, 59% [95% credible interval (CrI) 34-83] of HA-ILI of patients was associated with exposure to contagious patients and 41% (95% CrI 17-66) with exposure to contagious HCWs. Exposure during the unobservable contagiousness period of source patients accounted for 49% (95% CrI 19-75) of HA-ILI, while exposure during the unobservable contagiousness period of source HCWs accounted for 82% (95% CrI 51-99) of HA-ILI. About 80% of HA-ILIs were associated with exposure 1 day earlier. Secondary cases of HA-ILI might appear as soon as the day after the detection of a primary case highlighting the explosive nature of HA-ILI spread. Unobservable transmission was the main cause of HA-ILI transmission suggesting that symptom-based control measures alone might not prevent hospital outbreaks. The results support the rapid implementation of interventions to control influenza transmission. PMID:26846882

  19. Lexical Creativity from Word Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Oskar; Toivonen, Hannu; Toivanen, Jukka; Valitutti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    A fluent ability to associate tasks, concepts, ideas, knowledge and experiences in a relevant way is often considered an important factor of creativity, especially in problem solving. We are interested in providing computational support for discovering such creative associations. In this paper we design minimally supervised methods that can perform well in the remote associates test (RAT), a well-known psychometric measure of creativity. We show that with a large corpus of text and some relat...

  20. Interfacial Protein-Protein Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Langdon, Blake B.; Kastantin, Mark; Walder, Robert; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    While traditional models of protein adsorption focus primarily on direct protein-surface interactions, recent findings suggest that protein-protein interactions may play a central role. Using high-throughput intermolecular resonance energy transfer (RET) tracking, we directly observed dynamic, protein-protein associations of bovine serum albumin on poly(ethylene glycol) modified surfaces. The associations were heterogeneous and reversible, and associating molecules resided on the surface for ...

  1. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Kumar Garg; Hardeep Singh Malhotra; Amita Jain; Kiran Preet Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evo...

  2. Associative learning and animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both direc...

  3. Hiding Sensitive Association Rule Using Clusters of Sensitive Association Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay keer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The security of the large database that contains certain crucialinformation, it will become a serious issue when sharing data to thenetwork against unauthorized access. Association rules hidingalgorithms get strong and efficient performance for protectingconfidential and crucial data. The objective of the proposedAssociation rule hiding algorithm for privacy preserving datamining is to hide certain information so that they cannot bediscovered through association rule mining algorithm. The mainapproached of association rule hiding algorithms to hide somegenerated association rules, by increase or decrease the support orthe confidence of the rules. The association rule items whether inLeft Hand Side (LHS or Right Hand Side (RHS of the generatedrule, that cannot be deduced through association rule miningalgorithms. The concept of Increase Support of Left Hand Side(ISL algorithm is decrease the confidence of rule by increase thesupport value of LHS. It doesn’t work for both side of rule. Itworks only for modification of LHS. In this paper, we propose aheuristic algorithm named ISLRC (Increase Support of L.H.S. itemof Rule Clusters based on ISL approach to preserve privacy forsensitive association rules in database. Proposed algorithmmodifies fewer transactions and hides many rules at a time. Theefficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with ISLalgorithms.

  4. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  5. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  6. Domain Bridging Associations Support Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Kötter, Tobias; Thiel, Kilian; Berthold, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to support creativity through assisting the discovery of unexpected associations across different domains. This is achieved by integrating information from heterogeneous domains into a single network, enabling the interactive discovery of links across the corresponding information resources. We discuss three different pattern of domain crossing associations in this context.

  7. INTRAVERBAL ASSOCIATIONS IN SENTENCE BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRENTICE, JOAN L.

    PRE-EXISTING ASSOCIATION BETWEEN WORDS WAS HYPOTHESIZED TO BE A VARIABLE INFLUENCING CHOICE OF WORDS DURING THE PROCESS OF SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION. IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT, 32 SS (SUBJECTS) ENGAGED IN A PACED-RECALL TASK. MATERIALS WERE SETS OF THREE SENTENCES WHICH VARIED ONLY IN TWO NON-ASSOCIATED EMBEDDED ADJECTIVES WHICH COULD BE INTERCHANGED…

  8. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kupriyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  9. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev-Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  10. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). PMID:23245971

  11. ASSOCIATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    http://www.clionautes.org/index.php    http://cvuh.blogspot.fr/    http://aggiornamento.hypotheses.org/    http://www.mnemosyne.asso.fr/mnemosyne/    http://www.archivesdufeminisme.fr/    http://www.efigies.org/    http://zilsel.hypotheses.org/    http://www.codhos.asso.fr/    http://www.cht-nantes.org/    http://www.museehistoirevivante.com/    http://www.commune1871.org/   

  12. Discovering fuzzy spatial association rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Esen; Cicekli, Nihan K.

    2002-03-01

    Discovering interesting, implicit knowledge and general relationships in geographic information databases is very important to understand and use these spatial data. One of the methods for discovering this implicit knowledge is mining spatial association rules. A spatial association rule is a rule indicating certain association relationships among a set of spatial and possibly non-spatial predicates. In the mining process, data is organized in a hierarchical manner. However, in real-world applications it may not be possible to construct a crisp structure for this data, instead some fuzzy structures should be used. Fuzziness, i.e. partial belonging of an item to more than one sub-item in the hierarchy, could be applied to the data itself, and also to the hierarchy of spatial relations. This paper shows that, strong association rules can be mined from large spatial databases using fuzzy concept and spatial relation hierarchies.

  13. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    thermodynamic models like cubic equations of state have been the dominating tools in the petroleum industry, the focus of this review is on the association models. Association models are defined as the models of SAFT/CPA family (and others) which incorporate hydrogen bonding and other complex interactions. Such...... association models have been, especially over the last 20 years, proved to be very successful in predicting many thermodynamic properties in the oil & gas industry. They have not so far replaced cubic equations of state, but the results obtained by using these models are very impressive in many cases, e.......g., for gas hydrate related systems, CO2/H2S mixtures, water/hydrocarbons and others. This review highlights both the major advantages of these association models and some of their limitations, which we believe should be discussed in the future....

  14. Information Retrieval Using Association Lists

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Gajecki

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the main models of information retrieval in text. The idea of association list and its use for information retrieval is introduced. The paper contains the evaluation results of the algorithms under discussion.

  15. Information Retrieval Using Association Lists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gajecki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main models of information retrieval in text. The idea of association list and its use for information retrieval is introduced. The paper contains the evaluation results of the algorithms under discussion.

  16. Anencephaly and its Associated Malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Gole, Ravikiran Ashok; Meshram, Pritee Madan; Hattangdi, Shanta Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Anencephaly is a serious neural tube defect in which parts of the brain and skull are not developed. But apart from this it is also associated with other malformations which are not related to neural tube in development.

  17. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  18. Business Associations and Private Ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the capacity of business associations - private, formal, noncommercial organizations designed to promote the common business interests of their members - to support contract enforcement and collective action. Inspired by recent empirical literature, our theoretical framework conne

  19. Thrombocytopenia Associated with Levodopa Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku-Eun Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There were few cases of thrombocytopenia associated with levodopa. Herein, we report a patient with Parkinson’s disease, who suffered thrombocytopenia related to long-term use of levodopa.

  20. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  1. Health Conditions Associated with Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zipcode Comorbidities Associated with Psoriatic Disease People with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are at an elevated risk ... conditions. Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriasis Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Cancer A number of studies ...

  2. Associated with Health Care-Associated Infections in Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Giampaolo; Shi, Wei; Michler, Robert E.; Meltzer, David O.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Hohmann, Samuel F.; Thourani, Vinod; Argenziano, Michael; Alexander, John; Sankovic, Kathy; Gupta, Lopa; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Acker, Michael A.; Russo, Mark J.; Lee, Albert; Burks, Sandra G.; Gelijns, Annetine C.; Bagiella, Emilia; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are the most common noncardiac complications after cardiac surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current information about their economic burden is limited. OBJECTIVES To determine the cost associated with major types of HAIs during the first 2 months after cardiac surgery. METHODS Prospectively collected data from a multicenter observational study of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Clinical Trials Network, in which patients were monitored for infections for 65 days after surgery, were merged with related financial data, routinely collected by the University HealthSystem Consortium. Incremental length of stay (LOS) and cost associated with HAIs were estimated using generalized linear models, adjusting for patient demographics, clinical history, baseline laboratory values, and surgery type. RESULTS Among 4,320 cardiac surgery patients, mean age of 64 ± 13 years, 119 (2.8%) experienced a major HAI during the index hospitalization. The most common HAIs were pneumonia (48%), sepsis (20%) and C. Difficile colitis (18%). On average, the estimated incremental cost associated with a major HAI was nearly $38,000, of which 47% was related to intensive care unit services. The incremental LOS was 14 days. Overall, there were 849 readmissions, among these, 8.7% were attributed to major HAIs. The cost of readmissions due to major HAI was on average nearly three times as much as readmissions not related to HAI. CONCLUSIONS Hospital cost, length of stay, and readmissions are strongly associated with HAIs. These associations suggest the potential for large reductions in costs if HAIs following cardiac surgery can be reduced. PMID:25572505

  3. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, N.; Curtis, H.; Hyde, J.; Borriello, S P; Mahida, Y R

    1998-01-01

    At our hospital, the number of cases of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea increased from 29 in 1993 to 210 in 1995. The case notes of 110 patients with C difficile-associated diarrhoea during the first 6 months of 1995 were analysed retrospectively. The majority of the patients (106) had received antibiotics before the onset of diarrhoea; 46 had received three or more different antibiotics and 28 had received metronidazole. In 19 patients, the first stool sample after the onset of di...

  4. Associative memories in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments in nuclear physics involve the use of large size 'memories'. After showing the difficulties arising from the use of such memories, the authors give the principles of the various programming methods which make it possible to operate the memories associatively thus benefiting from a reduction in size and better operational conditions. They attempt to estimate the shape and dimensions of an associative memory with cable connections which could be designed specially for nuclear research, contrary to those actually in service. (authors)

  5. Insomnia: prevalence and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Cátia; Lopes, Daniela; Ferreira, Sofia; Correia, Teresa; Pinto, Isabel C.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays sleep disorders are very common and affect most of the population, the most common may be insomnia. Insomnia is defined as the difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep it, may also be reflected in an early wake up and by the presence of a non-restful sleep and it is associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning of the individual. Knowing the prevalence and the associated factors of insomnia. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The pop...

  6. Vitiligo associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a disease that results in depigmented areas in the skin. It may develop at any age but the average age at onset is 20 years. Association of vitiligo and melanoma has been commonly reported, but malignancies other than melanoma have been rarely associated with vitiligo. We report a 73-year-old patient with new onset vitiligo who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma in the following years.

  7. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  8. Pyoderma Gangrenosum - Variants And Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentamilselvi G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Six cases of pyoderma gangrenosum encountered with in a period of 2 years are described here with their clinical presentations and associations. Three patients were cases of superficial granulomatous pyoderma and three were of ulcerative type. Rheumatoid arthritis was found to be the associated disease in one of the cases of ulcerative type. Response to therapy was satisfactory in all of them expect in one case of ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum who was resistant to most of the available therapeutic modalities.

  9. Associative Concept Learning in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zentall, Thomas R; Wasserman, Edward A.; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing asso...

  10. HIV-associated anal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, Thomas; Bower, Mark

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiqui...

  11. Disability associated with mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Pranit K.; Deka, Kamala; Chetia, Dhrubajyoti

    2006-01-01

    Background: Disability associated with mental illness is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. The present study looks at some aspects of disability associated with 7 psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, dementia, and mental and behavioural disorders due to the use of alcohol. Aims: (i) To evaluate the nature and quantity of disabilities in the study groups; (ii) to compare the degree of ...

  12. Measuring Linear and Nonlinear Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Yarmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new approach based on two nonparametric techniques to capture the linear and nonlinear associations. The singular spectrum analysis technique, which is a powerful method for filtering noisy series, is used as a noise reduction method and mutual information is considered for measuring the level of association. The performance of the proposed approach is assessed using the simulated and real time series.

