WorldWideScience

Sample records for associated contagious pruritic

  1. Demodex gatoi -associated contagious pruritic dermatosis in cats - a report from six households in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaniemi Riitta-Liisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demodex gatoi is unique among demodectic mites. It possesses a distinct stubby appearance, and, instead of residing in the hair follicles, it dwells in the keratin layer of the epidermis, causing a pruritic and contagious skin disease in cats. Little is known of the occurrence of D. gatoi in Europe or control of D. gatoi infestation. Case presentation We describe D. gatoi in 10 cats, including five Cornish Rex, two Burmese, one Exotic, one Persian and one Siamese, living in six multi-cat households in different locations in Finland containing 21 cats in total. Intense pruritus was the main clinical sign. Scaling, broken hairs, alopecia and self-inflicted excoriations were also observed. Diagnosis was based on finding typical short-bodied demodectic mites in skin scrapings, skin biopsies or on tape strips. Other pruritic skin diseases, such as allergies and dermatophytoses, were ruled out. In one household, despite finding several mites on one cat, all six cats of the household remained symptomless. Amitraz used weekly at a concentration of 125-250 ppm for 2-3 months, proved successful in three households, 2% lime sulphur weekly dips applied for six weeks in one household and peroral ivermectin (1 mg every other day for 10 weeks in one household. Previous trials in four households with imidacloprid-moxidectin, selamectin or injected ivermectin given once or twice a month appeared ineffective. Conclusion D. gatoi-associated dermatitis is an emerging contagious skin disease in cats in Finland. Although pruritus is common, some cats may harbour the mites without clinical signs. In addition, due to translucency of the mites and fastidious feline grooming habits, the diagnosis may be challenging. An effective and convenient way to treat D. gatoi infestations has yet to emerge.

  2. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Joseph W.; Clegg, Simon R.; Sullivan, Leigh E.; Jennifer S. Duncan; Grove?White, Dai H.; Carter, Stuart D.; Evans, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii?like, Treponema phagedenis?like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the t...

  3. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Joseph W; Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Duncan, Jennifer S; Grove-White, Dai H; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the treponemes cultured from CODD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the miniumum inhibitory concentration/ minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) of antimicrobials used in the sheep industry for isolates of the three CODD associated treponeme phylogroups T. medium/T. vincentii-like, T. phagedenis-like and T. pedis. Twenty treponeme isolates; from 19 sheep with clinical CODD lesions. A microdilution method was used to determine in vitro the MIC/MBC of 10 antimicrobial agents for 20 treponeme isolates (five T. medium/T. vincentii-like, 10 T. phagedenis-like and five T. pedis). The antimicrobials tested were penicillin G, amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, tylosin, tildipirosin, tulathromycin and gamithromycin. The treponeme isolates tested showed low MICs and MBCs to all 10 antimicrobials tested. They were most susceptible to gamithromycin and tildipirosin (MIC90: 0.0469 mg/L), and were least susceptible to lincomycin, spectinomycin and oxytetracycline (MIC90: 48 mg/L, 24 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively). These data are comparable to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data for treponemes cultured from bovine digital dermatitis lesions. Dependent on local licensing, penicillin and tilmicosin appear to be the best candidates for future in vivo studies. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Is healthy behavior contagious: associations of social norms with physical activity and healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Sarah A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social norms are theoretically hypothesized to influence health-related behaviors such as physical activity and eating behaviors. However, empirical evidence relating social norms to these behaviors, independently of other more commonly-investigated social constructs such as social support, is scarce and findings equivocal, perhaps due to limitations in the ways in which social norms have been conceptualized and assessed. This study investigated associations between clearly-defined social norms and a range of physical activity and eating behaviors amongst women, adjusting for the effects of social support. Methods Self-report survey data about particular physical activity (leisure-time moderate-vigorous activity; volitional walking; cycling for transport and eating behaviors (fast food, soft drink and fruit and vegetable consumption, and social norms and support for these, were provided by 3,610 women aged 18-46 years living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Results Results of regression analyses showed that social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors predicted these respective behaviors relatively consistently; these associations generally remained significant after adjustment for social support. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, these data confirm theoretical accounts of the importance of social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors, and suggest that this is independent from social support. Intervention strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy eating could incorporate strategies aimed at modifying social norms relating to these behaviors.

  5. Is Gun Violence Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Loeffler, Charles; Flaxman, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Existing theories of gun violence predict stable spatial concentrations and contagious diffusion of gun violence into surrounding areas. Recent empirical studies have reported confirmatory evidence of such spatiotemporal diffusion of gun violence. However, existing tests cannot readily distinguish spatiotemporal clustering from spatiotemporal diffusion. This leaves as an open question whether gun violence actually is contagious or merely clusters in space and time. Compounding this problem, g...

  6. Pruritic nodular secondary syphilis in a 61-year-old man with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-López, Roger; Bertolín-Colilla, Marta; Martín-Ezquerra, Gemma; Pujol, Ramon M

    2017-06-01

    The typical finding in secondary syphilis stage is a generalized non-pruritic maculopapular eruption. We report a case of secondary syphilis in an HIV-infected patient presenting with pruritic crusted nodules showing numerous eosinophils on the histopathological examination.

  7. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Romero

    Full Text Available On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species.

  8. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species.

  9. Intramammary infections with the contagious Staphylococcus aureus genotype B in Swiss dairy cows are associated with low prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci and Streptococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Astrid; Syring, Claudia; Steiner, Adrian; Graber, Hans U

    2011-06-01

    The association between the contagious Staphylococcus aureus genotype B (GTB) and the presence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus spp. (non-agalactiae streptococci), was investigated, and the identification of problem herds without genotyping was evaluated. Milk samples from 10 herds with Staph. aureus GTB herd problems (PH cases) were compared with samples from 19 herds with at least one Staph. aureus isolate of non-B genotype (CH cases). All samples were bacteriologically analysed and Staph. aureus genotyping carried out using a ribosomal spacer-PCR. Cow and quarter prevalences of Staph. aureus, CNS and Streptococcus spp. differed significantly between PH and CH groups. PH cases were highly associated with decreased cow prevalences of CNS and Streptococcus spp. These altered prevalences also contributed significantly to the identification of problem herds without resorting to genotyping. Common herd-level risk factors did not explain the difference between the prevalences in PH and CH cases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contagious Depression: Negative Attachment Cognitions as a Moderator of the Temporal Association between Parental Depression and Child Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R. Z.; Zinck, Suzanne; Kryger, Shelley; Zilber, Irene; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether negative attachment cognitions moderate the association between the onset of depressive symptoms in children and their parents using a high-risk sample (parents with a history of major depressive episodes and their children) and a multiwave longitudinal design. During the initial assessment, 140 children (ages 6-14)…

  11. Get Tested. Make it Contagious.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-13

    This podcast is part of the "Get Tested. Make it Contagious" campaign, which is designed to raise awareness of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and increase testing among college students.  Created: 5/13/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/13/2010.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (Pecological zone, while lowest of 6.2% was in Eastern zone. Pastoralists in the age groups 51-60 and 61-70 years were more likely (OR 13.07; 95% CI: 3.21, 53.12 and OR 7.10; 95% CI: 1.77, 28.33, respectively) to have satisfactory information/awareness on CBPP and lowland transhumance pastoralists were more likely (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 2.01, 13.54) to have satisfactory information. Socio-cultural activities of extensive husbandry system was six times more likely (OR 5.79; 95% CI: 2.55, 13.13) to be satisfactory practice that influenced CBPP occurrence in herds, while culture of borrowing and loaning of cattle was twenty times more likely (OR 19.94; 95

  13. Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of cattle caused by. Mycoplasma mycoides ... of Western Oromia Zones as well as to assess the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease. ... to stop further spread of the disease and appropriate controlling and prevention should be designed in ...

  14. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  15. Security Investment in Contagious Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminasab, Seyed Alireza; Tork Ladani, Behrouz

    2018-01-16

    Security of the systems is normally interdependent in such a way that security risks of one part affect other parts and threats spread through the vulnerable links in the network. So, the risks of the systems can be mitigated through investments in the security of interconnecting links. This article takes an innovative look at the problem of security investment of nodes on their vulnerable links in a given contagious network as a game-theoretic model that can be applied to a variety of applications including information systems. In the proposed game model, each node computes its corresponding risk based on the value of its assets, vulnerabilities, and threats to determine the optimum level of security investments on its external links respecting its limited budget. Furthermore, direct and indirect nonlinear influences of a node's security investment on the risks of other nodes are considered. The existence and uniqueness of the game's Nash equilibrium in the proposed game are also proved. Further analysis of the model in a practical case revealed that taking advantage of the investment effects of other players, perfectly rational players (i.e., those who use the utility function of the proposed game model) make more cost-effective decisions than selfish nonrational or semirational players. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Stomach Flu: How Long Am I Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long am I contagious if I have the stomach flu? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. You can ... more, depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). A number of viruses can cause ...

  17. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    ... of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns...

  18. Anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Centella asiatica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew; Joseph, Lincy; Ramaswamy

    2009-07-03

    This study investigated antipruritic and anti-inflammatory effect of Centella asiatica extract in rats and anti-allergic in vitro using sheep (Capra hircus) serum method and compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation method, compared with standard drug ketotifen fumarate. In rats, extract of Centella asiatica administered orally was examined for anti-pruritic study and chlorpheniramine maleate was used as standard drug while carageenan paw induced inflammatory method was used for the antiinfammatory study. The results show that the extracts of Centella asiatica exhibited antiallergic, anti-pruritic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  19. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  20. Hitting Is Contagious: Experience and Action Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L.

    2011-01-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing…

  1. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir in Nigeria. JE Onu. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol.

  2. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.

    2010-01-01

    not limit the spread of Staph. aureus at high transmission rates, although the associated costs were lower compared with no intervention. To improve udder health in a dairy herd, lactational treatment of contagious subclinical IMI must therefore be preceded by management measures that lower the transmission...

  3. Pruritic Urticarial Papules and Plaques of Pregnancy Occurring Postpartum Treated with Intramuscular Injection of Autologous Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En Hyung Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP is one of the most common diseases associated with pregnancy. In most cases, the skin lesions develop in the third trimester of primigravidas. There are no systemic alterations seen in PUPPP; however, most patients report severe pruritus. A 34-year-old woman presented 1 week postpartum with typical clinical features of PUPPP. The patient showed good response to intramuscular injection of autologous whole blood with no adverse effects to the patient or her baby. Presentation of PUPPP in the postpartum period is rare. Conservative management with topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines is commonly used to relieve pruritus. In severe cases, skin lesions and symptoms are controlled with a brief course of systemic corticosteroids. Investigation of new treatment options has been limited by patient concerns about the negative effects of medication on the fetus or breastfeeding. Intramuscular injection of autologous whole blood could be an alternative treatment option for PUPPP, especially for women who worry about the use of medications during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

  4. Contagious equine metritis in Portugal: A retrospective report of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a highly contagious bacterial venereal infection of equids, caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is of major international concern, causing short-term infertility in mares. Portugal has a long tradition of horse breeding and exportation and until recently was considered CEM-free. However, in ...

  5. Development of a Vaccine for Eradicating Contagious Bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) - also known as lung plague - is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences. In Africa, CBPP threatens to affect the livelihoods of more than 24 million people in 26 countries, the majority of them small-scale farmers.

  6. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance Strategies in Contagious Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccioli, Alice; Kokholm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    charging and for risk management. The literature on CPPI modeling typically assumes diffusive or Lévy-driven dynamics for the risky asset underlying the strategy. In either case the self-contagious nature of asset prices is not taken into account. In order to account for contagion while preserving......Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) strategies are popular as they allow to gear up the upside potential of a stock index while limiting its downside risk. From the issuer's perspective it is important to adequately assess the risks associated with the CPPI, both for correct "gap'' fee......-time rebalancing rules governing the CPPI product. When rebalancing is performed on a frequency less than weekly, failing to take contagion into account will significantly underestimate the risks of the CPPI. Finally, in order to mimic a situation with low liquidity, we impose a daily trading cap on the risky...

  7. An unusual presentation of pruritic urticarial Papules and Plaques of Pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani AH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Pruritic Urticarial Papules and Plaques of Pregnancy (PUPPP is a specific dermatosis of the third trimester of pregnancy, commonly seen in primigravid women."n"nCase presentation: A 24-year-old primigravida woman who had developed a rash immediately after delivery was admitted to Razi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. She had an erythematous eruption, particularly concentrated on the abdominal striae with umbilical sparing and involvement of limbs and extremities. Skin biopsy of the lesions on the lower abdomen, showed superficial perivascular infiltrates with occasional neutrophils and eosinophils. Both direct and indirect immunofloresence assays were negative. The patient was ultimately treated with topical clobetasol butyrate and oral chlorpheniramine for pruritus. Within a week, the lesions and the itchings had disappeared completely."n"nConclusion: Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are often, but not always, seen during the third trimester of pregnancy, but sometimes they present in postpartum period without any prior manifestations during pregnancy.

  8. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J M Massen

    Full Text Available Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour.

  9. Smell facilitates auditory contagious yawning in stranger rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaho, Alejandro; Rivas-Zamudio, Xaman; Ugarte, Araceli; Eguibar, José R; Valencia, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrates yawn in situations ranging from relaxation to tension, but only humans and other primate species that show mental state attribution skills have been convincingly shown to display yawn contagion. Whether complex forms of empathy are necessary for yawn contagion to occur is still unclear. As empathy is a phylogenetically continuous trait, simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, might be sufficient for non-primate species to show contagious yawning. In this study, we exposed pairs of male rats, which were selected for high yawning, with each other through a perforated wall and found that olfactory cues stimulated yawning, whereas visual cues inhibited it. Unexpectedly, cage-mate rats failed to show yawn contagion, although they did show correlated emotional reactivity. In contrast, stranger rats showed auditory contagious yawning and greater rates of smell-facilitated auditory contagious yawning, although they did not show correlated emotional reactivity. Strikingly, they did not show contagious yawning to rats from a low-yawning strain. These findings indicate that contagious yawning may be a widespread trait amongst vertebrates and that mechanisms other than empathy may be involved. We suggest that a communicatory function of yawning may be the mechanism responsible for yawn contagion in rats, as contagiousness was strain-specific and increased with olfactory cues, which are involved in mutual recognition.

  10. Prevalence of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between November and December 2012 in Musoma district of Mara region, Tanzania with the aim of determining seroprevalence of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in healthy indigenous goats at a time of sampling and potential within herd risk factors for the disease.

  11. Development of a Subunit Vaccine for Contagious Bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-11

    This project will allow researchers from Canada and Kenya to field trial a vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. ... Researchers and practitioners gathered in Montreal on August 11, 2017 to discuss the potential of child care to benefit women through improved economic opportunities and empowerment as part of ...

  12. Cross-Sectional Study on Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) is an important, devastating disease of goats and sheep, caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae ( Mccp). In Uganda the disease occurs mainly in the Karamoja region and the surrounding districts. It is a devastating disease of goats, caused by ...

  13. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction

    Within the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds,

  14. Prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Borno State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological situation of contagious bovine pleuropneumoia (CBPP) over a ten (10) year period in Borno State of Nigeria was examined. During this period, 1,178 out of 355,745 cattle examined at postmortem had lesions suggestive of CBPP giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.33%. Highest prevalence rate of 0.77% ...

  15. Study on Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Contagious Bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Southern Nationand Nationality People of Ethiopia Regional State in Amaro Special ... This warrants the need to institute for appropriate preventive and control measures to stop further spread of this economically devastating disease.

  16. Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its potential risk factors in selected sites of Western Oromia, Ethiopia. ... was high, This warrants the need of the institute to follow appropriate preventive and control measures to stop further spread of the disease and appropriate controlling and prevention should ...

  17. A qualitative assessment of the risk of introducing Contagious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative assessment of the risk of introducing Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) from the south-western Tanzania into Zambia was conducted between November and December 2012 in Mbozi and Kalambo districts in Tanzania and, Mbala and Nakonde districts in Zambia. The study wards and veterinary ...

  18. Use of Accelerometer Activity Monitors to Detect Changes in Pruritic Behaviors: Interim Clinical Data on 6 Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Wernimont

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Veterinarians and pet owners have limited ability to assess pruritic behaviors in dogs. This pilot study assessed the capacity of the Vetrax® triaxial accelerometer to measure these behaviors in six dogs with pruritus likely due to environmental allergens. Dogs wore the activity monitor for two weeks while consuming their usual pet food (baseline, then for eight weeks while consuming a veterinary-exclusive pet food for dogs with suspected non-food-related skin conditions (Hill’s Prescription Diet® Derm DefenseTM Canine dry food. Veterinarians and owners completed questionnaires during baseline, phase 1 (days 1–28 and phase 2 (days 29–56 without knowledge of the activity data. Continuous 3-axis accelerometer data was processed using proprietary behavior recognition algorithms and analyzed using general linear mixed models with false discovery rate-adjusted p values. Veterinarian-assessed overall clinical signs of pruritus were significantly predicted by scratching (β 0.176, p = 0.008, head shaking (β 0.197, p < 0.001 and sleep quality (β −0.154, p < 0.001, while owner-assessed quality of life was significantly predicted by scratching (β −0.103, p = 0.013 and head shaking (β −0.146, p < 0.001. Among dogs exhibiting pruritus signs eating the veterinary-exclusive food, the Vetrax® sensor provided an objective assessment of clinically relevant pruritic behaviors that agreed with owner and veterinarian reports.

  19. Absence of contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Senju, Atsushi; Maeda, M; Kikuchi, Y; Hasegawa, T; Tojo, Y.; Osanai, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study is the first to report the disturbance of contagious yawning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-four children with ASD as well as 25 age-matched typically developing (TD) children observed video clips of either yawning or control mouth movements. Yawning video clips elicited more yawns in TD children than in children with ASD, but the frequency of yawns did not differ between groups when they observed control video clips. Moreover, TD children yawned more du...

  20. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainie Alenkær Madsen

    Full Text Available Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  1. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  2. Pruritic porokeratotic peno-scrotal plaques: Porokeratosis or porokeratotic epidermal reaction pattern? A report of 10 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porokeratosis restricted to the genital region is rare with few cases described in the literature. Cases of porokeratosis restricted to the genital region are similar to plaque type of porokeratosis of Mibelli seen elsewhere on the body. We encountered 10 young males with pruritic plaques restricted to the peno-scrotal region, which clinically were not diagnosed as porokeratosis, but on biopsy revealed multiple cornoid lamellae, some of which were seen to arise from eccrine and follicular structures. Aims: The aim of this study is to study lesions restricted to the peno-scrotal region in males, which on biopsy showed cornoid lamellae suggestive of porokeratosis. Methods: Retrospective analysis of available data of patients who were rendered a histological diagnosis of genital porokeratosis. The database consisted of biopsies received in private consultation by the first author in the period January 2000 to March 2013. Results: Ten young men, 8 in their third decade, presented with pruritic plaques restricted to the peno-scrotal region of variable duration. The lesions were well-demarcated on the penis, but ill-defined with a rough granular surface on the scrotum. None of patients were diagnosed clinically as porokeratosis. The lesions were poorly responsive to topical steroid/antifungal treatment, but two patients showed partial improvement with oral isotretinoin. Biopsy in nine patients revealed multiple cornoid lamellae involving epidermis (6 and adnexal structures (3. One patient had a single cornoid lamella. Conclusion: The clinical and histological presentation of these patients is different from typical genital porokeratosis described in the literature and we postulate that these patients have an unusual porokeratotic reaction pattern of the epidermis with multiple cornoid lamellae.

  3. Mirror neuron activity during contagious yawning--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Herwig, Uwe; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-03-01

    Yawning is contagious. However, little research has been done to elucidate the neuronal representation of this phenomenon. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated by visually perceived yawning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity during contagious yawning (CY). Signal-dependent changes in blood oxygen levels were compared when subjects viewed videotapes of yawning faces as opposed to faces with a neutral expression. In response to yawning, subjects showed unilateral activation of their Brodmann's area 9 (BA 9) portion of the right inferior frontal gyrus, a region of the MNS. In this way, two individuals could share physiological and associated emotional states based on perceived motor patterns. This is one component of empathy (motor empathy) that underlies the development of cognitive empathy. The BA 9 is reportedly active in tasks requiring mentalizing abilities. Our results emphasize the connection between the MNS and higher cognitive empathic functions, including mentalizing. We conclude that CY is based on a functional substrate of empathy.

  4. Serum autoantibodies against the dermal-epidermal junction in patients with chronic pruritic disorders, elderly individuals and blood donors prospectively recruited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, N; Dohse, A; Riechert, F; Krull, V; Recke, A; Zillikens, D; Schmidt, E

    2014-04-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepidermal blistering autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibodies against two structural proteins of the epidermal basal membrane zone (BMZ), BP180 (type XVII collagen) and BP230. Patients are usually old and suffer from severe pruritus. Advanced age and severe pruritus have been hypothesized as potential risk factors for the development of autoantibodies in BP. To prospectively determine anti-BMZ antibodies in sera from patients with advanced age and/or pruritus compared with regular blood donors. Sera from (i) patients with chronic pruritic skin disorders (PSD, n = 78; mean age 62 years), (ii) patients with noninflammatory skin disease aged ≥ 70 years (n = 93; mean age 78 years), and (iii) blood donors (n = 50; mean age 41 years) were included. A large panel of validated test systems used for routine diagnosis were employed comprising indirect immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy on monkey oesophagus and human salt-split skin, BP180 NC16A- and BP230-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems, and immunoblotting with various substrates, including LAD-1 (the soluble ectodomain of BP180), BP180, BP230, laminin 332, p200 antigen, laminin γ1 and type VII collagen. No statistically significant difference was seen between the three study groups. The same result was obtained when data for IF microscopy, ELISA and immunoblotting were analysed separately. Neither advanced age nor chronic pruritus have been verified as risk factors for autoantibodies against the epidermal BMZ. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. 76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement for... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National Center for Import and...

  6. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis. We are also delaying the... Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National Center for Import and Export, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 39...

  7. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected... affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement for....aphis.usda.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine...

  8. Contagious architecture: computation, aesthetics, and space (technologies of lived abstraction)

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    In Contagious Architecture, Luciana Parisi offers a philosophical inquiry into the status of the algorithm in architectural and interaction design. Her thesis is that algorithmic computation is not simply an abstract mathematical tool but constitutes a mode of thought in its own right, in that its operation extends into forms of abstraction that lie beyond direct human cognition and control. These include modes of infinity, contingency, and indeterminacy, as well as incomputable quantities underlying the iterative process of algorithmic processing. The main philosophical source for the project is Alfred North Whitehead, whose process philosophy is specifically designed to provide a vocabulary for "modes of thought" exhibiting various degrees of autonomy from human agency even as they are mobilized by it. Because algorithmic processing lies at the heart of the design practices now reshaping our world -- from the physical spaces of our built environment to the networked spaces of digital culture -- the nature o...

  9. Contagious diseases in competitive sport: what are the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, J M

    2000-11-01

    Great concern is often expressed over the possibility of contagion among athletes in competitive sports, particularly sports with much person-to-person contact. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is only the most notorious of infectious agents; potentially, other viruses, bacteria, and even fungi may be involved. Because of the concern, however, special attention is paid to HIV and hepatitis B infections. For most of the infections considered, the athlete is more at risk during activities off the playing field than while competing. Inclusion of immunizations against measles and hepatitis B among prematriculation immunization requirements (PIRs) for colleges and universities would eliminate these two diseases from the list of dangers to college athletes and all students. Education, rather than regulations, should remain the cornerstone in considering the risks to athletes from contagious diseases.

  10. Pricing and Hedging of Derivatives in Contagious Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    a stochastic volatility component to the dynamics. It is important to take the contagion effect into account if derivatives written on a basket of assets are to be priced or hedged. Due to the affine model specification the joint characteristic function of the log-returns is known analytically, and for two......-asset derivatives prices and show how for certain derivatives the impact is heavy. Moreover, we derive hedge ratios for European put and call options and perform a numerical experiment, which illustrates the impact of contagious jumps on option prices and hedge ratios. Mutually exciting processes have been analyzed...... for multivariate intensity modeling for the purpose of credit derivatives pricing, but have not been used for pricing/hedging options on equity indexes....

  11. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R Bock

    Full Text Available Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text] were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points, while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

  12. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  13. Prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Riekerink, Richard G M; Barkema, Herman W; Veenstra, Stefan; Poole, Doris E; Dingwell, Randy T; Keefe, Gregory P

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) estimate the herd prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk milk from Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy farms, 2) determine the association between bulk milk culture results and mean bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), and 3) investigate the agreement of repeated bulk milk cultures. Three consecutive bulk milk samples were obtained at weekly intervals from all 258 PEI dairy herds and were cultured using routine laboratory methods. Cumulative prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma spp. (M. bovis and M. alkalescens) was 74%, 1.6%, and 1.9%, respectively. Bulk milk somatic cell count of Staph. aureus-positive herds was higher than that of negative herds. Agreement for Staph. aureus isolation between 3 consecutive tests was moderate (kappa = 0.46). Mycoplasma bovis and M. alkalescens in bulk milk are being reported for the 1st time in PEI ever and in Canada since 1972.

  14. Genetic Control of Contagious Asexuality in the Pea Aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquiéry, Julie; Stoeckel, Solenn; Larose, Chloé; Nouhaud, Pierre; Rispe, Claude; Mieuzet, Lucie; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; Legeai, Fabrice; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Prunier-Leterme, Nathalie; Tagu, Denis; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Although evolutionary transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction are frequent in eukaryotes, the genetic bases of such shifts toward asexuality remain largely unknown. We addressed this issue in an aphid species where both sexual and obligate asexual lineages coexist in natural populations. These sexual and asexual lineages may occasionally interbreed because some asexual lineages maintain a residual production of males potentially able to mate with the females produced by sexual lineages. Hence, this species is an ideal model to study the genetic basis of the loss of sexual reproduction with quantitative genetic and population genomic approaches. Our analysis of the co-segregation of ∼300 molecular markers and reproductive phenotype in experimental crosses pinpointed an X-linked region controlling obligate asexuality, this state of character being recessive. A population genetic analysis (>400-marker genome scan) on wild sexual and asexual genotypes from geographically distant populations under divergent selection for reproductive strategies detected a strong signature of divergent selection in the genomic region identified by the experimental crosses. These population genetic data confirm the implication of the candidate region in the control of reproductive mode in wild populations originating from 700 km apart. Patterns of genetic differentiation along chromosomes suggest bidirectional gene flow between populations with distinct reproductive modes, supporting contagious asexuality as a prevailing route to permanent parthenogenesis in pea aphids. This genetic system provides new insights into the mechanisms of coexistence of sexual and asexual aphid lineages. PMID:25473828

  15. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    CERN Document Server

    Christakis, Nicholas A

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. Individuals at the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner, on average, than those at the periphery. However, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals whom to monitor is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students divided between a random group and a friend group. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 14.7 days (95% C.I. 11.7-17.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significa...

  16. Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Contagious yawning is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and has recently attracted much attention from developmental and comparative sciences. The function, development and underlying mechanisms of the phenomenon, however, remain largely unclear. Contagious yawning has been demonstrated in dogs and several non-human primate species, and theoretically and empirically associated with empathy in humans and non-human primates. Evidence of emotional closeness modulating contagious yawning in dogs has, nonetheless, been contradictory. Humans show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with typically developing children displaying a substantial increase at the age of four, when a number of cognitive abilities (e.g. accurate identification of others' emotions) begin to clearly manifest. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human animals have, however, thus far only involved adult individuals. Here, we report a study of the ontogeny of domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) susceptibility to yawn contagion, and whether emotional closeness to the yawning model affects this. Thirty-five dogs, aged 4-14 months, observed a familiar and unfamiliar human repeatedly yawn or gape. The dogs yawned contagiously, but emotional closeness with the model did not affect the strength of contagion, raising questions as to recent evidence of emotionally modulated auditory contagious yawning in dogs. The dogs showed a developmental effect, with only dogs above 7 months evidencing contagion. The results support the notion of a developmental increase in dogs' attention to others and identification of others' emotional states and suggest that yawn contagion is underpinned by developmental processes shared by humans and other animals.

  17. Ingroup-Outgroup Bias in Contagious Yawning by Chimpanzees Supports Link to Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew W.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup) over people seen as different (outgroup), even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in response to watching ingroup members yawn than outgroup. Twenty-three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from two separate groups watched videos of familiar and unfamiliar individuals yawning or at rest (control). The chimpanzees yawned more when watching the familiar yawns than the familiar control or the unfamiliar yawns, demonstrating an ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning. These results provide further empirical support that contagious yawning is a measure of empathy, which may be useful for evolutionary biology and mental health. PMID:21494669

  18. Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Campbell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup over people seen as different (outgroup, even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in response to watching ingroup members yawn than outgroup. Twenty-three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes from two separate groups watched videos of familiar and unfamiliar individuals yawning or at rest (control. The chimpanzees yawned more when watching the familiar yawns than the familiar control or the unfamiliar yawns, demonstrating an ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning. These results provide further empirical support that contagious yawning is a measure of empathy, which may be useful for evolutionary biology and mental health.

  19. Mixed infection zones may be important in the epidemiology of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarizadeh Amirreza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current study was designed to detect Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp in sheep and goats with clinical signs consistent with contagious agalactia.

  20. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Halasa, T.; Schaik, van G.; Hogeveen, H.; Nielen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics of

  1. Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Romero

    Full Text Available In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response. Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner and unfamiliar human models (experimenter acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs.

  2. Lifting the veil of ignorance : An experiment on the contagiousness of norm violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek; Rauhut, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Norm violations can be contagious. Previous research analyzed two mechanisms of why knowledge about others’ norm violations triggers its spread: (1) actors lower their subjective beliefs about the probability or severity of punishment or (2) they condition their compliance on others’ compliance.

  3. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy

  4. Seroprevalence and Distribution of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Ethiopia: Update and Critical Analysis of 20 Years (1996–2016 Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejash Abdela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP, infectious and highly contagious diseases of cattle in Africa, is the only bacterial disease in the OIE list A diseases. This severe respiratory disease of cattle is the second most important transboundary animal disease in Africa after rinderpest. CBPP is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (small colony bovine biotype and it is endemic disease in many African countries including Ethiopia. This paper systematically reviews prevalence report at herd and individual animal level for the last 20 years (1996–2016 with main aim of making comprehensive document regarding the seroprevalence and distribution of CBPP in Ethiopia. The paper is therefore helpful in knowing the past and current disease status and also to forecast the future and possible prevention option in the country. So far, the seroprevalence that ranges from 0.4 to 96% was reported from different export quarantine centers and production areas in Ethiopia. The reported seroprevalence is significantly associated with different agro-ecology of the country and the highest was reported from lowland in which 40% of livestock population was kept. The recent seroprevalence studies report from different areas of the country also indicated as CBPP is posing a major threat to cattle production in many parts of the country, thereby causing considerable economic losses through morbidity and mortality. This disease also causes restriction on the trade of animals and animal products internationally and accounts for a loss of over 8.96 million US dollars per year in Ethiopian situation. Thus, a great attention should be given both at production areas and the quarantine stations as its occurrence may affect the export earnings of the country, thereby threatening the livelihood of pastoralists and national economy of the country.

  5. Contagious equine metritis: artificial reproduction changes the epidemiologic paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Martin Lance; May, Catherine Edith; Keys, Bronwyn; Guthrie, Alan John

    2013-11-29

    Recent CEM outbreak reports reflect a novel epidemiologic manifestation with a markedly different risk association for transmission via artificial reproduction and subsequent to inadvertent importation of unapparent carrier stallions. Artificial breeding has an increased association with horizontal or fomite-associated transmission. Reported risk factors include inadequate biosecurity protocols at centralised breeding facilities associated with stallion management and methods of semen collection, processing and transport. Detection of carriers is based on traditional bacteriology from genital swabs and despite limitations inherent to Taylorella equigenitalis is currently the gold standard applied in all international trade and movement protocols. These limitations are reported to be overcome by PCR assays improving diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, practicality, turn-around times, through-put and cost efficacy. Molecular methods have increased understanding of the Taylorelleae, facilitate epidemiologic surveillance and outbreak control strategies. Validation and international regulatory acceptance of a robust PCR-based assay and the undefined risks in association with cryopreserved semen and embryos are future areas warranting further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-04-01

    What, then, is Cook when he is displaced from ‘western’ history and spread around cultures like a virus? How precarious or robust, then, are the historical certainties associated with Cook-monumentalised Kurnell and its place in time as ‘the birthplace of modern Australia’?

  7. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Marta; Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2014-01-01

    Contagious parthenogenesis-a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring-is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model.

  8. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maccari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Contagious parthenogenesis—a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring—is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model.

  9. A heterogeneous population model for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia transmission and control in pastoral communities of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariner, J.C.; McDermott, J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Thomson, G.; Roeder, P.L.; Martin, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Pastoral cattle live in highly structured communities characterized by complex contact patterns. The present paper describes a spatially heterogeneous model for the transmission of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) developed specifically for pastoral communities of East Africa. The model is

  10. The Pros and Cons of Sick Pay Schemes: A Method to Test for Contagious Presenteeism and Shirking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pichler, Stefan; Nicolas R. Ziebarth

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a test for the existence and the degree of contagious presenteeism and negative externalities in sickness insurance schemes. First, we theoretically decompose moral hazard into shirking and contagious presenteeism behavior. Then we derive testable conditions for reduced shirking, increased presenteeism, and the level of overall moral hazard when benefits are cut. We implement the test empirically exploiting German sick pay reforms and administrative industry-level data on ...

  11. Individual variation in contagious yawning susceptibility is highly stable and largely unexplained by empathy or other known factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Bartholomew

    Full Text Available The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological functioning of humans. We administered 328 participants a 3-minute yawning video stimulus, a cognitive battery, and a comprehensive questionnaire that included measures of empathy, emotional contagion, circadian energy rhythms, and sleepiness. Individual contagious yawning measurements were found to be highly stable across testing sessions, both in a lab setting and if administered remotely online, confirming that certain healthy individuals are less susceptible to contagious yawns than are others. Additionally, most individuals who failed to contagiously yawn in our study were not simply suppressing their reaction, as they reported not even feeling like yawning in response to the stimulus. In contrast to previous studies indicating that empathy, time of day, or intelligence may influence contagious yawning susceptibility, we found no influence of these variables once accounting for the age of the participant. Participants were less likely to show contagious yawning as their age increased, even when restricting to ages of less than 40 years. However, age was only able to explain 8% of the variability in the contagious yawn response. The vast majority of the variability in this extremely stable trait remained unexplained, suggesting that studies of its inheritance are warranted.

  12. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Garcia-Herranz

    Full Text Available Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks.

  13. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%, three (3.2% with hepatitis C, two (2.2% with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers.

  14. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; de Farias, Francisca Lucélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde

    2016-01-12

    This study's objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%), three (3.2%) with hepatitis C, two (2.2%) with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers.

  15. Auditory Contagious Yawning in Humans: An Investigation into Affiliation and Status Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J.M. Massen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While comparative research on contagious yawning has grown substantially in the past few years, both the interpersonal factors influencing this response and the sensory modalities involved in its activation in humans remain relatively unknown. Extending upon previous studies showing various in-group and status effects in non-human great apes, we performed an initial study to investigate how the political affiliation (Democrat versus Republican and status (high versus low of target stimuli influences auditory contagious yawning, as well as the urge to yawn, in humans. Self-report responses and a subset of video recordings were analyzed from 118 undergraduate students in the US following exposure to either breathing (control or yawning (experimental vocalizations paired with images of former US Presidents (high status and their respective Cabinet Secretaries of Commerce (low status. The overall results validate the use of auditory stimuli to prompt yawn contagion, with greater response in the experimental than the control condition. There was also a negative effect of political status on self-reported yawning and the self-reported urge to yawn irrespective of the condition. In contrast, we found no evidence for a political affiliation bias in this response. These preliminary findings are discussed in terms of the existing comparative evidence, though we highlight limitations in the current investigation and we provide suggestions for future research in this area.

  16. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourits, M C M; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Huirne, R B M

    2010-09-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy that best meets all of the conflicting interests. The presented application focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies to control Classical Swine Fever (CSF) epidemics within the European Union (EU) according to the preferences of the European Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO). The performed analysis was centred on the three high-level objectives of epidemiology, economics and social ethics. The appraised control alternatives consisted of the EU compulsory control strategy, a pre-emptive slaughter strategy, a protective vaccination strategy and a suppressive vaccination strategy. Using averaged preference weights of the elicited CVOs, the preference ranking of the control alternatives was determined for six EU regions. The obtained results emphasized the need for EU region-specific control. Individual CVOs differed in their views on the relative importance of the various (sub)criteria by which the performance of the alternatives were judged. Nevertheless, the individual rankings of the control alternatives within a region appeared surprisingly similar. Based on the results of the described application it was concluded that the structuring feature of the MCDM technique provides a suitable tool in assisting the complex decision making process of controlling contagious animal diseases. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A generic model of contagious disease and its application to human-to-human transmission of avian influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.

