WorldWideScience

Sample records for assisted reproduction technologies

  1. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  2. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  3. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  4. [Assisted reproductive technologies and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Since the first birth after in vitro fertilization more than 5 million of IVF babies are born in the world. Assisted reproductive technologies captivate the public, they allow maternity without ovary (oocyte donation), without uterus (surrogate mother), paternity without spermatozoids (sperm donation), parentality without limits of age, parentality after death and homoparentality. These technologies arise a lot of ethics questions, the problem is that the answers are not the same all-round the world, laws are based on morals, beliefs, faiths, and convictions. Theses variations arise themselves questions on the value of these non-universal answers.

  5. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente

    2016-01-01

    associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birth weight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception......Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...

  6. Imprinting disorders after assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2006-01-01

    To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies.......To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies....

  7. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2012-01-01

    This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007.......This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007....

  8. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; de Mouzon, J

    2012-01-01

    This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008.......This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008....

  9. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; Kupka, M

    2013-01-01

    The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?......The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?...

  10. Reducing multiple births in assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Kamath, Mohan S

    2014-02-01

    Multiple pregnancy, a complication of assisted reproduction technology, is associated with poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes. The primary reason behind this is the strategy of replacing more than one embryo during an assisted reproduction technology cycle to maximise pregnancy rates. The solution to this problem is to reduce the number of embryos transferred during in-vitro fertilisation. The transition from triple- to double-embryo transfer, which decreased the risk of triplets without compromising pregnancy rates, was easily implemented. The adoption of a single embryo transfer policy has been slow because of concerns about impaired pregnancy rates in a fresh assisted reproduction technology cycle. Widespread availability of effective cryopreservation programmes means that elective single embryo transfer, along with subsequent frozen embryo transfers, could provide a way forward. Any such strategy will need to consider couples' preferences and existing funding policies, both of which have a profound influence on decision making around embryo transfer.

  11. Abuse of Assistant Reproductive Technologies Banned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Is it morally and legally viable for unmarried womento have a child through in vitro fertilization? Is fetusreduction operation necessary for multi-births causedby assistant reproductive technologies? Such issueshave aroused great concerns from governmentofficials and demographers and the general public

  12. Congenital anomalies after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Malchau, Sara Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 5 million children have been born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), and in many developed countries ART infants represent more than 1% of the birth cohorts. It is well known that ART children are at increased risk of congenital malformations even after adjustment ...

  13. Childhood outcomes of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Peek, John; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2011-09-01

    There is a large population of children conceived via assisted reproductive technology (ART), which continues to increase worldwide, without a clear understanding of associated long-term outcomes. ART children are more likely to be the result of multiple pregnancies, and thus to be born prematurely or low birthweight. There is growing evidence that ART children are phenotypically and biochemically different from naturally conceived children, but the mechanism(s) leading to these changes have not been elucidated. There is a possible increased risk of rare imprinted gene disorders in these children. However, it remains unclear whether more subtle changes in DNA methylation occur commonly, leading to differences in gene expression and phenotype in ART children. Although an increased risk of cancer among ART children has been reported, the role of ART in the development of cancer has not been demonstrated. Further research and ongoing surveillance of ART children is essential to better understand the possible effects of ART on the long-term health of this population.

  14. Assisted reproductive technologies in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs have been used in the production of rhesus monkey offspring at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC and that experience is summarized here. Additionally these technologies serve as a source of oocytes/embryos for monozygotic twinning, embryonic stem (ES cell derivation and cloning. High fertilization efficiencies were realized with conventional insemination or following the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and approximately 50% of the resulting embryos grew in vitro to blastocysts. Both fresh and frozen sperm were employed in fertilization by ICSI and the resulting embryos could be low temperature stored for subsequent thawing and transfer when a synchronized recipient female was available or after shipment to another facility. Following the transfer of up to 3 embryos, an overall pregnancy rate of 30% was achieved with increasing rates dependent upon the number of embryos transferred. Singleton pregnancy outcomes following the transfer of ART produced embryos were similar to those observed in a control group of animals in the timed mated breeding colony at ONPRC. ICSI produced embryos were used in efforts to create monozygotic twins by blastomere separation or blastocyst splitting. While pregnancies were achieved following the transfer of demi-embryos, only one was a twin and it was lost to spontaneous abortion. ICSI produced embryos have also served as the source of blastocysts for the derivation of embryonic stem cells. These pluripotent cells hold potential for cell based therapies and we consider the monkey an important translational model in which to evaluate safety, efficacy and feasibility of regenerative medicine approaches based on the transplantation of stem cell-derived progeny. Finally, efforts to produce genetically-identical monkeys by nuclear transfer have been briefly summarized.

  15. Assisted Reproductive Technology: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Fertility Counseling and Treatment for Certain Veterans and Spouses. Interim... Article: Embryo wastage rates remain high in assisted reproductive technology (ART):... Article: 2017 in-training initiative of the ...

  16. Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Livestock Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and N. Sri Balaji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of farm animals is a prime concern over the years for researchers. Several reproductive technologies have been employed to achieve this. Assisted reproductive technologies like Artificial insemination, Superovulation, In vitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems, to increase the offspring from selected female’s and to reduce the generation intervals in farm animals. The progress achieved during the last few years in the assisted reproductive technologies field has been phenomenal. Artificial Insemination (AI is the most effective method being used for the genetic improvement of animals. Reproductive capacity and efficiency has been improved tremendously since the introduction of artificial insemination. The development of cloning using various cells from the animal body has created opening of a fascinating scientific arena. These technologies have been propounded as saviors of indigenous livestock breeds. These alternative reproductive techniques are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also proven to be powerful tools in curbing the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. The successful reproductive technologies such as AI and Embryo transfer need be applied on a large scale, emerging biotechnogies such as MOET, IVF and Cloning provides powerful tool for rapidly changing the animal populations, genetically. This advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play an important role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance in livestock. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 238-240

  17. Risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies following assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opdahl, S; Henningsen, A A; Tiitinen, A

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies conceived following specific assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures different from the risk in spontaneously conceived (SC) pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART pregnancies had a higher risk of hypertensive disorders......, the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, the Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Liaison Committee between the Central Norway Regional Health Authority and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. None of the authors has any competing interests...

  18. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Related Clinical Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuan-chong FENG; Zhong-mei LI

    2004-01-01

    @@ As a widely-applied clinical therapy for infertility and sterility, ART has its own merits compared to other techniques and operations; however, the outcome of ART is influenced by various factors ranging from age, endometrial receptivity, reproductive system condition (e.g.uterus, fallopian tube and pelvic factors, etc.), immune system and so on. From our clinical experience and the literatures reviewd, it is strongly recommended that the situation of every infertile couple be evaluated thoroughly before applying therapy.

  19. Perinatal Outcomes after Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setenay Arzu Yilmaz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize perinatal outcomes and the congenital anomaly risk of IVF pregnancies and also examine the risks of different technologies including ICSI, blastocyst culture, and cryopreservation on this topic. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 575-586

  20. "Baby oh baby"--advances in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solursh, D S; Schorer, J W; Solursh, L P

    1997-01-01

    It is estimated that one couple in six in the United States has to deal with issues of infertility. It is assumed that worldwide rates are comparable. In 35% of cases, the infertility is caused by female reproductive problems, in 35% by male reproductive problems, in 15% by multiple factors and in 15% the cause is unknown. Medical and scientific advances in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) have created 12 different pregnancy producing options for infertile couples. An ART infant could have as many as five parents (i.e. a donor father, a donor mother, a surrogate or gestational mother, and the couple actually rearing the child). These technical, medical, and moral complexities have resulted in a nightmare of accompanying legal complexities: anonymous donors versus those with identification disclosed, parental rights, grandparental rights, the rights of siblings and of the extended families; sperm, ovum and embryo "ownership", custody, visitation and inheritance rights and multiple other issues challenge a system of laws that evolves far slower than the technological realities to which it applies. This presentation will describe Assisted Reproductive Technology advances and the legal implications inherent in them. Case histories will be discussed.

  1. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for mammalian farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    technologies that have the potential to improve efficiency of livestock production. The focus will be on technologies that manipulate male and female gametes as well as the stem cells from which they are derived and the preimplantation embryo. While technology is crucial to other interventions in the reproductive process like control of seasonal breeding, hormonal regulation of ovulation, estrous cyclicity and pregnancy establishment, feeding to optimize reproduction, minimizing environmental stress, and selection of genes controlling reproduction, these will not be considered here. Rather the reader is directed to other chapters in this volume as well as some reviews on other aspects of artificial manipulation of reproduction (Reprod Fertil Dev 24:258-266, 2011; Reprod Domest Anim 43:40-47, 2008; Reprod Domest Anim 43:122-128, 2008; Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:87-102, 2009; Comprehensive biotechnology, Amsterdam, pp 477-485; Dairy production medicine, Chichester, pp 153-163; Theriogenology 76:1619-1631, 2011; Theriogenology 76:1568-1582, 2011; Theriogenology 77:1-11, 2012). Given the large number of mammalian species used for production of products useful for man and the diversity in their biology and management, the review will not be comprehensive but instead will use results from species that are most illustrative of the opportunities generated by assisted reproductive technologies.

  2. Experience with ISO quality control in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Michael M

    2013-12-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs are complex organizations requiring the integration of multiple disciplines. ISO 9001:2008 is a quality management system that is readily adaptable to an ART program. The value that ISO brings to the entire organization includes control of documents, clear delineation of responsibilities of staff members, documentation of the numerous processes and procedures, improvement in tracking and reducing errors, and overall better control of systems. A quality ART program sets quality objectives and monitors their progress. ISO provides a sense of transparency within the organization and clearer understanding of how service is provided to patients. Most importantly, ISO provides the framework to allow for continual improvement.

  3. Assisted reproductive technologies are an integrated part of national strategies addressing demographic and reproductive challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren; Devroey, Paul; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    The decline in the total fertility rate in the latter half of the 20th century in many European countries is becoming increasingly important in determining the demographic composition of Europe and its individual member states. This review focuses on discussion surrounding how assisted reproductive...... technology (ART) can impact declining fertility rates....

  4. Spermbots: potential impact for drug delivery and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdanz, Veronika; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2014-08-01

    Micromotors and nanomotors are an emerging research field that aims at achieving locomotion on the microscale for a variety of applications such as drug delivery, single cell manipulation, microsensors and lab-on-a-chip devices, just to point out a few. The enthusiastic development of hybrid micromotors harnessing biological power sources for physiologically compatible nano/microdevices has recently brought a lot of attention to the international research community that is looking for a solution for the actuation and locomotion on the microscale. This article describes the potential of sperm-driven micro-bio-robots in the biomedical field such as drug delivery or single cell manipulation. Herein, a specific potential of the sperm-driven micro-bio-robot is described that might have impact on the development of assisted reproductive technologies.

  5. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the first...... and last eating disorder diagnosis before, during, and after ART treatment, and evaluates differences in obstetric outcomes between women with and without a severe eating disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital-diagnosed eating disorders among 42 915 women in the Danish National ART cohort (DANAC......), registered during 1994-2009 in the mandatory Psychiatric Central Research Register, were compared with a non-eating disorder ART cohort of 42 644 women and an age-matched background population of 215 290 women without a history of ART treatment for the main outcome measures prevalence of eating disorders...