  13. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evolving course; benign nature; excellent response to potassium; and, often leads to diagnostic confusion with other dengue-associated neuromuscular disorders. Rhabdomyolysis is the most severe form of muscle involvement and may be life-threatening. Guillain-Barrι syndrome is another frequent neuromuscular dengue-associated complication. Dengue-associated Guillain-Barrι syndrome responds very well to intravenous immunoglobulins. Predominant spinal gray matter involvement has been reported in a patient presenting with areflexic paraparesis. Mononeuropathies often manifest with paralysis of the diaphragm due to phrenic nerve dysfunction. Brachial plexopathy, in the form of neuralgic amyotrophy, has been described much more frequently than lumbo-sacral plexopathy. Early recognition of these neuromuscular complications is needed for successful treatment and to prevent further disabilities.

  14. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Kiran Preet

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evolving course; benign nature; excellent response to potassium; and, often leads to diagnostic confusion with other dengue-associated neuromuscular disorders. Rhabdomyolysis is the most severe form of muscle involvement and may be life-threatening. Guillain-Barrι syndrome is another frequent neuromuscular dengue-associated complication. Dengue-associated Guillain-Barrι syndrome responds very well to intravenous immunoglobulins. Predominant spinal gray matter involvement has been reported in a patient presenting with areflexic paraparesis. Mononeuropathies often manifest with paralysis of the diaphragm due to phrenic nerve dysfunction. Brachial plexopathy, in the form of neuralgic amyotrophy, has been described much more frequently than lumbo-sacral plexopathy. Early recognition of these neuromuscular complications is needed for successful treatment and to prevent further disabilities. PMID:26238884

  15. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Kupriyanov, V G

    2016-01-01

    Non-commutativity is quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-commutativity. Except for some specific cases, like the constant $B$-field in open strings, the string coordinates are not only non-commutative, but also non-associative. It manifests the non-geometric nature of the consistent string vacua. The aim of this paper is to study the mathematical tools necessary to deal with non-associativity in physics. Working in the framework of deformation quantization we admit non-associative star products, but keep the violation of associativity under control. We require that the star associator of three functions should vanish whenever each two of them are iqual. Such a star product is called alternative. This condition imposes the restriction on non-associative algebras, the star commutator should...

  16. Papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome caused by parvovirus B19 infection in Brazil: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Tadashi Kakitani Toyoshima; Lilian Walsh Keller; Maria Luisa Barbosa; Edison Luiz Durigon

    2006-01-01

    Papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome (PPGSS) is a novel, rare, self-limiting dermatosis caused by human parvovirus B19. It consists of pruritic edema and erythema of the hands and feet in a gloves-and-socks distribution, and it is associated with oral lesions and fever. We present a case of PPGSS in a 22-year-old Brazilian woman. Clinical and laboratory evaluation, including serological tests, PCR and gene sequencing, confirmed the presence of human parvovirus B19.

  17. Notalgia Paresthetica and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome 2A: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Francisco; Feito, Marta; Albizuri, Fátima; Beato, María; De Lucas, Raúl

    2016-09-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is characterized by a hyperpigmented macular pruritic skin lesion most commonly localized unilaterally in the middle and upper back region. This condition has been reported in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A (MEN 2A) in several families; it rarely affects children and it may serve as an early marker of MEN 2A. We report a 9-year-old girl diagnosed with MEN 2A and notalgia paresthetica. PMID:27396529

  18. Grand Rounds: Latex-Induced Occupational Asthma in a Surgical Pathologist

    OpenAIRE

    Green-McKenzie, Judith; Hudes, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Context: Latex allergy and sensitization have been an important problem facing health care workers. Providing a latex-safe environment is the intervention of choice. Case Presentation: A 46-year-old surgical pathologist presented with increasing shortness of breath for the previous 4 years. Twenty years before presentation, he noted a pruritic, erythematous rash on his hands, associated with latex glove use. Fourteen years before presentation, during pathology residency, he developed a nonpro...

  19. Being Moved by the Self and Others: Influence of Empathy on Self-Motion Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Christophe; Falconer, Caroline J.; Mast, Fred W.; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The observation of conspecifics influences our bodily perceptions and actions: Contagious yawning, contagious itching, or empathy for pain, are all examples of mechanisms based on resonance between our own body and others. While there is evidence for the involvement of the mirror neuron system in the processing of motor, auditory and tactile information, it has not yet been associated with the perception of self-motion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated wh...

  20. Family-based association tests for genomewide association scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Min; Abecasis, Goncalo R

    2007-11-01

    With millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified and characterized, genomewide association studies have begun to identify susceptibility genes for complex traits and diseases. These studies involve the characterization and analysis of very-high-resolution SNP genotype data for hundreds or thousands of individuals. We describe a computationally efficient approach to testing association between SNPs and quantitative phenotypes, which can be applied to whole-genome association scans. In addition to observed genotypes, our approach allows estimation of missing genotypes, resulting in substantial increases in power when genotyping resources are limited. We estimate missing genotypes probabilistically using the Lander-Green or Elston-Stewart algorithms and combine high-resolution SNP genotypes for a subset of individuals in each pedigree with sparser marker data for the remaining individuals. We show that power is increased whenever phenotype information for ungenotyped individuals is included in analyses and that high-density genotyping of just three carefully selected individuals in a nuclear family can recover >90% of the information available if every individual were genotyped, for a fraction of the cost and experimental effort. To aid in study design, we evaluate the power of strategies that genotype different subsets of individuals in each pedigree and make recommendations about which individuals should be genotyped at a high density. To illustrate our method, we performed genomewide association analysis for 27 gene-expression phenotypes in 3-generation families (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain pedigrees), in which genotypes for ~860,000 SNPs in 90 grandparents and parents are complemented by genotypes for ~6,700 SNPs in a total of 168 individuals. In addition to increasing the evidence of association at 15 previously identified cis-acting associated alleles, our genotype-inference algorithm allowed us to identify associated alleles at 4

  1. Hypereosinophilia associated with genital sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eosinophils are phagocytic leukocytes, regulators reactions Mast cell mediated hypersensitivity. toxicity and primarily responsible antiparasitic. Predominate in epithelial tissues near the interface surface (skin, digestive tract) .The cytotoxic reaction exerted by deposit cell surface substances from the granules themselves: peroxidases, neurotoxins, and other cationic proteins. Hypereosinophilia is defined as the increase in eosinophils above 1500 / m m3. The most common causes are parasitic infections and reactions allergic. About 60% of tumors may be associated with an elevation eosinophil discrete but marked eosinophilia in these patients is little frequent. Tumors are most associated lung cancer and tumors hematology. There are few reports of this entity associated with uterine sarcomas. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism is unclear, it is assumed that the base is the increased secretion of cytokines eosinofilopoiétics: interleukins (Il) I L-3, Il-5 and G M-CSFR among other possible. Self-morbidity is primarily maintained hypereosinophilic heart, and is derived from the cytotoxic action, with endomyocardial fibrosis and thrombosis. Treatment should be directed at the control of the underlying disease, as good Tumor response was associated with the account and normalizaciónd eosinófiles. Los corticosteroids prednisone, 60 mg / day po) may be effective because antagonize The stimulatory effect of cytokines. In the vast majority of cases, the disease is associated with hypereosinophilia disseminated and poor overall prognosis We present a case of vaginal sarcoma with pulmonary metastases and hypereosinophilia seniors who responded to treatment with chemotherapy

  2. Forward Association, Backward Association, and the False-Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Wright, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false-memory illusion, forward associative strength (FAS) is unrelated to the strength of the illusion; this is puzzling, because high-FAS lists ought to share more semantic features with critical unpresented words than should low-FAS lists. The authors show that this null result is probably a truncated range…

  3. Other bioenergy associations in Finland - Wood Energy Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wood Energy Association (WEA) was founded in August 1994 by seven Finnish organizations to promote wood-based energy production. To achieve the objectives, the association maintains contacts to authorities and organizations in items related to the use of wood fuels, assists members and companies in matter concerning business economics and commercialization. When possible, the WEA participates in research projects as well. WEA acts as an umbrella for wood energy producers, energy consumers and other users of wood energy. The association has also participated in a research project which examined the preconditions to establish a field biomass centre in Finland. Taxation policy is one of the association's key-note issues when promoting wood energy. At present, wood fuels, such as bark, sawmill dust, waste wood and black liquor are used. The largest so far unutilized source of wood energy are chips produced of forest residues from timber felling and chips from thinnings of whole trees. As the most important renewable energy resource commercially viable for large-scale production, wood energy can be made commercially more attractive when district heating and electricity production are combined. There is also a large potential in local heating. The initial position of environmental taxes is to reduce emissions when generating heat and power

  4. Microfibrillar-Associated Protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sækmose, Susanne Gjørup; Mössner, Belinda; Christensen, Peer Brehm;

    2015-01-01

    associations between plasma MFAP4 (pMFAP4) and transient elastography or chronic hepatitis C virus infection in drug users and in a mixed patient cohort with increased risk of liver disease. Moreover, the study aimed to identify comorbidities that significantly influence pMFAP4. METHODS: pMFAP4 was measured in......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A method for assessment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis without the need for a liver biopsy is desirable. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a suggested biomarker for identification of high-risk patients with severe fibrosis stages. This study aimed to examine...... for pMFAP4. Univariate and subgroup analyses were performed using non-parametric methods. RESULTS: pMFAP4 increased significantly with liver fibrosis score. pMFAP4 was significantly associated with chronic viral infection in the drug users and with transient elastography in both cohorts. In the mixed...

  5. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofie Lock; Roberts, Nassim Bazeghi; Schlosser, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a matricellular glycoprotein that co-localises with elastic fibres and is highly expressed in the lungs. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma MFAP4 (pMFAP4) reflects clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary...... disease (COPD). METHODS: pMFAP4 was measured by an AlphaLISA immunoassay in stable COPD (n = 69) at baseline and at follow-up until 24 months after inclusion and in acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) (n = 14) at baseline and until 6 months after inclusion. RESULTS: The majority of patients (89%) were in...... GOLD II and III. Multiple linear regressions showed positive associations between pMFAP4 and the Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grade (p = 0.01), modified Medical Research Council score (p < 0.0001) and BODE index (p = 0.04). Negative associations were found with 6-min walking...

  6. The Staff Association and you

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The Staff Association, your representative with the Management and the Member States The article VII 1.01 of the Staff Rules and Regulations (SR&R) provides that “the relations between the Director-General and the personnel shall be established either on an individual basis or on a collective basis with the Staff Association as intermediary”. This essential role of the Staff representatives, of being the spokesperson of the entire staff of the Organization vis-à-vis the Director-General and the Members States, is achieved through regular participation in the various joint advisory committees defined in the SR&R. The most important are the Standing Concertation Committee and the TREF, tripartite forum where your representatives meet with the Member States delegates, in the presence of the Management, to explain the position of the staff on the various issues concerning employment conditions. The Finance Committee also gives the opportunity to the Staff Association to ...