    2007-03-01

    Modeling contagious diseases has taken on greater importance over the past several years as diseases such as SARS and avian influenza have raised concern about worldwide pandemics. Most models developed to consider projected outbreaks have been specific to a single disease. This paper describes a generic System Dynamics contagious disease model and its application to human-to-human transmission of a mutant version of avian influenza. The model offers the option of calculating rates of new infections over time based either on a fixed ''reproductive number'' that is traditional in contagious disease models or on contact rates for different sub-populations and likelihood of transmission per contact. The paper reports on results with various types of interventions. These results suggest the potential importance of contact tracing, limited quarantine, and targeted vaccination strategies as methods for controlling outbreaks, especially when vaccine supplies may initially be limited and the efficacy of anti-viral drugs uncertain.

  18. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of a highly contagious disease in Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Camitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Travel restrictions may reduce the spread of a contagious disease that threatens public health. In this study we investigate what effect different levels of travel restrictions may have on the speed and geographical spread of an outbreak of a disease similar to SARS. We use a stochastic simulation model of the Swedish population, calibrated with survey data of travel patterns between municipalities in Sweden collected over three years. We find that a ban on journeys longer than 50 km drastically reduces the speed and the geographical spread of outbreaks, even with when compliance is less than 100%. The result is found to be robust for different rates of inter-municipality transmission intensities. Travel restrictions may therefore be an effective way to mitigate the effect of a future outbreak.

  19. Effect of "Pink Eye" Label on Parents' Intent to Use Antibiotics and Perceived Contagiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura D; Finan, Caitlin; Simancek, Dalton; Finkelstein, Jerome I; Tarini, Beth A

    2016-06-01

    Parents of children who presented for a pediatrics appointment responded to a clinical vignette that described a child with symptoms consistent with acute viral conjunctivitis. In a 2 × 2 randomized survey design, the physician in the vignette either used the term "pink eye" or "eye infection" to describe the symptoms, and either told parents that antibiotics are likely ineffective at treating the symptoms or did not discuss effectiveness. When the symptoms were referred to as "pink eye," parents remained interested in antibiotics, despite being informed about their ineffectiveness. By contrast, when the symptoms were referred to as an "eye infection," information about antibiotic ineffectiveness significantly reduced interest, Mdiff = 1.63, P pink eye" label also thought that the symptoms were more contagious and were less likely to believe that their child could go to child care, compared with parents who received the "eye infection" label, Mdiff = 0.37, P = .38. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE – Infectious, Contagious, Zoonotic or Production Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherr Marcus G

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1986, a new progressive neurological condition similar to scrapie of sheep and goats was recognised in cattle in the United Kingdom (UK, and was named bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. There is an ongoing discussion whether BSE should be classified as infectious, contagious, or zoonotic, and if it fits the definition of a production disease. The objective of this work is to briefly describe the main characteristics of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, to review the epidemiology of BSE, and to address the question of how to classify BSE. TSEs are characterised as chronic wasting diseases with spongiform vacuolation and the accumulation of infectious prion protein (PrPSc in the central nervous system. TSE infectivity is very difficult to inactivate. Cattle BSE most likely originated from sheep scrapie, although this will remain to be an issue for debate. The disease can be transmitted from cattle to a range of species, and has resulted in smaller TSE epidemics in domestic cats, zoo cats and zoo ruminants, and in humans. Transmission in the field occurred through feed containing ruminant-derived protein, and measures to prevent the recycling of infectivity have proven effective to reduce the number of new infections. Mandatory reporting of clinical suspects combined with targeted screening of risk populations is needed to assess the BSE status of a country. Infection studies and the transmissibility to other species classify BSE as infectious and zoonotic. Absence of excretion of the agent, and therefor of horizontal transmission, categorise BSE as non-contagious. However, BSE is a multifactorial infectious disease that is dependent on management factors (mainly feeding, and therefore fits into the broader definition of production diseases.

  1. An observational investigation of behavioural contagion in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus: indications for contagious scent-marking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J.M. Massen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioural contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing and scent-marking. We coded these behaviours from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-minute observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday and afternoon to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns / hour and very little stretching behaviour. For all other behaviours, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, that almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviours in marmosets.

  2. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  3. The reproduction of borders and the contagiousness of illegalisation: A case of a Belgrade youth hostel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past couple of years, Serbia has become a transit country for the ever increasing number of migrants from Africa and Asia, travelling towards the EU. As part of the process of approaching the EU - first achieving the liberalisation of the visa regime for entry into the Schengen area in 2009 and then getting the official status of a candidate member in 2012 - Serbia needed to harmonise its policies with those of the EU, especially in the areas of border control and migration management. As a result, Serbia adopted a series of laws and policies which effectively illegalise migrants. In this paper, we first look into how migrant “illegality” is produced by Serbian migration legislation and policy, and second, we look at the consequences of this illegalisation. The first set of consequences are those that are felt by migrants themselves, as they are its principle target. The second set of consequences affects those persons that come into contact with the illegalised migrants. We speak of contagiousness of illegalisation, which affects those people who are providing professional services to illegalised persons. Under the treat of possible criminalisation, pressure is put on them to conduct “legality” checks and thus reproduce borders far away from the actual state border. We look particularly at reproduction of borders in the area of accommodation of migrants, taking as a case study a Belgrade youth hostel.

  4. Virulence Genes of S. aureus from Dairy Cow Mastitis and Contagiousness Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Magro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a major agent of dairy cow intramammary infections: the different prevalences of mastitis reported might be related to a combination of S. aureus virulence factors beyond host factors. The present study considered 169 isolates from different Italian dairy herds that were classified into four groups based on the prevalence of S. aureus infection at the first testing: low prevalence (LP, medium–low (MLP, medium–high (MHP and high (HP. We aimed to correlate the presence of virulence genes with the prevalence of intramammary infections in order to develop new strategies for the control of S. aureus mastitis. Microarray data were statistically evaluated using binary logistic regression and correspondence analysis to screen the risk factors and the relationship between prevalence group and gene. The analysis showed: (1 24 genes at significant risk of being detected in all the herds with infection prevalence >5%, including genes belonging to microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs, immune evasion and serine proteases; and (2 a significant correlation coefficient between the genes interacting with the host immune response and HP isolates against LP ones. These results support the hypothesis that virulence factors, in addition to cow management, could be related to strain contagiousness, offering new insights into vaccine development.

  5. Virulence Genes of S. aureus from Dairy Cow Mastitis and Contagiousness Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Giada; Biffani, Stefano; Minozzi, Giulietta; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Luini, Mario; Piccinini, Renata

    2017-06-21

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major agent of dairy cow intramammary infections: the different prevalences of mastitis reported might be related to a combination of S. aureus virulence factors beyond host factors. The present study considered 169 isolates from different Italian dairy herds that were classified into four groups based on the prevalence of S. aureus infection at the first testing: low prevalence (LP), medium-low (MLP), medium-high (MHP) and high (HP). We aimed to correlate the presence of virulence genes with the prevalence of intramammary infections in order to develop new strategies for the control of S. aureus mastitis. Microarray data were statistically evaluated using binary logistic regression and correspondence analysis to screen the risk factors and the relationship between prevalence group and gene. The analysis showed: (1) 24 genes at significant risk of being detected in all the herds with infection prevalence >5%, including genes belonging to microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs), immune evasion and serine proteases; and (2) a significant correlation coefficient between the genes interacting with the host immune response and HP isolates against LP ones. These results support the hypothesis that virulence factors, in addition to cow management, could be related to strain contagiousness, offering new insights into vaccine development.

  6. Evolution of a contagious cancer: epigenetic variation in Devil Facial Tumour Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Peck, Sarah; Harmsen, Collette; Taylor, Robyn; Pyecroft, Stephen; Madsen, Thomas; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Belov, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a highly contagious cancer, is driving Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) to extinction. The cancer is a genetically and chromosomally stable clonal cell line which is transmitted by biting during social interactions. In the present study, we explore the Devil Facial Tumour (DFT) epigenome and the genes involved in DNA methylation homeostasis. We show that tumour cells have similar levels of methylation to peripheral nerves, the tissue from which DFTD originated. We did not observe any strain or region-specific epimutations. However, we revealed a significant increase in hypomethylation in DFT samples over time (p nerves (p < 0.005). Instead, we believe that loss of methylation is owing to active demethylation, supported by the temporal increase in MBD2 and MBD4 (p < 0.001). The implications of these changes on disease phenotypes need to be explored. Our work shows that DFTD should not be treated as a static entity, but rather as an evolving parasite with epigenetic plasticity. Understanding the role of epimutations in the evolution of this parasitic cancer will provide unique insights into the role of epigenetic plasticity in cancer evolution and progression in traditional cancers that arise and die with their hosts. PMID:23135679

  7. [Structural requirements for the management of patients with highly contagious life-threatening infectious diseases: update 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The care of highly contagious life-threatening infectious diseases (HLID) requires specialized treatment facilities that are capable of strict isolation measures and appropriate medical treatment. The German approach to the management of these diseases, which is maintained by the Permanent Working Group of Medical Competence and Treatment Centers for Highly Contagious and Life-Threatening Diseases (STAKOB) is adjusted in the present publication with regards to recent experiences and upcoming needs. Clear synergies in using infrastructures and bundling of resources have led to similar efforts at the European level. The German concept, therefore, has a pioneering role. This update is intended to improve professional patient care and also minimize the risk of disease spread and transmission.

  8. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal.

  9. [Individual rights vs public health in the fight against contagious diseases: proposals to improve the current legal framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamero Teixidó, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The public health protection constitutional mandate requires public powers to protect the population from contagious diseases. This requires a legal framework that both protects public health effectively and respects individual rights and freedoms that could be undermined by the public administrations. This article analyses, from a legal perspective, the current legal framework regulating the adoption of health measures to protect public health against contagious diseases. It argues that current regulations generate legal uncertainty on the basis of the wide range of discretionary powers they give to the public administration and the lack of provisions for limiting these powers. As a result, the guarantee mechanisms (primarily judicial consent) only weakly protect the rights and freedoms of the citizens affected by health measures. To conclude, the article proposes several amendments to improve public health regulations related to contagious diseases. The purpose is to render a legal framework that offers more legal certainty, in which it is possible to protect individual rights and freedoms when measures are adopted, without sacrificing the effective protection of public health. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Contagious Deposition of Seeds in Spider Monkeys' Sleeping Trees Limits Effective Seed Dispersal in Fragmented Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Escobar, Federico; Rös, Matthias; Oyama, Ken; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Chapman, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS) and three forest fragments (FF) in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components) and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥5 mm (in length) from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can ‘force’ spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i) it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii) it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii) it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines) in fragmented landscapes. PMID:24586705

  11. La peste, enfermedad infectocontagiosa reemergente Re-emergence of the plague: an infectious and contagious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plácido Pedroso Flaquet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La peste es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa reemergente. Su reservorio natural en los vertebrados son los roedores silvestres. Los conejos y las liebres, los carnívoros silvestres y los gatos domésticos también pueden ser fuente de infección para los seres humanos. Es causada por la bacteria Yersinia pestis y transmitida por la pulga Xenopsylla cheopis que afecta tanto a animales como a humanos. Causó una devastadora pandemia que asoló Europa en el siglo XIV. Es una zoonosis muy virulenta y potencialmente letal enfermedad bacteriana. Sigue persistiendo en focos naturales que producen brotes recurrentes en muchos lugares del mundo La peste se contrae de manera natural por la intromisión de las personas en el ciclo zoonótico, o por la introducción de roedores silvestres o sus pulgas infectadas en el habitad de los seres humanos. La prevención y las medidas de control van encaminadas a la disminución y el control de roedores y pulgas.Plague is a re-emergent infectious and contagious disease. Its natural reservoirs in vertebrates are the wild rodents. Rabbits and hares, the wild carnivores and the domestic cats also may be an infection source for human beings. It is caused by Yersinia pestis and transmitted by the flea Xenopsylla cheopis affecting both animals and humans. In Europe during XIX century it caused a devastating pandemic. It is a zoonosis very virulent and a potentially lethal bacterial disease. It persists in natural foci producing recurrent outbreak in many world places. Plague is acquired in a natural way due to interference of people in the zoonosis cycle or due to introduction of wild rodents or their infected fleas in human beings habitat. Prevention and control measures must to be aimed to decrease and the control of rodents and fleas.

  12. Pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials against Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides small colony, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Mitchell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC is the causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP, a disease of substantial economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of vaccination to curtail spread of this disease has led to calls for evaluation of the role of antimicrobials in CBPP control. Three major classes of antimicrobial are effective against mycoplasmas, namely tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effector kinetics of oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against two MmmSC field strains in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 using a macrodilution technique, and time-kill curves were constructed for various multiples of the MIC over a 24 hour period in artificial medium and serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid E(max models to obtain 24 hour-area under curve/MIC ratios for mycoplasmastasis and, where appropriate, for mycoplasmacidal activity and virtual mycoplasmal elimination. RESULTS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations against B237 were 20-fold higher, 2-fold higher and approximately 330-fold lower in serum than in artificial medium for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin, respectively. Such differences were mirrored in experiments using Tan8. Oxytetracycline was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in both matrices. Danofloxacin elicited mycoplasmacidal activity against B237 and virtual elimination of Tan8; similar maximum antimycoplasmal effects were observed in artificial medium and serum. Tulathromycin effected virtual elimination of B237 but was mycoplasmastatic against Tan8 in artificial medium. However, this drug was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in the more physiologically relevant matrix of serum. CONCLUSIONS: Oxytetracycline

  13. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  14. Contagious deposition of seeds in spider monkeys' sleeping trees limits effective seed dispersal in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    Full Text Available The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS and three forest fragments (FF in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥ 5 mm (in length from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can 'force' spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines in fragmented landscapes.

  15. Willingness to pay for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination in Narok South District of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Heffernan, Claire; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Kiara, Henry; McKeever, Declan

    2014-08-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important trans-boundary cattle disease which affects food security and livelihoods. A conjoint analysis-contingent valuation was carried out on 190 households in Narok South District of Kenya to measure willingness to pay (WTP) and demand for CBPP vaccine and vaccination as well as factors affecting WTP. The mean WTP was calculated at Kenya Shillings (KSh) 212.48 (USD 3.03) for vaccination using a vaccine with the characteristics that were preferred by the farmers (preferred vaccine and vaccination) and KSh -71.45 (USD -1.02) for the currently used vaccine and vaccination. The proportion of farmers willing to pay an amount greater than zero was 66.7% and 34.4% for the preferred and current vaccine and vaccination respectively. About one third (33.3%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 1162.62 (USD 13.68) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the preferred vaccine and vaccination. About two-thirds (65.6%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 853.72 (USD 12.20) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the current vaccine and vaccination. The total amount of compensation would be KSh 61.39 million (USD 0.88 million) for the preferred vaccine and vaccination and KSh 90.15 million (USD 1.29 million) for the current vaccine and vaccination. Demand curves drawn from individual WTP demonstrated that only 59% and 27% of cattle owners with a WTP greater than zero were willing to pay a benchmark cost of KSh 34.60 for the preferred and current vaccine respectively. WTP was negatively influenced by the attitude about household economic situation (p=0.0078), presence of cross breeds in the herd (pvaccination was 2.9-6.1 depending on the vaccination programme. In conclusion, although a proportion of farmers was willing to pay, participation levels may be lower than those required to interrupt transmission

  16. A rational approach to estimating the surgical demand elasticity needed to guide manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Hsiao-Mei; Sun, Ying-Chou; Liou, Der-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases continue to pose serious threats to global public health. So far, however, few published study has addressed the need for manpower reallocation needed in hospitals when such a serious contagious outbreak occurs. To quantify the demand elasticity of the major surgery types in order to guide future manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks. Based on a nationwide research database in Taiwan, we extracted the monthly volumes of major surgery types for the period 1998-2003, which covered the SARS period, in order to carry out a time series analysis. The demand elasticity of each surgery type was then estimated by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) analysis. During the study period, the surgical volumes of most selected surgery types either increased or remained steady. We categorized these surgery types into low-, moderate- and high-elastic groups according to their demand elasticity. Appendectomy, 'open reduction of fracture with internal fixation' and 'free skin graft' were in the low demand elasticity group. Transurethral prostatectomy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) were in the high demand elasticity group. The manpower of the departments carrying out the surgeries with low demand elasticity should be maintained during outbreaks. In contrast, departments in charge of surgeries mainly with high demand elasticity, like urology departments, may be in a position to have part of their staff reallocated. Taking advantage of the demand variation during the SARS period in 2003, we adopted the concept of demand elasticity and used a time series approach to figure out an effective index of demand elasticity for various types of surgery that could be used as a rational reference to carry out manpower reallocation during contagious outbreak situations.

  17. The creation of a contagious H5N1 influenza virus: implications for the education of life scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Novossiolova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contends that the ongoing controversy surrounding the creation of a contagious H5N1 influenza virus has already exposed the severe limitations of the possibility of preventing the hostile misuse of the life scien­ces by dint of oversight of proposals and publications. It further argues that in order to prevent the potential wholesale militarisation of the life sciences, it is essential that life scientists become aware of their responsibilities within the context of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC and actively contribute their expertise to strengthening the biological weapons non-proliferation regime.

  18. Benefits of lethal pandemics: direct impact of contagious diseases on public administration in Hungary (1867-1914).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palvolgyi, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    The reconciliation of 1867 between Austria and Hungary brought great changes to Hungarian public administration: the way towards the building up of a modern public administration had been opened. Although there was a functioning public health system and a related legislation from the late 18th century, major issues - such as balanced geographical distribution of medical personnel, fair access to medical services even in the poorer regions of the country, and the effective protection against some contagious diseases - were not resolved for decades. During the reform work of public administration since the 1870s, the lawmakers touched repeatedly the framework and functioning of the public health as well. Although the general conditions of the domain depended traditionally on the municipalities and counties due to the national importance of the matter, the government made efforts to make the functioning of the public health more efficient through centralisation. The contagious diseases continuously endangered the population, revealing the weak points in the existing public health system, thereby giving a momentum to the reforms and helping the government in its organization of prevention and clearly contributing to the legislation work.

  19. Association of pruritus with anxiety or aggression in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Mary P; Shofer, Frances S; Reisner, Ilana R

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the association between pruritus and anxiety-related and aggressive behaviors in dogs. Cross-sectional survey. 238 dogs between 1 and 8 years old. Information including a score for general degree of pruritus (visual analogue scale from 0 to 10) and frequency of anxiety-related and aggressive behaviors was collected via a survey distributed to clients at 3 privately owned practices. Median score for pruritus was 2.4. Dogs were assigned to 2 groups on the basis of pruritus score (nonpruritic [0 to 2.4] and pruritic [2.5 to 10]). There was no significant difference between pruritic and nonpruritic dogs with regard to aggression or with regard to reactivity to being alone; to thunderstorms or noises; or to unfamiliar people, animals, or objects. Post hoc analysis revealed significantly more reactivity to thunderstorms or noises in dogs treated with glucocorticoids (18/37 [49%]) than in those not administered glucocorticoids (57/197 [29%]). An association was not detected between pruritus and aggressive, anxious, or fearful behavior in dogs. There was greater reactivity to thunderstorms or noises in glucocorticoid-treated dogs. These findings do not preclude the possibility of a relationship between certain dermatoses or pruritic conditions and behavior. However, a concurrent behavioral abnormality cannot be assumed to result from a dermatosis and be expected to resolve with treatment of only the skin disease. Dogs with behavioral disorders and pruritic disease require primary treatment of both conditions. Additional studies to examine the effect of disease and glucocorticoids on canine behavior are warranted.

  20. [Epidemiology of Ebola virus disease and of other highly contagious, life-threatening diseases with low incidence in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlkes, L; Kreuels, B; Schwarz, N G; May, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Apart from sporadic exported cases, the occurrence of Ebola, Marburg and Lassa virus diseases is limited to the African continent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurs in Southeastern Europe but, so far, not in Germany. Other hemorrhagic fever disease-viruses occur in distinct regions in South America. Pulmonary plague is the bacterial infectious disease with the most contagious and lethal course and it is endemic to Madagascar and East Africa, but also occurs in other countries (e.g. India, USA). Monkey pox epidemics have occurred in remote areas of the Congo Basin. Such outbreaks could potentially become more common with the discontinuation of the cross-protective smallpox vaccination. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that emerged in 2002/2003 is another pathogen with significant epidemic potential. Typical for these diseases is a natural circulation between reservoir animals in remote areas. Sporadic transmission to humans can occur through contact with an infected animal. Subsequent human-to-human transmission can lead to epidemics, such as the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa.

  1. Space-time analysis of Down syndrome: results consistent with transient pre-disposing contagious agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J Q; Rankin, Judith; Shirley, Mark D F; Rushton, Stephen P; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2008-10-01

    Whilst maternal age is an established risk factor for Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) and Down syndrome (trisomy 21), the aetiology and contribution of genetic and environmental factors remains unclear. We analysed for space-time clustering using high quality fully population-based data from a geographically defined region. The study included all cases of Patau, Edwards and Down syndrome, delivered during 1985-2003 and resident in the former Northern Region of England, including terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. We applied the K-function test for space-time clustering with fixed thresholds of close in space and time using residential addresses at time of delivery. The Knox test was used to indicate the range over which the clustering effect occurred. Tests were repeated using nearest neighbour (NN) thresholds to adjust for variable population density. The study analysed 116 cases of Patau syndrome, 240 cases of Edwards syndrome and 1084 cases of Down syndrome. There was evidence of space-time clustering for Down syndrome (fixed threshold of close in space: P = 0.01, NN threshold: P = 0.02), but little or no clustering for Patau (P = 0.57, P = 0.19) or Edwards (P = 0.37, P = 0.06) syndromes. Clustering of Down syndrome was associated with cases from more densely populated areas and evidence of clustering persisted when cases were restricted to maternal age <40 years. The highly novel space-time clustering for Down syndrome suggests an aetiological role for transient environmental factors, such as infections.

  2. Multi-locus sequence analysis of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae for the molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manso-Silván Lucía

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP, a devastating disease of domestic goats. The exact distribution of CCPP is not known but it is present in Africa and the Middle East and represents a significant threat to many disease-free areas including Europe. Furthermore, CCPP has been recently identified in Tajikistan and China. A typing method with an improved resolution based on Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA has been developed to trace new epidemics and to elucidate whether the recently identified cases in continental Asia were due to recent importation of Mccp. The H2 locus, a polymorphic region already in use as a molecular marker for Mccp evolution, was complemented with seven new loci selected according to the analysis of polymorphisms observed among the genome sequences of three Mccp strains. A total of 25 strains, including the two new strains from Asia, were analysed by MLSA resulting in the discrimination of 15 sequence types based on 53 polymorphic positions. A distance tree inferred from the concatenated sequences of the eight selected loci revealed two evolutionary lineages comprising five groups, which showed good correlation with geographic origins. The presence of a distinct Asian cluster strongly indicates that CCPP was not recently imported to continental Asia. It is more likely that the disease has been endemic in the area for a long time, as supported by historical clinical descriptions. In conclusion, this MLSA strategy constitutes a highly discriminative tool for the molecular epidemiology of CCPP.

  3. Effect of clinical contagious agalactia on the bulk tank milk somatic cell count in Murciano-Granadina goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, J C; Sánchez, A; Luengo, C; Poveda, J B; Contreras, A

    2004-10-01

    From 19 herds of Murciano-Granadina goats, weekly bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) were performed from October to April, and suspicious milk (n = 182), synovial fluid, and ocular swabs (n = 15) from diseased goats were processed for mycoplasma isolation and identification. Also BTSCC from 65 herds were determined (n = 2693). A mixed model procedure was used to establish the effect of the herd and the lactation month on the BTSCC. Monthly rolling values were calculated for each herd using data collected over the preceding 3 complete months, and 4 different BTSCC thresholds were considered: 1,750,000, 1,500,000, 1,000,000, and 750,000 cells/mL. The mean log BTSCC for the 7-mo study period was 5.89 +/- 0.28 for herds without mycoplasma detection from clinical cases, 5.91 +/- 0.31 for mycoplasma-infected herds without clinical contagious agalactia (CA), and 6.47 +/- 0.32 for the herd with clinical CA. The posthoc tests revealed that only the herd that suffered a clinical CA outbreak showed counts that were significantly higher. No significant differences were found for BTSCC between herds not showing clinical episodes of CA, regardless of whether the mycoplasma had been isolated or not. The 1,750,000-cells/mL threshold would only be surpassed by a few herds with serious mastitis problems (clinical outbreak of CA for example). Seventy percent of the goat herds studied were in compliance with the proposed European Union legal limit of 1,500,000 cells/mL for goat milk.

  4. Orf: contagious pustular dermatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, M

    2010-05-01

    Orf is a common viral infection in sheep. It spreads to humans by direct contact. It is self-limiting, treatment having no beneficial effect. Misdiagnosis by those unfamiliar with its characteristic features is common, and may result in unnecessary treatment with antibiotics or surgery. We present a series of five cases of Orf in children of farmers in the west of Ireland, seen over a 10 year period.

  5. Interspecific associations in seed arrival and seedling recruitment in a Neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Calderón, Osvaldo; Hernandéz, Andrés; Detto, Matteo; Jansen, Patrick A

    2016-10-01

    Contagious seed dispersal refers to the tendency for some sites to receive many dispersed seeds while other sites receive few dispersed seeds. Contagious dispersal can lead to interspecific associations in seed arrival, and this in turn might lead to interspecific associations in seedling recruitment. We evaluate the extent of spatially contagious seed arrival, the frequency of positive interspecific associations in seed arrival, and their consequences for seedling recruitment at the community level in a tropical moist forest. We quantified seed arrival to 200 passive seed traps for 28 yr of weekly censuses and seedling recruitment to 600 1-m(2) quadrats for 21 yr of annual censuses on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We assessed whether spatially contagious seed dispersal was more important among zoochorous species than among anemochorous species, increased in importance with similarity in fruiting times, and led to interspecific associations in seed arrival and seedling recruitment. We controlled adult seed source associations statistically to evaluate predicted relationships. We found that spatially contagious seed arrival was widespread among zoochorous species, but also occurred among anemochorous species when the strong, consistent trade winds were present. Significant interspecific associations in seed arrival were more likely for pairs of species with zoochorous seeds and similar fruiting times and persisted through seedling recruitment. Thus, interspecifically contagious seed dispersal affects local species composition and alters the mixture of interspecific interactions through the seed, germination, and early seedling stages in this forest. Future investigations should consider the implications of interspecific association at the regeneration stages documented here for later life stages and species coexistence. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Brucellosis in dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine brucellosis is a contagious disease of cattle causing reproductive failure, loss of milk production and zoonosis worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on 816 dairy cattle (449 were cows) from 60 dairy farms to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis ...

  7. Identification of loci associated with susceptibility to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) tissue infection in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease is a contagious bacterial infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). A previous genome-wide association analysis (GWAA) in Holstein cattle identified QTL on BTA3 and BTA9 that were highly associated (P < 5 × 10-7) and on BTA1, BTA16, and BTA21 that...

  8. Reversible epigenetic down-regulation of MHC molecules by devil facial tumour disease illustrates immune escape by a contagious cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kreiss, Alexandre; Tovar, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    occur in vivo during lymphocyte infiltration. These results explain why T cells do not target DFTD cells. We propose that MHC-positive or epigenetically modified DFTD cells may provide a vaccine to DFTD. In addition, we suggest that down-regulation of MHC molecules using regulatory mechanisms allows......, due to down-regulation of genes essential to the antigen-processing pathway, such as β2-microglobulin and transporters associated with antigen processing. Loss of gene expression is not due to structural mutations, but to regulatory changes including epigenetic deacetylation of histones. Consequently...

  9. Plasma levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 during a course of experimental contagious bovine pleuropneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchini Flavio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP, caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. The current live vaccine T1/44 has limited efficacy and occasionally leads to severe side effects in the animals. A better understanding of the immune responses triggered by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and their role in disease progression will help to facilitate the design of a rational vaccine. Currently, knowledge of cytokines involved in immunity and immunopathology in CBPP is rather limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the in vivo plasma concentrations of the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and the overall role of CD4+ T cells in the development of cytokine levels during a primary infection. Plasma cytokine concentrations in two groups of cattle (CD4+ T cell-depleted and non-depleted cattle experimentally infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were measured and their relationship to the clinical outcomes was investigated. Results Plasma cytokine concentrations varied between animals in each group. Depletion of CD4+ T cells did not induce significant changes in plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10, suggesting a minor role of CD4+ T cells in regulation or production of the three cytokines during the time window of depletion (1-2 weeks post depletion. Unexpectedly, the IFN-γ concentrations were slightly, but statistically significantly higher in the depleted group (p + T cell-depleted animals that experienced severe disease, had high levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Only one severely diseased non-depleted animal showed a high serum concentration of IL-4 post infection. Conclusions Comparison of most severely diseased animals, which had to be euthanized prior to the expected date, versus less severe diseased animals, irrespective of the depletion status, suggested that high TNF-α levels are correlated with more severe pathology in concomitance with high IFN

  10. Pruritic bluish-black subcutaneous papules on the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquer, Vivian T; Wu, Jashin J; Tournas, Joshua A; Murase, Jenny E; Dyson, Senait W

    2008-03-15

    Steatocystoma multiplex (SM) is characterized by multiple dermal cysts involving the pilosebaceous glands. Although most presenting cases are sporadic, there is a rare familial syndrome involving a mutation in keratin 17 (K17) that is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. SM often presents concomitantly with eruptive vellus hair cysts (EHVS) and pachyonychia congenital type 2 (PC-2). We report a sporadic case of SM in a 21-year-old man.

  11. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's how it works: Mono is short for mononucleosis . It is caused by an infection with the ... Can a Person Get Mono More Than Once? Mononucleosis How Is Mono Spread? Spleen and Lymphatic System ...

  12. Contagious agalactia by Mycoplasma agalactiae in small ruminants in Brazil: first report Agalaxia contagiosa por Mycoplasma agalactiae em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil: primeiro relato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisio Oliveira de Azevedo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of contagious agalactia by Mycoplasma agalactiae occurred in Paraíba State, Northeastern Region of Brazil are reported. The disease was characterized by mastitis, agalactia and polyarthritis in does and polyarthritis and conjunctivitis in kids and lambs. Fever and anorexia were also observed. Morbidy was from 26.1% to 100% in does, 36.5 to 100% in kids and 49% in lambs. In one farm 14.3% of the lactating goats and 6.4% of the kids died or were euthanized. In the other, 3.3% of the does, 36.5% of the kids and 22.9% of the lambs died and 84 affected goats were euthanized to control the disease. M. agalactiae was isolated from milk, joint exudates, nasal swabs and ear washings. The colonies were characteristic of Mycoplasma and the agent did not ferment both glucose and arginin. It was typed as Mycoplasma agalactiae by immunoperoxidase and PCR. This is the first report of M. agalactiae infection in Brazil, but the source of the infection remains unknown.Dois surtos de agalaxia contagiosa causada por Mycoplasma agalactiae são descritos no Estado da Paraíba, região Nordeste do Brasil. A doença caracterizou-se por mastite, agalaxia e poliartrite em cabras e poliartrite e cerato-conjuntivite em cabritos e cordeiros. Febre e anorexia também foram observadas. A morbidade variou de 26,1% a 100% nas cabras, 36,5% a 100% em cabritos e 49,0% em cordeiros. Na primeira fazenda, 14,3% das cabras em lactação e 6,4% dos cabritos morreram ou foram sacrificados. Na outra propriedade, 3,3% dos caprinos adultos, 36,5% dos cabritos e 22,9% dos cordeiros morreram e outros 84 caprinos foram sacrificados para controle da doença. M. agalactiae foi isolado a partir de leite, líquido articular, suabe nasal e lavado do conduto auditivo externo. Colônias características de Mycoplasma e que não fermentaram a glicose e arginina foram observadas. A identificação de M. agalactiae foi realizada por imunoperoxidase indireta e PCR. Sendo assim, M

  13. Características clínicas e epidemiológicas do adulto contagiante da criança com tuberculose Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of contagious adult of tuberculosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João AB Lima

    2004-06-01

    of cohabitation with a contagious adult. OBJECTIVE: To create a profile of a typical adult with contagious tuberculosis (as identified through the public health system living with a child who has been diagnosed with tuberculosis. METHOD: Case study. Children younger than 14 years of age who were diagnosed with tuberculosis were included. Parents were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Means and standard deviations were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Fisher's exact test or the Dz test was used for comparisons. RESULTS: Fifty children, representing 96% of those diagnosed with tuberculosis in the Porto Alegre health care system between July 20, 2001 and August 10, 2002, were included. The mean age was 76 months, and 60% were girls. The classic forms of pulmonary presentation (consolidation or cavitation were seen in 38%. The majority of the children were diagnosed in the hospital and came from homes in which there were (a mean of 6 cohabitants and a total family income less than 2 times the local minimum wage. Using ELISA, HIV co-infection was identified in 25% (although not all were tested. The children regularly visited places other than their homes. In 78% of cases, the contagious adult was identified. These contagious adults were mostly males (56%, and the mean age was 32. In most cases (79%, the contagious adult was a relative, usually a parent. Within this group of adults with contagious tuberculosis, HIV co-infection was identified in 43% of those tested. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with contagious tuberculosis living in the home continue to be the most likely source of tuberculosis infection in children. Co-infection with HIV in these pediatric patients, as well as in the cohabiting adults with contagious tuberculosis, is a significant finding. It must be emphasized that the possibility of contact with contagious individuals in the home should be explored in every diagnosed case of pediatric tuberculosis.

  14. Toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with deflazacort therapy with nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Chae Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a drug-related fatal disease. Extensive necrosis of the epidermis can lead to serious complications. This report describes two cases of TEN, associated with deflazacort (DFZ, in two boys, aged 4 years and 14 years, with nephrotic syndrome (NS. The 14-year-old male teenager received DFZ following NS relapse. After 17 days, pruritic papules appeared on the lower extremities. Another case involved a 4-year-old boy receiving DFZ and enalapril. After a 41-day DFZ treatment period, erythematous papules appeared on the palms and soles. Within 3 days, both boys developed widespread skin lesions (>50% and were admitted to the intensive care unit for resuscitative and supportive treatment. The patients showed improvement after intravenous immunoglobulin-G therapy. Owing to the rapid, fatal course of TEN, clinicians need to be aware of the adverse effects of this drug when treating cases of NS.

  15. Extramammary Paget's Disease Associated With Genital Wart and Lichen Sclerosus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rana Rafiei; Hojat Eftekhari; Siamak Granmayeh; Nahid Nickhah; Behnam Rafiee

    2017-01-01

    .... Genital wart is the most common sexually transmitted disease caused by human papilloma viruses and vulval lichen sclerosus is chronic pruritic dermatitis in genital area which could be able to change...

  16. The costs of preventive activities for exotic contagious diseases - A Danish case study of foot and mouth disease and swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the costs of preventive activities, currently undertaken in Denmark, related to foot and mouth disease (FMD) and classical and African swine fever (SF). Only costs held between outbreaks were included. Costs were divided into public costs and costs paid...... in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated...... analyses.A total of 27 FMD/SF preventive activities were identified. The estimated median (minimum-maximum) of total costs amounted to (sic)32 (18-50) million in 2013. The single most costly FMD/SF related activity, amounting to (sic)8 (5-13) million or 26% of total costs, was a national legal requirement...

  17. Is Continuing Contumely Relative to Mc Leod's Vision and ``Secret Sacred Science, (SSS),'': Contagiously Counterproductive in Science, or an Unhealthy Artifact of ``Turf Wars''?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leod, Roger

    2007-04-01

    Mc Leod confirmed, with physics, his models for vision, and for electromagnetic artifacts, by traditional methods, associated with phenomena like tornados, hurricanes, and earthquakes. The latter confirmations are evidently apparent across current ethnology, cultures, linguistics, religion, rituals, exotic astronomy, somewhat concealed evidence of native record-keeping/writing, and iconography. Use of cultural anthropology while observing a modern Peruvian sacred-site-sweeping at Cuzco, coupled with their assertion that Ñari Huallac means ``serpent God,'' plus electromagnet information, reveals that their religious world-view include(s)(d) applied science that is still otherwise unacknowledged. Alexander Thom's precise megalithic site-measurements also imply that ``The Ancients' Serpent'' made/makes precise tracks that convey valuable information. The linguistics of words like Seminole, and unusual visual effects, reveal some traditionalists have done better than most scientists, for vision, and observational physics, and earth science. Tornado and hurricane tracks are predictable, as are some earthquakes. Tornado ``detuning'' or shutdown is electromagnetically possible. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.7

  18. Serological And Microbiological Studies Of Contagious Caprine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medium and a commercial freeze-dried CCPP diagnostic medium. A total of 1,927 sera were screened serologically using the latex agglutination test. The major clinical features of the sick goats were dyspnoea, coughing, muco-purulent nasal discharge and pyrexia, and 60 of 74 goats had pathological features suggestive ...