  6. The endometrium in assisted reproductive technology: How thin is thin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin endometrium is encountered infrequently (2.4% in assisted reproductive technology cycles. When it does occur it is a cause of concern as it is associated with lower implantation rate and pregnancy rate. Though pregnancies have been reported at 4 and 5 mm it is apparent that an endometrial thickness <6 mm is associated with a trend toward lower probability of pregnancy. Hormone replacement therapy – frozen embryo transfer (FET cycles appear to give better results due to an improvement in endometrial receptivity (ER. The etiology of thin endometrium plays a significant part in its receptivity. A number of treatments have been tried to improve endometrial growth, but none has been validated so far. Confirming ER of a thin endometrium by an ER array test before FET offers reassurance.

  7. Association between assisted reproductive technology and advanced retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Paul Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RV Paul Chan1, Yoshihiro Yonekawa1, Margaux A Morrison2,3, Grace Sun1, Ryan K Wong1, Jeffrey M Perlman4, Michael F Chiang5,6, Thomas C Lee7, M Elizabeth Hartnett3, Margaret M DeAngelis2,31Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; 2Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; 4Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; Departments of 5Ophthalmology and 6Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; 7The Vision Center, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, California, USAPurpose: To investigate the associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment. Methods: Retrospective analyses of inborn preterm infants screened for severe ROP at the Weill Cornell Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital by single factor logistic regression and multifactor models.Results: Of 399 ethnically diverse infants, 253 were conceived naturally and 146 by ART. Eight (3.16% patients conceived naturally, and 11 (7.53% with ART required laser treatment. In multifactor analyses, significant risks for severe ROP requiring treatment included both gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.52; P< 0.001 and ART ([OR] 4.70; [CI], 1.52–4.57; P = 0.007.Conclusions: ART is associated with severe ROP requiring treatment in this cohort. This is the first report that demonstrates a statistically significant association between ART and severe ROP requiring treatment in infants in the US.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, low birth rate, blindness, assisted reproductive technology

  8. Trends in Global Assisted Reproductive Technologies Research: a Scientometrics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Zare, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Maliheh Sadat; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study illustrated the global contribution to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) research in MEDLINE database from 1998 to 2014. Methods In March 2015, the MEDLINE database was searched for research publications indexed under ‘reproductive techniques, assisted’ (including the following MeSH headings: in vitro fertilization [IVF]; intracytoplasmic sperm injections; cryopreservation; and ovulation induction), with the following expressions in the fields of title or abstract: intrauterine insemination; sperm donation; embryo/egg donation and surrogate mothers. The number of publications in MEDLINE database was recorded for each individual year, 1998–2014, and for each country. The following countries were arbitrarily selected for data retrieval: United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan (G7 countries), Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC countries), Egypt, Turkey, Israel and Iran. Results The absolute number of publications for each country from 1998 to 2014 ranged from 75 to 16453, with a median of 2024. The top five countries were the US (16453 publications), the UK (5427 publications), Japan (4805), China (4660) and France (3795). ART (20277), cryopreservation (11623) and IVF (11209) were the most researched areas. Conclusion Global research on ARTs were geographically distributed and highly concentrated among the world’s richest countries. Cryopreservation and IVF were the most productive research domains among ARTs. PMID:26813255

  9. Biological versus chronological ovarian age: implications for assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredway Donald

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women have been able to delay childbearing since effective contraception became available in the 1960s. However, fertility decreases with increasing maternal age. A slow but steady decrease in fertility is observed in women aged between 30 and 35 years, which is followed by an accelerated decline among women aged over 35 years. A combination of delayed childbearing and reduced fecundity with increasing age has resulted in an increased number and proportion of women of greater than or equal to 35 years of age seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment. Methods Literature searches supplemented with the authors' knowledge. Results Despite major advances in medical technology, there is currently no ART treatment strategy that can fully compensate for the natural decline in fertility with increasing female age. Although chronological age is the most important predictor of ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone, the rate of reproductive ageing and ovarian sensitivity to gonadotrophins varies considerably among individuals. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to depletion of the ovarian oocyte pool and reduction in oocyte quality. Thus, biological and chronological ovarian age are not always equivalent. Furthermore, biological age is more important than chronological age in predicting the outcome of ART. As older patients present increasingly for ART treatment, it will become more important to critically assess prognosis, counsel appropriately and optimize treatment strategies. Several genetic markers and biomarkers (such as anti-Müllerian hormone and the antral follicle count are emerging that can identify women with accelerated biological ovarian ageing. Potential strategies for improving ovarian response include the use of luteinizing hormone (LH and growth hormone (GH. When endogenous LH levels are heavily suppressed by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues, LH supplementation may help

  10. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomĂŠdecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  11. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  12. Association between Thrombophilia and Repeated Assisted Reproductive Technology Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Hamdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the incidence of thrombophilic gene mutations in repeated assisted reproductive technology (ART failures. Methods: The prevalence of mutated genes in the patients with a history of three or more previous ART failures was compared with the patients with a history of successful pregnancy following ARTs. The study group included 70 patients, 34 with three or more previously failed ARTs (A and control group consisted of 36 patients with successful pregnancy following ARTs (B. All patients were tested for the presence of mutated thrombophilic genes including factor V Leiden (FVL, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and Prothrombin (G20210A using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR. Results: Mutation of FVL gene was detected in 5.9% women of group A (2 of 34 compared with 2.8% women (1 of 36 of control group (P = 0.6. Mutation of MTHFR gene was found in 35.3% (12 cases as compared with 50% (18 cases of control (35.3% versus 50%; P = 0.23. Regarding Prothrombin, only control group had 5.6% mutation (P = 0.49. No significant differences were detected in the incidences of FVL, Prothrombin and MTHFR in the study group A compared with the control group B. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that thrombophilia does not have a significant effect in ART failures.

  13. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART. Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods.In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD, Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded.It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants' right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05. Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001.These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART.

  14. Effect of maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Opdahl, Signe; Bergh, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of maternal age on assisted reproductive technology (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC) pregnancies regarding maternal and neonatal complications. DESIGN: Nordic retrospective population-based cohort study. Data from national ART registries were cross...

  15. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O;

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  16. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.;

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  17. Complications and outcome of assisted reproduction technologies in overweight and obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A. M. H.; Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Kuchenbecher, W. K. H.; Broekmans, F. J.; Land, J. A.; Mol, B. W.; Hoek, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on a presumed negative impact of overweight and obesity on reproductive capacity and pregnancy outcome, some national guidelines and clinicians have argued that there should be an upper limit for a woman's BMI to access assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, evidence on

  18. Amphibian declines in the twenty-first century: why we need assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, John; Trudeau, Vance L; Kouba, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Each amphibian species is evolutionarily distinct, having developed highly specialized and diverse reproductive strategies in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. These unique reproductive patterns and mechanisms, key to species propagation, have only been explored in a limited number of laboratory models. Although the development of applied reproductive technologies for amphibians has proven useful for a few threatened species, the real benefit of this technology has been new insights into the reproductive adaptations, behavior, endocrinology, and physiological mechanisms that have evolved over millions of years. As the basic fundamental database on amphibian reproductive physiology has grown, so has the applied benefit for species conservation. In particular, technologies such as non-invasive fecal and urinary hormone assays, hormone treatments for induced breeding or gamete collection, in vitro fertilization, and the ability to establish genome resource banks have all played important roles in monitoring or managing small populations of captive species. Amphibians have the ability to produce a large excess of germplasm (up to 10,000 ovulated eggs in a single reproductive event) that if not collected and preserved, would represent a wasted valuable resource. We discuss the current state of knowledge in assisted reproductive technologies for amphibians and why their extinction crisis means these available tools can no longer be implemented as small-scale, last-ditch efforts. The reproductive technologies must be established early as a key component of large-scale species recovery.

  19. Assisted reproductive technologies and fertility "tourism": examples from global Dubai and the Ivy League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Shrivastav, Pankaj; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    What motivates the global movements of infertile people searching for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)? In this article, we attempt to answer this question by exploring infertile patients' practices of so-called "fertility tourism." Based on ethnographic research carried out with nearly 300 infertile travelers in two major ART centers--one in the global hub of the United Arab Emirates and the other at a major East Coast Ivy League university--we examine a diverse set of reasons for reproductive travel. We argue that reproductive "tourism" should be reconceptualized as reproductive "exile" in that infertile couples feel barred from accessing ARTs in their home countries. Listening to reproductive travel stories is key to understanding infertile couples' transnational "quests for conception." Stories of two couples, one from Lebanon and one from Italy, demonstrate the poignancy of these quests and begin to shed light on the complex calculus of factors governing this global movement of reproductive actors.

  20. Risk disparities in the globalisation of assisted reproductive technology: the case of Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the disparities in risks associated with biomedical technology focusing on the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART). ART among biomedical technologies transferred to Asia is a representative case that reveals in its clinical use and related scientific research the global politics of technology. This study notes the global politics at work in the recognition of and reaction to such risks. While many Asian countries aggressively pursue technological development, weak legislative and administrative regulations have created various problems and controversial cases. This study asserts that risks associated with technology are characterised as social facts not natural ones or mere 'side effects', since technological development and risk are closely intertwined.

  1. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  2. "Whose Child Is This?": Determining Legal Status for Lesbian Parents Who Used Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jan; Skinner, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have helped heterosexuals, lesbians, and gays fulfill desires to become parents. In this article, we identify assumptions upon which parentage rights in the United States are based. Examining recent legal decisions in California concerning 3 families headed by lesbian parents who used ARTs, we find that…

  3. Why do singletons conceived after assisted reproduction technology have adverse perinatal outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, A; Wennerholm, U B; Romundstad, L B

    2013-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technology (ART) is used worldwide, at increasing rates, and data show that some adverse outcomes occur more frequently than following spontaneous conception (SC). Possible explanatory factors for the well-known adverse perinatal outcome in ART singletons were evaluated....

  4. Right to assisted reproductive technology: overcoming infertility in low-resource countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2009-08-01

    This article examines the high prevalence of primary and secondary infertility in low-resource countries. Provision of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to overcome both female and male infertility is in line with the reproductive rights agenda developed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo 15 years ago. In addition to the right to control fertility, reproductive rights must encompass the right to facilitate fertility when fertility is threatened. Facilitation of fertility may require resort to ART, among both men and women. Egypt is highlighted as a positive example of progress in this regard.

  5. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, V.; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.; Betts, D.H.; Hyttel, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to creat...

  6. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.

    2013-01-01

    production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects......Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  7. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, V; Hinrichs, K; Lazzari, G; Betts, D H; Hyttel, P

    2013-08-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed.

  8. [Interconnection between assisted reproductive technologies, pregnancy complications and risk of birth defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar', V V

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to investigate the relationship between pregnancy complications, infertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The study was conducted on 1331 couples with complicated reproductive history. It is found that miscarriage and other complications of pregnancy depend rather on the etiopathogenesis of infertility than on the technique of ART. The highest frequency of complications of pregnancy was diagnosed in women with endocrine disorders. In case of congenital malformations in the fetus the frequency of birth defects was 3.6% after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 1.8% in case of spontaneous pregnancy. It was found an increased risk of birth defects in singleton boys conceived by IVF.

  9. Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical ectopic pregnancy (EP is an infrequent, life-threatening form of ectopic gestationpregnancy that implants within the endocervical canal. With the increase in use of assistedreproductive technology (ART worldwide and more liberal use of transvaginal sonography (TVSduring early pregnancy, more cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy are being diagnosed. Earlydiagnosis of this condition by using ultrasound imaging allows for prevention of maternal morbiditydue to hemorrhage and leads to conservative management of this condition.We present the case ofa 38-year old woman (gravida 1, para 0 who was found to have acervical ectopic pregnancy at sixweeks of gestation.