  7. Dissecting hydrophobic hydration and association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsing, Richard C; Weeks, John D

    2013-12-12

    We use appropriately defined short-ranged reference models of liquid water to clarify the different roles local hydrogen bonding, van der Waals attractions, and long-ranged electrostatic interactions play in the solvation and association of apolar solutes in water. While local hydrogen bonding interactions dominate hydrophobic effects involving small solutes, longer-ranged electrostatic and dispersion interactions are found to be increasingly important in the description of interfacial structure around large solutes. The hydrogen bond network sets the solute length scale at which a crossover in solvation behavior between these small and large length scale regimes is observed. Unbalanced long-ranged forces acting on interfacial water molecules are also important in hydrophobic association, illustrated here by analysis of the association of model methane and buckminsterfullerene solutes. PMID:23944226

  8. [Direct oral anticoagulant associated bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier, A; Martin, A-C; Rosencher, N; Susen, S

    2016-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are recommended for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, they are associated with hemorrhagic complications. Management of DOAC-induced bleeding remains challenging. Activated or non-activated prothrombin concentrates are proposed, although their efficacy to reverse DOAC is uncertain. Therapeutic options also include antidotes: idarucizumab, antidote for dabigatran, has been approved for use whereas andexanet alpha, antidote for anti-Xa agents, and aripazine, antidote for all DOAC, are under development. Other options include hemodialysis for the treatment of dabigatran-associated bleeding and administration of oral charcoal if recent DOAC ingestion. DOAC plasma concentration measurement is necessary to guide DOAC reversal. We propose an update on DOAC-associated bleeding, integrating the availability of dabigatran antidote and the critical place of DOAC concentration measurements. PMID:27297642

  9. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  10. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness. PMID:27015434

  11. Pattern Discovery Using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Kiruthika M,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of Internet has given rise to many websites which maintain large amount of user information. To utilize this information, identifying usage pattern of users is very important. Web usage mining is one of the processes of finding out this usage pattern and has many practical applications. Our paper discusses how association rules can be used to discover patterns in web usage mining. Our discussion starts with preprocessing of the given weblog, followed by clustering them and finding association rules. These rules provide knowledge that helps to improve website design, in advertising, web personalization etc.

  12. Hebeloma species associated with Cistus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ursula; Beker, Henry J; Vila, Jordi; Vesterholt, Jan; Llimona, Xavier; Gadjieva, Rena

    2009-01-01

    The genus Hebeloma has a number of species highly specific to Cistus and others that occur with several host genera. This paper discusses the species of Hebeloma that appear to be ectomycorrhizal with Cistus, judging from their occurrence when Cistus is the only available host. The previously unknown species H. plesiocistum spec. nov. is described. We also provide a key to the known Hebeloma associates of Cistus. Molecular analyses based on ITS sequence data further illustrate the distinctness of the newly described species and difficulties in the species delimitation with view to H. erumpens. Specific associations with Cistus may have evolved more than once within the genus Hebeloma. PMID:18940258

  13. [Nephrotic syndrome associated with ampulloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Navidad, A; Colomina, J; Domingo, P; Franco, M; Algaba, F

    1989-06-01

    A patient is reported who presented simultaneously classic nephrotic syndrome and adenocarcinoma of the Vater ampulla. Morphological study of the renal biopsy revealed changes characteristic of membranous glomerulonephritis and subepithelial deposits. These deposits stained specifically for IgG and C'3 with a granular pattern, but deposits of CEA-antiCEA immune complexes were not found in glomerular capillaries. The association of nephrotic syndrome with lymphoproliferative diseases and a large variety of solid tumors, like carcinoma of the breast, bronchogenic, colon and stomach has been communicated, but the present case constitutes the first known association with adenocarcinoma of the Vater ampulla. PMID:2772382

  14. Asymptotics for Associated Random Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The book concerns the notion of association in probability and statistics. Association and some other positive dependence notions were introduced in 1966 and 1967 but received little attention from the probabilistic and statistics community. The interest in these dependence notions increased in the last 15 to 20 years, and many asymptotic results were proved and improved. Despite this increased interest, characterizations and results remained essentially scattered in the literature published in different journals. The goal of this book is to bring together the bulk of these results, presenting

  15. Montessori Transformation at Computer Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Describes the growth of the all-day Montessori program for children ages 6 weeks to 6 years at Computer Associates' corporate headquarters and multiple sites worldwide. Focuses on placement of AMI Montessori-trained teachers, refurbishing of the child development centers to fit Montessori specifications, and the Nido--the children's community--and…

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charg...

  17. Spina Bifida Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

  18. Congenital anomalies associated with hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Bamforth, J S; Hughes, I; Lazarus, J; John, R.

    1986-01-01

    Seven of the 34 infants identified through the Welsh Hypothyroid Screening Programme have additional congenital abnormalities. Two infants have a previously undescribed syndrome, two have chromosomal abnormalities, two have congenital heart disease, and one has a myelomeningocoele. Congenital hypothyroidism often seems to be associated with other congenital abnormalities.

  19. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  20. Automatic Association of News Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  1. Unveiling new associations in Puppis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Vega, A. M.; Martí nez, R. E.

    2016-04-01

    A combined photometric and polarimetric analysis of OB stars known from two searches of OB stars in the Puppis region resulted in the identification of a new OB association located at a distance of 2.6 kpc from the Sun and with a main concentration at l=249fdg 3, b=-4fdg 6. There is another young group at a greater distance (4.4 kpc) that partially overlaps the first one on the (l,b) plane. The polarization efficiency of the dust towards the association is very low (1.25). The parameters of the ISM in the central region of the association are P_V=1.21± 0.18(%) and theta_V=140fdg 2± 3fdg 3; the dust grains are of normal size, similar to the mean for the ISM (0.55 μm). We discuss the location of both groups and propose the OB association as part of the local arm, while the other group would be part of the Perseus arm, according to the four-arm model of Hou & Han.

  2. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  3. Association between attachment and schizotypy

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Colm

    2011-01-01

    Background: The human genome project has affirmed the importance of non-genetic factors in human development. Attachment style is considered to be a diathesis for psychopathology and an important determinant regarding interpersonal functioning. Epidemiological research has indicated that there is significant aetiological continuity between symptoms of schizotypy and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Limited research has investigated the association between attachment and schi...

  4. A PROPOSAL OF FUZZY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSOCIATION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolly Intan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules, in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are multidimensional association rules with no repeated predicates. This paper introduces a method for generating interdimension association rules. A more meaningful association rules can be provided by generalizing crisp value of attributes to be fuzzy value. To generate the multidimensional association rules implying fuzzy value, this paper introduces an alternative method for mining the rules by searching for the predicate sets.

  5. Associativity and normative credal probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, P

    2002-01-01

    Cox's Theorem is a widely cited motivation for probabilistic models of uncertain belief. The theorem relates the associativity of the logical connectives to that of the arithmetic operations of probability. Recent questions about the correctness of Cox's Theorem have been resolved, but there are new questions about one functional equation used by Cox in 1946. This equation is missing from his later work. Advances in knowledge since 1946 and changes in Cox's research interests explain the equation's disappearance. Other associativity-based motivations avoid functional equations altogether, and so may be more transparently applied to finite domains and discrete beliefs. A discrete counterpart of Cox's Theorem can be assembled from results that have been in the literature since 1959. PMID:18238098

  6. Association theories for complex thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani

    2013-01-01

    promising direction for a general and useful for engineering purposes modeling of complex thermodynamics is via the use of association theories e.g. those based on chemical theory (like APACT), or on the lattice theory (like NRHB) or those based on perturbation theory (like SAFT and CPA). The purpose of......Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...

  7. Association between Frailty and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, J; Nykänen, I; Mänty, Minna Regina;

    2014-01-01

    of the participants was assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Clinically diagnosed dementia was assessed by specialists using diagnostic criteria. The associations between frailty and cognition were investigated using...... logistic regression. Results: A total of 93 (14%) participants were classified as frail. Cognitive impairment (MMSE score disease, 19 (3%) had vascular dementia, 12 (2%) had.......0-15.9), almost 6 times more likely to have vascular dementia (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.2-25.8) and over 4 times more likely to have Alzheimer's disease (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.1-9.6) than persons who were robust. Conclusion: Frailty is strongly associated with cognitive impairment and clinically diagnosed dementia among...

  8. Radiation-Associated Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients.

  9. Osteogenesis imperfecta: an atypical association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Mallakmir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI also known as and lsquo;brittle bone disease', is a clinically heterogeneous connective tissue disorder with defect in type I collagen. The more prevalent autosomal dominant forms of OI are caused by primary defects in type I collagen, while autosomal recessive forms are caused by deficiency of proteins which interact with type I procollagen for post-translational modification and/or folding. Few cases of OI associated with atypical features have been reported. We report a case of 54 days male child of OI associated with pyloric stenosis. The case probably is a form of autosomal recessive OI with severe phenotype. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 783-785

  10. Bullous Scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Di-Qing; Huang, Mei-Xing; Liu, Juan-Hua; Tang, Wen; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-09-01

    Scabies is a common contagious cutaneous disease and usually affects the young, characterized by polymorphous lesions that may present as burrows, pruritic papules, and inflammatory nodules. Bullous scabies (BS) is its rather rare subtype, mimicking bullous pemphigoid. We report a 15-year-old Chinese boy presenting with 1-month history of pruritic bullae on his penile skin, showing poor response to both topical steroids and systemic antihistamines, but cured by sulfur ointment alone. No recurrence occurred in the 5 years of follow-up. We also reviewed the published cases. Up to date, 44 cases, including the present, have been reported. Of them, 30 were male and 14 were female. The age range was from 1 to 89 years old, with a median age of 70.6 years. The bullous lesions may involve the arms, legs, trunk, genitals, feet, buttocks, thighs, neck, inguinal folds, and may even be generalized. Trunk and extremities are the most common involved locations. Facial or mucosa involvement had never been reported. The histological findings present as a subepidermal split with variable inflammatory infiltrate predominantly neutrophils, and eosinophilic spongiosis, or both. Eighteen of 32 patients showed positive deposition of linear-granular IgG or complement 3 alone or in various combinations, and five of 24 patients revealed circulating IgG. All the 40 cases with therapeutic details were cured by antiscabietic remedy. BS always involves the trunk and extremities. It has a predilection for elderlies and males. The treatments for BS are similar to those of classical scabies. PMID:27402514

  11. Polynomials Associated with Dihedral Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Dunkl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a commutative algebra of differential-difference operators, with two parameters, associated to any dihedral group with an even number of reflections. The intertwining operator relates this algebra to the algebra of partial derivatives. This paper presents an explicit form of the action of the intertwining operator on polynomials by use of harmonic and Jacobi polynomials. The last section of the paper deals with parameter values for which the formulae have singularities.

  12. Bacterial Associations: Antagonism to Symbiosis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.

    of gene exchange to produce diversity of genotype and thus this enduring coevolutionary history shared by symbiotic partners has resulted in a major evolutionary transition: a symbiont?s loss of independent growth, and possibly also the sexual phase of its... partnerships between entirely separate organisms. The article examines some examples of interactions at different levels of associations. The marine environment is the abode of many groups of organisms and also is a complex milieu of interactions among many...

  13. EGAN: exploratory gene association networks

    OpenAIRE

    Paquette, Jesse; Tokuyasu, Taku

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Exploratory Gene Association Networks (EGAN) is a Java desktop application that provides a point-and-click environment for contextual graph visualization of high-throughput assay results. By loading the entire network of genes, pathways, interactions, annotation terms and literature references directly into memory, EGAN allows a biologist to repeatedly query and interpret multiple experimental results without incurring additional delays for data download/integration. Other compelling...

  14. Clostridium difficile-associated colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Mark W.; Beck, Paul L

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the basic microbiology, pathogenesis of disease, and diagnosis of the nosocomial pathogen Clostridium difficile and to examine therapies recommended by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE: was searched using MeSH headings. Controlled trials for therapy were sought, but case-control studies and observational reviews were included. MAIN MESSAGE: Clostridium difficile causes approximately 20% of cases of diarrhea associated with ant...

  15. Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Hartig, Monika B.; Klopstock, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a hereditary progressive disorder and the most frequent form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). PKAN patients present with a progressive movement disorder, dysarthria, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. In magnetic resonance imaging, PKAN patients exhibit the pathognonomic "eye of the tiger" sign in the globus pallidus which corresponds to iron accumulation and gliosis as shown in neuropathological e...

  16. Sweet syndrome associated with interferon

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Lojo, Romina; Castineiras, Iria; Juarez, Yolanda; Lueiro, Mercedes; Armesto, Ana; Fernandez-Diaz, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although still very rare, drug-related cases of Sweet’s syndrome have been reported. The more frequent associated medications with drug induced Sweet´s syndrome was: tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulphamethaxazol, azatioprine, all trans retinoic acid, nitrofurantoin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, hydralazine, tripharil, lithium, oral contraceptives, furosemide, celecoxib and azathioprine. We only found one case of drug-induced Sweet´s syndrome secondary to pegylated interferon...

