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Sample records for assisted reproduction technology

  1. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Skip sharing on social media links Share ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved June 11, 2012, ...

  2. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  3. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  4. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...... adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders...

  5. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv B; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina; Aittomäki, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development, coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birthweight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational-age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders, epigenetic modification and ART. PMID:26458360

  6. Imprinting disorders after assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2006-01-01

    To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies.......To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies....

  7. Abuse of Assistant Reproductive Technologies Banned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Is it morally and legally viable for unmarried womento have a child through in vitro fertilization? Is fetusreduction operation necessary for multi-births causedby assistant reproductive technologies? Such issueshave aroused great concerns from governmentofficials and demographers and the general public

  8. Assisted reproductive technologies in rhesus macaques

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    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs have been used in the production of rhesus monkey offspring at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC and that experience is summarized here. Additionally these technologies serve as a source of oocytes/embryos for monozygotic twinning, embryonic stem (ES cell derivation and cloning. High fertilization efficiencies were realized with conventional insemination or following the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and approximately 50% of the resulting embryos grew in vitro to blastocysts. Both fresh and frozen sperm were employed in fertilization by ICSI and the resulting embryos could be low temperature stored for subsequent thawing and transfer when a synchronized recipient female was available or after shipment to another facility. Following the transfer of up to 3 embryos, an overall pregnancy rate of 30% was achieved with increasing rates dependent upon the number of embryos transferred. Singleton pregnancy outcomes following the transfer of ART produced embryos were similar to those observed in a control group of animals in the timed mated breeding colony at ONPRC. ICSI produced embryos were used in efforts to create monozygotic twins by blastomere separation or blastocyst splitting. While pregnancies were achieved following the transfer of demi-embryos, only one was a twin and it was lost to spontaneous abortion. ICSI produced embryos have also served as the source of blastocysts for the derivation of embryonic stem cells. These pluripotent cells hold potential for cell based therapies and we consider the monkey an important translational model in which to evaluate safety, efficacy and feasibility of regenerative medicine approaches based on the transplantation of stem cell-derived progeny. Finally, efforts to produce genetically-identical monkeys by nuclear transfer have been briefly summarized.

  9. Assisted reproductive technology in the USA: Is more regulation needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of assisted reproductive technologies is a contested area. Some jurisdictions, such as the UK and a number of Australian states, have comprehensive regulation of most aspects of assisted reproductive technologies; others, such as the USA, have taken a more piecemeal approach and rely on professional guidelines and the general regulation of medical practice to govern this area. It will be argued that such a laissez-faire approach is inadequate for regulating the complex area of assisted reproductive technologies. Two key examples, reducing multiple births and registers of donors and offspring, will be considered to illustrate the effects of the regulatory structure of assisted reproductive technologies in the USA on practice. It will be concluded that the regulatory structure in the USA fails to provide an adequate mechanism for ensuring the ethical and safe conduct of ART services, and that more comprehensive regulation is required. PMID:25171854

  10. Assisted reproductive technology and somatic morbidity in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bay, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    were included. Results indicated that children conceived by assisted reproductive technology may be at increased risk of unspecified infectious and parasitic diseases, asthma, genitourinary diseases, epilepsy or convulsions, and longer hospitalizations. However, several results in individual studies...

  11. Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Livestock Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and N. Sri Balaji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of farm animals is a prime concern over the years for researchers. Several reproductive technologies have been employed to achieve this. Assisted reproductive technologies like Artificial insemination, Superovulation, In vitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems, to increase the offspring from selected female’s and to reduce the generation intervals in farm animals. The progress achieved during the last few years in the assisted reproductive technologies field has been phenomenal. Artificial Insemination (AI is the most effective method being used for the genetic improvement of animals. Reproductive capacity and efficiency has been improved tremendously since the introduction of artificial insemination. The development of cloning using various cells from the animal body has created opening of a fascinating scientific arena. These technologies have been propounded as saviors of indigenous livestock breeds. These alternative reproductive techniques are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also proven to be powerful tools in curbing the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. The successful reproductive technologies such as AI and Embryo transfer need be applied on a large scale, emerging biotechnogies such as MOET, IVF and Cloning provides powerful tool for rapidly changing the animal populations, genetically. This advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play an important role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance in livestock. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 238-240

  12. The endometrium in assisted reproductive technology: How thin is thin?

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini Mahajan; Sharma, S.

    2016-01-01

    A thin endometrium is encountered infrequently (2.4%) in assisted reproductive technology cycles. When it does occur it is a cause of concern as it is associated with lower implantation rate and pregnancy rate. Though pregnancies have been reported at 4 and 5 mm it is apparent that an endometrial thickness

  13. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Related Clinical Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuan-chong FENG; Zhong-mei LI

    2004-01-01

    @@ As a widely-applied clinical therapy for infertility and sterility, ART has its own merits compared to other techniques and operations; however, the outcome of ART is influenced by various factors ranging from age, endometrial receptivity, reproductive system condition (e.g.uterus, fallopian tube and pelvic factors, etc.), immune system and so on. From our clinical experience and the literatures reviewd, it is strongly recommended that the situation of every infertile couple be evaluated thoroughly before applying therapy.

  14. Perinatal Outcomes after Assisted Reproductive Technology

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    Setenay Arzu Yilmaz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize perinatal outcomes and the congenital anomaly risk of IVF pregnancies and also examine the risks of different technologies including ICSI, blastocyst culture, and cryopreservation on this topic. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 575-586

  15. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) in a model of fertility choice

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer, Helmut; Selvaretnam, Geethanjali; Ulph, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a simple theoretical framework to discuss the relationship between assisted reproductive technologies and the microeconomics of fertility choice. Individuals make choices of education and work along with decisions about whether and when to have children. Decisions regarding fertility are influenced by policy and labor market factors that affect the earnings opportunities of mothers and the costs of raising children. We show how observed differences in these economic factor...

  16. Synergies between assisted reproduction technologies and functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Toschi, Paola; Zacchini, Federica; Ptak, Grazyna; Scapolo, Pier A; Capra, Emanuele; Stella, Alessandra; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Williams, John L

    2016-01-01

    This review, is a synopsis of advanced reproductive technologies in farm animals, including the discussion of their limiting factors as revealed by the study of offspring derived from embryos produced in vitro and through cloning. These studies show that the problems of epigenetic mis-programming, which were reported in the initial stages of assisted reproduction, still persist. The importance of whole-genome analyses, including the methylome and transcriptome, in improving embryo biotechnologies in farm animals, are discussed. Genome editing approaches for the improvement of economically-relevant traits in farm animals are also described. Efficient farm animal embryo biotechnologies, including cloning and the most recent technologies such as genome editing, will effectively complement the latest strategies to accelerate genetic improvement of farm animals. PMID:27481215

  17. Rethinking radical politics in the context of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Radical feminists have argued for both the radical potential of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and its oppressive and damaging effects for women. This paper will address the question of what constitutes a radical feminist position on ART; I will argue that the very debate over whether ART liberates or oppresses women is misguided, and that instead the issue should be understood dialectically. Reproductive technologies are neither inherently liberating nor entirely oppressive: we can only understand the potential and effects by considering how they are actually taken up within a culture. The internal contradictions, tensions, and inconsistencies within ART and the way it is addressed within the law points to a dialectic that resists a simple reductivist understanding. PMID:19076939

  18. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for mammalian farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    technologies that have the potential to improve efficiency of livestock production. The focus will be on technologies that manipulate male and female gametes as well as the stem cells from which they are derived and the preimplantation embryo. While technology is crucial to other interventions in the reproductive process like control of seasonal breeding, hormonal regulation of ovulation, estrous cyclicity and pregnancy establishment, feeding to optimize reproduction, minimizing environmental stress, and selection of genes controlling reproduction, these will not be considered here. Rather the reader is directed to other chapters in this volume as well as some reviews on other aspects of artificial manipulation of reproduction (Reprod Fertil Dev 24:258-266, 2011; Reprod Domest Anim 43:40-47, 2008; Reprod Domest Anim 43:122-128, 2008; Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:87-102, 2009; Comprehensive biotechnology, Amsterdam, pp 477-485; Dairy production medicine, Chichester, pp 153-163; Theriogenology 76:1619-1631, 2011; Theriogenology 76:1568-1582, 2011; Theriogenology 77:1-11, 2012). Given the large number of mammalian species used for production of products useful for man and the diversity in their biology and management, the review will not be comprehensive but instead will use results from species that are most illustrative of the opportunities generated by assisted reproductive technologies.

  19. Experience with ISO quality control in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Michael M

    2013-12-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs are complex organizations requiring the integration of multiple disciplines. ISO 9001:2008 is a quality management system that is readily adaptable to an ART program. The value that ISO brings to the entire organization includes control of documents, clear delineation of responsibilities of staff members, documentation of the numerous processes and procedures, improvement in tracking and reducing errors, and overall better control of systems. A quality ART program sets quality objectives and monitors their progress. ISO provides a sense of transparency within the organization and clearer understanding of how service is provided to patients. Most importantly, ISO provides the framework to allow for continual improvement.

  20. Assisted reproductive technologies are an integrated part of national strategies addressing demographic and reproductive challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren; Devroey, Paul; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    The decline in the total fertility rate in the latter half of the 20th century in many European countries is becoming increasingly important in determining the demographic composition of Europe and its individual member states. This review focuses on discussion surrounding how assisted reproductive...... technology (ART) can impact declining fertility rates....

  1. Conventional vs unconventional assisted reproductive technologies: opinions of young physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiuc, S

    2013-01-01

    In the last three and a half decades, an increasing number of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been developed, some of them already being used in clinical practice, while others will probably remain purely theoretical due to their associated ethical issues. The purpose of this study was to analyse the opinions of medical residents regarding various ARTs, both classical and unconventional. We conducted a multi-institutional survey among 142 medical residents in order to assess the views of young physicians of regarding ARTs. Most responders were in favour of medical procedures like gamete donation and surrogacy. When asked about more controversial procedures such as posthumous sperm procurement or reproductive cloning, most were against. Progress in reproductive medicine is made at a fast pace, as more and more couples are found infertile and as the birth rate in developed countries becomes smaller and smaller. If not carefully followed and regulated, this can easily lead to the development of highly controversial procedures, which can significantly alter the way we see human reproduction. As the law has a very traditional approach, it is often left behind by progress in this field, leaving potentially controversial procedures unregulated for long periods of time. During these periods, physicians have the very important role of analysing what is good and what is not and when to recognise procedures that go against general ethical and medical principles. PMID:23259883

  2. The endometrium in assisted reproductive technology: How thin is thin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin endometrium is encountered infrequently (2.4% in assisted reproductive technology cycles. When it does occur it is a cause of concern as it is associated with lower implantation rate and pregnancy rate. Though pregnancies have been reported at 4 and 5 mm it is apparent that an endometrial thickness <6 mm is associated with a trend toward lower probability of pregnancy. Hormone replacement therapy – frozen embryo transfer (FET cycles appear to give better results due to an improvement in endometrial receptivity (ER. The etiology of thin endometrium plays a significant part in its receptivity. A number of treatments have been tried to improve endometrial growth, but none has been validated so far. Confirming ER of a thin endometrium by an ER array test before FET offers reassurance.

  3. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the first...... and last eating disorder diagnosis before, during, and after ART treatment, and evaluates differences in obstetric outcomes between women with and without a severe eating disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital-diagnosed eating disorders among 42 915 women in the Danish National ART cohort (DANAC......), registered during 1994-2009 in the mandatory Psychiatric Central Research Register, were compared with a non-eating disorder ART cohort of 42 644 women and an age-matched background population of 215 290 women without a history of ART treatment for the main outcome measures prevalence of eating disorders...

  4. Risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies following assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opdahl, S; Henningsen, A A; Tiitinen, A;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies conceived following specific assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures different from the risk in spontaneously conceived (SC) pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART pregnancies had a higher risk of hypertensive disorders......, in particular following cryopreservation, with the highest risk seen in twin pregnancies following frozen-thawed cycles. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of hypertensive disorders is higher in ART pregnancies than in SC pregnancies. The increased risk may be partly explained by multiple pregnancies...... twin pregnancies (46 674). We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios and risk differences for hypertensive disorders in pregnancies following IVF, ICSI and fresh or frozen-thawed cycles. We also compared fresh and frozen-thawed cycles within mothers who had conceived following both...

  5. Association between assisted reproductive technology and advanced retinopathy of prematurity

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    RV Paul Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RV Paul Chan1, Yoshihiro Yonekawa1, Margaux A Morrison2,3, Grace Sun1, Ryan K Wong1, Jeffrey M Perlman4, Michael F Chiang5,6, Thomas C Lee7, M Elizabeth Hartnett3, Margaret M DeAngelis2,31Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; 2Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; 4Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; Departments of 5Ophthalmology and 6Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; 7The Vision Center, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, California, USAPurpose: To investigate the associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment. Methods: Retrospective analyses of inborn preterm infants screened for severe ROP at the Weill Cornell Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital by single factor logistic regression and multifactor models.Results: Of 399 ethnically diverse infants, 253 were conceived naturally and 146 by ART. Eight (3.16% patients conceived naturally, and 11 (7.53% with ART required laser treatment. In multifactor analyses, significant risks for severe ROP requiring treatment included both gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.52; P< 0.001 and ART ([OR] 4.70; [CI], 1.52–4.57; P = 0.007.Conclusions: ART is associated with severe ROP requiring treatment in this cohort. This is the first report that demonstrates a statistically significant association between ART and severe ROP requiring treatment in infants in the US.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, low birth rate, blindness, assisted reproductive technology

  6. Trends in Global Assisted Reproductive Technologies Research: a Scientometrics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Zare, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Maliheh Sadat; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study illustrated the global contribution to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) research in MEDLINE database from 1998 to 2014. Methods In March 2015, the MEDLINE database was searched for research publications indexed under ‘reproductive techniques, assisted’ (including the following MeSH headings: in vitro fertilization [IVF]; intracytoplasmic sperm injections; cryopreservation; and ovulation induction), with the following expressions in the fields of title or abstract: intrauterine insemination; sperm donation; embryo/egg donation and surrogate mothers. The number of publications in MEDLINE database was recorded for each individual year, 1998–2014, and for each country. The following countries were arbitrarily selected for data retrieval: United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan (G7 countries), Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC countries), Egypt, Turkey, Israel and Iran. Results The absolute number of publications for each country from 1998 to 2014 ranged from 75 to 16453, with a median of 2024. The top five countries were the US (16453 publications), the UK (5427 publications), Japan (4805), China (4660) and France (3795). ART (20277), cryopreservation (11623) and IVF (11209) were the most researched areas. Conclusion Global research on ARTs were geographically distributed and highly concentrated among the world’s richest countries. Cryopreservation and IVF were the most productive research domains among ARTs. PMID:26813255

  7. Biological versus chronological ovarian age: implications for assisted reproductive technology

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    Tredway Donald

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women have been able to delay childbearing since effective contraception became available in the 1960s. However, fertility decreases with increasing maternal age. A slow but steady decrease in fertility is observed in women aged between 30 and 35 years, which is followed by an accelerated decline among women aged over 35 years. A combination of delayed childbearing and reduced fecundity with increasing age has resulted in an increased number and proportion of women of greater than or equal to 35 years of age seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment. Methods Literature searches supplemented with the authors' knowledge. Results Despite major advances in medical technology, there is currently no ART treatment strategy that can fully compensate for the natural decline in fertility with increasing female age. Although chronological age is the most important predictor of ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone, the rate of reproductive ageing and ovarian sensitivity to gonadotrophins varies considerably among individuals. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to depletion of the ovarian oocyte pool and reduction in oocyte quality. Thus, biological and chronological ovarian age are not always equivalent. Furthermore, biological age is more important than chronological age in predicting the outcome of ART. As older patients present increasingly for ART treatment, it will become more important to critically assess prognosis, counsel appropriately and optimize treatment strategies. Several genetic markers and biomarkers (such as anti-Müllerian hormone and the antral follicle count are emerging that can identify women with accelerated biological ovarian ageing. Potential strategies for improving ovarian response include the use of luteinizing hormone (LH and growth hormone (GH. When endogenous LH levels are heavily suppressed by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues, LH supplementation may help

  8. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain. PMID:20067901

  9. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomĂŠdecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  10. Association between Thrombophilia and Repeated Assisted Reproductive Technology Failures

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    Kobra Hamdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the incidence of thrombophilic gene mutations in repeated assisted reproductive technology (ART failures. Methods: The prevalence of mutated genes in the patients with a history of three or more previous ART failures was compared with the patients with a history of successful pregnancy following ARTs. The study group included 70 patients, 34 with three or more previously failed ARTs (A and control group consisted of 36 patients with successful pregnancy following ARTs (B. All patients were tested for the presence of mutated thrombophilic genes including factor V Leiden (FVL, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and Prothrombin (G20210A using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR. Results: Mutation of FVL gene was detected in 5.9% women of group A (2 of 34 compared with 2.8% women (1 of 36 of control group (P = 0.6. Mutation of MTHFR gene was found in 35.3% (12 cases as compared with 50% (18 cases of control (35.3% versus 50%; P = 0.23. Regarding Prothrombin, only control group had 5.6% mutation (P = 0.49. No significant differences were detected in the incidences of FVL, Prothrombin and MTHFR in the study group A compared with the control group B. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that thrombophilia does not have a significant effect in ART failures.

  11. The Role of Acupuncture in Assisted Reproductive Technology

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    Cui Hong Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to provide reliable evidence by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis for evaluating the role of acupuncture in assisted reproductive technology. All randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of acupuncture, including manual, electrical, and laser acupuncture (LA techniques, on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR and live birth rate (LBR of in vitro fertilization (IVF or artificial insemination were included. The controlled groups consisted of no acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups. The sham acupuncture included sham acupuncture at acupoints, sham acupuncture at non- or inappropriate points, sham LA, and adhesive tapes. Twenty-three trials (a total of 5598 participants were included in this paper. The pooled CPR from all acupuncture groups was significantly higher than that from all controlled groups, whereas the LBR was not significantly different between the two groups. However, the results were quite distinct when the type of control and/or different acupuncture times were examined in a sensitivity analysis. The results mainly indicate that acupuncture, especially around the time of the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, improves pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing IVF. More positive effects from acupuncture in IVF can be expected if a more individualized acupuncture programs are used.

  12. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART.

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    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART. Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods.In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD, Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded.It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants' right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05. Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001.These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART.

  13. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O;

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  14. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Louise; Vitonis Allison F; Altshul Larisa; Missmer Stacey A; Meeker John D; Cramer Daniel W; Hauser Russ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not...

  15. Complications and outcome of assisted reproduction technologies in overweight and obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A. M. H.; Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Kuchenbecher, W. K. H.; Broekmans, F. J.; Land, J. A.; Mol, B. W.; Hoek, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on a presumed negative impact of overweight and obesity on reproductive capacity and pregnancy outcome, some national guidelines and clinicians have argued that there should be an upper limit for a woman's BMI to access assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, evidence on

  16. Assisted reproductive technology in bear (ursidae) conservation Ailuropoda Melanoleuca, Ursus Arctos and Usus Maritimus

    OpenAIRE

    Baldoví Sánchez, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Póster The Ursidae family is severely threatened having 6 of the 8 bear species in danger of extinction. Due to its reproductive physiology characteristics, ursids have a low reproduction rate which aggravates in captivity. It is because of this, that reproductive assisted technology has become a key element in the conservation of this species. The following study is the compendium of the obtained results in this field in three ursid species: giant panda (Auliropoda melanoleuca), brown bea...

  17. Ethics and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-06-01

    In vitro fertilization and assisted reproductive technology have made great progress during the last 20 years. Genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and surrogacy are currently practiced in many countries. On the other hand, embryo research is practiced only in a small number of nations, whereas human cloning has thus far been universally condemned. The rapid evolution and progress of all these techniques of assisted reproduction has revealed certain ethical issues that have to be addressed. PMID:10825637

  18. Amphibian declines in the twenty-first century: why we need assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, John; Trudeau, Vance L; Kouba, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Each amphibian species is evolutionarily distinct, having developed highly specialized and diverse reproductive strategies in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. These unique reproductive patterns and mechanisms, key to species propagation, have only been explored in a limited number of laboratory models. Although the development of applied reproductive technologies for amphibians has proven useful for a few threatened species, the real benefit of this technology has been new insights into the reproductive adaptations, behavior, endocrinology, and physiological mechanisms that have evolved over millions of years. As the basic fundamental database on amphibian reproductive physiology has grown, so has the applied benefit for species conservation. In particular, technologies such as non-invasive fecal and urinary hormone assays, hormone treatments for induced breeding or gamete collection, in vitro fertilization, and the ability to establish genome resource banks have all played important roles in monitoring or managing small populations of captive species. Amphibians have the ability to produce a large excess of germplasm (up to 10,000 ovulated eggs in a single reproductive event) that if not collected and preserved, would represent a wasted valuable resource. We discuss the current state of knowledge in assisted reproductive technologies for amphibians and why their extinction crisis means these available tools can no longer be implemented as small-scale, last-ditch efforts. The reproductive technologies must be established early as a key component of large-scale species recovery.

  19. Assisted reproductive technologies and fertility "tourism": examples from global Dubai and the Ivy League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Shrivastav, Pankaj; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    What motivates the global movements of infertile people searching for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)? In this article, we attempt to answer this question by exploring infertile patients' practices of so-called "fertility tourism." Based on ethnographic research carried out with nearly 300 infertile travelers in two major ART centers--one in the global hub of the United Arab Emirates and the other at a major East Coast Ivy League university--we examine a diverse set of reasons for reproductive travel. We argue that reproductive "tourism" should be reconceptualized as reproductive "exile" in that infertile couples feel barred from accessing ARTs in their home countries. Listening to reproductive travel stories is key to understanding infertile couples' transnational "quests for conception." Stories of two couples, one from Lebanon and one from Italy, demonstrate the poignancy of these quests and begin to shed light on the complex calculus of factors governing this global movement of reproductive actors.

  20. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarojini Nadimpally; Marwah Vrinda; Shenoi Anjali

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experie...

  1. Risk disparities in the globalisation of assisted reproductive technology: the case of Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the disparities in risks associated with biomedical technology focusing on the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART). ART among biomedical technologies transferred to Asia is a representative case that reveals in its clinical use and related scientific research the global politics of technology. This study notes the global politics at work in the recognition of and reaction to such risks. While many Asian countries aggressively pursue technological development, weak legislative and administrative regulations have created various problems and controversial cases. This study asserts that risks associated with technology are characterised as social facts not natural ones or mere 'side effects', since technological development and risk are closely intertwined.

  2. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  3. Psychological issues of infertility and assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlstedt, P P

    1994-08-01

    This article presents a model for conceptualizing the emotional consequences of infertility experienced by most couples with this problem. The article also discusses the need for patient preparation for alternative reproductive techniques with donor gametes and examines the main issues that need to be explored. Recommendations are made for physicians and couples challenged by infertility's intense and surprising emotional consequences. PMID:8059508

  4. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, V; Hinrichs, K; Lazzari, G.; Betts, D. H.; Hyttel, P

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to creat...

  5. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.;

    2013-01-01

    production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects......Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  6. Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical ectopic pregnancy (EP is an infrequent, life-threatening form of ectopic gestationpregnancy that implants within the endocervical canal. With the increase in use of assistedreproductive technology (ART worldwide and more liberal use of transvaginal sonography (TVSduring early pregnancy, more cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy are being diagnosed. Earlydiagnosis of this condition by using ultrasound imaging allows for prevention of maternal morbiditydue to hemorrhage and leads to conservative management of this condition.We present the case ofa 38-year old woman (gravida 1, para 0 who was found to have acervical ectopic pregnancy at sixweeks of gestation.

  7. [Interconnection between assisted reproductive technologies, pregnancy complications and risk of birth defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar', V V

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to investigate the relationship between pregnancy complications, infertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The study was conducted on 1331 couples with complicated reproductive history. It is found that miscarriage and other complications of pregnancy depend rather on the etiopathogenesis of infertility than on the technique of ART. The highest frequency of complications of pregnancy was diagnosed in women with endocrine disorders. In case of congenital malformations in the fetus the frequency of birth defects was 3.6% after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 1.8% in case of spontaneous pregnancy. It was found an increased risk of birth defects in singleton boys conceived by IVF.

  8. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Asgarini; Fariba Yazdkhasti; Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traits -including sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness - among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART) or surrogacy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who v...

  9. The paternal genome and the health of the assisted reproductive technology child

    OpenAIRE

    Sheena EM Lewis; Kishlay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As a number of children born by assisted reproductive technology (ART) are increasing each year across the developed world, the health of such offspring is a matter of public concern. Does the integrity of the paternal genome impact on offspring health? In societal terms, as birth rates fall, and the Western population become unsustainable, do the benefits outweigh the costs of creating and providing for this ART conceived sub population? There are little data to date to answer these question...

  10. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevoral, Jan; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.

  11. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini Nadimpally

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies

  12. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali

    2011-08-12

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy

  13. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali

    2011-01-01

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy

  14. Assisted Reproductive Technology for HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples:A Review of Current Controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary S. Nakhuda; Mark V. Sauer

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been reported as a viable means of helping HIV-1 serodiscordant couples achieve pregnancy while theoretically reducing the risk for viral transmission. While the sum of the evidence suggests that ART is effective and safe, numerous controversies still exist. The following review addresses several of the important issues involved in the use of ART for HIV-serodiscordant couples, including patient selection, semen processing techniques,post-process HIV testing, the use of IUI vs IVF-ICSI.

  15. A clinician's personal view of assisted reproductive technology over 35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L

    2011-12-01

    This invited presentation is intended to cover clinical developments in the evolution of assisted reproductive technology (ART), a process which was attempted during the 1940's and 50's and culminated in the first fruition in 1978. The first in vitro fertilisation (IVF) child ensued following the partnership by a scientist with a focussed ambition (Nobel laureate Robert Edwards) joining with the gynaecologist who introduced laparoscopy to Britain in the late 60's (Patrick Steptoe). My journey commenced in 1976 as a clinician who became immersed in the embryological and endocrinological science, whence most progress in ART emanates, and continued into a medical directorship position from which this personal view is documented. Several clinical advances have been important developments in the understanding and management of sub-fertile patients. However evolution of the various laboratory sciences has been the major key essential to meeting both the immediate as well as the long-term needs for human reproduction. The future requires a much better understanding and control over gametogenesis and a laboratory process which much more closely duplicates intrinsic reproductive physiology, avoiding gamete and embryo exposure to the atmosphere.This invited presentation is intended to cover clinical developments in the evolution of assisted reproductive technology (ART), a process which was attempted during the 1940's and 50's and culminated in the first fruition in 1978. The first in vitro fertilisation (IVF) child ensued following the partnership by a scientist with a focussed ambition (Nobel laureate Robert Edwards) joining with the gynaecologist who introduced laparoscopy to Britain in the late 60's (Patrick Steptoe). My journey commenced in 1976 as a clinician who became immersed in the embryological and endocrinological science, whence most progress in ART emanates, and continued into a medical directorship position from which this personal view is documented. Several

  16. Long-term outcomes in children conceived with assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, E

    2014-10-01

    Over five million children have been born worldwide through assisted reproductive technology (ART) and access to ART treatment is increasing yearly. Investigations of the health, disease, cognitive, developmental and behavioral outcomes in the children conceived with ART are often confounded by parental and other social, environmental and medical factors, including multiplicity, prematurity and low birth weight. Reports of the long-term health and psychosocial adjustment of children conceived with ART show generally good outcomes. Many of the major long-term conditions observed in the children may be associated with multiple gestations, preterm delivery and low birth weight, or with subfertility of the parents. Evidence in the male infants conceived with the aid of intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) suggests an increased risk of reproductive tract anomalies such as hypospadias. Health-related outcomes of children born after cryopreservation of cleavage stage embryos are reassuring. Currently, our knowledge and understanding of the long-term health risks and/or benefits to the children conceived is incomplete. Measuring long-term outcomes is the first step to improving and optimizing health in the offspring conceived with medical and technological assistance. PMID:25245993

  17. The role of varicocele repair in the new era of assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility affects 10-15% of couples who are trying to conceive, and half of the cases are due to male infertility. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is increasingly being used to overcome multiple sperm deficiencies. Due to its effectiveness, some have proposed ICSI as a solution for all cases of male infertility, regardless of the cause. Hence, even men with potentially treatable causes of infertility have sought the aid of assisted reproductive technology, rather than undergo specific therapies to treat their infertility. Varicoceles are the most frequent physical finding in infertile men; indeed, they may be responsible for nearly one-third of cases of male infertility. Varicocele management, however, has always been a controversial issue because very few randomized, controlled studies have been performed to examine varicocelectomy as an infertility treatment. Significant evidence suggests that varicoceles have a harmful effect on the testis and that varicocelectomy can not only prevent progressive decline in testicular function but also reverse the damage. However, the degree to which varicocele repair improves pregnancy rates and the success of assisted reproductive technology remains controversial.

  18. Assisted reproductive technology in India: A 3 year retrospective data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology (ART has grown by leaps and bounds in the last few years. India has one of the highest growths in the ART centers and the number of ART cycles performed every year. Very soon India will be the leader in the world of ART in terms of a number of cycles. With the advances of technology and availability of techniques even in tier II and tier III cities our country, the results still vary dramatically. There is no standardization of protocols and reporting is very inadequate. Furthermore, there are only ART guidelines and no law still exists. Our first and the biggest challenge is to document the tremendous work being done in India and on the basis of analysis of this work, a proper registry can be made and guidance given to all on standardization and improvement. This is the 8 th edition of National ART Registry of India being presented and analyzed.

  19. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bos-Mikich; Fabiana F. Bressan; Ruggeri, Rafael R.; Yeda Watanabe; Flávio V. Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with var...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of varicocele surgery in the era of assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Chiles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of innovative techniques for addressing infertility has made for exciting times in the arena of andrology. The success of microTESE for retrieving sperm has enabled azoospermic men to have the opportunity to father biological children when it was previously impossible. The ability to offer a variety of assisted reproductive techniques that includes intracytoplasmic sperm injection has opened the door for couples with male factor infertility who were otherwise untreatable. With the multitude of options available to infertile couples, however, comes an unsurprising degree of controversy regarding what treatments should be offered and when. Complicating the picture is the question of if and when varicocele repair should be undertaken, and the financial implications of the treatment decisions that are made. The infertile couple with varicocele warrants careful consideration. The overall efficacy of varicocele repair as well as cost-effectiveness of repair compared to immediate microTESE in azoospermic men and assisted reproductive technology in men with suboptimal semen parameters will be reviewed.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of varicocele surgery in the era of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles, Kelly A; Schlegel, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    The advent of innovative techniques for addressing infertility has made for exciting times in the arena of andrology. The success of microTESE for retrieving sperm has enabled azoospermic men to have the opportunity to father biological children when it was previously impossible. The ability to offer a variety of assisted reproductive techniques that includes intracytoplasmic sperm injection has opened the door for couples with male factor infertility who were otherwise untreatable. With the multitude of options available to infertile couples, however, comes an unsurprising degree of controversy regarding what treatments should be offered and when. Complicating the picture is the question of if and when varicocele repair should be undertaken, and the financial implications of the treatment decisions that are made. The infertile couple with varicocele warrants careful consideration. The overall efficacy of varicocele repair as well as cost-effectiveness of repair compared to immediate microTESE in azoospermic men and assisted reproductive technology in men with suboptimal semen parameters will be reviewed.

  2. Ethical issues in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B M

    1992-07-01

    Since the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, no other area in clinical practice and medical research has held the public interest to the same extent as the assisted reproductive technologies. This has led to the formation of committees of enquiry, guidelines from professional bodies, the passage of legislation, and the formation of legislative bodies. The ethical issues which arise in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction, the donation of gametes and embryos, and their cryopreservation, surrogacy, and human embryo research are reviewed. PMID:1309130

  3. Effect of maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Opdahl, Signe; Bergh, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    weeks), low birth weight (LBW; mortality (≥28 weeks). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated. Associations between maternal age and outcomes were analyzed. RESULT(S): The risk of placenta previa (AOR 4.11-6.05), cesarean delivery (AOR 1......OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of maternal age on assisted reproductive technology (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC) pregnancies regarding maternal and neonatal complications. DESIGN: Nordic retrospective population-based cohort study. Data from national ART registries were cross.......18-1.50), PTB (AOR 1.23-2.19), and LBW (AOR 1.44-2.35) was significantly higher in ART than in SC pregnancies for most maternal ages. In both ART and SC pregnancies, the risk of HDP, placenta previa, cesarean delivery, PTB, LBW, and SGA changed significantly with age. The AORs for adverse neonatal outcomes...

  4. Semen cryopreservation and usage rate for assisted reproductive technology in 898 men with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Iris; Oude Ophuis, Ralph J A; Broekmans, Frank J M; Lock, Tycho M T W

    2016-02-01

    An undesired side effect of cancer treatment is potential subfertility or infertility. Timely cryopreservation of semen is the best modality to ensure fertility. This retrospective data analysis established the usage rate of cryopreserved semen from cancer patients. Pubertal and post-pubertal patients who could become infertile as a result of cancer (treatment) were offered the option to cryopreserve semen prior to treatment. Of the 898 patients who cryopreserved their semen in our hospital, 96 (10.7%) used this for assisted reproductive technology. The live birth rates for intrauterine insemination, in-vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cryopreserved embryo transfer were 13%, 29%, 32% and 17%, respectively. Of all couples involved, 77% achieved parenthood, i.e. 60 of the 78 patients (with complete follow-up) fathered at least one child. PMID:26687904

  5. The relational ecology of the transition to parenthood in couples that conceived spontaneously or through Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gameiro, Carla Sofia Marques Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Background. Infertility is a reproductive health problem defined by the World Health Organization as the inability of a couple to achieve conception or to bring a pregnancy to term after a year or more of regular, unprotected intercourse (WHO, 1992), that affects 9% of the population worldwide (Boivin, Bunting, Collins, & Nygren, 2007). Due to the strain of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments infertile couples have to undergo in order to pursue a much desired parenthood...

  6. Cryopreservation and delayed embryo transfer-assisted reproductive technology registry and reporting implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Kevin J

    2014-07-01

    Clinics performing assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures have collected data via registry and publicly reported pregnancy outcomes for more than 25 years. During this time, the practice of ART has changed considerably with frozen embryo transfer (FET) procedures contributing an increasing proportion of live births. Cycles initiated with the intent of embryo banking for the purpose of fertility preservation have been excluded from these public reports, because pregnancy outcomes are not immediately available. An unintended consequence of the common sense handling of fertility preservation has been that cycles performed with intentional short-term cryopreservation of all embryos for other indications have also been excluded from the report. Over the last few years, cryopreservation with short-term delayed transfer increasingly has been performed for reasons other than fertility preservation. The pregnancy outcomes of these cycles are expected within a reasonable time frame and should be transparently reported. The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology has collaborated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to "recapture" these cycles for the public reports. This recapture is done by linking the FET cycles to the stimulation cycles from which the embryos were derived and by changing the labels of the outcome success metrics. Stimulations using ART, initiated for the purpose of transferring embryos within 1 year will be included in the report despite any prospective intent to freeze all eggs or embryos. A positive outcome will be reported when a live birth results from the first embryo transfer following stimulation ("primary transfer"). Linkage of ovarian stimulation and egg-retrieval procedures to FET will also allow development of other success metrics to further benefit fertility patients.

  7. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions.

  8. [Medical and Social Problems of Assisted Reproductive Technologies from the Perspective of Pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Belyaeva, I A; Bombardirova, E P; Smirnov, I E

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a literature review over the last few years devoted to the health status and development peculiarities of children born using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) procedures. The statistics shows an explosive increase in the frequency of ART application as a fertility treatment method. The presented data analysis reflects the perinatal outcomes after ART in children, the frequency of congenital malformations and genetic diseases in this population, possible long-term malconditions and pathologies in children born using ART. The overwhelming majority of investigators consider the adverse effect of ART on a child's body to be the result of prematurity and multiple pregnancy (transfer multiple embryos followed by partial reduction). It is stated that the widespread introduction of ART may contribute to the vertical transmission of parental infertility factors in the population. The application of ARTprocedures in some cases is associated with controversial ethical and legal issues (surrogacy, oocyte donation). Further improvements in ART procedures (preimplantation training, medical and genetic diagnosis, reducing the frequency of multiple pregnancy) cannot be stated as an alternative to the general medical and social prevention of reproductive disorders in adolescents and youth. PMID:26495718

  9. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  10. What is the role of assisted reproduction technology in the management of age-related infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinakis, Gerasimos; Nikolaou, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Although in the UK the upper age limit for National Health Service (NHS) provision of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is 39 years of age there has been an increase in number of women having fertility treatment in their 40s. However, the success rates of IVF and intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in this group remain low. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) data from 2006 showed that the live-birth rate from IVF in the UK was 11% in the age group 40-42, 4.6% in the age group 43-44 and less than 4% in women over 44. We performed a literature search for studies using terms and combinations of terms in online databases and published meta-analyses reporting the outcome of interventions in older women. This review showed that assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) continue to have low live-birth rates in women over 40. Trials showed that assisted hatching may increase the chance of pregnancy in women with poor history. Blastocyst transfer is associated with better outcome, whereas application of pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) in older women has not increased the success rates. It appears that, with the exception of egg-donation, ART has no answer yet to age-related decline of female fertility. PMID:21329469

  11. AB28. Management of male factor infertility: present on the assisted reproductive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a common yet complex problem affecting approximately 10-15% of couples attempting to conceive a baby. Especially, 40-50% of these factors are known as male-related disorders. Unlike female infertility, the cause of which is often easily identified, diagnosing male factors can be difficult. Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages of sperm transport. Classical semen analysis in laboratory, which include sperm concentration, motility and morphology gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. The fertilizing potential of sperm depends not only on the functional competence of spermatozoa but also on sperm DNA integrity. The most commonly used techniques to assess sperm DNA integrity are the TUNEL assay, Comet assay, SCSA assay and hallo sperm assay. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of sperm DNA integrity as an important factor which affects functional competence of the sperm. Sperm DNA damage has been closely associated with numerous indicators of reproductive health including fertilization, embryo quality, implantation, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations. To overcome male infertility, there are variety of surgical and non-surgical urological procedures and medical-pharmacological interventions, and advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Among the surgically retrieved methods, there are TESE, TFNA, PESA and MESA that is used with ICSI. The ART, augmented with ICSI in moderate to serve cases, efficiently treat a variety of male infertility disorders by constituting validated and successfully treatment methods. Also, this technique is employed because the limited numbers and functional capacity of motile sperm that can be obtained. Especially, there are technologies such as IMSI and PICSI that are used to select healthy sperms.

  12. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  13. Psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine studies describing the psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy after an assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. This review considered only quantitative, primary studies in the English language, published during the period 2000-2014 and relevant to the objective. The population of interest was previously infertile pregnant women. Outcome variables were general anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, pregnancy attitudes and adjustment, and maternal-fetal attachment. Twenty studies met the inclusion and methodological criteria and were included in the review. The review revealed that compared to women who conceive naturally or to general norms, women who conceive after an in vitro fertilization treatment had greater pregnancy-specific anxiety, poorer quality of life, either the same or less depressive symptomatology, the same level of self-esteem, more positive attitudes toward pregnancy demands, and higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment. However, the evidence regarding the general anxiety levels in pregnancy after an ART treatment was inconclusive. Methodological limitations and differences across studies may explain the inconsistencies in their findings regarding the impact of ART. This review provides an insight into psychological reactions and adjustment in pregnancy after an ART treatment. PMID:26212077

  14. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  15. Obstetric outcomes of monochorionic pregnancies conceived following assisted reproductive technology: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The overwhelming numbers of twins following assisted reproductive technology (ART are dichorionic twins, but monochorionic twins account for around 0.9% of post ART pregnancies. The data for post ART-monochorionic pregnancy outcomes are scarce due to the rarity of this condition. Hence, we evaluated the obstetric outcomes of monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies conceived on ART. Settings : University teaching hospital. Study Design : A case-control study of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA and dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA pregnancies conceived following ART treatment. Charts of all women who conceived following ART from 2008 to 2013 were screened. Among them, the monochorionic twins diagnosed in the first trimester were included and their obstetric outcome was followed-up. For comparison, an equal number of dichorionic twin pregnancies from age and body mass index matched mothers was selected. Results : The baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups. MCDA group had a higher miscarriage rate (50% than the DCDA group (10%, with three seconds trimester miscarriages in the MCDA group. The live birth rates were lower in the MCDA versus DCDA group (40% vs. 90%. Among triplet pregnancies with a monochorionic component, the live birth rate was only 25%. Conclusions : Monochorionic pregnancies following ART have poorer obstetric outcomes when compared to dichorionic pregnancies. For monochorionic pregnancies following ART, intensive antenatal surveillance at a tertiary level obstetric and neonatal center may help optimize the outcome.

  16. Psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine studies describing the psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy after an assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. This review considered only quantitative, primary studies in the English language, published during the period 2000-2014 and relevant to the objective. The population of interest was previously infertile pregnant women. Outcome variables were general anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, pregnancy attitudes and adjustment, and maternal-fetal attachment. Twenty studies met the inclusion and methodological criteria and were included in the review. The review revealed that compared to women who conceive naturally or to general norms, women who conceive after an in vitro fertilization treatment had greater pregnancy-specific anxiety, poorer quality of life, either the same or less depressive symptomatology, the same level of self-esteem, more positive attitudes toward pregnancy demands, and higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment. However, the evidence regarding the general anxiety levels in pregnancy after an ART treatment was inconclusive. Methodological limitations and differences across studies may explain the inconsistencies in their findings regarding the impact of ART. This review provides an insight into psychological reactions and adjustment in pregnancy after an ART treatment.

  17. Sero prevalence of Hepatitis B virus among infertile women recruited for Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osemwenkha, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sexually transmissible diseases such as Hepatitis B virus (HBV causes or induces incurable often fatal infections have been transmitted through Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART. This study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBV among infertile women recruited for intrauterine insemination (I.U.I.Methodology and Results: A 5mL of blood was collected and serum aspirated. The detection of HBV was carried out using global one-step rapid test kit relative sensitivity of 99% and specific of 97%. Age range of infertile women was 20 – 49 years. Approximately 30 (5.9% out of the 512 recruited women were seropositive for HBV with increase in prevalence rate among age group of (25 – 29 years and (30 – 34 years. The rate of infection of HBV was found to be insignificant in this study using chi-square statistical analysis (p > 0.0001.Conclusion, Significance and Impact of Study: Though the rate of the virus infection were statistically insignificant but the screening should be a continuous exercise and be carried out by all fertility center.

  18. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhen Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. METHODS: Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus <35 were eligible for the meta-analysis. No statistical difference was found in risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77. CONCLUSIONS: ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.

  19. Assisted Reproductive Technology in Iran: The First National Report on Centers, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrandokht Abedini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the worldwide increase in infertility, it is both necessary and important to have assisted reproductive technology (ART registries. In Iran, donation and surrogacy programs are approved by decrees from religious scholars. ART has been used since 1984 in Iran and the first Iranian infant conceived by gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT was born in 1989. This report, however, is the first national report on Iranian ART centers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted under the supervision of the Iranian Ministry of Health, presented a summary of the numbers and percentages of centers that provided infertility services in Iran, as well as the status of ART in Iran during 2011. Results: A total of 52 centers reported treatment cycles and performed approximately 29000 intrauterine insemination (IUI, in addition to 35000 in vitro fertilization (IVF and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Conclusion: Iran has considerable potential to provide IVF services for both Iranians as well as other nationalities throughout the region. This proves the need for a national center that will implement a registry system.