  10. Potential influence of the microbiome on infertility and assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Ido; Zarek, Shvetha M; Segars, James H

    2014-01-01

    Although an altered vaginal microbiota has been demonstrated to affect parturition, its role in assisted reproductive technologies is uncertain. Nevertheless, the effect of known pathogens such as Mycoplasma tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is clear, causing subclinical changes thought to be risk factors in subfertility. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has allowed for metagenomic studies to aid in characterizing normal vaginal flora. Recent findings from the HMP demonstrate that many different species of Lactobacillus are present in the vaginal tract, with a few that predominate. Studies that characterize the vaginal microbiome in assisted reproductive technology support the hypothesis that colonizing the transfer-catheter tip with Lactobacillus crispatus at the time of embryo transfer may increase the rates of implantation and live birth rate while decreasing the rate of infection. In addition, there is some evidence that a progesterone-resistant endometrium might increase the risk of an abnormal vaginal microbiome.

  11. Intrapartum interventions for singleton pregnancies arising from assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu-Ming; Lanes, Andrea; Kingdom, John C P; Cao, Huiling; Kramer, Michael; Wen, Shi Wu; Wu, Junqing; Chen, Yue; Walker, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les grossesses monofœtales attribuables aux techniques de procréation assistée (TPA) sont associées à une hausse du recours à des interventions intrapartum, par comparaison avec les grossesses monofœtales spontanées. Méthodes : Au total, 1 327 grossesses attribuables aux TPA et 5 222 grossesses spontanées s’étant déroulées au cours de la période 2004-2008 ont été extraites du système informatique BORN (Better Outcomes Registry and Network ou, en français, « bons résultats dès la naissance ») de l’Ontario. L’incidence des interventions intrapartum courantes a été comparée et divers systèmes de classification des césariennes ont été utilisés pour en comparer les indications dans le cadre des grossesses monofœtales attribuables aux TPA (avec ou sans injection intracytoplasmique d’un spermatozoïde) et dans le cadre des grossesses monofœtales spontanées. Résultats : Par comparaison avec le groupe « spontanée », le groupe « TPA » présentait une hausse de l’incidence du monitorage fœtal électronique interne (RC, 1,60; IC à 95 %, 1,37 - 1,87), de la rupture artificielle des membranes (RC, 1,39; IC à 95 %, 1,17 - 1,66), de l’accélération du travail au moyen d’oxytocine (RC, 1,51; IC à 95 %, 1,28 - 1,77), du déclenchement du travail (RC, 1,31; IC à 95 %, 1,14 - 1,50) et de la césarienne (RC, 1,40; IC à 95 %, 1,24 - 1,60). Conclusion : Les grossesses monofœtales attribuables aux TPA ont été associées à une utilisation plus fréquente de plusieurs interventions intrapartum, dont la césarienne.

  12. Assisted reproductive technology and congenital overgrowth: some speculations on a case of Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiurazzi, P; Bajer, J; Tabolacci, E; Pomponi, M G; Lecce, R; Zollino, M; Neri, G

    2004-10-15

    We report on a boy with Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) who was conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically in vitro fertilization (IVF) with parents' gametes. A prenatal diagnosis performed elsewhere by CVS failed to detect the presence of the isochromosome 12p that was demonstrated postnatally in approximately 50% of cultured skin fibroblasts. Given that the patient did not show the congenital overgrowth typical of PKS, we speculate that ART might have restricted overgrowth in this particular case. More broadly, we hypothesize that overgrowth might protect from early demise fetuses conceived by ART, a technology known to cause low and very low birth weight.

  13. "It just alienated us": a case study to explore the impact of assisted reproductive technology on family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra; Rudge, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    New reproductive technologies have the capacity to impact on both personal and healthcare relationships. This article utilizes a case study approach to unpack experiences of one couple who encountered immense and unforeseen difficulties as a result of treatment with assisted reproductive technology. Findings of this case reveal both difficulties and breaches in obtaining informed consent and the consequences these breaches have on relationships. Comprehensive information contributes to positive relationships between patients and healthcare providers. Maintaining supportive relationships between all parties concerned with assisted reproductive technology services is essential, as rifts in these relationships can be devastating and long-lasting.

  14. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevoral, Jan; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.

  15. Embodied subjects and fragmented objects: Women's bodies, assisted reproduction technologies and the right to self-determination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the transformation of the female reproductive body with the use of assisted reproduction technologies under neo-liberal economic globalisation, wherein the ideology of trade without borders is central, as well as under liberal feminist ideals, wherein the right to self-determ

  16. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali

    2011-08-12

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy

  17. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini Nadimpally

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies

  18. Assisted Reproductive Technology for HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples:A Review of Current Controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary S. Nakhuda; Mark V. Sauer

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been reported as a viable means of helping HIV-1 serodiscordant couples achieve pregnancy while theoretically reducing the risk for viral transmission. While the sum of the evidence suggests that ART is effective and safe, numerous controversies still exist. The following review addresses several of the important issues involved in the use of ART for HIV-serodiscordant couples, including patient selection, semen processing techniques,post-process HIV testing, the use of IUI vs IVF-ICSI.

  19. Lab-on-a-chip biophotonics: its application to assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Smith, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi

    2012-08-01

    With the benefits of automation, sensitivity and precision, microfluidics has enabled complex and otherwise tedious experiments. Lately, lab-on-a-chip (LOC) has proven to be a useful tool for enhancing non-invasive assisted reproductive technology (ART). Non-invasive gamete and embryo assessment has largely been through periodic morpohological assessment using optical microscopy and early LOC ART was the same. As we realize that morphological assessment is a poor indication of gamete or embryo health, more advanced biophotonics has emerged in LOC ART to assay for metabolites or gamete separation via optoelectrical tweezers. Off-chip, even more advanced biophotonics with broad spectrum analysis of metabolites and secretomes has been developed that show even higher accuracy to predicting reproductive potential. The integration of broad spectrum metabolite analysis into LOC ART is an exciting future that merges automation and sensitivity with the already highly accurate and strong predictive power of biophotonics.

  20. The construction of meaning by experts and would-be parents in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Machado, Helena

    2011-09-01

    This article explores the construction of meaning regarding assisted reproductive technology by legal framers, medical practitioners and would-be parents, through the concept of ecology of knowledge. It is argued that these inter-relationships between experts and lay people can be understood in terms of the formation of a social structure of ecology of knowledge, which depends on local and emotional knowledge co-produced by medical doctors, jurists and lay people in dynamic ways without compromising the autonomy of medical, legal and lay knowledge and skills. The assessment of the benefits and risks of assisted reproductive technology partially represents negotiations of knowledge between these social and professional groups, aiming to reproduce existing relations and practices, particularly the social power of medicine and technology, the dominant perceptions about women's and men's bodies and the geneticisation of genealogy. These negotiations of knowledge generate new rights, new social actors, new scientific fields and new ways of thinking and talking about individual and institutional responsibilities. Ecology of knowledge comes imbued with hope, trust, power, credibility of institutions and moralisation whereby some citizens' rights may be weakened.

  1. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in an assisted reproduction technology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Giulia; Alteri, Alessandra; Corti, Laura; Rabellotti, Elisa; Papaleo, Enrico; Restelli, Liliana; Biondo, Stefania; Garancini, Maria Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Assisted reproduction technology laboratories have a very high degree of complexity. Mismatches of gametes or embryos can occur, with catastrophic consequences for patients. To minimize the risk of error, a multi-institutional working group applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to each critical activity/step as a method of risk assessment. This analysis led to the identification of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk priority number (RPN) scoring system. In total, 11 individual steps and 68 different potential failure modes were identified. The highest ranked failure modes, with an RPN score of 25, encompassed 17 failures and pertained to "patient mismatch" and "biological sample mismatch". The maximum reduction in risk, with RPN reduced from 25 to 5, was mostly related to the introduction of witnessing. The critical failure modes in sample processing were improved by 50% in the RPN by focusing on staff training. Three indicators of FMEA success, based on technical skill, competence and traceability, have been evaluated after FMEA implementation. Witnessing by a second human operator should be introduced in the laboratory to avoid sample mix-ups. These findings confirm that FMEA can effectively reduce errors in assisted reproduction technology laboratories.

  2. Assisted reproductive practice: religious perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joscph G

    2005-03-01

    It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  3. Assisted reproductive technology in India: A 3 year retrospective data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology (ART has grown by leaps and bounds in the last few years. India has one of the highest growths in the ART centers and the number of ART cycles performed every year. Very soon India will be the leader in the world of ART in terms of a number of cycles. With the advances of technology and availability of techniques even in tier II and tier III cities our country, the results still vary dramatically. There is no standardization of protocols and reporting is very inadequate. Furthermore, there are only ART guidelines and no law still exists. Our first and the biggest challenge is to document the tremendous work being done in India and on the basis of analysis of this work, a proper registry can be made and guidance given to all on standardization and improvement. This is the 8 th edition of National ART Registry of India being presented and analyzed.

  4. The post-humanist embryo: genetic manipulation, assisted reproductive technologies and the Principle of Procreative Beneficence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güell Pelayo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from Julian Savulescu's argument for the obligation to use technological interventions for the enhancement human life, the Principle of Procreative Beneficence (PPB) states that parents have a moral obligation to use available reproductive technologies, including techniques of genetic manipulation, to create children who have the best chance of enjoying the best possible life. The aim of this study is to analyse the extent to which the possibility of using genetic manipulation to promote specific personality traits and thereby enhance human life is actually supported by current scientific knowledge and to determine whether the techniques employed in embryo selection comply with the PPB. In light of this analysis, the importance of involving the scientific community in the enhancement debate will be made clear. Moreover, when current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic processes and evidence of the risks of assisted reproductive technologies are taken into account, we find sufficient reason - even when guided by the PPB - to abstain from the use of current techniques of genetic manipulation and embryonic selection.

  5. Assisted reproductive technology, epigenetics, and long-term health: a developmental time bomb still ticking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kristen S; Sinclair, Kevin D

    2009-09-01

    Live birthrates following assisted reproduction account for 1 to 3% of pregnancies in developed countries, and these figures seem set to rise. Concerns regarding the safe use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for the treatment of infertility have been voiced for several years, yet, to date, the vast majority of children conceived using these techniques are apparently normal. Controversy surrounding reports of epigenetic alterations to genomic imprinting following human ART in recent years has fueled the ongoing debate. In contrast, both the incidence and severity of such anomalies are more apparent following ART in comparative animal species. The reasons for this are not known. By and large, the confounding effects of infertility and advanced maternal age do not apply to animal studies, which report better pregnancy rates following embryo transfer. Perhaps the incidence of imprinting disorders is increased when procedures such as ovarian stimulation, in vitro maturation, or both are used in conjunction with extended periods of embryo culture; this frequently occurs in animal but rarely in human ART. The focus of attention on imprinting, however, may have served to distract the scientific community from more subtle epigenetic modifications to nonimprinted loci in gametes and the preimplantation embryo, with health-related consequences that do not manifest until adulthood. Accumulating evidence from animal studies indicates that such effects, not yet apparent in human subjects, exist; and this may ultimately transpire to be the true developmental legacy of human ART. This article discusses these issues in the context of epigenetic and developmental abnormalities following ART in animals.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of varicocele surgery in the era of assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Chiles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of innovative techniques for addressing infertility has made for exciting times in the arena of andrology. The success of microTESE for retrieving sperm has enabled azoospermic men to have the opportunity to father biological children when it was previously impossible. The ability to offer a variety of assisted reproductive techniques that includes intracytoplasmic sperm injection has opened the door for couples with male factor infertility who were otherwise untreatable. With the multitude of options available to infertile couples, however, comes an unsurprising degree of controversy regarding what treatments should be offered and when. Complicating the picture is the question of if and when varicocele repair should be undertaken, and the financial implications of the treatment decisions that are made. The infertile couple with varicocele warrants careful consideration. The overall efficacy of varicocele repair as well as cost-effectiveness of repair compared to immediate microTESE in azoospermic men and assisted reproductive technology in men with suboptimal semen parameters will be reviewed.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of varicocele surgery in the era of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles, Kelly A; Schlegel, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    The advent of innovative techniques for addressing infertility has made for exciting times in the arena of andrology. The success of microTESE for retrieving sperm has enabled azoospermic men to have the opportunity to father biological children when it was previously impossible. The ability to offer a variety of assisted reproductive techniques that includes intracytoplasmic sperm injection has opened the door for couples with male factor infertility who were otherwise untreatable. With the multitude of options available to infertile couples, however, comes an unsurprising degree of controversy regarding what treatments should be offered and when. Complicating the picture is the question of if and when varicocele repair should be undertaken, and the financial implications of the treatment decisions that are made. The infertile couple with varicocele warrants careful consideration. The overall efficacy of varicocele repair as well as cost-effectiveness of repair compared to immediate microTESE in azoospermic men and assisted reproductive technology in men with suboptimal semen parameters will be reviewed.