  17. Pseudogap associated with precursor pairing

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2009-01-01

    This work argues that the off-diagonal long range order (ODLRO) is not necessary for showing superconductivity while the electron pairing around Fermi surface is sufficient for superconductivity. It is shown that there exists the pseudogap state associated with the electron pairing in real space and the high temperature superconductivity could be only found in the metallic region near the Mott metal insulator transition (MIT).

  18. Stimulus control and associative learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in operant research on stimulus control has declined at the same time that much interest has burgeoned in nonoperant areas. Several examples of this shift toward traditional learning theory are considered, all of which have sponsored theoretical approaches that attempt to characterize the underlying associative units. These theoretical approaches are defended on the grounds that they have generated a deeper understanding of a variety of often puzzling phenomena. My projection is that...

  19. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari A; Agarwal J; Garg A

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD) is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic ...

  20. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Koekkoek, Bas

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis primarily attempts to solve some long standing issues regarding classical eyelid conditioning. More specifically, what is the specific role of cerebellar LTD in classical eyeblink conditioning, and how does the answer change the view on cerebellar functioning on associative motor learning. The approach used in this thesis is a combination of the above mentioned genetic approach with classical conditioning experiments. The genetic techniques are by far best possible in mi...

  1. Psoriasis and Associated Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, José Luís Pio Da Costa; Reis, José Pedro Gaspar Dos; Figueiredo, Américo Manuel Da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with a high impact on self-esteem and patients’ health-related quality of life. In the last decades some studies have pointed out mental disorders associated with psoriasis and the etiopathogenic mechanisms behind that co-existence. This work compiles psychopathology associated with psoriasis and further analyzes the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and mental disorders. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and using the “5S” levels of organization of evidence from healthcare research, as previously described. Results: Psoriasis is linked with many mental disorders, both in the psychotic and neurotic sprectrum. Chronic stress diminishes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulates sympathetic-adrenal-medullary responses, stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Then, it maintains and exacerbates psoriasis and some of its mental disorders. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines connect psoriasis, psychiatric conditions, and other comorbidities of psoriasis (such as atherosclerosis) within a vicious cycle. Furthermore, the etiopathogenesis of the link between each psychiatric comorbidity and psoriasis has its own subtleties, including the cooccurrence of other comorbidities, the parts of the body affected by psoriasis, treatments, and biological and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: The study of psychopathology can amplify our understanding about the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and associated mental disorders. Patients would benefit from a psychodermatologic approach. The adequate treatment should take into account the mental disorders associated with psoriasis as well as the circumstances under which they occur.

  2. Angioneurotic Edema Associated with Haloperidol

    OpenAIRE

    Samrina Kahlon; Cathy Lee; Roger Chirurgi; Getaw Worku Hassen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Angioneurotic edema is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Haloperidol is in the butyrophenone class of antipsychotic medications. Acute anaphylaxis to Haloperidol is very rare and no cases have been reported in literature. Objective. To report the association of life-threatening angioneurotic edema with intramuscular Haloperidol. Case Report. We present a case of an adult with no known allergies in whom angioneurotic edema with tongu...

  3. Dissecting Hydrophobic Hydration and Association

    OpenAIRE

    Remsing, Richard C.; Weeks, John D.

    2015-01-01

    We use appropriately defined short ranged reference models of liquid water to clarify the different roles local hydrogen bonding, van der Waals attractions, and long ranged electrostatic interactions play in the solvation and association of apolar solutes in water. While local hydrogen bonding in- teractions dominate hydrophobic effects involving small solutes, longer ranged electrostatic and dis- persion interactions are found to be increasingly important in the description of interfacial st...

  4. Achondroplasia Associated with Bilateral Keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Samar A. Al-Swailem; Al Bin Ali, Ghada Y.; Al Katan, Hind M.; Al Mahmood, Ammar M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral keratoconus in association with achondroplasia. A 26-year-old male, with a known case of achondroplasia, complained of bilateral gradual deterioration in vision for the past few years. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed bilateral central corneal protrusion and stromal thinning at the apex consistent with keratoconus. a trial of hard contact lens fitting failed to improve VA in the left eye (LE). Right eye (RE) improved to 20/25. The patient underwent penetrating...

  5. Variables Associated with Export Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Warren J Bilkey

    1982-01-01

    This study is an analysis of variables associated with the profitability of exporting. Such information is useful both for export management and for government agencies that wish to promote business commitment of exporting. The methodology utilizes a multiple regression analysis of data in questionnaire responses from 168 Wisconsin manufacturing firms in 1979. It provides a means for evaluating difficult-to-measure export marketing considerations (such as, export marketing channels, export me...

  6. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Tuazon; David Casalino; Ehteshamuddin Syed; Daniel Batlle

    2008-01-01

    Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly ca...

  7. Histograms and Associated Point Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Pierre; Oliveira, Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Non parametric inference for point processes is approached using histograms, which provide a nice tool for the analysis of on-line data. The construction of histograms depend on a sequence of partitions, which we take to be non embedded. This is quite natural in what regards applications, but presents some theoretical problems. On another direction, we drop the usual independence assumption on the sample, replacing it by an association hypothesis. Under this setting, we study t...

  8. Communicable diseases associated with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diseases associated with contaminated water remain among the most serious public health problems for much of the world's population living in developing countries. Most of the disease agents that contaminated water and food are biological and come from animal or human faeces. They include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths and multiply in the alimentary tract and are excreted with the faeces. Without proper sanitation they find their way into other water bodies from where they can infect other people. Most of the diseases associated with water are communicable. According to Bradley the diseases associated with water can be classified in four categories: waterborne water-washed, water-based and water related and a fifth category emerging in developed countries could be called water-dispersed. The experiences of these diseases in various in various parts of Pakistan and the role played by National Institute of Health (NIH) in investigation will be discussed: some of them being hepatitis E epidemic in Islamabad (1993,94,95), experience at Nawabshah and some others will be discussed in detail along with their preventive and control measures. (author)

  9. Why join the Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Becoming a member of the Staff Association (SA) is above all a personal choice, showing that the joining person’s commitment and adherence to values such as solidarity, social cohesion, etc.In September, the SA launches a membership campaign to convince a maximum number to join, to inform, arouse interest and support. Posters, emails and individual contacts are part of the campaign programme, just like this editorial. As far as individual contacts are concerned, we ask you to give time and lend an ear to the delegates of your department in the Staff Council, who will approach you, in order to make an open and constructive discussion possible. Do not hesitate to ask questions and let them know your thoughts about the SA, as (constructive) criticism enables us to progress. The Staff Association and its role of collective representation The Staff Association, via its delegates, represents collectively all staff of the Organization before the Director-General and Member States. To do this, staff rep...

  10. Are cataracts associated with osteoporosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemet AY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet,1 Joel Hanhart,2 Igor Kaiserman,3,4 Shlomo Vinker5,6 1Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon, 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University, Be'er Sheba, 5Department of Family Medicine, Clalit Health Services, Rehovot, 6Department of Family Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Background: Calcium is considered an important factor in the development of both osteoporosis and cataract. This study evaluated the association between osteoporosis and cataracts. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis among patients undergoing cataract surgery, and the association between the two. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective observational case-control study, conducted in the Central District of Clalit Health Services (a district of the largest health maintenance organization in Israel. All Clalit members in the district older than 50 years who underwent cataract surgery from 2000 to 2007 (n=12,984 and 25,968 age- and sex-matched controls comprised the sample. Electronic medical records of all patients in the study were reviewed. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of osteoporosis and the odds ratio of having osteoporosis among cataract patients compared with controls. Results: Demographically, 41.8% were men with a mean age of 68.7 ± 8.2 years. A logistic regression model for osteoporosis showed that age, female sex, higher socioeconomic class, smoking, chronic renal failure, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cataract are all associated with increased prevalence of osteoporosis. Obesity is a protective factor for osteoporosis. In all age-groups, osteoporosis was more prevalent in cataract patients than in the control group. Conclusion: Among other well-known risk factors, osteoporosis is associated with the

  11. Has Eurosceptic Mobilization Become More Contagious? Comparing the 2009 and 2014 EP Election Campaigns in The Netherlands and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurits Meijers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With the lingering Euro crisis, personalized competition for the Commission presidency, and a surge of Eurosceptic parties, the 2014 European Parliament elections took place against an unknown level of European Union politicization. How does this changing context affect the supply side of party competition on European issues in EP election campaigns? This article compares the 2014 and 2009 EP elections in two EU founding members with high electoral support for radical left and radical right Euroscepticism—France and the Netherlands. We study publically visible patterns of partisan mobilization in the written news media with semi-automated content analyses. The data indicate that visible party mobilization on EU issues was on average not significantly higher in 2014. While particularly mainstream and especially incumbent parties publically mobilize on European issues during both campaigns, the radical right’s mobilization efforts have become more visible during the 2014 elections. Examining the temporal dynamics within electoral campaigns, we show that the Eurosceptic fringes exhibit significant contagion effects on the mainstream parties, but that the extent of this contagion was surprisingly lower in the 2014 campaign. As a result, the increasing EU politicization between the 2009 and 2014 electoral contests has not resulted in an enhanced and more interactive supply of partisan debate about Europe.

  12. Why is no financial crisis a dress rehearsal for the next? Exploring contagious heterogeneities across major Asian stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Masih, Rumi; Masih, A. Mansur M.

    2015-02-01

    Our study attempts to discover pure contagion or interdependence amongst the Asian equity markets (China, India, Taiwan and South Korea) due to the shocks stemming from eleven major crises around the world. We apply wavelet decomposition in both its discrete and continuous forms to unveil the multi-horizon nature of co-movement, volatility and lead-lag relationship. We find that most of the earlier shocks were transmitted via excessive linkages or pure contagion, while the recent subprime crisis appears to have resulted mostly in fundamentals-based contagion or interdependence. This assertion is based mainly on the deepening fundamental integration particularly after the Asian financial crisis period. We also find the relatively dominating role of China and South Korea after this crisis.

  13. Dutch Disease in the Post-Soviet Countries of Central and South-West Asia: How Contagious is it?

    OpenAIRE

    Egert, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the extent to which the former communist states of Central and South-West Asia are “infected” by the Dutch Disease. We take a detailed look at the functioning of the transmission mechanism of the Dutch Disease, i.e. the chains that run from commodity prices to real output in manufacturing. We complement this with two econometric exercises. First, we estimate nominal and real exchange rate models to see whether commodity prices are correlated with the exchange rat...

  14. Is your mood more contagious if you are likeable? The role of liking in the social induction of affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we explored the role of liking in the social induction of affect. Dispositional likeability was manipulated by written reports describing a sender as a likeable or dislikeable character. Afterwards participants watched short videos presenting the sender displaying happy or sad emotional expressions. We expected that exposure to the likeable sender would lead to reactions concordant with his emotional expression (assimilation, whereas exposure to the dislikeable sender would result in discordant reactions (contrast. The results indicated that dispositional likeability influenced the social induction of affect when the sender expressed positive emotions. Moreover, liking mediated the effects of the happy sender’s dispositional likeability on participants’ affective state. Exposure to the sad sender, however, led to assimilation regardless of the sender’s dispositional likeability.

  15. Is your mood more contagious if you are likeable? The role of liking in the social induction of affect

    OpenAIRE

    Wróbel Monika; Królewiak Klara

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the role of liking in the social induction of affect. Dispositional likeability was manipulated by written reports describing a sender as a likeable or dislikeable character. Afterwards participants watched short videos presenting the sender displaying happy or sad emotional expressions. We expected that exposure to the likeable sender would lead to reactions concordant with his emotional expression (assimilation), whereas exposure to the dislikeable sender w...