  20. Is there a role for assisted reproductive technology in recurrent miscarriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Rosa; Goddijn, Mariëtte

    2011-11-01

    Unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a significant health problem for which no effective treatment is available yet. In only 50% of couples with RM a cause can be found. In clinical practice, a frequently asked question is whether assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a treatment option. The scientific rationale and the chances of success for ART in couples with unexplained RM are still controversial. Presently, there is not enough evidence to justify IVF or intrauterine insemination (IUI) as a treatment option. Research on oocyte donation has been reported in one article. It is questionable whether couples with unexplained RM would undergo the potential risks and emotional aspects of ART. There is insufficient data on whether preimplantation genetic diagnosis improves the live birthrate in carriers of a structural chromosome rearrangement with a history of RM. No randomized controlled trials are available for preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for unexplained RM. A recently published review concluded that the live birthrate for IVF/PGS and natural conception groups appears to be quite similar. Because evidence is lacking, we recommend refraining from ART in couples with recurrent miscarriage. PMID:22161467

  1. Viagra for temporary erectile dysfunction during treatments with assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur-Kaspa, I; Segal, S; Moffa, F; Massobrio, M; Meltzer, S

    1999-07-01

    During treatments with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some men may have difficulties in producing spermatozoa on demand at the time of insemination, either for intrauterine insemination (IUI) or for in-vitro fertilization (IVF). This situation imposes tremendous stress on the couple and may cause cancellation of the treatment. Here we describe, for the first time, the use of sildenafil citrate (ViagraTM) for temporary erectile dysfunction in couples undergoing ART. The first case was a man who could not produce spermatozoa for the first IVF treatment after an exhausting trial for 12 h, despite the fact that he never had problems in providing sperm samples during previous IUI cycles. Using Viagra enabled him to provide spermatozoa, but the delay in oocyte insemination resulted in no embryonic development. This prompted us to be more alert to this option and to suggest the use of Viagra to men who had a history of erectile dysfunction during previous ART cycles. In these cases, the use of Viagra was planned in advance and it successfully solved any unpredictable erectile dysfunction on the day of insemination. Such cases emphasize the need to think in advance of this potential use of Viagra during ART. PMID:10402389

  2. Reproductive technologies and reproductive rights

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Pinhas Shifman

    2014-01-01

    We observe a modern approach that allows for the possibility of a planned separation between sexual relations and procreation. The widespread use of contraceptives created the possibility of sex without reproduction, just as reproductive technologies created the possibility of reproduction without sex. Consequentially, the individual`s ability to control and plan childbirth has expanded, but parallel possibilities have been created for societal intervention in that process. The question wheth...

  3. Just Molly and me, and donor makes three: lesbian motherhood in the age of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The psychological experiences of lesbian mothers, both coupled and single, are compared and contrasted with heterosexual and gay parents who use assisted reproductive technology, focusing on issues of parental desire, fertility, babies conceived from science rather than sex, presence of an outside party in conception, genetic asymmetry, social anxieties, legal protections, disclosure, and gender. The psychological meaning of the donor or surrogate as "extra" and "missing" piece of the family, along with the interactive effects of homophobia and "reproductive technophobia" are considered. Lesbian families are recognized to be constructing a new narrative of a bio-social family as they define and live their experience. PMID:19042730

  4. Emotional distress in infertile women and failure of assisted reproductive technologies: meta-analysis of prospective psychosocial studies

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, J.; Griffiths, E; Venetis, C A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether pretreatment emotional distress in women is associated with achievement of pregnancy after a cycle of assisted reproductive technology. Design Meta-analysis of prospective psychosocial studies. Data sources PubMed, Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, PsychNET, ISI Web of Knowledge, and ISI Web of Science were searched for articles published from 1985 to March 2010 (inclusive). We also undertook a hand search of reference lists and contacted 29 authors. Eligible studies wer...

  5. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Asgarini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traits -including sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness - among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART or surrogacy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who visited Isfahan and Tehran Reproductive Medicine Center. These fertility clinics are located in Isfahan and Tehran, Iran. In this study, 201 infertile women who underwent treatment using ART and 50 infertile women who tended to have surrogacy were chosen by convenience sampling. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V, Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (adapted from NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ were used as research instruments. All participants had to complete the research instruments in order to be included in this study. Data were analyzed by descriptive-analytical statistics and statistical tests including multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Z Fisher. Statistically significant effects were accepted for P<0.05. Results: In the sensation-seeking variable, there was a meaningful difference between under-study groups. However, the flexibility and happiness variables did not have a significant difference between under-study groups (P<0.001. Interaction between education, employment, and financial status was effective in happiness of infertile women underwent ART (P<0.05, while age, education and financial status were also effective in happiness of infertile women sought surrogacy (P<0.05. A positive meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and flexibility variables in both groups (P<0.05. And a negative meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and happiness in infertile

  6. Hydrosalpinx functional surgery or salpingectomy? The importance of hydrosalpinx fluid in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Mandakini; Mirge, Aparna; Hasabe, Reshma

    2009-01-01

    The first IVF baby, Louise Brown, was born in a natural cycle IVF of a woman who had bilateral tubal block making IVF the only option for having a child. The last 3 decades has seen astounding progress in the field of ART. Today thanks to ART, tubal disease and tubal factor infertility is easily overcome. The accepted theory today is that the hydrosalpinx fluid plays a causative role in the reduced pregnancy rate with ART. It is well known that the success of ART for patients with tubal disease with hydrosalpinx is reduced by half compared with patients without hydrosalpinx. Ideal would be removal of a hydrosalpinx by laparoscopic salpingectomy to improve pregnancy rates. However in some cases this is not feasible due to dense pelvic adhesions making access difficult. In such cases it is recommended that even de-linking the tube from the uterus would help in improving the ART outcome. There is suggestion that sonographically visible hydrosalpinges and those affected bilaterally have a poorer prognosis than those seen incidentally at laparoscopy. While there is clinical evidence supporting the causative role of the fluid itself, there is a lack of knowledge as to how the fluid exerts its negative effects. It is generally believed that the fluid holds a key position in impairing implantation potential. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of identifying hydrosalpinges and its association with reduced fertility outcome using assisted reproductive technologies. Here we have discussed the different options available for the same, and highlighted the current modes of treatment. PMID:22442504

  7. The risk of birth defects in dichorionic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Matsubara, Shigeki; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Watanabe, Takashi; Izumi, Akio; Honma, Yoko; Yada, Yukari; Shibahara, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether dichorionic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART; intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI], in vitro fertilization [IVF], gamete-intrafallopian tube transfer [GIFT]) have a higher risk of birth defects compared to dichorionic twins conceived naturally. We reviewed the medical records of 406 mothers with dichorionic twin pregnancies, who received continuous antenatal care from or = 24 weeks of gestation in our institute. Birth defects were diagnosed at the time of hospital discharge according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Occurrence of birth defects was compared between twins conceived by ART and those conceived naturally using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 51 of 812 infants (51/812 = 6.2%) had birth defects. The incidence of birth defects in ART-conceived twins was significantly higher than that of naturally conceived twins with an odds ratio of 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1, 22.5), 3.7 (95% CI 1.2, 12.0), and 4.3 (95% CI 1.4, 14.3) for ICSI, IVF, and GIFT, respectively. The higher frequency of birth defects in ART-conceived twins was still significant after adjusting for higher maternal age in the ART group, with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.7 (95% CI 2.1, 21.9), 3.6 (95% CI 1.1, 11.5), and 3.7 (95% CI 1.2-11.8) for ICSI, IVF, and GIFT, respectively. Dichorionic twins conceived by ART, compared to dichorionic twins conceived naturally, had a much higher risk for birth defects diagnosed at hospital discharge. PMID:15193165

  8. Legal and ethical considerations of assisted reproductive technology and surrogate motherhood in AOFOG countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K C; Ng, H T

    2001-04-01

    With increasing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and its related issues, the Ethics Committee of the Asia-Oceania Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AOFOG), after discussion at its council meeting, took up the mission to understand the current legal and ethical aspects of this special subject in Asia-Oceania area before making proper recommendations. This Committee drafted a questionnaire to all 22 country member societies in 1995, and again conducted the same survey in 2000 to track changes in each country/region's laws and regulations. The results show that the current attitude and status of country member societies vary in a wide range and do not have formal legal codes in majority regulating the ethical aspects of ART. The use of ART and surrogacy is obviously affected by local traditions, popularity in the use of such techniques and cultural/religious concerns. The changes in 5 years are not major. Three countries do not as yet practice such techniques. However, liberalization of surrogate motherhood has become a trend. Five countries, compared with two only in 1995, are now available for surrogate motherhood, though regulated by strict criteria. Based on the data collected and issues discussed, a detailed guideline may not be generally applicable as each region has its own rules, reflecting differences in the management of ART, especially in the surrogate motherhood. This Committee therefore recommends that ART must be performed by a board certified gynecologist in a certification laboratory and surrogate motherhood must be used only for medical reasons and not be commercialized. The patients of this special group must be treated individually, based on this recommendation and the regulations of their own country/region. PMID:11396645

  9. Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown conflicting results whether unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction is a risk factor for depression among women. This study therefore investigated if women with no live birth after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment had a higher risk of...... unipolar depression compared with women with a live birth after ART treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) Cohort is a national register-based cohort study that consists of women who received ART treatment from 1 January 1994 to 30 September 2009, in Denmark (n = 41 050......). Information on unipolar depression was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The analyses were conducted in Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: During the 308 494 person-years of follow up, 552 women were diagnosed with unipolar depression. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that...

  10. Cultural and ethical challenges of assisted reproductive technologies in the management of infertility among the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Ayodele S; Fayemiwo, Adetona S

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the cultural and ethical issues arising from the use of Assisted Reproductive Health Technologies. Twenty-five In-depth interviews were conducted with 5 couples of reproductive age who have never conceived or brought pregnancy to term after one year of unprotected intercourse, 4 adult males, 4 adult females, a gyneacologist, a nurse, a herbalist and 2 religious leaders in Ibadan, Nigeria. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Legitimacy of children born through ART, religious obligation, patriarchy, polygamy and value of children are cultural issues surrounding ARTs while decision making about it, discrimination against children born through ART, psychological problems and loss of self esteem, side effects of the technologies and the cost of accessing them are the ethical challenges. The findings have methodological implications for conducting infertility research in non-western societies. PMID:21243924

  11. Congenital hypothyroidism after assisted reproductive technology in Japan: comparison between multiples and singletons, 2005–2009

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    Ooki Syuichi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between congenital hypothyroidism (CH and multiple pregnancy has not been fully studied in Japan. Methods Complete nationwide data of assisted reproductive technology (ART in Japan from 2005 to 2009 presented by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which include information on CH and birth defects were used for analyses. Diseases were reclassified according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10, 2003 version. The relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI of the incidence rate for CH was calculated with singletons as the reference group. Additional birth defects with CH were examined. The probandwise concordance rate of multiples and recurrence risk ratio were calculated. Results There were 18 patients with CH, consisting of 12 singletons and 6 multiples. The incidence rates of CH per 1,000 live births in singletons and multiples are 0.14 (=12/87,145 and 0.31 (=6/19,533, respectively. The incidence rate was more than twofold higher in multiple births than in singleton births, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR=2.2, 95% CI 0.8–5.9. Additional birth defects were present in three patients with CH (17%=3/18. The multiples were affected by other birth defects more frequently (33%=2/6 than the singletons (8%=1/12. The six multiple-births patients were derived from one concordant twin pair, which consisted of two twin patients; three discordant twin pairs, which consisted of three twin patients; and one discordant triplets set, which consisted of one triplet patient. Thus, the probandwise concordance rate was 33.3% (=2/(2+4. The estimated recurrence risk ratio was 1976 (for the total ART population or 609 (for the Japanese general population. Conclusions CH was more frequent in multiples compared to singletons. A higher percentage of additional birth defects was also observed in multiples compared to singletons. The familial aggregation of CH

  12. Guidelines for risk reduction when handling gametes from infectious patients seeking assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Sangita K; Rawlins, Richard G; Muller, Charles H; Drobnis, Erma Z

    2016-08-01

    According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), couples with blood-borne viruses that lead to infectious disease cannot be denied fertility treatment as long as the direct threat to the health and safety of others can be reduced or eliminated by a modification of policies or procedures. Three types of infectious patients are commonly discussed in the context of fertility treatment: those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C or hepatitis B. Seventy-five per cent of hepatitis C or HIV positive men and women are in their reproductive years, and these couples look to assisted reproductive techniques for risk reduction in conceiving a pregnancy. In many cases, only one partner is infected. Legal and ethical questions about treatment of infectious patients aside, the question most asked by clinical embryologists and andrologists is: "What are the laboratory protocols for working with gametes and embryos from patients with infectious disease?" The serostatus of each patient is the key that informs appropriate treatments. This guidance document describes protocols for handling gametes from seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples with infectious disease. With minor modifications, infectious patients with stable disease status and undetectable or low viral load can be accommodated in the IVF laboratory. PMID:27235103

  13. The German IVF Register as an Instrument to Document Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, S.; Wiesing, U.

    2016-01-01

    The German IVF Register (Deutsches IVF-Register [D.I.R]) has been collecting and publishing data on the use of IVF and related methods in Germany since 1982. It is the only institution which provides information for all of Germany on procedures and their success rates. For this reason it plays an important role in the provision of information to the public, to patients, political decision-makers and the scientific community. However, the register does not have the data of all centers offering treatment in Germany nor does it have complete datasets on all reported treatments. The register accepts retrospective data entries, it does not publish the success rates of individual centers and up until 2015 it did not provide a summary of information which was suitable for non-specialists. The D.I.R has been the focus of criticism in the past. Even today, the information it provides to the scientific community, the public, political decision-makers and potential patients on the outcomes of assisted reproduction is insufficient. The documentation of reproductive medicine procedures in other countries is much more meaningful. PMID:27365538

  14. Social aspects in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-01-01

    In-vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive techniques have become common practice in many countries today, regulated by established legislation, regulations or by committee-set ethical standards. The rapid evolution and progress of these techniques have revealed certain social issues that have to be addressed. The traditional heterosexual couple, nowadays, is not considered by many as the only 'IVF appropriate patient' since deviations from this pattern (single mother, lesbians) have also gained access to these treatments. Genetic material donation, age limitation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, surrogacy and cloning are interpreted differently in the various countries, as their definition and application are influenced by social factors, religion and law. Financial and emotional stresses are also often described in infertile couples. Information as deduced from the world literature regarding IVF regulation, as well as about the existing religious, cultural and social behaviours towards these new technologies, is presented in this article in relation to the social aspects of assisted reproduction. PMID:10333367

  15. Laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, WS; Ng, EH

    2000-01-01

    A number of advances have been made concerning the laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the treatment of male infertility. With the development of better embryo culture media, blastocyst transfer is now possible and is likely to reduce high-order multiple pregnancy in assisted reproduction treatment. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has become an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. The recent use of molecular biology techniques to d...

  16. What's the message? A content analysis of newspaper articles about assisted reproductive technology from 2005 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L; Tulandi, T; Whitley, R; Constantinescu, T; Ells, C; Zelkowitz, P

    2014-06-01

    Infertility and its treatment is the subject of considerable media coverage. In order to evaluate the representation of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in the popular media, we conducted a content analysis of North American newspaper articles. We also explored whether different themes emerged in relation to the implementation of public funding for ART in Quebec, Canada. Print and online newspaper articles from 2005 to 2011 were retrieved using the terms "in-vitro fertilization", "infertility treatment", "assisted reproductive technology", and "IVF treatment". Totally, 719 newspaper articles met inclusion criteria and were coded according to predetermined categories. Risks (63%) and ethical issues (61%) related to ART were most commonly featured. Quebec-based articles were mostly concerned with the politics and financial issues governing ART, and were less likely to report the risks and emotional impact of ART than other North American press. Newspapers tended to emphasize extreme scenarios as well as controversial cases that may not represent the everyday realities of ART. Changes in public policy may also engender shifts in the tone and content of media reports. It is important to establish resources that can inform the public as well as prospective infertility patients about their condition and potential treatment options.

  17. Cord Blood Karyotyping: A Safe and Non-Invasive Method for Postnatal Testing of Assisted Reproductive Technology Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Zarei Moradi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To verify the hypothesis that the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities increases in babies conceived by different assisted reproduction procedures. The availability of the umbilical cord blood encouraged us to study this hypothesis via this method. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, umbilical cord blood samples of assisted reproductive technology (ART children were analyzed with standard cytogenetic techniques (G banding. Karyotyping was possible in 109 cases. Results: The number of abnormal cases was four (3.7%, among which, three cases (2.8% were inherited and only 1 case (0.9% was a de novo translocation. In total, the incidence of de novo chromosomal abnormalities was in the range observed in all live births in the general population (0.7-1%. Conclusion: No significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal abnormality was found between ART and naturally conceived babies. To date, several studies have examined the medical and developmental outcome of ART children and still have not reached a definite conclusion. Genetic counseling is recommended as an integral part of planning of treatment strategies for couples wishing to undergo ART.

  18. Hearing Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  19. Using a Delphi consensus process to develop an acupuncture treatment protocol by consensus for women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Caroline A; Grant Suzanne; Lyttleton Jane; Cochrane Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are increasingly utilised for resolving difficulties conceiving. These technologies are expensive to both the public purse and the individual consumers. Acupuncture is widely used as an adjunct to ART with indications that it may assist reducing the time to conception and increasing live birth rates. Heterogeneity is high between treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to examine what fertility acupuncturists consider key com...

  20. Considerations for clinics and practitioners treating foreign patients with assisted reproductive technology: lessons from experiences at Ghent University Hospital, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sutter, Petra

    2011-11-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is not a new concept, having been around since the beginning of assisted reproductive technology. Countries having taken the lead in developing new technologies have seen an influx of patients from other countries, because of legal limitations or the unavailability of good-quality care in their home country. This paper describes the experience of the Ghent University Hospital fertility centre with Dutch and French patients and tries to set out standards of care for CBRC patients. Dutch patients usually have longer histories, more complex pathology and are better informed, more outspoken and more financially secure. Thus, the care for these patients is challenging. The standards of care should be the same for local patients and CBRC patients; however, the nature of the complexity of the problems they come with will necessitate more time investment. Experience shows that many patients who have no access to treatment in their own country obtain reasonably good results. Some of them, however, are beyond possible help and these patients need a high standard of psychological care. All should be done to avoid that cross-border patients compromise the local care system. Special arrangements should be taken to manage possible complications following treatment. PMID:21945265

  1. Risk of stillbirth and infant deaths after assisted reproductive technology: a Nordic study from the CoNARTaS group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Wennerholm, U. B.; Gissler, M.;

    2014-01-01

    the analyses to opposite-sex twins. LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION: We were not able to adjust for potential confounders, such as a prior history of stillbirth, induction of labour, body mass index or smoking. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The risk of stillbirth in ART versus SC singletons was only......STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of stillbirth and perinatal deaths increased after assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared with pregnancies established by spontaneous conception (SC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A significantly increased risk of stillbirth in ART singletons was only observed before 28 + 0...... gestational weeks. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The current literature indicates that children born after ART have an increased risk of perinatal death. The knowledge on stillbirth in ART pregnancies is limited. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A population based case-control study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING...

  2. Psychiatric disorders among women and men in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Hageman, Ida; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are complex causal associations between mental disorders, fertility treatment, fertility treatment outcome and infertility per se. Eating disorders cause endocrine disturbances, anovulation and thereby infertility, and research has shown that infertility as well as unsuccessful...... assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment are potential risk factors for developing a depression on a long-term basis. Despite the fact that worldwide more than 400 000 ART treatment cycles are performed every year, the causal associations between mental disorders, use of medication for mental...... disorders and ART treatment in both sexes have only been sparsely explored. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: The main objective of this national register-based cohort study is to assess women's and men's mental health before, during, and after ART treatment in comparison with the mental health in an age...

  3. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mantikou

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e. it

  4. Genomic imprinting and assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaillet J Richard

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Imprinted genes exhibit a parent-of-origin specific pattern of expression. Such genes have been shown to be targets of molecular defects in particular genetic syndromes such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Angelman syndromes. Recent reports have raised concern about the possibility that assisted reproduction techniques, such as in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, might cause genomic imprinting disorders. The number of reported cases of those disorders is still too small to draw firm conclusions and the safety of these widely used assisted reproduction techniques needs to be further evaluated.

  5. New Zealand University students' knowledge of fertility decline in women via natural pregnancy and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nathanael; Rosario, Roseanne; Shelling, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Female fertility declines with age. University students are the group of people most likely to postpone parenthood, yet several international studies have shown that they overestimate their fertility. We designed a questionnaire based on a previous study in Israel, where university students were asked to answer questions related to their awareness of fertility decline in spontaneous and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) pregnancies, and methods they considered would prolong their reproductive lifespan. Our study has shown that New Zealand University students overestimated the rates of pregnancy for both spontaneous natural and IVF pregnancies. Students are mainly aware of the availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), but overestimate their effectiveness. Few students mentioned non-medical or well-being initiatives as measures to prolong parenthood. It is important that university students are aware of the rate of fertility decline in women, as although ARTs can be effective at times, they are not a guaranteed solution to an ageing woman's fertility. New Zealand University students, like other cohorts, overestimated the chances of a woman getting pregnant and predicted the fertility decline to occur much later than it does in reality.

  6. Canada's Assisted Human Reproductive Act: is it scientific censorship, or a reasoned approach to the regulation of rapidly emerging reproductive technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Colin

    2004-01-01

    After more than a decade of study, discussion and debate, the Canadian House of Commons and Senate have approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Building on the earlier Bill C-47, which died on the order paper in 1997, the Act bans human cloning for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, payment for surrogacy arrangements, and trading in human reproductive materials or their use without informed consent. In addition, the Act significantly restricts research using human reproductive materials. This article compares the Act to legislative regimes in other nations with advanced human reproductive science. It concludes that while the Act has many laudable goals, it is flawed in that it tries to cover too much legislative ground. As a result it unreasonable impairs the ability of Canadian scientists to compete in areas such as stem cell research, and area that is expected to yield significant new approaches to treating human disease.

  7. Parental Age and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome in a Japanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takafumi; Kitamoto, Atsushi; Todokoro, Ayako; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kim, Soo-Yung; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Minowa, Iwao; Someya, Toshikazu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Kano, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether advanced parental age and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are risk factors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS). Clinical charts of Japanese outpatients with ASD (n = 552), ADHD (n = 87), and TS (n = 123) were reviewed. Parental age of…

  8. Use of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology in non-obese young infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-centre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøtrød, S B; Carlsen, S M; Rasmussen, P E;

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).......To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)....

  9. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike. PMID:24602147

  10. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways. PMID:26602421

  11. Full in vitro fertilization laboratory mechanization: toward robotic assisted reproduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meseguer, Marcos; Krühne, Ulrich; Laursen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the current efforts made to standardize different steps of assisted reproductive technology processes by the introduction of new technologies for the nonsubjective sperm selection process, oocyte denudation by mechanical removal of cumulus cells, oocyte positioning, sperm...

  12. [Planned children--supporting and inhibiting influences on the development of personality and relationships after technology-assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, Karin J

    2016-03-01

    In the western industrial countries more and more couples with an unfulfilled desire for a child use assisted reproductive technology (ART). This focusses on physical processes and doesn't sufficiently provide necessary supportive psychological/psychotherapeutic guidance.Neglecting the psychological dimension causes ART to enhance the risk for negative processes of emotional development of a child.After a brief overview of prevalence and summarizing the legal situation three areas will be discussed which involve a high risk potential and their influences on relationship- and personality development will be described: • The psychological burden for potential parents during the treatment. • Wishes of perfection and high expectations concerning the child which can turn normative crises into severe problems. • The frequent handling of the treatment as a taboo which can become a destructive family secret between parents and child.The paper will conclude with thoughts concerning prevention and treatment.Every person working in the field of childhood and adolescence can contribute to a healthy psychological development of these children. This means acknowledging and working through the emotional burden and the wishes and explaining about the dangers of taboos like in foster care and adoption. PMID:26868833

  13. In Vitro Antioxidant Treatment of Semen Samples in Assisted Reproductive Technology: Effects of Myo-Inositol on Nemaspermic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Mariangela; Papale, Palma; Della Ragione, Antonietta; Quaranta, Giuseppa; Russo, Giovanni; Russo, Sabatino

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility and the poor quality of sperm seem to be influenced by oxidative stress. In particular, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly produced by morphologically altered spermatozoa affect sperm motility, morphology, and integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Myo-Inositol (Myo-Ins) on a number of parameters such as viscosity and total and progressive motility of spermatozoa, in order to better validate its possible practical application in vitro, in order to improve the capacitation protocols commonly used in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). A total of 100 fresh and 25 thawed semen samples were analyzed in vitro prior to and after addition of Myo-Ins. Treatment of samples with Myo-Ins showed an increase in the sperm total and progressive motility in both fresh and thawed samples. Furthermore, Myo-Ins proved to be well tolerated by spermatozoa in vitro, demonstrating that it can be efficiently and safely used as antioxidant in the laboratory practice and for preparation of semen samples in ART. PMID:27672392

  14. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Supplementation in Culture Media for Subfertile Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Technologies: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Siristatidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts embryotrophic effects during the early stages of embryo development. We performed a systematic review, and six studies that were performed in humans undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART were located. We wanted to evaluate if embryo culture media supplementation with GM-CSF could improve success rates. As the type of studies and the outcome parameters investigated were heterogeneous, we decided not to perform a meta-analysis. Most of them had a trend favoring the supplementation with GM-CSF, when outcomes were measured in terms of increased percentage of good-quality embryos reaching the blastocyst stage, improved hatching initiation and number of cells in the blastocyst, and reduction of cell death. However, no statistically significant differences were found in implantation and pregnancy rates in all apart from one large multicenter trial, which reported favorable outcomes, in terms of implantation and live birth rates. We propose properly conducted and adequately powered randomized controlled trials (RCTs to further validate and extrapolate the current findings with the live birth rate to be the primary outcome measure.

  15. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in men with treated and untreated varicocele: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele affects approximately 35%-40% of men presenting for an infertility evaluation. There is fair evidence indicating that surgical repair of clinical varicocele improves semen parameters, decreases seminal oxidative stress and sperm DNA fragmentation, and increases the chances of natural conception. However, it is unclear whether performing varicocelectomy in men with clinical varicocele prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART improve treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of varicocelectomy on ART pregnancy outcomes in nonazoospermic infertile men with clinical varicocele. An electronic search was performed to collect all evidence that fitted our eligibility criteria using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until April 2015. Four retrospective studies were included, all of which involved intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and accounted for 870 cycles (438 subjected to ICSI with prior varicocelectomy, and 432 without prior varicocelectomy. There was a significant increase in the clinical pregnancy rates (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.19-2.12, I 2 = 25% and live birth rates (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55-3.06, I 2 = 0% in the varicocelectomy group compared to the group subjected to ICSI without previous varicocelectomy. Our results indicate that performing varicocelectomy in patients with clinical varicocele prior to ICSI is associated with improved pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaos Tsagkas; George Valasoulis; Konstantinos Zikopoulos; Calliope Zerzi; Ioannis Mitselos; Ioannis Koutoulakis; Nikolaos Tzampouras; Theodor Stefos

    2015-01-01

    The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS). On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS); she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques-) IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vas...

  17. Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Alberta: An Economic Analysis to Inform Policy Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anil; Stafinski, Tania; Nardelli, Alexa; Motan, Tarek; Menon, Devidas

    2015-12-01

    Objectif : La réglementation et le financement public des techniques de procréation assistée (TPA) varient d’une province canadienne à l’autre. En Alberta, les TPA ne sont ni réglementées ni financées par les deniers publics. Nous avons mené cette étude dans le but d’évaluer la rentabilité de l’offre de TPA en Alberta et les effets d’une telle mesure sur le budget albertain en fonction de trois scénarios de politique différents (une politique « restrictive », une politique fondée sur le modèle québécois et une politique « permissive »), par comparaison avec le statu quo. Méthodes : Pour prédire la rentabilité de ces trois options de politique (prévoyant l’offre de TPA financées par les deniers publics en Alberta) et leurs effets sur le budget provincial, nous avons élaboré un modèle économique en combinant un modèle Markov (transitions d’état) et un arbre décisionnel. Le coût par nouveau-né en santé issu d’une grossesse monofœtale constituait le critère d’évaluation principal. Des analyses simples de la variance en matière de sensibilité et des analyses probabilistes ont été menées. Résultats : La politique « restrictive » a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans deux sous-groupes d’âge (< 35 ans et 35-39 ans), tandis que la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans. L’analyse des effets sur le budget (jusqu’à ce que les enfants générés par le modèle ait atteint l’âge de 18 ans) a indiqué l’obtention d’économies de 8,33 millions de dollars pour ce qui est de la politique « restrictive » dans le sous-groupe des < 35 ans. Dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans, l’option de la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a mené à l’obtention d’économies totales de 3,75 millions de dollars. Les analyses de la sensibilité ont indiqué que les résultats modélisés

  18. A qualitative study of Ottawa university students’ awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART)

    OpenAIRE

    Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Khan, Zainab; Whitten, Amanda N; Remes, Olivia; Phillips, Karen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students’ awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women’s awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Semi-...

  19. Ethical Issues Related Analysis of Human Assisted Reproductive Technology%人类辅助生殖技术的相关伦理学问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松峰; 赵静; 王致辉; 腊晓琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assisted reproductive technology brings hope for infertility patients,however,in the application of the assisted reproductive technology at the same time,a lot of new ethical problems how to solve the ethical issues related to face these is an important premise to ensure the rational application of the technology.Methods Correct use of assisted reproductive technology and the state formulates relevant laws and regulations was the effective way to avoid the ethical and social chaos.Results With the widely application of the human assisted reproductive technology, mature technology,as well as the benefit of human for reproductive medicine and ethics circles brought a lot of his new,more complex ethical issues.Conclusion Due to the rapid development of the reproductive technology,human assisted reproductive technology will face the relevant ethical issues will gradually increase,the summary of the world's advanced experience,is formulated strict laws, regulations and rules and regulations,the supervision of relevant departments,ensure the healthy development of assistive technology to human reproduction.%目的:辅助生育技术为不孕症患者带来了希望,然而在应用这项辅助生殖技术的同时又产生了很多新的伦理问题,如何解决与面对这些相关伦理问题是保证这项技术合理应用的重要前提。方法而正确利用辅助生殖技术和国家制定相关的法律法规是避免出现伦理和社会混乱的有效途径。结果随着人类辅助生殖技术的广泛应用,技术日趋成熟,在造福人类的同时也给生殖医学界和伦理学界带来了许多新的、较为复杂的专向伦理问题。结论由于生殖技术的快速发展,人类辅助生殖技术将面临的相关伦理问题会逐渐增加,总结世界先进的经验,就是制定严格的法律、法规及规章制度,由相关部门监督执行,使得人类生殖辅助技术得以健康发展。

  20. Ethical aspects of advanced reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2003-11-01

    The progress achieved during the last 25 years in the assisted reproductive technology field has been phenomenal. Many countries currently practice genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and surrogacy. While embryo research and therapeutic cloning are carried out only in a few centers, thus far human cloning has been universally condemned. Nonetheless, the rapid evolution and progress of these various techniques of assisted reproduction has opened a Pandora's box of ethical issues that must be urgently addressed.

  1. Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... painless, although some women experience mild cramping. ASRM publishes guidelines regarding determination of how many embryos should ... an egg from the ovary. Ovulation induction. The administration of hormone medications (ovulation drugs) that stimulate the ...

  2. Trends in perinatal health after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONS Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? SUMMARY ANSWER The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. WHAT IS KNOWN...... affected the observed trends. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS It is assuring that data from four countries confirm an overall improvement over time in the perinatal outcomes of children conceived after ART. Furthermore, data show the beneficial effect of single embryo transfer, not only in regard...... to lowering the rate of multiples but also concerning the health of singletons. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation has supported the project. The Co...

  3. Authors' reply to comment on "Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our national register-based study (1) was to investigate the risk of a new episode of unipolar depression among women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in regards to whether they had achieved a live birth (as a result of treatment or spontaneous conception) or not....... Hence, we did not aim to compare unipolar depression in women who received ART treatment with women who did not. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis (2) was published recently which shows no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted reproduction...... compared to women having conceived spontaneously. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Use of assisted reproductive technology to separate sperm from human immunodeficiency virus infected men resulting in pregnancy among serodiscordant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Schuffner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to HIV care improvement, discordant couples more frequently seek help in order to conceive their own biological child. Besides the advance of antiretroviral therapy, unprotected intercourse is not a complete safe option, carrying a low but still present risk of HIV transmission. We report 10 serodiscordant couples in whom the male partner is HIV positive, submitted to sperm washing and intrauterine insemination. The procedure resulted in four pregnancies and no HIV transmission to mother or child was observed. Techniques of assisted reproduction can help HIV discordant couples to conceive biological offspring and is a safer option than unprotected intercourse.

  5. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception.......To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....

  6. [Criminal code and assisted human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Bechiarelli, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The Spanish Criminal Code punishes in the article 161 the crime of assisted reproduction of the woman without her assent as a form of crime relative to the genetic manipulation. The crime protects a specific area of the freedom of decision of the woman, which is the one that she has dealing with the right to the procreation at the moment of being fertilized. The sentence would include the damages to the health provoked by the birth or the abortion. The crime is a common one--everyone can commit it--and it is not required a result of pregnancy, but it is consumed by the mere intervention on the body of the woman, and its interpretation is contained on the Law 14/2006, of may 26, on technologies of human assisted reproduction. The aim of the work is to propose to consider valid the assent given by the sixteen-year-old women (and older) in coherence with the Project of Law about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of the pregnancy that is studied at this moment, in Spain, in order to harmonize the legal systems. PMID:20476690

  7. [Criminal code and assisted human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Bechiarelli, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The Spanish Criminal Code punishes in the article 161 the crime of assisted reproduction of the woman without her assent as a form of crime relative to the genetic manipulation. The crime protects a specific area of the freedom of decision of the woman, which is the one that she has dealing with the right to the procreation at the moment of being fertilized. The sentence would include the damages to the health provoked by the birth or the abortion. The crime is a common one--everyone can commit it--and it is not required a result of pregnancy, but it is consumed by the mere intervention on the body of the woman, and its interpretation is contained on the Law 14/2006, of may 26, on technologies of human assisted reproduction. The aim of the work is to propose to consider valid the assent given by the sixteen-year-old women (and older) in coherence with the Project of Law about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of the pregnancy that is studied at this moment, in Spain, in order to harmonize the legal systems.

  8. PRIVACY ASPECTS OF THE MEDICALLY ASSISTED HUMAN REPRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela FRÃSIE

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of privacy issues in the medically assisted human reproduction system includes both the rights of the person, as general private law right subject, respectively rights inseparably related to the very existence of the human being which circumscribe the general idea of "personality right" but also their rights as patient and also the rights deriving from the regulation of the statute of the human body, its elements and its products. Assisted reproduction technologies raise serious ...

  9. Posthumous Assisted Reproduction from Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in assisted reproductive techniques along with relieving the pain of childlessnesshas brought new ethical and policy dilemmas. Posthumous assisted reproduction is the mostchallenging, difficult and sensitive issue to be discussed ethically and religiously. In this paper theacceptability of the posthumous reproduction in Islamic contexts is evaluated and major concernslike Consent and ownership of the gametes after death, Family and Marriage vision and Welfareof the child are discussed together with some international legislation. We can conclude that uponIslamic vision to assisted reproductive techniques as treatment of families and relieving the seriousproblem of childlessness, posthumous assisted reproduction is unacceptable even with previouslyfrozen gametes or embryos. Also, Islamic vision to marriage, consent and welfare of the childconfirms the unacceptability. There must be some law or legislation to ban this procedure in Islamiccontexts.

  10. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Tsagkas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS. On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS; she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques- IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vasculature during the puerperium, especially in the case of history of chronic hormone treatment. Ascites albumin gradient and Doppler values lead to the diagnosis of thrombosis and the administration of high doses of anticoagulants is considered to be fundamental.

  11. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkas, Nikolaos; Valasoulis, George; Zikopoulos, Konstantinos; Zerzi, Calliope; Mitselos, Ioannis; Koutoulakis, Ioannis; Tzampouras, Nikolaos; Stefos, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS). On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS); she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques-) IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vasculature during the puerperium, especially in the case of history of chronic hormone treatment. Ascites albumin gradient and Doppler values lead to the diagnosis of thrombosis and the administration of high doses of anticoagulants is considered to be fundamental. PMID:26579320

  12. Adverse pregnancy outcomes with assisted reproductive technology in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ae Ra; Kim, Hye Ok; Cha, Sun Wha; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Yeong; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate adverse pregnancy outcomes in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with obese-PCOS and control groups. Methods Women with PCOS who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) from August, 2003 to December, 2007, were considered. A total of 336 women with PCOS were included in the study group and 1,003 infertile women who had tubal factor as an indication for ART were collected as controls. They were divided into four groups: a non-obese ...

  13. In vitro fertilization in Japan — Early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world’s first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe. 1) In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine. 2,3) IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from ...

  14. 辅助生殖的儿童生长发育和内分泌代谢的变化%Changes of growth development and endocrine metabolism in children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂冬英; 廖利珍; 李建伟; 孙卫平

    2013-01-01

    The assisted reproductive technology has enabled millions of sterility and infertility people in the world to have biological children. However, it remains unclear whether there are differences between assisted reproductive technology children and natural pregnancy children in physique, intelligence, psychology, endocrine and metabolism. Now this paper summaries increased birth defects and other risks associated with assisted reproductive technology for further enhancing the understanding of assisted reproductive technology.%辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technologies)解决了众多不孕不育患者无后代的难题,但辅助生殖技术的儿童其体格、智能、精神心理、内分泌及代谢与自然妊娠儿童有无差别倍受关注.本文对辅助生殖技术相关的出生缺陷和风险进行综述,以提高对辅助生殖技术的认识.

  15. Responsive regulation of cross-border assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-12-01

    This article considers the question: how might Australian regulators constructively respond to the dynamic and complex challenges posed by cross-border assisted reproduction? To begin, the article summarises the available international scholarship and outlines what little we know about Australian cross-border reproductive travel. Of the three generally proposed responses to cross-border reproductive care (prohibition, harm minimisation and harmonisation), the article summarily rejects the first approach, and instead discusses a mixture of the latter two. The article proposes the beginnings of an immediate policy response aimed not at stopping cross-border practices per se, but rather at understanding and reducing the risks associated with them, as well as flagging the pursuit of more ambitious meta-goals such as developing more equitable and accessible treatment frameworks for assisted reproductive technology and encouraging domestic self-sufficiency in reproduction. PMID:26939503

  16. Ethical aspects of advanced reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2003-11-01

    The progress achieved during the last 25 years in the assisted reproductive technology field has been phenomenal. Many countries currently practice genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and surrogacy. While embryo research and therapeutic cloning are carried out only in a few centers, thus far human cloning has been universally condemned. Nonetheless, the rapid evolution and progress of these various techniques of assisted reproduction has opened a Pandora's box of ethical issues that must be urgently addressed. PMID:14644805

  17. Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record : An Ethical Analysis of a State-Enforced "Presumption Against Treatment" With Regard to Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    As assisted reproductive technologies (ART) become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or child protection order, are given a "presumption against treatment." This article reviews the legislation and identifies arguments that may be used to justify restricting access to ART for various reasons. The arguments reviewed include limitations of reproductive rights, inheriting undesirable genetic traits, distributive justice, and the welfare of the future child. We show that none of these arguments justifies restricting access to ART in the context of past criminal history. We show that a "presumption against treatment" is an unjustified infringement on reproductive freedom and that it creates various inconsistencies in current social, medical, and legal policy. We argue that a state-enforced policy of restricting access to ART based on the non-medical factor of past criminal history is an example of unjust discrimination and cannot be ethically justified, with one important exception: in cases where ART treatment may be considered futile on the basis that the parents are not expected to raise the resulting child.

  18. The effect of a 'vanishing twin' on biochemical and ultrasound first trimester screening markers for Down's syndrome in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A C; Loft, A; Pinborg, Anja;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that 1 in 10 in vitro fertilization (IVF) singletons originates from a twin gestation. First trimester Down's syndrome screening markers are altered in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) pregnancies compared with spontaneously conceived pregnancies...

  19. Mental distress and personality in women undergoing GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist protocols for assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Toftager, M.; Hjordt, L. V.;

    2015-01-01

    pharmacological treatment to monitor mood fluctuations. The personality trait Neuroticism was assessed at baseline by the self-reported NEO-PI-R questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: ART did not induce within- or between-protocol changes in any of the applied measures of mental distress. However......-stimulating hormone, Puregon(®) and subcutaneous injections with GnRH antagonist, Orgalutran(®). Women in the GnRH agonist protocol received nasal administration of the GnRH agonist, Synarela(®) and subcutaneous injections with FSH, Puregon(®). The study design did not allow for a blinding procedure. All women self-reported......STUDY QUESTION: Do mental distress and mood fluctuations in women undergoing GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols for assisted reproductive technology (ART) differ depending on protocol and the personality trait, neuroticism? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART treatment did not induce elevated levels...

  20. First-trimester screening in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology: significance of gestational dating by oocyte retrieval or sonographic measurement of crown-rump length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers or the...... performance of first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: GA was calculated using either DOA or CRL at blood sampling and nuchal translucency thickness (NT) measurement in 729 singleton pregnancies conceived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI......). Weight-corrected log multiples of the median (MoM) marker distributions specific for IVF pregnancy were established using multiple log regression and compared for DOA- and CRL-based GA calculation. RESULTS: GA determined by CRL was significantly larger, albeit slightly, than was GA determined by DOA...

  1. Low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin adjunct to an antagonist protocol in assisted reproductive technology: a randomized trial study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Aghahosseini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of adding low-dose hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin, as an LH active supplement, to a GnRH antagonist protocol in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques. In this parallel-group randomized clinical trial, 137 infertile female outpatients aged 20 - 39 years were randomized into two groups: hCG group and non-hCG group. All patients received r-FSH (150-300 IU and then a GnRH-antagonist, Cetrorelix (0.25 mg/day. Concomitantly with Cetrorelix, patients in the hCG group received low-dose hCG (200 IU daily, but the patients in the non-hCG group did not. 10,000 IU Urinary hCG (10,000 IU was injected to all patients, and ICSI was performed after oocyte retrieval. The primary outcome of this study was comparing the pregnancy rates between two study groups. Other differences between two groups such as serum estradiol concentration, fertilization rate, etc. were considered as secondary outcomes. A total of 130 patients completed this trial. No significant difference was detected between pregnancy rates of the two groups (P=0.52 as well as the fertilization, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates (P=0.11, P=0.75 and P=0.06 respectively. The only significant difference between two groups was a higher concentration of estradiol in the hCG-treated patients (P<0.05. HCG-treated patients experienced a shorter treatment duration and a lower r-FSH required dose than the non-hCG group, but none of these differences were statistically significant (P=0.19 and P=0.10, respectively. The findings of the current study did not support advantages of adding low-dose hCG to GnRH antagonist plus r-FSH protocol in an unselected population of patients. Well-designed trials with a larger sample size for specific patients' subgroups are warranted.