  8. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  9. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2006: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S;

    2010-01-01

    In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers.......In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers....

  10. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population......-based cohort study was performed, comprising all children born after ART in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway between 1982 and 2007. The mean (±standard deviation) follow-up time was 9.5 (4.8) years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Children born after ART (n = 91 796) were compared with a control...

  11. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture...... of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prions. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due...... to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a very minor role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant...

  12. Cryopreservation and delayed embryo transfer-assisted reproductive technology registry and reporting implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Kevin J

    2014-07-01

    Clinics performing assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures have collected data via registry and publicly reported pregnancy outcomes for more than 25 years. During this time, the practice of ART has changed considerably with frozen embryo transfer (FET) procedures contributing an increasing proportion of live births. Cycles initiated with the intent of embryo banking for the purpose of fertility preservation have been excluded from these public reports, because pregnancy outcomes are not immediately available. An unintended consequence of the common sense handling of fertility preservation has been that cycles performed with intentional short-term cryopreservation of all embryos for other indications have also been excluded from the report. Over the last few years, cryopreservation with short-term delayed transfer increasingly has been performed for reasons other than fertility preservation. The pregnancy outcomes of these cycles are expected within a reasonable time frame and should be transparently reported. The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology has collaborated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to "recapture" these cycles for the public reports. This recapture is done by linking the FET cycles to the stimulation cycles from which the embryos were derived and by changing the labels of the outcome success metrics. Stimulations using ART, initiated for the purpose of transferring embryos within 1 year will be included in the report despite any prospective intent to freeze all eggs or embryos. A positive outcome will be reported when a live birth results from the first embryo transfer following stimulation ("primary transfer"). Linkage of ovarian stimulation and egg-retrieval procedures to FET will also allow development of other success metrics to further benefit fertility patients.

  13. Boundaries and risk: Media framing of assisted reproductive technologies and older mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have historically been sites of heated public controversy. However, with widespread use, the boundary-challenging risks surrounding ARTs have become less newsworthy. One exception includes their use by "older mothers," particularly postmenopausal mothers. In this paper, I review the social science literature related to the risks of ARTs and the conceptualizations of "older mothers". Next, I move to analyze the specific case of 60-year-old Ranjit Hayer, who gave birth to twins in Calgary, Canada, through the context of the Canadian media coverage the week following the birth, using concepts from cultural approaches to risk perception, constructivist studies of technology, and risk communication theory. I argue that risk discourses emerge when technologies and users expose and challenge the contingent stability of the sociotechnical discourses surrounding them. This leads to a public re-opening of a "closed" technology and user and a reconstruction of the risks associated with them. This case demonstrates how an apparently "settled" sociotechnical network becomes reframed in terms of risk, and how the negotiation of this risk reveals, constructs, and interweaves various boundary discourses.

  14. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  15. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-10-03

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prion proteins. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a different role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant gonadotropins (r-hFSH and r-hLH) have become available for ART therapies. Recombinant LH contains only LH molecules. In the field of reproduction there has been controversy in recent years over whether r-hLH or hCG should be used for ART. This review examines the existing evidence for molecular and functional differences between LH and hCG and assesses the clinical implications of hCG-supplemented urinary therapy compared with recombinant therapies used for ART.

  16. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions.

  17. The ethical, legal, and social issues impacted by modern assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Paul R; Zhao, Yulian

    2012-01-01

    Background. While assisted reproductive technology (ART), including in vitro fertilization has given hope to millions of couples suffering from infertility, it has also introduced countless ethical, legal, and social challenges. The objective of this paper is to identify the aspects of ART that are most relevant to present-day society and discuss the multiple ethical, legal, and social challenges inherent to this technology. Scope of Review. This paper evaluates some of the most visible and challenging topics in the field of ART and outlines the ethical, legal, and social challenges they introduce. Major Conclusions. ART has resulted in a tectonic shift in the way physicians and the general population perceive infertility and ethics. In the coming years, advancing technology is likely to exacerbate ethical, legal, and social concerns associated with ART. ART is directly challenging society to reevaluate the way in which human life, social justice and equality, and claims to genetic offspring are viewed. Furthermore, these issues will force legal systems to modify existing laws to accommodate the unique challenges created by ART. Society has a responsibility to ensure that the advances achieved through ART are implemented in a socially responsible manner.

  18. AB28. Management of male factor infertility: present on the assisted reproductive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a common yet complex problem affecting approximately 10-15% of couples attempting to conceive a baby. Especially, 40-50% of these factors are known as male-related disorders. Unlike female infertility, the cause of which is often easily identified, diagnosing male factors can be difficult. Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages of sperm transport. Classical semen analysis in laboratory, which include sperm concentration, motility and morphology gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. The fertilizing potential of sperm depends not only on the functional competence of spermatozoa but also on sperm DNA integrity. The most commonly used techniques to assess sperm DNA integrity are the TUNEL assay, Comet assay, SCSA assay and hallo sperm assay. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of sperm DNA integrity as an important factor which affects functional competence of the sperm. Sperm DNA damage has been closely associated with numerous indicators of reproductive health including fertilization, embryo quality, implantation, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations. To overcome male infertility, there are variety of surgical and non-surgical urological procedures and medical-pharmacological interventions, and advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Among the surgically retrieved methods, there are TESE, TFNA, PESA and MESA that is used with ICSI. The ART, augmented with ICSI in moderate to serve cases, efficiently treat a variety of male infertility disorders by constituting validated and successfully treatment methods. Also, this technique is employed because the limited numbers and functional capacity of motile sperm that can be obtained. Especially, there are technologies such as IMSI and PICSI that are used to select healthy sperms.

  19. Incidence of abnormal offspring from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan R

    2014-02-01

    In animals produced by assisted reproductive technologies, two abnormal phenotypes have been characterized. Large offspring syndrome (LOS) occurs in offspring derived from in vitro cultured embryos, and the abnormal clone phenotype includes placental and fetal changes. LOS is readily apparent in ruminants, where a large calf or lamb derived from in vitro embryo production or cloning may weigh up to twice the expected body weight. The incidence of LOS varies widely between species. When similar embryo culture conditions are applied to nonruminant species, LOS either is not as dramatic or may even be unapparent. Coculture with serum and somatic cells was identified in the 1990s as a risk factor for abnormal development of ruminant pregnancies. Animals cloned from somatic cells may display a combination of fetal and placental abnormalities that are manifested at different stages of pregnancy and postnatally. In highly interventional technologies, such as nuclear transfer (cloning), the incidence of abnormal offspring continues to be a limiting factor to broader application of the technique. This review details the breadth of phenotypes found in nonviable pregnancies, together with the phenotypes of animals that survive the transition to extrauterine life. The focus is on animals produced using in vitro embryo culture and nuclear transfer in comparison to naturally occurring phenotypes.

  20. Assistive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  1. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2004: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goossens, V.; Ferraretti, A.P.; Bhattacharya, S.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: European results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated during 2004 are presented in this eighth report. METHODS: Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. From 29 countries, 785 clinics reported 367,066 treatment cycles including: IVF (114...

  2. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  3. Below population replacement fertility rates:Can assisted reproductive technology (ART) help reverse the trend?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Blyth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper considers the potential contribution that assisted reproductive technology (ART) may make to population replenishment in countries that have experienced extended periods of below-population-replacement Total Fertility Rates (TFR), by focusing on the specific situation of Singapore, which has recorded ‘ultra-low’ TFRs for many years. Methods: The factors contributing to ultra-low TFRs in Singapore, the economic and social consequences of endemic below-population-replacement fertility rates and remedial measures initiated by the government are critically analysed, focussing specifically on the government’s subsided ART provisions of the ‘Marriage and Parenthood’ package. In addition the paper provides a close analysis of available contemporary data regarding ART and ART outcomes both in Singapore and internationally. Results: Despite limited public accessibility to data concerning ART outcomes in Singapore, it is possible to make some assessment of the potential contribution of publicly-funded ART provision and the possible extension of access to elective oocyte preservation to population replenishment. Conclusions: Subsidised ART can-at best-make a marginal contribution to government population policy.

  4. Homocysteine in embryo culture media as a predictor of pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyama, Burcu Aydin; Cepni, Ismail; Imamoglu, Metehan; Oncul, Mahmut; Tuten, Abdullah; Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Kervancioglu, Mehmet Ertan; Kaleli, Semih; Ocal, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether homocysteine (hcy) concentrations in embryo culture media correlate with pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Forty patients who underwent single embryo transfer at the infertility clinic of a tertiary care center were recruited for this case-control study. Spent embryo culture media from all patients were collected after single embryo transfer on day 3 (n = 40). Hcy concentrations in embryo culture media were analyzed by enzyme cycling method. Patients were grouped according to the diagnosis of a clinical pregnancy. Sixteen patients were pregnant while 24 patients failed to achieve conception. Mean Hcy levels in the culture media were significantly different between the groups (p pregnant group and 3.37 ± 0.92 μmol/l in the pregnant group. Receiver operator curve analysis for determining the diagnostic potential of Hcy for pregnancy revealed an area under the curve of 0.792 (confidence interval: 0.65-0.94; p < 0.05). A cut-off value of 3.53 μmol/l was determined with a sensitivity of 83.3%, and a specificity of 68.8%. Lower hcy levels were associated with a better chance of pregnancy and better embryo grades. Hcy may be introduced as an individual metabolomic profiling marker for embryos.

  5. Processes involved in assisted reproduction technologies significantly increase sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are potential generators of exogenous stresses that cause additional DNA damage. DNA fragmentation tests, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay, involve freezing sperm samples in the absence of cryoprotectant. Thermal, oxidative stress (OS) and freezing are detrimental to sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. The primary aim of this study was to subject mature sperm to environmental insults that normally occur during ART. We tested the hypotheses that OS, thermal stress and freeze-thawing caused sperm nuclear and membrane damage and that a positive correlation exists between PS translocation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA integrity deteriorates in semen samples from men with advancing age and a sperm concentration of fragmentation at 37 °C after merely 1 h is important clinically as semen liquefaction and short-term sperm storage in an ART cycle involve incubating samples at this temperature. Freezing without a cryoprotectant significantly increases the level of sperm nuclear damage, so it is important not to freeze neat semen prior to DNA fragmentation testing. This study highlights the importance of minimising the production of exogenous stresses during sperm preparation in ART.