  19. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) post-vaccinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, a vaccine strain denominated T1/44 has been introduced to Ethiopia to prepare vaccines for field use. A total of 228 cattle were vaccinated with vaccines produced from this seed strain in three different zones of Ethiopia. Post - vaccinal reaction affected the vaccinated animals with over all attack rate of 1.02% (95% ...

  20. Seroprevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Borana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survey has revealed that contact at watering points, restocking, lack of veterinary service, and large flock size were the major factors for the spread and occurrence of the disease in the area. In conclusion, the serological findings and questionnaire survey indicated that CCPP is the top major goat health problem in the area ...

  1. Genetic-Associated Reduced Efficiency and Safety of Cohort Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnitskyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Low efficiency of cohort immunization and postvaccinal complication are not always connected with vaccine unsatisfactory quality or violation of vaccination requirements by medical workers. The paper demonstrates that epidemic dynamics, disease clinical manifestation typical for it, efficiency and safety of immunization, postvaccinal complications incidence also closely interrelate with relative quantity of persons with anomalies (polymorphism of immune response genes and physiologic systems protected from disease development. Polymorphism of these genes has a spontaneous development by single nucleotide polymorphism and deletions forming apportioning in next generations according to Mendel’s laws. Polymorphism accumulation involved into infectious diseases pathogenesis is ironically a result of progress in control of contagious cycle infections, particularly natural smallpox. There was taken off a selective pressure from a population that extracted persons unable to react effectively on infectious agents invasion. Velocity of polymorphism accumulation is growing in relatively genetically homogeneous population (inhabitants of island countries and in populations with typical intermarriages. It is impossible to refuse from control of contagious infectious agents. So we should expect of increase of registered postvaccinal complication associated rather with human genome peculiarity than with other reasons. That causes the necessity to adjust a strategy of immunization of various cohorts and methods for determining the reasons of postvaccinal complications. The paper also describes polymorphism of immune response genes significantly associated with low effectiveness of vaccination against measles, rubella, epidemic parotitis, B hepatitis and complications after live smallpox and tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

  2. Paraneoplastic Pemphigus and Autoimmune Blistering Diseases Associated with Neoplasm: Characteristics, Diagnosis, Associated Neoplasms, Proposed Pathogenesis, Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartan, Saritha; Shi, Vivian Y; Clark, Ashley K; Chan, Lawrence S

    2017-02-01

    Autoimmune paraneoplastic and neoplasm-associated skin syndromes are characterized by autoimmune-mediated cutaneous lesions in the presence of a neoplasm. The identification of these syndromes provides information about the underlying tumor, systemic symptoms, and debilitating complications. The recognition of these syndromes is particularly helpful in cases of skin lesions presenting as the first sign of the malignancy, and the underlying malignancy can be treated in a timely manner. Autoimmune paraneoplastic and neoplasm-associated bullous skin syndromes are characterized by blister formation due to an autoimmune response to components of the epidermis or basement membrane in the context of a neoplasm. The clinical manifestations, histopathology and immunopathology findings, target antigens, associated neoplasm, current diagnostic criteria, current understanding of pathogenesis, and treatment options for a selection of four diseases are reviewed. Paraneoplastic pemphigus manifests with clinically distinct painful mucosal erosions and polymorphic cutaneous lesions, and is often associated with lymphoproliferative neoplasm. In contrast, bullous pemphigoid associated with neoplasm presents with large tense subepidermal bullae of the skin, and mild mucosal involvement, but without unique clinical features. Mucous membrane pemphigoid associated with neoplasm is a disorder of chronic subepithelial blisters that evolve into erosions and ulcerations that heal with scarring, and involves stratified squamous mucosal surfaces. Linear IgA dermatosis associated with neoplasm is characterized by annularly grouped pruritic papules, vesicles, and bullae along the extensor surfaces of elbows, knees, and buttocks. Physicians should be aware that these autoimmune paraneoplastic and neoplasm-associated syndromes can manifest distinct or similar clinical features as compared with the non-neoplastic counterparts.

  3. O alcoolismo é uma doença contagiosa? Representações sobre o contágio e a doença de ex-bebedores Is alcoholism a contagious disease? Representations on contagion and disease of ex-drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edemilson Antunes de Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca estabelecer os contornos de uma teoria cultural do contágio a propósito da doença alcoólica. Assim, ao contrário do modelo biomédico, que circunscreve o contágio ao âmbito biológico e fisiológico atestado clinicamente, busca-se refletir sobre as concepções do contágio ligadas a um contexto sociocultural específico, tal como o proposto pela associação de ex-bebedores dos Alcoólicos Anônimos (AA. A partir de pesquisa etnográfica realizada com familiares e membros do grupo Sapopemba de AA, localizado em bairro da periferia da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, enfatiza-se o papel desta entidade como um espaço privilegiado para o estudo antropológico da experiência do alcoolismo, entendido como uma doença "contagiosa", a partir de um estudo das representações culturais, das práticas sociais e da (reconstrução da identidade, ligadas ao par alcoolismo/doença. Com efeito, evidencia-se que, para os membros de AA e seus familiares, as possibilidades de contágio da doença alcoólica estão diretamente ligadas às representações construídas sobre o álcool e o alcoolismo, entendido como uma doença física e moral e a seus efeitos sobre o conjunto de relações sociais - familiares e profissionais -, nas quais o ex-bebedor está envolvido.This article is an attempt to set the contours of a cultural theory of contagion about alcoholism. This way, instead of the biomedical model, which circumscribes contagion to the clinically confirmed biological and physiological environment, we try to reflect on the conceptions of contagion associated to a specific social and cultural context, like the one proposed by the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA association of ex-drinkers. From the ethnographic research conducted within family in the Sapopemba group of AA, located in a neighbourhood in the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, the role of this agency as a privileged place for anthropological study of alcoholism is

  4. Ibrutinib-Associated Skin Toxicity: A Case of Maculopapular Rash in a 79-Year Old Caucasian Male Patient with Relapsed Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders Bisgaard; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; d'Amore, Francesco

    2017-03-13

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinamia (WM) is a rare malignant lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by monoclonal IgM paraproteinemia and neoplastic proliferation of malignant lymphoplasmacytoid cells in the bone marrow. Traditionally, WM has been treated with modalities similar to those used in the management of other indolent lymphomas. Just recently, based on impressive clinical trial results in heavily pretreated WM patients, a new Bruton Tyrosine Kinase-inhibitor, Ibrutinib, has been approved for the treatment of this disorder. As the use of Ibrutinib in WM outside clinical trials is still limited, only few clinical reports illustrating treatment side effects are currently available. Here we review the current literature specific on Ibrutinib-associated rash in hematologic patients, and report on an elderly patient with WM, who developed a red maculopapular non-pruritic rash 12 weeks after starting Ibrutinib therapy. Without modifications of the ongoing Ibrutinib schedule, the rash regressed within two weeks of treatment with topical steroid-containing dermatological compounds.

  5. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  6. Pruritic and vascular responses induced by serotonin in patients with atopic dermatitis and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausl, Aram; Nordlind, Klas; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with often severe itch. The aim of this study was to determine the pruritogenic and vascular effect of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in patients with AD and in healthy controls. A 50 µg dose of 5-HT was injected intradermally into non-lesional skin of 25 patients with AD and 25 healthy control individuals, and the effect compared with 0.2 µg histamine as a positive control, and buffer as a negative control. Pruritus was recorded by the subjects, using a computerized visual analogue scale, while flare and wheal were recorded by the investigator. There was no qualitative or quantitative difference in 5-HT-induced itch between patients and control subjects, or between males and females. However, reduced flare and wheal were found in the patient group for 5-HT. There were no correlations between clinical findings (i.e. eczema severity, clinical pruritus) and recorded experimental itch, or flare or wheal responses for 5-HT, in the patients with AD. In both groups a shorter itch latency was found for 5-HT compared with histamine. Through the use of intradermal injections, making it possible to calculate the dose of substance delivered, a lower vascular response to 5-HT was shown in patients with AD compared with healthy controls. In addition to confirming a pruritogenic role of 5-HT in both patients with AD and healthy controls, we found a shorter itch latency for 5-HT compared with histamine in both groups. The short itch latency time may indicate a direct effect of 5-HT on itch receptors.

  7. Anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Centella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated antipruritic and anti-inflammatory effect of Centella asiatica extract in rats and anti-allergic in vitro using sheep (Capra hircus) serum method and compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation method, compared with standard drug ketotifen fumarate. In rats, extract of Centella asiatica administered ...

  8. Ibrutinib-Associated Skin Toxicity: A Case of Maculopapular Rash in a 79-Year Old Caucasian Male Patient with Relapsed Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders Bisgaard; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; d’Amore, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinamia (WM) is a rare malignant lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by monoclonal IgM paraproteinemia and neoplastic proliferation of malignant lymphoplasmacytoid cells in the bone marrow. Traditionally, WM has been treated with modalities similar to those used in the management of other indolent lymphomas. Just recently, based on impressive clinical trial results in heavily pretreated WM patients, a new Bruton Tyrosine Kinase-inhibitor, Ibrutinib, has been approved for the treatment of this disorder. As the use of Ibrutinib in WM outside clinical trials is still limited, only few clinical reports illustrating treatment side effects are currently available. Here we review the current literature specific on Ibrutinib-associated rash in hematologic patients, and report on an elderly patient with WM, who developed a red maculopapular non-pruritic rash 12 weeks after starting Ibrutinib therapy. Without modifications of the ongoing Ibrutinib schedule, the rash regressed within two weeks of treatment with topical steroid-containing dermatological compounds. PMID:28469834

  9. Reactive eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis secondary to primary cutaneous amyloidosis: a novel association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggini, Andrea; Mully, Thaddeus

    2014-04-01

    We report the unprecedented case of reactive eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) secondary to primary cutaneous amyloidosis. A 62-year-old woman of Asian ethnicity presented with a pruritic rash on the back of long-standing duration. Physical examination revealed diffuse hyperpigmentation localized to the interscapular region; there were a multitude of hyperpigmented macules merged in a rippled pattern intermixed with scattered papules and cobblestone-like areas. A punch biopsy from a papule was taken. Histopathological examination revealed a network of epithelial strands and cords hanging from the epidermis and harboring foci of ductal differentiation. Eosinophilic collections of amorphous material were found between the epithelial strands, obscuring the superficial dermis. The microscopic picture was consistent with primary cutaneous amyloidosis associated with reactive ESFA. Results of histochemical and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis. We speculate that pathogenetic mechanisms intrinsic to primary cutaneous amyloidosis, in addition to unknown genetic factors, resulted in clinical changes of lichen amyloidosus associated with an abnormal hyperplastic epithelial response with histopathological features of ESFA rather than the common epidermal change of acanthosis and hyperkeratosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with secondary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunza-Stefan, Simona; Acharya, Gyanendra; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Vukasinov, Paunel; Chiou, Yushan; Thet, Zeyar

    2017-03-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a condition associated with paradoxical worsening and/or new onset of an opportunistic infection in HIV patients following the initiation of anti-retroviral therapy or switching to more potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. Although IRIS associated with many opportunistic infections (OIs) has been well reported, syphilis has very rarely been mentioned in this regard. A 52-year-old male, diagnosed with AIDS six weeks ago, presented with the disseminated non-pruritic painless skin rash. He denied any fever, cough, shortness of breath, and joint pain or swelling. The patient had no similar symptoms, genital ulcers, or any medical illness in the past. CD4 cell count and viral load were 40 cells/mm 3 and 280,000 copies/ml, respectively, while screening tests for OIs including rapid plasma reagin test, quantiferon, cryptococcal antigen, and toxoplasma tests were negative at the time of HIV diagnosis. After three days of initiation of anti-retroviral therapy, he developed the above-mentioned skin rash. Repeat rapid plasma regain (RPR) test at this time was also negative. Punch biopsy of the skin lesion demonstrated findings suggestive of secondary syphilitic lesions, which was confirmed by immunostain. The repeat RPR, CD4 cell count, and viral load showed a titer of 1:256, 257 cells/mm 3 , and 5000 copies/ml, respectively. His skin rashes faded away, and RPR titer trended down on treatment with benzathine penicillin without discontinuation of ART. The presence of an IRIS response does not predict overall HIV or OI treatment responses, and discontinuation of ART is not generally recommended as the benefits of treating HIV infection outweighs the risk associated with IRIS.

  11. Comorbidity of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and neutropenia associated with lamotrigine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Hashimoto, Kojiro; Tsuruga, Koji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman with a medical history of depressive mood arrived and was treated with lamotrigine at 25 mg/day. On day 10, a high fever of 39.3 °C and a diffuse, erythematous, pruritic full-body rash involving the palms of her hands and the soles of her feet developed, and she was diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). On day 17, white blood cell count (WBC) result was 1,240/μl with 54.1% neutrophils (670/μl), and the WBC decreased to 840/μl with 60.7% neutrophils (510/μl) on day 18. The trend toward improvement included skin symptoms after steroid pulse therapy using 1000 mg/day. Based on the clinical course, we concluded that the SJS and leukopenia and/or neutropenia are associated with lamotrigine. Monitoring of WBC should be kept in mind when administering lamotrigine. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Severe Foot Lesions in Dairy Goats Associated with Digital Dermatitis Treponemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby-Durrani, H E; Clegg, S R; Singer, E; Angell, J W; Evans, N J; Carter, S D; Blundell, R J; Duncan, J S

    2016-05-01

    Treponeme-associated foot disease has been described in cattle with digital dermatitis and sheep with contagious ovine digital dermatitis. In this study, severe foot lesions in dairy goats associated with digital dermatitis treponemes (i.e. Treponema medium, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pedis) were characterized macroscopically, radiographically and histologically. The main macroscopic foot lesion was of extensive solar ulceration with or without exophytic papilliform hyperkeratosis. Radiographically, the distal phalanx and distal sesamoid bones were severely damaged and remodelled. Histologically, the lesion was categorized as a chronic lymphoplasmacytic, suppurative and ulcerative pododermatitis. Immunohistochemistry identified the spirochaetal microorganisms located extracellularly in the superficial horn. Study limitations mean that the treponeme bacteria could not be considered the sole or causal agents in the cases described. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidis...

  14. Palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis associated with the initiation of etanercept in rheumatoid arthritis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lun Chou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD is an unusual entity with variable clinical manifestations and histopathological features. It is associated with a variety of immune-mediated systemic diseases, most commonly in rheumatoid arthritis. We report a 42-year-old female with a long-standing history of rheumatoid arthritis, presenting with multiple pruritic erythematous papules and nodules on the lower legs 1 month after beginning treatment with etanercept. Microscopic examination of a fully developed lesion showed a diffuse dense interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrate interspersed with palisaded granulomas consisting of epithelioid histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells surrounding central zones of degenerated collagen, neutrophils and leukocytoclastic debris. A diagnosis of PNGD was made on the basis of typical histopathologic features. Withdrawal of etanercept led to gradual resolution of the skin lesions, with no new skin lesions appearing afterwards. Although the correlation between the use of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α antagonists and the development of PNGD remains controversial and warrants further investigation, PNGD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin eruptions within a setting of anti-TNF-α therapy.

  15. Flame figures associated with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy: is it possible to distinguish the condition from eosinophilic cellulitis in patients with hematoproliferative disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianjun; Sun, Chang-E; Zhu, Weifang; Zhu, Dingxian; Fang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a multifaceted dermatosis with a wide morphological spectrum, presenting as pruritic, erythematous, papular and occasionally vesicular, urticarial, nodular eruptions. Histopathologically eosinophil infiltration in the super and deep dermis was found. We reported a case of eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy presented as urticarial and vesicular lesions in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A skin biopsy revealed a prominent subepidermal blister and a diffuse infiltrate of eosinophils with flame figures in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Although flame figures associated with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is rarely reported, we believe that it would not seem unusual to find them in this skin disease. Eosinophilic cellulitis, which share clinical and histological features with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy, has also been described as showing an association with hematoproliferative diseases. In order to clearly describe eosinophilic dermatosis in patients with hematologic malignancies, the terminology eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy, instead of eosinophilic cellulitis, would be a more suitable term in patients with eosinophilic dermatosis.

  16. Contagious Tolerance: Creating Safe Schools for Our Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is premised on a research study that was conducted with a group of secondary teachers. The study examined how teachers grappled with issues surrounding homophobia and heterosexism in their schools. For the purpose of this presentation, some of the findings from this study have been applied to the college campus. Specifically, the…

  17. Sero-Prevalence of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneu- monia in Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Region is characterized by an arid and semi- arid climate. Study Design, Sample size and sampling ... Complement fix- ation test was used for testing the antibody of CCPP. The test was undertaken according to the standard operating procedures by OIE, (2004). Data Analysis. Data collected from the field and ...

  18. Tattoo Infections, Personal Resistance, and Contagious Exposure through Tattooing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infection of tattoos remains a common complication. Pyogenic bacteria can cause infections shortly after the tattoo is made. Severity of infection varies from minor to major, ultimately with life-threatening septicemia. Viral infections may be introduced, i.e. HVB, HVC, and HIV. The risk...... of infection depends on the following triad: microbial pathogen and its aggressiveness, individual resistance of the tattooed, and inoculation and exposures by the tattoo needle and in the tattoo parlor. Some infectious risks can be controlled. Persons with weaknesses can refrain from tattooing. Tattoo parlors...... and tattooing can be hygienic and clean albeit not sterile; much has improved helped by hygiene guidelines of professional tattooists' organizations and through control instituted by local and national authorities. Tattoo inks remain a potential source of infection difficult to control in a low...

  19. Tattoo Infections, Personal Resistance, and Contagious Exposure through Tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infection of tattoos remains a common complication. Pyogenic bacteria can cause infections shortly after the tattoo is made. Severity of infection varies from minor to major, ultimately with life-threatening septicemia. Viral infections may be introduced, i.e. HVB, HVC, and HIV. The risk of infection depends on the following triad: microbial pathogen and its aggressiveness, individual resistance of the tattooed, and inoculation and exposures by the tattoo needle and in the tattoo parlor. Some infectious risks can be controlled. Persons with weaknesses can refrain from tattooing. Tattoo parlors and tattooing can be hygienic and clean albeit not sterile; much has improved helped by hygiene guidelines of professional tattooists' organizations and through control instituted by local and national authorities. Tattoo inks remain a potential source of infection difficult to control in a low-priced competitive market operating over the Internet and across national borders. Ten percent of new inks are contaminated with bacteria pathogenic to humans, independent of a claim of 'sterility'. Known brands and established manufacturers are considered safer. Work is in progress aiming at common European standards for tattoo hygiene. Doctors have a role not only in treating tattoo infections but also in reporting cases to the competent authority in their country to support the monitoring of tattoo infections at any time, as an instrument for the authority to detect local outbreaks of tattoo infections early and prevent that new tattoo customers become infected. It is a potential risk of the future that new and very aggressive bacteria not seen in the past may unexpectedly show up in the tattoo scene. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Contagious bank failures in a free banking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghion, P.; Bolton, P.; Dewatripont, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a model of an unregulated banking system based around a private clearing house arrangement. Whilst such a system may dominate one with a public safety net in reducing moral hazard in lending and therefore the scope for individual bank insolvency, it also increases the likelihood

  1. Development of a novel vaccine for contagious caprine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... grow efficiently, express protective Mccp antigens, and be used either as a live or inactivated vaccine. This 24-month project is a collaboration between the University of Bern in Switzerland, the Institut national de la recherche agronomique at the University of Bordeaux, France, and the J. Craig Venter Institute in the USA.

  2. Movies and literature to implement the study of contagious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Begoña Carretero, María

    2011-01-01

    Hemos planteado una experiencia en la que se han utilizado el cine, la literatura y el trabajo de laboratorio como soportes que nos ayuden a desarrollar, de una forma más amena y participativa, la adquisición de nuevos aprendizajes relacionados con la transmisión y el contagio de algunas enfermedades infecciosas. Se ha elegido el texto de Saramago “Ensayo sobre la ceguera” y su correspondiente versión cinematográfica “A ciegas” como herramientas de trabajo. Con ello hemos querido desarrollar ...

  3. A Contagious Malady: The Human Quest for Truth through Religion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A unique characteristic of mankind is rationality, an element which distinguishes man from animals, and which enables man to think intelligently and reach conclusions. It manifests itself in human cognitive potency and gives room for diverse views among men on the objects of knowledge and beliefs – both of which are ...

  4. A contagious disease of salmon, possibly of virus origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R.R.; Whipple, W.J.; Parvin, J.R.; Evans, C.A.

    1953-01-01

    Production records for 1885, 1891–1908, and 1929–49, indicate cyclic fluctuations for several important species of fish. The average annual take (all species) of 3,582,000 pounds in 1929–49 was 3,503,000 pounds below the 1891–1908 mean of 7,085,000 pounds. Decline in the output of lake herring alone from 5,841,000 pounds in 1891–1908 to 1,070,000 pounds in 1929–49—a drop of 4,771,000 pounds—more than accounted for the decrease. For species other than lake herring the combined output increased from 1,244,000 pounds in 1891–1908 to 2,512,000 in 1929–49—a rise of 1,268,000 pounds. The 1929–49 fluctuations of abundance (as estimated from records of catch per unit of effort) were considerable for all principal species. In the late years of the period, lake trout were scarce as the result of sealamprey depredations, but the abundance levels of whitefish, lake herring, and walleyes were extremely high; at the same time the smelt was showing good recovery from the disastrous 1943 mortality. With certain exceptions, correlations between fluctuations of fishing intensity and the abundance of individual species were low, probably because most operations are based on several species and hence not ordinarily sensitive to changes in the abundance of a particular one. A combination of intensive fishing and high abundance of three principal species carried the production to 5% million pounds in 1947 and the modern record high of between 7% and 8 million pounds in 1948 and 1949. With this prosperity has developed a most difficult situation arising from friction between local commercial fishermen and newcomers from other areas and from the activities of sport fishermen and resort owners who believe that drastic restrictions on commercial fishing will insure a perpetual high level of abundance of walleyes. Statistics for 1950 are given in a supplement.

  5. When and How Goals Are Contagious in Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Goal contagion occurs when a perceiver interacts with a partner whose behavior implies he/she is pursuing a particular goal and the perceiver accurately infers and subsequently pursues the partner's goal. Goal contagion was assessed in conversations between unacquainted individuals. In 2 experiments, the ways in which goal specificity, inference…

  6. Development of a Vaccine for Eradicating Contagious Bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La pleuropneumonie contagieuse des bovins est une maladie d'origine bactérienne qui a de graves conséquences sur l'économie et le commerce en Afrique ... Production durable de légumes sous-utilisés en vue d'améliorer la sécurité alimentaire en milieu ruralrity (Les légumes indigènes revêtent une importance ...

  7. Movies and literature to implement the study of contagious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Carretero, María

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemos planteado una experiencia en la que se han utilizado el cine, la literatura y el trabajo de laboratorio como soportes que nos ayuden a desarrollar, de una forma más amena y participativa, la adquisición de nuevos aprendizajes relacionados con la transmisión y el contagio de algunas enfermedades infecciosas. Se ha elegido el texto de Saramago “Ensayo sobre la ceguera” y su correspondiente versión cinematográfica “A ciegas” como herramientas de trabajo. Con ello hemos querido desarrollar la capacidad lectora de nuestro alumnado, a la vez que fomentamos la adquisición de nuevos conocimientos científicos que ayuden a mejorar su alfabetización científica, intentando conectar ciencia y vida cotidiana.

  8. Plagued by kindness: contagious sympathy in Shakespearean drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Eric

    2011-12-01

    This article considers Shakespeare's metaphors of transmission, contagion and infection in the light of period plague tracts, medical treatises and plague time literature. The author demonstrates how period conceptions of disease are predicated upon a notion of sympathetic transference and, consequently, how kindness, likeness and communication between characters in Shakespearean drama are complicated and fraught with period specific anxiety. This article situates Shakespearean literary texts within a precise historical and medical moment, considering how scientific conceptions contaminate dramatic text.

  9. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance Strategies in Contagious Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccioli, Alice; Kokholm, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    analytical tractability, we introduce self-exciting jumps in the underlying dynamics via Hawkes processes. Within this framework we derive the loss probability when trading is performed continuously. Moreover, we estimate measures of the risk involved in the practical implementation of discrete...

  10. "Contagious Co-Motion": Student Voices on Being Change Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitenauer, Vicki L.; Korzun, Tetiana; Lane, Kimberly; Roberts, Melinda Joy

    2015-01-01

    Designed in response to students' requests for a capstone where they could form their own individual partnerships in the communities of their choosing, Effective Change Agent offers a structure for community-based learning that allows for high levels of student choice-making and agency. In this article, the authors describe the course; connect it…

  11. CONTAGIOUS EFFECTS OF OIL PRICES ON ASIAN STOCK MARKETS’ BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jok-Tong Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the stock markets’ shock due to the effect of the price of oil in the East Asia Region. Particularly, this study examines if there is stock market interdependence during global oil price shocks (sudden changes for a sample of five total oil importers (the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan, four net oil importers (Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and China, and one net oil exporter (Malaysia between 1999 and 2014. From the result, an oil price change is collectively found to have a small but significant positive impact on the stock markets, in particular where a sudden decrease in oil prices tends to cause a stock market downturn and volatility. The world economy’s spending, financial investments in oil futures and foreign investment by oil rich nations are some underlying motives for inducing this oil-stock positive relation. The same direction of time-varying conditional correlations is found across East Asian stock markets during negative oil price shocks. The integration among East Asian stock markets is inducing the oil shock contagion to be transmitted from direct oil-affected countries (South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore to non-direct oil affected countries’ (Japan and Taiwan stock markets. In spite of a long practiced ASEAN+3 macroeconomics surveillance process and Early Warning System (EWS which can be customized for stock markets to prevent or detect the oil risk, hedging against initial oil-affected stock markets and a stronger influence by the East Asian countries in the global world of oil and capital investment are strongly suggested.

  12. Evolução dos isolamentos em doenças transmissíveis: os saberes na prática contemporânea Evolución del aislamiento en las enfermedades transmisibles: los saberes en la práctica contemporánea Evolution of the isolation of contagious diseases: knowledge in contemporary practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Yasuko Izumi Nichiata

    2004-03-01

    that were formulated and implemented. Since the beginning of the modern nursing, in the XIX century, the elements of the isolation practice for contagious diseases have remained basically the same. In other words, the emphasis on the use of mechanical, chemical and environmental barriers are given, based on inherent specificities of each part of the infectious chain process.

  13. Costs and cost-effectiveness of the nursing programme 'Coping with itch' for patients with chronic pruritic skin disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, H.; Guikers, C. L. H.; Eland-de Kok, P. C. M.; Ros, W. J. G.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.; Buskens, E.

    Background Itch, a major symptom of many skin diseases, has a great impact on quality of life. The nursing programme 'Coping with itch' aims at reducing itch and at helping patients to cope with itch. Objectives To explore costs and cost-effectiveness of the programme. Methods A randomized

  14. Quantitative analysis of risk factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenga, Justine A; Matemba, Lucas E; Malakalinga, Joseph J; Muller, Shabani K; Kazwala, Rudovick R

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected contagious bacterial disease of public health and economic importance. Nevertheless, its spread is not well known to many livestock farmers. Unmatched case control study was carried out to identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle and goats at the herd level in Mpanda, Mlele and Nsimbo districts of Katavi region, in Tanzania between September 2012 and July 2013. A total of 138 adult respondents were selected randomly for the interview using a structured questionnaire. The criterion for inclusion was to have at least one Brucella-positive animal in the herd while the control was chosen from among the herds which these animals tested negative. The presence of seropositive herds were statistically linked (P brucellosis between animals and humans and the implementation of disease prevention and control programmes.

  15. Association of Drought with Typhus Epidemics in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna-Soto, R.; Stahle, D.; Villanueva Diaz, J.; Therrell, M.

    2007-05-01

    Typhus is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Rickettsia prowazekii, which is transmitted among humans by the body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). The disease is highly contagious and transmission is favored in populations living in crowded conditions. Under these circumstances, typhus transmission is facilitated by factors that favor the colonization and proliferation of body lice such as absence of personal hygiene and wearing the same clothes for long periods of time. Historically, periods of war and famine were associated with devastating epidemics with high mortality rates in many parts of the world. Central Mexico has a long record of typhus epidemics. In this region, at > 2000 meters above sea level, the disease was endemic and occurred with a seasonal pattern in winter, with occasional large epidemics. Recently, we completed a chronology of epidemics in Mexico. A total of 22 well-defined major typhus epidemics were identified between 1650 and 1920. All of them caused periods of increased mortality that lasted 2 - 4 years (more than one standard deviation from the previous ten year period). The record of typhus epidemics was evaluated against the tree-ring record of Cuauhtmoc La Fragua, Puebla. This chronology, based on Douglas fir, has demonstrated to be a faithful record of precipitation in central Mexico. The results indicate that a statistically significant drought (t test, p war. This indicates that drought alone was capable of inducing the social conditions for increased transmission of typhus in pre-industrial central Mexico.

  16. Meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of bovine paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Giulietta; Williams, John L; Stella, Alessandra; Strozzi, Francesco; Luini, Mario; Settles, Matthew L; Taylor, Jeremy F; Whitlock, Robert H; Zanella, Ricardo; Neibergs, Holly L

    2012-01-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis (ParaTB) also known as Johne's disease, is a contagious fatal disease resulting from infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Previous studies have identified loci associated with ParaTB using different measurements to define cases and controls. The objective of this study was to combine the data from two recent studies to identify genetic loci associated with MAP tissue infection and humoral immune response, defined by MAP ELISA-positive cattle, by comparing cases and control animals for one or both measures of infection. The two populations used for the association analyses were a cohort of MAP tissue infected animals and control Holstein cows from the USA and the second cohort composed of ELISA-positive and ELISA-negative Holstein cows from Italy. Altogether 1190 cattle were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. SNP markers were removed if the minor allele frequency 5%. Animals were removed with >5% genotyping failure. Whole genome association analyses were conducted with the GRAMMAR-CG method using two different definitions of control populations. The analyses identified several loci (Pdefinition when seeking to identify markers associated with different disease responses.

  17. Impact of moving to a new hospital build, with a high proportion of single rooms, on healthcare-associated infections and outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, E S R; Vasant, J; Leeming, J; Hammond, F; Matthews, S; Albur, M; Reynolds, R

    2017-06-27

    Clostridium difficile infection, meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Escherichia coli bacteraemia rates, and bed-days lost during norovirus outbreaks at North Bristol NHS Trust were analysed over a five-year period to determine whether moving to a new-build hospital with 75% single rooms reduced healthcare-associated infection rates. C. difficile, MSSA bacteraemia and E. coli bacteraemia showed no change in the rate of decline after the move. Bed-days lost due to norovirus were significantly lower after the move. Increased availability of single rooms had an impact on the transmission of highly contagious norovirus infection, dispersed via the airborne route, in contrast to bacterial infections, which may originate from patient's own colonizing flora and are not widely dispersed through airborne spread. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A high incidence of exanthematous eruption associated with niacin/laropiprant combination in Hong Kong Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y-L; Hu, M; Chang, M; Tomlinson, B

    2013-12-01

    Niacin commonly causes cutaneous flushing, which is partially alleviated by laropiprant, a selective antagonist of prostaglandin D2 at the DP1 receptor. Here we report an unusually high incidence of exanthematous eruption associated with the use of the extended-release (ER) niacin/laropiprant combination treatment in Hong Kong Chinese patients. Among 201 patients treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1000/20 mg over 7 days to assess flushing symptoms and 166 of the patients who continued the treatment for 12 weeks (doubling the dose after 4 weeks), 28 patients (14%) developed a highly pruritic cutaneous eruption at a mean of 5 days after starting the treatment or 4 days after increasing the dose. This resolved over several days after drug withdrawal with symptomatic treatment. Compared with the subjects who completed 12-weeks treatment uneventfully, those who developed cutaneous eruption were older, had significantly lower body weight, were taking background lipid-lowering treatment more frequently and had greater flushing responses in the first few days of treatment. The relationship of the exanthematous eruption with lower body weight and the increase in dosage suggests a pharmacokinetic effect that may be related to increased exposure to niacin or its metabolites and provoked by inhibition of the DP1 receptor with laropiprant, as we have not seen this rash with niacin used alone. This may suggest that the southern Chinese population may have some genetic predisposition; as such, a high frequency of exanthematous reactions has not been reported in other populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dermatoses of Pregnancy - Clues to Diagnosis, Fetal Risk and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros-Rudolph, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    The specific dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of pruritic skin diseases that have been recently reclassified and include pemphigoid (herpes) gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (syn. pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. They are associated with severe pruritus that should never be neglected in pregnancy but always lead to an exact work-up of the patient. Clinical charac...

  20. Case for diagnosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Reis, José Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Human scabies is an intensely pruritic skin infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Crusted scabies (previously known as Norwegian scabies) is a rare form, very contagious and transmitted by direct contact with the skin. Despite being readily treatable, a delayed diagnosis often leads to widespread infestation of contacts, and therefore difficult to restrain. This case concerns a patient where dermoscopy (with scabetic burrows and a visible hand-glider structure), together with direct microscopic examination, allowed a prompt diagnosis, thereby reinforcing the increasing importance of this technique in daily practice. PMID:24173196

  1. Meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of bovine paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulietta Minozzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine paratuberculosis (ParaTB also known as Johne's disease, is a contagious fatal disease resulting from infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. Previous studies have identified loci associated with ParaTB using different measurements to define cases and controls. The objective of this study was to combine the data from two recent studies to identify genetic loci associated with MAP tissue infection and humoral immune response, defined by MAP ELISA-positive cattle, by comparing cases and control animals for one or both measures of infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The two populations used for the association analyses were a cohort of MAP tissue infected animals and control Holstein cows from the USA and the second cohort composed of ELISA-positive and ELISA-negative Holstein cows from Italy. Altogether 1190 cattle were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. SNP markers were removed if the minor allele frequency 5%. Animals were removed with >5% genotyping failure. Whole genome association analyses were conducted with the GRAMMAR-CG method using two different definitions of control populations. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The analyses identified several loci (P<5 e-05 associated with ParaTB, defined by positive ELISA and presence of bacteria in tissue compared to ELISA and tissue negative animals, on chromosomes 1, 12 and 15 and one unassigned SNP. These results confirmed associations on chromosome 12 and the unassigned SNP with ParaTB which had been found in the Italian population alone. Furthermore, several additional genomic regions were found associated with ParaTB when ELISA and tissue positive animals were compared with tissue negative samples. These loci were on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 13, 16, 21,23 and 25 (P<5 e-05. The results clearly indicate the importance of the phenotype definition when seeking to identify markers associated with different disease responses.

  2. Association of SLC11A1 gene polymorphism with caprine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-01-16

    Jan 16, 2017 ... Introduction. Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is considered as one of the most serious, contagious, ... that limiting the spread of the disease may be possible through selective breeding of animals based on ... increased keratinocyte chemoattractant (chemokine KC), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),.

  3. OB Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, A. G. A.; Blaauw, A.; Hoogerwerf, R.; de Bruijne, J.~H.~J.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: Since the previous (1990) edition of this meeting enormous progress in the field of OB associations has been made. Data from X-ray satellites have greatly advanced the study of the low-mass stellar content of associations, while astrometric data from the Hipparcos satellite allow for a characterization of the higher-mass content of associations with unprecedented accuracy. We review recent work on the OB associations located within 1.5 kpc from the Sun, discuss the Hipparcos results...