  2. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. PMID:21958915

  3. Application of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Disorders of Reproductive Endocrine System%生殖内分泌疾病的助孕策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 陈子江

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive endocrine system regulates reproductive phenomena, including ovulation, implantation, maintenance of gestation, et al. Disorders of this system result in female infertility; over 30% of female infertility are caused by the reproductive endocrinopathies. The classify of those disorders is very complicated. The pathophysiological mechanism is related with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at different level. In this review, treatment and management of disorders of the reproductive endocrine system were concisely introduced, which was based on the mainstream guidelines published by international associations and Chinese Medical Association.%排卵、着床、妊娠维持等生殖过程皆是在生殖内分泌系统的调控下完成的,生殖内分泌系统出现异常可能会导致女性不孕症的发生。各类生殖内分泌疾病约占女性不孕症的1/3,病种分类繁杂,病理机制复杂,涉及性腺轴的多个环节。以国际共识及中华医学会发布的诊疗指南为蓝本,针对生殖内分泌疾病如何导致不孕症,提纲挈领地介绍主要生殖内分泌疾病的助孕策略。

  4. Ethical Issues of Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Ethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammler, Kim

    Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile…

  5. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades...

  6. Prevent Abusing of Assisted Reproductive Technology: Respect for Women's Demands%防范辅助生殖技术滥用之道——尊重女权诉求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜婕; 田清华

    2011-01-01

    辅助生殖技术冲击和挑战了人类传统的伦理观念,它的滥用还可能给人类造成灾难.阐述当前捐卵、代孕、PGD、多胎妊娠存在的问题,探讨滥用辅助生殖技术的原因,提倡辅助生殖技术女性角色伦理,提出尊重女权诉求是防范辅助生殖技术滥用的解决办法.%Assisted reproductive technology has had an impact and challenged the ethics of human tradition and its abuse can also give the abuse of human-caused disasters. This paper describes the problems of egg donation, surrogacy, PGD,and multiple pregnancies, explore the reasons for the abuse of assisted reproductive technology, assisted reproductive technology to promote ethical role of women, respect for women's demands are the solution to preventing the abuse of assisted reproductive technology.

  7. The application of Nursing ethics to the Assisted Reproductive Technology Center%护理伦理学应用于辅助生殖技术中心的体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露

    2013-01-01

    人类辅助生殖技术的应用与发展带来了一系列伦理问题,护理人员作为医疗服务的执行者在辅助生殖技术的实施过程中,应树立护理伦理意识,将护理伦理融入临床实践,加强监督管理。同时不断思考和探讨,制定相应对策,规范和促进辅助生殖技术的健康发展。%With the application and the development of the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology, a series of ethical problems has been brought up. As the executors of the medical services, nurses should maintain a sense of nursing ethics, apply nursing ethics into clinical practice, and reinforce the ethics supervision and management in the process of Assisted Reproductive Technology implementation. Keep thinking and exploring to the Assisted Reproductive Technology implementation, and develop appropriate ethics countermeasures to promote the development of Assisted Reproductive Technology.

  8. Related Research Progress of Ovarian Borderline Tumor Surgery Reproduction and Assisted Reproductive Technologies%卵巢交界性肿瘤术后再生育与辅助生殖技术的相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂丽娜

    2012-01-01

    卵巢交界性肿瘤患者保留生育功能的手术进行辅助生殖技术可提高妊娠结局,行保守性手术相对安全,再生育成功率高,保守性手术治疗卵巢交界性肿瘤的术后复发率高于非保守性手术,但未增加患者肿瘤复发的病死率,促排卵治疗对预后影响不大.因此,无侵袭性种植的交界性肿瘤患者自发妊娠是可行的,保留生育功能手术后行辅助生殖技术也是卵巢交界性肿瘤患者妊娠良好的选择.%Fertility preservation operation on patients with borderline ovarian tumoi( BOT )with assisted reproductive technology can improve the pregnancy outcome,the conservative surgery is relatively safe, the success rate of fertility is higher, BOT recurrence of conservative surgery is higher than that of non-conservative surgery, but mortality is not increased; ovulation treatment has little effect on the prognosis. Therefore,spontaneous pregnancy in patients with borderline tumors receiving non-invasive plantis feasible , assisted reproductive technology to preserve fertility surgery is also a good choice for patients with borderline ovarian tumors.

  9. Coste de las técnicas de reproducción asistida en un hospital público Cost of assisted reproduction technology in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Navarro Espigares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La mayoría de trabajos sobre costes de las técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA identifican el coste directo del procedimiento, sin considerar elementos como los costes estructurales o intermedios, de gran importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el coste por proceso de las TRA realizadas en un hospital público en 2003 y compararlo con los resultados de 1998 en el mismo centro. Métodos: El estudio se realiza en la Unidad de Reproducción Humana (URH del Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves de Granada en 1998 y 2003. Partiendo de los costes totales de dicha unidad, y mediante una metodología de distribución de costes basada en la estructura de costes, calculamos el coste por proceso de las TRA realizadas en este centro, considerando los costes completos. Resultados: Entre 1998 y 2003, la actividad y los costes de la URH analizada evolucionan de forma distinta. El análisis de la actividad muestra la consolidación de técnicas, como la microinyección espermática (ICSI y la desaparición de otras (ciclo sin reproducción asistida e inseminación artificial conyugal intracervical. En todos los procesos, los costes unitarios por ciclo y por embarazo disminuyen en el período analizado. Conclusiones: Se han producido importantes cambios en la estructura de costes de las TRA de la URH-HUVN entre 1998-2003. Mientras algunos procesos desaparecen, otros se consolidan con una elevada actividad. Los avances técnicos y las innovaciones organizativas, junto con un «efecto aprendizaje», han alterado la estructura de costes de las TRA.Objectives: Most studies on the costs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART identify the total cost of the procedure with the direct cost, without considering important items such as overhead or intermediate costs. The objective of this study was to determine the cost per ART procedure in a public hospital in 2003 and to compare the results with those in the same hospital in 1998

  10. 21 CFR 884.6140 - Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication... Devices § 884.6140 Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication devices are instruments intended to pull, bevel, or forge...

  11. 21 CFR 884.6200 - Assisted reproduction laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction laser system. 884.6200... Assisted reproduction laser system. (a) Identification. The assisted reproduction laser system is a device that images, targets, and controls the power and pulse duration of a laser beam used to ablate a...

  12. The Psychologist's Role in Family Building with Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell, Susan G.

    About 1 in 12 couples in the United States face the "how to have" element of reproductive choices. Assistive Reproductive Technology (ART) involves manipulation of genetic material outside of the body. Infertile couples have a large range of options in the achievement of a conception and are easily overwhelmed. As new choices are offered to…

  13. Health and development of children born after assisted reproductive technology and sub-fertility compared to naturally conceived children: data from a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G. Sutcliffe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a non-matched case-control study using data from two large national cohort studies, we investigated whether indicators of child health and development up to 7 years of age differ between children conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART, children born after sub-fertility (more than 24 months of trying for conception and other children. Information on ART use/sub-fertility was available for 23,649 children. There were 227 cases (children conceived through ART and two control groups: 783 children born to sub-fertile couples, and 22,639 children born to couples with no fertility issues. In models adjusted for social and demographic factors there were significant differences between groups in rate of hospital admissions before the children were 9 months old (P=0.029, with the ART group showing higher rates of hospital admission than the no fertility issues control group, the sub-fertile control group being intermediate between the two. Children born after ART had comparable health and development beyond 9 months of age to their naturally conceived peers. This applied to the whole sample and to a sub-sample of children from deprived neighborhoods.

  14. In vitro fertilization in Japan — Early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUZUKI, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world’s first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe.1) In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine.2,3) IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient’s uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  15. In vitro fertilization in Japan - early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world's first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe. In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine. IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient's uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  16. Effects of the use of assisted reproductive technologies and an obesogenic environment on resistance artery function and diabetes biomarkers in mice offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco I Ramirez-Perez

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity affects the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in offspring. Also the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART has been associated with cardiovascular deficiencies in offspring. Obese women often suffer from infertility and use ART to achieve a pregnancy, but the combined effects of maternal obesity and ART on cardiovascular health and incidence of diabetes in the offspring is not known. Here, we report the effects of the use of ART within an obesogenic environment, consisting of feeding a western diet (WD to dams and offspring, on resistance artery function and presence of diabetes biomarkers in juvenile mice offspring. Our results indicate that WD and ART interacted to induce endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries isolated from 7-week-old mice offspring. This was determined by presence of a reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation compared to controls. The arteries from these WD-ART mice also had greater wall cross-sectional areas and wall to lumen ratios indicative of vascular hypertrophic remodeling. Of the diabetes biomarkers measured, only resistin was affected by a WD×ART interaction. Serum resistin was significantly greater in WD-ART offspring compared to controls. Diet and sex effects were observed in other diabetes biomarkers. Our conclusion is that in mice the use of ART within an obesogenic environment interacts to favor the development of endothelial dysfunction in the resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, while having marginal effects on diabetes biomarkers.

  17. Epigenetic imprinting during assisted reproductive technologies: The effect of temporal and cumulative fluctuations in methionine cycling on the DNA methylation state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Kempe, Hermannus; Verschure, Pernette J

    2016-02-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) exposes gametes and embryos to an artificial environment that does not resemble the conditions of natural conception, and therefore might change epigenetic regulation of genes that are imprinted during development. In the present review, we discuss the relationship between susceptibility of specific genes to receive an altered epigenetic composition during ART processes, possibly via alterations in the biochemical folate and methionine cycle. We provide a comprehensive view of the current state of epigenetic patterning in ART-conceived healthy children and in Angelman syndrome (AS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) patients. We illustrate that similar genes--that is, MEST, KCNQ1OT1, and IGF2--possess an altered DNA methylation profile in animal models, ART-conceived healthy children, and AS and BWS patients. The developmental stage at which these genes receive their epigenetic imprint appears to coincide with the specific moment that ART takes place. We highlight that ART procedures affect physiological levels of enzymes and substrates involved in the folate and methionine cycle thereby altering the DNA methylation state. Moreover, although the DNA methylation rate appears to be robust: (i) temporal imbalances coinciding with defined moments of epigenetic imprinting of specific genes affect the eventual DNA methylation state of those genes and (ii) cumulative ART effects on methionine and folate cycling can alter DNA methylation rates. These observations underscore the necessity to further investigate consequences of ART treatments on the epigenetic profile. PMID:26660493

  18. Deficiencies in reporting results of lesbians and gays after donor intrauterine insemination and assisted reproductive technology treatments: a review of the first emerging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Cano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    At a time when increasing numbers of lesbians and gays consider parenthood using reproductive assistance in infertility centers, the present review aims to summarize the results obtained so far by lesbians after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) using donor spermatozoa (D-IUI and D-IVF, respectively) and gays entering into gestational-surrogacy programs. Data show that gays display normal semen parameters and lesbians exhibit no specific causes of female inferti...

  19. Using a Delphi consensus process to develop an acupuncture treatment protocol by consensus for women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART are increasingly utilised for resolving difficulties conceiving. These technologies are expensive to both the public purse and the individual consumers. Acupuncture is widely used as an adjunct to ART with indications that it may assist reducing the time to conception and increasing live birth rates. Heterogeneity is high between treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to examine what fertility acupuncturists consider key components of best practice acupuncture during an ART cycle, and to establish an acupuncture protocol by consensus. Methods Fifteen international acupuncturists with extensive experience treating women during ART interventions participated in 3 rounds of Delphi questionnaires. The first round focused on identifying the parameters of acupuncture treatment as adjunct to ART, the second round evaluated statements derived from the earlier round, and the third evaluated specific parameters for a proposed trial protocol. Consensus was defined as greater than 80% agreement. Results Significant agreement was achieved on the parameters of best practice acupuncture, including an acupuncture protocol suitable for future research. Study participants confirmed the importance of needling aspects relating to the dose of acupuncture, the therapeutic relationship, tailoring treatment to the individual, and the role of co-interventions. From two rounds of the Delphi a consensus was achieved on seven treatment parameters for the design of the acupuncture treatment to be used in a clinical trial of acupuncture as an adjunct to ART. The treatment protocol includes the use of the traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture, use of manual acupuncture, a first treatment administered between day 6–8 of the stimulated ART cycle which is individualised to the participant, two treatments will be administered on the day of embryo transfer, and will include points SP8, SP10, LR3, ST29, CV4

  20. 人类辅助生殖技术临床实践中的伦理问题及对策%Ethical Problems and Countermeasures of Clinical Practice of Human Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应可满; 任建枝

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of human assisted reproductive technology brings hope and happiness to infertile and sterile couples, at the same time, it has great impact on the ethnical problems. The principles for human assisted reproductive technologies are analyzed to ensure the healthy development of human assisted reproductive technology to propose the countermeasures of the existing problems.%人类辅助生殖技术的飞速发展,给众多不孕不育家庭带来希望和幸福的同时,也不可避免地对人类原有的社会伦理观念产生了巨大的冲击.文章分析了在临床工作中如何处理辅助生殖技术与伦理道德的矛盾关系问题,提出了辅助生殖技术伦理问题的应对策略.

  1. Sperm selection in assisted reproductive technology: An update%辅助生殖中的精子优选研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋岳强; 沙艳伟

    2012-01-01

    精子优选是辅助生殖技术中的重要环节.精子活力和形态等常规参数是评估精子的重要内容,近年来精子超微结构、DNA完整性、凋亡和膜成熟度等特征逐渐受到关注,针对这些特征筛选精子成为精子优选技术发展的方向.本文介绍了近年来发展起来的电泳法、电动电位法、透明质酸结合法、膜联蛋白V选择法、形态选择性单精子注射技术(IMSI)和微流控芯片法的技术原理,除微流控芯片法外其它技术均已应用于IVF或ICSI治疗中,同时对各种技术的优缺点和应用效果等方面做一综述.%Sperm selection plays an important role in assisted reproductive technology. In recent years, sperm evaluation is not limited to the assessment of sperm motility and morphology, but involves more other sperm characteristics such as sperm infrastructure, DNA integrity, apoptosis and membrane. Assessment based on these characteristics is becoming the aim of sperm selection. This article gives an overview on several newly developed techniques for sperm selection according to different technical principles, such as electrophoretic separation, zeta potential, HA binding, Annexin V binding, intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) and microfluidic sperm sorter, which have all been applied to IVF or ICSI with the exception of microfluidic sperm sorter. It also introduces the advantages, disadvantages and application effects of these techniques.

  2. Histological characteristics of placentas from assisted reproduction programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalošević Dušan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Placentas from assisted reproduction programs are a poorly investigated research material. The aim of this investigation was to perform microscopic examination of placentas from assisted reproduction programs and to compare them with placentas from spontaneous pregnancies. The investigation comprised 12 placentas from assisted reproduction programs and 12 placentas from spontaneous pregnancies. We found a statistically significant increa of villous edema in investigated placentas (p=0,001. We also found a statistically significantly increased incidence of microcalcifications in placentas from assisted reproduction programs (p=0,04. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in regard to syncytial knots (χ2=0,67, p>0,25. Microscopic examination showed that placentas from assisted reproduction programs present with more frequent pathological findings. Further investigations of placentas from assisted reproduction programs could provide better understanding of different pathological conditions of pregnancies and labor in women with artificial insemination.

  3. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Surveillance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 1992, Congress enacted the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act (FCSRCA). The act requires CDC to collect data from clinics and submit an annual...

  4. Assisted reproductive technology treatment outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naasan, M

    2012-05-01

    Information on the outcomes of ART treatments in Ireland is not readily available to Irish practitioners. The data for hospital affiliated clinics has been made available for many years and is included in the hospital reports. We present a 10-year analysis of the Irish ART results voluntarily reported by six out of seven IVF clinics. The data was collected from published ESHRE reports and from results (2007-8) not yet published. Data collected included: number of clinics and ART cycles, female age, clinical and multiple pregnancy rates and treatment complications. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 31.7% for IVF and 29.8% for ICSI. The proportion of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries for IVF and ICSI combined was 75%, 23.35% and 1.64%. The rate of ovarian hyperstimulation was 0.8%. ART practice in Ireland is safe, effective and responsible. Financial and societal savings could result from the introduction of state funded IVF with compulsory eSET where recommended.

  5. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States. ART includes the practice of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The mission of our organization is to ... United States. ART includes the practice of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The mission of our organization is to ...

  6. New reproductive technologies: Equity and access to reproductive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henifin, M S

    1993-01-01

    While attention has focused on the promise of new reproductive technologies to provide cures for infertility, efforts aimed at preventing infertility have languished, and the major cause of infant morbidity and morality--lack of prenatal care--has worsened. This article explores the social and ethical issues arising out of the uses of three new reproductive technologies: surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, and prenatal screening. In addition, coerced medical interventions during pregnancy are described. Examination of the social circumstances surrounding the use of these medical technologies supports the conclusion that new reproductive technologies have increased, rather than decreased, inequities in access to and allocation of health care resources. PMID:17165238

  7. Time-lapse in Human Assisted Reproductive Technology%延时摄像在人类辅助生殖技术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石江霞; 张硕屏; 龚斐

    2013-01-01

    体外受精-胚胎移植(in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer,IVF-ET)是广泛应用于不孕治疗的人类辅助生殖技术之一.由于单次促排卵治疗可以获得多个胚胎,临床上如何选择具有发育潜能的胚胎进行移植,以保证在一定临床妊娠率的前提下减少移植胚胎数目,一直是辅助生殖技术研究的一大热点.目前评价胚胎质量的方法主要是选取特定的时间点观察胚胎,依据形态学指标对胚胎质量进行评估.而近年来出现的胚胎延时摄像技术(time-lapse)能够对胚胎体外发育过程进行全程监控,获取胚胎发育的动态信息,建立胚胎行为学指标从而更有效地评估胚胎的发育潜能.延时摄像技术在临床上的应用优势正在逐渐彰显.%One of the most extensively used methods in human assisted reproductive technology (ART) is in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET).Due to the multiple embryos obtained per ovulation induction treatment,how to select the most potential embryo for clinical transfer in order to guarantee clinical pregnancy rate and simultaneously reduce the number of transferred embryos remains the hotspot in ART area.At present,embryo evaluation is based on morphology,which is static.The newly developed time-lapse technology is available to monitor the whole development process so as to more precisely evaluate the embryo quality.And its advantages are gradually manifested.

  8. Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Rehabilitative and assistive technology refers to tools, equipment, or products that can ...

  9. Perceptions of infertile couples to assisted reproductive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritsa Gourni

    2009-10-01

    ,8% of the studied sample reported that would accept have sperm donation and the 68,2% egg donation.Conclusions: The development of consultation is necessary for the infertile couples receiving assisted reproductive technologies.

  10. Technology, Biopolitics, Rationalities and Choices: Recent Studies of Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    New synergies across anthropology, science and technology studies (STS), legal studies and sociology, bring fresh theoretical perspectives to the study of reproduction. Recent works on reproduction trace some of the changing rationalities: from the tactics of feminist self-help health movements in 1970s and 1980s in the US, to the commercialized experience of pregnancy and the various configurations, policies and legalities addressing globalized genetic and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive decision-making is deeply entangled with neoliberalism, welfare reforms, racial and geographic disparities, economic stratification and cultural rationalities to produce inequalities. Studies of reproduction remain central to basic anthropological questions: what it means to be human, what constitutes life, how we live our lives, and how societies value particular lives.

  11. Surrogate losses: Understandings of pregnancy loss and assisted reproduction among surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Zsuzsa

    2010-06-01

    I explore surrogate mothers' narrative construction of pregnancy loss on surrogacy support websites. Communicating via the Internet, women construct the public online world of surrogacy. Drawing on anthropological and sociological literature I investigate the connections between conceptualizations of loss and understandings of technological practices and the consequences of these understandings for assisted reproduction. Surrogate mothers define loss broadly, ranging from failure to conceive to miscarriage and stillbirth; loss means the failure to give a baby to the intended parents. Assisted reproductive technologies contribute to loss by raising expectations of success, by attempting to maximize results through the transfer of multiple fertilized ova, and by early monitoring and testing. However, surrogates collectively understand technology as a positive force and advocate for reproductive technology. Surrogates' resolve to "give the gift of life" makes them vulnerable to failure and loss, yet also informs repeated efforts to bear children for others with technological assistance. PMID:20550095

  12. Psychological conditions of pregnant women received assisted reproductive technology%辅助生殖技术妊娠妇女心理健康状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵丽华; 张小建; 曹学华; 罗宏; 马静; 刘朗; 代玲

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨辅助生殖技术(ART)妊娠妇女心理健康状况,为ART妊娠妇女心理护理提供理论依据.方法:采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)中国修订版进行问卷调查,选择2009年6月至2010年6月在我院生殖中心接受ART的妊娠妇女110例作为研究对象,分孕早期、孕中期、孕晚期三次进行问卷调查,并与在我院产科门诊做系统保健的110例自然妊娠妇女作对照分析.结果:妊娠早期ART妊娠妇女的焦虑因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.189,P<0.05);妊娠晚期ART妊娠妇女的焦虑因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.219,P<0.01);妊娠早期ART妊娠妇女抑郁因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.176,P<0.05);妊娠晚期ART妊娠妇女抑郁因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.183,P<0.01).结论:ART妊娠妇女心理健康明显低于自然妊娠妇女,加强对ART妊娠妇女心理干预势在必行.%Objective: To explore the psychological conditions of the pregnant woman received assisted reproductive technology (ART) which can provide reference for clinical care. Methods: Chinese revised version of Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) was used in this survey. A total of 110 cases of pregnancy who received ART from June 2009 to June 2010 in our hospital enrolled in this study. The other 110 cases of natural pregnancy were selected as comparative group. All of them had been investigated three times when they were in the time of early pregnancy, mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy. Results: In early pregnancy and late pregnancy, the anxiety factor scores of the pregnant woman received ART in both early and late stage of pregnancy were significantly higher than the natural pregnant women (t=2.189, P<0.05 and t=2.219, P<0.01). Meanwhile, the depression factor scores in both early and late stage of pregnant women after ART were higher than the natural pregnancy women (t=2.176, P<0.05 and (=2.183, P<0.01)Conclusion: Mental health of pregnant women received ART was significantly

  13. [Thrombosis and assisted reproductive techniques (ART)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, J; Plu-Bureau, G; Horellou, M-H; Samama, M-M; Gompel, A

    2011-06-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) concern procedures designed to increase fertility of couples: artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization (IVF), either classical or after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), transfer of frozen embryos, or gamete intrafallopian transfer. Their use has greatly increased these last years. They may be associated with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and one possible major complication is venous or arterial thrombosis. Thromboses are rare but potentially serious with important sequellae. They are mostly observed in unusual sites such as head and neck vessels and the mechanism is still unknown although hypotheses have been proposed. This review is an update of our knowledge and an attempt to consider guidelines for the prevention and treatment of ART-associated thromboses, which frequently occur when the woman is pregnant. Prevention of severe ovarian hyperstimulation by appropriate stimulation procedures, detection of women at risk of hyperstimulation and of women at high risk of thrombosis should allow reduction of the risk of thrombosis, possibly by administration of a thromboprophylaxis at a timing and dose which can be only determined by extrapolation. PMID:21333476

  14. Medically assisted reproduction and ethical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the ethical challenges associated with medically assisted reproduction are societal. Should the technique be restricted to only ordinary couples or could it be used also to single females or couples of same sex? Should the future child be entitled to know the identity of the gamete donor? Should there be age limits? Can embryos or gametes be used after the death of the donor? Can surrogate mothers be part of the process? Can preimplantation diagnostics be used to select the future baby's sex? In addition, there are several clearly medical questions that lead to difficult ethical problems. Is it safe to use very premature eggs or sperms? Is the risk for some rare syndromes caused by imprinting errors really increased when using these techniques? Do we transfer genetic infertility to the offspring? Is the risk for multiple pregnancies too high when several embryos are implanted? Does preimplantation diagnosis cause some extra risks for the future child? Should the counselling of these couples include information of all these potential but unlikely risks? The legislation and practices differ in different countries and ethical discussion and professional guidelines are still needed

  15. 325例辅助受孕子代的出生情况%Neonatal outcomes of 325 neonates conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩; 邹小英; 周细中; 张清学; 王斌; 李宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the neonatal outcomes between infants of assisted conception (AC) and natural conception (NC). Methods A prospective case-control study was conducted.Eligible mothers were invited to this study at 28 weeks of gestation and were followed up to delivery.All newborns were examined by pediatricians right after birth.Data including gestational age,birth weight,admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU),and presence of any major malformation were collected.Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13.0.Difference between two groups was compared by x2 test. Results Six hundred and seventy-three newborns were enrolled into this study,including 325 in AC group and 348 in NC group.There were no differences between the demographic characteristics of the two groups,including maternal age,parents' education,family income and proportion of primipara (P>0.05).The incidences of twins (32.62% vs 3.45%,x2 =98.88),preterm birth (30.46% vs 7.76%,x2=56.92),low birth weight infant (32.31% vs 8.91%,x2 =57.07)and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (27.38% vs 8.91%,x2 =39.16) and proportion of cesarean birth (62.77% vs 21.55%,x2=117.64) in AC group were significantly higher than in NC group (all P<0.01),except for the incidence of birth defect (4.62% vs 2.59%,x2=2.01,P> 0.05).However,no significant differences was found in the above items when only singletons were compared between the two groups (P>0.05),except for the cesarean section rate (61.18% vs 22.03%,x2 =100.93,P<0.01).There were no difference in any of the above neonatal outcomes when different assisted reproductive technologies applied were compared (in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer,intracytoplasmic sperm injection and frozen embryo transfer) (P>0.05). Conclusions Neonatal outcome after assisted conception is a bit worse than natural conception,which might mainly due to the large proportion of multiple pregnancy after assisted conception.In order

  16. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2012-01-01

    and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0.......773 respectively) compared with children born after spontaneous conception. Assisted reproduction did not modify the heritability of atopic diseases. This study does not support an association between assisted reproduction and development of atopic diseases. This result must be confirmed in subsequent studies...

  17. Assistive Technology and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Joseph P.; Beard, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Educators and caregivers now have the opportunity to individualize and differentiate instructions with many technological devices never before available. Assistive Technology is being introduced in the classroom at all levels as a tool for teachers to help deliver instruction to all students. Assistive Technology is widely used to ensure…

  18. Cryopreservation of Oocytes and Embryos in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konc J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation has become an integral component of assisted reproductive technology. The ability to cryopreserve, thaw, and establish pregnancies with supernumerary preimplantation embryos has become an important tool in fertility treatment. Human oocyte cryopreservation has practical application in preserving fertility for individuals prior to cancer treatments. While the efficiency of oocyte and embryo freezing technology has increased over time, there is still room for improvement, since even under ideal circumstances the clinical pregnancy rate from frozen embryo transfer is approximately two-thirds of that from the fresh transfer of embryos. Thus, studies connected with cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos are very important to the expansion of effective clinical services. This review gives a summary of the theoretical and technical aspects of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation.

  19. Deficiencies in reporting results of lesbians and gays after donor intrauterine insemination and assisted reproductive technology treatments: a review of the first emerging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Cano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    At a time when increasing numbers of lesbians and gays consider parenthood using reproductive assistance in infertility centers, the present review aims to summarize the results obtained so far by lesbians after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) using donor spermatozoa (D-IUI and D-IVF, respectively) and gays entering into gestational-surrogacy programs. Data show that gays display normal semen parameters and lesbians exhibit no specific causes of female infertility except perhaps for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and some PCOS-related factors. Pair-bonded lesbians entering into D-IUI programs, tend to have higher pregnancy and delivery percentages following spontaneous or induced ovulation than single or pair-bound heterosexual women. The only single study reporting success percentages of lesbians after D-IVF provides, however, puzzling results. In particular, pair-bonded lesbians have lower pregnancy and live-birth percentages than pair-bonded heterosexual women in fresh D-IVF cycles but percentages are similar in frozen/thawed D-IVF cycles. Like in lesbians after D-IUI, surrogate women recruited by pair-bonded gays/single men tend to have higher pregnancy percentages and lower miscarriage percentages than surrogate women recruited by heterosexual couples. Notably, all the reports reviewed in the present study are methodologically flawed because of sampling bias, small sample sizes and inadequate use of statistical methods to control for the effects of influential covariates including age, smoking habits, previous gynecological problems, hormonal stimulation type and protocol, and number of prior treatment types and pregnancies/deliveries. Clinicians, reproductive biologists and editors of fertility/infertility journals should make efforts to prevent these deficiencies in future data reporting. PMID:26022418

  20. An Ethical Analysis of Assisted Reproduction Providers' Websites in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Ayesha; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) are intertwined and coevolving. These technologies are increasingly used to fulfill socially and culturally framed requests, for example, "family balancing," or to enable postmenopausal women or homosexual couples to have genetically linked children. The areas of ART and RGT are replete with ethical issues, because different social practices and legal regulations, as well as economic inequalities within and among countries, create vulnerable groups and, therefore, the potential for exploitation. This article provides an overview of the ART and RGT landscape in Pakistan and analyzes the available online content addressing Pakistani citizens and international clients. We explored the topic in view of socioeconomic challenges in Pakistan, particularly deeply rooted poverty, lack of education, gender discrimination, and absence of regulation. As online information given by ART and RGT providers is readily available and could easily raise false hopes, make use of discriminatory statements with regard to women, and promote gender selection to meet sociocultural expectations, it should be subjected to quality control. PMID:27348834

  1. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005: results generated from European registers by ESHRE: ESHRE. The European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2005 are presented in this ninth report. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. METHODS: From 30 countries, 923 clinics reported 418 111 treatment cycles including: IVF (118 074...... insemination using husband/partner's semen (IUI-H) and donor semen (IUI-D) were reported from 21 countries and included 128 908 IUI-H and 20 568 IUI-D cycles. RESULTS: In 16 countries where all clinics reported to the IVF register, 1115 cycles were performed per million inhabitants. For IVF, the clinical...... pregnancy rates per aspiration and per transfer were 26.9% and 30.3%, respectively. For ICSI, the corresponding rates were 28.5% and 30.9%. After IUI-H, the clinical pregnancy rate was 12.6% per insemination in women IVF and ICSI, the distribution of transfer of one, two, three and four or more...

  2. Assisted reproduction in Hong Kong: Status in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Loong, EPL; Haines, CJ; Chiu, TYT; Wong, SP; Cheung, LP; So, WWK; Lau, E.; Ng, V; Leung, CKM; Leong, MKH; Wong, CJY; Tang, WWC; Chun, MMP; Ho, PC; Yeung, WSB

    1996-01-01

    Information on assisted reproduction in Hong Kong for the period from January 1992 to December 1993 was collected from the three centres that offer assisted reproduction. Altogether, 912 treatment cycles of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer, 158 treatment cycles of gamete intrafallopian transfer, and 87 cycles of zygote intrafallopian transfer were initiated during this period. The delivery rates per cycle started were 8.4% for in vitro fertilisation, 29.1% for gamete intrafallopian ...

  3. Gross characteristics of placentas from an assisted reproduction program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabs Dunja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Even though placentas from assisted reproduction programs often differ from placentas of women who conceived naturally, they are rarely examined. The aim of our investigation was to determine some gross characteristics of placentas of women who conceived with assisted reproduction. Material and methods. We examined 30 placentas from an assisted reproduction program (20 from in vitro fertilization and 10 from intrauterine insemination and 30 placentas of women who conceived naturally. All women were age matched. All the women were at term. Results. The mean weight of placentas from assisted reproduction program was 573 g and of those after natural conception - 582.67g. The mean length of the umbilical cords was 64.3cm after assisted reproduction and 66.3cm after natural conception. The mean placenta thickness after assisted reproduction was 2,22 cm and after natural conception 2.28 cm. Eight pla­centas of the study group had a marginal insertion of the umbilical cord, which lead to a statistically significant difference when compared to placentas of women who conceived naturally: χ² =7.07; p>0.01. Discussion. Marginal cord insertion into the placenta after assisted reproduction is also often described in the literature (as a possible "consequence " of embryo-transfer. Conclusion. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean weight and dimensions of placentas, length of the umbilical cord, gross pathological features of placentas and cords, mean birth weight of babies and placental/fetal ratios between women from assisted reproduction program and those who conceived naturally. .

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life and Primi-Gravid: A Comparative Study of Natural Conception and Conception by Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ARTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI, total calorie intake and physical activity (PA as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS in follicular fluid (FF. Materials and Methods: This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. Results: There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001. The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03 and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02. MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Conclusion: Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  5. Contemporary pharmacological manipulation in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huirne, Judith A F; Lambalk, Cornelis B; van Loenen, Andre C D; Schats, Roel; Hompes, Peter G A; Fauser, Bart C J M; Macklon, Nick S

    2004-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatment to induce follicular development in anovulating women and multiple follicular development for assisted conception has been incorporated in almost all reproductive treatment cycles in the form of either urinary, purified urinary or recombinant preparations. Besides improved tolerance and theoretically lower chances of infection by prions, the latter may be more effective in terms of clinical pregnancy rates, FSH requirement and cost effectiveness. The low-dose, step-up protocol to induce monofollicular development, which is applied worldwide, has to compete with the equally effective but health economically beneficial step-down protocol. The long protocol using recombinant FSH 150 IU/day is advocated when using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection treatment. However, the current paradigmatic hyperstimulation came under scrutiny after the introduction of the GnRH antagonists, which allow milder and more convenient approaches with acceptable cancellation and pregnancy rates but lower requirements for FSH. Risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) can be further eliminated if recombinant luteinising hormone (rLH) or GnRH agonists are used to trigger oocyte maturation and ovulation; the latter require pituitary responsiveness and are therefore excluded in agonist protocols. FSH and LH are both required for appropriate folliculo- and steroidogenesis. In hypogonadotropic women, the addition of LH (human menopausal gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin or rLH) is therefore obligate to achieve appropriate follicular growth and pregnancy. The role of LH in ovulation induction is still a matter of debate, although in GnRH agonistic protocols there seems to be a 'therapeutic window'; levels that are too high or too low have detrimental effects on IVF outcome. To broaden the pharmaceutical armoury, recent efforts have been directed towards the

  6. 辅助生殖技术中锌抑制精子氧化损伤作用%Zinc protects sperm from being damaged by reactive oxygen species in assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芦地; 吴金香; 王正尧; 谢远志

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨辅助生殖技术中锌对精子损伤的保护作用。方法以辅助生殖技术中常用的密度梯度离心法优选后的精子为研究对象,以过氧化氢为损伤刺激物,应用国联精子检测系统、光学显微镜以及精子DNA碎片分析试剂盒的方法比较精子的活力与存活率,精子质膜完整性以及精子DNA碎片形成,从而分析锌抑制过氧化氢对精子的损伤作用。结果过氧化氢刺激后精子的活动力与存活率差,精子质膜完整性破坏,大量精子DNA损伤,而锌能明显保护精子的损伤作用。结论精子损伤与氧化刺激密切相关,在辅助生殖技术中锌可抑制精子的损伤作用。%Objective To explore the protective action of zinc insperm damage during assisted reproductive technology.Methods Preferring the sperm samples which were selected by density gradient centrifugation in assisted reproductive technology were used for the study. Uder stimulation of hydrogen peroxide, sperm motility, viability, sperm membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation were detected by Goodline sperm detection system, optical microscopy and sperm DNA fragmentation assay kit respectively, and the effect of Zinc on sperm damage from hydrogen peroxide was evaluated.Results The motility and vitality of sperms were decreased, the membrane integrity was destroyed and lots of sperm DNA were damaged under hydrogen peroxide stimulation. However, Zinc could protect sperm from damage obviously.Conclusion Sperm injury is closely associated with oxidative stimulation. Zinc could induce sperm damage in assisted reproductive technology.

  7. Exploration on the Ethical Principles of Follow-up Work of Assisted Reproductive Technology%辅助生殖技术随访工作中的伦理原则探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建伟; 刘艺

    2014-01-01

    随着人类辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology ,ART )的发展,术后进行的定期随访工作在 ART 中的伦理学问题不断凸显,有必要对其重视及规范。从伦理原则角度探讨了 ART 随访工作中存在的诸多伦理学问题,即个人隐私权保护的缺失、知情同意的形式化、医源性多胎的伦理困境等。保密互盲、知情同意、保护患者、保护后代等伦理原则监督和规范ART近期及远期随访工作,对于引导人类辅助生殖技术健康发展,具有重大现实意义。%With the development of human assisted reproductive technology (ART ) ,the ethical issues of regulating follow-up work of ART become more and more obvious .This paper discussed the common ethical issues in the follow-up work of ART from the view of ethical principles ,such as the lack of protection of personal privacy ,formalization of the principle of informed consent ,the ethical dilemma of iatrogenic multiple births and so forth .The principles of confidentiality and double-blind ,informed consent ,protection of patient’s and future generations’ rights ,supervision and regulation of short and long term follow-up work are of great practical importance to guiding the healthy development .

  8. 325例辅助受孕儿24月龄时精神运动发育水平研究%Psychomotor development at 24 months old in 325 children conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩; 潘琼; 邹小英; 周细中; 张清学; 李宏

    2012-01-01

    [目的] 通过研究辅助受孕儿24月龄时的精神运动发育水平,以评价辅助生殖技术的安全性. [方法] 采用前瞻性对照研究方法,实验组为人工辅助受孕妊娠儿,对照组为自然受孕妊娠儿,将两组人群在母亲年龄、产次、家庭社会阶层、双亲受教育程度等几个方面进行配对,均自母亲孕28周起入组登记定期随访收集相关资料并由经过培训的指定专业人员采用CDCC婴幼儿发育量表定期对其行精神运动发育评估至24月龄,获得智力发育指数及运动发育指数.[结果] 辅助受孕儿童至24月龄时其精神运动发育水平与自然受孕儿童相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). [结论]辅助受孕儿童24月龄时的精神运动发育水平正常,初步证明我国目前的辅助生殖技术是安全的.%[Objective] To compare the psychomotor development at 24 months old in children born after assisted conception with a control group of children conceived naturally. [Methods] A mached control study was performed on the psychomotor development of 24 months old in children conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology. The control group was matched according to maternal age,parity,social class and level of maternal education. The suitable mothers were invited to participate at 28 weeks of gestation and were followed up to delivery. The children of two groups were followed up to 24 months old and a formal developmental assessment was done with the CDCC Scales of Children Development. [Result] No statistically significant differences were found in the mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) between study and control groups, as asssessed by the CDCC Scales. (Conclusion] The level of psychomotor development at 24 months old in children born after assisted conception was normal. So the assisted reproductive technology is safety in china.

  9. Assisted hatching in assisted reproduction: a state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadeh, Mohamad Eid; Fischer-Hammadeh, Constanze; Ali, Khaled Refaat

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that one in six couples experience some delay in conception and an increasing number require treatment by the assisted conception (AC) procedures of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).The implantation rate of embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization cycles is generally less than 20%. The exposure of oocytes and embryos to the artificial conditions of in vitro culture may have negative effects on the embryo's ability to undergo normal hatching, resulting in low rates of implantation following IVF and embryo transfer. Human embryos resulting from superovulation develop more slowly in vitro compared to embryos in vivo, manifest a relatively high degree of cytogenetic abnormalities and undergo cellular fragmentation. Artificially disrupting the zona pellucida is known as assisted hatching (AH) and there is some evidence that embryos that have undergone zona manipulation for assisted hatching tend to implant one day earlier than unhatched embryos. A variety of techniques have since been employed to assist embryo hatching, including partial mechanical zona dissection, zona drilling and zona thinning, making use of acid tyrodes, proteinases, piezon vibrator manipulators and lasers. This review will consider the impact of IVF conditions on zona pellucida physiology, zona hardening, different techniques of assisted hatching, who may benefit from assisted hatching and potential hazards.

  10. 辅助生育中子宫内膜异位症与前置胎盘的相关性%The correlation between endometriosis and placenta previa in assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅秀娟; 周勇; 金杭美

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate placenta previa associated with endometriosis in assisted reproduc-tive technology.Methods: Consecutive 2 060 pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology were recruited between 2008 and 2012 in Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The risk of pla-centa previa after assisted fertilization was analyzed. Relation of nine variables was examined, i.e. maternal age, BMI, gravidity, parity, previous abortion, previous cesarean delivery, endometriosis, ovulatory disorder, and male infertility, to placenta previa by logistic regression analysis. The correlation between endometriosis severity with placenta previa was analyzed by the nonparametric test of Spearman correlation analysis.Results: In 110 women with placenta previa, there were 69 cases complicated with endometriosis. We found that endometriosis (odds ratio=19.7; 95% CI=0.5-300.6) were signiifcantly associated with placenta previa. Endometriosis was more seri-ous more prone to placenta previa (the Kendall correlation coefifcient is 0.274, Spearman correlation coefifcient is 0.281, allP<0.001).Conclusion: Our ifndings suggest that endometriosis is associated with an increased risk of placenta previa in assisted reproductive technology. The higher degree of endometriosis, the more possible of placenta previa.%目的:探讨在辅助生育中子宫内膜异位症和前置胎盘的相关性。方法:回顾性分析2008年1月至2012年12月在浙江大学附属妇产科医院接受辅助生殖技术病例,根据纳入标准其中胚胎移植成功且并在单胎28周后分娩者有2060例,有110例发生了前置胎盘。回顾病史分析孕妇年龄、体质量指数、孕次、产次、流产次数、剖宫产史、子宫内膜异位症、排卵障碍、男性不孕等9个指标,分析它们与前置胎盘的相关性。同时对子宫内膜异位症分型与前置胎盘的相关性做进一步研究。结果:2060例观察资料中子宫内

  11. 21 CFR 884.6160 - Assisted reproduction labware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction labware. 884.6160 Section 884.6160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... procedures. These include syringes, IVF tissue culture dishes, IVF tissue culture plates, pipette...

  12. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section 884.6120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., and maintain gametes and/or embryos at an appropriate freezing temperature. (b) Classification....

  13. Influence of Paternal Age on Assisted Reproduction Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    We Will Retrospectively Assess Our Databases in Our Clinic:; Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Valencia (Spain); Searching for Assisted Reproduction Procedures; (IUI, Standard IVF/ICSI Cycles and Ovum Donation IVF/ICSI Cycles); Who Were Referred to Our Unit to Cryopreserve Sperm During the Period; From January 2000 to December 2006.

  14. Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, D

    2006-10-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well-being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are often overlooked in discussions about HRC. Furthermore, there are people who are willing to use the technology. Several scientists have been outspoken in their intent to pursue HRC. The importance of concerns about the physical safety of children created by HRC and comparisons with concerns about the safety of IVF are discussed. A model to be used to determine when it is acceptable to use HRC and other new assisted reproductive technologies, balancing reproductive freedom and safety concerns, is proposed. Justifications underpinning potential applications of HRC are discussed, and it is determined that these are highly analogous to rationalisations used to justify IVF treatment. It is concluded that people wishing to conceive using HRC should have a prima facie negative right to do so. PMID:17012502

  15. 34 CFR 300.105 - Assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistive technology. 300.105 Section 300.105 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.105 Assistive technology. (a) Each public agency must ensure that assistive technology devices or assistive technology services, or both, as those...