  6. Psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine studies describing the psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy after an assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. This review considered only quantitative, primary studies in the English language, published during the period 2000-2014 and relevant to the objective. The population of interest was previously infertile pregnant women. Outcome variables were general anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, pregnancy attitudes and adjustment, and maternal-fetal attachment. Twenty studies met the inclusion and methodological criteria and were included in the review. The review revealed that compared to women who conceive naturally or to general norms, women who conceive after an in vitro fertilization treatment had greater pregnancy-specific anxiety, poorer quality of life, either the same or less depressive symptomatology, the same level of self-esteem, more positive attitudes toward pregnancy demands, and higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment. However, the evidence regarding the general anxiety levels in pregnancy after an ART treatment was inconclusive. Methodological limitations and differences across studies may explain the inconsistencies in their findings regarding the impact of ART. This review provides an insight into psychological reactions and adjustment in pregnancy after an ART treatment.

  7. Obstetric outcomes of monochorionic pregnancies conceived following assisted reproductive technology: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The overwhelming numbers of twins following assisted reproductive technology (ART are dichorionic twins, but monochorionic twins account for around 0.9% of post ART pregnancies. The data for post ART-monochorionic pregnancy outcomes are scarce due to the rarity of this condition. Hence, we evaluated the obstetric outcomes of monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies conceived on ART. Settings : University teaching hospital. Study Design : A case-control study of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA and dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA pregnancies conceived following ART treatment. Charts of all women who conceived following ART from 2008 to 2013 were screened. Among them, the monochorionic twins diagnosed in the first trimester were included and their obstetric outcome was followed-up. For comparison, an equal number of dichorionic twin pregnancies from age and body mass index matched mothers was selected. Results : The baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups. MCDA group had a higher miscarriage rate (50% than the DCDA group (10%, with three seconds trimester miscarriages in the MCDA group. The live birth rates were lower in the MCDA versus DCDA group (40% vs. 90%. Among triplet pregnancies with a monochorionic component, the live birth rate was only 25%. Conclusions : Monochorionic pregnancies following ART have poorer obstetric outcomes when compared to dichorionic pregnancies. For monochorionic pregnancies following ART, intensive antenatal surveillance at a tertiary level obstetric and neonatal center may help optimize the outcome.

  8. States Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (SMART) Collaborative: data collection, linkage, dissemination, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimneh, Allison S; Boulet, Sheree L; Sunderam, Saswati; Zhang, Yujia; Jamieson, Denise J; Crawford, Sara; McKane, Patricia; Copeland, Glenn; Mersol-Barg, Michael; Grigorescu, Violanda; Cohen, Bruce; Steele, JoAnn; Sappenfield, William; Diop, Hafsatou; Kirby, Russell S; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2013-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) refers to fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled outside the body. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) oversees the National ART Surveillance System (NASS), which collects data on all ART procedures performed in the United States. The NASS, while a comprehensive source of data on ART patient demographics and clinical procedures, includes limited information on outcomes related to women's and children's health. To examine ART-related health outcomes, CDC and three states (Massachusetts, Florida, and Michigan) established the States Monitoring ART (SMART) Collaborative to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes of ART and improve state-based ART surveillance. To date, NASS data have been linked with states' vital records, disease registries, and hospital discharge data with a linkage rate of 90.2%. The probabilistic linkage methodology used in the SMART Collaborative has been validated and found to be both accurate and efficient. A wide breadth of applied research within the Collaborative is planned or ongoing, including examinations of the impact of insurance mandates on ART use as well as the relationships between ART and birth defects and cancer, among others. The SMART Collaborative is working to improve state-based ART surveillance by developing state surveillance plans, establishing partnerships, and conducting data analyses. The SMART Collaborative has been instrumental in creating linked datasets and strengthening epidemiologic and research capacity for improving maternal and infant health programs and evaluating the public health impact of ART.

  9. Use of assisted reproductive technologies in the propagation of rhesus macaque offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D P; Thormahlen, S; Ramsey, C; Yeoman, R R; Fanton, J; Mitalipov, S

    2004-08-01

    The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) as tailored to the production of rhesus monkeys at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) are described. Efficient fertilization of mature oocytes recovered by aspiration from females subjected to follicular stimulation was achieved with fresh or frozen sperm by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Embryo development to the early cleavage stage occurred at high frequency. Cryopreserved embryos showed high postthaw survival and were also transferred in efforts to establish pregnancies. Three methods of transfer were evaluated, two involving embryo placement into the oviduct, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy, and a nonsurgical, transcervical approach that resulted in uterine deposition. Early cleaving embryos (Days 1-4) were transferred into the oviducts of synchronized recipients with optimal results and pregnancy rates of up to 36%. Pregnancy rates were similar when two fresh or frozen embryos were transferred (28- 30%), although more than two embryos had to be thawed to compensate for embryo loss during freeze-thawing. Normal gestational lengths, birth weights, and growth curves were seen with ART-produced infants compared with infants produced by natural mating in the timed mated breeding (TMB) colony at the ONPRC. In 72 singleton pregnancies established following the transfer of ART-produced embryos, the live-birth rate, at 87.5%, was statistically identical to that for the TMB colony. Further development of the ARTs should result in increasing use of these techniques to augment conventional approaches to propagating monkeys, especially those of defined genotypes.

  10. Evaluation of the vervet (Clorocebus aethiops) as a model for the assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparman, Michelle L; Ramsey, Cathy M; Thomas, Carrie M; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Fanton, John W; Maginnis, Gwen M; Stouffer, Richard L; Wolf, Don P

    2007-08-01

    The vervet monkey was evaluated as a primate model for use in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Eight adult female vervets were hormonally monitored for their potential use as egg donors and those six females displaying regular menstrual cycles were subjected to controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant human gonadotropins. Three animals failed to respond while laparoscopic follicular aspiration was performed on the other three females at 27-30 h post-human chorionic gonadotropin administration. A total of 62, 40, and 18 oocytes was recovered from these three animals of which 30, 20, and 4, respectively, matured to the metaphase II stage and were subsequently inseminated using intracytoplasmic sperm injection. An average of 40+/-15% (SEM) of the inseminated oocytes were fertilized based on pronucleus formation and timely cleavage. One embryo from each of the two stimulated females developed into expanded blastocysts. Two adult male vervets were assessed as sperm donors. Neither adjusted well to the restraint and collection procedure required for penile electroejaculation. Samples collected via rectal electroejaculation were very low in sperm motility and concentration; however, cauda epididymal aspirations from one male yielded an adequate concentration of motile sperm. These results emphasize the need to establish species-specific ovarian stimulation protocols and semen collection techniques if vervets are to be considered for basic and applied (ARTs) research on primate gametes or embryos.

  11. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  12. Assisted reproductive technology and pregnancy-related hypertensive complications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, C; Tsioufis, C; Michalopoulou, H; Makris, T; Papademetriou, V; Stefanadis, C

    2013-03-01

    Hypertensive complications in pregnancy are the leading cause of maternal morbidity, at least in the developed countries. In recent years, infertility issues are managed with ever growing therapeutic options namely assisted reproductive technologies (ART), which improve the ratio of successful induction of pregnancy. It is still debated whether various ART modalities are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including hypertensive complications, particularly with higher incidence of preeclampsia. The main source of controversy stems from the diversity of effect modifiers modulating the association between ART-oriented pregnancy and hypertensive disorders. Indeed, women undergoing an ART procedure are affected by diverse causes of infertility, are frequently characterized by different genetic patterns with respect to their artificially conceived embryo and experienced multiple gestations. In order to investigate whether ART modalities are associated with increased incidence of hypertensive complications in pregnancy, we reviewed all published studies carried out before the end of 2010 and identified in the PubMed database. Among the 47 studies finally selected and by acknowledging the potential of shortcomings related to the different study design and populations, the overall evidence suggests that ART-oriented pregnancies-especially the in-vitro fertilization techniques-are accompanied by increased risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as compared with non-ART pregnancies, even after adjustment for confounders. Multiple gestations, advanced age and underlying polycystic ovary syndrome resulted in constant confounders of the questioned association. Reducing multiple gestations by implementing single embryo techniques might be the therapeutic limiting step to lower the rate of hypertensive complications in assisted pregnancies.

  13. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Asgarini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traits -including sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness - among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART or surrogacy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who visited Isfahan and Tehran Reproductive Medicine Center. These fertility clinics are located in Isfahan and Tehran, Iran. In this study, 201 infertile women who underwent treatment using ART and 50 infertile women who tended to have surrogacy were chosen by convenience sampling. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V, Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (adapted from NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ were used as research instruments. All participants had to complete the research instruments in order to be included in this study. Data were analyzed by descriptive-analytical statistics and statistical tests including multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Z Fisher. Statistically significant effects were accepted for P<0.05. Results: In the sensation-seeking variable, there was a meaningful difference between under-study groups. However, the flexibility and happiness variables did not have a significant difference between under-study groups (P<0.001. Interaction between education, employment, and financial status was effective in happiness of infertile women underwent ART (P<0.05, while age, education and financial status were also effective in happiness of infertile women sought surrogacy (P<0.05. A positive meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and flexibility variables in both groups (P<0.05. And a negative meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and happiness in infertile

  14. The impact of assisted reproductive technologies on the genome and epigenome of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, A; Merritt, T A; Gadzinowski, J; Jopek, A

    2013-01-01

    The question of genetic alterations resulting from assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in humans is examined within the organization of the human genome. Increased rates of birth defects have been reported among children conceived using ART; however, questions remain and controversy exists regarding how "infertility" predisposes to birth defects. ART has been shown to be associated with an increased number of chromosomal alterations especially in the X chromosome. There is increased risk for embryonal tumors among ART conceived children, as well as, imprinting disorders (Beckwith-Wiedemann and Angelman Syndromes). Genetic studies of children conceived using ART reveal a larger (genome-wide) scale of methylation defects that encompass hundreds of genes. Genes involved in carcinogenesis and developmental pathways appear altered and may impact on later development of chronic illness, although these data are very preliminary. ART may create novel mutations by different chromosomal and molecular mechanisms; however, these techniques also enable propagation of pre-existing mutations that are associated with impaired fertility. While older maternal age is often associated with female infertility and chromosomal aneuploidy, sperm from older men have more new gene mutations. The prevalence of birth defects is increased when ART is used for conception. These data are summarized by large meta-analyses or from multi-year national registries. Whether the increased number of birth defects is due to ART procedures themselves or are a consequence of the impaired fertility of the parents is discussed. Long-term evaluation of children conceived using ART and/or ovarian hyper-stimulation is needed to determine whether alterations during embryonic development may increase the prevalence of chronic diseases in adulthood.