  16. Risk-based design of repeated surveys for the documentation of freedom from non-highly contagious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, Daniela C; Rüfenacht, Jürg; Hauser, Ruth; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2002-12-30

    The documentation of freedom from disease requires reliable information on the actual disease status in a specific animal population. The implementation of active surveillance (surveys) is an effective method to gain this information. For economical reasons, the sample size should be as small as possible but large enough to achieve the required confidence level for a targeted threshold. When conducting surveys repeatedly, various information sources about the disease status of the population can be taken into account to adjust the required level of confidence for a follow-up survey (e.g. risk assessments regarding disease introduction and results of previous surveys). As a benefit, the sample size for national surveys can be reduced considerably. We illustrate this risk-based approach using examples of national surveys conducted in Switzerland. The sample size for the documentation of freedom from enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and Brucella melitensis in sheep and in goats could be reduced from 2325 to 415 cattle herds, from 2325 to 838 sheep herds and from 1975 to 761 goat herds, respectively. PMID:12441234

  17. Is Depression Contagious? A Test of Alternative Peer Socialization Mechanisms of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Peer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Nurmi, J.E.; Salmela-Aro, K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the role of two different types of peer socialization (convergence, contagion) in adolescents' depression, adjusting for the effects of peer selection and deselection. Methods: The sample used in this study comprised 949 Finnish adolescents (56% females; mean age: 16 yea

  18. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz;

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from...... among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case–control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism and...

  19. Cancer-associated lysosomal changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallunki, T; Olsen, O D; Jaattela, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly dividing and invasive cancer cells are strongly dependent on effective lysosomal function. Accordingly, transformation and cancer progression are characterized by dramatic changes in lysosomal volume, composition and cellular distribution. Depending on one's point of view, the cancer......-targeting anti-cancer drugs. In this review we compile our current knowledge on cancer-associated changes in lysosomal composition and discuss the consequences of these alterations to cancer progression and the possibilities they can bring to cancer therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 July 2012; doi...

  20. Hypersensitivity reaction associated with phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, T H; Basutkar, Roopa Satyanarayan

    2015-09-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are generally associated with aromatic AEDs. We present a case of hypersensitivity reactions followed by administration of phenytoin with diazepam and ranitidine in a patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Antigen-antibody reactions or decreased levels of epoxide hydrolase are well known with phenytoin. Increased level of serum phenytoin causing toxicities due to competitive inhibition with diazepam on co-administration was also reported in the literature. Prevention of the adverse effects with AEDs is a multi-stage process, which requires implementation of preventive measures through careful monitoring and prompts interventions. PMID:26692739

  1. Idiosyncratic Pancreatitis Associated with Perindopril

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Famularo; Giovanni Minisola; Giulio Cesare Nicotra; Claudio De Simone

    2005-01-01

    The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis [1] and, so far, only one case has been linked with the use of perindopril [2]. We report on a second patient with perindopril-induced pancreatitis. A 72-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of nausea, vomiting, and constant pain in the epigastrium which radiated to the sides. Four weeks before admission, perindopril (4 mg/day) had been added to the usual regimen of...

  2. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  3. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmarti, Montserrat; Ibáñez, Laura; Huertas, Sonia; Badenes, Dolors; Dalmau, David; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Jaen, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Currently, neuropsychological impairment among HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy leads to a reduction in the quality of life and it is an important challenge due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and its concomitant consequences in relation to morbidity and mortality- including those HIV+ patients with adequate immunological and virological status. The fact that the virus is established in CNS in the early stages and its persistence within the CNS can help us to understand HIV-related brain injury even when highly active antiretroviral therapy is effective. The rising interest in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders has let to development new diagnostic tools, improvement of the neuropsychological tests, and the use of new biomarkers and new neuroimaging techniques that can help the diagnosis. Standardization and homogenization of neurocognitive tests as well as normalizing and simplification of easily accessible tools that can identify patients with increased risk of cognitive impairment represent an urgent requirement. Future efforts should also focus on diagnostic keys and searching for useful strategies in order to decrease HIV neurotoxicity within the CNS. PMID:25945248

  4. Random Distances Associated with Rhombuses

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Yanyan

    2011-01-01

    Parallelograms are one of the basic building blocks in two-dimensional tiling. They have important applications in a wide variety of science and engineering fields, such as wireless communication networks, urban transportation, operations research, etc. Different from rectangles and squares, the coordinates of a random point in parallelograms are no longer independent. As a case study of parallelograms, the explicit probability density functions of the random Euclidean distances associated with rhombuses are given in this report, when both endpoints are randomly distributed in 1) the same rhombus, 2) two parallel rhombuses sharing a side, and 3) two rhombuses having a common diagonal, respectively. The accuracy of the distance distribution functions is verified by simulation, and the correctness is validated by a recursion and a probabilistic sum. The first two statistical moments of the random distances, and the polynomial fit of the density functions are also given in this report for practical uses.

  5. Diseases associated with leaky hemichannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Mauricio A.; Reyes, Edison P.; García, Isaac E.; Pinto, Bernardo; Martínez, Agustín D.; González, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) and gap junction channels (GJCs) formed by protein subunits called connexins (Cxs) are major pathways for intercellular communication. While HCs connect the intracellular compartment with the extracellular milieu, GJCs allow the interchange of molecules between cytoplasm of two contacting cells. Under physiological conditions, HCs are mostly closed, but they can open under certain stimuli allowing the release of autocrine and paracrine molecules. Moreover, some pathological conditions, like ischemia or other inflammation conditions, significantly increase HCs activity. In addition, some mutations in Cx genes associated with human diseases, such as deafness or cataracts, lead to the formation of more active HCs or “leaky HCs.” In this article we will revise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the appearance of leaky HCs, and the consequences of their expression in different cellular systems and animal models, in seeking a common pattern or pathological mechanism of disease. PMID:26283912

  6. Corneal amyloidosis associated with keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, G A; Knapp, A; Hood, C I

    1988-01-01

    Nodular, gray-white, central corneal opacities which extended from the subepithelial zone through the anterior four fifths of the stroma developed in a 50-year-old man with a longstanding history of hard contact lens wear for keratoconus. Results of histopathologic analysis of the corneal button obtained at the time of penetrating keratoplasty disclosed that the opacities were composed of amyloid. Corneal amyloidosis is rarely found in association with keratoconus. Although there were some similarities in the pattern of amyloid deposition to that seen in primary familial amyloidosis of the cornea, the authors believe that their patient is more likely to have had a secondary amyloidosis. Corneal amyloidosis should be considered in keratoconus patients with development of unusual forms of central corneal opacification. PMID:3278260

  7. Tilings and associated relational structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oger, Francis

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, as we did previously in [5], we investigate the relations between the geometric properties of tilings and the algebraic and model-theoretic properties of associated relational structures. Our study is motivated by the existence of aperiodic tilings. In [5], we considered tilings of the euclidean spaces of finite dimension, and isomorphism was defined up to translation. Here, we consider, more generally, tilings of a metric space, and isomorphism is defined modulo an arbitrary group of isometries. The results of Sections 1 and 2 concern, in particular, the characterization of relational structures which can be represented by tilings of some given type, local isomorphism and the extraction preorder. In Section 3, we show that the notions of periodicity and invariance through a translation, defined for tilings of the euclidean spaces of finite dimension, can be generalized, with appropriate hypotheses, to relational structures, and in particular to tilings of non-euclidean spaces. In Sectio...

  8. Gastrointestinal lesions associated with spondyloarthropathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambrogio Orlando; Sara Renna; Giovanni Perricone; Mario Cottone

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical gut inflammation has been described in up to two-thirds of patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Arthritis represents an extra-intestinal manifestation of several gastrointestinal diseases,including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Whipple's disease, Behcet's disease, celiac disease, intestinal bypass surgery, parasitic infections of the gut and pseudomembranous colitis. Moreover about twothirds of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users demonstrate intestinal inflammation. Arthritis may manifest as a peripheral or axial arthritis. The spondyloarthropathy family consists of the following entities:ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloar thr i t is, react ive ar thr i t is, psor iat i c arthritis, spondyloarthritis associated with IBD,juvenile onset spondyloarthritis. This topic reviews the major gastrointestinal manifestations that can occur in patients with SpA and in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs users.

  9. Costs Associated With Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bready, Lois L; Luber, M Philip

    2016-02-01

    Texas needs more physicians to care for a rapidly growing population, and new physicians who complete medical training in Texas are likely to remain in the state to practice. The expansion of existing Texas medical schools, along with the development of new schools, has created a need for a corresponding increase in residency and fellowship (graduate medical education, or GME) positions in Texas, and the 2013 and 2015 legislative sessions have funded expanded GME support. While the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services pays for the majority of GME positions nationally, those numbers were capped in 1997. Growing populations, particularly in the southern states, have led many institutions--when funds are available--to increase GME positions "over the cap." Texas physicians need to be aware of costs associated with development of accredited GME positions, as well as other measures being taken to support the growth of the physician workforce in the state. PMID:26859373

  10. Significant variables associated with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the characteristics of the epileptics and the risk factors contributing to the development of epilepsy. Results: Majority of the subjects were single (77.84%), 1st born among their siblings (25.95%), belonged to low social class (50.63%), and unemployed(25.31%). The major risk factors were family history of illness (23.52%) and positive medical problem around birth (12.66%). The presence of family history of illness, positive medical problem around birth and advanced maternal age at birth were associated with early onset of epilepsy. Vulnerability for the epilepsy also increases among hospital deliveries. Conclusion: Although the present study has identified various risk factors, yet the results need to be further confirmed through case-control studies. (author)

  11. European Nuclear Education Network Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding nuclear engineering education in Europe, indicators like declining university enrolment, changing industry personnel profiles, dilution of university course content, and high retirement expectations show that future of nuclear technology expertise seems at risk (OECD/NEA 2000). The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), started as a project under the fifth framework programme (FP5) of the European Commission in January 2002. It established the basis for conserving nuclear knowledge and expertise, created a European High Education Area for nuclear disciplines, and initiated the implementation of the Bologna declaration in nuclear disciplines. Pursuing the sustainability of the concept, the ENEN partners organized themselves into a non-profitable legal association called ENEN, in 2003 under the French law of 1901. The first general assembly was held on 11 November 2003 in Luxemburg, with representatives from the European Commission, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Atomic Energy Agency

  12. [Cystic fibrosis and associated complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, C; Staab, D

    2015-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disease. The mutation is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Due to a defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, chloride ion transport is reduced across the cell membrane. As a result, the disease can be described as an exocrinopathy. In all organs with exocrine glands, disorders occur in association with the defective chloride transport. The main impact of this defect is manifested in the lungs. Therefore, the most common cause of death is pulmonary disease with respiratory insufficiency due to recurrent infections. Unfortunately, a cure for the disease is still not available. However, new therapies that may affect the CFTR mutation more specifically give new hope for better therapeutic options in the future. The long-term goal of therapy is to develop a causal therapy for all six different mutation classes and thus for about 2000 mutations. PMID:25693903

  13. Obesity associated noncommunicable disease burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala Banjare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing rapid transition in health sector for under nutrition and over nutrition. Obesity is a challenging epidemic and increased Body Mass Index (BMI influences on almost all body systems leading to development of non-communicable diseases. Chronic but slow growing non-infectious pathology of body organization give upsurge onset of non-communicable disorders. Obesity related Non-communicable diseases (NCDs leads to millions of deaths all around the world, rapidly becoming economic burden worldwide. Pathophysiology and extend of obesity is responsible for ill effects of health. In obesity Low grade Inflammation and antioxidant disproportion plays vital role in development of NCDs. Effective health education, professional counselling from public health authorities, free health care, and social insurance can be effective in controlling growing non communicable disease globally. The present analysis attempts to study association of obesity with different NCDs in terms of prevalence and underlying mechanisms.

  14. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, Lise L; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials.......To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials....