  16. Technology-assisted psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Jill Savege

    2013-06-01

    Teleanalysis-remote psychoanalysis by telephone, voice over internet protocol (VoIP), or videoteleconference (VTC)-has been thought of as a distortion of the frame that cannot support authentic analytic process. Yet it can augment continuity, permit optimum frequency of analytic sessions for in-depth analytic work, and enable outreach to analysands in areas far from specialized psychoanalytic centers. Theoretical arguments against teleanalysis are presented and countered and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. Vignettes of analytic process from teleanalytic sessions are presented, and indications, contraindications, and ethical concerns are addressed. The aim is to provide material from which to judge the authenticity of analytic process supported by technology. PMID:23599507

  17. Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage.

  18. Endometrial cocultured cells in assisted reproduction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Bahar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Endometrium, which plays a very important role in reproductive biology and one of the pathologies connected with it as are the problems in the implantation. One of the most important processes for the female fertility are experienced in implantation failure and one of the developed methods for the solution are endometrial coculture application. In this study, to provide knowledge of the types of cells in in vitro monolayer endometrial coculture. Methods: In our study, consisting of 8 fertile and 16 infertile women suffering from recurrent implantation failure were included in two groups. Performing aspiration with negative pressure pipeline endometrial tissue samples were obtained. Intended to carry embryo to the blastocyst stage, Endometrial Epithelial-gland cells (EG and Epithelial stromal (ES cells are obtained, after concluding of the culture was provided to do light microscopic tissue follow of these tissues. Cocultured cells were grouped stained with toluidine blue. Working with the numerical values of the cell types was performed using the Chi-square statistical analysis method. Results: In cocultured, both fertile and cell types derived from the TIB group, with light microscopic examination, were distinguished by morphological characteristics. Each of the two groups, called cells called vacuoles, microvilli and cytoplasmic extension was defined. Conclusion: Both groups, coculture derived from endometrial tissue were examined by light microscope. Thus, the identification of differences between groups was provided classification of cell structures in the coculture and endometrial cocultured practices, was concluded to be beneficial in the embryo's development. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 357-363

  19. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter; Bungum, Leif;

    2014-01-01

    It is well-documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conflicting regarding the influence of male body mass index (BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology...... (ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non-obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility...... center. Self-reported information on paternal height and weight were recorded and BMI was calculated. The men were divided into four BMI categories: underweight BMI overweight BMI 25-29.9 kg m-2 and obese BMI > 30 kg m-2 . Conventional semen analysis...

  20. 辅助生殖技术精子表观遗传质量评价的必要性%Necessity to evaluate epigenetic quality of the sperm for assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛少钦; 李文艳; 王燕; 张丽娜; 张玉华

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART). with directly dealing and optimizing the so-called qualified sperm, can be applied to treat male infertility patients with oligospermia, asthenospermia, teratospermia, azoospermia and failure of the common in vitro fertilization (IVF), which disobeying the biological laws of natural insemination, resulting in high epigenetic risk for patients owing to epigenetic defect of sperm. And optimization of highly qualified sperm is one of the methods to reduce the genetic and epigenetic risk of ART. By reviewing the epigenetic defects of ART sperm, as well as related diseases, this peper aims at understanding the mechanism of the risks resulting from the epigenetic defects of ART sperm and further shows that the qualification control of ART sperm via detecting its epigenetic factors, such as methylated DNA, acetylated histone and methylated histone, is essential for reducing the epigenetic risk from ART.%辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)可通过直接操作、优化单个精子,用于男性少精,弱精、精子畸形,无精子和常规体外受精周期失败等,因违背自然受精的生物学法则而具有很大的遗传风险,其中精子质量优化是降低ART遗传与表现遗传风险的重要手段之一.本文对ART精子表观遗传缺陷及其相关疾病进行综述,以进一步认识精子表现遗传缺陷导致后代表观遗传风险增加的分子机理,阐明ART精子有待于通过DNA甲基化、组蛋白乙酰化、组蛋白甲基化等表观遗传因子进行严格质量控制,切实降低ART遗传及表现遗传缺陷风险的必要性.

  1. Assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Streich, Wj; Hildebrandt, Tb

    2007-09-01

    Over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. Recent surveys estimate the wild Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. For the five rhinoceros species, black (Diceros bicornis), white (Ceratotherium simum), Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis), Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus Sumatrensis), the population estimates of 3610, 11 330, 2400, 60 and 300, respectively, are of even greater concern. Protected against habitat loss, poaching and left undisturbed, rhinoceros and elephants reproduce well in the wild. But small and decreasing populations make successful captive management of these taxa increasingly important. In captivity, however, most populations face possible 'extinction' because of historically poor reproductive performance. From the first descriptions of the reproductive anatomy and the oestrous cycle (Laws 1969; Kassam and Lasley 1981; Balke et al. 1988a,b; Plotka et al. 1988; Godfrey et al. 1991) to the present use of advanced assisted reproduction technologies, researchers have strive to understand the function and dysfunction of the reproductive biology of these charismatic species. This paper reviewed the current knowledge on rhinoceros and elephant reproduction biology, reproductive cycle, gestation, dystocia, reproductive pathology, oestrous induction and artificial insemination, sperm sexing, IVF and contraception, and how this knowledge is or might be used to aid species conservation for maximal reproductive efficiency and enhancement of genetic management.

  2. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction water and water purification... Devices § 884.6170 Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction water purification systems are devices specifically intended to generate high...

  3. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which...

  4. Discontinuation Decision in Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are recognizedas established and increasingly successful forms of treatment for infertility, yet significant numbersof couples discontinue treatment without achieving a live birth. This study aims to identify majorfactors that influence the decision to discontinue IVF/ICSI treatments.Materials and Methods: We studied the data of 338 couples who discontinued their infertilitytreatments after three cycles; based on medical records and phone contact. The main measure wasthe reason for stopping their treatments.Results: Economical problems were cited by 212 couples (62.7%, as their mean income wassignificantly less than other couples (p<0.0001. Lack of success was reported as a reason by229 (67.8%, from whom 165 (72% also had economical problems. Achieving independent-ART pregnancy was the reason for discontinuation in 20 (5.9% couples. Psychological stress,depression and anxiety were reported as other cessation factors by 169 (50%, 148 (43.8% and 182(53.8% couples, respectively.Conclusion: This survey suggests that the most common reasons for assisted reproductivetechnique (ART discontinuation after three cycles are: prior unsuccessful cycles, economicaland psychological problems. Therefore, the substantial proportion of couples could benefit frompsychological intervention, increasing awareness of ART outcomes and health funding to copemore adequately with failed treatments.

  5. The morality of assisted reproduction and genetic manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the pros and cons of various forms of assisted reproduction, including the use of so-called 'genetic manipulation'. He shows how in ethics the only arguments with any chance of reaching a consensus (or at least an agreement are those of the rational type, based on universally acceptable ethical principles or corroborated by empirical facts and real life experience (as the starting point for identifying problems requiring analysis. After an analysis in which he identifies the incoherence and inconsistency of arguments against assisted reproduction, the author defends the right of human beings to decide autonomously about the most healthy forms of procreation, including those involving genetic manipulation. His starting point is the moral principle by which it is morally preferable to intervene in natural processes (as opposed to not intervening whenever this implies preventing and reducing disease and suffering

  6. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, M.; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C; Kremer, J A M; Metwally, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques (ART) the progesterone or hCG levels, or both, are low and the natural process is insufficient, so the luteal phase is supported with either progesterone, hCG or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Luteal phas...

  7. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis:A plus for assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziken M; Osaikhuwuomwan J; Osemwenkha A; Iribhogbe O; Orhue A

    2015-01-01

    Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART) was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  8. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis: A plus for assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aziken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  9. Application of Anti-müllerian Hormone in Assisted Reproductive Technology%抗苗勒管激素在辅助生殖技术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯双苗; 苏迎春; 孙莹璞

    2009-01-01

    研究发现,与传统的预测卵巢储备能力的指标,如卵泡刺激素(follicle stimulating hormone,FSH)、雌二醇(estradiol,E2)、抑制素B(inhibin B,INH B)和基础窦卵泡计数(antral follicle count,AFC)等相比,抗苗勒管激素(anti-Müllerian hormone,AMH)作为评估卵巢储备能力和人类辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)结局的指标,已显示出极大的优越性.有助于指导生殖医生制定合理的促排卵用药方案和预测体外受精-胚胎移植(in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer,IVF-ET)的成功率及其预后.首先论述在人类ART中垂体降调节和控制性超排卵药物对AMH分泌功能的影响,其次比较AMH评估卵巢储备能力和IVF-ET结局的优越性,最后评价AMH在多囊卵巢综合征(polycystin ovarian syndrome,PCOS)患者的特殊应用价值.

  10. Safety evaluation of the offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology with donor's semen%供精精液行辅助生殖技术出生子代安全性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁明; 张斌; 孙伟; 许蓬; 张州; 杨晓玉; 曹小蓉; 胡洪亮; 李铮

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the incidences of birth defects in the offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART), including artificial insemination with the donor's semen (AID), in vitro fertilization with donor's semen (IVF-D) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with the donor's semen ( ICSI-D), and in those conceived through ART with the husband's semen, including AIH, IVF and ICSI, in order to further evaluate the safety of ART with the donor's semen.Methods: From January 2005 to October 2009, Shanghai Human Sperm Bank provided sperm copies to 11 medical institutions, which resulted in a total of 904 offspring born by ART.We followed up all these cases and investigated the status of the offspring.The control group included 4195 offspring of infertile couples from 4 Reproductive Medical Centers approved by health management administrations, which were conceived by ART in the same period.After investigating the number of offspring and cases of birth defects caused by various methods of assisted reproductive technology, we compared the incidence of birth defects resulting from the donor's semen and that from the husband's.Results: There were 7 cases of birth defects (0.77%) in the offspring bom by ART with the donor's semen, and 42 cases (1.00%) in those born by ART with the hnsband's semen, with no significant differences between the two groups (P >0.05).Conclusion: There were no significant differences in the category of birth defects between ART with the donor's semen and that with the husband's, while the incidence of birth defects resulting from ART with the donor's semen was significantly lower than that from ICSI in infertile couples.The present findings indicate a higher safety of ART with the donor's semen.%目的:本研究调查应用供精者精液实施辅助生殖技术(ART),包括供精人工授精(AID)、供精体外受精(IVF-D、ICSI-D)与应用丈夫精液经ART(AIH、IVF、ICSI)出生子代缺陷的发生率,从

  11. Assisted reproduction and the legal recognition of multiple parents: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technology (ART) creates an opportunity for the creation of co-parenting arrangements involving donors and surrogates. Donor and surrogate involvement in the lives of children born using ART has received increased media attention recently and is a matter of considerable social significance. This dissertation attempts to test the law’s restriction to two parents in light of the potential for co-parenting arrangements. In order to do this, it adopts a socio-legal approach ...

  12. Ethical and legal aspects of assisted reproduction practice in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, J G; Shushan, A

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the ethical and legal aspects of assisted reproduction technology (ART) that have been instituted in Asian countries. The data were collected by a questionnaire circulated to ART units in Asia. These are Taiwan, Singapore, Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, Iran, India, Jordan, Malaysia, China, Israel, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Persian Gulf countries. According to the survey, there are approximately 260 ART centers in Asia (half of which are in Japan). On a global basis each ART centre in Asia serves an average population of 13 million people. On the other hand, in those Asian countries where the standards of living are relatively high, the availability of ART services, including the more sophisticated and costly ART procedures like micromanipulation, is similar to that in the Western world. In most of the Asian countries practising ART, however, no state registry exists. Taiwan is the only country that has specific legislation, and in six other countries some kind of ministerial regulations are practised. We conclude that ART is now practised in 20 countries in Asia. The prevailing rules and cultural heritage in many of these Asian countries has a major influence on the implementation of ART in Asia. However, in view of the complicated and sensitive issues involved, and as no supervision on ART clinics exists in most of the Asian countries, we advocate that some kind of quality control should be urgently instituted in all centres practising ART. In this way, it is hoped that the highest standards be attained for all parties concerned. PMID:8671351

  13. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Verma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction includes Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation, Sexing of semen and embryos, cloning, transgenesis, stem cell technology, embryo genomics, micro and nanotechnology has been included. Recently in some of these fields remarkable progress has been made. None the less, imperfections are remaining and sustained efforts will be required to optimize existing and invent new technologies. Before referring an animal for an ART, the practitioner should be able to identify the underlying cause of subfertility of that animal. Knowing the complexity as well as the risks of these techniques, enables practitioners to refer a sub-fertile animal to the least complex and most appropriate and successful ART that can overcome specific causes of infertility. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 301-310

  14. The Race Idea in Reproductive Technologies: Beyond Epistemic Scientism and Technological Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Camisha

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the limitations of epistemic scientism for understanding the role the concept of race plays in assisted reproductive technology (ART) practices. Two major limitations centre around the desire to use scientific knowledge to bring about social improvement. In the first case, undue focus is placed on debunking the scientific reality of racial categories and characteristics. The alternative to this approach is to focus instead on the way the race idea functions in ART practices. Doing so reveals how the race idea (1) helps to define the reproductive "problems" different groups of women are experiencing and to dictate when and how they should be "helped"; (2) helps to resolve tensions about who should be considered the real parents of children produced by reproductive technologies; and (3) is used to limit ART use where that use threatens to denaturalize the very sociopolitical landscape the race idea has created. In the second case, scientific knowledge regarding reproduction is thought to call for technological control over that reproduction. This leads to an overemphasis on personal responsibility and a depoliticization of racialized social inequalities.

  15. The Race Idea in Reproductive Technologies: Beyond Epistemic Scientism and Technological Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Camisha

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the limitations of epistemic scientism for understanding the role the concept of race plays in assisted reproductive technology (ART) practices. Two major limitations centre around the desire to use scientific knowledge to bring about social improvement. In the first case, undue focus is placed on debunking the scientific reality of racial categories and characteristics. The alternative to this approach is to focus instead on the way the race idea functions in ART practices. Doing so reveals how the race idea (1) helps to define the reproductive "problems" different groups of women are experiencing and to dictate when and how they should be "helped"; (2) helps to resolve tensions about who should be considered the real parents of children produced by reproductive technologies; and (3) is used to limit ART use where that use threatens to denaturalize the very sociopolitical landscape the race idea has created. In the second case, scientific knowledge regarding reproduction is thought to call for technological control over that reproduction. This leads to an overemphasis on personal responsibility and a depoliticization of racialized social inequalities. PMID:26615542

  16. Single-arm, observational study of the ease of use of a redesigned pen device to deliver recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin alfa for assisted reproductive technology treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illingworth PJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Illingworth,1 Robert Lahoud,1 Frank Quinn,1 Kendal Chidwick,2 Claire Wilkinson,2 Gavin Sacks1 1IVFAustralia, Greenwich, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Scientific Affairs, Merck Serono Australia Pty Ltd, Frenchs Forest, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Evaluation of patients’ ease of use of the redesigned, disposable, ready-to-use ­follitropin alfa pen during controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology. Methods: This single-center, observational, open-label, single-arm study recruited infertile normo-ovulatory women (aged 18–45 years. Nurses trained patients to self-administer recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone daily using the follitropin alfa pen (300 IU, 450 IU, and 900 IU. Before treatment, patients completed Questionnaire A. Following self-administered treatment, on stimulation days 5–6 and 7–8 (within a day of receiving recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, patients completed Questionnaire B. Nurses completed an ease-of-learning/teaching questionnaire. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients rating the pen as “easy/very easy” to use (Questionnaire B on the final visit before recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin. Secondary endpoints included: proportion of patients rating the follitropin alfa pen as easy to learn, use, prepare, deliver, and dispose of (Questionnaires A and B. Proportions (95% confidence intervals [CIs] were provided for primary and secondary endpoints. Adverse events were reported descriptively. Results: Eighty-six patients received recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone. Of the 72 patients who had completed the overall assessment questions, 66 (91.7%; 95% CI =82.7%–96.9% found the pen “easy” to use. Also, 70/86 (81.4% patients “strongly agreed/agreed” that, overall, it was easy to learn how to use the pen; 72/86 (83.7% “strongly agreed/agreed” that easily understandable, verbal information was provided; and 70/86

  17. Should we diagnose and treat minimal and mild endometriosis before medically assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Annie S; Dahan, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of minimal or mild endometriosis prior to assisted reproduction (ranging from intrauterine insemination to in vitro fertilization [IVF]) to improve the likelihood of success is controversial. Ovulation suppression is commonly used in endometriosis to decrease pain, however, there is little evidence to suggest improvements in fertility associated with this technique. Moreover, current evidence is sparse and does not support ovarian suppression prior to intrauterine insemination with or without ovulation induction, while there is some evidence favoring ovarian suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists prior to IVF to improve pregnancy rates. However, the majority of studies were performed in women with moderate to severe endometriosis. There is currently conflicting evidence regarding surgical ablation or removal of endometriomas prior to IVF, and its outcome on pregnancy rates. This review highlights the paucity of data in the management of endometriosis prior to assisted reproductive technologies and suggests that further studies are needed. PMID:26616457

  18. Potential applications of reproductive and molecular genetic technologies in the selective breeding of aquaculture species

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, N.H.; Ponniah, A.G.; Ponzoni, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of reproductive and genetic technologies can increase the efficiency of selective breeding programs for aquaculture species. Four technologies are considered, namely: marker-assisted selection, DNA fingerprinting, in-vitro fertilization, and cryopreservation. Marker-assisted selection can result in greater genetic gain, particularly for traits difficult or expensive to measure, than conventional selection methods, but its application is currently limited by lack of high density linkag...

  19. Assisted reproductive technology in the treatment of male infertility: Potential risks and tactics%男性不育的辅助生殖技术处理:潜在风险与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴继灿

    2011-01-01

    辅助生殖技术是上世纪末出现的治疗男性不育的重要手段,它在男性不育的治疗中有着不可替代的作用,但有关男性不育的辅助生殖技术处理也存在潜在风险,在男性不育的诊疗中如何规避这些潜在风险值得男性生殖健康领域的工作者思考.本文对辅助生殖技术潜在风险进行总结,同时,为提高男性不育的治疗效果,尽量减少辅助生殖技术带来的风险,提出了包括患者的评估、健康教育以及治疗等男性不育规范化处理方面的一些建议,并强调病因处理和抗氧化治疗在男性不育治疗中的重要作用.%Assisted reproductive technology ( ART), developed in the end of last century, has been playing an irreplaceable role in the treatment of male infertility, though it does have its potential risks, including the induction of monozygotic twins, premature delivery, high incidence of birth defects, etc. How to avoid these risks has posed a challenge and demands earnest attention from andrologists. This article summarizes the main potential risks of ART and proposes some tactics concerning patient evaluation, health education and treatment standardization, so as to optimize the outcomes and minimize the risks. Meanwhile, emphasis is placed on the importance of etiological and anti-oxidant strategies in the treatment of male infertility.

  20. Impact of hepatitis B virus on sperm parameters and outcome of assisted reproductive technology%乙型肝炎病毒对精子和辅助生殖技术结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苗; 朱依敏

    2013-01-01

    乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)垂直传播近年来受到广泛关注,随着辅助生殖技术(ART)的迅猛发展,越来越多的HBV携带夫妇借助于ART获得了子代.然而,HBV的垂直传播现象仍然不可完全避免,尤其是父婴垂直传播.原因在于HBV感染精子的机制至今仍未阐明.了解HBV携带者精子的HBV感染状况及其与精子参数的关系,随访男性HBV患者接受ART治疗后的结局,揭示HBV感染精子的机制,将有助于在解决了生育问题的同时更好地为防控HBV的父婴垂直传播提供新的思路.%With the development of assisted reproductive technology (ART), more and more hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) -infected couples have their own children successfully; however, vertical transmission of HBV in ART, especially father-to-child transmission, cannot be avoided. The mechanism of attachment and penetration of HBV into human sperm is still not known. Therefore, understanding the state and mechanism of HBV infection of sperm and the impact of HBV on sperm parameters, following up the ART outcome in man with HBV infection are helpful to solve the fertility problem and to control father-to-child vertical HBV infection.

  1. Location of VEGFR3 in the placenta subjected to natural pregnancy and assisted reproductive technology treatments%VEGFR3在自然妊娠和辅助生殖技术来源胎盘中的定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤丽莎; 张园; 赵海君; 骆秀翠; 高莉; 崔毓桂; 刘嘉茵

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究血管内皮生长因子受体(VEGFR)3在自然妊娠和辅助生殖技术(ART)来源胎盘的定位.方法 收集ART来源(ART组,10例)和自然妊娠来源(对照组,11例)的单胎足月妊娠分娩的胎盘组织,分析两组流行病学资料并应用免疫组织化学染色研究VEGFR3在两组胎盘组织中的定位.结果 VEGFR3在两组胎盘组织中均定位于胎盘绒毛合体滋养层细胞细胞浆.结论 VEGFR3是胎盘组织中重要的血管生成调节因子,在胎盘组织中定位于胎盘绒毛合体滋养层细胞细胞浆,在ART组胎盘组织中的定位未见明显变化.%Objective To study the location of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 ( VEGFR3) in the placenta subjected to natural pregnancy and assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. Methods Placenta tissues were collected from full-time singletons of ART treatment (group ART, 10 cases) or normal pregnancies (group C,ll cases). The epidemiology data of all cases were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was applied to study the location of VEGFR3 in the placenta. Results VEGFR3 was localized in the cytoplasm of syncytiotrophoblast cells in the placenta in both groups. Conclusion VEGFR3 is a critical angiogenic cytokine in the placenta. There is no variation in location of VEGFR3 in the placenta of ART.

  2. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    O P Verma; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Chand, S

    2012-01-01

    It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction...

  3. Congenital anomalies after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Malchau, Sara Sofie;

    2013-01-01

    for known confounders such as maternal age. The proportion of ART children is not negligible, and knowledge about the causes of the higher risk of congenital malformations is crucial to develop prevention strategies to reduce the future risk in ART children. The aim of this review is to summarize...... the literature on the association between ART and congenital anomalies with respect to subfertility, fertility treatment other than ART, and different ART methods including intracytoplasmic sperm injection, blastocyst culture, and cryotechniques. Trends over time in ART and congenital anomalies will also...

  4. Sperm processing for advanced reproductive technologies: Where are we today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappa, Kari L; Rodriguez, Harold F; Hakkarainen, Gloria C; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Asghar, Waseem

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) utilize sperm sorting methods to select viable sperm from the semen samples. Conventional sperm sorting techniques in current use are density gradient centrifugation, direct swim-up, and conventional swim-up. These methods use multiple centrifugation steps, which have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that decrease DNA integrity and damage sperm. Newer technologies, such as microfluidics, electrophoresis, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), and birefringence eliminate the centrifugation steps and can improve the selection of sperm with higher DNA integrity, normal morphology, and motility as well as improved artificial insemination outcomes. In this review, we discuss some recent research in centrifugation and non-centrifugation based techniques and their effect on sperm quality and ART outcomes. PMID:26845061

  5. Interactions of spermatozoa with the female reproductive tract: inspiration for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, S S

    2007-01-01

    Artificial insemination with sexed semen, in vitro fertilisation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection have been used to reproduce animals, but often not as successfully as natural mating. Learning more about how spermatozoa normally interact with the female tract can provide inspiration for developing improvements in assisted reproduction. The present review focuses on Bos taurus, because more is known about this species than others. At coitus, bull spermatozoa are deposited into the anterior vagina, where they rapidly enter the cervix. Cervical mucus quickly filters out seminal plasma from spermatozoa, unlike most assisted reproduction protocols. Spermatozoa that reach the uterus may require certain cell surface proteins to swim through the uterotubal junction. Shortly after passing through the junction, most spermatozoa are trapped in a storage reservoir by binding to oviducal epithelium, in the case of cattle via bovine seminal plasma (BSP) proteins coating the sperm head. As ovulation approaches, spermatozoa capacitate and shed BSP proteins. This reduces sperm binding to the epithelium and releases them from storage. Motility hyperactivation assists spermatozoa in leaving the storage reservoir, swimming through oviducal mucus and the cumulus oophorus, and penetrating the oocyte zona pellucida. Chemotactically regulated switching between asymmetrical (i.e. hyperactivated) and symmetrical flagellar beating may also guide spermatozoa to the oocyte. PMID:17389139

  6. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction. PMID:27579148

  7. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nevoral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART, because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.

  8. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies with treatment of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in a single center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, YueQiu; Gao, Ya; Lin, Ge;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to report the performance of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies after the treatment of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Method: In two years period, 565 pregnant women with ART twin pregnancies were prospectively tested by NIPT ...

  9. Reproductive Technology in the Context of Reproductive Teleology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Neil J.; Hampton, Simon Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that in the ordinary course of events, most parents routinely practice "reproductive teleology" in that they attempt to manipulate the physical and psychological characteristics of children, and they do so as part of the process of good parenting. Furthermore, such attempts are socially approved of and encouraged. With these…

  10. Application of sperm sorting and associated reproductive technology for wildlife management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Robeck, T R

    2009-01-01

    Efforts toward the conservation and captive breeding of wildlife can be enhanced by sperm sorting and associated reproductive technologies such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Sex ratio management is of particular significance to species which naturally exist in female-dominated social groups. A bias of the sex ratio towards females of these species will greatly assist in maintaining socially cohesive groups and minimizing male-male aggression. Another application of this technology potentially exists for endangered species, as the preferential production of females can enable propagation of those species at a faster rate. The particular assisted reproductive technology (ART) used in conjunction with sperm sorting for the production of offspring is largely determined by the quality and quantity of spermatozoa following sorting and preservation processes. Regardless of the ART selected, breeding decisions involving sex-sorted spermatozoa should be made in conjunction with appropriate genetic management. Zoological-based research on reproductive physiology and assisted reproduction, including sperm sorting, is being conducted on numerous terrestrial and marine mammals. The wildlife species for which the technology has undergone the most advance is the bottlenose dolphin. AI using sex-sorted fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa has become a valuable tool for the genetic and reproductive management of captive bottlenose dolphins with six pre-sexed calves, all of the predetermined sex born to date. PMID:19010523

  11. Resultados das técnicas de reprodução assistida em mulheres doadoras de oócitos no ciclo de tratamento Outcome of assisted reproductive technologies in women with oocyte donation in the treatment cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Cavalcante

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar os resultados de ciclos de reprodução assistida em mulheres doadoras de oócitos no ciclo de tratamento com o de mulheres não doadoras. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas, retrospectivamente, as taxas de gravidez, implantação e abortamento de 50 pacientes que doaram oócitos durante o ciclo de reprodução assistida (grupo de doadoras e de 50 pacientes que não doaram oócitos (grupo de não-doadoras, em clínica privada de reprodução assistida em São Paulo, entre os anos de 2001 e 2003. Os critérios de inclusão no estudo foram os seguintes: idade menor que 35 anos; ciclos menstruais regulares; dosagem basal de FSH0,05. CONCLUSÃO: em pacientes que recuperam mais de seis oócitos, a doação de oócitos no ciclo de tratamento não prejudica os resultados dos ciclos de reprodução assistida e não eleva as taxas de abortamento.PURPOSE: to compare the outcome of treatment in patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART cycles who donated eggs during their own ART treatment with the outcome of patients undergoing ART without egg donation. METHODS: we studied retrospectively the pregnancy and implantation rates of 50 patients who donated eggs during the course of their ART treatment (donor group, and the pregnancy and implantation rates of 50 patients who underwent ART cycles and kept all their eggs (non-donor group. between the years 2001-2003. The inclusion criteria used were as follows: age 0.05. CONCLUSION: this study suggests that in patients who produce more than 6 oocytes, egg donation in the treatment cycle does not influence adversely the outcome of ART cycles and does not increase the miscarriage rate.

  12. 卵子线粒体老化——辅助生殖技术面临的瓶颈%Oocyte Mitochondiral Aging——Bottleneck of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤江静; 尹萍; 邵敬於; 段涛; 滕晓明; 韩毅冰

    2013-01-01

    卵子老化是辅助生殖失败的一个重要原因.目前,许多妇女生育年龄不断推迟,导致卵 子老化问题日益严重.线粒体是细胞中提供能量的重要细胞器,体细胞衰老与线粒体功能异常密切相关.由于线粒体是卵子/胚胎中数量最多的细胞器,推测线粒体功能的损伤可能在卵子老化、受精成功率和体外胚胎发育方面,也起到重要作用.本文根据前人的研究成果,阐述了线粒体在卵子成熟、受精以及胚胎发育过程中的作用,分析了线粒体老化对卵子质量和受精胚胎发育的影响,证明提高卵母细胞中线粒体功能,对提高卵母细胞/体外受精胚胎的质量具有重要的意义.%"Oocyte aging" is an important cause for IVF failure and poor embryo quality. At present, many women delay their pregnancy to the later part of their childbearing years which makes "oocyte aging" a more important etiology for infertility. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with somatic cells senescence. Because mitochondria are the most abundant organelles in oocytes/embryos, we speculate that mitochondrial dysfunction may have an important role in oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development too. In this article, we have reviewed the function of mitochondria during oocyte maturation, fertilization and the following embryo development. Techniques improving mitochondrial function in the oocytes could not only prevent the oocyte aging process, but also improve the quality of embryos from assisted reproductive technology (ART).

  13. Cryopreservation of Embryos and Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Konc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  14. Pregnancy following breast cancer using assisted reproduction and its effect on long-term outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldrat, Oranite; Kroman, Niels; Peccatori, Fedro A;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We have previously shown that pregnancy is safe following breast cancer, even in endocrine sensitive disease. Yet infertility remains common following systemic treatment. To date, no study has evaluated the safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) after breast cancer...... were eligible. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether ART following primary systemic therapy was performed to achieve pregnancy. We evaluated the association between ART use and clinic-pathological characteristics, pregnancy outcome and long-term breast cancer outcome. RESULTS...

  15. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lise hTomsen; Peter Humaidan; Leif Bungum; Mona Bungum

    2014-01-01

    It is well‑documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conlficting regarding the inlfuence of male body mass index(BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology(ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non‑obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility center. Self‑reported information on paternal height and weight were recorded and BMI was calculated. The men were divided into four BMI categories: underweight BMI30kgm−2. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guideline and sperm DNA integrity was analyzed by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay(SCSA). No statistically signiifcant effect of male BMI was seen on conventional semen parameters(sperm concentration, total sperm count, seminal volume and motility) or on SCSA‑results. Furthermore, the outcome of ART regarding fertilization rate, number of good quality embryos(GQE), implantation and pregnancy outcome was not inlfuenced by the increasing male BMI.

  16. 小鼠卵胞浆内单精子显微注射改良技术在辅助生殖技术应用中的价值%The value of improved ICSI technology in the mouse in the human assist-ed reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成勇; 杨满; 林梅; 蔡敏生; 王锦华; 温雪珍

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究鼠卵胞浆内单精子显微注射(ICSI)改良技术在人类辅助生殖技术应用中的价值。方法将小鼠分为两组:采用固定人卵子的固定针组(C-ICSI组)和改良的喇叭型固定针组(N-ICSI组),观察两组ICSI操作后卵子存活数、卵裂情况。结果 N-ICSI组卵子存活率为77.4%,明显高于C-ICSI组的7.8%,差异有高度统计学意义(χ2=483.183,P0.05)。N-ICSI组卵裂数为97.3%,明显高于C-ICSI组的80.0%,差异有高度统计学意义(χ2=18.399,P0.05)。结论改良的小鼠ICSI技术,可以明显提高操作时卵子的存活率,这将为人类实验室ICSI技术的质量控制和研究提供保障,同时,该项研究成果可以分析人精子激活卵母细胞的能力和人精子的核型,因此有重要的研究价值。%Objective To study the value of improved technology ICSI in the mouse in the human assisted reproductive technology. Methods The ICSI operation were divided into two groups: ICSI operation with holding pipette for holding human ova (C-ICSI group) and with improved holding pipette (N-ICSI group), ova survival and cleavage in the two groups were observed after ICSI operation. Results The rate of ova survival in the N-ICSI group was 77.4%, signifi-cantly higher than that in the C-ICSI group (7.8%), there was statistically significant (χ2=483.183, P 0.05). The number of cleavage in the N-ICSI group was 97.3%, significantly higher than that in the C-ICSI group (80.0%), there was statisti-cally significant difference (χ2=18.399, P 0.05). Conclusion The modified ICSI technique in the mouse can significantly improve the sur-vival rate of ova, which will provide the guarantee for quality control and research of human laboratory of ICSI technol-ogy, at the same time, the research can analyze the ability of human sperm for oocyte activation and karyotype analysis of human sperm, therefore there is an important research value.

  17. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra;

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Design. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Setting. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Sample. Seven hund...

  18. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra;

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  19. Reproductive technologies and the quality of offspring in Asia: reproductive pioneering and moral pragmatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues relevant to this special issue of Culture, Health & Sexuality on the quality of offspring, including gender selection, ecofeminism, eugenics, reproductive agency, moral pioneering and reproductive pragmatism in China, India and Japan. First, it discusses various approaches to choice in sex selection, focusing on an instrumentalist and an ecofeminist approach. Second, it discusses issues of reproductive choice in the light of various concepts of eugenics and power, which have been used to characterise the relationship between the state, the individual and prenatal genetic testing. Third, it queries Foucault's notion of biopower in relation to reproductive agency. In reviewing the evidence, the chapter raises questions about how women and parents in Asian societies can be understood in terms of 'reproductive pragmatism', 'empowerment' and/or 'moral pioneering' when faced with the use of new reproductive technologies in modern societies. PMID:19499397

  20. Survey and Analysis on the Attitude toward the Assisted Reproductive Technology among Undergraduate Nursing Students%本科护生人工辅助生殖技术认同度的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马语莲; 杨秀木

    2012-01-01

    Objective; Aimed to investigate the approve degree toward the assisted reproductive technology ( ART) among undergraduate nursing students and its influence factors, analyze the ethical erroneous zone exists in their thoughts. Methods; A self - designed questionnaire was used in 372 undergraduate nursing students, the content included common demographic data, a typical case with some ethical questions. Results: The undergraduate nursing students had a tolerant manner to ART. 70% of all students had negative manner to " celebrity sperm bank"and 16. 3% had negative manner to the child who comes from "celebrity sperm bank" will become celebrity.Furthermore, 54. 1% students disagreed to tell the child who comes from "celebrity sperm bank"the truth. There was a significant difference between students with different gender toward " celebrity sperm bank" , " single mother" and " surrogate mother" ( P < 0. 05 ) , and students with different family income toward " single mother" (P < 0.05). Conclusion; Most of the undergraduate nursing studentshad rational cognition to ART, however, a small a-mount still had ethical incorrect cognition toward ART, thus it is necessary to give corresponding education to undergraduate nursing students.%目的 探讨本科护生对人工辅助生殖技术的认同度及相关影响因素,分析本科护生思想中存在的伦理误区.方法 自行设计人工辅助生殖技术认同度调查问卷,包括学生的一般资料、一个典型案例及所附带的6个伦理问题,对372名本科护生进行问卷调查.结果 本科护生对人工辅助生殖技术伦理问题持较为宽容的态度;70%的本科护生对“名人精子库”持否定态度;16.3%的本科护生对“名人精子库”诞生的孩子必然成为名人的说法持否定态度;54.1%的本科护生对告知由人工辅助技术出生的孩子其真实身世的态度上是否定的.不同性别本科护生在“名人精子库”、“单身母亲”、“

  1. 辅助生殖技术中巨型卵母细胞对于胚胎发育的影响%Effect of gaint oocytes on embryonic development in assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯; 胡娟; 魏玉兰; 史中娜; 关如意; 李兴睿

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the chromosomal composition of gaint oocytes in assisted reproductive technology and its impact on embryonic growth and development.Methods:Forty-four gaint oocytes from 40 patients were collected,the degree of maturity,fertilization,and embryonic development of gaint oocytes were analyzed,fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique was used to detect the compositions of X,13,and 14 chromosomes of gaint oocytes and embryos.Results:The incidence rate of gaint oocytes was 0.29%,the mean diameter of gaint oocytes was statistically significantly larger than that of general oocytes (P < 0.05).The mean number of retrieved oocytes in 40 patients with gaint oocytes was statistically significantly higher than that in patients without gaint oocytes (P < 0.05).The results of cytogenetic detection showed that ten gaint oocytes were diploid,the results of FISH detection about 13 blastomere of five 2PN gaint oocytes showed that five embryos were triploid or chimera.Conclusion:Fertilization of giant oocytes may be one of causes of maternal triploidy.In consideration of abnormal chromosome number,the embryos derived from gaint oocytes may be unsuitable for embryo transfer.%目的:探讨辅助生殖技术中巨型卵母细胞的染色体组成以及对于胚胎生长发育的影响.方法:收集40例患者的44枚巨卵细胞,分析了巨卵的成熟度、受精和胚胎发育情况,并采用荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)技术分别检测了巨卵及其胚胎的X、13和14号染色体组成.结果:巨卵的发生率约为0.29%,巨卵细胞的平均直径显著大于普通卵母细胞(P<0.05).获得巨卵的40例患者的平均获卵数明显高于未产生巨卵的患者(P<0.05).10个巨卵细胞的细胞遗传学检测显示其均为二倍体,对5个2PN巨卵胚胎的13个卵裂球行FISH检测的结果显示,5个胚胎为三倍体或者嵌合体.结论:巨卵受精可能是形成母源性三倍体的原因之

  2. Autologous Germline Mitochondrial Energy Transfer (AUGMENT) in Human Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian aging is characterized by a decline in both the total number and overall quality of oocytes, the latter of which has been experimentally tied to mitochondrial dysfunction. Clinical studies in the late 1990s demonstrated that transfer of cytoplasm aspirated from eggs of young female donors into eggs of infertile women at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection improved pregnancy success rates. However, donor mitochondria were identified in offspring, and the United States Food and Drug Administration raised questions about delivery of foreign genetic material into human eggs at the time of fertilization. Accordingly, heterologous cytoplasmic transfer, while promising, was in effect shut down as a clinical protocol. The recent discovery of adult oogonial (oocyte-generating) stem cells in mice, and subsequently in women, has since re-opened the prospects of delivering a rich source of pristine and patient-matched germline mitochondria to boost egg health and embryonic developmental potential without the need for young donor eggs to obtain cytoplasm. Herein we overview the science behind this new protocol, which has been patented and termed autologous germline mitochondrial energy transfer, and its use to date in clinical studies for improving pregnancy success in women with a prior history of assisted reproduction failure.

  3. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2...

  4. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2...

  5. Zona hardening, zona drilling and assisted hatching: new achievements in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, A; Van Steirteghem, A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to fertilization, the zona pellucida surrounding the mammalian oocyte acts as a species-specific sperm barrier and is involved in sperm binding. After fertilization, the zona plays a role in blocking polyspermic fertilization, it protects the integrity of the preimplantation embryo during early embryonic development, and also helps its oviductal transport. Zona hardening occurs naturally after fertilization in order to ensure this threefold function. A combination of lysins produced by the cleaving embryo or the uterus and physical expansion then reduces the zona thickness in preparation for hatching. Zona hardening, although not readily quantifiable, may also be induced by in vitro culture and by in vivo aging. Indeed, prolonged exposure of human oocytes and embryos to artificial culture conditions seems to impair their ability to implant. Implantation rates are also inversely correlated with advanced female age. Recently, failure of the embryonic zona pellucida to rupture following blastocyst expansion has been put forward as a possible contributing factor in implantation failure. In order to help embryos escape from their zonae during blastocyst expansion, different types of assisted hatching have been developed. Zona drilling involves the creation of an opening in the zona with acidified medium, whereas zona slitting is carried out in the same manner as partial zona dissection. In zona thinning, the zona is just made thinner over a certain area without a hole or a slit being created. More recently, laser-assisted hatching has been introduced. In vitro studies with both mouse and human embryos have indicated that an artificial gap in the zona pellucida significantly improves the hatching ability of blastocysts grown in vitro as compared to non-micromanipulated embryos. However, the clinical relevance of assisted hatching within an assisted reproduction program remains controversial and elusive. Very few randomized studies are available. Most reports are of

  6. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a case study in the development of reproductive technology in a marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen D; Holt, William V

    2014-01-01

    The successful development and application of an assisted breeding program in any animal relies primarily on a thorough understanding of the fundamental reproductive biology (anatomy, physiology and behaviour) of the species in question. Surely, the ultimate goal and greatest hallmark of such a program is the efficacious establishment of a series of reliable techniques that facilitate the reproductive and genetic management of fragmented populations, both in captivity and in the wild. Such an achievement is all the more challenging when the reproductive biology of that species is essentially rudimentary and without adequate reproductive models to compare to. Using the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as a case study, this chapter provides some personal insights into the evolution of a concept that began as a small undergraduate student project but that subsequently evolved into the first-ever successful artificial insemination of a marsupial. Apart from this historical perspective, we also provide a brief review of the current reproductive biology of the koala, discuss technical elements of current assisted breeding technology of this species, its potential application to the wombat, and the future role it might play in helping to conserve wild koala populations. There is little doubt that the unique reproductive biology and tractability of the koala has in this case been a benefit rather than a hindrance to the success of artificial breeding in this species.

  7. Infertility and assisted reproduction in Denmark. Epidemiology and psychosocial consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lone

    2006-11-01

    Clinically a couple is considered to be infertile after at least one year without contraception and without pregnancy. There was scant knowledge about the prevalences of infertility, involuntary childlessness and the seeking of fertility treatment and only few longitudinal studies about the psychosocial consequences of infertility and its treatment. This thesis is about the epidemiological aspects of infertility; the conceptualization and measurement of important psychosocial aspects of infertility; and a medical sociological analysis of the associations between these psychosocial variables among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on nine papers. The three main purposes were: (i) to review critically, population based studies of infertility and medical care seeking in industrialised countries. Further, to examine these prevalences and subsequent motherhood among women in former assisted reproduction in a Danish population. (ii) To develop measures of psychosocial consequences of infertility: fertility problem stress, marital benefit, communication, coping strategies, attitudes to and evaluation of fertility treatment. (iii) To examine these phenomena and to analyse their interrelations among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on four empirical studies: (i) The Women and Health Survey, a cross-sectional population-based study among 15-44 year old women (n=907, 25-44 year old) in Copenhagen County, 1989. (ii) The Psychosocial Infertility Interview Study, a qualitative interview study among 16 couples (n=2 participants) infertility treatment at The Fertility Clinic, Herlev University Hospital,1992. (iii) The Infertility Cohort, a longitudinal cohort study consecutively including all couples (n=250 participants) beginning anew fertility treatment period at one of four public (Braedstrup, Herlev, Odense, Rigshospitalet) and one private fertility clinic (Trianglen),2000-2002. (iv) The Communication and Stress

  8. Assisted reproduction in polycystic ovarian disease: A multicentric trial in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap Kumar; Natasha Nawani; Narendra Malhotra; Jaideep Malhotra; Madhuri Patil; Jayakrishnan, K; Sujata Kar; Padma Rekha Jirge; Nalini Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare ovarian response, oocyte, embryo quality, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome incidence, and pregnancy rates in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS group. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study on PCOS carried out in seven assisted reproduction centers in India between August 2008 and July 2010, as part of trial under the Indian Society of Assisted Reproduction. A total of 192 women (77 in the PCOS group and 115 in th...

  9. Assistive technology for people with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, Anton; Jenko, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Assistive technology includes equipment, devicesand software solutions that increase functional capabilities of people withdisabilities and improve the quality of their lives. The article presentsassistive technology for people with cerebral palsy. These are mobility aidsthat enable people with cerebral palsy independent walking. For those whocannot walk, proper seating is very important. People, who cannot propel manualwheelchair, can control electric wheelchair with various contro...