  15. A Review of The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Embryo Grading System and Proposed Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Amjad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART method of embryo grad- ing is unique, simple, and widely practiced, and its use has been mandatory for SART membership programs since 2010. Developed by SART in 2006, the current embryo grading system categories, “good, fair, and poor,” are limited because they do not describe the best 1-2 embryos in the interest of keeping pace with the shift in clinical practice to be more selective and to transfer fewer embryos. This inspired us to conduct a review on the SART embryo grading system. In this retrospective study, the literature on evaluation of human embryo quality in gen- eral, and the SART method of evaluation in particular, were reviewed for the period of 2000 to 2014. A multifaceted search pertaining to methods of embryo grading and trans- fer using a combination of relevant terms [embryo, mammalian, embryo transfer, grade, grading, morphology, biomarkers, SART, and in vitro fertilization (IVF] was performed. The inclusion and exclusion in this review were dictated by the aim and scope of the study. Two investigators independently assessed the studies and extracted information. A total of 61 articles were reviewed. Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of the SART embryo grading method. The present study suggests the necessity for revision of the current SART grading system. The system, as it is now, lacks criteria for describing the cohort specific best embryo and thus is of limited use in single embryo transfer. The study foresees heightened descriptive efficiency of the SART system by implementing the proposed changes. Strengths and weaknesses of the SART embryo grading were identified. Ideas for selecting the best cohort-specific embryo have been discussed, which may trigger methodological improvement in SART and other embryo grading systems.

  16. Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown conflicting results whether unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction is a risk factor for depression among women. This study therefore investigated if women with no live birth after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment had a higher risk...... of unipolar depression compared with women with a live birth after ART treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) Cohort is a national register-based cohort study that consists of women who received ART treatment from 1 January 1994 to 30 September 2009, in Denmark (n = 41 050......). Information on unipolar depression was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The analyses were conducted in Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: During the 308 494 person-years of follow up, 552 women were diagnosed with unipolar depression. A Cox proportional hazards model showed...

  17. Congenital hypothyroidism after assisted reproductive technology in Japan: comparison between multiples and singletons, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki Syuichi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between congenital hypothyroidism (CH and multiple pregnancy has not been fully studied in Japan. Methods Complete nationwide data of assisted reproductive technology (ART in Japan from 2005 to 2009 presented by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which include information on CH and birth defects were used for analyses. Diseases were reclassified according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10, 2003 version. The relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI of the incidence rate for CH was calculated with singletons as the reference group. Additional birth defects with CH were examined. The probandwise concordance rate of multiples and recurrence risk ratio were calculated. Results There were 18 patients with CH, consisting of 12 singletons and 6 multiples. The incidence rates of CH per 1,000 live births in singletons and multiples are 0.14 (=12/87,145 and 0.31 (=6/19,533, respectively. The incidence rate was more than twofold higher in multiple births than in singleton births, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR=2.2, 95% CI 0.8–5.9. Additional birth defects were present in three patients with CH (17%=3/18. The multiples were affected by other birth defects more frequently (33%=2/6 than the singletons (8%=1/12. The six multiple-births patients were derived from one concordant twin pair, which consisted of two twin patients; three discordant twin pairs, which consisted of three twin patients; and one discordant triplets set, which consisted of one triplet patient. Thus, the probandwise concordance rate was 33.3% (=2/(2+4. The estimated recurrence risk ratio was 1976 (for the total ART population or 609 (for the Japanese general population. Conclusions CH was more frequent in multiples compared to singletons. A higher percentage of additional birth defects was also observed in multiples compared to singletons. The familial aggregation of CH

  18. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Newborn Size in Singletons Resulting from Fresh and Cryopreserved Embryos Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Claudia; Zhang, Yujia; Talge, Nicole M.; Li, Chenxi; Todem, David; Boulet, Sheree L.; McKane, Patricia; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Copeland, Glenn; Bernson, Dana; Diamond, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives and Study Design The aim of this study was two-fold: to investigate the association of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and small newborn size, using standardized measures; and to examine within strata of fresh and cryopreserved embryos transfer, whether this association is influenced by parental infertility diagnoses. We used a population-based retrospective cohort from Michigan (2000–2009), Florida and Massachusetts (2000–2010). Our sample included 28,946 ART singletons conceived with non-donor oocytes and 4,263,846 non-ART singletons. Methods Regression models were used to examine the association of ART and newborn size, measured as small for gestational age (SGA) and birth-weight-z-score, among four mutually exclusive infertility groups: female infertility only, male infertility only, combined female and male infertility, and unexplained infertility, stratified by fresh and cryopreserved embryos transfer. Results We found increased SGA odds among ART singletons from fresh embryos transfer compared with non-ART singletons, with little difference by infertility source [adjusted odds-ratio for SGA among female infertility only: 1.18 (95% CI 1.10, 1.26), male infertility only: 1.20 (95% CI 1.10, 1.32), male and female infertility: 1.18 (95% CI 1.06, 1.31) and unexplained infertility: 1.24 (95% CI 1.10, 1.38)]. Conversely, ART singletons, born following cryopreserved embryos transfer, had lower SGA odds compared with non-ART singletons, with mild variation by infertility source [adjusted odds-ratio for SGA among female infertility only: 0.56 (95% CI 0.45, 0.71), male infertility only: 0.64 (95% CI 0.47, 0.86), male and female infertility: 0.52 (95% CI 0.36, 0.77) and unexplained infertility: 0.71 (95% CI 0.47, 1.06)]. Birth-weight-z-score was significantly lower for ART singletons born following fresh embryos transfer than non-ART singletons, regardless of infertility diagnoses. PMID:28114395

  19. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bos-Mikich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with varying degrees of success in terms of parthenote generation rates, embryo development stem cell derivation rates. Success in achieving a standardized artificial activation methodology for human oocytes and the subsequent potential therapeutic gain obtained from these embryos depends mainly on the availability of gametes donated from infertility treatments. This review will focus on the creation of parthenotes from clinically unusable oocytes for derivation and establishment of human parthenogenetic stem cell lines and their potential applications in regenerative medicine.

  20. The German IVF Register as an Instrument to Document Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, S.; Wiesing, U.

    2016-01-01

    The German IVF Register (Deutsches IVF-Register [D.I.R]) has been collecting and publishing data on the use of IVF and related methods in Germany since 1982. It is the only institution which provides information for all of Germany on procedures and their success rates. For this reason it plays an important role in the provision of information to the public, to patients, political decision-makers and the scientific community. However, the register does not have the data of all centers offering treatment in Germany nor does it have complete datasets on all reported treatments. The register accepts retrospective data entries, it does not publish the success rates of individual centers and up until 2015 it did not provide a summary of information which was suitable for non-specialists. The D.I.R has been the focus of criticism in the past. Even today, the information it provides to the scientific community, the public, political decision-makers and potential patients on the outcomes of assisted reproduction is insufficient. The documentation of reproductive medicine procedures in other countries is much more meaningful. PMID:27365538

  1. Hearing Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  2. Cord Blood Karyotyping: A Safe and Non-Invasive Method for Postnatal Testing of Assisted Reproductive Technology Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Zarei Moradi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To verify the hypothesis that the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities increases in babies conceived by different assisted reproduction procedures. The availability of the umbilical cord blood encouraged us to study this hypothesis via this method. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, umbilical cord blood samples of assisted reproductive technology (ART children were analyzed with standard cytogenetic techniques (G banding. Karyotyping was possible in 109 cases. Results: The number of abnormal cases was four (3.7%, among which, three cases (2.8% were inherited and only 1 case (0.9% was a de novo translocation. In total, the incidence of de novo chromosomal abnormalities was in the range observed in all live births in the general population (0.7-1%. Conclusion: No significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal abnormality was found between ART and naturally conceived babies. To date, several studies have examined the medical and developmental outcome of ART children and still have not reached a definite conclusion. Genetic counseling is recommended as an integral part of planning of treatment strategies for couples wishing to undergo ART.

  3. Risk and safety management in infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART): from the doctor's office to the ART procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Gambone, Joseph C; Meldrum, David R; Chapron, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Risk and safety management (RSM) is receiving increasing attention in medicine, with the goals of reducing medical error and increasing quality of care. The principles and tools of RSM can and should be applied to assisted reproductive technology (ART), a field that has already made significant progress in reducing the undesirable and sometimes dangerous consequences of treatment. ART is a prime area of medicine to contribute and help to lead the application of RSM and patient safety because it has been ahead of many other fields of medicine in standardizing treatment, certifying and auditing practitioners, and reporting standardized outcomes, and because treatments are applied to otherwise healthy individuals where exposure to risk may be less acceptable.

  4. Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very preterm birth in assisted reproductive technology twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, A; Ortoft, G; Loft, A

    2015-01-01

    and cervical conization are both risk factors for PTB. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In this national population-based controlled cohort study, we included all ART singletons and twin deliveries from 1995 to 2009 in Denmark by cross-linkage of maternal and child data from the National IVF register......STUDY QUESTION: Does cervical conization add an additional risk of preterm birth (PTB) in assisted reproduction technology (ART) singleton and twin pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very PTB in ART twin pregnancies. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ART......, respectively, with an aOR 1.94 (95% CI 1.36-2.77), and the risk of VPTB was also doubled. Furthermore, previous dysplasia (without conization) increased the risk of VPTB in ART twins (aOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.04-2.94). Cervical dysplasia did not increase the risk of any of the other adverse outcomes in ART...

  5. Psychosocial adjustment during the transition to parenthood of Portuguese couples who conceived spontaneously or through assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Sofia; Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Soares, Isabel

    2010-06-01

    We examined the psychosocial adjustment of 35 Portuguese couples who conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) and 31 couples with a spontaneous conception during their transition to parenthood (pregnancy and 4 months postpartum). Couples completed self-report questionnaires regarding their perceptions of pregnancy and parenthood, psychological distress, quality of life, marital relationship, and parenting stress. Compared with parents who conceived spontaneously, parents who conceived through ART perceived pregnancy as being more risky and demanding, reported a decrease in their psychological quality of life, and ART fathers only perceived themselves as being more competent than fathers who conceived spontaneously. Healthcare professionals should be aware of need of couples in their efforts to adapt to the individual and relational challenges associated with the transition to parenthood.

  6. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H

    2016-03-28

    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  7. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  8. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e. it

  9. New Zealand University students' knowledge of fertility decline in women via natural pregnancy and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nathanael; Rosario, Roseanne; Shelling, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Female fertility declines with age. University students are the group of people most likely to postpone parenthood, yet several international studies have shown that they overestimate their fertility. We designed a questionnaire based on a previous study in Israel, where university students were asked to answer questions related to their awareness of fertility decline in spontaneous and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) pregnancies, and methods they considered would prolong their reproductive lifespan. Our study has shown that New Zealand University students overestimated the rates of pregnancy for both spontaneous natural and IVF pregnancies. Students are mainly aware of the availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), but overestimate their effectiveness. Few students mentioned non-medical or well-being initiatives as measures to prolong parenthood. It is important that university students are aware of the rate of fertility decline in women, as although ARTs can be effective at times, they are not a guaranteed solution to an ageing woman's fertility. New Zealand University students, like other cohorts, overestimated the chances of a woman getting pregnant and predicted the fertility decline to occur much later than it does in reality.

  10. Parental Age and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome in a Japanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takafumi; Kitamoto, Atsushi; Todokoro, Ayako; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kim, Soo-Yung; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Minowa, Iwao; Someya, Toshikazu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Kano, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether advanced parental age and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are risk factors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS). Clinical charts of Japanese outpatients with ASD (n = 552), ADHD (n = 87), and TS (n = 123) were reviewed. Parental age of…

  11. Does Autism Diagnosis Age or Symptom Severity Differ among Children According to Whether Assisted Reproductive Technology Was Used to Achieve Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, Laura A.; Fountain, Christine; Boulet, Sheree L.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Rice, Catherine; Bearman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies report associations between conception with assisted reproductive technology (ART) and autism. Whether these associations reflect an ascertainment or biologic effect is undetermined. We assessed diagnosis age and initial autism symptom severity among >30,000 children with autism from a linkage study of California Department of…

  12. Use of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology in non-obese young infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-centre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøtrød, S B; Carlsen, S M; Rasmussen, P E

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).......To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)....