  15. Characterization of melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, J.U.

    ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology......ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.2 - Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.2 Association. Association means an avocado organization established by State statute in a State with...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  18. Introducing the Australian Uranium Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Uranium Association was formed in September last year in the midst of a very exciting period of change for the industry. What forged this new grouping was the industry's belief that it needed a strong representative organisation to play an advocacy role for uranium exploration and mining, at a very important moment of opportunity for the industry. That 'moment of opportunity' was the result of some critical trends and events, First, the very rapid increase in the price of uranium was driving renewed exploration and investment across Australia and the world. In the previous twelve months, the spot price of uranium had risen more than 90%. Second, the Federal Government had established the Uranium Industry Framework as a means by which government and industry could discuss a better regulatory framework. This led to some very fruitful interchanges between industry players. While the UIF talks were continuing, the Federal Government announced a parallel inquiry into whether Australia ought to move further into the nuclear power cycle. Third, the new interest in Australia in climate change and greenhouse gas emissions had led to a steep increase in public interest in the nuclear power option, with many former opponents now willing to listen to the argument

  19. Ketamine-snorting associated cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Huei; Chen, Yi-Chang; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2011-12-01

    Ketamine hydrochloride, commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic agent, is an N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) acid receptor antagonist with rapid onset and short duration of action. It produces a cataleptic-like state where the patient is dissociated from the surrounding environment by direct action on the cortex and limbic system. It has emerged as an increasingly popular choice among young drug users, especially within dance club venues. Cases of bladder dysfunction among recreational ketamine users were reported since Shahani et al first reported nine cases of ketamine-associated ulcerative cystitis in 2007. We report on four patients who had history of ketamine abuse, presenting with dysuria, fluctuating lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), lower abdominal or perineal pain, and impaired functional bladder capacities. Urinalysis showed pyuria and microhematuria. Urine culture was sterile. Bladder ulceration with severe diffuse hemorrhage and low bladder capacity were noted under anesthetized cystoscopic examination. Transurethral bladder mucosa biopsy was consistent with chronic cystitis. Cessation of ketamine abuse was the milestone of treatment, followed by the administration of mucosal protective agents, such as pentosan polysulphate or hyaluronic acid. Suprapubic pain was improved in three patients during follow-up. However, the outcome of treatment depends on the severity of the disease process, similar to that of interstitial cystitis (IC). PMID:22248834

  20. Association studies in consanguineous populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, E.; Clerget-Darpous, F. [Institut National d`Etudes Demographiques, Paris (France)

    1996-04-01

    To study the genetic determinism of multifactorial diseases in large panmictic populations, a strategy consists in looking for an association with markers closely linked to candidate genes. A distribution of marker genotypes different in patients and controls may indicate that the candidate gene is involved in the disease. In panmictic populations, the power to detect the role of a candidate gene depends on the gametic disequilibrium with the marker locus. In consanguineous populations, we show that it depends on the inbreeding coefficient F as well. Inbreeding increases the power to detect the role of a recessive or quasi-recessive disease-susceptibility factor. The gain in power turns out to be greater for small values of the gametic disequilibrium. Moreover, even in the absence of gametic disequilibrium, the presence of inbreeding may allow to detect the role of a recessive factor. Ignoring inbreeding when it exists may lead to reject falsely a recessive model if the mode of inheritance is inferred on the distribution of genotypes among patients. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Fusion Power Associates annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fusion Power Associates symposium, 'The Search for Attractive Fusion Concepts', was held January 31 - February 1 1985 in La Jolla, California. The purpose of this meeting was to bring together industry, university and government managers of the US fusion program to discuss the state of fusion development and the direction in which the program should be heading, given the cutbacks in the US fusion budget. There was a strong, minority opinion that until the best concept could be identified, the program should be broadly based. But there was also widespread criticism, aimed mainly at the largest segment of the magnetic fusion program, the tokamak. It was felt by many that the tokamak would not develop into a reactor that would be attractive to a utility and therefore should be phased out of the program. If the tokamak will indeed not lead to a commercial product then this meeting shows the US fusion program to be in a healthy state, despite the declining budgets

  2. Seven fatalities associated with ethylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskell, P D; Smith, P R; Cole, R; Hikin, L; Morley, S R

    2016-08-01

    Ethylphenidate is a stimulant novel psychoactive substance that is an analogue of the prescription drug methylphenidate (Ritalin(®)). Methylphenidate is used commonly for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Due to its stimulant effects ethylphenidate is being abused. There is a single case report of a death associated with ethylphenidate in Germany, and a case series of 19 deaths in the East of Scotland, but otherwise, the contribution of ethylphenidate to death is poorly documented. We report the analytical results of 7 cases (between February 2013 and January 2015) in which ethylphenidate was detected and quantitated with a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS). The individuals (all male) ranged in age from 23 to 49 years (median 25 years). The concentration of ethylphenidate in the cases ranged from 0.026mg/L to 2.18mg/L in unpreserved post-mortem femoral blood. Only one case had ethylphenidate present as a sole drug. All other cases had at least 2 other drug classes present (benzodiazepines, heroin, methadone antipsychotics, other new psychoactive compounds). Ethylphenidate toxicity was the sole contribution to the cause of death in one case. Hanging was the cause of death in 2 cases, with the other 4 cases being reported as having occurred due to mixed drug toxicity. These data will further help with the interpretation of post-mortem ethylphenidate levels. PMID:26829338

  3. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Monika B; Prokisch, Holger; Meitinger, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a hereditary progressive disorder and the most frequent form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). PKAN patients present with a progressive movement disorder, dysarthria, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. In magnetic resonance imaging, PKAN patients exhibit the pathognonomic "eye of the tiger" sign in the globus pallidus which corresponds to iron accumulation and gliosis as shown in neuropathological examinations. The discovery of the disease causing mutations in PANK2 has linked the disorder to coenzyme A (CoA) metabolism. PANK2 is the only one out of four PANK genes encoding an isoform which localizes to mitochondria. At least two other NBIA genes (PLA2G6, C19orf12) encode proteins that share with PANK2 a mitochondrial localization and all are suggested to play a role in lipid homeostasis. With no causal therapy available for PKAN until now, only symptomatic treatment is possible. A multi-centre retrospective study with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with NBIA revealed a significant improvement of dystonia. Recently, studies in the PANK Drosophila model "fumble" revealed improvement by the compound pantethine which is hypothesized to feed an alternate CoA biosynthesis pathway. In addition, pilot studies with the iron chelator deferiprone that crosses the blood brain barrier showed a good safety profile and some indication of efficacy. An adequately powered randomized clinical trial will start in 2012. This review summarizes clinical presentation, neuropathology and pathogenesis of PKAN. PMID:22515741

  4. Chemical evolution of OB associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    It is determined that the existence of Al-26 and Pd-107 in meteorites in the early solar system indicates that our solar system probably formed inside an OB association that had been contaminated by the debris of at least one supernova. In addition to these radioactive tracers, the contamination of the material out of which the solar system formed would have significantly enriched the heavy element composition of the solar system relative to that of the average interstellar medium. It is found that the solar system would be enriched in those isotopes which are produced by the more massive stars, such as O-16, C-12, Ne-20, and some other r-process material. It is proposed that specific isotopic ratios and elemental ratios reflecting these differences would include the Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio, which would be higher in the solar system than in the interstellar medium and the cosmic rays, the C-12/C-13 ratio which would be higher in the solar system than in the interstellar medium, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio, which would also be higher in the solar system than in the typical interstellar medium.

  5. Discoid Meniscus Associated With Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoernschemeyer, Daniel G; Atanda, Alfred; Dean-Davis, Ellen; Gupta, Sumit K

    2016-05-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. This form of dwarfism is caused by a point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, leading to inhibition of endochondral ossification for these patients. This results in a normal trunk height but shortened limbs. The discoid meniscus may be an important associated finding to better understand the common complaints of leg pain for these patients. Although the incidence for a discoid meniscus is between 3% and 5% for the general population, it is unknown with achondroplasia. This case series includes 4 patients, with ages ranging from adolescence to early adulthood, with symptoms of knee pain that were not attributable to some of the more common findings seen in this patient population. Typically, patients with achondroplasia who experience knee pain are evaluated for more common and well-known etiologies such as genu varum, ligamentous instability, and neurogenic claudication. However, the authors propose that symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus should be added to the differential diagnosis for lower-extremity pain in the achondroplasia population. A thorough history and physical examination, in combination with magnetic resonance imaging, can aid in making the diagnosis. Treatment with arthroscopic debridement, saucerization of the meniscus, and repair for unstable injuries has yielded good outcomes for this patient population. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e498-e503.]. PMID:27135452

  6. Nelarabine Associated Myotoxicity and Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnur Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nelarabine (ara-G; Arranon; compound 506U78 is an antineoplastic purine analog used for the treatment of refractory or relapsed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL. The drug was granted accelerated approval in October 2005 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA given the efficacy (induction of complete responses noted in 2 single-arm trials (one in pediatric setting and one in adult patient population. The main spectra of toxicities that have been reported in these clinical trials and subsequent studies are hematological and neurological. Nelarabine induced rhabdomyolysis and increased creatinine phosphokinase (CK; CPK levels apparently have been reported and this side effect has been added as an adverse reaction in the product monograph from the drug company during postmarketing surveillance. However, the true extent and incidence of the myotoxicity from the drug are unclear. In this paper we report a grade IV CK elevation and rhabdomyolysis in a patient with T-ALL treated with nelarabine. Given the reported finding, we examined the literature further for myotoxicity, increased CK, and/or rhabdomyolysis associated with the use of the nelarabine and report our findings.

  7. Rethinking actions: implementation and association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Lorna C; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Action processing allows us to move through and interact with the world, as well as understand the movements performed by other people. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the semantics of actions as differentiated from the semantics of objects. However, as the understanding of action semantics has evolved, it is evident that the existing literature conflates two senses of the word 'action'-one that stems from studies of tool use and the other from event representation. In this paper, we suggest that this issue can be clarified by closely examining differences in how the human parietal and temporal cortices of the brain process action-related stimuli. By contrasting the posterior parietal cortex to the posterolateral temporal cortex, we characterize two complementary action systems in the human brain, each with its own specialization of function. We suggest that these two systems be referred to as the parietal Action Implementation System, and the posterolateral temporal Action Association System. While the frontoparietal system is concerned primarily with how we perform actions, and simulate others' actions, the temporal action system is more involved with processing actions from a third-person, conceptual standpoint. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience of perception and language, as well as the neuroanatomical organization of these brain regions support this distinction. We will discuss the implications of this work for cognition-, language-, and neuroscience-based action research. PMID:26352170

  8. Infections associated with body modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-12-01

    Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures. PMID:23265745

  9. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tuazon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly capable of defining renal morphological features and has been demonstrated to be superior to US and CT scan for the visualization of small renal cysts. The microcysts are found in both cortex and medulla, particularly in the regions with extensive atrophy and fibrosis, and can be multiple and bilateral. They tend to be sparse and do not normally exceed 1–2 mm in diameter. The renal microcysts in the image here reported are subtle, but consistent with lithium-induced chronic nephropathy. An MRI of the kidneys provides noninvasive evidence that strengthens the diagnosis of lithium-induced nephropathy.

  10. [Autoimmune Associated Encephalitis and Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks. Typical cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. In recent years, the true target antigens of the anti-VGKC antibody of this VGKC limbic encephalitis have been recognized as leucine rich glioma inactivated protein (LGI)-1 and others. These antibodies to amnesia-related LGI-1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize the LGI-1-ADAM22 (an anchor protein) interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors. There have been reports of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Less than 2% of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) develop serum anti-VGKC complex antibodies and, when positive, only at low titres. Low titres of these antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD, and when present, should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27056852

  11. Alagille Syndrome Associated with Xerophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Moisseiev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the occurrence of xerophthalmia and keratomalacia in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Methods: The patient's record and relevant literature were reviewed. Results: A 3-year-old boy with Alagille syndrome was examined at our institution due to severe bilateral ocular irritation. A corneal ulcer and keratomalacia were found in the right eye and severe dryness with corneal opacification was found in the left eye. He was treated with topical fortified antibiotics in the right eye, followed by amniotic membrane transplantation. Due to his systemic condition, characterized by severe cholestasis and intestinal malabsorption, a suspicion of vitamin A deficiency was raised and was later confirmed in serum analysis. Conclusion: This is the first report of xerophthalmia in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Vitamin A deficiency leading to xerophthalmia is common in developing countries; however, its occurrence in the West is rare, leading to a reduced awareness of this disorder amongst clinicians. Unusual eating habits, intestinal malabsorption and liver disease are possible causes for such a deficiency. The purpose of this case report is to raise awareness to the possibility of vitamin A deficiency in children with keratopathy, especially when associated with these disorders.