  10. Maternal Exposure to Second-hand Smoke and Super Ovulation Outcome for Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Ganji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of smoking cigarettes is followed by diverse effects on ovaries anddeveloping follicles but the effect of passive smoking on ovarian function is unknown. On the otherhand, the ovarian response to induction is a very important step in assisted reproduction. The aimof this study is to compare ovarian response in passive smokers and non-passive smokers in anassisted reproductive program.Materials and Methods: In a cohort study at the Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center, there were 72women in the passive smoker group and 72 women in the non-passive smoker group who underwentan assisted reproductive technology (ART program. The follicle number at administration of humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG, number of gonadotropin ampoules and duration of super ovulationinduction were compared.Results: Statistical analyses indicated that the number of mature follicles in the passive smoker groupwas not different from the control group; but the number of unresponsive cycles to super ovulation inthe passive smoker group (33.3% was significantly higher than the control group (12.5%. Durationof induction and number of gonadotropin ampoules were not different between the two groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show that exposure to second-hand smoke increases the chanceof unresponsiveness to ovulation induction. This condition may be due to the result of decline inovarian reserve in second-hand smokers. The duration of induction and number of gonadotropinampules is similar in the two groups. Furthermore, the results show that exposure to cigarette smokedoes not clinically impact women with good ovarian reserve.

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim You

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated cytogenetic results occurring with first trimester pregnancy loss, and assessed the type and frequency of chromosomal abnormalities after assisted reproductive treatment (ART and compared them with a control group. We also compared the rate of chromosomal abnormalities according to infertility causes in ICSI group. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was made of all patients who were referred to the Genetics Laboratory of Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center from 2005 to 2009 because of clinical abortion with a subsequent dilation and evacuation (D&E performed, and patients were grouped by type of conception as follows: conventional IVF (in vitro fertilization (n = 114, ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection (n = 140, and control (natural conception or intrauterine insemination [IUI] (n = 128. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results A total 406 specimens were referred to laboratory, ten abortuses were excluded, and in 14 cases, we did not get any spontaneous metaphase, chromosomal constitutions of 382 specimens were successfully obtained with conventional cytogenetic methods. Overall, 52.62% of the miscarriages were found to be cytogenetically abnormal among all patients, the frequency was 48.4% in the control group, 54.3% of miscarriages after ICSI and 55.3% after conventional IVF (p = 0.503. The most prevalent abnormalities were autosomal trisomy, however, nine (11.69% sex chromosome aneuploidy were noted in the ICSI group vs. four (6.45% and two (3.23% cases in the conventional IVF group and control group. We compared chromosomal abnormalities of miscarriages after ICSI according to infertility factor. 55.71% underwent ICSI due to male factors, 44.29% due to non-male factors. ICSI group having male factors showed significantly higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities than ICSI group having non-male factors (65.8% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.009, odds ratio = 1.529, 95% CI = 1

  12. Role of maternal and paternal age in an assisted reproductive program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabš Dunja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many infertile couples try to become parents spontaneously, neglecting the possibility to conceive artificially, so they seek medical help in their late reproductive age. Maternal age Major aspects of maternal age in regard to assisted reproduction consider oocytes, ovaries and endometrium. Also, some habits and maternal diseases associated with aging may have an impact on fertility (smoking, atherosclerosis, previous gynecological operations etc.. Even though estimating the ovarian reserve is the most objective test in assessing female fertility, it has a limited predictive value in younger women. A short protocol of ovulation induction showed best results in women with poor ovarian reserve, but recent studies recommend low-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in these cases. Paternal age With aging, sperm parameters become worse, which points to the neglected role of the father in assisted reproduction. Conclusion Thus, parental age plays an important role in assisted reproductive programs.

  13. Is age the limit for human-assisted reproduction techniques? 'Yes', said an Italian judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Matteo; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Frati, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Although use of assisted reproduction techniques was examined by an ad hoc act in 2004 in Italy, there are many opposing views about ethical and economic implications of the technologies dealing with infertility and sterility problems. In this paper, the authors examine a recent judge's decision that ordered the removal and subsequent adoption of a 1-year-old child because her parents were considered too old to be parents. The couple had had recourse to heterologous artificial insemination abroad and decided to give birth in Italy. The judgement deals with and discusses the complex issue of the right to procreate in order to balance the opportunities offered by scientific progress with the unborn child's condition.

  14. Rules and economic features connected with adoption and medical assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemion Braho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this brief study is to analyze the phenomenon of adoption and the assisted reproductive technologies, not from a social point of view as experts often do, but on an economic point of view. This could be possible analyzing first of all the laws regulating these “markets” and the influence of this regulation on the economic aspects. Although it could seem immoral to study this social aspects connected with filiation, we know that the social desire of some parents or some individuals to have children and their possibility is oriented by laws, economic possibilities and economy in general. This study is based on an empirical methodology, taking as study-case Italy and trying not to give any ethic orientation.

  15. Filiação e tecnologias de reprodução assistida: entre medicina e direito Filiation and usage of assisted reproductive technologies: between medicine and law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane da Costa Moás

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem o intuito de analisar os critérios jurídicos de determinação das relações parentais, propondo a reflexão sobre a paternidade ou maternidade homossexual como manifestação do direito à vida familiar. Para tanto, discute-se o impacto das seguintes inovações biotecnológicas: por um lado, a possibilidade de concepção fora do corpo humano, que ameaça quebrar o valor simbólico que sempre assimilou a categoria de genitor àquela de pai, ameaça esta que se apresenta de forma mais marcante quando a demanda pela reprodução assistida se dá por casais de mesmo sexo. Por outro, a disponibilidade de exames genéticos que permitem o acesso à verdade biológica com alto grau de confiabilidade, provocando verdadeiro embate entre o critério biológico de determinação da paternidade e o critério sócio-afetivo.The present work aims to analyze the juridical criteria for determining the paternal-filial relations, proposing a reflection about homosexual paternity or maternity as a natural consequence of the right to family life. Along these lines, it is necessary to analyze the current discussion on the impact of biotechnological innovations on important issues, such as: the possibility of conception outside the human body, threatening to crush the symbolic value that has always assimilated the category of genitor to that of father, markedly when the demand for assisted reproduction is made by couples of the same sex; the availability of genetic exams that allow access to the biological truth with high level of trustworthiness, causing a real clash between the biological and the social-affective criteria for determination of paternity.

  16. Premature Delivery of Children Born after Assisted Reproductive Technology and Spontaneous Conceptions:A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Study%辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产状况研究的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏宏伟; 任春娥; 韩海艳; 乔鹏云; 姜俊怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare premature delivery of children who were born after assisted reproductive technology and after natural pregnancy.Methods Searched PubMed,EBSCO,Cochrane Library,China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database ,VIP Data-base for Chinese Technical Periodicals ,and references of the involved studies ,which included premature delivery of infants born after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conceptions .Cochrane Collaborations RevMan 5.0 software was used to do data analyses .Results Ninteen studies including 2 453 288 children were involved.Studies showed that the rate of preterm births in ART group was obviously higher than that in the natural pregnancy group (P<0.05).Conclusion Children born after ART may have higher risk of preterm births .There-fore,the pregnant women after assisted reproductive technology should make good antenatal care work and try to avoid premature delivery .%  目的评价辅助生殖技术后新生儿的早产状况。方法计算机检索中国学术期刊网络出版总库,维普中文科技期刊全文数据库,PubMed,EBSCO全文数据库和Cochrane Library等,并辅以手工检索等方式,纳入辅助生殖技术后妊娠和自然妊娠的新生儿早产状况比较的队列研究文献,并用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析。结果共有19个研究文献纳入,新生儿共2453288例。 Meta分析结果表明:辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产发生率高于自然妊娠儿(P<0.05),其OR为2.47,95%CI为(1.87,3.27)。结论辅助生殖技术后新生儿发生早产的风险比自然妊娠儿高。因此,经辅助生殖技术后妊娠的孕妇,应积极做好产前保健工作,尽量避免早产发生。

  17. Designing Assistive Technologies for the ADHD Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    (ADHD). In this paper, we identify a set of challenges that children with ADHD typically experience, which provides an empirical foundation for pervasive health researchers to address the ADHD domain. The work is grounded in extensive empirical studies and it is contextualized using literature on ADHD....... Based on these studies, we also present lessons learned that are relevant to consider when designing assistive technology to support children with ADHD. Finally, we provide an example (CASTT) of our own work to illustrate how the presented findings can frame research activities and be used to develop...... novel assistive technology to empower children with ADHD and improve their wellbeing....

  18. Novel approaches in andrology examination and follicular fluid biochemical characterization in the optimization of reproductive technologies in farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vencato, Juri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the studies reported in this Thesis was to increase our understanding of two aspects of the reproductive system in farm animals: the andrological evaluation and the follicular fluid composition. The final aim was to give some tools that can be helpful in optimizing the application of assisted reproductive technologies. Studies were conducted in bulls, rams, alpacas, lamas and dairy buffalo cows. The first study was designed to investigate the efficacy of scrotal thermograp...

  19. 辅助生殖技术中影响出生婴儿性别比的相关因素分析%Factors affecting live birth sex ratio in assisted reproductive technology procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力佳; 全松

    2015-01-01

    中男方高龄与出生男婴比例增加相关,而ICSI授精方式较IVF女性婴儿比例更高。%Objectives To study the factors that affect the sex ratio of live births in procedures of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Methods The clinical data were collected from 4348 IVF-ET/freeze-thawed embryo transfer cycles that led to the birth of 5606 babies of known gender between 2008 and 2014. We assessed the impact of maternal age, paternal age, insemination method, the type of embryo transferred, stage of embryo transferred, single and twin births, previous abortion following ART, and cause of infertility on the sex ratio of the live births. Results The total cohort included 3019 male and 2588 female babies, with a general sex ratio of 116:100. The sex ratio was 117:100 among singleton deliveries and 116:100 among twin deliveries. The sex ratio was 117:100 among the first births with ART treatment and 117:100 among the second births. For singleton deliveries, an advanced maternal age or paternal age was significantly correlated with an elevated sex ratio of births (58.4%vs 52.8%, P=0.012;56.4%vs 52.3%, P=0.026), while ICSI was significantly correlated with a decreased sex ratio of births (45.7%vs 55.6%, P<0.001);for twin deliveries, none of the these factors was significantly correlated with the sex ratio of birth. For the first baby born after ART treatment, an advanced maternal age was significantly related to an increased sex ratio of births (57.4%vs 53.0%, P=0.009), while ICSI was significantly related to a decreased sex ratio of births (48.6%vs 55.4%, P=0.001);for the second baby born with ART treatment, none of these factors was significantly correlated with the sex ratio of birth. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the maternal age (OR:0.836, 95% CI 0.731-0.955, P<0.05) and insemination method (OR:1.151, 95% CI 1.027-1.289, P<0.05) were significantly related to the sex ratio of birth, but in multivariable logistic regression

  20. Assistive technologies for brain-injured gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, Jason; Gnanayutham, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys assistive technologies which make video games more accessible for people who have an acquired brain injury (ABI). As medical care improves, an increasing number of people survive ABI. Video games have been shown to provide therapeutic benefits in many medical contexts, and rehabilitation for ABI survivors has been shown to be facilitated by playing some types of video game. Therefore, technologies which improve the accessibility of games have the potential to bring a form...

  1. Assistive Technologies: A Lifeline for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg

    2015-01-01

    As students with disabilities increasingly are included into the general education classroom, teachers at all grade levels need to be knowledgeable about supports that promote student success. An assistive technology (AT) is any device or program that promotes the success of students with disabilities. This article provides an overview of ATs and…

  2. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  3. The future of mothering: reproductive technology and feminist theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchin, A

    1986-01-01

    An exploration of (I) alternative perspectives toward recent innovations in reproductive technology: support for new techniques for the sake of the kind of feminist future they facilitate; unqualified opposition despite therapeutic benefit to individual women; or qualified opposition depending upon specific threats to women's interests and (II) relationships between these positions and values bound up with mothering practices.

  4. Children of the new reproductive technologies: social and genetic parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bos; F. van Balen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review empirical studies on families created by new reproductive technologies (NRT) in which only one parent has a genetic link to the child. Methodology: Literature search was conducted among computerized databases. Inclusion criteria were that studies should focus on childrearing or

  5. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Lilit; Lumsden, Jo; O'Sullivan, Dympna; Bartlett, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    There are around 285 million visually impaired people worldwide, and around 370,000 people are registered as blind or partially sighted in the UK. Ongoing advances in information technology (IT) are increasing the scope for IT-based mobile assistive technologies to facilitate the independence, safety, and improved quality of life of the visually impaired. Research is being directed at making mobile phones and other handheld devices accessible via our haptic (touch) and audio sensory channels. We review research and innovation within the field of mobile assistive technology for the visually impaired and, in so doing, highlight the need for successful collaboration between clinical expertise, computer science, and domain users to realize fully the potential benefits of such technologies. We initially reflect on research that has been conducted to make mobile phones more accessible to people with vision loss. We then discuss innovative assistive applications designed for the visually impaired that are either delivered via mainstream devices and can be used while in motion (e.g., mobile phones) or are embedded within an environment that may be in motion (e.g., public transport) or within which the user may be in motion (e.g., smart homes).

  6. First trimester screening for Down syndrome and assisted reproduction: no basis for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Larsen, S O; Shalmi, A;

    2001-01-01

    In pregnancies obtained after assisted reproduction the false-positive rate of second trimester Down syndrome (DS) screening is increased by 1.5-3-fold. This may cause an increase in the number of amniocenteses and the fetal loss rate. The present study for the first time examined whether assisted...... pregnancies. Therefore the false-positive rate in Down syndrome screening should be independent of the method of conception....

  7. First trimester biochemistry in pregnancies conceived using assisted reproduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Ekelund, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Pernille;

    Objective: To examine the effects of method of conception on first trimester PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and the dependency of gestational age at the time of sampling on these effects Methods: Data on more than 100 000 spontaneously conceived and on 6 859 pregnancies conceived by assisted reproducti...

  8. How Does Rehabilitative & Assistive Technology Benefit People With Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How does the technology help? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How does rehabilitative & assistive technology benefit people with disabilities? Skip sharing on social ...

  9. Long-acting FSH versus daily FSH for women undergoing assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwer, A.W.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assisted reproduction techniques (ART), such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), can help subfertile couples to create a family. It is necessary to induce multiple follicles, which is achieved by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) injections. Curr

  10. Long-acting FSH versus daily FSH for women undergoing assisted reproduction (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwer, A.W.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assisted reproduction techniques (ART) such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can help subfertile couples to create a family. It is necessary to induce multiple follicles; this is achieved by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) injections. Current

  11. Lifestyle and Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab, Hamzehgardeshi; Zohreh, Shahhosseini; Gelehkolaee, Keshvar Samadaee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies reveal that lifestyles such as physical activity patterns, obesity, nutrition, and smoking, are factors that affect laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes induced by assisted fertility techniques in infertile couples. The present study is a narrative review of studies in this area. Methods: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magir...

  12. Assistive Technology: Bridging End-users and Technology%Assistive Technology:Bridging End-users and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renzo Andrich; Serenella Besio

    2011-01-01

    One of the basic aspects that determines the success or failure in the use of assistive technologies on the part of people with disabilities is constituted by the ability that provide a disabled person with the technology that corresponds effectively to his needs and to his capabilities,thus to interpret correctly the problems and to find the right ways of transferring this technological "knowledge".If the aids answer the effective needs and capabilities of the person he can achieve significant improvement to reach the goals of his individual rehabilitative project.The article highlights the key factors of success.

  13. Assistive Technology Based on Robotics and Rise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyu; WANG Kaixuan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assistive technology based on robotics,rehabilitation robot and intelligent assistive devices.Domestic intelligence assistive devices include intelligent prosthetics,intelligent orthotics,intelligent walker,assistive devices for smart home environment control,intelligent life assistive devices; Domestic intelligent rehabilitation robot include upper limb rehabilitation robot,hand rehabilitation robot,lower limb rehabilitation robot,robotic smart wheelchair,intelligent nursing bed,daily care robot,the development trend of intelligent assistive devices and rehabilitation robot.

  14. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Healy Clifford M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother carrying a child for another person/s (commissioning person/couple, based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced.

  15. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2008-01-01

    Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother) carrying a child for another person\\/s (commissioning person\\/couple), based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person\\/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR) is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas\\' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person\\/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced.

  16. Use of polarized light microscopy in porcine reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Maside, C; Gil, M A; Muñoz, M; Cuello, C; Díez, C; Sánchez-Osorio, J R; Martín, D; Gomis, J; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Carrocera, S; Martinez, E A; Gómez, E

    2011-09-01

    The meiotic spindle in the oocyte is composed of microtubules and plays an important role during chromosome alignment and separation at meiosis. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) could be useful for a non-invasive evaluation of the meiotic spindle and may allow removal of nuclear structures without fluorochrome staining and ultraviolet exposure. In this study, PLM was used to assess its potential application in porcine reproductive technologies. The objectives of the present study were to assess the efficiency of PLM to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes; to examine its effects on the oocyte developmental competence; to select oocytes based on the presence of the meiotic spindle detected by PLM; and to assess the efficiency oocyte enucleation assisted with PLM. In the first experiment, the presence of microtubule-polymerized protein was assessed and confirmed in oocytes (n = 117) by immunostaining and chromatin detection. In the second experiment, oocytes (n = 160) were exposed or not (controls) to PLM for 10 minutes, and then parthenogenetically activated and cultured in vitro. In the third experiment, development competence of oocytes with a positive or negative signal to PLM was analyzed after in vitro fertilization. Finally, oocytes (n = 54) were enucleated using PLM as a tool to remove the meiotic spindle. A positive PLM signal was detected in 98.2 % of the oocytes, which strongly correlated (r = 1; p PLM did not differ significantly from controls on cleavage, total blastocyst, expanded blastocyst rates and total cell numbers. The percentage of oocytes at the MII stage and blastocyst formation rate in the negative PLM group significantly differed from control and PLM positive groups. Overall efficiency of spindle removal using the PLM-Oosight system was 92.6%. These results suggest that polarized light microscopy is an efficient system to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes and does

  17. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate.

  18. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate. PMID:26371707

  19. 夫妇一方携带乙肝病毒对辅助生殖治疗中胚胎发育的影响%The Impact of HBV Carried by One of a Couple on Embryonic Development in Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪; 任春娥; 乔鹏云; 韩海艳; 张茂翔; 杨丽; 刘慧莹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨夫妇一方携带乙型肝炎病毒( HBV)对辅助生殖治疗( ART)中胚胎发育的影响。方法回顾性分析自2013年7月~2014年6月因女方不孕因素行体外受精联合胚胎移植技术( IVF)治疗的188个周期,其中研究组为52例乙肝携带者,包含男方乙肝表面抗原( HBsAg )阳性39个周期,女方乙肝表面抗原(HBsAg)阳性13个周期,正常对照组136个周期。比较两组患者的受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率、冻存率之间的差异性。结果夫妇一方携带HBV较正常夫妇在ART中胚胎发育差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论夫妇一方携带HBV不影响辅助生殖治疗中的胚胎发育。%Objective To investigate the impact of HBV carried by one of a couple on embryonic develop-ment in assisted reproductive technology .Methods An analysis of IVF-ET patients medical records of 188 cyclesfrom July 2013 to June 2014 in the center for female infertility was made .Among them,HBV carriers were 52 cycles,including the man HBs-Ag positive 39 cycles,the woman HBs-Ag positive 13cycles,while normal control group were 136 cycles. The fertilization rate ,cleavage rate ,high quality embryo rate and cryopreservation rate of the two groups were compared by embryo development criteria .Results There were no statistical difference between the two groups for the matched cri-teria( P>0.05) .Conclusion Either of the couple carried HBV has no effect on embryonic development in assisted re-productive technology .

  20. Assistive Technologies for Communication and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Simsik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT affect all aspects of life, in the time of technical progress there are also special assistive devices developed that makes the daily life easier. The use of the ICT is rapidly becoming an essential part of social, educational and economic of sphere of European citizens’ life. There is a concern whether the products and services, that are available nowadays, are fully accessible to the public area, but also to elderly people and people with disabilities. The aim of this article is to acquire an outline about recent programmes of information society (Slovakia and EU, to revue the basic knowledge about the accessible ICT related to the equal opportunities for people with disabilities and to the social inclusion and describes the principles of accessible technologies (design for all, accessible webpages, electronic services. ICTs offer the enormous potential to maintain, improve quality of life, integration and independence.

  1. Current controversies in turner syndrome: Genetic testing, assisted reproduction, and cardiovascular risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ackermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Turner syndrome (TS require close medical follow-up and management for cardiac abnormalities, growth and reproductive issues. This review summarizes current controversies in this condition, including: 1 the optimal genetic testing for Turner syndrome patients, particularly with respect to identification of Y chromosome material that may increase the patient's risk of gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma, 2 which patients should be referred for bilateral gonadectomy and the recommended timing of such referral, 3 options for assisted reproduction in these patients and associated risks, 4 the increased risk of mortality associated with pregnancy in this population, and 5 how best to assess and monitor cardiovascular risks.

  2. Science and technology analyst's assistant, revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromaty, A. S.; Adams, T. L.; Cunningham, J. F.; Tollander, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a research prototype software system named ASTA (Assistant for Science and Technology Analysis) that employs artificial intelligence technology to interpret radar signals and infer the probable nature of the radar system that produces them. Such analyses are of interest, for example, to engineers who wish to reverse-engineer an electronic system. Architecturally, ASTA is a multiple-process consulting expert system operating in a personal workstation environment. It comprises two principal components: an expert system that reasons using knowledge of electronic system design, radar physics, and signal analysis techniques, and a multiform-based user interface that maintains a separate database describing the complete state of interaction with the user, including a simplified user preference model, an interactive help subsystem, and a database of prior (completed or partial) analyses. These two processes are loosely coupled; that is, they operate in strictly separated namespaces, and they communicate using a mixture of synchronous (remote procedure call) and asynchronous (true) message passing. Message-based synchronization techniques are employed to assist in maintaining consistency between the two processes.

  3. Explore the Implementation of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in Hospital Infection Risk Factors and Coping Strategies%探讨实施辅助生殖技术(ART)过程中发生医院感染的风险因素及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璟; 罗丽娟; 穆艳丽; 叶艳琴; 张昌军

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the process of implementation of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in hospital infection risk factors and coping strategies. Methods:The domestic and foreign literature retrieval of information from1990 to 2012 September, and the same industry seven reproductive center, analysis of the factors that cause hospital infections and response. Results:ART implementation process, caused by the hospital infection factors including:the relevant part of the risk of transmission of pathogens, invasive procedures, laboratory culture system, gamete and embryo cryopreservation. Conclusion:The application of ART technology have an important impact on patients and their families, attention to every aspect, reduce and eliminate the incidence of infection, and helps to improve the effect of ART technology applications.%  目的:探讨实施辅助生殖技术(ART)过程中发生医院感染的风险因素及应对策略。方法:结合1990~2012年9月国内外文献检索资料和同行业7所生殖中心的资料,分析引发医院感染的因素及应对措施。结果:在ART实施过程中,引发医院感染的影响因素包括:病原体传播风险、侵入性操作、实验室培养体系、配子和胚胎冷冻保存等有关环节。结论:ART技术的应用对患者及其家庭产生重要的影响作用,重视每个环节的风控,降低和消除感染的发生,有助于更好地提高ART技术应用效果。

  4. A journey through people, places, and projects in equine assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-07-01

    A research study is a product of not only a question and its pursuit but also the people, places, and facilities available at the time. My work in equine assisted reproduction has progressed from embryo transfer to oocyte maturation, oocyte transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo biopsy, embryo vitrification, and cloning, as a result of collaborations with an array of remarkable people. This is a summary of some of the stories behind the studies. PMID:27158129

  5. Current progress on assisted reproduction in dogs and cats: in vitro embryo production

    OpenAIRE

    G.C. Luvoni

    2000-01-01

    International audience The objective of the development of assisted reproduction techniques in dogs and cats is their application to non-domestic canine and feline species, most of which are considered threatened or endangered. Among these techniques, an entirely in vitro system for embryo production is effectively an important tool for conservation of wildlife. In the last decade, progress has been made in embryo production in carnivores. It has been shown that canine oocytes can resume m...

  6. Quality of Life, Anxiety and Depression in Turkish Women Prior to Receiving Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Pinar; Hulusi Bulent Zeyneloglu

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the quality of life and anxiety-depression levels of patients prior to receiving assisted reproductive techniques. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted in the In-Vitro Fer¬tilization Unit of a private University’s Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Study participants consisted of 160 individuals diagnosed as infertile whose treatment plans were determined, as well as 160 reportedly healthy fertile indiv...

  7. NASA's southeast technology transfer alliance: A cooperative technology assistance initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Harry G.; Sheehan, William; Johnson, Anne

    1996-03-01

    Since 1958, NASA has been charged with actively assisting in the transfer of technologies derived from the United States space program into the industrial sector of the U.S. economy. This has historically been accomplished through technology transfer offices working independently at each NASA field center. NASA recently restructured the program to provide regional coordination, maximize efficiencies, eliminate redundancies, and capitalize on each center's fundamental technology strengths. The nation is divided into six NASA technology transfer geographical regions with each region containing one or more NASA field centers and a regional technology transfer center. The southeast region includes the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. The NASA field centers in this region are: the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama; the Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and the Stennis Space Center in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The centers have teamed to focus primarily on regional industries and businesses, to provide a wide range of resources for U.S. industries, including access to unique government facilities, regional workshops, and technical problem solving. Hundreds of American businesses have benefited from this new regional initiative, as evidenced by reports of over 10,500 added or saved jobs and over 988 million worth of economic impacts as a result of their technology transfer activities.

  8. Assistive Technology and Mathematics Education: Reports from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is a critical content area and assistive technology can benefit students with high incidence disabilities in accessing and achieving in this domain. Yet, the field lacks awareness of how often teachers use assistive technology in mathematics and what types of technology they are using. This study sought to understand teachers' self…

  9. Assistive Technologies to Empower Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The prevalence of ADHD is approximately 5-7% for all school age children and 2-3% for adults. The disorder is associated with both social and academic impairments, increased risk of criminal convictions, as well as poor quality of life. This signals a great loss for society......, and an even greater loss for the individual with ADHD, as this handicap will affect them for the rest of their lives. ADHD is a major societal challenge and the annual estimated societal cost of ADHD (for children) has been estimated to be up to $52.4 billion in the United States alone. The research objective...... of this dissertation has therefore been to contribute to the limited research on assistive technologies for the ADHD domain, in order to address the societal and personal challenges associated with ADHD. A design framework for the ADHD domain was developed through interdisciplinary collaborations with ADHD domain...

  10. Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... access to technology solutions. Learn more about our organization Upcoming CE Classes Nov 07 Power Mobility Driving Assessment: Formal and Informal Approaches Nov 18 Assistive Technology for Cognition in ...

  11. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  12. Assistive Technology and Learning Disabilities: Today's Realities and Tomorrow's Promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rena B.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys the current status of assistive technology for individuals with learning disabilities and considers future promises and potential problems. A model is presented for conceptualizing assistive technology in terms of the types of barriers it helps to surmount. Efficacy research is reviewed for word processing, computer-based instruction,…

  13. Assistive Technology for Persons with Physical Disabilities: Evaluation and Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigby, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a compilation of published studies that evaluated assistive technology interventions for children and adults with physical disabilities. The first chapter introduces the need for and the challenges involved in studying the outcomes of assistive technology interventions. The pers

  14. 心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿体格及精神运动发育状况的影响%Influence of psychological intervention on physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向红; 蒙顺好; 骆绮云; 陈玉珍; 于雯昶; 阙文清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of psychological intervention on the physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology. Methods 329 cases of ART born children in our hospital were set as the experimental group,the parturients were given pertinent psychological intervention.254 cases of children of spontaneous pregnancy were selected as the control group.The two groups were given follow-up for 24 months.Their physical condition at birth and psychomotor development during follow - up period were compared. Results Compared with the control group,length of infants at birth,body mass of the experimental group were significantly lower,and the incidence rate of premature birth,low birth weight,NICU stay during neonatal stage were higher.But there were no differences in psychomotor development between two groups. Conclusions ART born children of 24-month old show normal psychomotor development,but there are still more unfavorable physical factors,therefore,pertinent nursing intervention should be given based upon psychological intervention in clinic.%目的 探讨心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿的体格和精神运动发育状况的影响.方法 将利用现代辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)出生的329例婴儿列为实验组,并对其家长进行相应的心理干预;另选取同期出生的254例自然妊娠婴儿列为对照组.随访至24月龄,对2组婴儿出生时的体格状况及随访期的精神运动发育状况进行比较.结果 2组相比,实验组婴儿出生时的身长、体质量均显著低于对照组,而其早产、低出生体质量、新生儿期入住NICU等的发生率均显著高于对照组;但2组的精神运动发育指标比较无显著差异.结论 24个月内的ART婴儿精神运动发育正常,但其还存在着较多的体格不利因素,因此临床上应在结合心理干预的基础上予以针对性的措施.

  15. Global Health Care Justice, Delivery Doctors and Assisted Reproduction: Taking a Note From Catholic Social Teachings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This article will examine the Catholic concept of global justice within a health care framework as it relates to women's needs for delivery doctors in the developing world and women's demands for assisted reproduction in the developed world. I will first discuss justice as a theory, situating it within Catholic social teachings. The Catholic perspective on global justice in health care demands that everyone have access to basic needs before elective treatments are offered to the wealthy. After exploring specific discrepancies in global health care justice, I will point to the need for delivery doctors in the developing world to provide basic assistance to women who hazard many pregnancies as a priority before offering assisted reproduction to women in the developed world. The wide disparities between maternal health in the developing world and elective fertility treatments in the developed world are clearly unjust within Catholic social teachings. I conclude this article by offering policy suggestions for moving closer to health care justice via doctor distribution.

  16. The Role of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Razavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA is known to contribute one half of the genomic material to the offspring. The integrity of sperm DNA is important in fertilization, embryonic and fetal development, and postnatal child well being. The nature has created multiple barriers that allow only the fittest sperm to reach and fertilize an oocyte. However, assisted reproductive techniques (ART, like IVF and ICSI, may allow sperms with abnormal genomic material to enter the oocyte with minimal effort. This article describes structure of sperm DNA and different mechanism involved in sperm chromatin anomalies and DNA damage. Furthermore, this study elaborates possible sperm selection methods that may improve the outcome of ART.

  17. Risk Communication in Assisted Reproduction in Latvia: From Private Experience to Ethical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Signe Mezinska; Ilze Mileiko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the process of risk communication in the context of assisted reproduction in Latvia. The paper is based on a qualitative methodology and two types of data: media analysis and 30 semi-structured interviews (11 patients, 4 egg donors, 15 experts). The study explores a broad definition of risk communication and explores three types of risks: health, psychosocial, and moral. We ask (1), who is involved in risk communication, (2), how risks are discussed using d...

  18. Ethical issues and controversies in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J C

    1992-10-01

    The current ethical issues and controversies concerning in vitro fertilization revolve around micromanipulation of the gametes, cryopreservation of the fertilized ova, selective termination in multiple pregnancies, surrogacy, and gamete donation. At the basis of these ethical issues is the philosophic question of personhood, or the term "human person," and the consideration given to the normal weight that is ascribed to the various forms of living matter that are found in the process of development after human spermatozoa have been placed together with harvested oocytes in the petri dish. The papers of very special importance and special importance written during the past year on these ethical problems are listed and classified. The summaries of their arguments and positions on these problems are enumerated. PMID:1391649

  19. Influencing Factor Analysis of Different Ovarian Stimulation Programs on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Patients with Endometriosis%不同促排卵方案对子宫内膜异位症妊娠结局的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳兰; 曹云霞; 程玲慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of different varian stimulation programs on the pregnancy outcome of assisted reproductive technology in patients with endometriosis. Methods;262 cycles of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcomes in patients with endometriosis treated in First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Reproductive Medicine Center from January 2008 to March 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. According to different controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) programs, the cycles were divided into three groups, A group for the super prolonged therapy group, B group for the short-therapy group, C group for the prolonged therapy group. Patient age, infertility type, infertility duration, serum CA125 before down regulation, basic FSH, LH, E2 levels, basic sinus follicle numbers,Gn start dosage, Gn duration, Gn total dosage, E2, P, LH levels at retrieval day, endometrial thickness, retrieved numbers of oo-cyte, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rate, and the relationship of serum CA125 after down regulation in group A and the clinical pregnancy rate, were all compared among the three groups. Results:?The mean age of group B was older than that of group A and group C (P0. 05). ?The basic level of FSH, Gn start dosage, LH level on retrieval day for group 8 were higher than those for group A and C( P 20 KU/L (18.31% and 17.65%) (P<0. 05). Conclusions;For mild endometriosis, early diagnosis and choice of assisted reproductive technology can effectively increase the clinical pregnancy rate. For moderate and severe endometriosis, when choosing super prolonged therapy program, checking serum CA125 can assist the judgement of pregnancy rate.%目的:了解不同促排卵方案对行体外受精-胚胎移植( IVF-ET)子宫内膜异位症(EMT)患者妊娠结局的影响.方法:回顾性分析安徽医科大学第一附属医院生殖医学中心2008年1月至2010年3月因EMT行IVF-ET共262周期的临床资料,根据超促排卵方

  20. Care for the beginning of life. The revised Ethical and Religious Directives discuss abortion, contraception, and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBlois, J; O'Rourke, K D

    1995-01-01

    Part 4 of the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services--which discusses such controversial issues as abortion, contraception, and assisted reproduction--is informed by a profound respect for human life and the institution of marriage. The controversies are familiar. But many in Catholic healthcare may be less familiar with the principles underlying Church teaching on these issues. Appropriate interpretation and application of these directives require that all concerned be educated in both the theological-ethical and the clinical dimensions of care giving. Directives 38 through 43 deal with reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. Directives 52 and 53 express the Church's consistent teaching on contraceptive interventions. Directives 45 to 48, 50 to 51, and 54 reiterate the Church's firm stance on the inviolability of human life, including nascent human life. However, the directives also say that not all medical interventions resulting in fetal death are prohibited abortions. However, appropriate regard for human life, marriage, and the family require more than mere adherence to the directives' prescriptions and proscriptions. Ethics committees in Catholic healthcare should study clinical data as well as theological materials. PMID:10145132

  1. Use of assistive technologies in academic libraries: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manorama; Shukla, Archana

    2014-01-01

    The present article attempts to highlight the use of assistive technologies in academic libraries in India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. It dwells upon the use and importance of assistive technologies in general and their use for visually challenged learners in particular. Further, it gives suggestions for implementing assistive technologies in academic libraries for making visually challenged students self-reliant learners in accomplishing their academic and research pursuits. The present study adopted convenience sampling for collecting the data, which was collected between December 15, 2012 and January 18, 2013.

  2. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Iranian Infertile Males who are Candidates for Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Salahshourifar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study offers our contribution on the topic by a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in a population of Iranian infertile men attending assisted reproduction programs.Materials and Methods: Cytogenetic analysis was performed according to standard methods on cultured cells obtained from the patient peripheral blood. In all, 874 files belonging to male partner of each couple were classified as follows: azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality in respect of morphology and motility.Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 136(15.5% individuals of the whole population studied including 12.0 %, 1.2 % and 2.0% of azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality, respectively. Of those, 116 (13.2% had sex chromosome abnormalities and 20(2.3% had autosomal chromosome abnormalities.Conclusion: We observed high frequency of aneuploidy and sex chromosomal mosaicism in azoospermic men and high structural aberrations in males with low sperm quality. We suggested that type of chromosomal abnormalities had an inverse relation to sperm count. So that, high chromosomal aneuploidy was detected in males with lower sperm count and high structural aberration was detected in males with low sperm quality. Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of male infertility. Consequently, Genetic testing and counselling is indicated for infertile men with abnormal semen parameters with either abnormal karyotype or normal karyotype before applying assisted reproductive techniques.

  3. Are there optimal numbers of oocytes, spermatozoa and embryos in assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milachich, Tanya; Shterev, Atanas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this overview is to discuss the current information about the search for the optimum yield of gametes in assisted reproduction, as one of the major pillars of IVF success. The first topic is focused on the number of male gametes and the possible impact of some genetic traits on these parameters. The number of spermatozoa did not seem to be crucial when there is no severe male factor of infertility. Genetic testing prior to using those sperm cells is very important. Different methods were applied in order to elect the "best" spermatozoa according to specific indications. The next problem discussed is the importance of the number of oocytes collected. Several studies have agreed that "15 oocytes is the perfect number," as the number of mature oocytes is more important. However, if elective single embryo transfer is performed, the optimal number of oocytes will enable a proper embryo selection. The third problem discussed concerns fertility preservation. Many educational programs promote and encourage procreation at maternal ages between 20-35 years, since assisted reproduction is unable to fully overcome the effects of female aging and fertility loss after that age. It is also strongly recommended to ensure a reasonable number of cryopreserved mature oocytes, preferably in younger ages (strategy suggests the vitrification of good embryos, therefore quality is prior to number and patient recruitment for this strategy should be performed cautiously. PMID:27584608

  4. Investigation of nursing students’ and professional nurses’ attitudes towards ethical issues of assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balari C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Various ethical problems have emerged regarding Assisted Reproduction (AR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of nursing students and professional nurses against assisted reproduction with emphasis on current ethical issues.Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and Χ2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean age of nurses was 34,41±7,28 years old, while mean age of students was 21,83±3,07 years old. Nursing students are more receptive regarding cryopreserved human germ cells for future use, cloning of embryos and AR above 40 years of age. Conclusions: The attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students upon bioethical issues of AR are quite different. Nursing students seem more receptive against new methods of AR.

  5. New Technologies to Assist Training in Hospitality Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Sabah

    2007-01-01

    Hospitality sector needs new technological training tools, which can assist to improve sector employees' skills and services quality. The sector might be more interactive when these technological training tools used on the job-training program. This study addresses to issue of illumination of new technologic tools that enforce training in which…

  6. 34 CFR 300.6 - Assistive technology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistive technology service. 300.6 Section 300.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  7. 34 CFR 300.5 - Assistive technology device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistive technology device. 300.5 Section 300.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  8. Bodies of Knowledge in Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    -economic concerns about fulfilling desired fertility rates, maintaining high levels of human capital, and supporting fiscal and pension systems. This article investigates professionals addressing declining fertility through assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including doctors, demographers and economists...

  9. Conference examines technology-based assistive education for disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Better education for the disabled through technologies will be the focus of the second annual conference, "Making the Connections '05: Ideas in Assistive Technology and Augmentative Communication (AT and Aug Com)" sponsored by the Virginia Department of Education's (DOE) Training and Technical Assistance Center at Virginia Tech. The training sessions will be held on Thursday and Friday, June 23 and 24, at the Hotel Roanoke and Conference Center.

  10. Model of Providing Assistive Technologies in Special Education Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Chakpitak, Nopasit

    2015-01-01

    Most students diagnosed with disabilities in Thai special education schools received assistive technologies, but this did not guarantee the greatest benefits. The purpose of this study was to survey the provision, use and needs of assistive technologies, as well as the perspectives of key informants regarding a model of providing them in special education schools. The participants were selected by the purposive sampling method, and they comprised 120 students with visual, physical, hearing or...

  11. Abstracts from International Convention on Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology

    OpenAIRE

    KINTEX, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, 29-31 Aug 2013,

    2013-01-01

    This inaugural publication includes the abstracts of scientific papers and posts presented at the 7th annual International Convention on Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology (i-­‐CREATe), in Gyeonggi, Korea(Published: 28 August 2013)Citation: Journal of Assistive Rehabilitative & Therapeutic Technologies 2013, 1: 22501- http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jartt.v1i0.22501 Click here to download the Conference Program & the Paper/Poster presentation schedule. 

  12. Update on ventricular assist device technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mary A; Richards, Nancy M

    2009-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices are an important component in the arsenal of therapies to support the failing heart. This article provides an update on the variety of pulsatile, centrifugal, and axial-flow devices available in the United States. Common indications such as Bridge to Recovery and Bridge to Transplant are explored, as are the emerging indications Destination Therapy, Bridge to Decision, and Bridge to Bridge. Ventricular assist devices as support during high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention and the devices that can be rapidly deployed for this support are included. Clinical aspects of patient care including common complications, psychosocial concerns, and ethical considerations are reviewed. PMID:19174634

  13. Comparison of semen quality and outcome of assisted reproductive techniques in Chinese men with and without hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Ping Zhou; Xiao-ling Hu; Yi-Min Zhu; Fan Qu; Sai-Jun Sun; Yu-Li Qian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART). A total of 916 men (457 HBV-positive and 459 HBV-negative) seeking fertility assistance from January 2008 to December 2009 at the Women's Hospital in the School of Medicine at Zhejiang University were analysed for semen parameters. Couples in which the men were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-seropositive were categorized as HBV-positive and included 587 in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and 325 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles from January 2004 to December 2009; negative controls were matched for female age, date of ova retrieval, ART approach used (IVF or ICSI) and randomized in a ratio of 1:1 according to the ART treatment cycles (587 for IVF and 325 for ICSI). HBV-infected men exhibited lower semen volume, lower total sperm count as well as poor sperm motility and morphology (P0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that HBV infection independently contributed to increased rates of asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia/azoospermia (P<0.05) as well as decreased rates of implantation and clinical pregnancy in ICSI cycles (P<0.05). Our results suggest that HBV infection in men is associated with poor sperm quality and worse ICSI and embryo transfer outcomes but does not affect the outcome of IVF and embryo transfer.

  14. Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure

    OpenAIRE

    D. Elsner

    2006-01-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well‐being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproduct...

  15. Oxidative Stress and its Role in Female Infertility and Assisted Reproduction: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are involved in physiological functions and act as mediators invarious signaling processes. Elevated or sustained generation of free radicals and non radicalspecies derived from free radicals can lead to an imbalance in the intracellular redox homeostasis.Normally, any excess levels of reactive radical and nonradical species generated are interceptedby antioxidants. An excess of the free radicals however, can precipitate pathologies in thefemale reproductive tract. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in various pathological conditionssuch as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal teratogenecity, preterm labor andintrauterine growth retardation, all of which lead to an immense burden of maternal and fetal,morbidity and mortality. In addition evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in theproinflammatory changes seen with polycystic ovarian disease and also in the pathogenesisof endometriosis and tubal factor infertility. Our review captures the role of OS in assistedreproduction specifically in in vitro fertilization (IVF/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI and in vitro maturation of oocytes (IVM. We also examine the role antioxidants playin modifying the fertility outcomes with assisted reproductive techniques. Finally in vivo andin vitro strategies to modulate the influence of ROS and establish an optimal redox state arealso discussed.

  16. Marital stability and quality in families created by assisted reproduction techniques: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, L; Casey, P; Jadva, V; Golombok, S

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of children are being born with the use of assisted reproduction techniques such as donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy. There have been concerns that the use of these third-party reproduction techniques may have a negative effect on the quality of the relationship between the mother and father. Marital stability and quality was examined in a UK sample of donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy families and families in which children were naturally conceived. Interview and questionnaire assessments of marital stability and quality were collected from mothers and fathers over five time points, when the children in the families were aged 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10. Of those families who participated when children were 10years old, a minority of couples in each family type had divorced/separated and few differences emerged between the different family types in terms of mothers' or fathers' marital quality. Despite concerns, couples in families created by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy were found to be functioning well.