  4. Herd- and cow-level risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy farms from the High Plains of the northern Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, N F; Keefe, G; Dohoo, I; Sánchez, J; Arroyave, O; Cerón, J; Jaramillo, M; Palacio, L G

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is the main disease entity affecting dairy farms in the Colombian High Plains of northern Antioquia, Colombia. However, no previous epidemiologic studies have determined the characteristics that increase the risk of infection in this region, where manual milking is still the prevailing system of milking. A 24-mo longitudinal study was designed to identify the predominant mastitis pathogens and important herd- and cow-level risk factors. Monthly visits were made to 37 commercial dairy farms to collect herd- and cow-level data and milk samples. Herd size varied from 6 to 136 cows (mean 37.0, median 29). Herd-level factors included type of milking system (manual or mechanical) and a range of management practices recommended by the National Mastitis Council (Madison, WI) to prevent mastitis. Individual cow-level risk factors included parity, stage of lactation, breed, udder hygiene, and lameness. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between herd- and cow-level risk factors with the presence of subclinical mastitis and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae at the quarter level. A quarter was considered to have subclinical mastitis if it had a positive California Mastitis Test and was subsequently confirmed to have a somatic cell count of ≥200,000 cells/mL. Any cow with one or more quarters with subclinical mastitis was considered to have subclinical mastitis at the cow level. Using 17,622 cow observations, the mean prevalence of subclinical mastitis at the cow level was 37.2% (95% confidence interval: 31.2, 43.3) for the first month and did not substantially change throughout the study. The predominant microorganisms isolated from quarters meeting the subclinical mastitis definition were contagious pathogens, including Strep. agalactiae (34.4%), Corynebacterium spp. (13.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Significant variables associated with subclinical mastitis risk at the quarter level included being a purebred

  5. Bovine Genome-wide Association Study for Genetic Elements to Resist the Infection of Foot-and-mouth Disease in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Young; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Lee, Taeheon; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Chung, Dong-Su; Shim, Hang-Sub; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal

    2015-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and causes severe economic loss and devastating effect on international trade of animal or animal products. Since FMD outbreaks have recently occurred in some Asian countries, it is important to understand the relationship between diverse immunogenomic structures of host animals and the immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We performed genome wide association study based on high-density bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip for identifying FMD resistant loci in Holstein cattle. Among 624532 SNP after quality control, we found that 11 SNPs on 3 chromosomes (chr17, 22, and 15) were significantly associated with the trait at the p.adjust <0.05 after PERMORY test. Most significantly associated SNPs were located on chromosome 17, around the genes Myosin XVIIIB and Seizure related 6 homolog (mouse)-like, which were associated with lung cancer. Based on the known function of the genes nearby the significant SNPs, the FMD resistant animals might have ability to improve their innate immune response to FMDV infection.

  6. Bovine Genome-wide Association Study for Genetic Elements to Resist the Infection of Foot-and-mouth Disease in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Young; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Lee, Taeheon; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Chung, Dong-Su; Shim, Hang-Sub; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and causes severe economic loss and devastating effect on international trade of animal or animal products. Since FMD outbreaks have recently occurred in some Asian countries, it is important to understand the relationship between diverse immunogenomic structures of host animals and the immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We performed genome wide association study based on high-density bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip for identifying FMD resistant loci in Holstein cattle. Among 624532 SNP after quality control, we found that 11 SNPs on 3 chromosomes (chr17, 22, and 15) were significantly associated with the trait at the p.adjust <0.05 after PERMORY test. Most significantly associated SNPs were located on chromosome 17, around the genes Myosin XVIIIB and Seizure related 6 homolog (mouse)-like, which were associated with lung cancer. Based on the known function of the genes nearby the significant SNPs, the FMD resistant animals might have ability to improve their innate immune response to FMDV infection. PMID:25557811

  7. SNPs in candidate genes MX dynamin-like GTPase and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-5 are associated with ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma progression in Latxa sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruskain, A; Esparza-Baquer, A; Minguijón, E; Juste, R A; Jugo, B M

    2015-12-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung cancer in sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). OPA is present in many sheep-rearing countries causing economic and welfare issues, as currently no efficient vaccines or treatments are available. Breed differences suggest a host genetic component may influence the pathogenesis of OPA, but so far few genes have been identified. In this work, a genetic association study was carried out in Latxa dairy sheep which were classified as cases/controls based on the presence/absence of OPA lung tumours. Candidate genes included cytokines and a receptor and innate immunity genes. After SNPs in the candidate genes were identified, the distribution of alleles in cases and controls was compared by means of logistic regression analyses at the allelic, genotypic and haplotypic levels. The association analysis showed that several candidate genes were significantly associated with resistance or susceptibility to OPA; two of the candidates, CCR5 and MX1, remained significantly associated with resistance and susceptibility respectively, even after Bonferroni correction. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Korean Red Ginseng Extract in a Murine Model of Atopic Dermatitis: Anti-pruritic and Anti-inflammatory Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) and ginsenosides exhibit diverse biological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of KRG in a murine model of atopic dermatitis (AD) is mediated whether by diminishing the pruritus or by suppressing the inflammation. Thirty NC/Nga mice were randomly divided to 5 groups. AD-like skin lesions were induced by percutaneous challenge with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chrolobenzene (TNCB) on the ears and backs of NC/Nga mice. KRG extract, evening primrose oil, cyclosporine, and phosphate-buffered saline were administered orally by a gastric tube. Each study group was also divided into scratching-permitted and scratching-restricted subgroups to evaluate the impact of scratching behavior on AD. The effects of KRG and the other agents were assessed by measuring the clinical severity score, ear thickness, extent of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), number of scratching movements, total systemic immunoglobulin E (IgE) and interleukin (IL)-31 levels, histologic changes of cutaneous lesions, and mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and IL-31. KRG exerts therapeutic effects against AD by inhibiting the T helper 2 (Th2) mediated inflammation as well as by diminishing the itching sensation. Moreover, restricting scratching behavior suppresses the vicious cycle of itching and scratching, thus reducing clinical and systemic inflammation in our murine model of AD. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. OB Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Anthony G. A.; Blaauw, A.; Hoogerwerf, R.; de Bruijne, J.~H.~J.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    1999-01-01

    Since the previous (1990) edition of this meeting enormous progress in the field of OB associations has been made. Data from X-ray satellites have greatly advanced the study of the low-mass stellar content of associations, while astrometric data from the Hipparcos satellite allow for a characterization of the higher-mass content of associations with unprecedented accuracy. We review recent work on the OB associations located within 1.5 kpc from the Sun, discuss the Hipparcos results at length...

  10. MURCS Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rme

    MURCS association is a rare developmental disorder that affects females. The acronym MURCS stands for Mullerian, Renal, ... agenesis of the left levator ani muscles with right deviation of anorectal canal,. Figures (5, 6). ... of other congenital anomalies led to the description of the MURCS association2 by Duncan in 1979.3 ...

  11. Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Remove of the staff association office   The Staff Association offices are going to be renovated during the coming four months, February to May 2014. The physical move from our current premises 64/R-002 to our temporary office in  510/R-010 will take place on Friday January 31st, so the Secretariat will be closed on that day. Hence, from Monday February 3rd until the end of May 2014 the Staff Association Secretariat will be located in 510/R-010 (entrance just across the CERN Printshop).    

  12. Atypical hand, foot and mouth disease in adults associated with coxsackievirus A6: a clinico-pathologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laga, Alvaro C; Shroba, Suzanne M; Hanna, John

    2016-11-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious illness most commonly occurring in children 5 years old or younger. The most common cause of HFMD in the United States is Coxsackievirus A16. HFMD is uncommon in adults, and may show other atypical features including a broader spectrum of cutaneous involvement and a greater degree of severity. We evaluated the clinical, histopathologic and molecular features of three cases of atypical HFMD occurring in adults. All three cases showed clinical features that were worrisome for erythema multiforme or a disseminated herpesvirus infection. The histopathologic findings were quite uniform, and showed intraepidermal vesiculation with a predominantly neutrophil-rich infiltrate. A characteristic feature was the specific involvement of the upper stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum, with relative sparing of the stratum corneum. In none of the cases was there evidence of herpesvirus. Molecular analysis performed on two of the cases showed involvement by Coxsackievirus A6, an uncommon serotype in HFMD. All three cases resolved spontaneously. Atypical HFMD associated with Coxsackievirus A6 represents an uncommon and potentially diagnostically challenging cutaneous eruption. Its recognition is critical to avoid unneeded therapy and to establish accurate prognostic expectations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Alzheimer's Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not share your information. * Required. View archives. Alzheimer's impact is growing Alzheimer's disease is the sixth- ... Last Updated: Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association advances research ...

  14. Genomic and transcriptomic comparison between Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with high and low within herd prevalence of intra-mammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, E; Cremonesi, P; Pietrelli, A; Puccio, S; Luini, M; Stella, A; Castiglioni, B

    2017-01-19

    Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus) is one of the major pathogens causing mastitis in dairy ruminants worldwide. The chronic nature of Staph. aureus infection enhances the contagiousness risk and diffusion in herds. In order to identify the factors involved in intra-mammary infection (IMI) and diffusion in dairy cows, we investigated the molecular characteristics of two groups of Staph. aureus strains belonging to ST8 and ST398, differing in clinical properties, through comparison of whole genome and whole transcriptome sequencing. The two groups of strains, one originated from high IMI prevalence herds and the other from low IMI prevalence herds, present a peculiar set of genes and polymorphisms related to phenotypic features, such as bacterial invasion of mammary epithelial cells and host adaptation. Transcriptomic analysis supports the high propensity of ST8 strain to chronicity of infection and to a higher potential cytotoxicity. Our data are consistent with the invasiveness and host adaptation feature for the strains GTB/ST8 associated to high within-herd prevalence of mastitis. Variation in genes coding for surface exposed proteins and those associated to virulence and defence could constitute good targets for further research.

  15. Primitive Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    This position paper presents a very simple mechanism, primitive associations, and argues that this mechanism is worth careful consideration in connection with the kind of support for program correctness that grows out of mechanisms for ownership, controlled aliasing, sharing, escape analysis...

  16. Associational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    2010-01-01

    significance in the modern workplace which is simultaneously characterized by self-management and standardization. It is concluded that the concept of control remains important, but needs to evolve from its focus on the work of individuals to a focus on the associational aspects of work if it is to retain its...

  17. Evidence for an ancestral association of human coronavirus 229E with bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corman, V. M.; Baldwin, H. J.; Tateno, A. F.; Zerbinati, R. M.; Annan, A.; Owusu, M.; Nkrumah, E. E.; Maganga, G. D.; Oppong, S.; Adu-Sarkodie, Y.; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, L. V. R. F.; Leroy, E. M.; Thiel, V.; van der Hoek, L.; Poon, L. L. M.; Tschapka, M.; Drosten, C.; Drexler, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 23 (2015), s. 11858-11870 ISSN 0022-538X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : respiratory syndrome coronavirus * SARS-coronavirus * genomic characterization * dromedary camels * clinical impact * virus * children * protein * spike * classification Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 4.606, year: 2015

  18. Factors associated with late presentation of suspected tuberculosis cases to tuberculosis management facilities: The case in Dagoretti district, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, Irene Wambui; Karanja, Simon Muturi; Wanzala, Peter; Omolo, Jared Odhiambo

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease accounting for a high number of deaths in the developing countries; its control can be effectively achieved if individuals with the disease receive adequate and timely treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with late presentation of suspects to tuberculosis management facilities in Dagoretti district in Nairobi, Kenya. Method A cross sectional study was conducted on patients aged 18 years and above attending TB clinics in Dagoretti District, Nairobi Kenya. A total of 426 TB suspects were interviewed. The study covered 8 clinics in Dagoretti district. Analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0 and Epi info version 6, this included Chi Square for Bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression for Multivariate Analysis. Results Out of the 426 tuberculosis suspects, 248 (58.2%) suspects had delayed in seeking medical care. In Bivariate analysis male gender (P = 0.039, O.R = 1.51; 95% Confidence Interval; 1.00- 2.27), level of education (Primary class 5-8) (P = 0.001, O.R= 2.06; 95% C.I 1.34-3.19) and place of first medical care (drug store) (P= 0.013, O.R = 1.63; 95% C.I 1.09-2.46) were all significantly associated with late presentation. After multivariate logistic regression, gender (P = 0,019, OR = 1.6), level of education (p = 0.029, OR = 1.26) and place of first medical care (P= 0.01 OR = 1.27), were found to be significantly associated with late presentation. Conclusion This study shows that age, level of education and place of first medical care are the factors associated with late presentation of suspects to tuberculosis management facilities. PMID:23077714

  19. The Power of Passion in Entrepreneurship Education: Is the Passion of Entrepreneurial Role Models Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Fellnhofer Katharina

    2017-01-01

    This study of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) centers on the impact of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial passion, which also is expected to influence entrepreneurial intention. Based on 426 individuals recruited primarily from Austria, Finland, and Greece, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveals the significant direct and indirect effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention, mediated by entrepreneurial passion. These effects were found to be stronger...

  20. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jennifer A; Quach, Susan; Dao, Huy Hao; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Quan, Sherman D; Guay, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i) concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii) generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person), 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person), 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person), and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person). Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly controlled. Illustrating the dangers of measles through personal stories, rather than scientific data only, may also serve to strengthen messaging.

  1. Contagious Comments: What Was the Online Buzz About the 2011 Quebec Measles Outbreak?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jennifer A.; Susan Quach; Huy Hao Dao; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Deeks, Shelley L.; Natasha S Crowcroft; Quan, Sherman D; Maryse Guay

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing t...

  2. Is Happiness Contagious? Separating Spillover Externalities from the Group-Level Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Tumen, Semih; Zeydanli, Tugba

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether individuals feel happier when others around them are happier in broadly defined worker groups. This will be a formal test of spillovers in happiness. Answering this question requires a careful handling of the reflection problem, as it may not be possible to separate the endogenous spillover effects from contextual effects unless an appropriately designed identification strategy is employed. Implementing such a strategy and using the 2008 release of the British Housing P...

  3. Contagious Content: Viral Video Ads Identification of Content Characteristics that Help Online Video Advertisements Go Viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yentl Knossenburg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do some online video advertisements go viral while others remain unnoticed? What kind of video content keeps the viewer interested and motivated to share? Many companies have realized the need to innovate their marketing strategies and have embraced the newest ways of using technology, as the Internet, to their advantage as in the example of virality. Yet few marketers actually understand how, and academic literature on this topic is still in development. This study investigated which content characteristics distinguish successful from non-successful online viral video advertisements by analyzing 641 cases using Structural Equation Modeling. Results show that Engagement and Surprise are two main content characteristics that significantly increase the chance of online video advertisements to go viral.  

  4. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D.; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D.; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-01-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers’ interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students’ STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)–related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students‘ experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students‘ STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students’ intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance. PMID:28808678

  5. Can Inquiry and Reflection be Contagious? Science Teachers, Students, and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly; Tinsley, Ron

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the transformations of 3 science teachers who conducted action research projects following a model, unique to our graduate program, which follows the theoretical tenets of adult and transformative learning theory. Teachers video their teaching, engage in weekly peer group collaborative reflection sessions, collaborate with students, and consult with other sources to identify goals for improving their teaching practices, develop action plans, and analyze the results of their actions. As a result of this process, all 3 teachers changed their pedagogical approach from a teacher centered textbook driven approach to a student centered inquiry based approach. Implications of using this model as a powerful means of professional development for science teachers are explored.

  6. Bioeconomic modeling of intervention against clinical mastitis caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    was sensitive to changes to the cure rate of clinical IMI following treatment, but the ranking of the intervention scenarios did not change. The model was most sensitive to the changes to the transmission rate of Staph. aureus. The ranking of the intervention scenarios changed at low transmission rate...

  7. Knitted Patterns or Contagious Hotspots?: Linking Views on Knowledge and Organizational Networked Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Frank; de Jong, Tjip; Kessels, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose a framework which connects perspectives on knowledge and learning to various approaches of social networks studies. The purpose is twofold: providing input for the discourse in organizational studies about the way different views on knowledge and networks drive design choices and activities of researchers,…

  8. Can Inquiry and Reflection Be Contagious? Science Teachers, Students, and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly; Tinsley, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the transformations of 3 science teachers who conducted action research projects following a model, unique to our graduate program, which follows the theoretical tenets of adult and transformative learning theory. Teachers video their teaching, engage in weekly peer group collaborative reflection sessions, collaborate with…

  9. On the contagiousness of others’ goals: the role of perceiving effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, G.

    2008-01-01

    As humans are social by nature, our every day behavior is greatly influenced by each other. Whether we compete or cooperate with others, we have to take into account their behavior when deciding a course of action of our own. An understanding of the intentions or goals of other humans would serve

  10. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... castrated stallions could maintain stallion-like behavior and attempt and achieve intromission with mares in... the following changes: PART 93--IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS 0 1. The...

  11. Robot mood is contagious : Effects of robot body language in the imitation game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, J.; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mood contagion is an automatic mechanism that induces a congruent mood state by means of the observation of another person's emotional expression. In this paper, we address the question whether robot mood displayed during an imitation game can (a) be recognized by participants and (b) produce

  12. Robot Mood is Contagious : Effects of Robot Body Language in the Imitation Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, D.J.; Hindriks, K.V.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mood contagion is an automatic mechanism that induces a congruent mood state by means of the observation of another person's emotional expression. In this paper, we address the question whether robot mood displayed during an imitation game can (a) be recognized by participants and (b) produce

  13. Contagious Anxiety: Anxious European Americans Can Transmit Their Physiological Reactivity to African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V; Koslov, Katrina; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2017-11-01

    During interracial encounters, well-intentioned European Americans sometimes engage in subtle displays of anxiety, which can be interpreted as signs of racial bias by African American partners. In the present research, same-race and cross-race stranger dyads ( N = 123) engaged in getting-acquainted tasks, during which measures of sympathetic nervous system responses (preejection period, PEP) and heart rate variability were continuously collected. PEP scores showed that African American partners had stronger physiological linkage to European American partners who evidenced greater anxiety-greater cortisol reactivity, behavioral tension, and self-reported discomfort-which suggests greater physiological responsiveness to momentary changes in partners' affective states when those partners were anxious. European Americans showed physiological linkage to African American and European American partners, but linkage did not vary as a function of their partner's anxiety. Using physiological linkage offers a novel approach to understanding how affective responses unfold during dynamic intergroup interactions.

  14. High-isolation preparedness for very contagious and potential severely ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Gitte; Jespersen, Sanne; Ingmer, Helle

    2017-01-01

    little experience until the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, 2013-2015. Altogether, 15 possible Ebola patients were examined in the two departments, but the diagnosis was ruled out for all of them. Besides, a few possible candidates for Middle East respiratory syndrome patients were examined. Always being...

  15. Is freedom contagious? : On reactance motivation and sensitivity to deviant peers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leander, Nils; van Dellen, Michelle R.; Rachl-Willberger, Judith; Shah, James Y.; Fitzsimons, Gavan J.; Chartrand, Tanya L.

    2016-01-01

    Psychological reactance is typically assumed to motivate resistance to controlling peer influences and societal prohibitions. However, some peer influences encourage behaviors prohibited by society. We consider whether reactant individuals are sensitive to such opportunities to enhance their

  16. The Application of Contagious Disease Epidemiological Models to Known Population Structure and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    reception, staging, onward movement, and integration SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SEIR S (susceptible to infection ) E (exposed but non...unstructured population” model for SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) presented in Bombardt’s most recently published work (hereafter...behavior of the outbreak. The parameter represents both the inherent infectivity of the disease as well as the “ epidemiological circumstances” present

  17. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly controlled. Illustrating the dangers of measles through personal stories, rather than scientific data only, may also serve to strengthen messaging.

  18. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-08-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers' interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)-related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students' experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students' STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students' intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance.

  19. ALThe incidence of sexually transmitted infections and contagious skin diseases in the Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnaider D.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and epidemiological analysis of the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI and the most frequently reported infectious skin diseases in the Saratov region. To estimate the contribution of immigrants to the formation and number of episodes of infections with sexually transmission in the region. Materials and methods. Retrospective evaluation of the incidence and manifestations of the epidemiological process conducted by evaluating data obtained from the forms of state statistical reporting (№ 9 and № 34, annual report of Saratov regional dermatovenerologic dispensary (2009-2013. Results. We carried out a comparative analysis of the incidence of STI and the most common infectious skin diseases of the population of Saratov region and noted resistant dynamics to decrease. Conclusion. Population displacement within the country and the influx of immigrants from the former CIS countries, have a significant impact on the epidemiological situation in the Saratov region

  20. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals’ vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model—for teenagers at least—matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure – and content – of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality. PMID:26069341

  1. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals' vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model-for teenagers at least-matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure - and content - of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality.

  2. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  3. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Associated Abortion and Vertical Transmission following Acute Infection in Cattle under Natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle.

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic as well as more than 70 wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. T...

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats.: Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Karen A; Coyner, Kimberly; Paterson, Susan; Mignon, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats and dogs. The most common pathogens of small animals belong to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. It is an important skin disease because it is contagious, infectious and can be transmitted to people. The objective of this document is to review the existing literature and provide consensus recommendations for veterinary clinicians and lay people on the diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in cats and dogs. The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. No one diagnostic test was identified as the gold standard. Successful treatment requires concurrent use of systemic oral antifungals and topical disinfection of the hair coat. Wood's lamp and direct examinations have good positive and negative predictability, systemic antifungal drugs have a wide margin of safety and physical cleaning is most important for decontamination of the exposed environments. Finally, serious complications of animal-human transmission are exceedingly rare. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Skin Manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Sudanese Patients | El Nour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The non- infectious conditions associated with HIV/AIDS includes Kaposi's sarcoma (10.0%) and skin lymphoma (3.3%), seborrhoeic dermatitis (10.0%), psoriasis (10.0%), papular pruritic rash (10.0%) and vitiligo (3.3%). Conclusions Infectious conditions, such as bacterial, fugal and viral infection are fairly common, ...

  7. Pemphigoid gestationis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sävervall, Christine; Sand, Freja Lærke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2017-01-01

    Many skin diseases can occur in pregnant women. However, a few pruritic dermatological conditions are unique to pregnancy, including pemphigoid gestationis (PG). As PG is associated with severe morbidity for pregnant women and carries fetal risks, it is important for the clinician to quickly...

  8. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS was significantly associated with mouth lesions, both ulcers and oral candidiasis, skin lesions especially eczema and generalised pruritic dermatitis, prolonged cough, ... Afterpre-testcounselling, asampleofperipheral venous blood was drawn from both mother (1 ml) and child (0.5 ml) for HIV-1 serology. Two ELISA ...

  9. Generalized granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-years-old female patient had generalized pruritic papular lesions, distributed like dermatitis herpetiformis for last 4 years. Histopathologic changes were typical of granuloma annulare with negative results of direct immunofluorescence. The patient did not have association of diabetes mellitus or any other systemic disease. She failed to respond to dapsone therapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid.

  10. Evaluation of a proposed clinical case definition of paediatrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS was significantly associated with mouth lesions, both ulcers and oral candidiasis, skin lesions especially eczema and generalised pruritic dermatitis, prolonged cough, prolonged fever and generalised lymphadenopathy. The WHO criteria had a sensitivity of 60%, a specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 60%, ...

  11. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Tan, Le Van; Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E; Holmes, Edward C; Van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a potential EV-A71

  12. Simultaneously typing nine serotypes of enteroviruses associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease by a GeXP analyzer-based multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiumei; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Xiaomian; Xu, Banglao; Yang, Mengjie; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jin; Bai, Ruyin; Xu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuejun

    2012-02-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral disease occurring primarily in young children and caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and other serotypes of coxsackievirus and echovirus. In this study, a GeXP analyzer-based multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay (GeXP assay) consisting of chimeric primer-based PCR amplification with fluorescent labeling and capillary electrophoresis separation was developed to simultaneously identify nine serotypes of enteroviruses associated with HFMD in China, including EV71, CVA16, CVA4, -5, -9, and -10, and CVB1, -3, and -5. The RNAs extracted from cell cultures of viral isolates and synthetic RNAs via in vitro transcription were used to analyze the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. The GeXP assay detected as little as 0.03 tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) of EV71 and CVA16, 10 copies of panenterovirus, EV71, CVA16, CVB1, and CVB5, and 100 copies of 10 (including panenterovirus) premixed RNA templates. A total of 180 stool specimens collected from HFMD patients and persons suspected of having HFMD were used to evaluate the clinical performance of this assay. In comparison with the results of conventional methods, the sensitivities of the GeXP assay for detection of panenterovirus, EV71, and CVA16 were 98.79% (163/165), 91.67% (44/48), and 91.67% (33/36), respectively, and the specificities were 80.00% (12/15), 98.48% (130/132), and 100% (144/144), respectively. The concordance of typing seven other serotypes of enteroviruses with the results of conventional methods was 92.59% (25/27). In conclusion, the GeXP assay is a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput method for typing nine serotypes of HFMD-associated enteroviruses.

  13. Molecular characterization of reptile pathogens currently known as members of the chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii complex and relationship with some human-associated isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Lynne; Hambleton, Sarah; Paré, Jean A

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), Chrysosporium guarroi, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, and Chrysosporium species have been reported as the causes of dermal or deep lesions in reptiles. These infections are contagious and often fatal and affect both captive and wild animals. Forty-nine CANV isolates from reptiles and six isolates from human sources were compared with N. vriesii based on their cultural characteristics and DNA sequence data. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales. One lineage represents the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. vriesii, N. guarroi, and six additional species encompassing isolates from chameleons and geckos, crocodiles, agamid and iguanid lizards, and humans. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. nov., with three new species infecting squamates and tuataras. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea. Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. N. guarroi causes yellow fungus disease, a common infection in bearded dragons and green iguanas, and O. ophiodiicola is an emerging pathogen of captive and wild snakes. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis.

  14. Associations From Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    A picture can be interpreted in different ways by various persons. There is often a difference between a picture's denotation (literal meaning), connotation (associative meaning), and private associations. Two studies were conducted in order to observe the private associations that pictures awaken in people. One study deals with associations made…

  15. Genomic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with high within-herd prevalence of intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, P; Pozzi, F; Raschetti, M; Bignoli, G; Capra, E; Graber, H U; Vezzoli, F; Piccinini, R; Bertasi, B; Biffani, S; Castiglioni, B; Luini, M

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on previous research, Staph. aureus genotypes with different pathogenic and contagious properties can cause intramammary infection (IMI) and coexist in the same herd. Our study aimed to compare Staph. aureus strains from herds that differed in IMI prevalence using different molecular approaches such as ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiplex PCR. For this purpose, 31 dairy herds with Staph. aureus IMI were selected, and 16 of these were chosen for a comparison study: the 8 high-prevalence (HP) herds had Staph. aureus IMI prevalence >28% and the 8 low-prevalence (LP) herds had an IMI prevalence Staph. aureus from mammary quarters of all positive cows were genotyped with RS-PCR, a technique based on amplification of a portion of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and a subset of 54 strains was also analyzed by multiplex PCR, ribotyping, PFGE, MLST, and spa typing. The RS-PCR analysis revealed 12 different profiles. Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 5 out of 8 HP herds showed a profile identical to the genotype B (GTB), described in previous studies as being strongly associated with high within-herd prevalence of Staph. aureus mastitis and the presence of the genes coding for enterotoxins sea, sed, and sej, a long x-region of spa gene, and 3 lukE fragments. Moreover, all strains isolated in the HP herds possessed genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins. In LP herds, a limited number of strains of 6 genotypes, different from those isolated in HP herds, were identified and GTB was not found. Within these genotypes, 4 strains were positive for the mecA gene. Preliminary results and comparison with other genotyping methods confirmed that genotyping by RS-PCR is an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive tool for future field studies on Staph. aureus mastitis strains and

  16. American Behcet's Disease Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/en/community/behcet-s-syndrome Upcoming Events American Behcet's Disease Association PO BOX 80576 Rochester, MI 48308 Contact Us | Website Policy | webmaster@behcets.com American Behcet's Disease Association Copyright 2014

  17. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic ... Activities CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education ...

  18. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  19. Intended Brand Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koll, Oliver; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Brand managers exhibit considerable effort to define intended brand associations to anchor in consumers' minds. They follow a credo deeply rooted in branding literature: intended brand associations drive consumer response and brand equity. This article investigates the benefits of a strong overlap...... of actual consumer brand associations and management-intended brand associations (brand association match). The article presents results from two large-scale studies (3353 and 1201 respondents) involving one consumer goods and one service brand with multiple operationalizations of consumer response...... (attitudinal and behavioral). The results show that consumers with high brand association match show more positive brand response. However, after accounting for the valence of associations match does not add explanatory power. This outcome challenges a key foundation of brand management. The discussion...

  20. demographic factors associated factors associated with malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    associated with malaria prevalence. Keywords: Malaria, Demographic, Plasmodiu. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a parasitic disease,. Nigeria and many tropical and subtropic regions of the globe. It is caused by th protozoan parasite Plasmodium. Human malar is caused by four different species o. Plasmodium: P. falciparum ...

  1. Contagious parties: anti-immigration parties and their impact on other parties’ immigration stances in contemporary Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spanje, J.

    2010-01-01

    Anti-immigration parties have experienced electoral lift-off in most Western democracies, although the consequences of their victories for real-life policy outcomes have remained largely unexplored. A key question is: do electoral pressures from anti-immigration parties have a ‘contagion’ impact on

  2. Are emotions contagious? Evoked emotions while viewing emotionally expressive faces: quality, quantity, time course and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, B; Erb, M; Bartels, M

    2001-06-01

    In human interactions, frequently one individual becomes 'infected' with emotions displayed by his or her partner. We tested the predictions by Hatfield et al. (1992) (Primitive emotional contagion. Review of Personal and Social Psychology 14, 151-177) that the automatic, mostly unconscious component of this process, called 'primitive emotional contagion', is repeatable and fast, that stronger facial expressions of the sender evoke stronger emotions in the viewer and that women are more susceptible to emotional contagion than men. We presented photos from the Pictures of Facial Affect (Ekman and Friesen, 1976). (Pictures of Facial Affect. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto) on a PC varying the affective content (happy and sad), the expressive strength and the duration of presentation. After each photo, subjects rated the strength of experienced happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, fear and pleasure. Feelings of happiness or sadness were significantly, specifically and repeatedly evoked in the viewer - even with presentations lasting only 500 ms. Stronger expressions evoked more emotion. The gender of the viewer had weak effects. We hypothesize that this fast and repeatable reaction is likely to have a 'prewired' neural basis. We propose that the induction of emotional processes within a subject by the perception of emotionally expressive faces is a powerful instrument in the detection of emotional states in others and as the basis for one's own reactions. Detailed knowledge of emotional reactions to faces is also valuable as a basis for psychiatric studies of disorders in affect and/or communication and in studies using functional imaging (fMRI or PET) where faces are increasingly used as stimuli.

  3. Are U.S. Military Interventions Contagious over Time? Intervention Timing and Its Implications for Force Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    domestic product Defining Temporal Dependence: A review of existing evidence 9 (GDP) or low levels of economic development, economic protectionism ...the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database), and the second measures the change in total trade exports (from the United Nations...0.99* (0.01) Lagged change, global exports 1.01 (0.01) 1.01* (0.01) 1.01* (0.01) Lagged change, global GDp 1.0 (0.06) 0.95 (0.05) Lagged change

  4. Risk-based design of repeated surveys for the documentation of freedom from non-highly contagious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, Daniela C; Rüfenacht, Jürg; Hauser, Ruth; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2002-12-30

    The documentation of freedom from disease requires reliable information on the actual disease status in a specific animal population. The implementation of active surveillance (surveys) is an effective method to gain this information. For economical reasons, the sample size should be as small as possible but large enough to achieve the required confidence level for a targeted threshold. When conducting surveys repeatedly, various information sources about the disease status of the population can be taken into account to adjust the required level of confidence for a follow-up survey (e.g. risk assessments regarding disease introduction and results of previous surveys). As a benefit, the sample size for national surveys can be reduced considerably. We illustrate this risk-based approach using examples of national surveys conducted in Switzerland. The sample size for the documentation of freedom from enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and Brucella melitensis in sheep and in goats could be reduced from 2325 to 415 cattle herds, from 2325 to 838 sheep herds and from 1975 to 761 goat herds, respectively. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Is Depression Contagious? A Test of Alternative Peer Socialization Mechanisms of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Peer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Nurmi, J.E.; Salmela-Aro, K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the role of two different types of peer socialization (convergence, contagion) in adolescents' depression, adjusting for the effects of peer selection and deselection. Methods: The sample used in this study comprised 949 Finnish adolescents (56% females; mean age: 16

  6. Individual variation in contagious yawning susceptibility is highly stable and largely unexplained by empathy or other known factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    ... biological functioning of humans. We administered 328 participants a 3-minute yawning video stimulus, a cognitive battery, and a comprehensive questionnaire that included measures of empathy, emotional contagion, circadian energy...

  7. Is your mood more contagious if you are likeable? The role of liking in the social induction of affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we explored the role of liking in the social induction of affect. Dispositional likeability was manipulated by written reports describing a sender as a likeable or dislikeable character. Afterwards participants watched short videos presenting the sender displaying happy or sad emotional expressions. We expected that exposure to the likeable sender would lead to reactions concordant with his emotional expression (assimilation, whereas exposure to the dislikeable sender would result in discordant reactions (contrast. The results indicated that dispositional likeability influenced the social induction of affect when the sender expressed positive emotions. Moreover, liking mediated the effects of the happy sender’s dispositional likeability on participants’ affective state. Exposure to the sad sender, however, led to assimilation regardless of the sender’s dispositional likeability.

  8. Class Association Rule Pada Metode Associative Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Karyawati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequent patterns (itemsets discovery is an important problem in associative classification rule mining.  Differents approaches have been proposed such as the Apriori-like, Frequent Pattern (FP-growth, and Transaction Data Location (Tid-list Intersection algorithm. This paper focuses on surveying and comparing the state of the art associative classification techniques with regards to the rule generation phase of associative classification algorithms.  This phase includes frequent itemsets discovery and rules mining/extracting methods to generate the set of class association rules (CARs.  There are some techniques proposed to improve the rule generation method.  A technique by utilizing the concepts of discriminative power of itemsets can reduce the size of frequent itemset.  It can prune the useless frequent itemsets. The closed frequent itemset concept can be utilized to compress the rules to be compact rules.  This technique may reduce the size of generated rules.  Other technique is in determining the support threshold value of the itemset. Specifying not single but multiple support threshold values with regard to the class label frequencies can give more appropriate support threshold value.  This technique may generate more accurate rules. Alternative technique to generate rule is utilizing the vertical layout to represent dataset.  This method is very effective because it only needs one scan over dataset, compare with other techniques that need multiple scan over dataset.   However, one problem with these approaches is that the initial set of tid-lists may be too large to fit into main memory. It requires more sophisticated techniques to compress the tid-lists.

  9. Scoliosis Associated With Syringomyelia

    OpenAIRE

    Gh Fathi; H Behtash; B Mobini; E Ameri

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The differential diagnosis of idiopathic and syringomyelia associated scoliosis is important because corrective surgery for scoliosis associated with syringomyelia prior to management of syringomyelia can be dangerous. There are important imaging indicators for diagnosis of syringomyelia associated with scoliosis. A few of these indicators have been assessed in our study. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study including 38 patients with both scoliosis and syringomyelia was p...

  10. PADB : Published Association Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  11. PADB : Published Association Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-Sung

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; http://www.medclue.com/padb that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases.

  12. Schistosomiasis and associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambertucci JR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In hospital-based series viral hepatitis B has been frequently described in association with schistosomiasis whilst in field-based studies the association has not been confirmed. The association between schistosomiasis and Salmonella bacteraemia has been well documented. More recently, acute schistosomiasis has been shown to be a facilitating factor in the genesis of pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus. New evidences indicate an interaction between the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and schistosomiasis. In this paper, data on the association of schistosomiasis with other infections are updated.

  13. Associative Analysis in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Muntean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the interest in technologies such as in-memory analytics and associative search has increased. This paper explores how you can use in-memory analytics and an associative model in statistics. The word “associative” puts the emphasis on understanding how datasets relate to one another. The paper presents the main characteristics of “associative” data model. Also, the paper presents how to design an associative model for labor market indicators analysis. The source is the EU Labor Force Survey. Also, this paper presents how to make associative analysis.

  14. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving for Heart.org Media for Heart.org American Heart Association Check out Scientific Sessions news — translated for you. ... with the Woman of Distinction Award at the American Heart Association's top science gathering. Nearly half of U.S. adults ...

  15. Prevalence and associated f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Yousif Abdel Wahed

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A substantial proportion of medical students are suffering from depression, stress, and anxiety. Female sex, increasing age, overweight and obesity are significant associated factors. Further studies need to be carried to identify other associated factors related to academic medical education.

  16. Associations among linguistic levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, M.R.; Heeringa, Wilbert; Nerbonne, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we measure the degrees of association among aggregate pronunciational, lexical and syntactic differences in 70 Dutch dialect varieties. First, we show that pronunciation is marginally more strongly associated with syntax than it is with lexis and that syntax and lexis are only weakly

  17. Associations among Linguistic Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, M.R.; Heeringa, W.J.; Nerbonne, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we measure the degrees of association among aggregate pronunciational, lexical and syntactic differences in 70 Dutch dialect varieties. First, we show that pronunciation is marginally more strongly associated with syntax than it is with lexis and that syntax and lexis are only weakly

  18. Civic Engagement and Associationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Damon Timothy; Barraket, Jo; Lewis, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between participation in civic and political activities and membership of voluntary associations is now well established. What is less clear is the relative impacts of how much time people spend on group activities (associational intensity), and the number and type of groups...... forms have the same impact....