  13. Canada's Assisted Human Reproductive Act: is it scientific censorship, or a reasoned approach to the regulation of rapidly emerging reproductive technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Colin

    2004-01-01

    After more than a decade of study, discussion and debate, the Canadian House of Commons and Senate have approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Building on the earlier Bill C-47, which died on the order paper in 1997, the Act bans human cloning for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, payment for surrogacy arrangements, and trading in human reproductive materials or their use without informed consent. In addition, the Act significantly restricts research using human reproductive materials. This article compares the Act to legislative regimes in other nations with advanced human reproductive science. It concludes that while the Act has many laudable goals, it is flawed in that it tries to cover too much legislative ground. As a result it unreasonable impairs the ability of Canadian scientists to compete in areas such as stem cell research, and area that is expected to yield significant new approaches to treating human disease.

  14. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways.

  15. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syuichi OokiDepartment of Health Science, Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART.Methods: Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference, 35–39, and 40+ years.Results: Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed.Conclusion: Maternal age is

  16. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike.

  17. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in men with treated and untreated varicocele: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele affects approximately 35%-40% of men presenting for an infertility evaluation. There is fair evidence indicating that surgical repair of clinical varicocele improves semen parameters, decreases seminal oxidative stress and sperm DNA fragmentation, and increases the chances of natural conception. However, it is unclear whether performing varicocelectomy in men with clinical varicocele prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART improve treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of varicocelectomy on ART pregnancy outcomes in nonazoospermic infertile men with clinical varicocele. An electronic search was performed to collect all evidence that fitted our eligibility criteria using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until April 2015. Four retrospective studies were included, all of which involved intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and accounted for 870 cycles (438 subjected to ICSI with prior varicocelectomy, and 432 without prior varicocelectomy. There was a significant increase in the clinical pregnancy rates (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.19-2.12, I 2 = 25% and live birth rates (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55-3.06, I 2 = 0% in the varicocelectomy group compared to the group subjected to ICSI without previous varicocelectomy. Our results indicate that performing varicocelectomy in patients with clinical varicocele prior to ICSI is associated with improved pregnancy outcomes.

  18. [Planned children--supporting and inhibiting influences on the development of personality and relationships after technology-assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, Karin J

    2016-03-01

    In the western industrial countries more and more couples with an unfulfilled desire for a child use assisted reproductive technology (ART). This focusses on physical processes and doesn't sufficiently provide necessary supportive psychological/psychotherapeutic guidance.Neglecting the psychological dimension causes ART to enhance the risk for negative processes of emotional development of a child.After a brief overview of prevalence and summarizing the legal situation three areas will be discussed which involve a high risk potential and their influences on relationship- and personality development will be described: • The psychological burden for potential parents during the treatment. • Wishes of perfection and high expectations concerning the child which can turn normative crises into severe problems. • The frequent handling of the treatment as a taboo which can become a destructive family secret between parents and child.The paper will conclude with thoughts concerning prevention and treatment.Every person working in the field of childhood and adolescence can contribute to a healthy psychological development of these children. This means acknowledging and working through the emotional burden and the wishes and explaining about the dangers of taboos like in foster care and adoption.

  19. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Supplementation in Culture Media for Subfertile Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Technologies: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Siristatidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts embryotrophic effects during the early stages of embryo development. We performed a systematic review, and six studies that were performed in humans undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART were located. We wanted to evaluate if embryo culture media supplementation with GM-CSF could improve success rates. As the type of studies and the outcome parameters investigated were heterogeneous, we decided not to perform a meta-analysis. Most of them had a trend favoring the supplementation with GM-CSF, when outcomes were measured in terms of increased percentage of good-quality embryos reaching the blastocyst stage, improved hatching initiation and number of cells in the blastocyst, and reduction of cell death. However, no statistically significant differences were found in implantation and pregnancy rates in all apart from one large multicenter trial, which reported favorable outcomes, in terms of implantation and live birth rates. We propose properly conducted and adequately powered randomized controlled trials (RCTs to further validate and extrapolate the current findings with the live birth rate to be the primary outcome measure.

  20. Outcomes and Recommendations of an Indian Expert Panel for Improved Practice in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahemmed, Baiju; Sundarapandian, Vani; Gutgutia, Rohit; Balasubramanyam, Sathya; Jagtap, Richa; Biliangady, Reeta; Gupta, Priti; Jadhav, Sachin; Satwik, Ruma; Thakor, Priti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To improve success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted reproductive technology (ART) experts addressed four questions. What is optimum oocytes number leading to highest live birth rate (LBR)? Are cohort size and embryo quality correlated? Does gonadotropin type affect oocyte yield? Should “freeze-all” policy be adopted in cycles with progesterone >1.5 ng/mL on day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration? Methods. Electronic database search included ten studies on which panel gave opinions for improving current practice in controlled ovarian stimulation for ART. Results. Strong association existed between retrieved oocytes number (RON) and LBRs. RON impacted likelihood of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Embryo euploidy decreased with age, not with cohort size. Progesterone > 1.5 ng/dL did not impair cycle outcomes in patients with high cohorts and showed disparate results on day of hCG administration. Conclusions. Ovarian stimulation should be designed to retrieve 10–15 oocytes/treatment. Accurate dosage, gonadotropin type, should be selected as per prediction markers of ovarian response. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist based protocols are advised to avoid OHSS. Cumulative pregnancy rate was most relevant pregnancy endpoint in ART. Cycles with serum progesterone ≥1.5 ng/dL on day of hCG administration should not adopt “freeze-all” policy. Further research is needed due to lack of data availability on progesterone threshold or index. PMID:28246628

  1. Trends in perinatal health after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.

    2015-01-01

    to lowering the rate of multiples but also concerning the health of singletons. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation has supported the project. The Co......STUDY QUESTIONS Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? SUMMARY ANSWER The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. WHAT IS KNOWN....... LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION We were not able to adjust for some potential confounders such as BMI, smoking, length or cause of infertility. The Nordic ART populations have changed over time, and in recent years, both less as well as severely reproductive ill couples are being treated. This may have...

  2. Assistive Reproductive Techniques: From Past to Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is an important disease ,which has high prevalance in the society. In order to plan the appropriate treatment, etiopathogenesis should be well understood. Knowing the evolution of these methods, make us understand how fastly changing and promising area of research is this. Assistive reproductive technologies which are very important especially for carriers of various diseases, are also used to minimalise the adverse effects of gonadotoxic treatments and used to fertility preservation for cancer patients.

  3. Assisted reproductive technology with donor gametes: the need for patient preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlstedt, P P; Greenfeld, D A

    1989-12-01

    There are certainly no definitive answers to the questions raised by the use of donor gametes in reproduction, as there are no definitive answers to any of life's most difficult questions. The loss of fertility is usually an unexpected, invisible, deeply painful wound for those couples who are considering the use of donor gametes. As they address the psychological issues of these techniques, they must also heal the wounds created by infertility. This type of grieving and examination of feelings takes time and information. The medical community needs to encourage each couple to resolve the issues around infertility and to use available personal, professional, and written resources to address the dilemmas raised by the use of donor gametes prior to embarking on this type of treatment. In so doing, the couple will reduce the likelihood that the means of conceiving their children will become a source of major conflict in their family. In 1932 Aldous Huxley prophesied the destructive consequences of scientific accomplishment without social involvement and psychological guidance. He said: "The sciences of matter can be applied in such a way that they will destroy life or make the living of it impossibly complex and uncomfortable...unless used as instruments by biologists and psychologists." It is our concern that the procedures for enabling infertile couples to become parents may, if not accompanied by acknowledgment of the unique challenges which they create for all participants in the process, make the living of life "impossibly complex and uncomfortable" for the very families we are trying to help.

  4. Gay science: assisted reproductive technologies and the sexual orientation of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2005-03-01

    There are no technologies at the present time that would allow parents to select the sexual orientation of their children. But what if there were? Some commentators believe that parents should be able to use those techniques so long as they are effective and safe. Others believe that these techniques are unethical because of the dangers they pose to homosexual men and women in general. Both sides point to motives and consequences when trying to analyse the ethics of this question. These arguments are reviewed, and it is concluded that opponents of these technologies have not shown good reason why the law or policy should override parental choice in this matter. In general, therefore, if technologies become available to choose the sexual orientation of children, parents should be allowed to use them, provided they are safe and disrupt no interest of the child. This use will, at the very least, protect homosexual children from parents who do not want them, but it will also allow parents who want homosexual children to make that choice as well.

  5. Results from the International Consensus Conference on myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol in Obstetrics and Gynecology--assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Arturo; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Gerli, Sandro; Montanino Oliva, Mario; Devroey, Paul; Lanzone, Antonio; Soulange, Christophe; Facchinetti, Fabio; Carlo Di Renzo, Gian; Bizzarri, Mariano; Hod, Moshe; Cavalli, Pietro; D'Anna, Rosario; Benvenga, Salvatore; Chiu, Tony T; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2015-06-01

    A substantial body of research on mammalian gametogenesis and human reproduction has recently investigated the effect of myo-inositol (MyoIns) on oocyte and sperm cell quality, due to its possible application to medically assisted reproduction. With a growing number of both clinical and basic research papers, the meaning of several observations now needs to be interpreted under a solid and rigorous physiological framework. The 2013 Florence International Consensus Conference on Myo- and D-chiro-inositol in obstetrics and gynecology has answered a number of research questions concerning the use of the two stereoisomers in assisted reproductive technologies. Available clinical trials and studies on the physiological and pharmacological effects of these molecules have been surveyed. Specifically, the physiological involvement of MyoIns in oocyte maturation and sperm cell functions has been discussed, providing an answer to the following questions: (1) Are inositols physiologically involved in oocyte maturation? (2) Are inositols involved in the physiology of spermatozoa function? (3) Is treatment with inositols helpful within assisted reproduction technology cycles? (4) Are there any differences in clinical efficacy between MyoIns and D-chiro-inositol? The conclusions of this Conference, drawn depending on expert panel opinions and shared with all the participants, are summarized in this review paper.

  6. First-trimester screening in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology: significance of gestational dating by oocyte retrieval or sonographic measurement of crown-rump length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers or the perfo......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers......-trimester screening. The correct method of GA dating for other purposes (e.g. estimated time of delivery) in IVF/ICSI pregnancies is still unresolved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  7. Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Alberta: An Economic Analysis to Inform Policy Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anil; Stafinski, Tania; Nardelli, Alexa; Motan, Tarek; Menon, Devidas

    2015-12-01

    Objectif : La réglementation et le financement public des techniques de procréation assistée (TPA) varient d’une province canadienne à l’autre. En Alberta, les TPA ne sont ni réglementées ni financées par les deniers publics. Nous avons mené cette étude dans le but d’évaluer la rentabilité de l’offre de TPA en Alberta et les effets d’une telle mesure sur le budget albertain en fonction de trois scénarios de politique différents (une politique « restrictive », une politique fondée sur le modèle québécois et une politique « permissive »), par comparaison avec le statu quo. Méthodes : Pour prédire la rentabilité de ces trois options de politique (prévoyant l’offre de TPA financées par les deniers publics en Alberta) et leurs effets sur le budget provincial, nous avons élaboré un modèle économique en combinant un modèle Markov (transitions d’état) et un arbre décisionnel. Le coût par nouveau-né en santé issu d’une grossesse monofœtale constituait le critère d’évaluation principal. Des analyses simples de la variance en matière de sensibilité et des analyses probabilistes ont été menées. Résultats : La politique « restrictive » a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans deux sous-groupes d’âge (< 35 ans et 35-39 ans), tandis que la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans. L’analyse des effets sur le budget (jusqu’à ce que les enfants générés par le modèle ait atteint l’âge de 18 ans) a indiqué l’obtention d’économies de 8,33 millions de dollars pour ce qui est de la politique « restrictive » dans le sous-groupe des < 35 ans. Dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans, l’option de la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a mené à l’obtention d’économies totales de 3,75 millions de dollars. Les analyses de la sensibilité ont indiqué que les résultats modélisés

  8. Ethical aspects of advanced reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2003-11-01

    The progress achieved during the last 25 years in the assisted reproductive technology field has been phenomenal. Many countries currently practice genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and surrogacy. While embryo research and therapeutic cloning are carried out only in a few centers, thus far human cloning has been universally condemned. Nonetheless, the rapid evolution and progress of these various techniques of assisted reproduction has opened a Pandora's box of ethical issues that must be urgently addressed.