  17. Regulating Lesbian Motherhood: Gender, Sexuality and Medically Assisted Reproduction in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.

  18. Audio reproduction for personal ambient home assistance: concepts and evaluations for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Rainer; Meis, Markus; Klink, Karin; Bartsch, Christian; Bitzer, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Within the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (GAL), a personal activity and household assistant (PAHA), an ambient reminder system, has been developed. One of its central output modality to interact with the user is sound. The study presented here evaluated three different system technologies for sound reproduction using up to five loudspeakers, including the "phantom source" concept. Moreover, a technology for hearing loss compensation for the mostly older users of the PAHA was implemented and evaluated. Evaluation experiments with 21 normal hearing and hearing impaired test subjects were carried out. The results show that after direct comparison of the sound presentation concepts, the presentation by the single TV speaker was most preferred, whereas the phantom source concept got the highest acceptance ratings as far as the general concept is concerned. The localization accuracy of the phantom source concept was good as long as the exact listening position was known to the algorithm and speech stimuli were used. Most subjects preferred the original signals over the pre-processed, dynamic-compressed signals, although processed speech was often described as being clearer. PMID:25148557

  19. Toward a Theory of Technologically Assisted Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, John W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes results from theory, research, and practice in technological assisted language instruction aiming toward an integrated theory of what will be available in this area in the 21st century. The study focuses on conceptualizing the use of advanced technologies in language instruction. (25 references) (Author/CK)

  20. Clinical analysis on preterm birth related factors and premature outcomes in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies and spontaneous pregnancies%辅助生殖技术妊娠和自然妊娠早产相关因素及早产儿结局临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 杨晓葵; 张为远

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the primary factors of preterm birth and birth outcomes of preterm neonates in assisted reproductive technology ( ART) pregnancies and spontaneous pregnancies .Methods The data of 223 ART pregnancies with premature delivery and 5 677 natural pregnancies with premature delivery hospitalized in Beijing Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital affiliated of Capital Medical University from October 2010 to May 2012 were analyzed retrospectively ,general maternal characteristics , pregnancy complications , delivery weeks , mode of delivery , premature weight , Apgar scores and perinatal outcomes of two groups were compared.Results The proportion of elderly parturient women was higher in ART group ( single birth pregnancy 39.8 %, twin pregnancy 26.2 %) than natural pregnancies group ( single birth pregnancy 14.8 %,twin pregnancy 13.3 % ) ( P0.05).The Apgar scores of the two groups had no significant difference (P>0.05).Cesarean delivery was the main delivery mode in both groups .Cesarean section rate of ART group was higher than spontaneous pregnancy group , and cesarean section rate in twin pregnancies was higher , the differences were significant ( P<0.05 ) .Hypertensive disorder , placentae abruption , breech presentation and low birth weight were the main risk factors of poor birth outcomes in preterm neonates .Conclusion Preterm birth and birth outcomes of preterm neonates were related with pregnancy complications and delivery complications , rather than pregnancy pattern .%目的:探讨辅助生殖技术( assisted reproductive technology , ART)助孕妊娠和自然妊娠孕妇发生早产的主要因素及早产儿出生结局的相关影响因素。方法选择2010年10月至2012年5月在首都医科大学附属北京妇产医院分娩的行 ART 助孕妊娠的早产孕妇223例和同期分娩的自然受孕早产孕妇5677例进行回顾性分析,比较ART妊娠早产孕妇与自然妊娠早产孕妇的妊娠合并症及并发症、

  1. The effect of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on stress in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technlogy (ART) treatment: A randomized controlled pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Signe Maria Schneevoigt; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary; Zachariae, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    -related stress. Our aim was to assess feasibility and effectiveness of EWI for patients in treatment with Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Design and participants. Patients enrolling in their first ART treatment at the fertility clinic, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark were offered to participate....... A total of 82 participants (45 women, 37 men), mean age: 33.17, were randomized to home-based EWI or neutral writing control group and completed an infertility-related stress questionnaire at treatment enrollment, 3 weeks later (at the time of down regulation), and 6 weeks after the intervention...

  2. Canadian Policy and Aging in Place: The Importance of Assistive Technology and Information and Communication Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Waldoch, Catherine Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This capstone project critically analyzes Canadian policy initiatives and aging in place in relation to the enhancement of home and community services through the implementation of assistive technology and information and communication technology. A review of the literature reveals that policy and funding arrangements may be impeding the delivery of health and community care services and the accessibility of assistive technology and information and communication technology that support aging ...

  3. ESHRE guideline: routine psychosocial care in infertility and medically assisted reproduction-a guide for fertility staffdagger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameiro, S.; Boivin, J.; Dancet, E.; Klerk, C. de; Emery, M.; Lewis-Jones, C.; Thorn, P.; Broeck, U. Van den; Venetis, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Wischmann, T.; Vermeulen, N.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Based on the best available evidence in the literature, what is the optimal management of routine psychosocial care at infertility and medically assisted reproduction (MAR) clinics? SUMMARY ANSWER: Using the structured methodology of the Manual for the European Society of Human Repro

  4. Oral contraceptive pill, progestogen or estrogen pre-treatment for ovarian stimulation protocols for women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, B.; Oirschot, S.M. van; Farquhar, C.; Rombauts, L.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many subfertile women, assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is the only hope for a pregnancy and live birth. The combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) given prior to the hormone therapy in an IVF cycle may result in better pregnancy outcomes of ART. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether p

  5. Efficient blastomere biopsy for mouse embryo splitting for future applications in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to establish a safe, efficient biopsy procedure for embryo splitting using the mouse model for future applications in human assisted reproduction. From mouse embryos at the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell stage, half the number of blastomeres were microsurgically biopsied and transferred into empty mouse zonae pellucidae. Twin embryonic development was monitored during in-vitro culture. Blastocyst developmental rate using 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-cell splitting was 74.4, 75.0, 66.7 and 38.4 respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 94.9, 97.5, 92.7 and 83.8%. Blastocysts from 2-, 4-, and 6-cell splitting resulted in elevated hatching rates compared with non-operated blastocysts (87.5%), due to the Tyrode-assisted hatching effect. Blastocyst morphology was superior from 2- and 4-cell splitting when compared with 6- and 8-cell splitting. Furthermore, outgrowth of twin blastocysts from 2- and 4-cell splitting showed well-developed colonies with trophoblast cells and clusters of ICM cells, whereas those obtained from 6- and 8-cell splitting frequently formed small-sized colonies. Due to the high twinning success rate obtained under the experimental conditions employed in this study, it appears that with further modifications and proper safeguards, such embryo splitting efforts could have potential applications in humans.

  6. Progress of the European Assistive Technology Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Valerio; Andrich, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    The European Assistive Technology Information Network (EASTIN), launched in 2005 as the result of a collaborative EU project, provides information on Assistive Technology products and related material through the website www.eastin.eu. In the past few years several advancements have been implemented on the EASTIN website thanks to the contribution of EU funded projects, including a multilingual query processing component for supporting non expert users, a user rating and comment facility, and a detailed taxonomy for the description of ICT based assistive products. Recently, within the framework of the EU funded project Cloud4All, the EASTIN information system has also been federated with the Unified Listing of assistive products, one of the building blocks of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure initiative. PMID:26294498

  7. AMH and AMHR2 Polymorphisms and AMH Serum Level Can Predict Assisted Reproduction Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Peluso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In human assisted reproduction, the ovarian response to exogenous recombinant Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH therapy is variable and difficult to predict. The standard protocol of ovarian hyperstimulation can result in satisfactory response; however, an unsatisfactory response necessitates FSH dose adjustment or results in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Polymorphisms in AMH and AMHR2 genes appear to affect hormone biological activities, thus affecting follicle recruitment and development, leading to infertility. We aimed to evaluate AMH and AMHR2 polymorphisms in infertile women, and correlate those findings with AMH, FSH and estradiol serum level response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, as well as assisted reproduction outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 186 infertile women that underwent one cycle of high complexity assisted reproductive treatment. Blood samples were collected and a TaqMan assay was used for AMH G146T/rs10407022 and AMHR2 A-482G/rs2002555, A10G/rs11170555, C1749G/rs2071558 and G4952A/rs3741664 genotyping, and FSH, estradiol and AMH levels were measured. The findings were correlated to human reproduction outcomes. Results: AMH rs10407022 and AMHR2 rs2002555 polymorphisms were not associated with hormonal measurements, whereas AMHR2 rs11170555 and rs3741664 were positively associated with AMH, estradiol and FSH levels. The genotype distribution of AMH and AMHR2 genes according to Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation did not show a positive association. However, an association with AFC, degree of oocyte maturation (allele G of AMHR2 rs2071558 the number of embryos produced (alleles T and G of AMH rs10407022 and AMHR2 rs2002555, respectively and frozen embryo (allele G of AMHR2 rs11170555 were found to be statistically associated. Considering COH, serum AMH and AFC were a positive predictor to OHSS. Regarding serum AMH and assisted reproduction outcomes, a positive correlation

  8. 人工助孕子代的体格和神经心理发育研究进展%Growth of the children conceived by assisted reproduction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思锐

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the physiological and psychological state of the children conceived by different assisted reproduction techniques,studies confirm that the current assisted reproductive technology is safe,and there is no adverse effect on the physiological and psychological state of offspring.However,the high multiple pregnancy rate caused by assisted reproductive technology can affect the growth and psychological state of the children conceived by different assisted reproduction techniques,which is to be resolved.%该文分析不同人工助孕技术出生的子代体格和神经心理发育情况,证实目前人工助孕技术是安全的,对子代的生理以及心理无不良影响产生.但是人工助孕技术导致的多胎妊娠率增高是影响子代生长发育和神经心理发育状况的重要因素,需要相应的解决措施.

  9. The cumulative effect of assisted reproduction procedures on placental development and epigenetic perturbations in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Eric; Vrooman, Lisa A; Fischer, Erin; Ord, Teri; Mainigi, Monica A; Coutifaris, Christos; Schultz, Richard M; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2015-12-15

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are associated with several complications including low birth weight, abnormal placentation and increased risk for rare imprinting disorders. Indeed, experimental studies demonstrate ART procedures independent of existing infertility induce epigenetic perturbations in the embryo and extraembryonic tissues. To test the hypothesis that these epigenetic perturbations persist and result in adverse outcomes at term, we assessed placental morphology and methylation profiles in E18.5 mouse concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF) in two different genetic backgrounds. We also examined embryo transfer (ET) and superovulation procedures to ascertain if they contribute to developmental and epigenetic effects. Increased placental weight and reduced fetal-to-placental weight ratio were observed in all ART groups when compared with naturally conceived controls, demonstrating that non-surgical embryo transfer alone can impact placental development. Furthermore, superovulation further induced overgrowth of the placental junctional zone. Embryo transfer and superovulation defects were limited to these morphological changes, as we did not observe any differences in epigenetic profiles. IVF placentae, however, displayed hypomethylation of imprinting control regions of select imprinted genes and a global reduction in DNA methylation levels. Although we did not detect significant differences in DNA methylation in fetal brain or liver samples, rare IVF concepti displayed very low methylation and abnormal gene expression from the normally repressed allele. Our findings suggest that individual ART procedures cumulatively increase placental morphological abnormalities and epigenetic perturbations, potentially causing adverse neonatal and long-term health outcomes in offspring.

  10. Live birth and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease receiving assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Larsen, P V; Fedder, J;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the chance of live births and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared with women without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This was a nationwide...... cohort study based on Danish health registries, comprising all women with an embryo transfer during 1 January 1994 through 2013. The cohorts comprised 1360 ART treatments in 432 women with UC, 554 ART treatments in 182 women with CD and 148 540 treatments in 52 489 women without IBD. Our primary outcome.......92), but not significantly reduced in the full model of ART treatments in women with CD (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.14). Surgery for CD before ART treatment significantly reduced the chance of live birth for each embryo transfer (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.91). In children conceived through ART treatment by women with UC...

  11. Technology Survey Assistance Tool Focusing on Their Advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Risa; Takeuchi, Hironori; Watanabe, Hideo; Nasukawa, Tetsuya

    It is important for R&D managers, consultants, and other people seeking broad knowledge in technology fields to survey technical literature such as research papers, white papers, and technology news articles. One of the important kinds of information for those people regards the effectiveness of new technologies in their own businesses. General search engines are good at selecting documents revealing the details of a specific technology or a technology field, but it is hard to obtain useful information about how a technology will apply to individual business cases from such search results. There is a need for a technology survey assistance tool that helps users find technologies with suitable capabilities. In this paper, two technical tasks were tackled to develop the prototype of this assistance tool: Extraction of advantage phrases and scoring for the advantage phrases to find novel applications in the target technology field. We describe a new method to identify advantage phrases in technical documents and our scoring function that gives higher scores to novel applications of the technology. The results of evaluations showed our phrase identification method with only a few phrasal patterns performs almost as well as human annotators, and the proposed scoring conforms better to the decisions made by professionals than random sort.

  12. 男性血清抗苗勒管激素水平对辅助生殖结局的预测价值%Anti-Müllerian hormone in male serum and prediction of the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁锋; 李予; 陈静华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate male serum anti-Müillerian hormone (AMH) in assessing semen quality and predicting the pregnancy outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Methods: A total of 103 male patients under ICSI were allotted to Groups A (normal sperm concentration control, n = 29), B (oligospermia, n = 27), C (obstructive azoospermia, n = 29) and D (non-obstructive azoospermia, n = 18 ). The contents of serum AMH and other related sexual hormones were determined by ELISA,and their correlations were analyzed with the seminal quality on the day of semen collection and with the pregnancy outcomes after ICSI.Results: The contents of male serum AMH were (5.03 ± 0.44), (3.70 ± 0.44), (5.39 ± 0.71) and (7.31 ± 1.64) pmol/L,respectively, in Groups A, B, C and D, with no statistically significant differences among the four groups ( F = 2.02, P > 0.05).The egg fertilization rate of the 103 couples was (76.13 ± 23.66) %, not significantly correlated with the male serum AMH level (P > 0.05). The contents of male serum AMH in the pregnancy and non-pregnancy groups were (6.19 ± 1.05) and (4.72 ± 1.64)pmol/L, respectively, with no significant difference ( t = 1. 281, P > 0.05). Conclusion: The level of male serum AMH can neither reflect spermatogenesis of men nor predict the egg fertilization rate and pregnancy outcomes after ICSI, and therefore cannot be used alone as a serological predictive marker of ICSI outcomes.%目的:探讨男性血清抗苗勒管激素(AMH)对精液质量及人工助孕妊娠结局的预测价值.方法:103例行卵细胞质内单精子注射(ICSI)治疗的男性患者,分为精于浓度正常组(29例)、少精子症组(27例)、梗阻性无精子症组(29例)和非梗阻性无精子症组(18例),采用ELISA法检测男性血清AMH及其他相关性激素水平,结合其取精当天精液质量及助孕后妊娠结局进行分析.结果:①34组不同精液质量血清AMH含量分别为(5.03±0.44)、(3.70±0.44)、(5.39±0

  13. Male reproductive health and yoga

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice cel...

  14. Commercialization of Plasma-Assisted Technologies: The Indian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, P. I.

    The paper describes an initiative by the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in establishing links with the Indian industry for developing and commercialising advanced plasma-based industrial technologies. This has culminated in the creation of a self-financing technology development, incubation, demonstration and delivery facility. A business plan for converting the knowledge base to commercially viable technologies conceived technology as a product and the industry as the market and addressed issues like resistance to new technologies, the key role of entrepreneur, thrust areas and the necessity of technology incubation and delivery. Success of this strategy is discussed in a few case studies. We conclude by identifying the cost, environmental, strategic and techno-economic aspects, which would be the prime drivers for plasma-assisted manufacturing technology in India.

  15. Towards Universally Designed Assistive Technology E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to provide Assistive Technology (AT) professionals involved in the area of education and training with a set of reusable technological tools and techniques that will enable them to increase the reach, efficiency, effectiveness and accessibility of their training through online delivery. There are a number of broadly accepted reasons why an organisation in any field might choose to make training available online or partially online (blended) rather than relying ...

  16. 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann; Dong, Hua

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14), incorporating the 11th Cambridge Workshop on Rehabilitation Robotics, held in Cambridge, England in March 2016. It presents novel and state-of-the-art research from an international group of leaders in the fields of universal access and assistive technology. It explores various issues including the reconciliation of usability, accessibility and inclusive design, the design of inclusive assistive and rehabilitation systems, measuring product demand and human capabilities, data mining and visualizing inclusion, legislation in inclusive design, and situational inclusive interfaces (automotive and aerospace). This book provides an invaluable resource to researchers, postgraduates, design practitioners, therapists and clinical practitioners, as well as design teachers.

  17. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  18. Assessment Models and Software Support for Assistive Technology Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Len; Sanche, Bob

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews requirements for considering the need for assistive technology (AT) services within the Individualized Education Program process and highlights the importance of collaborative teamwork. Current AT models are described, along with the AT Co-Planner. The use of a software version of the model is discussed. (Contains references.)…

  19. Implementation of Assistive Computer Technology: A Model for School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Many researchers conclude that assistive computer technology (ACT) has the potential for improving educational outcomes and improving the quality of life for those with disabilities (Blackhurst & Edyburn, 2000; Fisher & Frey 2001; Lewis, 1993; Lindsey, 1993). While it is recognized that ACT can have a positive impact on learning for students with…

  20. Creating an Assistive Technology Outcomes Measurement System: Validating the Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edyburn, Dave L.; Smith, Roger O.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of assistive technology (AT) outcomes has only recently received attention in the professional literature. As a result, there is a considerable void in the profession's ability to address contemporary questions about the value and use of AT. The purpose of this article is to highlight the theory, development, and research efforts of the…

  1. Effective Assistive Technology Consideration and Implications for Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vita L.; Hinesmon-Matthews, Lezlee J.

    2014-01-01

    Often the consideration of assistive technology devices and services during the individualized education program (IEP) process is overlooked. Because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) authorized this consideration, IEP team members must be keenly aware of the importance they hold in providing this valuable input. Thus, IEP…

  2. The Role of Assistive Technology in Self-Perceived Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D.; Woodgate, Roberta L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of how assistive technology (AT) contributes to self-perceived participation for individuals with spinal cord injuries and to propose a revised definition of AT in light of the findings. A grounded theory study of 19 adults with spinal cord injuries was conducted. Participants engaged in…

  3. Framework for dementia Quality of Life assessment with Assistive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for a Quality of Life (QOL) evaluation tool that is sensitive, flexible, computerized, and specific to assistive technology (AT) for dementia care. Using the appropriate evaluation tool serves to improve methodologies that are used for AT assessment...

  4. 高龄不孕患者不同辅助生殖技术的胚胎发育情况及妊娠结局分析%Analysis of Embryonic Development and Pregnancy Outcomes in Elderly Infertile Women Undergoing Different Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琳; 陈秀娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨年龄因素对高龄不孕患者接受辅助生殖技术(ART)后胚胎发育情况及妊娠结局的影响。方法选择2013年7月至2014年1月于内蒙古医科大学附属医院生殖中心行体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)及卵胞浆内单精子显微注射(ICSI)的不孕患者155例为研究对象,共计184个周期。按照年龄,将纳入患者分为3组:Ⅰ组(n =67,周期数为63,35岁≤年龄0.05)。本研究遵循的程序符合内蒙古医科大学附属医院人体试验委员会制定的伦理学标准,得到该委员会批准,分组征得受试对象知情同意,并与之签署临床研究知情同意书。结果①Ⅲ组接受 IVF-ET 和 ICSI 者的新鲜胚胎妊娠率较Ⅰ组显著降低,且差异有统计学意义(P 0.05)。3组间接受 IVF-ET 和 ICSI 者的冷冻胚胎妊娠率及胚胎冷冻率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。②Ⅲ组妊娠率与胚胎种植率均较Ⅰ组及Ⅱ组显著降低,且差异均有统计学意义(P 0.05);3组间受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率、优质胚胎移植率、自然流产率及活婴出生率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。③相同 ART 下,3组间受精率、卵裂率及优质胚胎率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论年龄因素可影响高龄不孕患者胚胎着床及妊娠成功。%Objective To analyze factor of age effect on embryonic development and pregnancy outcomes in elderly infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive technology(ART).Methods A total of 1 55 infertile patients who were undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET)and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI ) in Reproductive Medical Center,Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University from July 2013 to January 2014 were chosen as study subjects,and total cycles were 184.According to age,they were divided into three groups:group Ⅰ(n=67,63 cycles,35 years old≤age0.05).The study protocol was approved by the Ethical

  5. Round-table multidisciplinary counselling of couples with HIV prior to assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin, Sibil; Steimann, Sabine; Bitzer, Johannes; Hösli, Irene; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Elzi, Luigia; Klimkait, Thomas; Rudin, Christoph; Battegay, Manuel; De Geyter, Christian

    2008-08-01

    Assisted reproduction is used to support couples with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in achieving pregnancy without compromising the health of the partner or the offspring. This complex situation requires a joint effort by experts from different medical fields over prolonged periods. In order to fulfil all requirements, a comprehensive multidisciplinary counselling approach was initiated through round-table conventions of experts together with individual couples. The aim of this novel approach was an informed sharing of responsibility in the decision-making process, and also to ensure the adherence of the couples. The experts' and the couples' experience of the multidisciplinary meetings was evaluated using structured questionnaires. A total of 34 couples were referred, 15 with the male partner HIV infected, 15 with the female partner infected, four with both partners infected. Twenty-two couples participated in the multidisciplinary counselling. Three couples withdrew after counselling. Fourteen pregnancies were achieved leading to the birth of eight children. The experts viewed the panel's composition and the decision-making process as valuable, necessary and beneficial to the couples. The responding couples considered the meetings to be clarifying and helpful and they felt respected. It is concluded that the round-table multidisciplinary meeting approach is a feasible option for HIV-affected couples with infertility.

  6. The Chromosomal Constitution of Embryos Arising from Monopronuclear Oocytes in Programmes of Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Rosenbusch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of oocytes showing only one pronucleus during assisted reproduction is associated with uncertainty. A compilation of data on the genetic constitution of different developmental stages shows that affected oocytes are able to develop into haploid, diploid, and mosaic embryos with more or less complex chromosomal compositions. In the majority of cases (~80%, haploidy appears to be caused by gynogenesis, whereas parthenogenesis or androgenesis is less common. Most of the diploid embryos result from a fertilization event involving asynchronous formation of the two pronuclei or pronuclear fusion at a very early stage. Uniparental diploidy may sometimes occur if one pronucleus fails to develop and the other pronucleus already contains a diploid genome or alternatively a haploid genome undergoes endoreduplication. In general, the chance of obtaining a biparental diploid embryo appears higher after conventional in vitro fertilization than after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. If a transfer of embryos obtained from monopronuclear oocytes is envisaged, it should be tried to culture them up to the blastocyst since most haploid embryos are not able to reach this stage. Comprehensive counselling of patients on potential risks is advisable before transfer and a preimplantation genetic diagnosis could be offered if available.

  7. Reproductive technologies as social innovations in the system of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Viktorovna Nifantova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to such important problem as Russians’ reproductive health worsening that defines health of posterity and viability of generations, and appreciably impacts on the birth rate. Statistics of contraception among women of reproductive age, statistics of induced abortions occurrence, statistics of primary, and secondary infertility are investigated. Data of Public Opinion Foundation on problems of child-free marriages and reproductive rights of citizens are given. Results of medical, scientific centers about additional reproductive technologies practice such as in vitro fertilization (EKO, surrogate motherhood, etc. are shown. The importance of state support of these technologies and liberalization of legal control of the realization of a desire to be parents as the most important tool of demographic policy is emphasized. The questions of raising the public importance of family planning, sex education, family and moral values among young formation, healthy lifestyle, responsible motherhood and paternity are explored in the article.

  8. Can we modify assisted reproductive technology practice to broaden reproductive care access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Richard J; Fauser, Bart C J M; Vuong, Lan T N; Doody, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    One of the barriers to access to fertility care is the relative complexity of fertility treatments. If these can be simplified, more patients may be able to take advantage of these treatments. In this overview, we review the potential benefits of simplifying ovarian stimulation by the means of four distinct methods: 1) using mild stimulation for IVF cycles; 2) using in vitro maturation to allow for the retrieval of oocytes that are not yet fully mature yet have the potential to result in live births; 3) conducting IVF in modified natural cycles which use no exogenous FSH stimulation; and 4) allowing embryo culture to take place in a novel intravaginal incubation system. These methods are considered to be somewhat unconventional, yet they have all been shown to lead to live births. In the era of individualized patient care, these techniques present viable alternatives to standard treatment. As experience and outcome data accumulate, they may prove to be not just alternatives to standard treatment, but potentially first-line treatment choices. PMID:27054309

  9. Assistive technology for visually impaired women for use of the female condom: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Duarte Wanderley Cavalcante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To validate assistive technology for visually impaired women to learn how to use the female condom. METHOD a methodological development study conducted on a web page, with data collection between May and October 2012. Participants were 14 judges; seven judges in sexual and reproductive health (1st stage and seven in special education (2nd stage. RESULTS All items have reached the adopted parameter of 70% agreement. In Stage 1 new materials were added to represent the cervix, and instructions that must be heard twice were included in the 2nd stage. CONCLUSION The technology has been validated and is appropriate for its objectives, structure / presentation and relevance. It is an innovative, low cost and valid instrument for promoting health and one which may help women with visual disabilities to use the female condom.

  10. Expected Reliability of Everyday- and Ambient Assisted Living Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steinke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To receive valuable information about expected reliability in everyday technologies compared to Ambient Assisted Living (AAL technologies, an online survey was conducted including five everyday (train, dishwasher, navigation system, computer, mobile phone and three AAL (stove, window, floor sensors technologies. The age range of the 206 participants (109 men; 97 female was from 14 to 88 years (mean=38.0. The descriptive analysis indicates expected reliabilities of more than 90% for most technologies. Only train punctuality is considered as less reliable with a mean expected reliability of 86%. Furthermore, by using t-tests it can be shown that the three AAL technologies are expected to have a higher reliability than the everyday technologies. Additionally, a sample split at the age of 50 years indicates that elderly participants expect that technologies have a higher reliability than younger participants do. Using these findings, in a next step an experiment with different reliability levels of AAL technologies will be designed. This differentiation will be used to measure the influence of reliability on trust and intention to use in context of Ambient Assisted Living.

  11. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources.

  12. Dilemas de la reproducción asistida Dilemmas in assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zegers-Hochschild

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La Fecundación In Vitro (FIV y la Transferencia de Gametos a la Trompa de Falopio (GIFT han hecho posible el nacimiento de cientos de miles de niños. Estas tecnologías han puesto al hombre frente a frente a la posibilidad de intervenir en los inicios de su propia existencia. La pregunta es si aquello que es científica y técnicamente factible es bueno para el hombre. La respuesta requiere de una reflexión multidisciplinaria. La filosofía, la bioética y las distintas corrientes religiosas tienen un grano de arena que aportar a este gran desafío.Modern reproductive technologies, particularly in vitro fertilization (IVF and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT, have made possible the establishment of new families through the birth of hundreds of thousands of children worldwide. Meanwhile, these technologies have compelled men to face the possibility of intervening at the very origins of their own biological existence, hence creating doubts and questions beyond the domain of medical science. Society is now asking itself whether all that is scientifically and technically possible is necessarily beneficial to mankind. The answer to this question is not to be found in biological science alone, but instead requires multidisciplinary reflection including all forms of knowledge: philosophical, bioethical, and religious, all contributing to the unavoidable adventure that we are endowed with in the search for a better life.

  13. Good Parents, Better Babies : An Argument about Reproductive Technologies, Enhancement and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Malmqvist, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the bioethical debate about new and possibly emerging reproductive technologies. Its point of departure is the intuition, which many people seem to share, that using such technologies to select non-disease traits – like sex and emotional stability - in yet unborn children is morally problematic, at least more so than using the technologies to avoid giving birth to children with severe genetic diseases, or attempting to shape the non-disease traits of already ex...

  14. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patel; Bayard Roberts; Samantha Guy; Louise Lee-Jones; Lesong Conteh

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Reproductive health concerns the bodily functions and systems that are involved in conceiving and bearing offspring. A reproductively healthy person is able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and to reproduce if and when they chose to do so. More specifically, to ensure their reproductive health, both men and women need access to safe and effective birth control methods, they need to know how to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/AI...

  15. Refractive Error and Fixation Conditions of Infants Born by Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate the refractive error and oculomotor conditions of infants born by assisted reproductive techniques (ART in patients referring to Royan Institute as well as Child Health and Development Center.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 ART-exposed infants aged less than 9 months were tested by retinoscopy, fixation conditions, Hirschberg and Doll's eye maneuver.Results: The average refractive error of these infants shows hyperopic Shift +0.9±1.1 D. The average astigmatism recorded in these infants is -0.6±0.6D. The prevalence of refractive errors in these infants is myopia 6%, hyperopia 85% and emmetropia 9%. Impairment of fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll's eye maneuver was respectively observed in 20.4, 1.4 and 3.7% of the studied infants.Conclusion Given the sensitivities in the visual system development process and critical period which is important for every infant in the very first months of birth, it seems that visual-ocular studies are more important in ART-exposed infants who were exposed to different factors until their birth. The results of refractive errors, fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll’s head maneuver which was conducted in this study for these infants reveal that, it is likely that visual impairment in these infants is higher than the results of foreign studies. However, lack of access to population studies in infants below 1 year of age in Iran necessitates more extensive studies and follow-ups of vision of ART-exposed infants more seriously.

  16. Can Male Fertility Be Improved Prior to Assisted Reproduction through The Control of Uncommonly Considered Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M.Campagne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor infertility or subfertility is responsible for up to 50% of infertility cases. A considerablebody of recent studies indicates that lifestyle as well as environmental and psychological factorscan negatively affect male fertility, more than previously thought. These negative effects have beenshown in many cases to be reversible. This review aims to provide a rationale for early clinicalattention to these factors and presents a non-exhaustive evidence-based collection of primaryrelevant conditions and recommendations, specifically with a view to making first line diagnosticsand recommendations. The presently available evidence suggests that considering the high cost,success rates, and possible side effects of assisted reproduction techniques (ART, such as in vitrofertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, early efforts to improve malefertility appear to be an attainable and worthwhile primary goal.A series of searches was conducted of Medline, Cochrane and related databases from November14th, 2010 to January 26th, 2012 with the following keywords: male, fertility, infertility, spermdefects, IVF, ICSI, healthy habits, and lifestyle. Subsequent follow-up searches were performed forupcoming links. The total number of studies contemplated were 1265; of these, 296 studies werereviewed with criteria of relevance; the date of study or review; study sample size and study type;and publishing journal impact status. Data were abstracted based upon probable general clinicalrelevancy and use. Only a selection of the references has been reflected here because of spacelimitations. The main results obtained were evidence-supported indications as to the other causes ofmale infertility, their early detection, and treatment.

  17. Assisted reproductive techniques and the risk of anorectal malformations: a German case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwink Nadine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART for treatment of infertility is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, various health effects have been reported including a higher risk of congenital malformations. Therefore, we assessed the risk of anorectal malformations (ARM after in-vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Methods Data of the German Network for Congenital Uro-REctal malformations (CURE-Net were compared to nationwide data of the German IVF register and the Federal Statistical Office (DESTATIS. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were determined to quantify associations using multivariable logistic regression accounting for potential confounding or interaction by plurality of births. Results In total, 295 ARM patients born between 1997 and 2011 in Germany, who were recruited through participating pediatric surgeries from all over Germany and the German self-help organisation SoMA, were included. Controls were all German live-births (n = 10,069,986 born between 1997 and 2010. Overall, 30 cases (10% and 129,982 controls (1% were born after IVF or ICSI, which translates to an odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 8.7 (5.9–12.6 between ART and ARM in bivariate analyses. Separate analyses showed a significantly increased risk for ARM after IVF (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 6.2–19.0; P  Conclusions There is a strongly increased risk for ARM among children born after ART. Elevations of risk were seen after both IVF and ICSI. Further, separate analyses of patients with isolated ARM, ARM with associated anomalies and those with a VATER/VACTERL association showed increased risks in each group. An increased risk of ARM was also seen among both singletons and multiple births.

  18. Assistive technology and passengers with special assistance needs in air transport: contributions to cabin design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Campese

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been significant growth in air transport worldwide, as well as in Brazil. However, studies have emphasized that disabled, obese, and elderly passengers face difficulties when using this means of transport. Among these difficulties, issues related to passengers’ own assistive devices, including damage, loss, or the impossibility of using during the entire flight, stand out. Therefore, the present study aims to understand the trends in assistive technology focusing on cabin design. This research is based upon literature review, interviews with manufacturers and research centers, visits to specialized trade fairs, and patent search. The results revealed a great diversity of assistive products, its trends, and an increase in their use, which affect aircraft cabin design, especially in terms of space, access, and stowage of these devices.

  19. Barriers and Facilitators to Community Mobility for Assistive Technology Users

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Layton

    2012-01-01

    Mobility is frequently described in terms of individual body function and structures however contemporary views of disability also recognise the role of environment in creating disability. Aim. To identify consumer perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators to optimal mobility for a heterogeneous population of impaired Victorians who use assistive technology in their daily lives. Method. An accessible survey investigated the impact of supports or facilitators upon actual and desired lif...

  20. Assistive technology and employment: experiences of Californians with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Patricia; Kaye, H Stephen; Reed, Myisha; Doe, Tanis M

    2006-01-01

    For people with disabilities, work remains the best route to independence and enacting one's own choices. Assistive technology (AT) is often crucial in removing barriers to employment, and in enabling workers with disabilities to work more productively. A participatory action research project known as Community Research for Assistive Technology surveyed people with disabilities using Independent Living Centers throughout California, in part to identify barriers to employment and study use of job-related AT to overcome such barriers. Across disability groups, disability itself was cited as the primary barrier to employment, with potential loss of benefits and lack of education cited as secondary barriers. A majority of working respondents reported using assistive technology (such as adapted telephones, wheelchairs, magnifiers, and adapted computer equipment) or services to perform job functions. The vast majority of those using job-related AT reported substantial benefits to their productivity and self-esteem. Employees' requests for AT as a workplace accommodation were granted more often than not, but many other employees had to pay for their own workplace AT. PMID:17148870

  1. Assistive Technologies for Aged Care: Supportive or Empowering?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Vichitvanichphong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore the potentials of assistive technologies to support seniors’ independent living. The work looks at two salient aspects of utilizing technologies for elderly, namely direct support and empowering technologies. The research undertakes a comprehensive analysis of attempts that have been made through investigation of the literature. For this purpose, a realist review of relevant papers published since 2000 has been conducted. The paper concludes that although much research in this area targets the direct support for older adults, the effective use of technologies to maintain seniors’ physical and cognitive abilities requires further investigations. This can provide avenues of opportunities that would empower seniors for their independent living.

  2. 自然妊娠和辅助生殖技术妊娠母婴不良结局及其危险因素分析%Adverse Outcomes and Risk Factors of Maternal and Child Out-comes in Natural Pregnancy and Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昱; 钟群英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the adverse outcome of natural pregnancy and maternal reproduc-tive technology assisted (ART) pregnancy and its risk factors, so as to provide basis for the pre-vention of adverse outcome. Methods 100 ART pregnant women who had antenatal examination in our hospital and had follow up till the childbirth from April, 2014 to April, 2015 were ran-domly selected as ART group, and other 500 natural pregnancy pregnant women in the same pe-riod were selected as controls. Maternal adverse outcome and its risk factors of two groups were compared. Results Premature birth, abortion, cesarean section and other adverse pregnancy out-come incidence of ART group (87.0%) are higher than that of the control group (59.2%) (P<0.05). Single factor analysis results showed that multiple pregnancy, age, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), body mass index (BMI), abortion history were related factor of adverse pregnancy outcome of ART pregnancy,and age, pregnancy hypertension, GDM, BMI, history of abortion were related factor of natural maternal (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Further Logistic multivariate regression analysis re-sults showed that age, GDM, history of abortion, pregnancy hypertension and age, history of GDM, abortion, multiple pregnancies were risk factors of respectively adverse outcome of natural maternal pregnancy and ART pregnancy (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions Incidence of maternal adverse pregnancy outcome of ART pregnant women is highand related to age, GDM, history of abortion and multiple pregnancies,and adverse pregnancy outcome of natural pregnancy is related to age, GDM, history of abortion and pregnancy hypertension. According to the different risk factors ad-verse pregnancy outcomes to adopt appropriate intervention, avoiding older pregnancy or abortion, active prevention and treatment of GDM and management of multiple births as early as possible can help to improve the ART pregnancy outcomes.%目的:探讨自然妊娠和辅助生殖技术(ART

  3. Ratio of FSH/LH for predicting the ovarian reserve function and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology in young women%年轻妇女卵泡刺激素/黄体生成素比值预测卵巢储备功能及体外受精-胚胎移植的结局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠华; 李红; 孟庆霞; 李建芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of the ratio of FSH/LH to predict the ovarian reserve and the reaction of gonadotropin in assisted reproductive technology (ART) in young women. Methods: A total of 570 women less than 40 years old taken long protocol ART were included in our study. The women were divided to four groups according to the ratio of FSH/LH. The data of FSH/LH ratio, age, the level of FSH and LH, estrodiol(E2), testorsterone(T), anti-mullerian hormone(AMH), Inhibin-β and the dosage of gonadotropin, the number of retrieved oocytes and normal fertilization, the rate of poor ovarian response, clinical pregnancy rate were compared among the four groups. Results: (1)The correlation coefficient (r) of FSH and FSH/LH was 0. 231(P3 (group D)(P< 0.001). The level of AMH in group A was higher than other groups (P < 0. 001). The dosages of gonadotropin in group A and group B were less than group C and group D(P<0. 001). The ratio of FSH/ LH is lower and the number of retrieved oocytes was higher. The poor ovarian response rate in group A, B, C was lower than that in group D respectively. Conclusions: When the level of FSH is normal, higher FSH/LH ratio and lower LH concentration is an indicator of decline in ovarian reserve. It can be used for evaluating the reaction of gonadotropin in IVF.%目的 了解年轻妇女卵泡刺激素/黄体生成素(FSH/LH)比值对于预测卵巢储备功能及在辅助生殖技术中的作用. 方法 回顾性分析2007年1月至2011年8在我中心行长方案体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)助孕、年龄小于40岁的患者570例,按照FSH/LH比值分为4组,比较4组的年龄、基础卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2)、睾酮(T)、窦卵泡数(AFC)、抗苗勒管激素(AMH)、抑制素B(Inhibin-b)、促性腺激素(Gn)用量、获卵数、二原核受精卵(2PN)数、卵巢反应不良比率及临床妊娠率的差别. 结果 FSH与FSH/LH比值正相关(r=0.231,P<0.001),LH

  4. 取卵日连续2次取精在辅助生殖技术中的应用效果%Results of requesting a second consecutive sperm ejaculate on the day of oocyte pick-up in assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟丹梅; 李慕军; 江莉; 覃爱平; 李柳铭; 杭馥

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价取卵日连续2次取精而减少ICSI特别是经皮附睾穿刺抽吸术(PESA)/睾丸细针抽吸术(TESE)周期数在辅助生殖技术中的应用效果.方法:收集取卵日连续2次射精的精液样本(34例68份).比较前后2次取出的精液分析参数,总结2次精液处理后混合用于授精的实验室结果和临床妊娠结局.结果:34例男性均在4 h内连续手淫取出2次精液.第1和第2次射精时间间隔[94.9±39.8(26~183)]min.第1次射出精液的量[(2.0±1.4)ml]显著高于第2次射出的量[(1.5±0.9)ml](P=0.007),而第1次射出精液的精子活动率和a+b级精子百分率[(40.8±25.3)%、(30.9±22.4)%]显著低于第2次的[(52.2±21.1)%、(39.9±17.5)%](P0.05).34例男性的精液处理后行IVF、ICSI和IVF+ICSI周期分别为28、3、3.其中IVF、ICSI、IVF+ICSI周期的平均获卵数、正常受精率、优质胚胎率、冷冻周期数/新鲜移植周期数分别为15.5±8.7、57.0%(247/433)、58.7%(145/247)、20/24;21.7±8.3、61.5%(40/65)、67.5%(27/40)、3/2;10.0±2.6、72.4%(21/29)、66.7%(14/21)、3/3.新鲜胚胎移植临床妊娠率和冷冻胚胎冻融移植(FET)临床妊娠率分别为34.5%、30.7%.在妊娠例数中14例活产6男9女的健康小孩.结论:取卵日连续2次取精以收集更多数量和/或活动力更好的精子用于辅助生殖技术中可以获得30%以上的临床妊娠率,也可以避免微创取精术和其他不必要的显微受精方式.%Objective: To evaluate the results of requesting a second consecutive sperm ejaculate in order to reduce ICSI cycles by PESA or TESE on the day of oocyte pick-up in assisted reproductive technology (ART).Methods: We collected 68 semen samples as a second consecutive ejaculate from 34 men, compared the semen volume and sperm concentration, motility and total count between the first and the second ejaculation, and analyzed the laboratory results and clinical outcomes of fertilization with the mixed sperm.Results: The 34 males

  5. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and fis

  6. Towards Transnational Feminisms. Some reflections and concerns in relation to the globalization of reproductive technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of the concept of ‘transnational feminisms’ as a differentiated notion from ‘global sisterhood’ within feminist postcolonial criticism. This is done in order to examine its usefulness for interrogating the globalization of reproductive technologies and women’s ri

  7. Frequency measures of behavior for assistive technology and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbitz, C

    1996-01-01

    Documenting assistive technology outcomes has grown in importance, but outcome measurement remains problematic. A new approach uses natural science measures and a model (selectionism) from the field of Behavior Analysis. Selectionism defines behaviors by their effects (functional performance) and the environment (including technology) within which they occur, and explicitly treats variation in patterns of behavior over time for individuals (intervention effects). Its basic metric is frequency of behaviors (count per unit time) which is similar to robust engineering measures like centimeters, grams, and seconds. This approach eliminates many of the problems inherent to more traditional psychometrics. Selectionism based on frequencies also provides an empirical structure or taxonomy to organize efforts and outcomes, unified by the notion of fluency. Composite behaviors are combinations of smaller component behaviors that are required for performance of the composite. A frequency above which a component behavior is readily retained, generalized, and recruited into the more complex composite behavior is called fluency; thus individuals fluent on the critical components easily and efficiently demonstrate the composite. This model suggests that when assistive technology interventions raise component behavior frequencies to fluent levels, they will be integrated usefully into an individual's life. This selectionistic approach has been used successfully in the field of education. It has the added benefit of not only empirically defining measurable outcomes, but also of providing useful ongoing measurement of change during treatment. This paper briefly describes this "Precision Measurement" strategy and its data-driven feedback process and makes suggestions for further research and development efforts. The method provides a basis for better documentation, control, and outcomes of assistive technology and related interventions. PMID:10163930

  8. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  9. Incorporation of genetic technologies associated with applied reproductive technologies to enhance world food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science. Artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. Multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MO...