  19. Staff Association Cocktail

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The Staff Association has been organising for many years a cocktail with delegates of the Member States participating in Finance Committees of March and September. This cocktail is held at the end of the day, after the Finance Committee meeting. This direct and regular communication helps establish an ongoing contact between the Staff Association and CERN Member States and, more recently, the Associate Member States. Ambassadors of the CERN Staff Association, who are Members of the Personnel, have the opportunity to meet their national delegation in an informal and friendly atmosphere. These exchanges, facilitated by the use of the national language, allow the personnel via the Staff Association to express its ideas and positions on current affairs and fundamental issues, and also to hear about those of the delegations in return.

  20. Linear associative algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abian, Alexander

    1973-01-01

    Linear Associative Algebras focuses on finite dimensional linear associative algebras and the Wedderburn structure theorems.The publication first elaborates on semigroups and groups, rings and fields, direct sum and tensor product of rings, and polynomial and matrix rings. The text then ponders on vector spaces, including finite dimensional vector spaces and matrix representation of vectors. The book takes a look at linear associative algebras, as well as the idempotent and nilpotent elements of an algebra, ideals of an algebra, total matrix algebras and the canonical forms of matrices, matrix

  1. National Stroke Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Go National Stroke Association Our mission is to reduce the incidence ... presentation. Watch Video Now Featured Story Faces of Stroke All Kathryn could hear were faint voices as ...

  2. Color Associations of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Deborah A.

    1983-01-01

    Free color associations were collected from a total of 337 children in the fourth through sixth grades to 12 concepts: hope, anger, sadness, honesty, fear, happiness, pain, love, death, strength, school, and life. (Author/RH)

  3. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  4. American Gastroenterological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosis and monitoring of EoE. Read More CGH Coping Skills Are Associated With Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity and ... Release Crohn’s & Colitis Congress Offers Reporters Access to Leading IBD Research Sept. 20, 2017 Read More Press ...

  5. Influenza-Associated Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty patients with influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy treated during the 1997-2001 influenza A epidemics in Japan are reported from Niigata City General Hospital, Japan.

  6. National Vulvodynia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vulvodynia Association Improving Women's Health through Education, Research, Support and Advocacy Menu Search Join Now Sign In Search YouTube Facebook Donate Now What is Vulvodynia? Vulvar Anatomy What Causes Vulvodynia? Diagnosis Vulvodynia Treatments About Us ...

  7. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organization improving the lives of those with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, HCM, preventing untimely deaths and advancing global understanding. ... item purchased, 10% will be donated to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association. iGive.com - Online Shopping Joing iGive.com ...

  8. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  9. Ontology in association rules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraz, Inhaúma Neves; Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra

    2013-01-01

    .... Although most data mining techniques, such as the use of association rules, may substantially reduce the search effort over large data sets, often, the consequential outcomes surpass the amount...

  10. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  11. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  12. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a robust series of courses leading to a brand new certification – the College Health and Wellness Professional ( ... future college health and wellness professionals, and strengthen awareness of the profession and association. Each month we' ...

  13. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  14. [TATTOO-ASSOCIATED UVEITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klímová, A; Heissigerová, J; Říhová, E; Holan, P; Brichová, M; Svozílková, P

    2017-01-01

    The clinical case of tattoo-associated uveitis was first described by Lubeck and Epstein in 1952. Uveitis is accompanied by induration and hyperemia of tattoo skin, which can precede, follow or manifest simultaneously with uveitis. The diagnosis is determined on clinical grounds after exclusion of other causes. Uveitis is usually bilateral, chronic and vision impairment is variable. Tattoo-associated uveitis should be remembered in differential diagnosis due to the growing interest in tattoo.Key words: uveitis, tattoo, masquerade syndrome.

  15. Staff Association Information Meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Staff Association Information Meetings: - Thursday 29 September at 2 p.m., Meyrin, Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-017 (in French) - Friday 30 September at 10 a.m., Prévessin, BE Auditorium, 864-1-D02 (in French) - Monday 3 October at 2 p.m., Meyrin, IT Auditorium, 31-3-004 (in French) - Tuesday 4 October at 2 p.m., Meyrin, Filtration Plant, 222-R-001 (in English)   Staff Association

  16. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k20, min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a30, a45, and a60, mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CFP, mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), curd syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), modeled RCT (RCTeq, min), maximum CF value (CFmax, mm), and time at CFmax (tmax, min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CYCURD), dry matter (%CYSOLIDS), and water (%CYWATER) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC production was observed in the 2 UH status groups with the highest milk SCC (i.e., contagious IMI and culture-negative samples with high SCC), revealing a discrepancy between the

  17. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  18. [Problems associated with dyslexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas-Pallarés, J

    2002-02-01

    In this article we review the disorders of development which affect learning and may be associated with dyslexia. Although the cognitive basis of dyslexia is a phonological deficit, it is not uncommonly associated with other disorders whose deficit is not necessarily related to the dyslexia from a physiopathological point of view. The problems which usually accompany dyslexia are: attention deficit with hyperactivity, dysgraphia, dyscalculia and disorders of the development of coordination. The starting point for understanding this comorbidity is finding broad, dysfunctional areas of the brains of dyslexic patients beyond those theoretically involved in dyslexia. Each of these disorders may or may not occur together with dyslexia. There are even some subtypes which are defined by being associated with dyslexia, leading to the conclusion that in some cases there are underlying common mechanisms. It is necessary to avoid confusion arising over dyslexia due to comorbidity with other conditions.

  19. Chaparral-associated hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N M; Philen, R M; Love, L A

    1997-04-28

    Personal health care practices that may include the use of dietary supplements are common in the United States. Products marketed as dietary supplements are diverse and may include botanicals, vitamins, and/or minerals. Chaparral (Larrea tridentata) is a botanical dietary supplement made from a desert shrub and used for its antioxidant properties. Several reports of chaparral-associated hepatitis have been published since 1990, but a complete picture of the clinical presentation is still unclear. We reviewed the 18 case reports of adverse events associated with the ingestion of chaparral reported to the Food and Drug Administration between 1992 and 1994. These reports were from health care professionals, state health departments, and individual consumers. Of 18 reports of illnesses associated with the ingestion of chaparral, there was evidence of hepatotoxicity in 13 cases. Clinical presentation, characterized as jaundice with a marked increase in serum liver chemistry values, occurred 3 to 52 weeks after the ingestion of chaparral, and it resolved 1 to 17 weeks after most individuals stopped their intake of chaparral. The predominant pattern of liver injury was characterized as toxic or drug-induced cholestatic hepatitis; in 4 individuals, there was progression to cirrhosis; and in 2 individuals, there was acute fulminant liver failure that required liver transplants. These data indicate that the use of chaparral may be associated with acute to chronic irreversible liver damage with fulminant hepatic failure, and they underscore the potential for certain dietary supplement ingredients to cause toxic effects on the liver. Health professionals should be encouraged to inquire routinely about the use of dietary supplements and other products, to be alert to potential adverse effects that may be associated with these products, and, finally, to report any serious adverse events associated with these products through the MEDWatch Program of the Food and Drug

  20. Acromegaly associated with gangliocytoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, R K

    2009-09-30

    BACKGROUND: Acromegaly secondary to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) excess is rare. AIMS\\/CASE DESCRIPTION: We report two patients with acromegaly who were diagnosed with sellar gangliocytomas that were immunopositive for GHRH. Tumour tissue persisted after debulking surgery and in the second case this was associated with persistent growth hormone hypersecretion, successfully suppressed by a somatostatin analogue. CONCLUSIONS: The development of functional pituitary adenomas in association with sellar gangliocytomas is poorly understood. We present a brief discussion of the possible aetiology of these unusual pituitary tumours.

  1. Yawning Detection Sensitivity and Yawning Contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Meingold H M; Tseng, Chia-Huei

    2017-01-01

    Contagious yawning-the urge to yawn when thinking about, listening to, or viewing yawning-is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and animals. The reduced yawn contagion observed in the autistic population suggested that it might be empathy related; however, it is unknown whether such a connection applies to nonclinical populations. We examined influences from both empathy (i.e., autistic traits) and nonempathy factors (i.e., individuals' perceptual detection sensitivity to yawning, happy, and angry faces) on 41 nonclinical adults. We induced contagious yawning with a 5-minute video and 20 yawning photo stimuli. In addition, we measured participants' autistic traits (with the autism-spectrum quotient questionnaire), eye gaze patterns, and their perceptual thresholds to detect yawning and emotion in human face photos. We found two factors associated with yawning contagion: (a) those more sensitive to detect yawning, but not other emotional expressions, displayed more contagious yawning than those less sensitive to yawning expressions, and (b) female participants exhibited significantly more contagious yawning than male participants. We did not find an association between autistic trait and contagious yawning. Our study offers a working hypothesis for future studies, in that perceptual encoding of yawning interacts with susceptibility to contagious yawning.

  2. Native American Homeschooling Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozon, Gina

    2000-01-01

    The Native American Home School Association helps Native parents to provide a good education free from the assimilationist tendencies of public school and to transmit Native values and culture. Discusses various home schooling styles, the effectiveness of home schooling in terms of academic achievement and socialization, and the effectiveness of…

  3. Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrara, S. D.; Ananian, V.; Baccino, E.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the International Guidelines developed by the Working Group on Personal Injury and Damage under the patronage of the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM) regarding the Methods of Ascertainment of any suspected Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD). The document...

  4. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  5. Captopril-associated agranulocytosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-06

    Apr 6, 1991 ... Three cases of captopril-associated neutropenia are des- cribed, which illustrate the clinical presentation, variable pre- disposing factors and outcome of this rare but potentially serious adverse event. Particular risk factors of renal failure and collagen vascular disease were present in only 1 patient,.

  6. Osteosarcoma associated with hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutte, PC; Rosso, R; de Paolis, M; Errani, C; Pasini, E; Campanacci, L; Bacci, G; Bertoni, F; Mercuri, M

    The fourth case in the literature is presented of a patient with the rare association of hyperparathyroidism and osteosarcoma. A 56-year-old woman presented with hyperparathyroidism and a lesion in the tibia. Initial diagnosis was brown tumor. Histology, however, revealed osteosarcoma, and the

  7. Guilt by association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Moreno, Mirna; Fuchs, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Members of the p120-catenin family associate with cadherins and regulate their stability at the plasma membrane. How p120-catenin limits cadherin endocytosis has long remained a mystery. In this issue, Nanes et al. (2012. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201205029) identify a conserved acidic motif...

  8. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take Action Volunteer Mark Your Calendar Donate Twitter Facebook Instagram Donate Appreciating Military Families: Meet the Wilsons This ... MilitaryFamily.org © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better ...

  9. Association of Academic Physiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... currPanel = 0; autoPlayDelaySeconds = slidePanel(currPanel); autoPlay(); }, (autoPlayDelaySeconds*1000)); } $(document).ready(function (){ $slider.children('.slide-panel.notactive').hide(); ... Academic Home for Physiatry The Association of Academic Physiatrists ( ...

  10. Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... commonly associated with celiac disease - Grave’s disease and Hashimoto’s disease. Grave’s Disease: An overactive thyroid. Symptoms may ... feeling too warm, restlessness, insomnia, diarrhea, irritability, palpitations. Hashimoto’s Disease: An underactive thyroid. Symptoms may include weight ...

  11. Refugee by association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Tax

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many Syrians, even when they have not been individually singled out, meet the refugee criteria on the grounds of being at risk of persecution because of a perceived association, in the broadest sense, with one of the parties to the conflict.

  12. HIV-associated vasculopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease was first described in 1981 in the USA in young homosexual men presenting with opportunistic infections associated with severe immune deficiency.1. The virus itself was identified 2 years later2 and the link between. HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was.

  13. Anaesthetic-Associated Mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic-associated death. AeD = Anaesthetic-contributory death. TOM = Total operative mortality. ACD/ TOM X. 100 = 2,3% (2,8%). Looked at against the background of the total care of the surgical patient, anaesthesia and its mismanagement can be said to have been responsible, by means possibly preventable, for 2 ...

  14. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Amenorrhea associated with carotenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmann, E; Pasquale, S A; Skaf, R

    1983-02-18

    Data are presented for ten women with anovulation, nine of them with amenorrhea, who have associated carotenemia. Classic explanations for carotenemia in amenorrheic patients have been weight loss or anorexia nervosa, yet carotenemia in our patients appeared to be diet induced. All patients consumed a pure or predominantly vegetarian diet; there was no intake of red meats. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients are presented. The amenorrhea of the patient is consistent with hypothalamic hypogonadotropic anovulation (HHA). It appeared that diet modification not only led to reduction in carotene levels, but also improved the menstrual status. The association of carotenemia and menstrual disorders is reviewed. The possibility that carotenemia is related to the development of HHA is discussed.

  16. Ontology in association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Inhaúma Neves; Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has emerged to address the problem of transforming data into useful knowledge. Although most data mining techniques, such as the use of association rules, may substantially reduce the search effort over large data sets, often, the consequential outcomes surpass the amount of information humanly manageable. On the other hand, important association rules may be overlooked owing to the setting of the support threshold, which is a very subjective metric, but rooted in most data mining techniques. This paper presents a study on the effects, in terms of precision and recall, of using a data preparation technique, called SemPrune, which is built on domain ontology. SemPrune is intended for pre- and post-processing phases of data mining. Identifying generalization/specialization relations, as well as composition/decomposition relations, is the key to successfully applying SemPrune.

  17. Multitasking associative networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Moauro, Francesco

    2012-12-28

    We introduce a bipartite, diluted and frustrated, network as a sparse restricted Boltzmann machine and we show its thermodynamical equivalence to an associative working memory able to retrieve several patterns in parallel without falling into spurious states typical of classical neural networks. We focus on systems processing in parallel a finite (up to logarithmic growth in the volume) amount of patterns, mirroring the low-level storage of standard Amit-Gutfreund-Sompolinsky theory. Results obtained through statistical mechanics, the signal-to-noise technique, and Monte Carlo simulations are overall in perfect agreement and carry interesting biological insights. Indeed, these associative networks pave new perspectives in the understanding of multitasking features expressed by complex systems, e.g., neural and immune networks.

  18. Prevalence and associated f

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Wahed, Wafaa Yousif; Hassan, Safaa Khamis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health issues are increasing in severity and number on college campuses. Improving adolescent mental well-being remains a challenge for most societies. Objectives: The objectives of this study was to study the prevalence of psychological mood disorders and its association with some factors. Methods: A cross-sectional-questionnaire based study was conducted among medical students in Fayoum University. Propensity to Psychological mood disorders was assessed by using a s...

  19. Secure association rule sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Stanley R. de M.; Zaïane, Osmar R.; Saygın, Yücel; Saygin, Yucel

    2004-01-01

    The sharing of association rules is often beneficial in industry, but requires privacy safeguards. One may decide to disclose only part of the knowledge and conceal strategic patterns which we call restrictive rules. These restrictive rules must be protected before sharing since they are paramount for strategic decisions and need to remain private. To address this challenging problem, we propose a unified framework for protecting sensitive knowledge before sharing. This framework encompasses:...

  20. Herpes associated erythema multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    K A Kamala; L Ashok; Rajeshwari G Annigeri

    2011-01-01

    Erythema multiforme is an acute and a self-limiting mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction triggered by certain infections and medications. One of the most common predisposing factors for erythema multiforme is infection with herpes simplex virus. Herpes associated erythema multiforme (HAEM) is an acute exudative dermatic and mucosal disease caused by the infecting herpes simplex virus. It has recurrence and idiorestriction, characterized by increasing of CD4+T leukomonocyte. This article re...

  1. Scoliosis Associated With Syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Fathi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The differential diagnosis of idiopathic and syringomyelia associated scoliosis is important because corrective surgery for scoliosis associated with syringomyelia prior to management of syringomyelia can be dangerous. There are important imaging indicators for diagnosis of syringomyelia associated with scoliosis. A few of these indicators have been assessed in our study. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study including 38 patients with both scoliosis and syringomyelia was performed at the Shafa Yahyaeian center. Standard scoliosis series radiographs and MRI of all patients were studied. The type of scoliosis, location and magnitude of deformity, kyphosis or lordosis in the sagittal plane, location and size of syrinx were assessed. Results: Thoracic kyphosis was present in 94.7% of patients. 37% of patients had scoliosis with convexity to left. Arnold –chiari malformation was present in 36% and cord tethering in 21% of patients. The locations of syrinx were as follows: 47.4%cervical, 44.6 thoracic, 2.7% lumbar and 5.3% were holocord. Conclusion: Kyphosis, abscence of lordosis in sagittal plane, progressive scoliosis and scoliosis with convexity to left are atypical findings and could be indicators of the presence of syringomyelia. If these indicators are present, a diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis should be made with caution.

  2. Word Associations of Schizophrenic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mary Hollis

    1974-01-01

    A study of word associations in normal and disturbed children integrated two methods of word association research: pathological features of adult schizophrenic language and psycholinguistic features of developmental changes in children's associations. (Author/KM)

  3. 269 Refractory Chronic Urticaria Treated with Omalizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Saenz, Martinez; Del Pozo, Ramírez; JJ, Lopez Tiro; Vera, Javier Gomez

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic urticaria (CU) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of urticaria pruritic erythematous lesions, associated with angioedema1. It affects 0.1% of the population, it is estimated that approximately 15 to 25% of the population will have hives at some point in their lives.2 About 80% of UC patients are diagnosed as idiopathic chronic urticaria and that no cause is identified, 3 experiencing deterioration in their quality of life affecting your work, social re...

  4. Evaluation of generalized pruritus in patients without primary skin lesions in Razi Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Jomhori P; Daneshpajooh M; Akhiani M

    2001-01-01

    Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation that provokes the desire to scratch. It has long been recognized as a presenting or concomitant symptom of many systemic diseases. Indeed, generalized pruritus is reported to be associated with underlying diseases in 10-50 percent of cases. This study was conducted to investigate the underlying diseases in pruritic patients without primary skin lesion. Seventy-five patients with at least one-month history of pruritus with no primary skin lesions, presenting...

  5. Netherton′s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M L Khatri

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6 year old Libyan boy had diffuse erythema at birth and later developed pruritic, maculo-papular, papular, circinat c, double-edge, scaly lesions, suggestive of ichthyosis linearis circumflexa (ILC.Hisscalp hair were brittle and sparse with partial patchy alopecia, showing change of trichorrhexis invaginata, these -associations being characteristic of Netherton′s syndrome. The boy had slightly stunted growth; a feature which has not been recorded in previously reported cases.

  6. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  7. Edema associated with quetiapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Hristina K.; Erickson, Mark A.; Vanderlip, Erik R.; Tansey, Janeta; Mac, Joseph; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Edema associated with quetiapine has been described in only one case report to date and represents a potentially serious adverse reaction. Methods We present a case series of three patients who developed bilateral leg edema following initiation of quetiapine. Results One of these patients had a recurrence of edema with subsequent rechallenge. Another patient developed quetiapine-induced edema following a prior episode of olanzapine-induced edema. All the cases present a compelling temporal relationship between the drug challenge and the adverse event. Conclusions Prompt recognition and intervention with discontinuation of the offending agent is important for this potentially serious, seemingly idiosyncratic, vascular complication. PMID:19439156

  8. Herpes associated erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, K A; Ashok, L; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G

    2011-10-01

    Erythema multiforme is an acute and a self-limiting mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction triggered by certain infections and medications. One of the most common predisposing factors for erythema multiforme is infection with herpes simplex virus. Herpes associated erythema multiforme (HAEM) is an acute exudative dermatic and mucosal disease caused by the infecting herpes simplex virus. It has recurrence and idiorestriction, characterized by increasing of CD4+T leukomonocyte. This article reports a case of HAEM in a 9-year-old girl, with a review of relevant literature, and discusses the pathophysiology and treatment of erythema multiforme triggered by herpes simplex virus.

  9. Herpes associated erythema multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme is an acute and a self-limiting mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction triggered by certain infections and medications. One of the most common predisposing factors for erythema multiforme is infection with herpes simplex virus. Herpes associated erythema multiforme (HAEM is an acute exudative dermatic and mucosal disease caused by the infecting herpes simplex virus. It has recurrence and idiorestriction, characterized by increasing of CD4+T leukomonocyte. This article reports a case of HAEM in a 9-year-old girl, with a review of relevant literature, and discusses the pathophysiology and treatment of erythema multiforme triggered by herpes simplex virus

  10. Osteosarcoma associated with hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jutte, Paul C. [Istituti Orthopedici Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136, Bologna (Italy); University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen (Netherlands); Rosso, Renato [Anatomia Patologica Universita di Pavia, via Forlanini 16, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Paolis, Massimiliano de; Errani, Costatino; Pasini, Elisabetta; Campanacci, Laura; Bacci, Gaetano; Bertoni, Franco; Mercuri, Mario [Istituti Orthopedici Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-08-01

    The fourth case in the literature is presented of a patient with the rare association of hyperparathyroidism and osteosarcoma. A 56-year-old woman presented with hyperparathyroidism and a lesion in the tibia. Initial diagnosis was brown tumor. Histology, however, revealed osteosarcoma, and the patient was treated accordingly. The experimental induction of osteosarcoma by parathormone in rodent studies makes this finding alarming, considering the increasing use of parathormone in the treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism by which osteosarcoma is induced in humans cannot be explained based on current knowledge of mechanisms of action of parathyroid hormone. (orig.)

  11. [Poppers-associated maculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlitzsch, M; Draghici, S; Mehrinfar, B M; Merinfhar, B M

    2013-07-01

    Poppers are a common drug belonging to the alkyl nitrite group and in use for several decades. They can be legally purchased for air freshening, but are illegal to buy for inhalation. Abuse is associated with maculopathy and visual loss as a rare side effect. A case series of 27 male, homosexual patients with poppers abuse presenting to a single eye clinic in Berlin, Germany, is described. Four patients with visual impairment and maculopathy associated with the inhalation of poppers were found. Four patients experienced subacute visual loss over 2-6 months, one patient can no longer read without a magnifying glass. The median age is 40.25 years (28-45 years). Three patients are HIV-positive (known since 10-22 years, HAART), a patient is also hepatitis C-positive. No other ocular and systemic diseases are known. Poppers have been inhaled for about 1.5, 12, 15 and 25 years (3-4 ×/week); all patients have a mixed use with the brands Jungle Juice, Rush and Amsterdam. Three patients noticed a simultaneous change in colour and shade. Clinical signs on fundoscopy ranged from normal foveal appearance to yellowish, dull macula. Optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) showed varying degrees of disruption of the presumed inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction; 3 cases bilaterally symmetrical. Although poppers have been in use for several decades, in 2007 in England, the popper composition was changed by law from isobutyl nitrite to isopropyl nitrite. It is hard to distinguish whether a specific nitrite group triggers the maculopathy or whether it is the dose level, thus suggesting the existence of a cumulative dose-response relationship. We postulate that a major factor of the manifestation of maculopathy is the individual limit of vulnerability. Despite decades of use, the majority of our series does not present any pathology. Limits of our patient population represents the HIV disease: three maculopathies of our series are HIV-associated and controlled by

  12. Pentatomids associated with blackberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the presence of stink bugs in blackberry (Rubus spp. in Brazil is sparse. This study aimed to identify the stink bug species associated with blackberry, to establish the daily dynamics and evaluate the fruits damage. The experiment was conducted in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in blackberry orchard. Presence and evaluations of stink bugs were done weekly through visual and sweeping samplings at different day times. Five species of pentatomids were identified: Piezodorus guildinii, Nezara viridula, Euschistus heros, Dichelops furcatus and Edessa meditabunda. The bugs attack the drupelets producing a dark brown spot and wrinkled berries.

  13. Vaccine Associated Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the cases of vaccine associated myocarditis have been following small pox vaccination. Reports have also been there after streptococcal pneumonia vaccine and influenza vaccine. In some cases, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA used in the vaccine have been implicated. Exclusion of other causes is very important in the diagnostic process, especially that of acute coronary syndrome. Management is similar to that of other etiologies of myocarditis. These rare instances of myocarditis should not preclude one from taking necessary immunization for vaccine preventable diseases.

  14. [Morphea associated with toxoplasmosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovăstru, Laura; Amălinei, Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Circumscribed scleroderma or morphea is a rare disease that involves limited areas of skin and usually is not associated with visceral lesions. Its etiology is still debated, but its appearance signifies a particular immunological status. We present a case of a male patient, which developed morphea lesions during the infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Clinical manifestation was characteristic for the classic plaque-type of morphea. Diagnosis was confirmed by the histopathologic examine of the cutaneous lesions. The evolution of lesions was correlated with antibodies titre for Toxoplasma gondii, and local administration of corticosteroids accelerated the evolution to cutaneous lesions stabilization.

  15. Associative Learning in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert D.; Byrne, John H.

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews research on neural mechanisms of two types of associative learning in the marine mollusk Aplysia, classical conditioning of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex and operant conditioning of feeding behavior. Basic classical conditioning is caused in part by activity-dependent facilitation at sensory neuron–motor neuron (SN–MN) synapses and involves a hybrid combination of activity-dependent presynaptic facilitation and Hebbian potentiation, which are coordinated by trans-synaptic signaling. Classical conditioning also shows several higher-order features, which might be explained by the known circuit connections in Aplysia. Operant conditioning is caused in part by a different type of mechanism, an intrinsic increase in excitability of an identified neuron in the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. However, for both classical and operant conditioning, adenylyl cyclase is a molecular site of convergence of the two signals that are associated. Learning in other invertebrate preparations also involves many of the same mechanisms, which may contribute to learning in vertebrates as well. PMID:25877219

  16. Endometriosis Associated with Hemothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Tsung Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody pleural effusion is rarely associated with endometriosis. To effectively treat this condition, it is important to differentiate the malady from other common diseases such as malignancy or tuberculosis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old multiparous female featuring right-sided hemothorax presenting with right shoulder pain and progressive shortness of breath for the preceding 2 months. Thoracoscopy disclosed grossly negative findings apart from multiple small pores in the right hemi-diaphragm with blood clots within them. Examination of the thoracoscopic biopsy specimens showed chronic pleuritis without evidence of malignancy or tuberculosis. Pelvic endometriosis was considered a possible diagnosis according to the results of abdominal computed tomography (CT scan, transvaginal sonography, and the results of dilatation and curettage. Periodic episodes of symptoms concurrent with menstruation led to the suspicion of a relationship between these conditions in our patient. Despite the patient undergoing an abdominal total hysterectomy and adhesiolysis without salpingo-oophorectomy, recurrent right-sided bloody pleural effusion developed 1.5 months subsequent to surgery. As a consequence, danazol (400 mg/day was maintained because of the endometriosis associated with pleural effusion. One year of regular follow-up later, there was no evidence of recurrent pleural effusion. We considered that the bloody pleural fluid arose via seepage from the pelvic endometriosis through the pores of the right hemi-diaphragm during menstruation.

  17. Associated morbidity of chalazia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Arie Y; Vinker, Shlomo; Kaiserman, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Chalazion may be associated with some local and systemic conditions. We studied the prevalence of various conditions among patients with chalazion. A retrospective observational case-control study of all the members who were diagnosed with chalazion in the Central District of Clalit Health Services in Israel (years 2000-2008; n = 9119) and 9119 age- and gender-matched controls randomly selected from the district members. We calculated the prevalence of various ocular, systemic, and demographic conditions as risk factors for chalazion. Demographically, a significant (P chalazion was found in the population of lower socioeconomic class, in the population living in urban areas, in young females (10-29 years), in older men (older than 60 years), and in non-Ashkenazi Jews. The following risk factors of chalazion were statistically significant: blepharitis [odds ratio (OR), 6.2], rosacea (OR, 2.9), gastritis (OR, 1.4), anxiety (OR, 1.5), irritable bowel syndrome (OR, 1.7), and smoking (OR, 1.2). Diabetes (OR, 0.8) and hypothyroidism (OR, 0.8) were significantly less prevalent among chalazion patients. Some systemic conditions are significantly more prevalent and some are significantly less prevalent among patients with chalazion. Better understanding of the pathophysiological association between those diseases and chalazion may help in its treatment and prevention.

  18. Cutaneous larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wieczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is a tropical zoonosis, caused by parasites, usually Ancylostoma braziliense. Humans are an accidental host. Polish patients with CLM are usually tourists visiting tropical and subtropical countries. The first symptoms do not always appear as creeping eruptions, which complicates the diagnosis. Objective. To present the case of a man with CLM after returning from Thailand to Poland and associated diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who returned to Poland from Thailand. The first symptoms appeared as disseminated pruritic papules. No improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines was observed. The diagnosis was established after the appearance of serpentine erythemas and improvement after albendazole therapy. Conclusions. In the case of returnees from exotic countries suffering from raised, pruritic rashes, and no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines, parasitic etiology should be considered.

  19. Primary dermatologic findings with early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tamara T; Sheffield, Jeanne S

    2011-02-01

    Primary dermatologic findings are not thought to be associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. We report on a patient with twins who presented with a pruritic rash and cholestasis. A woman with a twin gestation and two previous term stillbirths developed a pruritic rash at 16 weeks. Scleral icterus and jaundice were observed at 27 weeks. Elevated bile acid levels confirmed a diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and ursodeoxycholic acid therapy was initiated. Fetal heart rate decelerations were noted at 32 4/7 weeks, prompting delivery of two live male newborns. Declining laboratory values and resolution of rash occurred within a few days of delivery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of recurrent cholestasis of pregnancy in a twin gestation with primary dermatologic findings.

  20. Pulsar/Supernova Remnant Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    1996-01-01

    We list and review proposed pulsar/supernova remnant associations, summarize recent highlights in the field, including searches for young pulsars, searches for remnants, recent studies of previously proposed associations, and attempts at pulsar/remnant association synthesis. we argue that most proposed pulsar/supernova remnant associations require additional investigation before they can be considered secure, and we suggest directions for future work.

  1. 2011 Reports of the Regional Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presents the 2011 reports from the Annual Meetings of the Regional Psychological Associations. The following Associations are featured: The Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern…

  2. Retinoblastoma associated orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, P.; Karcioglu, Z.; Huaman, A.; Al-Mesfer, S.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—Preseptal and orbital cellulitis are rare presenting features of intraocular retinoblastoma. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of retinoblastoma associated cellulitis, as well as to review its clinical and histopathological features.
METHODS—The medical records of 292 retinoblastoma patients in the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were reviewed. Those indicating a history of, or presenting with, cellulitis were retrieved and their clinical, radiological, and histopathological variables were assessed. Patients with definite extraocular tumour extension on clinical or radiological examination were excluded.
RESULTS—14 patients were found to have retinoblastoma associated cellulitis (4.8%); nine had bilateral and five had unilateral retinoblastoma. Conjunctival and blood cultures were performed in 10 cases and were negative. 10 children were treated with intravenous steroids, often in conjunction with antibiotics, resulting in a prompt decrease in inflammation. Three other children were treated with antibiotics alone and one received no treatment. Computed tomographic scanning depicted large intraocular tumours occupying between 80% and 100% of the globe in each case. In eight patients, periocular inflammation was radiologically interpreted as possible extraocular extension. In one patient serial computed tomographic scanning showed a reduction in intraocular calcification over time which occurred in the presence of cellulitis. 12 patients underwent enucleation and histopathological examination revealed large necrotic, poorly differentiated tumours associated with uveal involvement and early optic nerve invasion. Focal perilimbal destruction was seen in one patient, and in another peripapillary extrascleral extension was present. 12 patients are alive with a mean follow up of 56.4 months.
CONCLUSIONS—Radiological evaluation of scleral integrity may be hindered by periocular inflammatory

  3. Urolithiasis associated with topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide anticonvulsant used as adjunctive therapy for intractable refractory seizures. It is report a case of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old man presented with acute, right-sided, colicky flank pain. He denied hematuria or dysuria. He was in use of phenytoin, risperidone, phenobarbital, and topiramate. The total daily dose of topiramate was 375 mg. A CT scan showed a 7 x 1 mm curvilinear density at the right ureterovesical junction with proximal hydrouretronephrosis. He was managed with rigid ureteroscopic stone extraction and the calculus metabolic analysis revealed the stone was composed of carbonate apatite (70%, calcium oxalate dihydrate (20%, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (10%. COMMENTS: The present case typifies many features of topiramate-induced urolithiasis. Those who care for patients with urinary stone disease should be aware of this association.

  4. HIV-Associated Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogieleum Naidoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6.

  5. Tattoo associated retinochoroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana Rios, J; Verdaguer Díaz, J I; Agee, J; Theodore Smith, R

    2017-08-24

    A young woman was referred to our offices with impairment of visual acuity after she received a third tattoo on her arm. Systemic medical and laboratory work-up were performed in order to exclude an infectious agent or inflammatory disease. A yellowish juxtafoveal lesion in left eye along with a plaque-like outer retinal disruption and focal pigmentary defects was assessed using multi-modal diagnostic imaging. Ophthalmologists treating uveitis should consider this uncommon association and question patients regarding tattoos and tattoo inflammation given the rise of subjects undergoing artistic tattooing. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleepwalking associated with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Kamel M; Ahmad, Azmi T; El-Zaheri, Mohamed M; Al-Zahiri, Mohammad M; Ammari, Fawwaz L; Jarrah, Nadim S; AbuJbara, Mousa A; Ajlouni, Heitham K; Daradkeh, Tewfik K

    2005-01-01

    To report several cases of hyperthyroidism in patients presenting with the unusual symptom of sleepwalking and to discuss the possible pathophysiologic basis for this novel association. After encountering and reporting the first case of new-onset somnambulism in a patient presenting with thyrotoxicosis at our institution, we routinely inquired about the sleep history of patients with thyrotoxicosis, questioning both the patients and family members when applicable. Those patients who actually had sleepwalking episodes coinciding with the onset of thyrotoxicosis underwent close follow-up, and the relationship between the sleepwalking and the results of thyroid function tests was analyzed. In addition, we reviewed the literature on psychiatric disorders and sleep problems, and the pathophysiologic rationale for a cause-and-effect relationship is discussed. We collected 8 cases of patients with new-onset sleepwalking episodes that coincided with the start of thyrotoxicosis. The disappearance of the sleepwalking with successful achievement of euthyroidism supports a cause-and-effect relationship. This hypothesis is further supported by the absence of a family history, the adult onset, and the relapse of sleepwalking in 2 of the patients when their thyrotoxicosis became poorly controlled as a result of noncompliance with medications and its subsequent disappearance with reachievement of euthyroidism. Of note, such a presentation was seen only in patients with thyrotoxicosis caused by diffuse toxic goiter or Graves' disease and never in patients with other causes of thyrotoxicosis. New-onset sleepwalking could be caused by thyrotoxicosis or, more specifically, by thyrotoxicosis resulting from diffuse toxic goiter. The mechanism is hypothesized to be related to the combination of prolongation of non-rapid eye movement sleep and the associated fatigue. Specific inquiry about this unusual presentation of thyrotoxicosis is encouraged, and more studies are needed to confirm

  7. Vaccine-associated hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michael M; DeStefano, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Vaccine-associated hypersensitivity reactions are not infrequent; however, serious acute-onset, presumably IgE-mediated or IgG and complement-mediated anaphylactic or serious delayed-onset T cell-mediated systemic reactions are considered extremely rare. Hypersensitivity can occur because of either the active vaccine component (antigen) or one of the other components. Postvaccination acute-onset hypersensitivity reactions include self-limited localized adverse events and, rarely, systemic reactions ranging from urticaria/angioedema to full-blown anaphylaxis with multisystem involvement. Risk of anaphylaxis after all vaccines is estimated to be 1.31 (95% CI, 0.90-1.84) per million vaccine doses, respectively. Serious hypersensitivity reactions after influenza vaccines are particularly important because of the large number of persons vaccinated annually. Influenza vaccines are unique in requiring annual changes in the vaccines' antigenic composition to match the predicted circulating influenza strains. Recently, novel influenza vaccine types were introduced in the United States (recombinant vaccines, some with higher antigen content and a new adjuvanted vaccine). Providers should be aware of changing recommendations on the basis of recent published evidence for persons with a history of egg allergy to receive annual influenza vaccination. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathophysiology and risk factors for reported vaccine-associated adverse events. Further research is also needed to determine whether repeated annual inactivated influenza vaccination, the number of vaccine antigens administered at the same time, and the current timing of routine infant vaccinations are optimal for overall population well-being. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Does the standard voluntary association question capture informal associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Pamela; Rap, Robyn

    2016-11-01

    Sociologists have long been attentive to participation in associational life. Yet, despite being repeatedly cautioned to consider more informal groups, most researchers focus on participation in formal voluntary associations using national surveys with fixed group categories, such as the General Social Survey (GSS). In this paper, we use new GSS data on the names of the voluntary associations listed by respondents to evaluate whether voluntary association prompts capture or miss various types of informal associations. We code the formality of the associations listed by respondents and also compare to a new sample of bottom-up, informal voluntary associations. We demonstrate that some response categories adequately capture both formal and informal associations, e.g., sports groups. However, our results also suggest that the standard voluntary association question both omits entire categories of informal associations and omits some informal variants of associations within categories. In the tradition of Baumgartner and Walker (1988), Wuthnow (1994), and Wellman et al. (2001), we suggest that we may misunderstand citizen associations if we ignore informal associating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Female-specific pruritus from childhood to postmenopause: clinical features, hormonal factors, and treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoin, Lauren P; Kwatra, Shawn G; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus in recent years. The purpose of this review was to highlight itch entities in women, and in particular pruritic vulvar dermatoses that women experience among different age groups. Unique temporal shifts may contribute to the etiology of many of these conditions. These changes lead to cyclical changes in the skin's basic composition. Specifically, estrogen receptors have been detected on keratinocytes that respond to rising and falling levels of estrogen. These receptors lead to changes in skin hydration, collagen content, and in the concentration of glycosaminoglycans that form the skin barrier. In addition, hormonal pH changes associated with the menstrual cycle may be an important factor in the aggravation of itch as increasing pH is known to activate the proteinase-activated receptor-2, a well-known itch mediator. Common pruritic conditions in women that will be discussed include atopic and irritant dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, infectious vulvovaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, atrophic vulvovaginitis, squamous cell carcinoma, lichen simplex chronicus, and neuropathic itch. We also examine pruritic conditions associated with pregnancy including pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and atopic eruption of pregnancy. Finally, acceptable and contraindicated antipruritic agents in pregnancy are examined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Non-associative versus associative learning by foraging predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Peneder, Stefan

    2017-01-14

    Learning processes can be broadly categorized into associative and non-associative. Associative learning occurs through the pairing of two previously unrelated stimuli, whereas non-associative learning occurs in response to a single stimulus. How these two principal processes compare in the same learning task and how they contribute to the overall behavioural changes brought about by experience is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing associative and non-associative learning of prey, Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus. We compared the behaviour of thrips-experienced and -naïve predators, which, early in life, were exposed to either thrips with feeding (associative learning), thrips without feeding (non-associative learning), thrips traces on the surface (non-associative learning), spider mites with feeding (thrips-naïve) or spider mite traces on the surface (thrips-naïve). Thrips experience in early life, no matter whether associative or not, resulted in higher predation rates on thrips by adult females. In the no-choice experiment, associative thrips experience increased the predation rate on the first day, but shortened the longevity of food-stressed predators, a cost of learning. In the choice experiment, thrips experience, no matter whether associative or not, increased egg production, an adaptive benefit of learning. Our study shows that both non-associative and associative learning forms operate in foraging predatory mites, N. californicus. The non-rewarded thrips prey experience produced a slightly weaker, but less costly, learning effect than the rewarded experience. We argue that in foraging predatory mites non-associative learning is an inevitable component of associative learning, rather than a separate process.