  12. Radiation problems associated with Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braly, J. E.; Heaton, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    Radiation tests were conducted on the various types of Skylab film to establish the total radiation dosages compatible with an acceptable level of film fogging, and on the S190 borosilicate window to establish radiation limits for an acceptable darkening level. The results verified that most of the films would be unusable when returned to earth, and that the borosilicate window would be darkened beyond allowable limit, unless additional protection was provided. The operational solutions to these problems involve protecting the film with five film vaults and protecting the window with a radiation shield. The largest vault is made of aluminum and weighs over 2000 lb (its thickest compartment wall is 3.4 in.). The window radiation shield is a light honeycomb structure which is swung away for limited astronaut viewing or when the S190 experiment is in operation. Although the shield is light weight, it is heavy enough to stop the large number of low energy electrons making up a major part of the external environment and which are potentially damaging to the window. A brief description is given of the Skylab mission and some of the associated experiments. The radiation environment the spacecraft will encounter is discussed.

  13. Screening for HIV-Associated Tuberculosis and Rifampicin Resistance before Antiretroviral Therapy Using the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lesley E.; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Gous, Natasha; Nduna, Matilda; Van Rie, Annelies; Sanne, Ian; Venter, Willem F.; Duse, Adrian; Stevens, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Tuberculosis (TB)—a contagious bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs—is a global public health problem. In 2009, 9.4 million people developed TB, and 1.7 million people died from the disease; a quarter of these deaths were in HIV-positive individuals. People who are infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, are particularly susceptible to TB because of their weakened immune system. Consequently, TB is a leading cause of illness and death among peop...

  14. Exploring branding associations in festival branding

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer, Adriana; Slabbert, Elmarie

    2012-01-01

    Arts festivals in South Africa are growing tremendously and it has become more important for these types of tourism products to position themselves competitively. Branding plays a major role in positioning and the associations made with the brand. It is necessary to understand these associations as well as factors influencing the associations. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to explore brand associations in festival branding and to determine the influence of demographic characteris...

  15. SNP Set Association Analysis for Familial Data

    OpenAIRE

    Schifano, Elizabeth D.; Epstein, Michael P.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jhun, Min A; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Peyser, Patricia A; Lin, Xihong

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a popular approach for identifying common genetic variants and epistatic effects associated with a disease phenotype. The traditional statistical analysis of such GWAS attempts to assess the association between each individual Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and the observed phenotype. Recently, kernel machine-based tests for association between a SNP set (e.g., SNPs in a gene) and the disease phenotype have been proposed as a useful alternative...

  16. Association Between Diabetes Mellitus And Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Oshitari T

    2014-01-01

    It has not been determined definitively whether there is a significant association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and glaucoma. Some population-based studies have shown a positive association between diabetes and glaucoma, and others have shown negative association between diabetes and glaucoma. However in many studies that showed a lack of a significant association between diabetes and glaucoma, the diagnosis of DM was made by self-presentation.

  17. A REVIEW ON ASSOCIATION RULE MINING ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    JYOTI ARORA, NIDHI BHALLA, SANJEEV RAO

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a review of four different association rule mining algorithmsApriori, AprioriTid,Apriori hybrid and tertius algorithms and their drawbacks which would be helpful to find new solution for the Problems found in these algorithms and also presents a comparison between different association mining algorithms. Association rule mining is the one of the most important technique of the data mining. Its aim is to extract interesting correlations, frequent patterns and association among s...

  18. Efficient Mining of Intertransaction Association Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tung, A.K.H.; Lu, H.J.; Han, J.W.; Feng, L.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the previous studies on mining association rules are on mining intratransaction associations, i.e., the associations among items within the same transaction where the notion of the transaction could be the items bought by the same customer, the events happened on the same day, etc. In this s

  19. Review of Pain Associated with Minimal Endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Demco, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Endometriosis has been examined in numerous ways and, primarily, it presents in two forms: painful, often associated with minimal findings; and non-painful, often associated with marked disease. The focus of this review article is to examine the pain aspect associated with minimal endometriosis.

  20. Action Tremor Associated with Lamotrigine Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hye Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Lamotrigine (LTG is associated with a tremor when given in combination with valproic acid; however, a tremor associated with lamotrigine monotherapy is rare. Here, we report a case of positional and action tremor associated with lamotrigine use. Based on the temporal relationship, it is conceivable that lamotrigine increases serotonin transmission or affects basal ganglia dopamine activity, thereby causing the tremor.

  1. Adrenomyeloneuropathy associated with congenital cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) in a family and the results of their MRI study are reported. Case 1, a 24-year-old male proband, was admitted to our hospital because of gait disturbance for three years. Bilateral cataracts were pointed out at birth, which required left side lenticotomy at age four. Neurological examinations on admission revealed a marked spastic paraparesis with pathological reflexes and a mild hypesthesia in the distal part of the left leg. No abnormal findings were detected in X-ray studies on the spine and spinal cord, electromyography and nerve conduction test. Serum very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) levels were apparently elevated, and the serum cortisol response to ACTH was low. Case 2, a 53-year-old woman, is the mother of Case 1 having a complaint of gait disturbance since age 51. She presented a mild spastic paraparesis with localized hypesthesia in the distal part of the both legs. She also had bilateral congenital cataracts. Her serum VLCFAs analysis indicated the intermediate levels between that of AMN and the normal control. Adrenal functions were normal. Cranial MRI (TR 2,000 msec/TE 80 msec) study disclosed high signal intensity areas in bilateral internal capsules in Case 1. These findings, suggesting the pathological change of dysmyelination, seemed to be well compatible with the clinical pictures. With these clinical findings and the laboratory data, these two cases were diagnosed as AMN. In addition, association of congenital cataract with AMN in both cases was characteristic in this family, which hasn't been reported in the literature. On regarding the genetic background of these two disorders, AMN and congenital cataract, it was speculated that each gene could be closely located on the same or very adjacent locus, possibly on Xq. (author)

  2. Analyze of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Sunnetcioglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the infection that is an important cause of morbidity and mortality developed in patients whom the invasive mechanical ventilation (MV were performed in intensive care units (ICU. In this study, the factors of VAP developing in patients whom the mechanical ventilation of ICU performed, antibiotic susceptibility to these factors and determining the risk factors were aimed. Material and Method: Between January 2009 and March 2013, 79 cases, followed with the mechanical ventilation for at least for 48 hours and developed VAP, were retrospectively reviewed at Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of Reanimation at Faculty of Medicine at Yuzuncu Yil University, performing endotracheal intubation. The cases were evaluated in terms of microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors. Results: The rate of our VAP speed was calculated to be 19.68 on the day of 1000 ventilator. While a single microorganism could be isolated in 81.1% of the 74 VAP cases whose the active pathogen could be isolated, two or more than two microorganisms were isolated in 18.9% of them.While 83 of the strains (90.2% were gram-negative bacteria, 7 of them (7.6% were gram-positive bacteria. Acinetobacter spp. (40.2% was most commonly isolated as a gram-negative factor, but methicillin-resistant S. aureus (4.3% was isolated as a gram-positive factor. It was determined that the isolated factors in VAP cases were significantly resistant to the broad-spectrum antibiotics. Discussion: As a result, in patients with high-risk factors for the development of VAP, early and appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment should be started according to the results of the sensitivity of the unit and for the multi-drug-resistant microorganisms with common and high mortality.

  3. Idiosyncratic Pancreatitis Associated with Perindopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Famularo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors is not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis [1] and, so far, only one case has been linked with the use of perindopril [2]. We report on a second patient with perindopril-induced pancreatitis. A 72-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of nausea, vomiting, and constant pain in the epigastrium which radiated to the sides. Four weeks before admission, perindopril (4 mg/day had been added to the usual regimen of glyburide (5 mg/day, metformin (1 g/day and carvedilol (6.25 mg/day which the patient had been taking for three years for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and moderate hypertension. His previous history was otherwise unremarkable, except for psoriasis; he did not report any acute or chronic pancreatic disease and denied alcohol use, toxic habits or taking any other medications including over-the-counter medications or herbal remedies. Upon admission, the patient was fully alert and oriented, apyrexial and had normal vital parameters; physical examination yielded normal findings apart from a severely tender abdomen with no bowel sounds. Laboratory data showed increased blood amylase (556 IU/L; reference range: 0-115 IU/L and lipase (1,396 IU/L; reference range: 0-190 IU/L levels; electrolytes, hematological variables, cholesterol, triglycerides, liver and renal function tests, and blood gases were normal. The results of serologic tests for the Mycoplasma and Chlamydia species, viral hepatitis, and a wide range of other viral infections were also negative. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a moderately enlarged and edematous pancreas; furthermore, at imaging techniques no alterations such as stones or sludge of the gallbladder and of the common bile duct were detected. A chest X-ray was also normal.

  4. HIDING SENSITIVE ASSOCIATION RULE USING HEURISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthuri S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of identifying patterns from large amount of data. Association rule mining aims to discover dependency relationships across attributes. It may also disclose sensitive information. With extensive application of data mining techniques to various domains, privacy preservation becomes mandatory. Association rule hiding is one of the techniques of privacy preserving data mining to protect the sensitive association rules generated by association rule mining. This paper adopts heuristic approach for hiding sensitive association rules. The proposed technique makes the representative rules and hides the sensitive rules.

  5. Associative learning for a robot intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Andreae, John H

    1998-01-01

    The explanation of brain functioning in terms of the association of ideas has been popular since the 17th century. Recently, however, the process of association has been dismissed as computationally inadequate by prominent cognitive scientists. In this book, a sharper definition of the term "association" is used to revive the process by showing that associative learning can indeed be computationally powerful. Within an appropriate organization, associative learning can be embodied in a robot to realize a human-like intelligence, which sets its own goals, exhibits unique unformalizable behaviou

  6. Association Rules in the Relational Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Oliver; Ester, Martin; Lu, Zhiyong

    2007-01-01

    One of the most utilized data mining tasks is the search for association rules. Association rules represent significant relationships between items in transactions. We extend the concept of association rule to represent a much broader class of associations, which we refer to as \\emph{entity-relationship rules.} Semantically, entity-relationship rules express associations between properties of related objects. Syntactically, these rules are based on a broad subclass of safe domain relational calculus queries. We propose a new definition of support and confidence for entity-relationship rules and for the frequency of entity-relationship queries. We prove that the definition of frequency satisfies standard probability axioms and the Apriori property.

  7. 75 FR 73076 - National Gas Supply Association, American Forest and Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...., American Public Gas Association, Independent Petroleum Association of America, Process Gas Consumers Group... Petroleum Association of America, and Process Gas Consumers Group (collectively, the Associations), filed in... desiring to intervene or to protest in this proceeding must file in accordance with Rules 211 and 214...

  8. Mesh Association by Projection along Smoothed-Normal-Vector Fields: Association of Closed Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    van Brummelen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    The necessity to associate two geometrically distinct meshes arises in many engineering applications. Current mesh-association algorithms are generally unsuitable for the high-order geometry representations associated with high-order finite-element discretizations. In the present work we therefore propose a mesh-association method for high-order geometry representations. The associative map defines the image of a point on a mesh as its projection along a so-called smoothed normal-vector field...

  9. Helicobacter heilmannii-associated Gastritis: Clinicopathologic Findings and Comparison with Helicobacter pylori-associated Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Mee; Kwak, Ji Eun; Chang, Sun Hee; Kim, Hanseong; Chi, Je G.; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yang, Jeon Ho; Lee, June Sung; Moon, Young-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of Helicobacter heilmannii-associated gastritis and to compare H. heilmannii-associated gastritis with H. pylori-associated gastritis. We reviewed 5,985 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens. All cases of chronic gastritis with Helicobacter infection were evaluated with the Updated Sydney System, and the grades of all gastritis variables were compared between H. heilmannii-associated gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastr...