  10. 'Not so wrong that we are prepared to threaten the entire service': the regulation of reproductive technologies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, M

    2001-01-01

    In the UK human embryo research and infertility treatments are regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), a national statutory body set up in 1991. Clinics are required by law to be licensed by the HFEA and open to inspection. In 1999 there were 107 clinics licensed to carry out IVF and/or donor insemination. There are regional variations in National Health Service funding and seventy-five percent of those treated pay for most of their treatment, usually to avoid long waiting lists or because they do not meet the eligibility criteria set by their local health authority. Having described the code of practice laid down by the HFEA the paper discusses the implications of new reproductive technologies from a social science perspective, focusing on three topics which continue to be debated by the media, the regulatory authorities, health professionals and 'lay' people. First, age limits and other criteria for assisted reproduction which raise the question 'who should be allowed to reproduce?' Second, donor anonymity and the question of payment for donors. Finally, the screening and selection of embryos for implantation and the recurring theme in the media of 'designer babies'. The HFEA can be seen to fulfill its intended role, mediating between the infertility professionals, patients and the wider general public. It seeks to allay public fears while supporting professionals by avoiding restrictions on research and treatment and by consulting with the public as to when extensions to research will be acceptable.

  11. 7th Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, J; Heylighen, A; Dong, H; Inclusive Designing : Joining Usability, Accessibility, and Inclusion

    2014-01-01

    ‘Inclusive Designing’ presents the proceedings of the seventh Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14). It represents a unique multi-disciplinary workshop for the Inclusive Design Research community where designers, computer scientists, engineers, architects, ergonomists, policymakers and user communities can exchange ideas. The research presented at CWUAAT '14 develops methods, technologies, tools and guidance that support product designers and architects to design for the widest possible population for a given range of capabilities, within a contemporary social and economic context. In the context of developing demographic changes leading to greater numbers of older people and people with disabilities, the general field of Inclusive Design Research strives to relate the capabilities of the population to the design of products. Inclusive populations of older people contain a greater variation in sensory, cognitive and physical user capabilities. These variations may be...

  12. Impact of swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In

  13. Impact of swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In

  14. Attitudes of fertile and infertile woman towards new reproductive technologies: a case study of Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This article analyzes several key issues in the debate: the acceptability of in vitro fertilization; regulation of assisted reproduction and the possibilities of reimbursement for assisted reproduction treatment in Lithuania. Method Two groups of respondents participated in the survey: fertile women and women with fertility disorders. 93 completed questionnaires from women with fertility problems and 146 from women with no fertility problems were analysed. Results Fertile respondents more frequently perceived the embryo as a human being (Fertile Individuals – 68.5%; Infertile Individuals – 35.5%; p < 0.05) and more frequently maintained that assisted reproduction treatment should be only partly reimbursed (Fertile Individuals – 71.3%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05). Respondents with fertility disorders more frequently thought that artificial insemination procedure could also be applied to unmarried couples (Fertile Individuals – 51.4%; Infertile Individuals – 76.3%; p < 0.05), and more frequently agreed that there should be no age limit for artificial insemination procedures (Fertile Individuals – 36.3%; Infertile Individuals – 67.7%; p < 0.05). The majority of respondents in both groups (Fertile Individuals – 77.4%; Infertile Individuals – 82.8%; p < 0.05) believed that donation of reproductive cells should be regulated by law. Fertile respondents more frequently considered that strict legal regulation was necessary in case of the number of transferred embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.2%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05) and freezing of embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.9%; Infertile Individuals – 57.0%; p < 0.05). Conclusion Fertile respondents were statistically more likely to believe that the IVF procedure should be applied only to married couples or women who had a regular partner, the age limit should be defined and the psychological assessment of the couple’s relationship and their readiness for the

  15. Novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas: bioética e controvérsias New reproductive conception technologies: bioethics and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tamanini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de alguns dos múltiplos aspectos éticos/bioéticos e de gênero no campo das novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas (NTRc. A literatura nele apresentada aponta para a pluralidade de situações e abordagens possíveis em um campo multidimensional e controvertido. Explicita alguns princípios éticos/bioéticos do agir biomédico encontrados durante pesquisa com casais heterossexuais que fizeram reprodução assistida e com médic@s especialistas em reprodução humana no Sul do Brasil.1 Apresenta os pressupostos éticos/bioéticos sancionadores do agir médico e da continuidade dos chamados tratamentos para engravidar, e analisa os mecanismos utilizados para reerguer as expectativas dos casais em situação de desconfiança ou de insucesso.This article concerns some of the multiple ethical-bioethical and gender issues in the field of new reproductive and contraceptive technologies. The literature presented points to the plurality of possible situations and approaches in a multidimensional and controversial field. It presents some ethical-bioethical principals of biomedical action found in the study of heterosexual couples who use assisted reproduction. and of medical specialists in human reproduction in southern Brazil. It presents the ethical-bioethical presumptions that sanction medical behavior and the continuity of the so-called impregnation treatments, and analyzes the mechanisms used to raise the expectations of couples who lack confidence or success.

  16. Refuting a misguided campaign against the goal of single-embryo transfer and singleton birth in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Robert J; Richter, Kevin S; Jones, Howard W

    2013-10-01

    Much recent progress has been made by assisted reproductive technology (ART) professionals toward minimizing the incidence of multiple pregnancy following ART treatment. While a healthy singleton birth is widely considered to be the ideal outcome of such treatment, a vocal minority continues a campaign to advocate the benefits of multiple embryo transfer as treatment and twin pregnancy as outcome for most ART patients. Proponents of twinning argue four points: that patients prefer twins, that multiple embryo transfer maximizes success rates, that the costs per infant are lower with twins and that one twin pregnancy and birth is associated with no higher risk than two consecutive singleton pregnancies and births. We find fault with the reasoning and data behind each of these tenets. First, we respect the principle of patient autonomy to choose the number of embryos for transfer but counter that it has been shown that better patient education reduces their desire for twins. In addition, reasonable and evidentially supported limits may be placed on autonomy in exchange for public or private insurance coverage for ART treatment, and counterbalancing ethical principles to autonomy exist, especially beneficence (doing good) and non-maleficence (doing no harm). Second, comparisons between success rates following single-embryo transfer (SET) and double-embryo transfers favor double-embryo transfers only when embryo utilization is not comparable; cumulative pregnancy and birth rates that take into account utilization of cryopreserved embryos (and the additional cryopreserved embryo available with single fresh embryo transfer) consistently demonstrate no advantage to double-embryo transfer. Third, while comparisons of costs are system dependent and not easy to assess, several independent studies all suggest that short-term costs per child (through the neonatal period alone) are lower with transfers of one rather than two embryos. And, finally, abundant evidence conclusively

  17. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity......A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability of...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  18. Adoption, infertility, and the new reproductive technologies: problems and prospects for social work and welfare policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, S M

    1990-07-01

    In this article, the author examines the social and psychological issues raised by infertility and addresses problems resulting from the increasing commercialization of children through adoption practices as well as through the proliferation of new reproductive technologies. The author begins with a discussion of infertility and considers some aspects of adoption, the traditional solution to infertility. Some historical, technical, ethical, psychological, and social aspects of artificial insemination, along with newer developments of surrogacy, such as in vitro fertilization and frozen embryos, also are discussed. Recommendations are suggested for meeting the service needs of people who have problems associated with infertility. Finally, the author stresses the importance of research along with the necessity for social workers to take a leadership role in helping society both to understand the ethical issues related to and to develop enlightened public policy on infertility, adoption, and the new reproductive technologies. PMID:2203152

  19. Choosing identities: the politics and practices of classroom discourse on reproductive and genetic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Padraig

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, I draw on contemporary social theory, media communication studies and discourse analysis to explore how micro-political discussions around identity and new reproductive and genetic technologies (NRGTs) in classroom discussions may be connected to wider discourses. Although biotechnology in Ireland is represented by industry and the healthcare sector as a solution to dsease, Irish public opinion, as well as global discourses from popular culture, literature and film, suggests t...

  20. Development of new stem cell-based technologies for carnivore reproduction research

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J Travis; Kim, Yeunhee; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    New reproductive technologies based on stem cells offer several potential benefits to carnivore species. For example, development of lines of embryonic stem cells in cats and dogs would allow for the generation of transgenic animal models, which could be used to advance both veterinary and human health. Techniques such as spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and testis xenografting offer new approaches to propagate genetically valuable individual males, even if they should die before prod...

  1. Providing Assistive Technology Applications as a Service Through Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Users with disabilities interact with Personal Computers (PCs) using Assistive Technology (AT) software solutions. Such applications run on a PC that a person with a disability commonly uses. However the configuration of AT applications is not trivial at all, especially whenever the user needs to work on a PC that does not allow him/her to rely on his / her AT tools (e.g., at work, at university, in an Internet point). In this paper, we discuss how cloud computing provides a valid technological solution to enhance such a scenario.With the emergence of cloud computing, many applications are executed on top of virtual machines (VMs). Virtualization allows us to achieve a software implementation of a real computer able to execute a standard operating system and any kind of application. In this paper we propose to build personalized VMs running AT programs and settings. By using the remote desktop technology, our solution enables users to control their customized virtual desktop environment by means of an HTML5-based web interface running on any computer equipped with a browser, whenever they are.

  2. Providing Assistive Technology Applications as a Service Through Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Users with disabilities interact with Personal Computers (PCs) using Assistive Technology (AT) software solutions. Such applications run on a PC that a person with a disability commonly uses. However the configuration of AT applications is not trivial at all, especially whenever the user needs to work on a PC that does not allow him/her to rely on his / her AT tools (e.g., at work, at university, in an Internet point). In this paper, we discuss how cloud computing provides a valid technological solution to enhance such a scenario.With the emergence of cloud computing, many applications are executed on top of virtual machines (VMs). Virtualization allows us to achieve a software implementation of a real computer able to execute a standard operating system and any kind of application. In this paper we propose to build personalized VMs running AT programs and settings. By using the remote desktop technology, our solution enables users to control their customized virtual desktop environment by means of an HTML5-based web interface running on any computer equipped with a browser, whenever they are. PMID:26132225

  3. Final priority; Rehabilitation Services Administration--Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality assistive technology (AT) alternative financing programs (AFPs) that meet rigorous standards in order to enable individuals with disabilities to access and acquire assistive technology devices and services necessary to achieve education, community living, and employment goals.

  4. New Literacy Studies: An Alternative Frame for Preparing Teachers to Use Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraian, Srikala; Surabian, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Even as research continues to suggest the potential of assistive technology for improving student outcomes, it remains under-utilized in schools. Among numerous challenges to the effective utilization of assistive technology, research has suggested that educators are inadequately prepared to consider and implement the use of such technologies. In…

  5. Preferences and Practices among Students Who Read Braille and Use Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Students who read braille use assistive technology to engage in literacy tasks and to access the general curriculum. There is little research on the ways in which technology has changed the reading and writing practices and preferences of students who use braille, nor is there much research on how assistive technology is learned by…

  6. Prenatal testing among women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques in Denmark 1995-2000: a national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are generally older than women with spontaneously conceived pregnancies, and are consequently more likely to carry a child affected by a chromosomal disorder. Furthermore, a significantly increased rate of chromosomal...... abnormalities after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the use and results of prenatal invasive diagnostic testing in a national Danish cohort of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ICSI pregnancies. Additionally, we examined to what extent second...... trimester serum screening was used. METHODS: We used a register-based cohort study including all ongoing clinical pregnancies achieved by IVF/ICSI in 1995-2000 in Denmark. Data on fertility treatment, pregnancy and pregnancy outcome together with data on cytogenic testing and the use of triple test were...

  7. The biology and methodology of assisted reproduction in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Veres, Monika; Duselis, Amanda R.; Graft, Audrey; Pryor, William; Crossland, Janet; Vrana, Paul B.; Szalai, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Although laboratory-reared species of the genus Peromyscus - including deer mice - are used as model animals in a wide range of research, routine manipulation of Peromyscus embryogenesis and reproduction has been lagging. The objective of the present study was to optimize conditions for oocyte/embryo retrieval and for in vitro culturing. On average, 6.4 oocytes per mouse were recovered when two doses of 15 IU of PMSG was given 24 h apart, followed by 15 IU of hCG 48 h later. Following this ho...

  8. [Assisted reproductive techniques in single women: Which proposals for which demands?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decanter, C

    2016-05-01

    The French bio-ethic law concerning ART is more restricted than in other countries. Techniques can only be applied in heterosexual couples presenting a documented infertility. Nevertheless, concerns about fertility planning are numerous in young women, leading to a growing demand of reproductive medicine consultations. Two situations can be distinguished: firstly, single patients wishing sperm donation and, secondly, single patients who wish to preserve their fertility for future parenting project. This latter situation can be discussed in the French legislative context while the other will require soliciting the neighboring European teams. PMID:26997464

  9. Difficult embryo transfers or blood on catheter and assisted reproductive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James A S; Martins, Wellington P; Nastri, Carolina O; Raine-Fenning, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether a difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter affects assisted reproduction outcomes. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). We aimed to determine the risk ratio (RR) associated with difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter for the following outcomes: live birth, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage. We identified 3066 papers, of which 194 were reviewed and nine were included. The outcome of live birth was not reported in any of the included studies and the effect on miscarriage was too imprecise for any conclusions. Pooled analysis of five studies demonstrated lower clinical pregnancy rates following a non-easy embryo transfer (RR=0.75; 95% CI=0.66-0.86). This included three studies showing subjectively difficult transfers reducing clinical pregnancies (RR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.87) and two studies in which the need for additional manoeuvers reduced clinical pregnancies (RR=0.78; 95% CI=0.67-0.91). The presence of blood on the transfer catheter did not affect clinical pregnancy rates (RR=0.96; 95% CI=0.82-1.14) in five studies. We concluded that low quality evidence suggests that a difficult embryo transfer but not a bloody catheter reduces the chance of achieving a clinical pregnancy. More good quality studies are needed to evaluate the effect of difficult embryo transfer and the presence of blood on the catheter on the main outcomes of assisted reproduction.

  10. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  11. An Australasian perspective on the role of reproductive technologies in world food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme B

    2014-01-01

    Industries based on small ruminants are major contributors to world food supply but, in extensive grazing systems, reproductive technology is not directly relevant to most enterprises. More important is the need to respond to demand in high-profit export markets for products that are 'clean, green and ethical' (CGE). This combination of issues led to the concept of CGE management of reproduction that is based on scientific evidence but does not require complex technology. Nutrition is the major challenge because we are limited primarily to the grazing of forages and pastures, but responding to this challenge opens up opportunities-new forages can supply energy and protein whilst improving animal health and welfare, and reducing carbon emissions. A second major factor is the need for accurate coordination of nutritional inputs with reproductive events to ensure that the metabolic signals are appropriate. To control of the timing of reproduction, we need to move beyond simply managing the presence of the male and seek more precision. Our ultimate CGE package is thus based on manipulation of male socio-sexual signals as well as nutrition, in combination with greater use of ultrasound and birth-site management to prevent neonatal mortality. Finally, genetics is critical in the development of the CGE package.It would be difficult to incorporate the entire package in one hit-adaptations are needed to cover variations in genotype and the geographical and socio-economic environment, and some concepts need research and development. Therefore, we have suggested staged introduction of the elements of the package.CGE management can be simple and cost-effective, and improve productivity whilst safeguarding the future of the industries in society and the marketplace. Reproductive technology might not be used by many farmers but it will be an essential tool for realizing the vision because it underpins the acceleration of genetic progress in otherwise tardy grazing industries

  12. An Australasian perspective on the role of reproductive technologies in world food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme B

    2014-01-01

    Industries based on small ruminants are major contributors to world food supply but, in extensive grazing systems, reproductive technology is not directly relevant to most enterprises. More important is the need to respond to demand in high-profit export markets for products that are 'clean, green and ethical' (CGE). This combination of issues led to the concept of CGE management of reproduction that is based on scientific evidence but does not require complex technology. Nutrition is the major challenge because we are limited primarily to the grazing of forages and pastures, but responding to this challenge opens up opportunities-new forages can supply energy and protein whilst improving animal health and welfare, and reducing carbon emissions. A second major factor is the need for accurate coordination of nutritional inputs with reproductive events to ensure that the metabolic signals are appropriate. To control of the timing of reproduction, we need to move beyond simply managing the presence of the male and seek more precision. Our ultimate CGE package is thus based on manipulation of male socio-sexual signals as well as nutrition, in combination with greater use of ultrasound and birth-site management to prevent neonatal mortality. Finally, genetics is critical in the development of the CGE package.It would be difficult to incorporate the entire package in one hit-adaptations are needed to cover variations in genotype and the geographical and socio-economic environment, and some concepts need research and development. Therefore, we have suggested staged introduction of the elements of the package.CGE management can be simple and cost-effective, and improve productivity whilst safeguarding the future of the industries in society and the marketplace. Reproductive technology might not be used by many farmers but it will be an essential tool for realizing the vision because it underpins the acceleration of genetic progress in otherwise tardy grazing industries

  13. Improving Assistive Technology Service by Using 3D Printing: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Takuro; Tomiita, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology services are essential for adapting assistive devices to the individual needs of users with disabilities. In this study, we attempted to apply three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to three actual cases, and to study its use, effectiveness, and future applications. We assessed the usefulness of 3D printing technology by categorizing its utilization after reviewing the outcomes of these case studies. In future work, we aim to gather additional case studies and derive information on using 3D printing technology that will enable its effective application in the process of assistive technology services.

  14. Combining gene-based methods and reproductive technologies to enhance genetic improvement of livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to be more useful in marker assisted introgression (MAI) compared with selection within breeds. Also in the case of MAI, reproductive technologies will be beneficial because they can help increase the number of animals with the desired genotype. Again, optimal strategies will have to consider genetic diversity as well as risk. No studies have looked at MAI scenarios in a complete framework for livestock production, but such studies would be warranted, as they would likely form an important basis for the use of genetic technologies in genetic improvement programs in developing countries

  15. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  16. Sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques inherit deletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the Y chromosome and the DAZ gene copy number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau Kai, C; Juul, A; McElreavey, K;

    2008-01-01

    number, supplemented with haplogroup typing in deleted patients, were performed, in combination with clinical assessments in 264 fathers and their sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART), and in 168 fertile men with normal sperm concentration. RESULTS: In the ART fathers group, a...

  17. Perinatal outcome of 12,021 singleton and 3108 twin births after non-IVF-assisted reproduction: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, Willem; Martens, Guy; De Sutter, Petra; Gerris, Jan; Bosmans, Eugene; Ruyssinck, Gunther; Defoort, Paul; Molenberghs, Geert; Gyselaers, Wilfried

    2006-04-01

    Perinatal outcome of pregnancies caused by assisted reproduction technique (ART) is substantially worse when compared with pregnancies following natural conception. We investigated the possible risks of non-IVF ART on perinatal health. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with two exposure groups: a study group of pregnancies after controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), with or without artificial insemination (AI), and a naturally conceived comparison group. We used the data from the regional registry of all hospital deliveries in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium during the period from January 1993 until December 2003 to investigate differences in perinatal outcome of singleton and twin pregnancies. 12 021 singleton and 3108 twin births could be selected. Naturally conceived subjects were matched for maternal age, parity, fetal sex and year of birth. The main outcome measures were duration of pregnancy, birth weight, perinatal morbidity and perinatal mortality. Our overall results showed a significantly higher incidence of prematurity (<32 and <37 weeks), low and very low birth weight, transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit and most neonatal morbidity parameters for COS/AI singletons. Twin pregnancies resulting from COS/AI showed an increased rate of neonatal mortality, assisted ventilation and respiratory distress syndrome. After excluding same-sex twin sets, COS/AI twin pregnancies were at increased risk for extreme prematurity and very low birth weight. In conclusion, COS/AI singleton and twin pregnancies are significantly disadvantaged compared to naturally conceived children.

  18. Pessoa e parentesco nas novas tecnologias reprodutivas Personhood and Kinship in the New Reproductive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAARA LUNA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata do universo de representações das novas tecnologias reprodutivas, refletindo sobre as implicações desses procedimentos para as noções ocidentais de pessoa e de parentesco. Tais técnicas incidem no modo ocidental de pensar a reprodução e o domínio da natureza. A abordagem sobre pessoa se detém em textos relacionados à figura do embrião extracorporal gerado por meio da fertilização in vitro. A análise do parentesco enfoca como as novas tecnologias reprodutivas reconfiguram as representações de parentesco e, reciprocamente, de que forma as concepções ocidentais de parentesco constituem a compreensão das tecnologias, levando em conta crenças ocidentais sobre a natureza enquanto fundamento da realidade. A pesquisa utiliza como material para análise matérias sobre novas tecnologias reprodutivas publicadas na grande imprensa brasileira entre os anos de 1994 e 2000.This article deals with the universe of representations of new reproductive technologies and analyzes the consequences of those procedures for Western notions of personhood and kinship. These techniques affect Western ways of thinking about reproduction and human control over nature. Reports of embryos created outside the maternal body by in vitro fertilization are examined to consider notions of personhood. The understanding of new reproductive technologies informs and is informed by representations of kinship. The analysis of the relation between technologies of procreation, kinship and personhood takes into account Western beliefs on nature as a foundation for reality. The research draws on articles published in the Brazilian press between 1994 and 2000.

  19. Ethik, Recht und Theologie. Reproduktionstechnologien in Polen Ethics, Law, and Theology—Reproductive Technologies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Lettow

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Die bisherigen Debatten um Stammzellforschung, Klonen und Reproduktionstechnologien wurden in Deutschland weitgehend im nationalstaatlichen Rahmen und mit Blick auf Entwicklungen im angelsächsischen Raum geführt. Dabei sind diese Forschungsrichtungen und Technologien kein genuin „westliches“ Phänomen – immerhin wurde das erste Retortenkind in Polen bereits 1987 geboren. Heidi Hofmann lässt in ihrem Band polnische Philosoph/-innen, Jurist/-innen und Politikerinnen zu Wort kommen und öffnet den Blick dafür, dass die Art und Weise, in der Reproduktionstechnologien gesellschaftlich problematisiert werden, in Polen durch ganz andere politische, kulturelle und historische Konstellationen geprägt ist als in Deutschland.In Germany, the hitherto existing debates on stem-cell research, cloning, and reproductive technologies were carried out for the most part in the governmental setting and with developments in the Anglo-Saxon realm in mind. However, these research directions and technologies are by no means a genuinely “western” phenomenon—after all, the first “test-tube baby” was born in Poland as early as 1987. Heidi Hofmann’s book provides Polish philosophers, lawyers, and politicians with a platform to be heard. She thus makes it possible for readers to understand that the ways in which reproductive technologies are problematized in society are affected by very different political, cultural, and historical constellations in Poland than in Germany.

  20. The Right Way Through the Region of Sin: Islam, Bioethics and New Reproductive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pišev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s numerous debates were held in the House of Lords on the scientific research of embryos, with certain participants attempting to point out the difference between two styles of thought, namely, religious and scientific thought. Yet was the conflict in the House of Lords between two styles of thinking, or rather between the proponents of the scientific approach, on the one hand, and the proponents of religious thought, on the other, for intellectual and moral domination in society? Clearly, these debates hinted at something beyond and something more complex than a mere concern about embryos. What was actually being problematized? Or, to put it differently, to what extent does the use of bioreproductive technologies call into question the notions and issues of ethics, procreation and kinship, regardless of the religious dogma that considers the possibilities of their application? This paper will be confined to an analysis of Islamic dogma and any correspondences between this dogma and certain aspects of the new reproductive technologies. Still, in order to be able to discuss the relation between the new reproductive technologies and Islamic ethics, it is necessary to devote the greater part of this paper to an interpretation of how man is perceived in the context of the Koran.

  1. Fertility tourism: circumventive routes that enable access to reproductive technologies and substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Sven

    2011-01-01

    “Fertility tourism” is a journalistic eye‐catcher focusing on the phenomenon of patients who search for a reproductive treatment in another country in order to circumvent laws, access restrictions, or waiting lists in their home country. In Europe, the reasons why people seek reproductive treatments outside their national boundaries are quite diverse, in part because regulations differ so much among countries. Beginning with four examples of people who crossed borders for an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with gamete donation, this article provides some insight into these transnational circumvention practices based on material from ethnographic fieldwork and interviews in Spain, Denmark, and the Czech Republic. In all three countries, gamete donation is made strictly anonymous. Clinical practices such as egg donor recruitment and phenotypical matching between donors and recipients serve to naturalize the substitution of gametes and to install social legitimacy through resemblance markers with the prospective child. In comparison to other areas of medical tourism, which are subjects of debate as a consequence of neoliberal health politics and international medical competition, mobility in the area of reproductive technologies is deeply intertwined with new forms of doing kinship. For prospective parents, it holds a promise of generating offspring who could pass as biogenetically conceived children. Therefore, IVF with gamete donation is mostly modeled after conceptions of nature. Through anonymity and concealment it creates forms of nonrelatedness that leave space for future imaginings and traces of transnational genetic creators.

  2. Teachers' Initial and Sustained Use of an Instructional Assistive Technology Tool: Exploring the Mitigating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Flanagan, Sara; Heutsche, Anne; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Englert, Carol Sue

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explored factors that mitigated teachers implementing an instructional assistive technology and factors that mitigated its sustained use. Specifically, it explored these issues in relation to a social studies based instructional assistive technology (Virtual History Museum [VHM]), which was originally implemented…

  3. 77 FR 47375 - Applications for New Awards; Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... competitive one-year grants to 33 States under title III of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (AT Act of... competitive grants to support AFPs that help individuals with disabilities purchase assistive technology... judgment and care that a person of prudence, discretion, and intelligence would exercise in the...

  4. Middle School Special Education Teachers' Perceptions and Use of Assistive Technology in Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Emily C.; Richardson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In this research the authors examined middle school special education teachers' perceptions of assistive technology during literacy instruction with students with high incidence disabilities. A survey explored the use, effectiveness, and factors impacting use or effectiveness of assistive technology for literacy teaching and learning. Results…

  5. Assistive Technology for Students with Visual Impairments: Challenges and Needs in Teachers' Preparation Programs and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 165 teachers of students with visual impairments in Texas to examine their perceptions of their knowledge of assistive technology. The results showed that they had significant deficits in knowledge in 55 (74.32%) of the 74 assistive technology competencies that were examined and that 57.5% of them lacked…

  6. Using Assistive Technology in Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Rufus Olanrewaju; Liman, Nalado Abubakar; Longpoe, Patricia Kwalzoom

    2015-01-01

    This paper was written to expose the meaning, benefits, and answer why the use of assistive technology for children with learning disabilities. The paper discussed the various types of assistive technology devices that were designed and used to solve written language, reading, listening, memory and mathematic problems of children with learning…

  7. Technology-assisted education in graduate medical education: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jwayyed, Sharhabeel; Stiffler, Kirk A; Wilber, Scott T; Southern, Alison; Weigand, John; Bare, Rudd; Gerson, Lowell W.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on computer-aided instruction and web-based learning have left many questions unanswered about the most effective use of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Objective We conducted a review of the current medical literature to report the techniques, methods, frequency and effectiveness of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Methods A structured review of MEDLINE articles dealing with "Computer-Assisted Instruction," "Internet or World W...

  8. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators to Community Mobility for Assistive Technology Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Layton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is frequently described in terms of individual body function and structures however contemporary views of disability also recognise the role of environment in creating disability. Aim. To identify consumer perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators to optimal mobility for a heterogeneous population of impaired Victorians who use assistive technology in their daily lives. Method. An accessible survey investigated the impact of supports or facilitators upon actual and desired life outcomes and health-related quality of life, from 100 AT users in Victoria, Australia. This paper reports upon data pertaining to community mobility. Results. A range of barriers and enablers to community mobility were identified including access to AT devices, environmental interventions, public transport, and inclusive community environs. Substantial levels of unmet need result in limited personal mobility and community participation. Outcomes fall short of many principles enshrined in current policy and human rights frameworks. Conclusion. AT devices as well as accessible and inclusive home and community environs are essential to maximizing mobility for many. Given the impact of the environment upon the capacity of individuals to realise community mobility, this raises the question as to whether rehabilitation practitioners, as well as prescribing AT devices, should work to build accessible communities via systemic advocacy.

  10. Barriers and facilitators to community mobility for assistive technology users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Mobility is frequently described in terms of individual body function and structures however contemporary views of disability also recognise the role of environment in creating disability. Aim. To identify consumer perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators to optimal mobility for a heterogeneous population of impaired Victorians who use assistive technology in their daily lives. Method. An accessible survey investigated the impact of supports or facilitators upon actual and desired life outcomes and health-related quality of life, from 100 AT users in Victoria, Australia. This paper reports upon data pertaining to community mobility. Results. A range of barriers and enablers to community mobility were identified including access to AT devices, environmental interventions, public transport, and inclusive community environs. Substantial levels of unmet need result in limited personal mobility and community participation. Outcomes fall short of many principles enshrined in current policy and human rights frameworks. Conclusion. AT devices as well as accessible and inclusive home and community environs are essential to maximizing mobility for many. Given the impact of the environment upon the capacity of individuals to realise community mobility, this raises the question as to whether rehabilitation practitioners, as well as prescribing AT devices, should work to build accessible communities via systemic advocacy. PMID:23029617

  11. Proposal of a flowchart for the development process of Assistive Technology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda do Nascimento Maia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In exploratory interviews and unsystematic observations with professionals working in the field of rehabilitation of persons with disabilities, we observed that there is a lack of systematic development in the process of assistive technology resources, resulting in products with low quality of usability. The main objective of the present study was to contribute, through a methodological proposal, to the formation of occupational therapists in the process of developing objects for persons with disabilities. The methodology used was a brief review of the steps taken in this research. The survey was conducted and recorded relying on the following steps: literature review; organization of the research project; presentation of data from field research conducted with occupational therapists who produce objects of assistive technology; assessment and interview with users; application of questionnaires to teachers of assistive technology disciplines; interviews with occupational therapists who perform making assistive technology products to other professionals; proposal of a flowchart for the development of assistive technology resources.

  12. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H. (Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineers, Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory)

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  13. The biology and methodology of assisted reproduction in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Monika; Duselis, Amanda R; Graft, Audrey; Pryor, William; Crossland, Janet; Vrana, Paul B; Szalai, Gabor

    2012-01-15

    Although laboratory-reared species of the genus Peromyscus-including deer mice-are used as model animals in a wide range of research, routine manipulation of Peromyscus embryogenesis and reproduction has been lagging. The objective of the present study was to optimize conditions for oocyte and/or embryo retrieval and for in vitro culturing. On average, 6.4 oocytes per mouse were recovered when two doses of 15 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) were given 24 h apart, followed by 15 IU of hCG 48 h later. Following this hormone priming, females mated overnight with a fertile male yielded an average of 9.1 two-cell stage embryos. Although two-cell stage embryos developed to 8-cell stage in Potassium Simplex Optimized Medium (KSOM; Millipore-Chemicon, Billerica, MA, USA) in vitro, but not further, embryos recovered at the 8- to 16-cell stages developed into fully expanded blastocysts when cultured in M16 media in vitro. These blastocysts had full potential to develop into late stage fetuses and possibly into live pups. As a result of the present work, all stages of Peromyscus preimplantation development are now obtainable in numbers sufficient for molecular or other analyses. These advances provide the opportunity for routine studies involving embryo transfer (e.g., chimeras, transgenics), and preservation of genetic lines by cryopreservation.

  14. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pagliardini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis of the vitamin D status of infertile women is the first step in understanding hypovitaminosis impact on reproductive potential. We sought to determine vitamin D profiles of women attending an infertility center and to investigate non-dietary determinants of vitamin D status in this population. In this cross-sectional analysis, a cohort of 1072 women (mean age ± standard deviation 36.3 ± 4.4 years attending an academic infertility center was used to examine serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD levels in relation to demographic characteristics, seasons and general health risk factors. Both unadjusted and adjusted levels of serum 25(OHD were examined. Median 25(OHD concentration was below 30 ng/mL for 89% of the entire year. Over the whole year, 6.5% of patients had 25(OHD levels ≤10 ng/mL, 40.1% ≤20 ng/mL, and 77.4% ≤30 ng/mL. Global solar radiation was weakly correlated with 25(OHD levels. At multivariable analysis, 25(OHD levels were inversely associated with BMI; conversely, 25(OHD levels were positively associated with height and endometriosis history. Serum 25(OHD levels are highly deficient in women seeking medical help for couple’s infertility. Levels are significantly associated with body composition, seasonal modifications and causes of infertility. Importantly, this deficiency status may last during pregnancy with more severe consequences.

  15. Perinatal Outcomes of Newborn Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Dadashloo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcomes of such pregnancies have been rarely evaluated in our country. Adescriptive study was planned to assess the health and condition of neonates conceived with assistedtechniques in a one year period.Materials and Methods: At Royan Institute, Tehran, 443 women who became pregnant by oneof the assisted techniques in vitro fertilization (IVF, intrauterine insemination (IUI andintracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI enrolled in a descriptive study during 16 month periodbeginning on September, 2007. The sampling method used was non-incidental, consecutive.Questionnaires regarding the contents of the baby birth card were completed after interviews withthe mothers. The time from fertilization of the ovum until delivery was considered as the gestational(conception age. Pregnant mothers were under periodic evaluation until delivery. Women withstillborn babies were followed via phone contact.Results: From a total of 443 conceptions, there were 13 (2.9% pregnancies demised in utero(stillbirths and 10 (2.6% who died during the neonatal period. Additionally, 133 (43% infantswere born after multifetal pregnancies and 96 (31% infants were prematurely born. There were 106(34.3% infants with low birth weight (LBW; less than 2500 g, of which 83 (78.3% LBW infantswere multiplets. After completion of the study, 71 women were still passing their pregnancy periodand no assessed.Conclusion: The most important factor for untoward perinatal events was multifetal pregnancy. Suchpregnancies were more frequently complicated and higher risk. Low birth weight and prematuritywere more frequent in singletons conceived by assisted techniques in respect to control singletons.

  16. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliardini, Luca; Vigano', Paola; Molgora, Michela; Persico, Paola; Salonia, Andrea; Vailati, Simona Helda; Paffoni, Alessio; Somigliana, Edgardo; Papaleo, Enrico; Candiani, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the vitamin D status of infertile women is the first step in understanding hypovitaminosis impact on reproductive potential. We sought to determine vitamin D profiles of women attending an infertility center and to investigate non-dietary determinants of vitamin D status in this population. In this cross-sectional analysis, a cohort of 1072 women (mean age ± standard deviation 36.3 ± 4.4 years) attending an academic infertility center was used to examine serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in relation to demographic characteristics, seasons and general health risk factors. Both unadjusted and adjusted levels of serum 25(OH)D were examined. Median 25(OH)D concentration was below 30 ng/mL for 89% of the entire year. Over the whole year, 6.5% of patients had 25(OH)D levels ≤10 ng/mL, 40.1% ≤20 ng/mL, and 77.4% ≤30 ng/mL. Global solar radiation was weakly correlated with 25(OH)D levels. At multivariable analysis, 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with BMI; conversely, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with height and endometriosis history. Serum 25(OH)D levels are highly deficient in women seeking medical help for couple's infertility. Levels are significantly associated with body composition, seasonal modifications and causes of infertility. Importantly, this deficiency status may last during pregnancy with more severe consequences. PMID:26633484

  17. Anti-Mullerian Hormone as A Predictive Factor in Assisted Reproductive Technique of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Fallahi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH and other hormonal markers and results of assisted reproductive techniques (ART in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS patients. This cohort study was conducted on 60 PCOS patients who were candidates for assisted reproductive techniques. In all patients the serum levels of AMH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, free testosterone (fT, testosterone (T and inhibin B were measured in the 3rd day of menstrual cycle. The relationship between serum level of measured hormonal markers with retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, the number of transferred fetus and pregnancy rate were assessed. The cut-off value for the serum level of AMH and retrieved oocytes were determined. There was a significant direct correlation between the serum mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS level with number of total picked up oocytes (r=0.412, mature oocytes (r=0.472 and embryo transfer (r=0.291. There was a linear and significant correlation between inhibin B and fertilization (r=0.283 Cut-off point for AMH level according to presence or absence of pregnancy was 4.8 ng/ml and it was not statistically significant (P=0.655. Area under curve (AUC was 0.543. Cut-off point for MIS according to picked up oocytes was 2.7 ng/ml with area under the curve (ROC curve of 0.724 (CI= 0.591-0.831 (P=0.002. Patients with PCOS who had AMH more than 2.7 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes (6 or more was higher than MIS/AMH <2.7 ng/ml (P=0.002. As a marker of ovarian responsiveness to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH and despite a small sample size of our study, it is revealed that pretreatment MIS/AMH is highly associated with the number of mature oocytes retrieved during COH in PCOS women.

  18. Evidence-based medicine and the role of the National Health Service in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Simon

    2013-11-01

    The wholesale introduction of any new procedure to medical practice requires an acceptance based on evidence-based medicine, which is primarily acquired using prospective randomized controlled trials. However, for self-funded treatments, as are the majority of IVF cycles, this has always been very difficult to achieve. Generally, new technologies are introduced and adopted by patients who have failed in previous attempts at IVF. Urging patients to enter into a prospective randomized controlled trial is problematic, especially when they are self-funding; eagerness to conceive when time is against them, and/or having undergone previously failed treatment attempts, convince most patients to fund the new technology/opportunity rather than risk falling into the control arm and repeating their previous failure(s). The UK is uniquely placed to advance IVF medicine by helping practitioners and patients gain access to vital trials through the National Health Service.

  19. [Ethical considerations on new developments in reproductive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Wienroth, Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Reproduction and the family are central elements in the lives of people, and in the narratives and practices of diverse cultures and societies. In the development of ever more powerful techniques of assisted reproduction a number of questions have emerged. They lie at the heart of what it means to reproduce, to be a parent, to be a human being. Reproductive technologies and their consideration influence perceptions and practices in regard to reproduction and beyond, thus embodying anthropological implications for the understanding of family, motherhood, health, offspring, responsibility and others. Technological capabilities and socio-cultural perceptions are strongly intertwined. The role of bioethics in this context is to explore human nascency as a process. To better understand this process and its implications for human life both medical and social, we suggest considering different perspectives on reproductive technologies to widen our understanding. These perspectives range from the potential child and its parents to health care professionals and the state. In expanding our perception of reproduction, social scientific methods can help to situate philosophical and ethical issues, thus rendering bioethical examination of reproductive technologies more socially robust. In this paper, we provide an overview of several bioethical key themes in assisted reproduction: methodological questions in regard to providing better understanding of this field, selective and inclusive social aspects of assisted reproduction, financial and governance considerations, and an applied consideration of the IVF research interface. PMID:19950059

  20. 15 CFR 1160.3 - Assistance to industrial technology partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND... businesspersons, academicians and other persons for purposes of providing introductory training in the concept...

  1. The European Court legitimates access of Italian couples to assisted reproductive techniques and to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Gulino, Matteo; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-07-01

    On 28 August 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) issued a judgment regarding the requirements for the legitimate access of couples to assisted reproductive techniques (ART) and to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This judgment concerns the case of an Italian couple who found out after their first child was born with cystic fibrosis that they were healthy carriers of the disease. When the woman became pregnant again in 2010 and underwent fetal screening, it was found that the unborn child also had cystic fibrosis, whereupon she had the pregnancy terminated on medical grounds. In order to have the embryo genetically screened prior to implantation under the procedure of PGD, the couple sought to use in vitro fertilisation to have another child. Since article 1 of the Italian law strictly limits access to ART to sterile/infertile couples or those in which the man has a sexually transmissible disease, the couple appealed to the European court, raising the question of the violation of articles 8 and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The applicants lodged a complaint that they were not allowed legitimate access to ART and to PGD to select an embryo not affected by the disease. The European Court affirmed that the prohibition imposed by Italian law violated article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Focusing on important regulatory and legal differences among EU Nations in providing ART treatments and PGD, we derived some important similarities and differences.

  2. The Evolution of Legislation in the Field of Medically Assisted Reproduction and Embryo Stem Cell Research in European Union Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR, involving in vitro fertilisation (IVF, and research on embryos have created expectation to many people affected by infertility; at the same time it has generated a surplus of laws and ethical and social debates. Undoubtedly, MAR represents a rather new medical field and constant developments in medicine and new opportunities continue to defy the attempt to respond to those questions. In this paper, the authors reviewed the current legislation in the 28 EU member states trying to evaluate the different legislation paths adopted over the last 15 years and highlighting those EU countries with no specific legislation in place and MAR is covered by a general health Law and those countries in which there are no laws in this field but only “guidelines.” The second aim of this work has been to compare MAR legislation and embryo research in EU countries, which derive from different origins ranging from an extremely prohibitive approach versus a liberal one, going through a cautious regulatory approach.

  3. Technology assisted education: An overview of success factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asgarkhani

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on the role of digital and web technologies in learning. It discusses that technology alone cannot deliver successful learning outcomes. In rolling out technology-enabled learning solutions a range of other factors must be taken into consideration. A model for technology-based learning values and pilot study of a group of technology-enabled digital learning initiatives in institutions are presented to highlight the importance of people and process related factors alongside technology. The outcome of this preliminary study is presented; it indicates no significant strategic gains were derived from the use of web-technologies.

  4. A perspective on the impact of reproductive technologies on food production in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle-Köster, Esté; Webb, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Africa for the largest part is still regarded as part of the developing world and has a history of political instability, natural disasters, floods and droughts that all had an effect on the development of livestock production systems and the potential application of biotechnologies. It is expected that the human population in sub Saharan Africa will experience a growth of 1.2 % per year over the next 30 years. There is therefore pressure to increase sustainable productivity of livestock. Reproductive technologies such as Artificial Insemination in Africa were driven primarily by the need to control or prevent venereal diseases like Trichomoniases and Campylobacter fetus in cattle. Reproductive biotechnology had a limited impact in Africa due to several factors including a lack of infrastructure and animal recording systems, clear breeding objectives and continuously changing production systems and markets. Africa has a large variety of genetic resources adapted to the diverse environment and production systems and biotechnology should be applied within this context for an increase in food production. PMID:24170361

  5. Teaching for Application: A Model for Assisting Pre-Service Teachers with Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jung Won; Cullen, Theresa; Brush, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a technology integration model designed to assist pre-service teachers to learn meaningful uses of technology in K-12 classrooms. Based on studies in teacher education, learning theory, and technology integration, the authors define five essential characteristics necessary for pre-service teacher…

  6. The Use of Assistive Technology for Symbol Identification by Children with Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, Orit; Rubin, Corinne; Konkol, Orna

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated whether the use of assistive technology would assist in the ability to identify symbols by three girls (ages 8-10) with Rett syndrome. Individualized multimedia programs resulted in a steady learning curve across symbol sets and a partial retention of knowledge throughout maintenance probes. (Contains references.) (CR)

  7. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  8. Internet-Assisted Technologies for English Language Teaching in Turkish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Although the enormous potential of the Internet has gained attention in Internet-assisted language teaching (IALT), a solid background of research is still lacking about/investigating English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' use of Internet assistive technologies. This study set out to determine Turkish university level EFL…

  9. Navajo-ABLE: Replication Model Navajo Assistive Technology Loan Program. Final Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Katie Jebb

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of the Navajo Assistive Bank of Loanable Equipment (Navajo-ABLE), a federally funded program designed to provide assistive technology (AT) devices, services, technical information, funding information, and training for Navajo children and youth with disabilities. The program was operated and…

  10. Countdown to 2015: changes in official development assistance to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health, and assessment of progress between 2003 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Arregoces, MSc; Felicity Daly, DrPH; Catherine Pitt, MSc; Justine Hsu, MSc; Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, PhD; Giulia Greco, PhD; Prof. Anne Mills, PhD; Prof. Peter Berman, PhD; Dr. Josephine Borghi, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tracking of aid resources to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) provides timely and crucial information to hold donors accountable. For the first time, we examine flows in official development assistance (ODA) and grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (collectively termed ODA+) in relation to the continuum of care for RMNCH and assess progress since 2003. Methods: We coded and analysed financial disbursements for maternal, newborn, and child hea...