  11. Simulated Associating Polymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, Joris

    Telechelic associating polymer networks consist of polymer chains terminated by endgroups that have a different chemical composition than the polymer backbone. When dissolved in a solution, the endgroups cluster together to form aggregates. At low temperature, a strongly connected reversible network is formed and the system behaves like a gel. Telechelic networks are of interest since they are representative for biopolymer networks (e.g. F-actin) and are widely used in medical applications (e.g. hydrogels for tissue engineering, wound dressings) and consumer products (e.g. contact lenses, paint thickeners). In this thesis such systems are studied by means of a molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo simulation. At first, the system in rest is studied by means of graph theory. The changes in network topology upon cooling to the gel state, are characterized. Hereto an extensive study of the eigenvalue spectrum of the gel network is performed. As a result, an in-depth investigation of the eigenvalue spectra for spatial ER, scale-free, and small-world networks is carried out. Next, the gel under the application of a constant shear is studied, with a focus on shear banding and the changes in topology under shear. Finally, the relation between the gel transition and percolation is discussed.

  12. Precocious puberty: associated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Junior Wanderley Cavalcante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the characteristics of children with central precocious puberty (CPP, identifying both their clinical and epidemiological characteristics, as well as the determinants for receiving timely specialized health care. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study with analytical approach of 342 medical records of children aged 1 to 11 years with CPP, from the Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of a reference hospital. Biological, socio-economic, family and nutritional data of the 1994 to 2010 period was submitted to univariate and bivariate analysis, using the chi-square test for the statistical evaluation of the associations. Results: The main features of children with CPP were: being adopted, 25 (7.3%; being overweight, 92 (27.1%; being obese, 85 (25.1%; initiating puberty before six years of age, 205 (60.3%. Children with PPC who received late specialized care were the ones who most precociously presented signs of puberty (p<0.001, and belonged to families with lower income (p<0.002. Conclusion: High proportions of children with CPP were adopted and presented overweight/obesity. Children with excessively early onset of puberty signs, and belonging to low income families, suffered significant delay in obtaining specialized care. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p153

  13. [Pruritus associated with cholestasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán, Alvaro; Fábrega, Emilio; Pons-Romero, Fernando

    2010-04-01

    Pruritus is commonly associated with cholestatic disorders and shows wide interindividual variability. The presence of skin lesions due to scratching and the application of a visual analogue scale are useful for clinical evaluation. Although the pathophysiology of this entity is not well understood, advances have recently been made in understanding of the pruritoceptive neural pathway, which shares certain similarities with the nociceptive pathway, although there are other distinguishing characteristics such as the action of a specific neurotransmitter, GPR, on the first synapsis at the posterior horn of the spinal cord. Amongst the modulator systems of the pruritoceptive pathway is the action of the endogenous opioids. An increase of these opioids in cholestatic situations is the most widely accepted hypothesis for pruritus in these patients. Some treatments have proven efficacy in randomized clinical trials in patients with cholestatic disorders, such as anion exchange resins, rifampicin, opioid antagonists and ursodeoxycholic acid; the latter is especially useful in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Attentive multidirectional associative memory with application to pattern association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Heng-Ming

    1992-07-01

    An attentive multidirectional hetero-associative memory network (AMAM) is proposed. The convergence and encoding strategies of AMAM are described. This network enables multiple associations, but with certain associations embedding more attention. This model is inspired by speculation about how associative learning and storage might occur in the nervous system. AMAM has much better error correcting capability and memory capacity than the multidirectional associative memory. Examples are illustrated to show the advantages of this model. In addition, we demonstrate and compare its recall ability for pattern recognition.

  15. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Linked with HPV Each Year? Rates by Race and Ethnicity HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated ... file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: March 6, 2017 Page last updated: March 6, 2017 ...

  16. Performance assessment of housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Overmeeren, A.J.; Gruis, V.H.; Haffner, M.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the function, design, and effects of a method to assess the performance of housing associations in the Netherlands. First, the roles of performance assessment are discussed from three perspectives: the association as an agent for the central government; the association as a

  17. Associative learning and animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-10-05

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action.

  18. Aberrant cortical associative plasticity associated with severe adult Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Ruiz-Rodríguez, María Adilia; Palomar, Francisco J; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Vargas, Laura; Porcacchia, Paolo; Gómez-Crespo, Mercedes; Huertas-Fernández, Ismael; Carrillo, Fátima; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Mir, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown altered cortical plasticity in adult patients with Tourette syndrome. However, the clinical significance of this finding remains elusive. Motor cortical plasticity was evaluated in 15 adult patients with severe Tourette syndrome and 16 healthy controls using the paired associative stimulation protocol by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Associations between paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity and relevant clinical variables, including cortical excitability, psychiatric comorbidities, drug treatment and tic severity, were assessed. Motor cortical plasticity was abnormally increased in patients with Tourette syndrome compared with healthy subjects. This abnormal plasticity was independently associated with tic severity. Patients with severe Tourette syndrome display abnormally increased cortical associative plasticity. This aberrant cortical plasticity was associated with tic severity, suggesting an underlying mechanism for tic pathophysiology. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Clinical Aspects of Dermatitis Associated with Dirofilaria repens in Pets: A Review of 100 Canine and 31 Feline Cases (1990–2010 and a Report of a New Clinic Case Imported from Italy to Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Tarello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria (Nochtiella repens, living in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs, cats, wild carnivores, and humans. Cases have been recently reported also from Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia, Austria, Switzerland, France, The Netherlands, and the Middle East. D. repens is not widely known to cause chronic pruritic dermatitis in animals. Dermatological signs observed in 100 canine clinic cases were pruritus (100%, erythema (79%, papulae (62%, focal or multifocal alopecia (55%, hyperkeratosis (18%, crusting (14%, nodules (12%, acantosis (5%, and eczema (3%. Signs other than dermatological were conjunctivitis (46%, anorexia (35%, vomiting (26%, fever (25%, lethargy (20%, and lymph-adenomegaly (10%. A case imported from Italy to Dubai is described. The opportunistic role of D. repens might explain the presence of asymptomatic carriers, the concurrent observation of nondermatological signs, and the development of dermatitis in a subgroup of parasitized dogs.

  20. Metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courties, Alice; Sellam, Jérémie; Berenbaum, Francis

    2017-03-01

    Interest in the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype is increasing. Here, we summarize recently published significant findings. Meta-analyses confirmed an association between type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis and between cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Recent advances in the study of metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis have focused on a better understanding of the role of metabolic diseases in inducing or aggravating joint damage. In-vivo models of obesity, diabetes, or dyslipidemia have helped to better decipher this association. They give emerging evidence that, beyond the role of common pathogenic mechanisms for metabolic diseases and osteoarthritis (i.e., low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress), metabolic diseases have a direct systemic effect on joints. In addition to the impact of weight, obesity-associated inflammation is associated with osteoarthritis severity and may modulate osteoarthritis progression in mouse models. As well, osteoarthritis synovium from type 2 diabetic patients shows insulin-resistant features, which may participate in joint catabolism. Finally, exciting data are emerging on the association of gut microbiota and circadian rhythm and metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis. The systemic role of metabolic syndrome in osteoarthritis pathophysiology is now better understood, but new avenues of research are being pursued to better decipher the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype.

  1. American Association for Hand Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grant Grant Opportunities Survey Research Tips Writing a Successful Proposal Awards HAND ... Notice Regarding Location of 2018 Annual Meeting The annual meetings of the American Association for ...

  2. Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge, Anticoagulation Control, and Demographic Characteristics of Patients Attending an Anticoagulation Clinic in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Evaluation.

  3. Infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus primes for immunological memory in human nose-associated lymphoid tissue, offering cross-reactive immunity to H1N1 and avian H5N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahallawi, Waleed H; Kasbekar, Anand V; McCormick, Maxwell S; Hoschler, Katja; Temperton, Nigel; Leong, Samuel C; Beer, Helen; Ferrara, Francesca; McNamara, Paul S; Zhang, Qibo

    2013-05-01

    Influenza is a highly contagious mucosal infection in the respiratory tract. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus infection resulted in substantial morbidity and mortality in humans. Little is known on whether immunological memory develops following pH1N1 infection and whether it provides protection against other virus subtypes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay was used to analyze hemagglutinin (HA)-specific memory B cell responses after virus antigen stimulation in nose-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) from children and adults. Individuals with serological evidence of previous exposure to pH1N1 showed significant cross-reactive HA-specific memory B cell responses to pH1N1, seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1), and avian H5N1 (aH5N1) viruses upon pH1N1 virus stimulation. pH1N1 virus antigen elicited stronger cross-reactive memory B cell responses than sH1N1 virus. Intriguingly, aH5N1 virus also activated cross-reactive memory responses to sH1N1 and pH1N1 HAs in those who had previous pH1N1 exposure, and that correlated well with the memory response stimulated by pH1N1 virus antigen. These memory B cell responses resulted in cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against sH1N1, 1918 H1N1, and aH5N1 viruses. The 2009 pH1N1 infection appeared to have primed human host with B cell memory in NALT that offers cross-protective mucosal immunity to not only H1N1 but also aH5N1 viruses. These findings may have important implications for future vaccination strategies against influenza. It will be important to induce and/or enhance such cross-protective mucosal memory B cells.

  4. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr...... on their transnational engagement in development activities in their countries of origin....

  5. Turtle-associated human salmonellosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.; Romkens, TE; Hekker, TA; Smulders, Y.M.

    2003-01-01

    A patient who bred exotic turtles as a hobby presented with 2 episodes of severe diarrhea, the second of which was proven to be caused by turtle-associated salmonellosis that was contracted during treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor. The literature about reptile-associated salmonellosis is

  6. Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amit Kumar

    2016-03-07

    Mar 7, 2016 ... Abstract Objective: The aim of the present case–control study was to determine the association ... stroke were found to have an independent association with the risk of IS after adjusting for poten- ... 702, 7th Floor, Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences,.

  7. The Eighteen Associations of Corinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Eckhardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently offered lists of voluntary associations attested at Corinth can be reduced to two or three dubious cases; in general, the association model for the study of Christian groups needs to be carefully scrutinized aned its local context assessed. 

  8. Association mapping in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    hoop, D' B.B.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a four year project within the Centre for BioSystems Genomics (www.cbsg.nl), entitled “Association mapping and family genotyping in potato” are described in this thesis. This project was intended to investigate whether a recently emerged methodology, association mapping, could provide

  9. Pruritus in female patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Pruritus is a frequent symptom in many dermatological diseases. In this review we want to focus on not only itch problems specific to women, namely, pruritic vulvodermatoses, but also the specific pruritic dermatoses of pregnancy...

  10. ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA AND ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED COLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Belousova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents most recent data on antibiotic-associated intestinal disorders. The author reviews epidemiology and causative microorganisms in antibiotic-induced diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis as well as clinical variants of antibiotic-associated disorders. Diagnosis methods are decribed at length with special attention to most sensitive and informative tests. Treatment of different clinical variants of antibiotic-induced disorders is discussed in detail.

  11. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, V.G., E-mail: vladislav.kupriyanov@gmail.com [CMCC-Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  12. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kupriyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  13. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow). Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods.

  14. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    Full Text Available Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow. Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods.

  15. Wavelet-based associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katharine J.

    2004-04-01

    Faces provide important characteristics of a person"s identification. In security checks, face recognition still remains the method in continuous use despite other approaches (i.e. fingerprints, voice recognition, pupil contraction, DNA scanners). With an associative memory, the output data is recalled directly using the input data. This can be achieved with a Nonlinear Holographic Associative Memory (NHAM). This approach can also distinguish between strongly correlated images and images that are partially or totally enclosed by others. Adaptive wavelet lifting has been used for Content-Based Image Retrieval. In this paper, adaptive wavelet lifting will be applied to face recognition to achieve an associative memory.

  16. Ocular associations of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of diseases including central obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and high blood pressure. People with metabolic syndrome have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, beyond the risk associated with individual components of the syndrome. The association of diabetes and hypertension with retinopathy, cataract, and raised intraocular pressure is well known. This review highlights the association of metabolic syndrome, including all its components, with various ocular conditions such as retinopathy, central retinal artery occlusion, cataracts, and raised intraocular pressure.

  17. Association of prediabetes-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms with microalbuminuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wook Choi

    Full Text Available Increased glycemic exposure, even below the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus, is crucial in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications represented by microalbuminuria. Nonetheless, there is limited evidence regarding which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with prediabetes and whether genetic predisposition to prediabetes is related to microalbuminuria, especially in the general population. Our objective was to answer these questions. We conducted a genomewide association study (GWAS separately on two population-based cohorts, Ansung and Ansan, in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES. The initial GWAS was carried out on the Ansung cohort, followed by a replication study on the Ansan cohort. A total of 5682 native Korean participants without a significant medical illness were classified into either control group (n = 3153 or prediabetic group (n = 2529. In the GWAS, we identified two susceptibility loci associated with prediabetes, one at 17p15.3-p15.1 in the GCK gene and another at 7p15.1 in YKT6. When variations in GCK and YKT6 were used as a model of prediabetes, this genetically determined prediabetes increased microalbuminuria. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that fasting glucose concentration in plasma and SNP rs2908289 in GCK were associated with microalbuminuria, and adjustment for age, gender, smoking history, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels did not attenuate this association. Our results suggest that prediabetes and the associated SNPs may predispose to microalbuminuria before the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Further studies are needed to explore the details of the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying this genetic association.

  18. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  19. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  20. Partial monoids: associativity and confluence

    CERN Document Server

    Poinsot, Laurent; Tollu, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    A partial monoid $P$ is a set with a partial multiplication $\\times$ (and total identity $1_P$) which satisfies some associativity axiom. The partial monoid $P$ may be embedded in a free monoid $P^*$ and the product $\\star$ is simulated by a string rewriting system on $P^*$ that consists in evaluating the concatenation of two letters as a product in $P$, when it is defined, and a letter $1_P$ as the empty word $\\epsilon$. In this paper we study the profound relations between confluence for such a system and associativity of the multiplication. Moreover we develop a reduction strategy to ensure confluence and which allows us to define a multiplication on normal forms associative up to a given congruence of $P^*$. Finally we show that this operation is associative if, and only if, the rewriting system under consideration is confluent.

  1. Benchmarking Complications Associated with Esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Donald E.; Kuppusamy, Madhan Kumar; Alderson, Derek; Cecconello, Ivan; Chang, Andrew C.; Darling, Gail; Davies, Andrew; D'journo, Xavier Benoit; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; Griffin, S. Michael; Hardwick, Richard; Hoelscher, Arnulf; Hofstetter, Wayne; Jobe, Blair; Kitagawa, Yuko; Law, Simon; Mariette, Christophe; Maynard, Nick; Morse, Christopher R.; Nafteux, Philippe; Pera, Manuel; Pramesh, C. S.; Puig, Sonia; Reynolds, John V.; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Smithers, Mark; Wijnhoven, B. P. L.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing a standardized dataset with specific definitions to prospectively collect international data to provide a benchmark for complications and outcomes associated with esophagectomy. Outcome reporting in oncologic surgery has suffered from the lack of a standardized system for reporting

  2. Business Associations and Private Ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the capacity of business associations - private, formal, noncommercial organizations designed to promote the common business interests of their members - to support contract enforcement and collective action. Inspired by recent empirical literature, our theoretical framework

  3. Vitiligo associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a disease that results in depigmented areas in the skin. It may develop at any age but the average age at onset is 20 years. Association of vitiligo and melanoma has been commonly reported, but malignancies other than melanoma have been rarely associated with vitiligo. We report a 73-year-old patient with new onset vitiligo who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma in the following years.

  4. Inflammatory cytokine-associated depression

    OpenAIRE

    Lotrich, Francis E

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines can sometimes trigger depression in humans, are often associated with depression, and can elicit some behaviors in animals that are homologous to major depression. Moreover, these cytokines can affect monoaminergic and glutamatergic systems, supporting an overlapping pathoetiology with major depression. This suggests that there could be a specific major depression subtype, inflammatory cytokine-associated depression (ICAD), which may require different therapeutic approa...

  5. [Factors associated with jejunostomy complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Franco, H; Pestaña-Fonseca, C S; Rosales-Murillo, C F; Staufert-Gutiérrez, D L; Velázquez-Dohorn, M E

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies in the literature that analyze jejunostomy complications and their associated factors. To describe the rate of complications and analyze the factors associated with their development in a tertiary reference center in Mexico. A retrospective study was carried out on patients that underwent Witzel jejunostomy within the time frame of January 2002 to December 2011. Patient demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected at the time of hospital admission and during follow-up. The factors associated with the development of complications were analyzed using the chi square test for categorical variables and the Student's t test for the continuous variables. Statistical significance was considered with a pJejunostomy is associated with an elevated medical, as well as surgical, complication frequency. Even though it has been established as a better alternative to parenteral nutrition, its associated morbidity should be taken into consideration before establishing its routine use as a means of nutritional support, especially in patients with factors associated with the development of complications. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. [Exercise scenario of a highly contagious, life-threatening disease in intercontinental aviation : a case report in the context of the International Health Regulations (IHR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Heribert; Guggemos, W; Mühlhaus, A; Wicklein, B; Dietl, J; Hoffmann, A; Leiwering, J; Frangoulidis, D; Zange, S; Königstein, B; Ippisch, S

    2015-07-01

    The International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 were conformed to German law on July 20, 2007 and described in detail by the Implementing Act (IHR DG). According to these legal bases, "designated airports" must maintain special capacities for protection against health threats, and are also responsible for performing regular IHR exercises. Representation of the optimization of established operational concepts of various professions to manage infectious biological threats without obstruction of international travel, and mediation of experience to IHR professionals. An exercise based on the case scenario of a travel-related febrile illness was performed at Munich International Airport on November 11, 2013. Preparations took 6 months and the exercise itself lasted nearly 12 h. The follow-up lasted an additional 9 months. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the exercise was completed. From an Individual Medicine and Public Health perspective, modular work structures and risk communication functioned adequately. The medical examination of passengers was also well managed. Areas requiring further optimization included arrival/departure times of external actors, transport of the index patient to hospital and protective measures for individual participants. Overall, a defined biological threat scenario representing a double infection with two highly pathogenic germs was handled satisfactorily without affecting international air travel. Modular supply components are an effective and forward-looking means in protection against threats occurring at airports. Key success factors include sufficient staff mobility, immediate self-protection of actors involved, effective risk communication and a strong overall coordination and monitoring of the situation.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania based on amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    profile. Strains from different countries revealed different AFLP profiles. Six PFGE types were detected among the analysed strains, with all the 56 Tanzanian held strains displaying indistinguishable PFGE profiles. Strains from different countries revealed different PFGE profiles, and so did the type...... strains. The AFLP profiles of the type and vaccine strains were indistingiuishable from each other. Indistinguishable AFLP profiles were found for 55 Tanzanian held strains, one of them isolated in 1990 and the other 54 isolated in 1998/1999), although one strain isolated in 1999 showed a different...

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to surface-exposes proteins of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (small-colony strain), which causes contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarie, M N; Rurangirwa, F R; Perryman, L E; Jasmer, D P; McGuire, T C

    1996-11-01

    Outbreaks of bovine pleuropneumonia caused by small-colony strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides occur in Africa, and vaccination is used for control. Since protein subunits are needed to improve multivalent vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were made to facilitate protein identification and isolation. Eleven immunoglobulin M MAbs derived from mouse spleen donors immunized with disrupted whole organisms bound periodate-sensitive epitopes on externally exposed polysaccharide. Seven of these MAbs caused in vitro growth inhibition of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides; however, reaction with carbohydrate epitopes prevented their use in identifying proteins. Ten additional MAbs from mouse spleen donors immunized with Triton X-114-phase integral membrane proteins reacted with periodate-insensitive, proteinase K-sensitive epitopes. These MAbs were classified into three groups based on immunoblots of Triton X-114-phase proteins. One group reacted with 96-, 16-, and 15-kDa proteins. Another group reacted with 26-, 21-, and 16-kDa proteins, while a third group reacted only with 26- and 21-kDa proteins. One MAb from each group reacted with trypsinsensitive epitopes on live organisms, yet none caused in vitro growth inhibition. Representative MAbs reacted with all small-colony strains in immunoblots and did not react with large colony strains. However, these MAbs were not specific for small-colony strains, as proteins from two other M. mycoides cluster organisms were identified. Nevertheless, MAbs to surface-exposed epitopes on integral membrane proteins will be useful for isolation of these proteins for immunization, since one or more might induce growth-inhibiting antibodies or other protective responses.

  9. The Integrated Rescue System Activity and the Protection of the Public from a Possible Importation of Highly Contagious Diseases into the Czech Republic by Air Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    TOUSECKÝ, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At present time of modern worldwide tourism using air transport, the risk of spreading an infectious disease in the Czech Republic cannot be underestimated. Air transport has become quite common way of travelling for Czech citizens so the travel time has shortened significantly. From this viewpoint Czech residents are at potential hazard of highly infectious diseases (HID). This Diploma thesis deals with biological agents which are divided into four risk groups on the basis of patogenes, a ha...

  10. Emotions are not always contagious: Longitudinal spreading of self-pride and group pride in homogeneous and status-differentiated groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Ellen; Meeussen, Loes; Mesquita, Batja

    2016-01-01

    The members of task groups are emotionally more similar to each other than to others outside the group; yet, little is known about the conditions under which this emotional similarity emerges. In two longitudinal studies, we tested the idea that emotions only spread when they contain information that is relevant to all group members. We compared the spreading of group pride (relevant) with self-pride (not relevant). The first study followed emotions in 68 task groups (N = 295) across 4 moments. Multilevel cross-lagged path analyses showed that group members mutually influenced each other's group pride, but not self-pride. The second study followed emotions in 27 task groups (N = 195) across 3 moments in time. Longitudinal social network analyses showed that group members adjusted their group pride, but not their self-pride, to members they perceived to be more influential. Findings from both studies are consistent with a social referencing account of emotion spreading.

  11. A PROPOSAL OF FUZZY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSOCIATION RULES

    OpenAIRE

    Rolly Intan

    2006-01-01

    Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules), in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are mul...

  12. A Proposal of Fuzzy Multidimensional Association Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Intan, Rolly

    2006-01-01

    Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules), in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are mul...

  13. The Staff Association and you

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    The Staff Association, your representative with the Management and the Member States The article VII 1.01 of the Staff Rules and Regulations (SR&R) provides that “the relations between the Director-General and the personnel shall be established either on an individual basis or on a collective basis with the Staff Association as intermediary”. This essential role of the Staff representatives, of being the spokesperson of the entire staff of the Organization vis-à-vis the Director-General and the Members States, is achieved through regular participation in the various joint advisory committees defined in the SR&R. The most important are the Standing Concertation Committee and the TREF, tripartite forum where your representatives meet with the Member States delegates, in the presence of the Management, to explain the position of the staff on the various issues concerning employment conditions. The Finance Committee also gives the opportunity to the Staff Association to ...

  14. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  15. Bioprospecting plant-associated microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christina A; Obermeier, Melanie M; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-10-10

    There is growing demand for new bioactive compounds and biologicals for the pharmaceutical, agro- and food industries. Plant-associated microbes present an attractive and promising source to this end, but are nearly unexploited. Therefore, bioprospecting of plant microbiomes is gaining more and more attention. Due to their highly specialized and co-evolved genetic pool, plant microbiomes host a rich secondary metabolism. This article highlights the potential detection and use of secondary metabolites and enzymes derived from plant-associated microorganisms in biotechnology. As an example we summarize the findings from the moss microbiome with special focus on the genus Sphagnum and its biotechnological potential for the discovery of novel microorganisms and bioactive molecules. The selected examples illustrate unique and yet untapped properties of plant-associated microbiomes, which are an immense treasure box for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inflammatory cytokine-associated depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrich, Francis E

    2015-08-18

    Inflammatory cytokines can sometimes trigger depression in humans, are often associated with depression, and can elicit some behaviors in animals that are homologous to major depression. Moreover, these cytokines can affect monoaminergic and glutamatergic systems, supporting an overlapping pathoetiology with major depression. This suggests that there could be a specific major depression subtype, inflammatory cytokine-associated depression (ICAD), which may require different therapeutic approaches. However, most people do not develop depression, even when exposed to sustained elevations in inflammatory cytokines. Thus several vulnerabilities and sources of resilience to inflammation-associated depression have been identified. These range from genetic differences in neurotrophic and serotonergic systems to sleep quality and omega-3 fatty acid levels. Replicating these sources of resilience as treatments could be one approach for preventing "ICAD". This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Associative Nature of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    The overarching objective of this doctoral dissertation is to advance our understanding of the role of associations in creative thought and creativity training. While research in associative abilities and creativity has a long history and lies at the heart of many prevailing theories of creativity......, the exact details of how associations are formed and their involvement in creativity remains largely unexplored. The dissertation contains three original manuscripts: I: Morten Friis-Olivarius & Bo T. Christensen: CHange slows only the creative mind. II: Morten Friis-Olivarius, Oliver J. Hulme, Martin Skov......, Thomas Z. Ramsøy, Hartwig Siebner: Viewing objects activates the creative mind. III: Balder Onarheim & Morten Friis-Olivarius (2013): Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 7, Article 656...

  18. Patient centric identification and association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P; Miodownik, S; Booth, P; Carragee, P; Dowling, M

    2009-01-01

    Increased technological complexity of medical devices and systems coupled with increased workloads and reduced staffing, have created difficulties and discontinuities in the management of patient information. These issues have directly impacted and contributed to a rise in equipment-related errors, patient dissatisfaction, a potential for patient injury and resulting overall increased concern for patient safety. In response these concerns a variety of new devices, systems and applications have been developed to share information, provide cross checks along with verified delivery of critical information to the point of care. These applications include biomedical information systems, medication administration, sample collection, and electronic medical records. The deployment of these new integrated and networked devices, systems and applications are dependent on an accurate and consistent patient identification and association methodology which dynamically manages the relationship between patients, staff and equipment. Since the association information is common to many applications and utilizes a variety of technologies, (i.e. active and passive radio frequency identification (RFID), barcodes, etc.) an institutional approach is necessary to mange these processes in a consistent manor utilizing a common set of identification hardware. Implementation of a "Patient Centric Identification and Association Platform" represents a significant advance in the management of clinical patient information. The implementation of a Biomedical Device Information Network at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) integrates the identification and association of patients with devices and care providers and provides the methodologies to manage alarms, providing the ability to filter low priority or nuisance alarms. This implementation enables critical information to be distributed directly to care providers utilizing dedicated communications devices. Patient Centric

  19. Atopic dermatitis in children: clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jonathan J; Milner, Joshua D; Stone, Kelly D

    2015-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, highly pruritic skin condition resulting from disruption of the epithelial barrier and associated immune dysregulation in the skin of genetically predisposed hosts. AD generally develops in early childhood, has a characteristic age-dependent distribution and is commonly associated with elevated IgE, peripheral eosinophilia, and other allergic diseases. Medications such as antihistamines have demonstrated poor efficacy in controlling AD-associated itch. Education of patients regarding the primary underlying defects and provision of a comprehensive skin care plan is essential for disease maintenance and management of flares. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Global Employer and Business Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Global employer and business associations at the peak level are neglected in research, but this paper argues that it is possible to develop collective action and represent interests in many policy fields through these encompassing entities, and they add to other forms of global business...... coordination. This study analyses all the global peak associations (International Chamber of Commerce, International Organisation of Employers, World Chambers Federation, Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD, B20 Coalition, World Economic Forum and World Business Council for Sustainable...... implications for our understanding of global politics where new approaches are needed to analyse the institutionalisation of business interests....

  2. Bilateral maculopathy associated with sertraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Shaun Y P; Abell, Robin G; Vote, Brendan J

    2014-12-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral maculopathy that developed with the initiation of sertraline. We conducted a case report and review of the literature. A 23-year-old man rapidly developed maculopathy with associated visual blurring after the initiation of sertraline. Treatment was ceased with the patient subsequently reporting mild improvement in visual symptoms. Maculopathy associated with sertraline use has yet to be established and recognized as an adverse side effect. With only one previous reported case in the literature, this condition requires further awareness. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  3. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley S

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Relevant current literature is reviewed.

  4. The Ontario Energy Marketers Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.F.C. [Ontario Energy Marketers Association, ON (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    An overview of the role of the Ontario Energy Marketers Association (OEMA) and its future orientation was presented. Participants in the OEMA include agents, brokers, marketers, local distribution companies, public interest representatives, associations and government representatives. The role of the OEMA is to encourage open competition for the benefit and protection of all energy consumer and market participants. As well, the OEMA serves as a forum for key industry stakeholders to resolve market issues outside the regulatory arena, set standards and codes of practice, establish customer education programs, and develop industry input into public policy making.

  5. Beyond Intra-Transaction Association Analysis: Mining Multi-Dimensional Inter-Transaction Association Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.J.; Feng, L.; Han, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the scope of mining association rules from traditional single-dimensional intratransaction associations, to multidimensional intertransaction associations. Intratransaction associations are the associations among items with the same transaction, where the notion of the

  6. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  7. A European Social Simulation Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, S

    This is a proposal to form a European Social Simulation Association (ESSA). ESSA is intended to coordinate with similar organisations in North America, Latin America and Australasia and other regions to organise an international federation to support the development of social simulation research,

  8. Association for Progressive Communication : Institutional ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orbicom's Digital Divide Index is a rigorous statistical tool for benchmarking access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT), and monitoring ... The Association for Progressive Communication (APC) is repositioning itself in relation to information and communication technology (ICT) policy research.

  9. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 119, No. 3, June 2009, pp. 297–318. © Printed in India. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. A CARRIAZO, L M FERN ´ANDEZ and A RODRÍGUEZ-HIDALGO. Department of Geometry and Topology, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Sevilla,. Apartado de Correos 1160, 41080-Sevilla, Spain.

  10. Polysemy and Association in Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, John

    1976-01-01

    The language learner necessarily masters literal reading before literary reading. In order to learn the language of poetry, first-year university students of English as a second language must gain competence with polysemy and association which are fundamental to literary reading. (CFM)

  11. Microfibrillar-Associated Protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sækmose, Susanne Gjørup; Mössner, Belinda; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A method for assessment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis without the need for a liver biopsy is desirable. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a suggested biomarker for identification of high-risk patients with severe fibrosis stages. This study aimed to examine...

  12. Health risks associated with obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    Obesity is defined clinically as a state of increased body weight, more specifically of increased fat tissue mass. It is associated with increased fat cell size and number, and is usually followed by serious health consequences if not controlled. Body weight and the storage of energy as triglyceride in adipose tissue are ...

  13. Medication-wide association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B. Ryan (Patrick); D. Madigan (David); P.E. Stang (Paul); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); G. Hripcsak (G.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUndiscovered side effects of drugs can have a profound effect on the health of the nation, and electronic health-care databases offer opportunities to speed up the discovery of these side effects. We applied a "medication-wide association study" approach that combined multivariate

  14. Pseudobulbar palsy associated with trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, M. M.; Howard, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    A 60 year old patient presented with an acute pseudobulbar palsy associated with trismus. A computed tomography scan revealed low attenuation areas consistent with infarction affecting the genu of the internal capsules bilaterally. Trismus has not previously been described as the presenting feature of a pseudobulbar palsy. Images Figure 1 PMID:7824418

  15. Multiple sclerosis associated with trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, D. F.; Vania, A. K.; Millac, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the case history of a middle-aged lady who presented with symptoms and signs over one year leading to a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. During one of her relapses, she developed trismus--an association that has not been described before in multiple sclerosis. PMID:2099430

  16. Pseudobulbar palsy associated with trismus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, M M; Howard, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    A 60 year old patient presented with an acute pseudobulbar palsy associated with trismus. A computed tomography scan revealed low attenuation areas consistent with infarction affecting the genu of the internal capsules bilaterally. Trismus has not previously been described as the presenting feature of a pseudobulbar palsy.

  17. Searching association networks for nurturers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, BK

    2005-01-01

    Studying the evolution of association networks offers insights that researchers can use to develop new forms of Web information retrieval and improve searches. In addition to finding nurturers, this work can be applied to targeted recommendations, human resource management, and social network analysis.

  18. Statin-Associated Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul D; Panza, Gregory; Zaleski, Amanda; Taylor, Beth

    2016-05-24

    Hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or statins are well tolerated, but associated with various statin-associated symptoms (SAS), including statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and central nervous system complaints. These are "statin-associated symptoms" because they are rare in clinical trials, making their causative relationship to statins unclear. SAS are, nevertheless, important because they prompt dose reduction or discontinuation of these life-saving mediations. SAMS is the most frequent SAS, and mild myalgia may affect 5% to 10% of statin users. Clinically important muscle symptoms, including rhabdomyolysis and statin-induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (SINAM), are rare. Antibodies against HMG-CoA reductase apparently provoke SINAM. Good evidence links statins to DM, but evidence linking statins to other SAS is largely anecdotal. Management of SAS requires making the possible diagnosis, altering or discontinuing the statin treatment, and using alternative lipid-lowering therapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Family planning associations support themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, C

    1988-12-01

    The major sources of funding for family planning associations include: 1) contributions from foundations and private individuals; 2) government subsidies; 3) international assistance; and 4) profits from family planning services, e.g., contraceptive sales, operation of family planning clinics and health check laboratories, and sales of educational materials. In many Asian countries, the operation of health check laboratories appears to be an especially promising source of income. Industrialization and higher education have produced an increased emphasis on good health and a higher quality of life. Family planning associations can thus play a role in providing regular health check-ups and health education for all family members. Family planning counseling can be provided to clients as a part of their medical check-ups. Since such examinations should be conducted on a yearly basis, a fixed amount of income can be assumed. Family planning associations that are considering starting a health examination program should invest in the necessary facilities and equipment, recruit medical doctors and laboratory technicians, and form linkages with specialists, hospitals, universities, and other research institutions. It may take 3-5 years for a family planning association to accumulate the necessary technology and experience in this field and to acquire the confidence of the general public.