  10. Association between γ-glutamyltransferase and prehypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xuzhen; Tang, Guodong; Qiu, Ling; XU, TAO; Cheng, Xinqi; Han, Shaomei; Zhu, Guangjin; Liu, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have identified an association between baseline γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and prehypertension. However, data from China are limited. A cross-sectional study was performed among 2,205 subjects from Heilongjiang Province in China. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed a significant association between baseline GGT and prehypertension [1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–2.16], comparing quartile 4 to quartile 1. Subgroup analyses showed a stronger association between...

  11. Severe Aplastic Anemia Associated With Eosinophilic Fasciitis

    OpenAIRE

    de Masson, Adèle; Bouaziz, Jean-David; de Latour, Régis Peffault; Benhamou, Ygal; Moluçon-Chabrot, Cécile; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Laquerrière, Annie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Michonneau, David; Leguy-Seguin, Vanessa; Rybojad, Michel; Bonnotte, Bernard; Jardin, Fabrice; Lévesque, Hervé; Bagot, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Diffuse eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman disease) is a rare sclerodermiform syndrome that, in most cases, resolves spontaneously or after corticosteroid therapy. It has been associated with hematologic disorders, such as aplastic anemia. The clinical features and long-term outcomes of patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated aplastic anemia have been poorly described. We report the cases of 4 patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated severe aplastic anemia. For 3 ...

  12. Measuring degree-degree association in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raschke, Mathias; Schläpfer, Markus; Nibali, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The Pearson correlation coefficient is commonly used for quantifying the global level of degree-degree association in complex networks. Here, we use a probabilistic representation of the underlying network structure for assessing the applicability of different association measures to heavy-tailed degree distributions. Theoretical arguments together with our numerical study indicate that Pearson's coefficient often depends on the size of networks with equal association structure, impeding a sy...

  13. Reliability analysis of an associated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长杰; 魏一鸣; 蔡嗣经

    2002-01-01

    Based on engineering reliability of large complex system and distinct characteristic of soft system, some new conception and theory on the medium elements and the associated system are created. At the same time, the reliability logic model of associated system is provided. In this paper, through the field investigation of the trial operation, the engineering reliability of the paste fill system in No.2 mine of Jinchuan Non-ferrous Metallic Corporation is analyzed by using the theory of associated system.

  14. ASSOCIATION RULE MINING IN ECOMMERCE: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswari S,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Association Rule mining is one of the most popular data mining techniques which can be defined as extracting the interesting correlation and relation among large volume of transactions. E-commerce applications generate huge amount of operational and behavioral data. Applying association rule mining in e-commerce application can unearth the hidden knowledge from these data. In this paper a survey of association rule mining and its various applications in e-commerce environment are made.

  15. Mining association rules using formal concept analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquier, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the use of Formal Concept Analysis in the framework of association rule extraction. Using frequent closed itemsets and their generators, that are defined using the Galois closure operator, we address two major problems: response times of association rule extraction and the relevance and usefulness of discovered association rules. We quickly review the Close and the A-Close algorithms for extracting frequent closed itemsets using their generators that redu...

  16. Improved Apriori Algorithm for Mining Association Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Darshan M. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Association rules are the main technique for data mining. Apriori algorithm is a classical algorithm of association rule mining. Lots of algorithms for mining association rules and their mutations are proposed on basis of Apriori algorithm, but traditional algorithms are not efficient. For the two bottlenecks of frequent itemsets mining: the large multitude of candidate 2- itemsets, the poor efficiency of counting their support. Proposed algorithm reduces one redundant pruning operations of C...

  17. An Improved Technique for Ranking Semantic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Narayana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of the search techniques in the first generation of the Web is accessing relevant documents from the Web. Though it satisfies user requirements, but it is insufficient as the user sometimes wishes to access actionable information involving complex relationships between two given entities. Finding such complex relationships (also known as semantic associations is especially useful in applications such as National Security, Pharmacy, Business Intelligence etc. Therefore the next frontier is discovering relevant semantic associations between two entities present in large semantic metadata repositories. Given two entities, there exist a huge number of semantic associations between two entities. Hence ranking of these associations is required in order to find more relevant associations. For this Aleman Meza et al. proposed a method involving six metrics viz. context, subsumption, rarity, popularity, association length and trust. To compute the overall rank of the associations this method computes context, subsumption, rarity and popularity values for each component of the association and for all the associations. However it is obvious that, many components appears repeatedly in many associations therefore it is not necessary to compute context, subsumption, rarity, popularity, and trust values of the components every time for each association rather the previously computed values may be used while computing the overall rank of the associations. This paper proposes a method to reuse the previously computed values using a hash data structure thus reduce the execution time. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments were conducted on SWETO ontology. Results show that the proposed method is more efficient than the other existing methods.

  18. Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika, PS; Tan, AK; Aziz, S.; Alwi, SAR Syed; Chong, MS; Vanitha, R.; Intan, G

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder affecting the orbital and periorbital tissues. Hyperthyroidism is commonly associated with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, however in 5% to 10% of cases it is euthyroid. Genetic, environmental and endogenous factors play a role in the initiation of the thyroid ophthalmopathy. Smoking has been identified as the strongest risk factor for the development of the disorder. The pathogenesis involves activation of both humoral and cell m...

  19. Colourful Language: Measuring Word-Colour Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Saif

    2013-01-01

    Since many real-world concepts are associated with colour, for example danger with red, linguistic information is often complimented with the use of appropriate colours in information visualization and product marketing. Yet, there is no comprehensive resource that captures concept-colour associations. We present a method to create a large word-colour association lexicon by crowdsourcing. We focus especially on abstract concepts and emotions to show that even though they cannot be physically ...

  20. An adaptive association test for microbiome data

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chong; Chen, Jun; Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in investigating how the compositions of microbial communities are associated with human health and disease. Although existing methods have identified many associations, a proper choice of a phylogenetic distance is critical for the power of these methods. To assess an overall association between the composition of a microbial community and an outcome of interest, we present a novel multivariate testing method called aMiSPU, that is joint and highly adaptive over ...

  1. Multi-Valued Associative Memory Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修春波; 刘向东; 张宇河

    2003-01-01

    A novel learning method for multi-valued associative memory network is introduced, which is based on Hebb rule, but utilizes more information. According to the current probe vector, the connection weights matrix could be chosen dynamically. Double-valued and multi-valued associative memory are all realized in our simulation experiment. The experimental results show that the method could enhance the associative success rate.

  2. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    analyze the structural richness required to model and investigate criminal network entities and their associations. We demonstrate a need to rethink entity associations with one specific case (inspired by \\textit{The Wire}, a tv series about organized crime in Baltimore, United States) and corroborated by...... three of these associations and extend and test two centrality measures using CrimeFighter Investigator, a novel tool for criminal network investigation. Our findings show that the extended centrality measures offer new insights into criminal networks....

  3. How Associative Material Characteristics Create Textile Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie; Bang, Anne Louise

    2015-01-01

    materials and to reflect on, how personal associations can be embodied in [textile] materials. The discussion and results of the study stressed the coherence and differences of textile techniques used to express the given keywords and how the assignment has influenced the students’ material practice. How...... Associative Material Characteristics Create Textile Reflection (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281030536_How_Associative_Material_Characteristics_Create_Textile_Reflection [accessed Dec 21, 2015]....

  4. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Making effective communication, a human ...

  5. Association Rule Mining and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several algorithms in data mining technique have been studied recently, among which association is one of the most important techniques. In this paper, we introduce theory of association rule in data mining, and analyze the characteristics of postal EMS service. We create a data warehouse model for EMS services and give the procedure of applying association rule mining based on it. In the end, we give an example of the whole mining procedure. This EMS-Data warehouse model and association rule mining technique have been applied in a practical Postal CRM System.

  6. A Unifying Probabilistic View of Associative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J

    2015-11-01

    Two important ideas about associative learning have emerged in recent decades: (1) Animals are Bayesian learners, tracking their uncertainty about associations; and (2) animals acquire long-term reward predictions through reinforcement learning. Both of these ideas are normative, in the sense that they are derived from rational design principles. They are also descriptive, capturing a wide range of empirical phenomena that troubled earlier theories. This article describes a unifying framework encompassing Bayesian and reinforcement learning theories of associative learning. Each perspective captures a different aspect of associative learning, and their synthesis offers insight into phenomena that neither perspective can explain on its own. PMID:26535896

  7. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine, J C; Mosnier, J. F.; Lapras, J; Convers, P.; Absi, L; Laurent, B.; Michel, D

    1996-01-01

    The association of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and carcinoma has rarely been reported and its relevance is debated. Thirty three consecutive patients with probable or definite CIDP (idiopathic or associated with M protein) were investigated. Three patients with definite CIDP had a concomitant carcinoma. One had an IgM paraprotein. Steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins were effective.

  8. Lactation associated with herpes zoster pectoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S K; Girgla, H S

    1976-05-01

    The phenomenon of lactation associated with herpes zoster is unexpected. To our knowledge such an association has been reported only once. A case is reported in whom spontaneous lactation occurred in the ipsilateral breast following herpes zoster. It is believed to have resulted from stimulation of the intercostal nerve endings supplying the overlying skin of the breast. PMID:945354

  9. Complex radiation diagnosis of associated intracardiac abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that patients with congenital heart diseases having signs of cardiodismorphic complex in form of associated intercardiac abnormalities require special attention after surgical correction of the principal defect. It is connected with the fact that the associated abnormalities may become with time the basic factors influencing the progress and forecast of the disease

  10. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  11. Cross-cultural color-odor associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitan, C.A.; Ren, J.; Boesveldt, S.; Chan, J.; McKenzie, K.J.; Levin, J.A.; Leong, C.X.; Bosch, van den J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e.

  12. Neutron Star/Supernova Remnant Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence for associations between neutron stars and supernova remnants is reviewed. After summarizing the situation for young radio pulsars, I consider the evidence from associations that young neutron stars can have properties very different from those of radio pulsars. This, though still controversial, shakes our simple perception of the Crab pulsar as prototypical of the young neutron star population.

  13. Adverse Reproductive Outcomes Associated With Teenage Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Choudhary, Dilip; Narayan, K.C.; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Achyut; Chauhan, Siddharth Singh; Agrawal, Pawan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction It is debated whether teenage pregnancy is associated with an adverse reproductive outcome. This study assessed the reproductive outcomes in teenage pregnancy in Nepal, a developing setting. Methods A hospital based retrospective cohort study of 4,101 deliveries to compare the outcomes between teenage and non-teenage pregnancies. Results Pregnancy in teenagers was associated with significantly increased risk (P

  14. Theory of chain association versus liquid condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roij, R. van

    1996-01-01

    We combine the original van der Waals description for liquid condensation with the association theory of ideal particles into a simple association theory of nonideal chains. The theory shows that vapor-liquid coexistence becomes metastable if the tendency to form weakly interacting chains is suffici

  15. Genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskola, Pasi J; Lemmelä, Susanna; Kjær, Per;

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans....

  16. Monoclonal gammopathy associated with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal gammopathy can accompany diverse conditions and is usually benign. It should be distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS which can rarely turn malignant. Visceral leishmaniasis has only rarely been associated with monoclonal gammopathy. We describe the case of a 55-year-old male who had monoclonal gammopathy associated with visceral leishmanisais, which reversed with stibogluconate therapy.

  17. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top of page What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that involves ... page What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs when germs (usually bacteria) ...

  18. Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Veterinary Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Bryan; Burns, Amy; Johnson, Geraldine S.; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Dumas, Nellie; Barrett, Donna; McDonough, Patrick L.; Eidson, Millicent

    2004-01-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium outbreak was associated with a veterinary clinic. Confirmed cases were in one cat, two veterinary technicians, four persons associated with clinic patients, and a nurse not linked to the clinic. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of strong public health ties to the animal health community.

  19. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  20. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Roefs; J. Huijding; F.T.Y. Smulders; C.M. MacLeod; P.J. de Jong; R.W. Wiers; A.T.M. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)