  11. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES ACCORDING TO THE ISO 15189:2007 STANDARD - EVALUATION OF THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN AN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION LABORATORY

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Sialakouma; Palmer, G A; M. Botsaki; X. Papanikou; N.M. Vaxevanidis

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical science is a sensitive discipline and presents unique challenges due to its social character, continuous development and competitiveness. The issue of quality management systems and accreditation is gaining increasing interest in this sector. All over Europe, Health Services Units have started to introduce quality management systems and harmonization of criteria for accreditation is of increasing importance. Moreover, clinical laboratories, like the Assisted Reproduction laboratori...

  12. Advanced High Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-assist Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EV) when entering earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in...

  13. Current treatment status of traditional Chinese medicine in assisted reproductive techniques%中医药在辅助生殖技术中的治疗现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖娟; 程玲

    2012-01-01

    中医药近年在以体外受精-胚胎移植为代表的辅助生殖技术中常有报道,本文从体外受精-胚胎移植前治疗、移植周期中治疗、对子宫内膜容受性的调节、对并发症卵巢过度刺激综合征的调节、针刺治疗和食疗等方面综述了中医药在辅助生殖技术中的应用现状,从而认为祖国医学与现代辅助生殖技术相结合,可有效地提高不孕不育症治疗的成功率,减少并发症.%In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine has been frequently reported in assisted reproductive techniques, especially in vitro fertilization-embryo transplantation. This paper reviewed the current application status of traditional Chinese medicine in assisted reproductive techniques from treatment before in vitro fertilization-embryo transplantation, treatment during transplantation cycle, regulation of endometrial receptivity, regulation of concurrent ovarian hyperstimula-tion syndrome, acupuncture treatment, diet therapy and another aspects, thus concluding that the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and modern assisted reproductive techniques can effective improve the success rate of infertility disease treatment and reduce complications.

  14. Promoting the social integration of the eldery: housing rehabilitation and assistive technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy, Sara; Plácido, Isabel; Nunes, Renato

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the need to respond to the new demographic reality, namely the increase of the elderly population, regarding new housing requirements. The research carried out focuses on defining housing rehabilitation strategies to fulfil the elderly needs and on how the integration of Information and Communication Technologies and Assistive Technologies (ICAT) in the dwelling space will assist this group of population and enable “ageing in place”.

  15. Assistive Technology and Dolphin Therapy: A Wonderful Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eli; Thomasson, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    Madison is a four-year-old child who was born with cerebral palsy and cortical vision impairment. As a result, she has limited use of her extremities and is just starting to walk with assistance. She is predominately non-verbal, with the exception of a few words. This article describes how Island Dolphin Care (IDC), a nonprofit agency in Key…

  16. [Analysis of key vision position technologies in robot assisted surgical system for total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Liu, Yuncai; Wu, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongjian

    2008-02-01

    Robot assisted surgery is becoming a widely popular technology and is now entering the total knee replacement. The development of total knee replacement and the operation system structure are introduced in this paper. The vision position technology and the related calibration technology, which are very important, are also analyzed. The experiments of error analysis in our WATO system demonstrate that the position and related calibration technologies have a high precision and can satisfy surgical requirement.

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Time Compressed Animated Delivery Multimedia Technology on Student Learning in Reproductive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.; Oki, Angela C.; Senger, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a multimedia technology referred to as "Time Compressed Animated Delivery" (TCAD), on student learning in a junior-level reproductive physiology course. In experiment 1, participating students received one of two presentations of the same instructional material: TCAD and a lecture captured on video. At the…

  18. Evaluation of the Growth Process of Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques at Royan Institute from Birth to 9 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Nateghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to recent scientific progress in assisted reproductive techniques (ART, infertile couples can now become fertile. Thus, a number of infants in our country are the results of these costly interventions. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the physical growth process of different methods of ART infants by standard growth charts from birth until nine months of age.Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 333 infants conceived through ART [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and in vitro fertilization (IVF] at Royan Institute. A sequential, non-random sampling method in a period of 22 months was used. Their growth was assessed by measuring infants weight, height and head circumference, and physical examination. The growth patterns were calculated by recording the values in standard growth charts. The final analysis was done with SPSS version 16 and by using Chi-square test.Findings: In comparison with growth charts, the weights of one-third of the infants were less than two standard deviations (SD at birth and one-fourth had head circumference less than three SD at birth. Low birth weight (LBW infants were six times more than infants of normal population. From birth to six months of age, growth abnormalities were seen in a substantial number of infants. However, at nine months of age, there was no significant difference observed between infants conceived by different methods of ART (IVF and ICSI.Conclusion: Multiple births are the most important confounding factor impacting the growth process of ART infants. Multiple pregnancies can lead to low birth weight, height and head circumference, and growth abnormalities up to six months of age. This abnormality improves by increasing age of the infants.

  19. Frequency of Hearing Defect and Ear Abnormalities in Newborns Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Ahmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assisted reproductive techniques (ART are used with increasing frequencyworldwide. The present research was conducted to determine the effects of ART on hearing defectsand ear abnormalities.Materials and Methods: In a descriptive, cross-sectional, non-randomized study, the status ofhearing and ear abnormalities was assessed in 300 newborns conceived by ART at Royan Institute,Tehran, Iran. This study was performed over a sixteen month period.Data were collected from parents, otoscopic examinations and transiently evoked otoacousticemissions (TEOAE tests of the newborns. The external ear was assessed by otoscopic examination,followed by the TEOAE test (an objective test that does not need the infant’s collaboration whichwas performed by an audiologist. In this test, the OAE wave was registered after a click (stimulusat 5-20 millisecond intervals with an 82 dB SPL altitude. Data were analyzed by statistical tests.Results: Of the 300 cases examined by otoscopy, two cases (0.66% had bilateral malformationin the auricle, two (0.66% had unilateral perforation of the tympanic membrane, five (1.66%had unilateral retraction of the tympanic membrane, eight (2.66% had bilateral retraction of thetympanic membrane, one (0.33% had unilateral tympanic membrane inflammation, one (0.33%had bilateral tympanic membrane inflammation and one case (0.33% had wax obstruction of theexternal ear canal.A total of 289 out of 300 newborns undewent the TEOAE test. Of these, three cases (1.03% did nothave a bilateral registered wave and were diagnosed with bilateral hearing loss.Conclusion: This study shows that hearing and ear screening in newborns conceived by ARTis contemplative and emphasizes the profitability of continual check up in these infants.

  20. Prediction of assisted reproductive technique outcome in elevated early follicular phase follicle stimulating hormone with Mullerian inhibiting substance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Safdarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of best predictor of ovarian reserve in patients with temporarily or consistently elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH is one of the most important goals in assisted reproductive technique (ART.Objective: To evaluate whether high level of anti-mullerian hormone level is related to success of ART in patients with temporarily or consistently elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH.Materials and Methods: Sixty three women underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI with GnRH-agonist long protocol or intrauterine insemination (IUI in a prospective cohort study. FSH, inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH levels were measured in these women whom were divided to three groups (persistently elevated FSH, variably elevated FSH and, normal FSH level. Basal characteristics, stimulation parameters, and pregnancy occurrence were evaluated.Results: AMH was significantly higher in women with persistently elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy. Women with normal FSH did not have significant difference in AMH level between conceived and non conceived cycles. Women with only one elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy did not have significant difference in AMH level with non pregnant women. Response to gonadotropin stimulation, recommendation to oocyte donation significantly differed between the groups.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that relatively young women with persistently or intermittently elevated day 3 FSH levels have diminished ovarian reserve and lower ART success. However, in women whose FSH levels were constantly elevated, AMH (not inhibin B concentrations were significantly higher in ART cycles resulting in pregnancy. Therefore, AMH level is a good predictor of ART outcome in patients with elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH.

  1. The "Second Place" Problem: Assistive Technology in Sports and (Re) Constructing Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D A

    2016-02-01

    Objections to the use of assistive technologies (such as prostheses) in elite sports are generally raised when the technology in question is perceived to afford the user a potentially "unfair advantage," when it is perceived as a threat to the purity of the sport, and/or when it is perceived as a precursor to a slippery slope toward undesirable changes in the sport. These objections rely on being able to quantify standards of "normal" within a sport so that changes attributed to the use of assistive technology can be judged as causing a significant deviation from some baseline standard. This holds athletes using assistive technologies accountable to standards that restrict their opportunities to achieve greatness, while athletes who do not use assistive technologies are able to push beyond the boundaries of these standards without moral scrutiny. This paper explores how constructions of fairness and "normality" impact athletes who use assistive technology to compete in a sporting venue traditionally populated with "able-bodied" competitors. It argues that the dynamic and obfuscated construction of "normal" standards in elite sports should move away from using body performance as the measuring stick of "normal," toward alternate forms of constructing norms such as defining, quantifying, and regulating the mechanical actions that constitute the critical components of a sport. Though framed within the context of elite sports, this paper can be interpreted more broadly to consider problems with defining "normal" bodies in a society in which technologies are constantly changing our abilities and expectations of what normal means. PMID:25649071

  2. Come on, be serious: positioning and framing in the power play of classroom-based reproductive and genetic technology debates

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Padraig

    2008-01-01

    In this new era of upstream communication, scientists and science policymakers are expected to involve non-scientists earlier in technological decision-making. One of the earliest points of entry must surely be a secondary school classroom. It is here that young citizens can explore the choices they might one day make as clinicians or technologists in future policymaking, or indeed as parents, in future moments of crisis. The use of new reproductive and genetic technologies (NRGTs) is one are...

  3. School, Family and Other Influences on Assistive Technology Use: Access and Challenges for Students with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Meng Ee; Cohen, Libby

    2011-01-01

    Assistive technologies are essential enablers for individuals with visual impairments, but although Singapore is technologically advanced, students with visual impairments are not yet full participants in this technological society. This study investigates the barriers and challenges to the use of assistive technologies by students with visual…

  4. On teaching biopolicy and values in selected reproductive technologies: abortion, in vitro fertilization, and surrogate motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, L B

    1986-08-01

    This article is divided into three parts: "Faculty Preparation: Immersion in the Literature," "Conceptualizing and Organizing the Course," and "Course Design." The first part is addressed particularly to readers without access to a computer search of the literature. It suggests resource materials for each of the technologies. It also speaks to the meanings of and approaches which may be used to study biopolitics. Biopolicy is the approach used in the course. The second part addresses the problem of finding a unifying concept which would bring cohesion to the multiple and diverse materials and issues. It also includes the statement of purpose and course objectives. It is here that the development of identifying and demonstrating the nexus between the reproductive technologies and public policy begins. It also discusses methodologies used in the course. The third part lists the activities that served as a guide in designing the course and cites remaining caveats in course development. The paper concludes with statements about required reading materials, review materials, audio-visual aids, and a broad outline of the course. PMID:17153268

  5. The management of intelligence-assisted finite element analysis technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, AM

    1997-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches to Finite Element Analysis (FEA), have had tentative degrees of success over the last few years and some authors have argued that effective FEA can help in the manufacture reliability and safety aspects of engineered artefacts. The author of this paper reviews how such AI techniques have been applied and in this light, the author then uses a Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM), to develop a framework for the management of intelligence-assisted FEA.

  6. Enhancing Assisted Living Technology with Extended Visual Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hwee Lim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human vision and memory are powerful cognitive faculties by which we understand the world. However, they are imperfect and further, subject to deterioration with age. We propose a cognitive-inspired computational model, Extended Visual Memory (EVM, within the Computer-Aided Vision (CAV framework, to assist human in vision-related tasks. We exploit wearable sensors such as cameras, GPS and ambient computing facilities to complement a user's vision and memory functions by answering four types of queries central to visual activities, namely, Retrieval, Understanding, Navigation and Search. Learning of EVM relies on both frequency-based and attention-driven mechanisms to store view-based visual fragments (VF, which are abstracted into high-level visual schemas (VS, both in the visual long-term memory. During inference, the visual short-term memory plays a key role in visual similarity computation between input (or its schematic representation and VF, exemplified from VS when necessary. We present an assisted living scenario, termed EViMAL (Extended Visual Memory for Assisted Living, targeted at mild dementia patients to provide novel functions such as hazard-warning, visual reminder, object look-up and event review. We envisage EVM having the potential benefits in alleviating memory loss, improving recall precision and enhancing memory capacity through external support.

  7. Promoting Technology-Assisted Active Learning in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…

  8. Reproductive health financing in Kenya: an analysis of national commitments, donor assistance, and the resources tracking process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidze, E.M.; Pradhan, J.; Beekink, E.; Maina, T.M.; Maina, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the flow of resources at the country level to reproductive health is essential for effective financing of this key component of health. This paper gives a comprehensive picture of the allocation of resources for reproductive health in Kenya and the challenges faced in the resource-trac

  9. Assistive Technology in Special Education and the Universal Design for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Using technology can help students with disabilities to enhance and improve their independence in academic and employment tasks, their participation in classroom discussions, along with helping them to accomplish some difficult academic tasks. This paper discusses the role and benefits of using assistive technology in the Universal Design for…

  10. Assessing acceptance of assistive social agent technology by older adults: the Almere model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Heerink; B. Kröse; V. Evers; B. Wielinga

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of technology acceptance that is specifically developed to test the acceptance of assistive social agents by elderly users. The research in this paper develops and tests an adaptation and theoretical extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTA

  11. Mobile Assisted Language Learning: Review of the Recent Applications of Emerging Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaeseok

    2013-01-01

    As mobile computing technologies have been more powerful and inclusive in people's daily life, the issue of mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has also been widely explored in CALL research. Many researches on MALL consider the emerging mobile technologies have considerable potentials for the effective language learning. This review study…

  12. Using the iPhone for Assistive Technology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Chelsea; Rabe, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Parent and teacher collaborated to use the Apple iPhone as assistive technology to meet the needs of Bill, a 20-year-old student in the Saline Young Adult program, part of the Saline Michigan School System. Bill has an intellectual disability and this technology provided an effective, flexible and moderate cost solution that helped him meet his…

  13. European accomplishments in regulation of the family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor, ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This procedure is allowed in, for instance, United Kingdom, but not allowed in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Considering genetics elements in this situation there is no doubt on fatherhood - father is a man whose sperm is used for insemination, regardless of the fact if frozen sperm or frozen embryo is used in the procedure. Nevertheless, until 2008 in United Kingdom, the husband/partner was not considered as legal father, because of the fact that the child was born after his death. Heterologous artificial insemination could be used in three different situations. First, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of different sexes. Second, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex and the third if a single woman is an only subject. Most recent procedure is the one in which subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex, specifically two women. This procedure is allowed in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In these legislatures, there is a rule that the woman who delivers the child is legal mother, and her spouse/partner is a second parent of the child. The most recent procedure of egg donation is a donation of only a part of an egg, mitochondrial DNA. In this case, there are in fact three genetic parents of the child: two genetic mothers and a father. Legally, the child has one mother (the woman who delivers a child and a father. One of potential outcomes of the recent research is the ability to create human embryo without any male genetic contribution - by

  14. Current strategies for reproductive management of gilts and sows in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Kraeling, Robert R; Webel, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    Many advances in genetic selection, nutrition, housing and disease control have been incorporated into modern pork production since the 1950s resulting in highly prolific females and practices and technologies, which significantly increased efficiency of reproduction in the breeding herd. The objective of this manuscript is to review the literature and current industry practices employed for reproductive management. In particular the authors focus on assisted reproduction technologies and the...

  15. Preprint Virtual Reality Assistant Technology for Learning Primary Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Zhihan; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on ICWL2015. A virtual reality based enhanced technology for learning primary geography is proposed, which synthesizes several latest information technologies including virtual reality(VR), 3D geographical information system(GIS), 3D visualization and multimodal human-computer-interaction (HCI). The main functions of the proposed system are introduced, i.e. Buffer analysis, Overlay analysis, Space convex hull calculation, Space convex decomposition, 3...

  16. Field Test of Advanced Duct-Sealing Technologies Within the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, MP

    2001-12-05

    A field test of an aerosol-spray duct-sealing technology and a conventional, best-practice approach was performed in 80 homes to determine the efficacy and programmatic needs of the duct-sealing technologies as applied in the U.S. Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program. The field test was performed in five states: Iowa, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming. The study found that, compared with the best-practice approach, the aerosol-spray technology is 50% more effective at sealing duct leaks and can potentially reduce labor time and costs for duct sealing by 70%, or almost 4 crew-hours. Further study to encourage and promote use of the aerosol-spray technology within the Weatherization Assistance Program is recommended. A pilot test of full production weatherization programs using the aerosol-spray technology is recommended to develop approaches for integrating this technology with other energy conservation measures and minimizing impacts on weatherization agency logistics. In order to allow or improve adoption of the aerosol spray technology within the Weatherization Assistance Program, issues must be addressed concerning equipment costs, use of the technology under franchise arrangements with Aeroseal, Inc. (the holders of an exclusive license to use this technology), software used to control the equipment, safety, and training. Application testing of the aerosol-spray technology in mobile homes is also recommended.

  17. The use of assistive technology by occupational therapists in the Brazilian educational context: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Greicy Ferreira de Sousa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present, through a bibliographic revision, how occupational therapists have organized their discussions on the use of assistive technology resources at the school environment. An active search around this theme was performed in different databases, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (Scielo; Virtual Health Library (Bireme; Revista de Terapia Ocupacional da Universidade de São Paulo; Cadernos de Terapia Ocupacional da Universidade Federal de São Carlos, for the period between 2005, to the first trimester of 2013. The result showed the systematization of eleven studies related to assistive technology, occupational therapy, the educational context, and educational inclusion. The analysis revealed that occupational therapists worry about the need to educate teachers to use the assistive technology resources in the process of educating disabled students. The number of works found is still small considering the demand of the assistive technology and education area. There is a greater number of works about research reports, and fewer works about the theoretical foundation of assistive technology and its relation with Occupational Therapy in the school environment.

  18. Computer assistance in the technological process efficiency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Krupińska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Technological process is a basic determinant of correctness of industrial company’s functioning on themarket. In this connection they should treat with the priority all activities connected with technology, technologymanagement and controlling, that is with their continuous improvement.Design/methodology/approach: The created model made it possible to analyze the chosen technologicalprocesses for the sake of efficiency criteria, which describe the relationships: operation – material, operation– machine, operation – man, operation – technological parameters.Findings: The in this thesis conducted analysis includes hypothetical technological processes ofproducing typical machine pieces. Within their scope also the nonmaterial parameters of technologicalprocess have been taken into account, which resulted from arts of applied samples and projecting of thetechnological process.Practical implications: One has worked out an application that allows to analyze the efficiency of technologicalprocess in aspect of nonmaterial values and has used neuronal nets to verify particle indicators of quality ofa process operation. Indicators appointment makes it possible to evaluate the process efficiency, which canconstitute an optimization basis of particular operation.Originality/value: As a result of this analysis gained data enabled to optimize the technological process byestimating influence of the analyzed parameters on the whole of process and optimization conducting of anyprocess.

  19. Computer-assisted the optimisation of technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One has worked out an application that allows to analyze the efficiency of technological process in aspect of nonmaterial values and has used neural networks to verify particle indicators of quality of a process operation. Indicators appointment makes it possible to evaluate the process efficiency, which can constitute an optimization basis of particular operation.Design/methodology/approach: The created model made it possible to analyze the chosen technological processes for the sake of efficiency criteria, which describe the relationships: operation - material, operation - machine, operation - man, operation - technological parameters.Findings: In order to automate the process, to determine the efficiency of technological operation (KiX and possibly to optimize it, one has applied one of artificial intelligence tools - neural networks.Practical implications: Application of neural networks allows to determine the value of technological efficiency of an operation. (KiX without the necessity of detailed analysis as well of the whole process as of the particular operation. It makes it also possible to optimize operation efficiency by means of checking value of operation efficiency in the case of change in value of particular partial efficiency indicators.Originality/value: Method of computer application makes it possible to point out the studied indicators and asses finally the process efficiency in order to plan optimization of particular operation.

  20. 对辅助生殖技术的几点思考%Reflection on the assistant reproductive technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一飞

    2006-01-01

    所谓辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)是指所有涉及体外操作人的卵子和精子或胚胎,以达到妊娠目的的方法。按照这个定义,1790年John Hunter将一位尿道下裂患者的精液采集后注入患者妻子的阴道内使其成功怀孕(artificial insemination by husband semen,AIH)以及1844年William Pancoast用一位捐赠者的精子使一位妇女受孕(artificial insemination by donor semen,AID),也应归入ART的范畴。当然学术界一般是以世界第1例试管婴儿——体外受精及胚胎移植(in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer,IVF+ET)作为ART划时代的里程碑。近二十几年来,ART技术发展飞速,包括20世纪80年代的胚胎与卵子的冷冻保存(cryo-preservation),1992年的卵胞质内单精子注射(intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection,ICSI),20世纪90年代的着床前遗传学诊断(pre-implantation genetic diagnosis,PGD),胚胎共培养技术,胚胎辅助孵化技术,睾丸精子吸取技术(testicular sperm aspiration,TESA),未成熟卵母细胞体外培养技术(in vitro oocyte maturation,IVM)以及卵细胞核移植技术等,真可谓日新月异,层出不穷。

  1. Efficacy of Highly Purified Urinary FSH versus Recombinant FSH in Chinese Women over 37 Years Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urine derived follicle-stimulating hormone (uFSH contains a higher proportion of acidic isoforms, whereas recombinant FSH (rFSH contains a higher proportion of less-acidic isoforms. Less-acidic isoforms have a faster clearance, and thus a shorter half-life than the acidic FSH isoforms. The slow clearance of the acidic isoforms has a longer half-life and higher biological activity. This study was designed to determine whether uFSH or rFSH is more effective in older Chinese women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study. A total of 508 Chinese women over 37 years were randomized into two following study groups for their in vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles: i. group A (n=254 were treated with rFSH, and ii. group B (n=254 were treated with uFSH. Both groups were suppressed with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue using a long down-regulation protocol. The main outcomes for comparison were days of stimulation, estradiol (E2 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration, number of oocytes collected, amount of FSH used, quantity of FSH/oocyte, endometrial thickness at hCG day, M П oocyte rate, 2PN zygote rate, grade І embryo rate, number of embryos cryopreserved, pregnancy rate, implantation rate, abortion rate and the rate of no transferable embryos. Results: Twenty two cycles including 16 cycles with poor ovarian response and six cycles with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were cancelled. There were 243 cycles left in each group. The patients treated with uFSH had a significantly higher 2PN zygote rate (87.4 vs. 76.6%, p0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that uFSH produced a significantly higher proportion of grade І embryos than rFSH in older Chinese women and there was a significantly lower chance of no transferable embryos in uFSH cycles. The clinical efficacy of the two

  2. Stocking the genetic supermarket: reproductive genetic technologies and collective action problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris; Douglas, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL COMFORT ON THE PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE INDICES OF THE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SUMANSCHII

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were held at the quail’s farm „Annotation invest - agro” r. Hâncesti. As a studied material there was used the Japanese bread of quails, kept in six leveled cages, each cage is divided horizontal in half, in that way that in each part there are 35 quails. For the aim achieving there were formed four groups: the first is the control group, and the other three are experimental groups. There was fixed one psychrometer for each group to determine the temperature and the humidity level. There was established the eggs production every day from each group separately. The eggs weight has been determined once in a month, using the electric scales. The egg's index and the egg's shell thickness have been determined by the sliding. The held experiments showed the real influence of the technological factors of the temperature and the humidity of the air on the productive and reproductive indices of the quails grown in conditions of Republic of Moldova.

  4. Família: maternidade e procriação assistida Family: maternity and assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Reis Braga

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata das transformações que se operam na idéia de família que desenvolvemos no Ocidente. Tais mudanças se devem, entre outros fatores, aos diferentes lugares que a mulher passou a ocupar na família e na sociedade e à constituição de sua identidade pela via da maternidade. Isso também é acompanhado pela decadência do modelo patriarcal, o que gera intensas discussões a respeito de um possível fator de feminilização da cultura e declínio da função paterna. A essas questões somam-se os avanços tecnológicos no campo da medicina da reprodução e as intervenções sobre o corpo feminino, o que tem proporcionado tanto mudanças quanto reforços no modelo de família tradicional ocidental.The present article discusses the transformations within the concepts of family in the Western society. These changes are due to (among others reasons the social position that women have assumed, and to the constitution of a feminine identity based on the fact of becoming a mother. These matters follow the decadence of a patriarchal pattern, which generates discussions regarding a supposed rising of a femininization of culture and the failure of the father role. To these questions recent development of reproductive medicine technologies, and medical interventions upon feminine body can be added, which has provide changes as well as reinforcements to a traditional family model.

  5. EVALUATING THREE INTERFACE TECHNOLOGIES IN ASSISTING PEDESTRIANS' SPATIAL KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen raising interests in mobile pedestrian navigation systems. Different interface technologies can be used to communicate/convey route directions to pedestrians, such as mobile maps, voices, and augmented reality (AR. Many field experiments have been conducted to study the effectiveness of different interface technologies in guiding pedestrians to their destinations. In contrast to other field studies, this article aims at investigating the influence of different interface technologies on spatial knowledge acquisition (spatial learning. With sufficient spatial knowledge about an environment, people can still find their way when navigation systems fail (e.g. out of battery. The goal of this article is to empirically evaluate three GPS-based navigation prototypes (implementing mobile map-based, AR-based, and voice-based guidance respectively in supporting spatial knowledge acquisition. The field test showed that in terms of spatial knowledge acquisition, the three interface technologies led to comparable poor results, which were also not significantly different from each other. This article concludes with some implications for designing mobile pedestrian navigation systems.

  6. The Use of Assistive Technology by High School Students with Visual Impairments: A Second Look at the Current Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2011-01-01

    Even though a wide variety of assistive technology tools and devices are available in the marketplace, many students with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) have not yet benefitted from using this specialized technology. This article presents a study that assessed the use of assistive technology by high school…

  7. Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

  8. The Groningen assisted reproductive technologies cohort study : developmental status and behavior at 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Middelburg, Karin J.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether children's cognitive and psychomotor development and behavior at 2 years are affected by ovarian hyperstimulation and the IVF laboratory procedures or subfertility. Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting: University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherl

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus HCG for oocyte triggering in antagonist assisted reproductive technology cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.F.M. Youssef; F. van der Veen; H.G. Al-Inany; G. Griesinger; M.H. Mochtar; M. van Wely

    2010-01-01

    Background Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols for pituitary down regulation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) allow the use of GnRH agonists for triggering final oocyte maturation. Currently, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is stil

  10. Assisted reproductive technologies to establish pregnancies in couples with an HIV-1-infected man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Leeuwen; S. Repping; J.M. Prins; P. Reiss; F. van der Veen

    2009-01-01

    For HIV -1-infected men and women the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HART) in 1996 led to a spectacular increase in life expectancy and quality of life. In Western society where HART is readily available, HIV -1 is now considered to be a chronic disease and as a consequence qu

  11. Assisted reproduction technology in men with ejaculatory dysfunction with special reference to spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hultling, Claes

    1998-01-01

    Background: Men afflicted by spinal cord injury (SCI), myelomcningocele (MMC) and testicular cancer (TC) with retroperitoneal Iymph node dissection (RPLND) share the problem of infertility due mainly, but not exclusively, to neurologic impairment. This problem has historically been neglected, partly due to lack of effective treatment, partly due to lack of appreciation of the importance of sexual and procreational issues for rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life. Wi...

  12. The post-humanist embryo: genetic manipulation, assisted reproductive technologies and the principle of procreative beneficence

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Güell Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    El principio de beneficencia procreativa (PPB), propuesto por Julian Savulescu, establece que los padres tienen la obligación moral de utilizar las técnicas de manipulación genética y reproducción humana asistida disponibles para crear niños que tengan la mejor oportunidad de disfrutar de la mejor vida posible. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, por un lado, hasta qué punto la manipulación genética para la obtención de rasgos concretos tienen en consideración el paradigma actual de la c...

  13. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prions. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due...

  14. The post-humanist embryo: genetic manipulation, assisted reproductive technologies and the principle of procreative beneficence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Güell Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El principio de beneficencia procreativa (PPB, propuesto por Julian Savulescu, establece que los padres tienen la obligación moral de utilizar las técnicas de manipulación genética y reproducción humana asistida disponibles para crear niños que tengan la mejor oportunidad de disfrutar de la mejor vida posible. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, por un lado, hasta qué punto la manipulación genética para la obtención de rasgos concretos tienen en consideración el paradigma actual de la ciencia y, por otro lado, si las técnicas implicadas en la selección embrionaria propuestas cumplen con el objetivo perseguido por el PPB. Además, esta exposición pretende mostrar la importancia de implicar en la discusión sobre el enhancement a la comunidad científica. Teniendo en cuenta el conocimiento científico sobre los procesos genéticos y epigenéticos del desarrollo y los riesgos asociados a las técnicas de reproducción asistida, nos encontramos con razones suficientes para tomar la decisión de no someter a los niños a las técnicas actuales de manipulación y selección embrionaria.

  15. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2004: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goossens, V.; Ferraretti, A.P.; Bhattacharya, S.;

    2008-01-01

    ,672), ICSI (167,192), frozen embryo replacement (FER, 71,997), egg donation (ED, 10 334), preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening (PGD/PGS, 2701) and in vitro maturation (IVM, 170). Overall, this represents only a marginal increase since 2003, due to a huge reduction in treatments in Germany. European...

  16. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin;

    2014-01-01

    , respectively. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: As this is an observational study, the main limitation is the fact that it is not possible to adjust for all potential confounders. We were not able to control for confounders such as socio-economic status and perinatal factors, such as Apgar score, which other...

  17. The issue of constitutional law legitimacy on "human assisted reproduction" between reasonableness of the choices and effectiveness of the protection of all involved subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Simone

    2006-01-01

    This artiche analyzes the constitutionality petition to the constitutional Court against Law 40 of 2004 on "human assisted reproduction", where it prohibits the "preimplantatory genetical diagnosis", because it could be against the mother's right to health (art. 32 Italian Constitution) and the egalitarian protection clause (art. 3 Italian Constitution). In the constitutionally petition the ordinary judge proposes an interpretation in accordance with Constitution of the contested disposition (art. 13 of Law 40 of 2004) and this could be the possibility to teste the "living law" theory and its relation with the "adequate interpretation" of the law and the Constitution. PMID:17393800

  18. Ultrasound assisted chrome tanning: Towards a clean leather production technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Embialle; Smets, Ilse; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for a cleaner, but still effective alternative for production processes like in the leather industry. Ultrasound (US) assisted processing of leather might be promising in this sense. In the present paper, the use of US in the conventional chrome tanning process has been studied at different pH, temperature, tanning time, chrome dose and US exposure time by exposing the skin before tanning and during tanning operation. Both prior exposure of the skin to US and US during tanning improves the chrome uptake and reduces the shrinkage significantly. Prior exposure of the skin to US increase the chrome uptake by 13.8% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 5% (% based on skin weight) and shorten the process time by half while US during tanning increases the chrome uptake by 28.5% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 4% (half) and the tanning time to one third compared to the control without US. Concomitantly, the resulting leather quality (measured as skin shrinkage) improved from 5.2% to 3.2% shrinkage in the skin exposed to US prior tanning and to 1.3% in the skin exposed to US during the tanning experiment. This study confirms that US chrome tanning is an effective and eco-friendly tanning process which can produce a better quality leather product in a shorter process time with a lower chromium dose. PMID:27150762

  19. Ultrasound assisted chrome tanning: Towards a clean leather production technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Embialle; Smets, Ilse; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for a cleaner, but still effective alternative for production processes like in the leather industry. Ultrasound (US) assisted processing of leather might be promising in this sense. In the present paper, the use of US in the conventional chrome tanning process has been studied at different pH, temperature, tanning time, chrome dose and US exposure time by exposing the skin before tanning and during tanning operation. Both prior exposure of the skin to US and US during tanning improves the chrome uptake and reduces the shrinkage significantly. Prior exposure of the skin to US increase the chrome uptake by 13.8% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 5% (% based on skin weight) and shorten the process time by half while US during tanning increases the chrome uptake by 28.5% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 4% (half) and the tanning time to one third compared to the control without US. Concomitantly, the resulting leather quality (measured as skin shrinkage) improved from 5.2% to 3.2% shrinkage in the skin exposed to US prior tanning and to 1.3% in the skin exposed to US during the tanning experiment. This study confirms that US chrome tanning is an effective and eco-friendly tanning process which can produce a better quality leather product in a shorter process time with a lower chromium dose.

  20. Reproductive planning in times of Zika: getting pregnant or delaying plans? The opinion of the Brazilian Society of Assisted Reproduction Committee - a basis for a bioethical discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Bruno R de; Taitson, Paulo F; Brandão, Karina S A G; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Nakagawa, Hitomi M; Silva, Adelino A; Lopes, Joaquim R C

    2016-01-01

    Although the causality between Zika virus, microcephaly, and other central nervous system disorders has been taken for granted by the scientific community, many uncertainties remain. The gap of knowledge at the moment is large enough to remove part of the confidence physicians have on the advice given to patients - and infertile women in particular - on their reproductive plans. Pretreatment serologic screening is a possible strategy to offer more confidence for individuals choosing to bear children regardless of the Zika virus, but the tests currently available do not seem to be sufficiently adequate. Until now, there is no formal recommendation to avoid pregnancy solely because of the Zika virus outbreak, and the choice of becoming pregnant has been regarded as a personal decision to be made by each woman and her family. PMID:27584610

  1. An international view of surgically assisted conception and surrogacy tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine, specifically assisted reproductive technology (ART), has overtaken the law in many jurisdictions around the world. New technologies and practices open a Pandora's Box of ethical, religious, social and legal questions, and may present a variety of significant legal problems to the courts and legislators. Surrogate motherhood and pregnancy through ART have both attracted controversy. Some groups condemn ART and want it banned while its supporters acknowledge there is a need for legislative guidelines and regulations. A proposed statute, the Assisted Reproductive Technique Services Act, aimed at regulating reproductive technologies, including surrogacy arrangements, will be introduced in the Malaysian parliament, probably in 2012, and the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill 2010 is already before the Indian parliament. This paper will discuss several of the potential socio-legal issues surrounding ART in the light of the complex situation, with a comparative analysis of the Malaysian, USA, UK and Indian positions. PMID:22156300

  2. An international view of surgically assisted conception and surrogacy tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine, specifically assisted reproductive technology (ART), has overtaken the law in many jurisdictions around the world. New technologies and practices open a Pandora's Box of ethical, religious, social and legal questions, and may present a variety of significant legal problems to the courts and legislators. Surrogate motherhood and pregnancy through ART have both attracted controversy. Some groups condemn ART and want it banned while its supporters acknowledge there is a need for legislative guidelines and regulations. A proposed statute, the Assisted Reproductive Technique Services Act, aimed at regulating reproductive technologies, including surrogacy arrangements, will be introduced in the Malaysian parliament, probably in 2012, and the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill 2010 is already before the Indian parliament. This paper will discuss several of the potential socio-legal issues surrounding ART in the light of the complex situation, with a comparative analysis of the Malaysian, USA, UK and Indian positions.

  3. Assessing acceptance of assistive social agent technology by older adults: the Almere model

    OpenAIRE

    Heerink, M.; Kröse, B.; Evers, V.; Wielinga, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of technology acceptance that is specifically developed to test the acceptance of assistive social agents by elderly users. The research in this paper develops and tests an adaptation and theoretical extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) by explaining intent to use not only in terms of variables related to functional evaluation like perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, but also variables that relate to social interac...

  4. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. PMID:27481835

  5. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing

    2013-01-01

    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  6. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation.

  7. Technical assistance and the transfer of remote sensing technology. [for economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, R.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of technology from industrialized countries to the third world is a very complicated process and one that requires a great deal of research and development. The political and social obstacles to this transfer are generally greater than the technical obstacles, but technical assistance programs have neither the competence nor the inclination to deal with these factors adequately. Funding for technical assistance in remote sensing is now expanding rapidly, and there is a growing need for institutions to study and promote the effective use of this technology for economic development. The United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development and the Canadian technical assistance agencies take different approaches to the problem and deal with the political pressures in different ways.

  8. Self Assistive Technology for Disabled People – Voice Controlled Wheel Chair and Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Puviarasi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of an innovative and low cost self-assistive technology that is used to facilitate the control of a wheelchair and home appliances by using advanced voice commands of the disabled people. This proposed system will provide an alternative to the physically challenged people with quadriplegics who is permanently unable to move their limbs (but who is able to speak and hear and elderly people in controlling the motion of the wheelchair and home appliances using their voices to lead an independent, confident and enjoyable life. The performance of this microcontroller based and voice integrated design is evaluated in terms of accuracy and velocity in various environments. The results show that it could be part of an assistive technology for the disabled persons without any third person’s assistance.

  9. New Reproductive Assemblages: Understanding, Managing and ‘Using’ Human In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Just, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a contribution to the ongoing discussion about the body and in vitro fertilization (IVF), also known as assisted reproduction or technologically enhanced reproduction. With help of empirical research on Dutch and Polish IVF-couples, Edyta Just puts into question the meaning of I

  10. Assistive Technologies in a Workplace Environment: Barriers for the Employment of People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Beverley Buckley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The employment equity policies and implementation of technology-specific guidelines within the South African ‘Code of Good Practice on the Employment of People with Disabilities’, was created to encourage employment equity for employees with disabilities, by companies in Johannesburg.  This study reports on the results of the investigation in assistive technologies in a workplace environment, and barriers for the employment of people with disabilities in the South African environment.Method: Qualitative data, collected from two retail and service companies in the form of semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, was analysed using a constant comparative method, identifying major themes and sub-themes.Results: A surprisingly small number of persons with disabilities were found to be employed by participating companies, which tended not to focus on these people when formulating their policies and plans. In addition, technological aspects of the Code were largely unacknowledged, with little effort being made to accommodate the needs of persons with disabilities. An even lower incidence of assistive technology usage was found, along with a large number of conceptual and perceived barriers that hinder the employment of people with disabilities and the implementation of appropriate technology.Key words: assistive technologies, disability accommodation guidelines, barriers for employment, disabilities, policy doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.32

  11. Client satisfaction with service delivery of assistive technology for outdoor mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedeloo, S; De Witte, LP; Linssen, BAJ; Schrijvers, AJP

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In the decentralized Dutch service delivery system, client satisfaction levels for the provision of assistive technology (AT) for outdoor mobility for elderly and disabled persons was measured to investigate whether or not differences exist between local service delivery systems and if so,

  12. Creating Meaningful Art Experiences with Assistive Technology for Students with Physical, Visual, Severe, and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mari Beth; Cramer, Elizabeth Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Various levels of assistive technology can be used in the art classroom to provide a fulfilling artmaking experience for all levels of learners. The purpose of this article is to add to the body of knowledge by providing ideas generated from collaboration between the fields of special education and art education that the authors feel will benefit…

  13. Technology-Assisted Reading for Improving Reading Skills for Young South African Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Gerda; Louw, Arno

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the controversial issues of improving the reading skills of young learners through technology-assisted reading programmes. On reporting the results of primary school learners from grade 2 to grade 7 who participated in a computer-based reading programme for seven months, we try to answer the critical questions of whether…

  14. Provision of assistive technology services method (ATSM) according to evidence-based information and knowledge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, Linda-Jeanne; Bauer, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This article develops a standardised method for assistive technology service (ATS) provision and a logical basis for research to improve health care quality. The method is 'interoperable' across disabilities, disciplines, assistive technology devices and ATSs. BACKGROUND. Absence of a standardised and interoperable method for ATS provision results in ineffective communication between providers, manufacturers, researchers, policy-makers and individuals with disabilities (IWD), a fragmented service delivery system, inefficient resource allocation and sub-optimal outcomes. OBJECTIVES. Synthesise a standardised, interoperable AT service method (ATSM) fully consistent with key guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation. Express the ATSM using common and unambiguous language. RESULTS. Guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation relevant to ATS provision are reviewed. These include the RESNA Guidelines for Knowledge and Skills for Provision of Assistive Technology Products and Services (RESNA Guidelines), IMPACT2 model, international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and AT device classification (ATDC). Federal legislation includes the Assistive Technology Act of 2004, Americans with Disabilities Act of 2008 and Social Security Act. Based on these findings, the ATSM is synthesised and translated into common and accessible language. CONCLUSION. ATSM usage will improve communication between stakeholders, service delivery coherence, resource allocation and intervention outcomes. PMID:21345000

  15. Automatic Speech Recognition and Training for Severely Dysarthric Users of Assistive Technology: The STARDUST Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mark; Cunningham, Stuart; Enderby, Pam; Hawley, Mark; Green, Phil

    2006-01-01

    The STARDUST project developed robust computer speech recognizers for use by eight people with severe dysarthria and concomitant physical disability to access assistive technologies. Independent computer speech recognizers trained with normal speech are of limited functional use by those with severe dysarthria due to limited and inconsistent…

  16. The Lenovo X-60 Convertible Notebook Tablet PC: An Assistive Technology Tool Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Carter, Liz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the suitability of the newest generation of Lenovo X60 tablet personal computers (PCs) as assistive technology (AT) devices for students with disabilities. Because of the vast selection of tablet PCs and convertible notebooks currently available on the market, this paper will confine itself to assessing one…

  17. Workplace Environments That Assist and Hinder the Career Progression of Women in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the workplace environment characteristics that hinder and assist the career progression of women in information technology (IT). The study examined the satisfaction with the career progression of the women in IT as well as why the women in IT like and dislike their careers. The major…

  18. State Sales Tax and Assistive Technology: Securing Exemptions for Sensory, Communication, and Mobility Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Steven

    This paper examines issues involved in identifying and securing sales tax exemptions to curtail the potential negative impact of state sales taxes on assistive technology. Chapter I discusses the nature of sales taxes, including their definition, their impact, their structure and administration, and the sources of exemptions. Chapter II considers…

  19. The Assimilation of Assistive Technology in Residential Care Centers for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Carmeli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available People with intellectual disability (ID require special support in order to achieve independence in their daily life. Persons with ID are less exposed to assistive technology, although studies have shown that the availability of aids afford an opportunity to reach independence and cooperation. The aim of this study was to examine the nature of the relationship between involvement of the physiotherapy (PT team and the degree to which assistive technology was used. A questionnaire was sent to all PTs employed at all 54 residential care centers for persons with ID of the Division for Mental Retardation at the Ministry of Social Affairs in Israel. A significantly positive correlation was found between the degree of involvement of the PT and the utilization of assistive technology. The study results may be summarized by stating that PTs demonstrated a great deal of involvement, particularly in relation to the extent of their work in the residential care centers. PT's awareness of the importance was indicated as the major reason to use assistive technology.

  20. The Impact of Assistive Technology on Curriculum Accommodation for a Braille-Reading Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Charles R.; Luckner, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Over 5 months, the authors evaluated the efficacy of electronic assistive technology (the BrailleNote mPower BT-32 notetaker and Tiger Cub Jr. embosser) and associated software components in creating curriculum materials for a middle school Braille-reading student. The authors collected data at the beginning and end of the study from parents,…