  20. Associated jet production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Bartels, Julius; de Roeck, A; Graudenz, Dirk; Wüsthoff, M

    1996-01-01

    We compare the BFKL prediction for the associated production of forward jets at HERA with fixed-order matrix element calculations taking into account the kinematical cuts imposed by experimental conditions. Comparison with H1 data of the 1993 run favours the BFKL prediction. As a further signal of BFKL dynamics, we propose to look for the azimuthal dependence of the forward jets.

  1. Cancer-associated lysosomal changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallunki, T; Olsen, O D; Jaattela, Marja

    2013-01-01

    -targeting anti-cancer drugs. In this review we compile our current knowledge on cancer-associated changes in lysosomal composition and discuss the consequences of these alterations to cancer progression and the possibilities they can bring to cancer therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 July 2012; doi...

  2. Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    formation in fibroblasts with mutations in the α/β heterodimerization domain seems to be associated with a severe neurodegenerative course and suggests that the amino acid stretch from Asp2303 to Met2309 in the α20 repeat is important for α/β spectrin heterodimer formation and/or αII spectrin function....

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...

  4. Editorial/Associate Editor's Column

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Editorial / Associate Editor's Column. Rajaram Nityananda. Editorial Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 1-1. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/02/0001-0001. Author Affiliations.

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  6. Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shia, Jinru; Holck, Susanne; Depetris, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    of such information. This article provides an overview of the development of histopathology and immunohistochemistry in Lynch syndrome-associated tumors, particularly in colorectal and endometrial cancers, and outlines the issues and current status of these specific pathologic aspects in not only the major tumors...

  7. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofie Lock; Roberts, Nassim Bazeghi; Schlosser, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a matricellular glycoprotein that co-localises with elastic fibres and is highly expressed in the lungs. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma MFAP4 (pMFAP4) reflects clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmona...

  8. Hypothyroidism associated with parathyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Elli, Francesca Marta; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    Hypothyroidism may occur in association with congenital parathyroid disorders determining parathyroid hormone insufficiency, which is characterized by hypocalcemia and concomitant inappropriately low secretion of parathormone (PTH). The association is often due to loss of function of genes common to thyroid and parathyroid glands embryonic development. Hypothyroidism associated with hypoparathyroidism is generally mild and not associated with goiter; moreover, it is usually part of a multisystemic involvement not restricted to endocrine function as occurs in patients with 22q11 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome, the most frequent disorders. Hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism may also follow endocrine glands' damages due to autoimmunity or chronic iron overload in thalassemic disorders, both genetically determined conditions. Finally, besides PTH deficiency, hypocalcemia can be due to PTH resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism; when hormone resistance is generalized, patients can suffer from hypothyroidism due to TSH resistance. In evaluating patients with hypothyroidism and hypocalcemia, physical examination and clinical history are essential to drive the diagnostic process, while routine genetic screening is not recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  10. Automatic affective associations and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijding, Jorg

    2006-01-01

    The aim of these thesis was to examine the theoretical and clinical relevance of distinguishing between (dysfunctional) automatic and more deliberated affective associations. This interest was sired by the development of so called 'implicit measures', better referred to as indirect measures of

  11. Spina Bifida Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

  12. Endomyocardial Fibrosis Associated With Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... SUMMARY. Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a form of restrictive cardiomyopathy common in the tropics and subtropics. The aetiology of EMF is unknown but helminth infes- tations such as schistosomiasis have been implicated. Two boys aged 8 and 10 years with EMF associated with Schistosoma ...

  13. Financial Handbook for Parent Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Parent Foundations, Brooklyn, NY.

    This handbook is designed to aid parent associations in the New York City schools to better manage their financial responsibilities. After discussing the nature of Budget and Audit Committees, the handbook stresses the need for a budget and the items to be included in it. The areas of management, recordkeeping, and auditing are delineated. (WP)

  14. Associative learning in biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nikhil; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2007-11-07

    It has been recently suggested that there are likely generic features characterizing the emergence of systems constructed from the self-organization of self-replicating agents acting under one or more selection pressures. Therefore, structures and behaviors at one length scale may be used to infer analogous structures and behaviors at other length scales. Motivated by this suggestion, we seek to characterize various "animate" behaviors in biochemical networks, and the influence that these behaviors have on genomic evolution. Specifically, in this paper, we develop a simple, chemostat-based model illustrating how a process analogous to associative learning can occur in a biochemical network. Associative learning is a form of learning whereby a system "learns" to associate two stimuli with one another. Associative learning, also known as conditioning, is believed to be a powerful learning process at work in the brain (associative learning is essentially "learning by analogy"). In our model, two types of replicating molecules, denoted as A and B, are present in some initial concentration in the chemostat. Molecules A and B are stimulated to replicate by some growth factors, denoted as G(A) and G(B), respectively. It is also assumed that A and B can covalently link, and that the conjugated molecule can be stimulated by either the G(A) or G(B) growth factors (and can be degraded). We show that, if the chemostat is stimulated by both growth factors for a certain time, followed by a time gap during which the chemostat is not stimulated at all, and if the chemostat is then stimulated again by only one of the growth factors, then there will be a transient increase in the number of molecules activated by the other growth factor. Therefore, the chemostat bears the imprint of earlier, simultaneous stimulation with both growth factors, which is indicative of associative learning. It is interesting to note that the dynamics of our model is consistent with certain aspects of

  15. Gastroenteritis outbreak associated with faecal shedding of canine norovirus in a Portuguese kennel following introduction of imported dogs from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, J R; Nascimento, M S J

    2012-10-01

    We describe an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in dogs in March 2011 in a Portuguese kennel after the introduction of imported Russian dogs. Canine norovirus was detected in faecal samples of all dogs with AGE symptoms. Partial sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products confirmed that all canine norovirus strains were identical. The canine norovirus infection disseminated rapidly in 2 days to all dogs in the kennel demonstrating the highly contagious nature of this virus. The incubation period was <48 h, the diarrhoeal disease was self-limiting and the viral shedding lasted <7 days. Overall, the epidemiological features of this outbreak resembled those of human norovirus infections. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Is adenomyosis associated with menorrhagia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftalin, J; Hoo, W; Pateman, K; Mavrelos, D; Foo, X; Jurkovic, D

    2014-03-01

    Is the presence of adenomyosis associated with menorrhagia? There was no significant association between adenomyosis and menorrhagia, but there was a significant positive correlation between the severity of adenomyosis on ultrasound and the amount of menstrual loss estimated using pictorial blood loss assessment charts. There is no consensus in the literature with regards to the association between adenomyosis and menorrhagia. Previous studies have been limited to retrospective studies of highly selected populations which mainly included women who underwent hysterectomy. There are no large prospective studies evaluating the association between adenomyosis and menorrhagia, either in the general population of women or in a general gynaecology clinic setting. This was a prospective observational study set in the general gynaecology clinic of a university teaching hospital between January 2009 and January 2010. There were 714 consecutive premenopausal women who attended the clinic and underwent structured clinical and transvaginal ultrasound examination in accordance with the study protocol. Morphological features of adenomyosis were systematically recorded on ultrasound scan. Menorrhagia was determined subjectively by direct questioning and objectively by completion of pictorial blood loss analysis charts. A diagnosis of adenomyosis was made in 157/714 women [22.0% (95% CI: 19.1-25.2%)]. Multivariable analysis showed significant associations between submucous fibroids [OR 5.60 (95% CI: 2.69-11.6)], any fibroids [OR 1.53 (95% CI: 0.91-2.58)] and endometrial polyps [OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.15-11.7)] and menorrhagia. There were also significant associations between increasing gravidity and BMI and menorrhagia (P menorrhagia in the study population, when adenomyosis was assessed as a binary outcome. When severity of adenomyosis was assessed by counting the number of morphological features of adenomyosis in each woman, we found a significant 22% increase in menstrual loss for

  17. 47 CFR 69.603 - Association functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that are associated with the preparation, defense, and modification of association tariffs, those... of all other association expenses. Category I Expenses shall be sub-divided into three components in... Line revenues, the association Carrier Common Line revenues, the association Special Access Surcharge...

  18. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal... associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging in... association. (c) Limitations. A trade association or a separate segregated fund established by a trade...

  19. Association between Frailty and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, J; Nykänen, I; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2014-01-01

    and cognition has not yet been fully established. Objective: To investigate cross-sectionally whether frailty is associated with cognitive impairment or clinically diagnosed dementia in older people. Methods: The study included a total of 654 persons aged 76-100 years (mean 82 ± 4.6). Frailty status...... of the participants was assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Clinically diagnosed dementia was assessed by specialists using diagnostic criteria. The associations between frailty and cognition were investigated using...... logistic regression. Results: A total of 93 (14%) participants were classified as frail. Cognitive impairment (MMSE score dementia. 97 (15%) persons had Alzheimer's disease, 19 (3%) had vascular dementia, 12 (2%) had...

  20. Association theories for complex thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial...... promising direction for a general and useful for engineering purposes modeling of complex thermodynamics is via the use of association theories e.g. those based on chemical theory (like APACT), or on the lattice theory (like NRHB) or those based on perturbation theory (like SAFT and CPA). The purpose...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...

  1. Learning: from association to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R

    2010-01-01

    Since the very earliest experimental investigations of learning, tension has existed between association-based and cognitive theories. Associationism accounts for the phenomena of both conditioning and "higher" forms of learning via concepts such as excitation, inhibition, and reinforcement, whereas cognitive theories assume that learning depends on hypothesis testing, cognitive models, and propositional reasoning. Cognitive theories have received considerable impetus in regard to both human and animal learning from recent research suggesting that the key illustration of cue selection in learning, blocking, often arises from inferential reasoning. At the same time, a dichotomous view that separates noncognitive, unconscious (implicit) learning from cognitive, conscious (explicit) learning has gained favor. This review selectively describes key findings from this research, evaluates evidence for and against associative and cognitive explanatory constructs, and critically examines both the dichotomous view of learning as well as the claim that learning can occur unconsciously.

  2. Vancomycin-Associated Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhawadee Pongruangporn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved for treatment of serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA or in individuals who have failed, cannot tolerate, or are allergic to other antibiotics. Very few cases of vancomycin-associated leukocytoclastic vasculitis have been published. We report on a patient who developed pruritus and palpable purpura in both lower extremities after receiving six days of intravenous vancomycin. Skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  3. Ion association in natural brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  4. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. On the Blackman's Association Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dezert, Jean; Smarandache, Florentin; Tchamova, Albena

    2003-01-01

    Modern multitarget-multisensor tracking systems involve the development of reliable methods for the data association and the fusion of multiple sensor information, and more specifically the partioning of observations into tracks. This paper discusses and compares the application of Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and the Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) methods to the fusion of multiple sensor attributes for target identification purpose. We focus our attention on the paradoxical Blackman's asso...

  6. Complications associated with orthognathic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Kyun

    2017-01-01

    While most patients undergo orthognathic surgery for aesthetic purposes, aesthetic improvements are most often followed by postoperative functional complications. Therefore, patients must carefully decide whether their purpose of undergoing orthognathic surgery lies on the aesthetic side or the functional side. There is a wide variety of complications associated with orthognathic surgery. There should be a clear distinction between malpractice and complications. Complications can be resolved ...

  7. Why join the Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Becoming a member of the Staff Association (SA) is above all a personal choice, showing that the joining person’s commitment and adherence to values such as solidarity, social cohesion, etc.In September, the SA launches a membership campaign to convince a maximum number to join, to inform, arouse interest and support. Posters, emails and individual contacts are part of the campaign programme, just like this editorial. As far as individual contacts are concerned, we ask you to give time and lend an ear to the delegates of your department in the Staff Council, who will approach you, in order to make an open and constructive discussion possible. Do not hesitate to ask questions and let them know your thoughts about the SA, as (constructive) criticism enables us to progress. The Staff Association and its role of collective representation The Staff Association, via its delegates, represents collectively all staff of the Organization before the Director-General and Member States. To do this, staff rep...

  8. Measuring multivariate association and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Julie; Holmes, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Simple correlation coefficients between two variables have been generalized to measure association between two matrices in many ways. Coefficients such as the RV coefficient, the distance covariance (dCov) coefficient and kernel based coefficients are being used by different research communities. Scientists use these coefficients to test whether two random vectors are linked. Once it has been ascertained that there is such association through testing, then a next step, often ignored, is to explore and uncover the association’s underlying patterns. This article provides a survey of various measures of dependence between random vectors and tests of independence and emphasizes the connections and differences between the various approaches. After providing definitions of the coefficients and associated tests, we present the recent improvements that enhance their statistical properties and ease of interpretation. We summarize multi-table approaches and provide scenarii where the indices can provide useful summaries of heterogeneous multi-block data. We illustrate these different strategies on several examples of real data and suggest directions for future research. PMID:29081877

  9. Children's emotional associations with colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, C J; Varghese, R

    1994-03-01

    In this study children's emotional associations with colors were investigated. Sixty children (30 girls, 30 boys), equally divided into groups of 5-year-olds and 6 1/2-year-olds, were asked their favorite color and were then shown nine different colors, one at a time and in a random order. For each color, children were asked, "How does (the color) make you feel?" All children were able to verbally express an emotional response to each color, and 69% of children's emotional responses were positive (e.g., happiness, excitement). Responses also demonstrated distinct color-emotion associations. Children had positive reactions to bright colors (e.g., pink, blue, red) and negative emotions for dark colors (e.g., brown, black, gray). Children's emotional reactions to bright colors became increasingly positive with age, and girls in particular showed a preference for brighter colors and a dislike for darker colors. Boys were more likely than girls were to have positive emotional associations with dark colors. Potential sources for children's color-emotion concepts, such as gender-related and idiosyncratic experiences, are discussed.

  10. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  11. [Comorbid disorders associated with tics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2002-02-01

    Tics are the most frequent abnormal movements in children. This is one reason for their importance. Another reason is their relationship to fascinating disturbances of human behaviour such as compulsion and obsessions. Several 'behavioural disorders', mainly attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), are more frequent in patients with tics than in the general population. These associated disorders (named 'comorbid') are probably of more consequence than the tics. Relationship between tics and comorbid disorders is not well known. This review considers data, consequences, hypothesis and management of comorbid disorders associated to tics. From the personal series of children with tics, data of comorbid disorders associated to tics was analysed. Of 340 cases of tics, 132 (39%) cases have ADHD, 135 (40%) cases have OCD, obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS) or obsessive-compulsive behaviour (OCB). 68 (20%) cases have both ADHD and OCD. Considering only Tourette cases (219) the figures are only slight higher: ADHD (42%), OCD (45%) and ADHD plus OCD (24%) suggesting that all the spectrum of tics has a common basis. Familial studies shows that 44 percent of the patients with tics have a positive familial history of tics and 30 percent positive familial history of obsessive compulsive signs. The data of the literature on the tics and comorbid disorders relationship is also revised.

  12. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir Vally

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is associated with disturbances in brain function referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. This literature review outlines the recently revised diagnostic criteria for the range of HAND from the earliest to the more advanced stages: (i asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment; (ii mild neurocognitive disorder; and (iii HIV-associated dementia. Relevant literature is also reviewed regarding the differential impact upon component cognitive domains known to be affected in HAND, which in turn should ideally be targeted during clinical and neuropsychological assessments: psychomotor and information processing speed, learning and memory, attention and working memory, speech and language, executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. A discussion outlining the neuropsychological tools used in the diagnostic screening of HAND is also included. The central mechanisms of HAND appear to revolve primarily around psychomotor slowing and cognitive control over mental operations, possibly reflecting the influence of disrupted fronto-striatal circuits on distributed neural networks critical to cognitive functions. The accurate assessment and diagnosis of HAND depends on meeting the need for statistically sound neuropsychological assessment techniques that may be used confidently in assessing South African populations, as well as the development of relevant norms for comparison of test performance data.

  13. A PROPOSAL OF FUZZY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSOCIATION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolly Intan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules, in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are multidimensional association rules with no repeated predicates. This paper introduces a method for generating interdimension association rules. A more meaningful association rules can be provided by generalizing crisp value of attributes to be fuzzy value. To generate the multidimensional association rules implying fuzzy value, this paper introduces an alternative method for mining the rules by searching for the predicate sets.

  14. The Oldest Association Between Plant and Fungi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Land pollution, mycorrhiza, plant defense, sustainable agriculture, symbiotic association, water stress. Abstract. The symbiotic association between plant and fungi (mycorrhizalassociation) is an amazing phenomenon observed innature. The mycorrhizal association is one of nature's boonsfor sustainable agriculture.

  15. Tractography of Association Fibers Associated with Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, K; Yang, S; Reisert, M; Kaller, C; Mader, I; Beume, L; Weiller, C; Urbach, H

    2015-10-01

    Several major association fiber tracts are known to be part of the language processing system. There is evidence that high angular diffusion-based MRI is able to separate these fascicles in a constant way. In this study, we wanted to proof this thesis using a novel whole brain "global tracking" approach and to test for possible lateralization. Global tracking was performed in six healthy right-handed volunteers for the arcuate fascicle (AF), the medial longitudinal fascicle (MdLF), the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF), and the inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF). These fiber tracts were characterized quantitatively using the number of streamlines (SL) and the mean fractional anisotropy (FA). We were able to characterize the AF, the MdLF, the IFOF, and the ILF consistently in six healthy volunteers using global tracking. A left-sided dominance (LI > 0.2) for the AF was found in all participants. The MdLF showed a left-sided dominance in four participants (one female, three male). Regarding the FA, no lateralization (LI > 0.2) could be shown in any of the fascicles. Using a novel global tracking algorithm we confirmed that the courses of the primary language processing associated fascicles can consistently be differentiated. Additionally we were able to show a streamline-based left-sided lateralization in the AF of all right-handed healthy subjects.

  16. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Home About AAPOS Patient Info Resources Allied Health News & Events Meetings J AAPOS American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology ...

  17. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...

  18. Black tongue associated with linezolid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover-Diaz, Francisco; Cuadrado-Pastor, Jose-Maria; Talents-Bolos, Amparo; Martin-Gonzalez, Coral

    2010-01-01

    Darkening of the tongue and oral mucosa is a reaction pattern that can be related to a number of physiologic, metabolic, and toxic disorders, and medications and exogenous substances. Black discoloration of the tongue should be distinguished from black "hairy" tongue, which is characterized by hypertrophy of the filiform papillae. We report a case of a 42-year-old man presented with a black discoloration of his tongue during treatment with linezolid for spondylodiscitis. So in conclusion, tongue discoloration is a benign and reversible condition and a probable adverse event associated with linezolid. We present this case to increase clinicians' awareness of a new potential adverse effect of linezolid.

  19. The Associative Nature of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    , the exact details of how associations are formed and their involvement in creativity remains largely unexplored. The dissertation contains three original manuscripts: I: Morten Friis-Olivarius & Bo T. Christensen: CHange slows only the creative mind. II: Morten Friis-Olivarius, Oliver J. Hulme, Martin Skov......, Thomas Z. Ramsøy, Hartwig Siebner: Viewing objects activates the creative mind. III: Balder Onarheim & Morten Friis-Olivarius (2013): Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 7, Article 656...

  20. Herpes zoster - associated erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Gemmeke, Astrid

    2009-04-05

    Erythema multiforme is a cutaneous reaction that has only rarely been described in varicella zoster virus infection. We describe a 76-year old immunocompetent male patient with thoracic herpes zoster. While treated with oral brivudin he developed a widespread cutaneous erythema multiforme. The lesions completely cleared with two weeks with systemic corticosteroids. Varicella zoster infections are possible triggers of erythema multiforme and this is the oldest patient reported with such an association. Brivudin itself has not been reported to induce erythema multiforme and is an unlikely cause of disease in our patient.

  1. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    CERN Document Server

    Astill, William; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross Section Working Group.

  2. Complications associated with orthognathic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    While most patients undergo orthognathic surgery for aesthetic purposes, aesthetic improvements are most often followed by postoperative functional complications. Therefore, patients must carefully decide whether their purpose of undergoing orthognathic surgery lies on the aesthetic side or the functional side. There is a wide variety of complications associated with orthognathic surgery. There should be a clear distinction between malpractice and complications. Complications can be resolved without any serious problems if the cause is detected early and adequate treatment provided. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons must have a full understanding of the types, causes, and treatment of complications, and should deliver this information to patients who develop these complications. PMID:28280704

  3. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  4. Acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Khushnum Pastakia, Saravana KumarInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Date of preparation: 27th January 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredBackground: Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD is the term given for the collection of symptoms affecting the neck that are triggered by an accident with an acceleration–deceleration mechanism such as a motor vehicle accident. The incidence of whiplash injury varies greatly between different parts of the world with significant monetary burden on the individual as well as the wider community.Objective: Which treatments are best for reducing pain and disability experience in acute WADs?Level of evidence: Clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials.Search sources: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, AUST health, AMED.Outcomes: From the patient perspective the main outcomes considered are pain and disability.Consumer summary: Whiplash-associated disorders include a range of symptoms related to the neck and head. They commonly occur after motor vehicle accidents or diving mishaps. There is good evidence to suggest that active exercise, acting as usual and combination therapy are the most effective treatment choices in an acute presentation.Keywords: whiplash, neckpain, pain levels, multimodel therapy

  5. [Atypical neuropathies associated with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, P

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of neuropathy worldwide and, due to the epidemic progression of the affection, prevalence of diabetic neuropathies will increase in the near future. Beside the typical diabetic neuropathy pattern and the common entrapment neuropathies, several unusual clinical forms have been described with either a symmetrical or an asymmetrical pattern. Treatment-induced neuropathy is an acute sensory affection most commonly related to acute glycemic control. Pain is debilitating and associated with vegetative dysfunction. Prevention is important, as resolution is often incomplete. Several patterns or asymmetrical neuropathies of inflammatory and ischemic origin were described long ago in the lower limb. They are debilitating, most often painful and require steroid treatment. Other patterns affecting the thoracolumbar region or the upper limbs or involving a painless motor deficit must be identified as specific treatments are sometimes needed. An association between diabetes and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has not been demonstrated but diagnosis may be suggested due to the misleading low conduction velocities seen in classical diabetic neuropathy. Like any other patient, the diabetic patient may present a neuropathy unrelated to diabetes. To facilitate patient care, neurologists should be aware of such clinical entities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Facial Fracture-Associated Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béogo, Rasmané; Coulibaly, Toua Antoine; Dolo, Mariam Traoré; Traoré, Ibraima; Ouattara, Balla; Diallo, Jean Wenceslas

    2018-02-12

    Yet uncommon, blindness is a potential associated injury of facial fractures. Epidemiology, mechanisms, fracture types, and outcome of facial fractures-associated blindness in a 10-year period are retrospectively reviewed. Out of 907 facial fractures patients, 10 had blindness, giving a frequency of 1.1%. There were 9 men and 1 woman whom age range was 6 to 59 years (mean: 31.2 years). Intentional injury patients were significantly the most at risk of blindness (P = 0.02). In all the patients, the fracture involved at least 1 of the orbit walls. Risk of blindness was significantly higher in naso-fronto-orbito-ethmoidal complex fractures (P = 0.03). The vision loss was recorded in 13 eyes (unilateral in 7 patients and bilateral in 3). Its predominant mechanism was a globe rupture or perforation, recorded in 8 eyes. A treatment with intention to improve the vision was attempted in 1 patient only. None of the patients had vision recovery. The findings of this study commend comprehensive ophthalmologic evaluation in any patient with an orbit wall fracture.

  7. [Acute pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun-Abraham, Mauro Enrique; Obregón-Guerrero, Gabriela; Romero-Espinoza, Larry; Valencia-Jiménez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, with a reported prevalence of 1.5 to 8%. There is no clear pathophysiological basis, but elevated parathyroid hormone and high serum calcium levels could be responsible for calcium deposit in the pancreatic ducts and activation of pancreatic enzymes, which may be the main risk factor for developing acute pancreatitis. The aim of this report is to describe four cases. Four cases are reported of severe pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism; three of them with complications (two pseudocysts and one pancreatic necrosis). Cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, studies showed the parathyroid adenoma. Surgical resection was the definitive treatment in all four cases. None of the patients had recurrent acute pancreatitis events during follow-up. Acute pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcaemia of primary hyperparathyroidism is rare; however, when it occurs it is associated with severe pancreatitis. It is suspected in patients with elevated serum calcium and high parathyroid hormone levels. Imaging techniques such as cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, should be performed, to confirm clinical suspicion. Surgical resection is the definitive treatment with excellent results. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation-associated valvular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.G.; Mayfield, W.R.; Normann, S.; Alexander, J.A. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The prevalence of radiation-associated cardiac disease is increasing due to prolonged survival following mediastinal irradiation. Side effects of radiation include pericarditis, accelerated coronary artery disease, myocardial fibrosis and valvular injury. We evaluated the cases of three young patients with evidence of significant valvular disease following mediastinal irradiation. One patient underwent the first reported successful aortic and mitral valve replacement for radiation-associated valvular disease (RAVD) as well as concurrent coronary artery revascularization. A review of the literature revealed 35 reported cases of RAVD, with only one successful case of valve replacement that was limited to the aortic valve. Asymptomatic RAVD is diagnosed 11.5 years after mediastinal irradiation compared with 16.5 years for symptomatic patients, emphasizing that long-term follow-up is important for patients receiving mediastinal irradiation. This study defines a continuum of valvular disease following radiation that begins with mild asymptomatic valvular thickening and progresses to severe valvular fibrosis with hemodynamic compromise requiring surgical intervention. 32 refs.

  9. Risk factors associated with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, K; Silm, H; Maaroos, H-I; Oona, M

    2010-05-01

    Although rosacea is a common disease, the cause of disease is still a mystery -Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic predisposition, climatic factors, and detrimental habits are implicated as triggers of rosacea. The aim of current study is to evaluate several suspected risk factors coincidently. Patients with rosacea from a dermatology clinic and skin-healthy controls from an randomly selected employees' population enrolled the study. Skin status were evaluated by one and same dermatologist. Participants were queried for age, gender, sun-reactive skin type, and detrimental habits using a questionnaire; blood samples for detecting Helicobacter pylori serostatus were collected. Totally 145 skin-healthy controls and 172 subjects either with flushing episodes or established rosacea included the study. In multivariate analysis, rosacea patients had significantly higher chance to have photosensitive skin types (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.01-3.04; P < 0.05), positive family history to rosacea (OR 4.31; 95% CI 2.34-7.92; P < 0.0001) or previous smoking status (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.07-3.80; P < 0.05) comparing with skin-healthy controls. There were no statistically significant differences either in gender, Helicobacter pylori serostatus, caffeine intake, alcohol consumption, occupational environment, or education level between rosacea patients and controls. Rosacea is foremost associated with familial predisposition. There is no association between Helicobacter pylori infection and rosacea in current study.

  10. 12 CFR 619.9050 - Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Associations. 619.9050 Section 619.9050 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9050 Associations. The term associations includes (individually or collectively) Federal land bank associations, Federal land...

  11. Dysplastic nevus associated with seborrheic keratosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Luciane Francisca Fernandes; Michalany, Nilceo Schwery; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Hirata, Sergio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Seborrheic keratosis is a common skin lesion which may coincidentally be associated melanocytic nevi. The authors describe a case of dysplastic nevus associated with seborrheic keratosis and discuss the clinical, dermoscopic, and histological findings of this association. They also discuss the association between seborrheic keratosis and other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:24626665

  12. Dysplastic nevus associated with seborrheic keratosis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Luciane Francisca Fernandes; Michalany,Nilceo Schwery; Enokihara,Milvia Maria Simoes e Silva; Hirata, Sergio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Seborrheic keratosis is a common skin lesion which may coincidentally be associated melanocytic nevi. The authors describe a case of dysplastic nevus associated with seborrheic keratosis and discuss the clinical, dermoscopic, and histological findings of this association. They also discuss the association between seborrheic keratosis and other benign and malignant tumours.

  13. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Associate Members. 701... ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of the... the work of the Council to become Associate Members. Associate Members, on the same terms and...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... evidencing purchases of farm machinery, supplies, equipment, home appliances, and other items of a capital... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15...

  15. Epidemiology of ANCA associated vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Koldingsnes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV comprises three syndromes with systemic vasculitis (Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG, Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS and icroscopic polyangiitis (MPA, which all involve small and medium sized vessels and are associated with antibodies against cytoplasmatic antibodies in neutrophils (ANCA. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN is included in this review as it also affects medium sized vessels, and has many clinical findings in common with the AAV.Since the recognition of ANCA, increasing data have become available on the epidemiology of these vasculitidis. WG constitutes half of the AAV and its prevalence has increased from 30/million in the late 1980’s in the USA to 160/million in this century in northern Europe. The prevalence for the whole group of primary systemic vasculitides is now 300/million in Sweden. The annual incidence of WG increased from 6.0/million to 14/million during the 1990’s in Tromsø, but it is unknown if this is a true increase or the result of an increased awareness of the diagnosis. For the whole group of AAV, the annual incidence in most more recent studies is relatively constant over time and by geographical location, ranging from 13 to 21/million. Nonetheless there are interesting differences in the prevalence of specific vasculitis between different geographical areas, as well as for sub specificities of ANCA.There seems to be a South-North gradient for WG and PR3-ANCA with high figures reported from northern Europe and southern New Zealand. In European studies WG is 90% PR3-ANCA positive. MPA which is predominantly MPO-ANCA associated are more frequent in the Mediterranean countries and also has an increasing gradient towards east-Asia, as almost all AAV in China and Japan are diagnosed as MPA, predominantly MPO-ANCA positive.There are also some ethnic and gender differences. WG is most prevalent among Caucasians in the USA and in people with European ancestors in Paris and in New Zealand, less

  16. Epidemiologic associations with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Michael E; MacLennan, Alastair H; Gibson, Catherine S; McMichael, Gai L; Haan, Eric A; Broadbent, Jessica L; Goldwater, Paul N; Dekker, Gustaaf A

    2011-09-01

    To estimate epidemiologic risk factors for cerebral palsy. Data were collected by linkage to state-based perinatal repositories and cerebral palsy registers and using a maternal questionnaire. The cohort included 587 individuals with cerebral palsy and 1,154 non-cerebral palsy controls. The following factors were associated with cerebral palsy: recorded maternal infection during pregnancy (41.4% patients compared with 31.3% controls; odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.26-1.91), small for gestational age ([birth weight less than third customized centile] 43.9% patients compared with 6.3% controls; OR 11.75, 6.25-22.08), gestational age less than 32 weeks (29.3% patients compared with 0.7% controls; OR 59.20, 28.87-121.38), multiple birth (OR 6.62, 4.00-10.95), a relative with cerebral palsy (OR 1.61, 1.12-2.32), breech position (13.7% patients compared with 6.0% controls; OR 2.48, 1.76-3.49), bleeding at any time in pregnancy (29.3% patients compared with 16.9% controls; OR 2.04, 1.61-2.58), male sex (58.8% patients compared with 45.8% controls; OR 1.68, 1.38-2.06), multiple miscarriage (7.7% patients compared with 3.5% controls; OR 2.30, 1.38-3.82), smoking (14.0% patients compared with 10.6% controls; OR 1.37, 1.02-1.85), and illicit drug use (3.3% patients compared with 1.5% controls; OR 2.22, 1.14-4.30). Factors not associated with cerebral palsy were "disappearing twin," diabetes, maternal body mass index, hypertension, alcohol consumption, anemia, maternal hypothyroidism, forceps or vacuum delivery, and maternal age. Preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, perinatal infection, and multiple birth present the largest risks for a cerebral palsy outcome. Reassuringly, upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections during pregnancy were not associated with cerebral palsy. II.

  17. Primary irritant and delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions to the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and its associated toxin cylindrospermopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seawright Alan A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater cyanobacteria are common inhabitants of recreational waterbodies throughout the world; some cyanobacteria can dominate the phytoplankton and form blooms, many of which are toxic. Numerous reports in the literature describe pruritic skin rashes after recreational or occupational exposure to cyanobacteria, but there has been little research conducted on the cutaneous effects of cyanobacteria. Using the mouse ear swelling test (MEST, we sought to determine whether three toxin-producing cyanobacteria isolates and the purified cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin produced delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions. Methods Between 8 and 10 female Balb/c mice in each experiment had test material applied to depilated abdominal skin during the induction phase and 10 or 11 control mice had vehicle only applied to abdominal skin. For challenge (day 10 and rechallenge (day 17, test material was applied to a randomly-allocated test ear; vehicle was applied to the other ear as a control. Ear thickness in anaesthetised mice was measured with a micrometer gauge at 24 and 48 hours after challenge and rechallenge. Ear swelling greater than 20% in one or more test mice is considered a positive response. Histopathology examination of ear tissues was conducted by independent examiners. Results Purified cylindrospermopsin (2 of 9 test mice vs. 0 of 5 control mice; p = 0.51 and the cylindrospermopsin-producing cyanobacterium C. raciborskii (8 of 10 test mice vs. 0 of 10 control mice; p = 0.001 were both shown to produce hypersensitivity reactions. Irritant reactions were seen on abdominal skin at induction. Two other toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena circinalis did not generate any responses using this model. Histopathology examinations to determine positive and negative reactions in ear tissues showed excellent agreement beyond chance between both examiners (κ = 0.83. Conclusion The irritant properties and cutaneous

  18. Risks associated with ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M P

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the deterministic and stochastic risks (the latter including the risk of cancer and of hereditary disease) associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. Particular attention is paid to cancer risks following exposure to man-made low linear energy transfer radiation. Excess cancer risks have been observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in many medically and occupationally exposed groups. In general, the relative risks among Japanese survivors of atomic-bomb explosions are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilization largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other factors may contribute, such as the generally higher underlying cancer risks in the medical series than in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Risks among occupationally exposed groups such as nuclear workforces and underground miners are generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

  19. Pseudopheochromocytoma Associated with Domestic Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudopheochromocytoma has a clinical presentation that is similar to pheochromocytoma. It manifests itself with paroxysmal hypertension crises, associated with various symptoms such as headaches, chest pain, nausea, palpitations, and dizziness. Patients are usually asymptomatic in between the crises. Unlike pheochromocytoma, there is no catecholamines overproduction in this pathology: hypertensive peaks are caused by a hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is often triggered by a psychological trauma in the past. Treatment of pseudopheochromocytoma can be challenging due to normal blood pressure values in between the hypertensive peaks; it includes alpha- and beta-blockers for moderate crises and prevention and must be combined with psychopharmacologic agents such as anxiolytics or antidepressant drugs. Psychotherapy and dietetic treatment are also crucial in pseudopheochromocytoma management.

  20. Sarcoidosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Sho; Horio, Takuya; Sugiura, Yoshiaki; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Saito, Hiroki; Aiko, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Kuniaki; Kawai, Toshiaki

    2010-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous inflammation of unknown etiology, and seems to involve the liver parenchyma in most cases. However, sarcoidosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma is rare. We report here a case in which a hepatocellular carcinoma occurred within the liver, which was probably involved as a result of systemic sarcoidosis. A 57-year-old Japanese man had been followed up for 2 years because of diabetic nephropathy and sarcoidosis. On admission for pneumonia, imaging studies revealed an unexpected hepatic tumor. Histology revealed a hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by T-lymphocytic infiltration and marked granulomatous inflammation, which was surrounding some tumor nodules. The background liver parenchyma exhibited a moderate degree of fibrosis with granulomatous inflammation. The patient had no other apparent liver disease such as viral hepatitis, steatohepatitis, or primary biliary cirrhosis. Therefore, in the present case, sarcoidosis may be considered the probable background etiology for hepatocarcinogenesis.

  1. Cetuximab-associated pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Wei; Peters, Matthew; Loneragan, Robert; Clarke, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    There is increasing evidence for the use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in head and neck, non-small-cell lung, and colorectal cancers. We report the case of a 78-year-old man with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) involving liver and lung who received cetuximab plus irinotecan as third-line treatment. Two months later, he presented with signs and symptoms consistent with bronchiolotis obliterans organizing pneumonia secondary to cetuximab. Reports of cetuximab-associated pulmonary toxicity are rare, although there have been extensive reports of interstitial fibrosis with the use of other EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. There are many causes of pulmonary infiltrates in patients treated for advanced CRC, and this case highlights the importance of considering drug toxicity.

  2. [Pulmonary manifestations associated with malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovette, P; Camara, P; Burgel, P R; Mbaye, P S; Sane, M; Klotz, F

    1998-12-01

    Pulmonary manifestations are frequently observed in children, pregnant women and travellers with malaria. The pathophysiology of these pulmonary manifestations is poorly understood but would appear to be secondary to an interaction between the parasitized red cells and the pulmonary capillary endothelium. Bronchitis and pneumonia do not directly compromise outcome but, left unrecognized, the delay in diagnosis and treatment may be fatal. Acute respiratory distress in children is the first cause of overmortality, coming before neurological involvement. The acute respiratory distress caused by severe malaria has no specific characteristics. Iatrogenic complications and pulmonary superinfections must be differentiated. The prevention of pulmonary manifestations associated with malaria can easily be accomplished by limiting water intake and carefully monitoring urinary output and weight. Treatment is the same as for acute flare-ups in combination with symptomatic respiratory treatment when required.

  3. Antisperm antibodies and fertility association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, B; Cardona-Maya, W

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the relation between antisperm antibodies (ASA) and human fertility by reviewing the scientific literature of the last 45 years. We carried out a review of scientific literature about antisperm antibodies and infertility published in spanish or english in databases as Pubmed, Medline, Scielo, some books and another gray literature include information related to this review and that is published in the last 45 years. Infertile couples suffer infertility by immunological mechanisms mainly by the presence of antisperm antibodies ASA in blood, semen or cervicovaginal secretions; the formation of ASA in men and women may be associated with disturbance in immunomodulatory mechanisms that result in functional impairment of sperm and thus its inability to fertilize the oocyte. Immunological infertility caused by ASA is the result of interference of these antibodies in various stages of fertilization process, inhibiting the ability of interaction between sperm and oocyte. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Seven Chromisms Associated with Dithizone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoi, Lumanyano L A; Buitendach, Blenerhassitt E; von Eschwege, Karel G

    2017-12-07

    Variations in the electromagnetic wavelengths of absorption and reflection of molecules do not only make life colorful but also are often of central importance in solar energy conversion and optoelectronic information processing and transfer. Dithizone and its derivatives and complexes are, to our knowledge, probably the most "colorful" compound, being responsive to no less than seven different external stimuli that effect color change. Apart from a more detailed discussion of the cyclic voltammetry and observed electrochromism in the SCH3-substituted free ligand and mercury complex, concentratochromism, solvatochromism, halochromism, thermochromism, and chronochromism in the ligand, and photochromism in the carboxy-functionalized phenylmercury(II) complex are also presented here. Color changes are either associated with proton transfer or loss, or isomerization.

  5. L’Association au collectif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Saint-Amand

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available À la difficulté intrinsèque que pose l’exercice du compte rendu d’un volume collectif se lie ici le fait que le groupe de recherche Acme, dont les membres rassemblent leurs énergies autour de la question de la bande dessinée et auquel on doit le recueil L’Association. Une utopie éditoriale et esthétique, est constitué en majeure partie de chercheurs en sciences humaines de l’Université de Liège ; soit des collègues avec lesquels je partage une même affiliation institutionnelle. J’ai pour auta...

  6. Clubfoot associated with preaxial polydactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Oliver; Fernandez, Francisco F; Gabriel, Heinz; Wirth, Thomas; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Peterlein, Christian D

    2014-11-01

    We report on three children with bilateral, congenital clubfoot. Four of the six clubfeet were associated with preaxial polydactyly. Five of the six clubfeet were treated without extensive surgery. A plantigrade foot was achieved, even in the three clubfeet with polydactyly, using serial casting and percutaneous Achilles tenotomy. Casting was adapted according to the existing polydactyly. One case with tibial hemimelia and a complex clubfoot deformity with preaxial tarsal polydactyly required more comprehensive surgery. A foot with good weight-bearing function was also achieved in this case following resection of the accessory medial ray, including resection of the accessory tarsal bones and posterior release. Remaining limitations in mobility were ascribed to hindfoot pathologies.

  7. Childhood autism and associated comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I; Ververi, Athena; Vargiami, Euthymia

    2007-06-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with a variety of different etiologies, but with a heritability estimate of more than 90%. Although the strong correlation between autism and genetic factors has been long established, the exact genetic background of autism is still unclear. This review refers to all the genetic syndromes that have been described in children with pervasive developmental disorders (tuberous sclerosis, fragile X, Down, neurofibromatosis, Angelman, Prader-Willi, Gilles de la Tourette, Williams, etc.). Issues covered include prevalence and main characteristics of each syndrome, as well as the possible base of its association with autism in terms of contribution to the current knowledge on the etiology and genetic base of pervasive developmental disorders.

  8. Achondroplasia Associated with Bilateral Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar M. Al Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of bilateral keratoconus in association with achondroplasia. A 26-year-old male, with a known case of achondroplasia, complained of bilateral gradual deterioration in vision for the past few years. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed bilateral central corneal protrusion and stromal thinning at the apex consistent with keratoconus. a trial of hard contact lens fitting failed to improve VA in the left eye (LE. Right eye (RE improved to 20/25. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in his LE. Twenty-seven months postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 20/30. Ophthalmologists should be aware that patients with achondroplasia who complain of poor vision should be suspected of having keratoconus once other more common conditions are ruled out.

  9. The use of antibiotics and implications for antimicrobial resistance development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Harald-Jan van

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has reached pandemic proportions and the increasing incidences have alarmed medical healthcare associations world wide. Some thirty years ago it was almost all infectious diseases were conquered, but over the last decades we have witnessed the re-emergence of known contagious

  10. Anaesthetic indices and vital parameters of PPR-infected West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is an acute, highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats associated with high morbidity and mortality. Often times, veterinarians are faced with sick goats presented with co-existing emergency clinical conditions such as foreign body impaction, ruminal tympany, dystocia that require ...

  11. Measles virus host invasion and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Laksono (Brigitta); R.D. de Vries (Rory); S. McQuaid (Stephen); W.P. Duprex (Paul); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMeasles virus is a highly contagious negative strand RNA virus that is transmitted via the respiratory route and causes systemic disease in previously unexposed humans and non-human primates. Measles is characterised by fever and skin rash and usually associated with cough, coryza and

  12. Patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection – 21st Century Lepers

    OpenAIRE

    Mozzillo, Kristin L.; Ortiz, Nancy; Miller, Loren G.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, especially community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections. Many media descriptions of MRSA are sensational and focus on its potential for severe disease and contagiousness.

  13. Women, worms and work: Implications of conservation management and declining biodiversity on subsistence practices and health of Aka populations in the Congo Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robinson, C. A. J.; Remis, M. J.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hůzová, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 153, S58 (2014), s. 154 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /83./. 08.04.2014-12.04.2014, Calgary] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  14. NEW ASPECTS REGARDING THE EVALUATION OF INVESTMENTS IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupan Mariana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The additional risks associated to the actual global and contagious crisis put a severe pressure on the investments in critical infrastructure and there is a real need for new valuations especially those regarding the synergic financing strategies in crit

  15. Poor reproducibility of allergic rhinitis SNP associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nilsson

    Full Text Available Replication of reported associations is crucial to the investigation of complex disease. More than 100 SNPs have previously been reported as associated with allergic rhinitis (AR, but few of these have been replicated successfully. To investigate the general reproducibility of reported AR-associations in candidate gene studies, one Swedish (352 AR-cases, 709 controls and one Singapore Chinese population (948 AR-cases, 580 controls were analyzed using 49 AR-associated SNPs. The overall pattern of P-values indicated that very few of the investigated SNPs were associated with AR. Given published odds ratios (ORs most SNPs showed high power to detect an association, but no correlations were found between the ORs of the two study populations or with published ORs. None of the association signals were in common to the two genome-wide association studies published in AR, indicating that the associations represent false positives or have much lower effect-sizes than reported.

  16. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: section 1. Diagnosis and assessment of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Tom, Wynnis L; Chamlin, Sarah L; Feldman, Steven R; Hanifin, Jon M; Simpson, Eric L; Berger, Timothy G; Bergman, James N; Cohen, David E; Cooper, Kevin D; Cordoro, Kelly M; Davis, Dawn M; Krol, Alfons; Margolis, David J; Paller, Amy S; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Robert A; Williams, Hywel C; Elmets, Craig A; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G; Smith Begolka, Wendy; Sidbury, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that affects up to 25% of children and 2% to 3% of adults. This guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in the management and care of AD, providing updated and expanded recommendations based on the available evidence. In this first of 4 sections, methods for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease, outcomes measures for assessment, and common clinical associations that affect patients with AD are discussed. Known risk factors for the development of disease are also reviewed. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GUIDELINES OF CARE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Tom, Wynnis L.; Chamlin, Sarah L.; Feldman, Steven R.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Simpson, Eric L.; Berger, Timothy G.; Bergman, James N.; Cohen, David E.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Davis, Dawn M.; Krol, Alfons; Margolis, David J.; Paller, Amy S.; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Robert A.; Williams, Hywel C.; Elmets, Craig A.; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G.; Begolka, Wendy Smith; Sidbury, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory dermatosis that affects up to 25% of children and 2–3% of adults. This guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in AD management and care, providing updated and expanded recommendations based on the available evidence. In this first of four sections, methods for diagnosis and monitoring of disease, outcomes measures for assessment and common clinical associations that affect patients with AD are discussed. Known risk factors for the development of disease are also reviewed. PMID:24290431

  18. Adrenergic urticaria: a new form of stress-induced hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, W B; Shelley, E D

    1985-11-09

    A distinctive new type of autonomic-system-dependent urticaria was seen in two patients. This "adrenergic" urticaria is to be contrasted with cholinergic urticaria. Widespread pruritic, urticarial papules developed at times of stress, each papule being surrounded by a striking white halo. Associated with these lesions was an increase in plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations. In severe attacks large plaques of urticaria appeared as well. The halo hives could be replicated with an intradermal injection of noradrenaline, but not with acetylcholine. Treatment with a beta-adrenoreceptor-blocker, propranolol, prevented attacks.

  19. Urticarial vasculitis: a unique presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigall, Landon E; Sigmon, Justin R; Leicht, Stuart S

    2009-05-01

    Urticarial vasculitis is a relatively rare diagnosis in a patient presenting with urticaria. The process is classically described as a generalized eruption, painful more so than pruritic, lasting longer than 24 hours. Two forms of urticarial vasculitis have been described: ahypocomplementemic form more commonly associated with systemic disease, and a normocomplementemic form that is generally limited to the skin. We report on a uniquely distributed vasculitic eruption restricted mainly to the anterior belt line area in a patient presenting with urticaria and intense pruritus. Urticarial vasculitis as a unique entity is reviewed along with its clinical and histopathologic presentation and the pharmacologic agents used for treatment.

  20. Posttransplant proteinuria associated with everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, E; Bruschi, M; Candiano, G; Boccardi, C; Citti, L; Mangraviti, S; Rosso, G; Larti, A; Rosati, A; Ghiggeri, G M; Salvadori, M

    2009-05-01

    Anti-mTOR may induce proteinuria when utilized after renal transplantation. Little is known about the pathogenesis and composition of proteinuria. To clarify this unresolved aspect, we analyzed urinary protein composition utilizing an integrated proteomics approach, including quantitative assays, 2-dimensional electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF, and Western blots among 48 renal transplant recipients treated with everolimus (EVL; n = 31) or enteric-coated mycophenolic acid (EC-MPA; n = 17). High (>3 g/d) or intermediate levels of proteinuria (1-3 g) developed in 12 EVL patients (39%) compared with 4 subjects (23%) in the EC-MPA group. Proteinuria, which started during the first 2 days after EVL, tended to reduce during the follow-up. Quantitative proteomics showed an increase in low molecular proteins beta2 microglobulin (P < .001) and alpha1 microglobulin (P < .025). Qualitative proteomics showed a marked increase among all urinary components in EVL and EC-MPA patients. Major changes involved typical components of glomerular damage: albumin, Zn-alpha1 glycoprotein, alpha2HS glycoprotein, and leucine-rich alpha2 glycoprotein. In addition, we observed specific biomarkers for EVL: clusters of alpha1-antitrypsin fragments and monoclonal lambda chains. In conclusion, EVL induced proteinuria of a mixed glomerular and tubular origin that correlated with the start of treatment and reached nephrotic ranges in few cases. The specific urinary markers may reflect renal alterations related to the transplant or specific alterations associated with the drug.

  1. Bacterial biofilm and associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Muhsin; Ahmad, Wisal; Andleeb, Saadia; Jalil, Fazal; Imran, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Tahir; Ali, Muhammad; Rafiq, Muhammad; Kamil, Muhammad Atif

    2018-01-01

    Microscopic entities, microorganisms that drastically affect human health need to be thoroughly investigated. A biofilm is an architectural colony of microorganisms, within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance that they produce. Biofilm contains microbial cells adherent to one-another and to a static surface (living or non-living). Bacterial biofilms are usually pathogenic in nature and can cause nosocomial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation. The process of biofilm formation consists of many steps, starting with attachment to a living or non-living surface that will lead to formation of micro-colony, giving rise to three-dimensional structures and ending up, after maturation, with detachment. During formation of biofilm several species of bacteria communicate with one another, employing quorum sensing. In general, bacterial biofilms show resistance against human immune system, as well as against antibiotics. Health related concerns speak loud due to the biofilm potential to cause diseases, utilizing both device-related and non-device-related infections. In summary, the understanding of bacterial biofilm is important to manage and/or to eradicate biofilm-related diseases. The current review is, therefore, an effort to encompass the current concepts in biofilm formation and its implications in human health and disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  2. Nelarabine Associated Myotoxicity and Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnur Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nelarabine (ara-G; Arranon; compound 506U78 is an antineoplastic purine analog used for the treatment of refractory or relapsed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL. The drug was granted accelerated approval in October 2005 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA given the efficacy (induction of complete responses noted in 2 single-arm trials (one in pediatric setting and one in adult patient population. The main spectra of toxicities that have been reported in these clinical trials and subsequent studies are hematological and neurological. Nelarabine induced rhabdomyolysis and increased creatinine phosphokinase (CK; CPK levels apparently have been reported and this side effect has been added as an adverse reaction in the product monograph from the drug company during postmarketing surveillance. However, the true extent and incidence of the myotoxicity from the drug are unclear. In this paper we report a grade IV CK elevation and rhabdomyolysis in a patient with T-ALL treated with nelarabine. Given the reported finding, we examined the literature further for myotoxicity, increased CK, and/or rhabdomyolysis associated with the use of the nelarabine and report our findings.

  3. Infections associated with body modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Sai-Yin Wong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.

  4. Association of Eumycetoma and Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Vonk, Alieke G.; de Vogel, Corné; Koelewijn, Rob; Vaessen, Norbert; Fahal, Ahmed H.; van Belkum, Alex; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a morbid chronic granulomatous subcutaneous fungal disease. Despite high environmental exposure to this fungus in certain regions of the world, only few develop eumycetoma for yet unknown reasons. Animal studies suggest that co-infections skewing the immune system to a Th2-type response enhance eumycetoma susceptibility. Since chronic schistosomiasis results in a strong Th2-type response and since endemic areas for eumycetoma and schistosomiasis do regionally overlap, we performed a serological case-control study to identify an association between eumycetoma and schistosomiasis. Compared to endemic controls, eumycetoma patients were significantly more often sero-positive for schistosomiasis (p = 0.03; odds ratio 3.2, 95% CI 1.18–8.46), but not for toxoplasmosis, an infection inducing a Th1-type response (p = 0.6; odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.58–3.83). Here, we show that schistosomiasis is correlated to susceptibility for a fungal disease for the first time. PMID:23717704

  5. Associations between nutrition and cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A

    1989-08-01

    Blindness due to opacification of the lens, or cataract, afflicts 50 million persons worldwide. In the United States over 541,000 cataract extractions are done annually at a cost of over $3.8 billion. Conservative estimates indicate that the prevalences of cataracts in Americans aged 65-75 and 75-85 years are 18% and 46%, respectively. Cataracts are even more prevalent in some other populations. It is estimated that the need for cataract extractions would be diminished by half if onset of cataract could be delayed by only ten years. Hypotheses regarding the etiology of cataract include oxidative perturbations of protein metabolism, diverse pathologic conditions, and perhaps glycation of lens proteins. Epidemiologic data indicate that elevated plasma levels of specific nutrients (i.e., carotenoids, ascorbate, tocopherol, and taurine) are associated with diminished incidence of certain types of cataract. Biochemical evidence suggests that each of these compounds can delay photooxidative damage to lens proteins. Roles in lens metabolism for selenium and tryptophan have been suggested. Elucidation of mechanisms by which caloric restriction delays cataract development is a promising area of current research.

  6. Association between paracoccidioidomycosis and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gustavo da Silva; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Moreira, José da Silva; Prolla, João Carlos; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the association between paracoccidioidomycosis (Pcm) and cancer in a series of 25 cases and to review the literature on this topic. A retrospective review of 25 cases diagnosed with Pcm and cancer, retrieved from a series of 808 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with Pcm based on tests conducted in the Mycology Laboratory of the Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between 1972 and 2007. The diagnosis of Pcm was confirmed by means of direct microscopic examination, histopathological examination or immunodiffusion test. All cancer cases were confirmed by histopathological or cytopathological examination. Respiratory symptoms were the principal complaints of the patients evaluated. Pulmonary involvement predominated, followed by skin and lymph node involvement. The most prevalent tumor was bronchial carcinoma, in 15 patients, followed by other types of carcinoma, and 1 patient had Hodgkin's lymphoma. In 16 patients (64%), the site of the Pcm was the same as that of the tumor. In most cases, Pcm treatment consisted of the isolated administration of sulfanilamide, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ketoconazole, itraconazole or amphotericin B. The most common treatment for cancer was surgery, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Of the 25 patients, 12 were cured of Pcm, and 4 died. In 9 patients, the final outcome was unknown. In the general population of the area under study, the prevalence of lung cancer was significantly higher in smokers with Pcm than in smokers without Pcm (p Pcm appears to increase the risk of lung cancer.

  7. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Gurleyik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis (TH, very rare congenital anomaly, is generally asymptomatic. We report two cases of TH with hyperthyroidism. Case One. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Physical examination revealed asymmetric nodular goitre at right lobe. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound showed multinodular hypertrophy in the right lobe and absence of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed hot nodules in the right one. The diagnosis was toxic multinodular goitre. Case Two. The thyroid was not palpable in this patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis. Ultrasound showed mild diffuse hyperplasia of the right lobe and agenesis of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed increasing diffuse uptake of radiotracer in the right one. The diagnosis was Graves’ disease in this patient. After antithyroid medication, the patients were surgically treated with total excision of the thyroid tissue. TH is sometimes associated with disorders of the thyroid. Hyperthyroidism makes TH cases symptomatic. During evaluation of patients, ultrasound and nuclear scan usually report agenesis of one lobe and establish the diagnosis of TH. The surgical treatment is total removal of hyperactive tissue and total excision of the remaining lobe.

  8. Bacterial biofilm and associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin Jamal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic entities, microorganisms that drastically affect human health need to be thoroughly investigated. A biofilm is an architectural colony of microorganisms, within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance that they produce. Biofilm contains microbial cells adherent to one-another and to a static surface (living or non-living. Bacterial biofilms are usually pathogenic in nature and can cause nosocomial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation. The process of biofilm formation consists of many steps, starting with attachment to a living or non-living surface that will lead to formation of micro-colony, giving rise to three-dimensional structures and ending up, after maturation, with detachment. During formation of biofilm several species of bacteria communicate with one another, employing quorum sensing. In general, bacterial biofilms show resistance against human immune system, as well as against antibiotics. Health related concerns speak loud due to the biofilm potential to cause diseases, utilizing both device-related and non-device-related infections. In summary, the understanding of bacterial biofilm is important to manage and/or to eradicate biofilm-related diseases. The current review is, therefore, an effort to encompass the current concepts in biofilm formation and its implications in human health and disease.

  9. Discoid Meniscus Associated With Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoernschemeyer, Daniel G; Atanda, Alfred; Dean-Davis, Ellen; Gupta, Sumit K

    2016-05-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. This form of dwarfism is caused by a point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, leading to inhibition of endochondral ossification for these patients. This results in a normal trunk height but shortened limbs. The discoid meniscus may be an important associated finding to better understand the common complaints of leg pain for these patients. Although the incidence for a discoid meniscus is between 3% and 5% for the general population, it is unknown with achondroplasia. This case series includes 4 patients, with ages ranging from adolescence to early adulthood, with symptoms of knee pain that were not attributable to some of the more common findings seen in this patient population. Typically, patients with achondroplasia who experience knee pain are evaluated for more common and well-known etiologies such as genu varum, ligamentous instability, and neurogenic claudication. However, the authors propose that symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus should be added to the differential diagnosis for lower-extremity pain in the achondroplasia population. A thorough history and physical examination, in combination with magnetic resonance imaging, can aid in making the diagnosis. Treatment with arthroscopic debridement, saucerization of the meniscus, and repair for unstable injuries has yielded good outcomes for this patient population. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e498-e503.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Reproductive Pathological Changes Associated with Experimental Subchronic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Nonpregnant Boer Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Othman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, which is a contagious and chronic disease in sheep and goats. In order to assess the histopathological changes observed in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant does infected with the bacteria, 20 apparently healthy adult Boer does were divided into four inoculation groups, intradermal, intranasal, oral, and control, consisting of five goats each. Excluding the control group, which was unexposed, other does were inoculated with 107 CFU/1 mL of live C. pseudotuberculosis through the various routes stated above. Thirty days after infection, the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes were collected for bacterial recovery and molecular detection, as well as histopathological examination. The mean changes in necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oedema varied in severity among the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes following different inoculation routes. Overall, the intranasal route of inoculation showed more severe (p<0.05 lesions in all the organs examined. The findings of this study have shown that C. pseudotuberculosis could predispose to infertility resulting from pathological lesions in the uterus and ovaries of does.

  11. Association of African Universities : Education and Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Association of African Universities : Education and Research Networking Unit. The Association of African Universities (AAU), headquartered in Accra, Ghana, is an international nongovernmental organization (NGO) that promotes cooperation between African universities and with the international community.

  12. Factors associated with adaptation and performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with adaptation and performance of trypanotolerant Orma ... Morbidity status, retention time and mortality rate were used as the measures of ... Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, association tests and logistic ...

  13. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  14. Congenital Heart Diseases associated with Identified Syndromes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Congenital heart diseases are commonly associated with other extra cardiac congenital malformations. OBJECTIVE: To identify congenital heart diseases associated with identified syndromes and other extra cardiac congenital malformations in children in our hospital. METHODS: A prospective descriptive ...

  15. Is hidradenitis suppurativa associated with anaemia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I. M.; Johansen, M E; Mogensen, U. B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases may be associated with anaemia of inflammation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease associated with metabolic comorbidities, low quality of life and fatigue. Anaemia may cause fatigue, and it has been hypothesized...

  16. APA District Branch / State Association Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 785) 233-7154 Fax: (785) 234-2433 kansas.psych.org Kentucky Kentucky Psychiatric Medical Association Miranda Sloan, ... 635-5070 Fax: (573) 635-7823 www.missouri.psych.org Montana Montana Psychiatric Association Leonard Lantz, Acting ...

  17. Characterization of melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology......ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology...

  18. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, Lise L; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials.......To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials....

  19. The Founding of the Learning Communities Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Learning communities have reached the point in their growth that we now need a professional association to allow for more opportunities for participation in advancing learning communities. This is the story of the founding of the new Learning Communities Association.

  20. Cardiovascular hospitalizations and associations with environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease has been identified as a condition that may be associated with environmental factors. Air pollution in particular has been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, which can increase the likelihood of cardiovascular eve...

  1. NEURO-VASCULAR INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH LIMB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-01

    Dec 1, 2000 ... Results: Road traffic accidents were the main cause of fractures associated with neuro- vascular ... the patients with vascular or nerve injury associated with fractures .... of traumatic aorto-iliac dissection injury in a child with.

  2. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing...

  3. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.; Johansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    sulfate, epoxy resin, primin, and nickel sulfate showed statistically significant negative associations to polysensitization. For the allergens with the strongest associations, only every second individual with these particular allergies had two or more additional allergies. Conclusions: No common...

  4. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    sulfate, epoxy resin, primin, and nickel sulfate showed statistically significant negative associations to polysensitization. For the allergens with the strongest associations, only every second individual with these particular allergies had two or more additional allergies. CONCLUSIONS: No common...

  5. Sorting waves and associated eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonari, Costanza; Colombini, Marco; Solari, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The presence of mixed sediment always characterizes gravel bed rivers. Sorting processes take place during bed load transport of heterogeneous sediment mixtures. The two main elements necessary to the occurrence of sorting are the heterogeneous character of sediments and the presence of an active sediment transport. When these two key ingredients are simultaneously present, the segregation of bed material is consistently detected both in the field [7] and in laboratory [3] observations. In heterogeneous sediment transport, bed altimetric variations and sorting always coexist and both mechanisms are independently capable of driving the formation of morphological patterns. Indeed, consistent patterns of longitudinal and transverse sorting are identified almost ubiquitously. In some cases, such as bar formation [2] and channel bends [5], sorting acts as a stabilizing effect and therefore the dominant mechanism driving pattern formation is associated with bed altimetric variations. In other cases, such as longitudinal streaks, sorting enhances system instability and can therefore be considered the prevailing mechanism. Bedload sheets, first observed by Khunle and Southard [1], represent another classic example of a morphological pattern essentially triggered by sorting, as theoretical [4] and experimental [3] results suggested. These sorting waves cause strong spatial and temporal fluctuations of bedload transport rate typical observed in gravel bed rivers. The problem of bed load transport of a sediment mixture is formulated in the framework of a 1D linear stability analysis. The base state consists of a uniform flow in an infinitely wide channel with active bed load transport. The behaviour of the eigenvalues associated with fluid motion, bed evolution and sorting processes in the space of the significant flow and sediment parameters is analysed. A comparison is attempted with the results of the theoretical analysis of Seminara Colombini and Parker [4] and Stecca

  6. Fish communities associated with FADs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deudero

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of six fish aggregating devices (FADs were deployed at two locations off the eastern coast of Majorca (Western Mediterranean. Samples were obtained fortnightly throughout a two-year period by means of hauls performed with an experimental purse seine. Two control areas were established to check the aggregation efficiency of the FADs. A total of 16 families and 26 species of fishes were recorded beneath FADs. Pelagic fishes, largely Trachurus picturatus, T. mediterraneus, T. trachurus, Naucrates ductor, Seriola dumerili and Coryphaena hippurus, dominated the fauna. The total fish abundance, number of species and length range of the species confirmed that the FAD community was significantly related to season (recruitment period, resulting in a sequential fish colonisation of the FADs during the study period. Some of the species were present only during a particular period, such as Trachurus spp. in spring and summer. Other species, although evident for a longer period, were more occasional in catches (Schedophilus ovalis, Balistes carolinensis and Polyprion americanus, and some others were also present in small quantities. Diversity and equitability of the fish community associated with FADs were higher in summer than in winter. Many species were more abundant around FADs than in open water controls. The species that showed the most distinct recruitment phase beneath the FADs were N. ductor, S. ovalis, Trachurus spp., P. americanus, S. dumerili, C. hippurus and B. carolinensis. FADs can be considered nursery structures for many pelagic and demersal species, thus having an effect on the redistribution of juveniles. In the deployment of artificial structures as aggregators for fishing purposes one should consider the patchiness and seasonal characteristics of these communities as well as the redistribution aspect for fishery management.

  7. Orthopaedic injuries associated with skimboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, Kathryn H; McKenna, Matthew J; Riccio, Anthony I

    2009-07-01

    Skimboarding is a beachside water sport that is enjoying increasing popularity among both dedicated enthusiasts and casual beachgoers. Although many consider this sport to be similar to its "sister" sport, surfing, the technique, the environment in which it is performed, and the skills required differ dramatically from that of surfing. Moreover, the pattern of injuries seen in skimboarders differs substantially from those sustained while surfing. A better understanding of the injuries encountered in this sport will allow improved participant education and facilitate the implementation of preventative measures. Descriptive epidemiology study. A case series was generated by performing a single retrospective chart review of skimboarding injuries referred for orthopaedic evaluation over a 2-year period at 2 medical treatment facilities, one on the East Coast and one on the West Coast of the United States; demographic data, injury type, and treatments rendered were documented. Sixty-one patients were identified and analyzed. Average patient age was 19.1 years. Fractures represented 93.4% of all acute injuries. The most common sites of injury were the ankle (41%) and wrist (36%). Rotation about a planted lower extremity was the most common mechanism of injury (30/61, 49%), followed by falls onto an outstretched hand (26/61, 43%). Fractures of the ankle and wrist comprise a high proportion of skimboarding injuries. Knowledge of potential hazards associated with this sport should be made available to participants. To decrease the risk of orthopaedic injury, the use of protective equipment or instruction in proper techniques of the activity may be warranted.

  8. Breastfeeding-associated hypernatraemic dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Melo Gomes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the last few years there has been an increase in case reports of hypernatraemic dehydration in breastfed newborns. Insufficient intake has an important role in the pathophysiology of this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate exclusively breastfed neonates admitted for hypernatraemic dehydration. Methods: Retrospective study of breastfed neonates diagnosed with hypernatraemic dehydration, between March 2002 and March 2008, in a level 1 maternity. Rresults: Nineteen cases were identified (0.44% of neonatal intermediate care hospitalizations, 53% of them were male. The annual distribution revealed a higher number of cases in 2008: 26.3% in only three months. Median birth weight was 3,000 g and the median gestational age was 38 weeks. Vaginal delivery was the most frequent form of birth (42%, and 79% of mothers were primiparas. Admissions were made through the emergency department in 68.4%. The main reasons for seeking medical attention were: poor oral intake (32%, weight loss (26%, and jaundice (26%. The median age at admission was four days. Percentage of weight loss: 6.7 to 40%, median was 11%. Dehydration signs were absent in 42% of the patients. Median Na+ values were 152 mEq/l. Jaundice was the most frequent comorbidity found (74%. Intravenous fluids were administered in 89% and acute neurological complications were found in 21%, there were no deaths. Cconclusions: Breastfeeding-associated hypernatraemic dehydration seems to be a consequence of breastfeeding difficulties in inexperienced mothers. Since many cases are paucisymptomatic, there should be a high level of suspicion, especially in those patients with jaundice.

  9. OPATs: Omnibus P-value association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Wei; Yang, Hsin-Chou

    2017-07-10

    Combining statistical significances (P-values) from a set of single-locus association tests in genome-wide association studies is a proof-of-principle method for identifying disease-associated genomic segments, functional genes and biological pathways. We review P-value combinations for genome-wide association studies and introduce an integrated analysis tool, Omnibus P-value Association Tests (OPATs), which provides popular analysis methods of P-value combinations. The software OPATs programmed in R and R graphical user interface features a user-friendly interface. In addition to analysis modules for data quality control and single-locus association tests, OPATs provides three types of set-based association test: window-, gene- and biopathway-based association tests. P-value combinations with or without threshold and rank truncation are provided. The significance of a set-based association test is evaluated by using resampling procedures. Performance of the set-based association tests in OPATs has been evaluated by simulation studies and real data analyses. These set-based association tests help boost the statistical power, alleviate the multiple-testing problem, reduce the impact of genetic heterogeneity, increase the replication efficiency of association tests and facilitate the interpretation of association signals by streamlining the testing procedures and integrating the genetic effects of multiple variants in genomic regions of biological relevance. In summary, P-value combinations facilitate the identification of marker sets associated with disease susceptibility and uncover missing heritability in association studies, thereby establishing a foundation for the genetic dissection of complex diseases and traits. OPATs provides an easy-to-use and statistically powerful analysis tool for P-value combinations. OPATs, examples, and user guide can be downloaded from http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/association/OPATs.htm. © The Author 2017

  10. Leadership Handbook: Virginia Community Colleges Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Cheryl W.

    Developed for members of the Virginia Community Colleges Association (VCCA), this handbook provides information on various aspects of the association's organization, activities, policies, and services. The handbook contains the association's 1988-89 annual report, which highlights activities related to professional development, member…

  11. Efficient Mining of Intertransaction Association Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tung, A.K.H.; Lu, H.J.; Han, J.W.; Feng, L.

    Most of the previous studies on mining association rules are on mining intratransaction associations, i.e., the associations among items within the same transaction where the notion of the transaction could be the items bought by the same customer, the events happened on the same day, etc. In this

  12. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The Commissioner may recognize, cooperate with, and assist range unit livestock associations in the management of livestock and range resources. (b) These...

  13. 27 CFR 10.22 - Employee associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee associations. 10..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.22 Employee associations. Gifts... employee associations are considered the same as bonuses, premiums, compensation, or other things of value...

  14. Omphalocele with Dextrocardia - A Rare Association

    OpenAIRE

    Vikal Chandra Shakya; Agrawal, C.S.; Shrestha, N.R.; K Dhungel; S Adhikary

    2009-01-01

    Omphalocele is frequently associated with many other congenital malformations. In cardiac anomalies, association of omphalocele with dextrocardia has been rarely noticed before. We present here a child with dextrocardia and omphalocele alongwith a brief review of the literature on this rare association. Key Words: congenital malformations, dextrocardia, omphalocele

  15. Associative learning for a robot intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Andreae, John H

    1998-01-01

    The explanation of brain functioning in terms of the association of ideas has been popular since the 17th century. Recently, however, the process of association has been dismissed as computationally inadequate by prominent cognitive scientists. In this book, a sharper definition of the term "association" is used to revive the process by showing that associative learning can indeed be computationally powerful. Within an appropriate organization, associative learning can be embodied in a robot to realize a human-like intelligence, which sets its own goals, exhibits unique unformalizable behaviou

  16. Hetero-association for pattern translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Lu, Thomas T.; Yang, Xiangyang

    1991-09-01

    A hetero-association neural network using an interpattern association algorithm is presented. By using simple logical rules, hetero-association memory can be constructed based on the association between the input-output reference patterns. For optical implementation, a compact size liquid crystal television neural network is used. Translations between the English letters and the Chinese characters as well as Arabic and Chinese numerics are demonstrated. The authors have shown that the hetero-association model can perform more effectively in comparison to the Hopfield model in retrieving large numbers of similar patterns.

  17. YAGM: a web tool for mining associated genes in yeast based on diverse biological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Chung-Ching; Jhou, Meng-Jhun; Wang, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Investigating association between genes can be used in understanding the relations of genes in biological processes. STRING and GeneMANIA are two well-known web tools which can provide a list of associated genes of a query gene based on diverse biological associations such as co-expression, co-localization, co-citation and so on. However, the transcriptional regulation association and mutant phenotype association have not been used in these two web tools. Since the comprehensive transcription factor (TF)-gene binding data, TF-gene regulation data and mutant phenotype data are available in yeast, we developed a web tool called YAGM (Yeast Associated Genes Miner) which constructed the transcriptional regulation association, mutant phenotype association and five commonly used biological associations to mine a list of associated genes of a query yeast gene. In YAGM, we collected seven kinds of datasets including TF-gene binding (TFB) data, TF-gene regulation (TFR) data, mutant phenotype (MP) data, functional annotation (FA) data, physical interaction (PI) data, genetic interaction (GI) data, and literature evidence (LE) data. Then by using the hypergeometric test to calculate the association scores of all gene pairs in yeast, we constructed seven biological associations including two transcriptional regulation associations (TFB association and TFR association), MP association, FA association, PI association, GI association, and LE association. Moreover, the expression profile association from SPELL database was also included in YAGM. When using YAGM, users can input a query gene and choose any possible subsets of the eight biological associations, then a list of associated genes of the query gene will be returned based on the chosen biological associations. In this study, we presented the YAGM which provides eight biological associations for mining associated genes of a query gene in yeast. Among the eight biological associations constructed in YAGM, three (TFB

  18. HIV-ASSOCIATED VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bibas

    2011-01-01

    ="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    HIV infection has been recognized as a prothrombotic condition and this association has now been proven by a large number of studies with a reported VTE frequency among HIV-infected patients ranging from 0.19% to 7,63 %/year. HIV infection is associated with a two to tenfold increased risk of venous thrombosis in comparison with a general population of the same age. Some r

  19. 12 CFR 614.4530 - Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. 614.4530 Section 614.4530 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT..., production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. Under policies approved by the bank...

  20. Primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, G; Rodríguez-García, J L; Moreno, A

    1991-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic inflammatory fibrotic disorder strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Although an association between some inflammatory fibrotic conditions, such as Riedel's thyroiditis and retroperitoneal fibrosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis has been described, to our knowledge there are no reports of primary sclerosing cholangitis in patients with systemic sclerosis. A patient with this combination of conditions is presented and the possible significance of the association discussed.