  9. Association of Cardiac Development with Assisted Reproductive Technology in Childhood: A Prospective Single-Blind Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To examine the pattern and extent of cardiovascular developmental alterations among children conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART and its association with potential confounders. Methods: The present study was a prospective single-blind pilot design lasting 15 months. The ART group was recruited by a non-random, consecutive sample on the basis of the unique personal identification number assigned to ART children, whereas spontaneous conception controls were recruited by a population-based random sample from the same hospital by age. Echocardiography was available for the measurement of 128 ART children and 100 controls with respect to cardiovascular geometric morphology and cardiac function. Results: The majority of cardiac geometric morphology parameters were comparable among the study groups (P>0.05, except for significant increases in left ventricular (LV relative wall thickness (P=0.038, LV mass index (P=0.005 and LV remodeling index (P=0.005 in ART children after adjustment for age, gender, body surface area and heart rate. The results showed similarity in LV systolic function characterized by ejection fraction (P=0.140 and shortening fraction (P=0.167 between the groups. However, ART children had a significant tendency toward a decrease in mitral A (P=0.008 and mitral E′ (P=0.012 compared with controls after adjusting for confounders. Additionally, Cox analysis suggested an independent association (PConclusion: Our findings support the presence of remodeling in the left cardiac geometric morphology and diastolic dysfunction and the absence of any change to the aortocoronary morphometry or systolic function in ART children compared with controls, which may be independently associated with the anthropometrics and perinatal outcomes in addition to the ART procedure.

  10. Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containing an egg and the surrounding cells that produce hormones. As the follicle matures, the fluid can be visualized by ultrasound. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The pituitary hormone responsible for stimulating the growth of the follicle that surrounds the egg. In ...

  11. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Vitro Fertilization During in vitro fertilization (IVF), eggs and sperm are taken from the couple and are incubated ... to carry a pregnancy to term. If needed, egg or sperm donation can be used in this situation. [top] ...

  12. Assisted reproduction--Islamic views on the science of procreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norhayati Haji

    2003-03-01

    The field of assisted reproduction is one of the fastest growing areas in medicine. The development of new and sophisticated techniques all aim to give reproductive technologies and scientists a better understanding of reproductive biology. The development of new techniques may also be able to improve the chances of an infertile couple towards achieving a pregnancy. However the ethics and legality of assisted reproductive technology must not be brushed aside. Islamic scholars whose reference basis resides in the Holy Quran and the Hadith have addressed different issues relating to assisted reproductive technology. Some of the issues remain controversial and need detailed discussion before it can be deemed as appropriate and legible for use as guidelines in the development of the processes involved.

  13. Authors' reply to comment on "Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S.; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our national register-based study (1) was to investigate the risk of a new episode of unipolar depression among women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in regards to whether they had achieved a live birth (as a result of treatment or spontaneous conception) or not....... Hence, we did not aim to compare unipolar depression in women who received ART treatment with women who did not. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis (2) was published recently which shows no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted reproduction...... compared to women having conceived spontaneously. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  14. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....

  15. [Criminal code and assisted human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Bechiarelli, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The Spanish Criminal Code punishes in the article 161 the crime of assisted reproduction of the woman without her assent as a form of crime relative to the genetic manipulation. The crime protects a specific area of the freedom of decision of the woman, which is the one that she has dealing with the right to the procreation at the moment of being fertilized. The sentence would include the damages to the health provoked by the birth or the abortion. The crime is a common one--everyone can commit it--and it is not required a result of pregnancy, but it is consumed by the mere intervention on the body of the woman, and its interpretation is contained on the Law 14/2006, of may 26, on technologies of human assisted reproduction. The aim of the work is to propose to consider valid the assent given by the sixteen-year-old women (and older) in coherence with the Project of Law about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of the pregnancy that is studied at this moment, in Spain, in order to harmonize the legal systems.

  16. 21 CFR 884.6150 - Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6150 Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors. (a) Identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micromanipulators...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6140 - Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6140 Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments. (a) Identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micropipette...

  18. Evidence-based management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome using surgery or assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael F; Ledger, William L

    2012-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been managed surgically since the development of wedge resection in the 1930s. Second-line surgical interventions for anovulation associated with PCOS include laparoscopic ovarian diathermy, which is as effective as medical induction of ovulation with gonadotropins, with a much reduced risk of multiple pregnancy. Bariatric surgery may be considered for morbidly obese patients with PCOS, although further research assessing such surgery specifically in PCOS patients is needed. Assisted reproduction, in the form of IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection, is usually indicated as third-line medical treatment or in the presence of other infertility factors. There is an ongoing debate concerning the relative merits of IVF and ovulation induction in PCOS, comparing the higher multiple pregnancy rate of ovulation induction with the greater cost and psychological stress of IVF.

  19. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Tsagkas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS. On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS; she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques- IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vasculature during the puerperium, especially in the case of history of chronic hormone treatment. Ascites albumin gradient and Doppler values lead to the diagnosis of thrombosis and the administration of high doses of anticoagulants is considered to be fundamental.

  20. Posthumous Assisted Reproduction from Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in assisted reproductive techniques along with relieving the pain of childlessnesshas brought new ethical and policy dilemmas. Posthumous assisted reproduction is the mostchallenging, difficult and sensitive issue to be discussed ethically and religiously. In this paper theacceptability of the posthumous reproduction in Islamic contexts is evaluated and major concernslike Consent and ownership of the gametes after death, Family and Marriage vision and Welfareof the child are discussed together with some international legislation. We can conclude that uponIslamic vision to assisted reproductive techniques as treatment of families and relieving the seriousproblem of childlessness, posthumous assisted reproduction is unacceptable even with previouslyfrozen gametes or embryos. Also, Islamic vision to marriage, consent and welfare of the childconfirms the unacceptability. There must be some law or legislation to ban this procedure in Islamiccontexts.

  1. Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record : An Ethical Analysis of a State-Enforced "Presumption Against Treatment" With Regard to Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    As assisted reproductive technologies (ART) become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or child protection order, are given a "presumption against treatment." This article reviews the legislation and identifies arguments that may be used to justify restricting access to ART for various reasons. The arguments reviewed include limitations of reproductive rights, inheriting undesirable genetic traits, distributive justice, and the welfare of the future child. We show that none of these arguments justifies restricting access to ART in the context of past criminal history. We show that a "presumption against treatment" is an unjustified infringement on reproductive freedom and that it creates various inconsistencies in current social, medical, and legal policy. We argue that a state-enforced policy of restricting access to ART based on the non-medical factor of past criminal history is an example of unjust discrimination and cannot be ethically justified, with one important exception: in cases where ART treatment may be considered futile on the basis that the parents are not expected to raise the resulting child.

  2. From Embryos to Adults: A DOHaD Perspective on In Vitro Fertilization and Other Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Sky; Rinaudo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a treatment for infertility is regarded as one of the most outstanding accomplishments of the 20th century, and its use has grown dramatically since the late 1970s. Although IVF is considered safe and the majority of children appear healthy, reproductive technologies have been viewed with some skepticism since the in vitro environment deviates substantially from that in vivo. This is increasingly significant because the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis has illuminated the sensitivity of an organism to its environment at critical stages during development, including how suboptimal exposures restricted specifically to gamete maturation or the preimplantation period can affect postnatal growth, glucose metabolism, fat deposition, and vascular function. Today, some of the physiological metabolic phenotypes present in animal models of IVF have begun to emerge in human IVF children, but it remains unclear whether or not in vitro embryo manipulation will have lasting health consequences in the offspring. Our expanding knowledge of the DOHaD field is fueling a paradigm shift in how disease susceptibility is viewed across the life course, with particular emphasis on the importance of collecting detailed exposure information, identifying biomarkers of health, and performing longitudinal studies for any medical treatment occurring during a developmentally vulnerable period. As IVF use continues to rise, it will be highly valuable to incorporate DOHaD concepts into the clinical arena and future approaches to public health policy. PMID:27517965

  3. Application of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Disorders of Reproductive Endocrine System%生殖内分泌疾病的助孕策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 陈子江

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive endocrine system regulates reproductive phenomena, including ovulation, implantation, maintenance of gestation, et al. Disorders of this system result in female infertility; over 30% of female infertility are caused by the reproductive endocrinopathies. The classify of those disorders is very complicated. The pathophysiological mechanism is related with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at different level. In this review, treatment and management of disorders of the reproductive endocrine system were concisely introduced, which was based on the mainstream guidelines published by international associations and Chinese Medical Association.%排卵、着床、妊娠维持等生殖过程皆是在生殖内分泌系统的调控下完成的,生殖内分泌系统出现异常可能会导致女性不孕症的发生。各类生殖内分泌疾病约占女性不孕症的1/3,病种分类繁杂,病理机制复杂,涉及性腺轴的多个环节。以国际共识及中华医学会发布的诊疗指南为蓝本,针对生殖内分泌疾病如何导致不孕症,提纲挈领地介绍主要生殖内分泌疾病的助孕策略。

  4. The application of Nursing ethics to the Assisted Reproductive Technology Center%护理伦理学应用于辅助生殖技术中心的体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露

    2013-01-01

    人类辅助生殖技术的应用与发展带来了一系列伦理问题,护理人员作为医疗服务的执行者在辅助生殖技术的实施过程中,应树立护理伦理意识,将护理伦理融入临床实践,加强监督管理。同时不断思考和探讨,制定相应对策,规范和促进辅助生殖技术的健康发展。%With the application and the development of the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology, a series of ethical problems has been brought up. As the executors of the medical services, nurses should maintain a sense of nursing ethics, apply nursing ethics into clinical practice, and reinforce the ethics supervision and management in the process of Assisted Reproductive Technology implementation. Keep thinking and exploring to the Assisted Reproductive Technology implementation, and develop appropriate ethics countermeasures to promote the development of Assisted Reproductive Technology.

  5. Prevent Abusing of Assisted Reproductive Technology: Respect for Women's Demands%防范辅助生殖技术滥用之道——尊重女权诉求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜婕; 田清华

    2011-01-01

    辅助生殖技术冲击和挑战了人类传统的伦理观念,它的滥用还可能给人类造成灾难.阐述当前捐卵、代孕、PGD、多胎妊娠存在的问题,探讨滥用辅助生殖技术的原因,提倡辅助生殖技术女性角色伦理,提出尊重女权诉求是防范辅助生殖技术滥用的解决办法.%Assisted reproductive technology has had an impact and challenged the ethics of human tradition and its abuse can also give the abuse of human-caused disasters. This paper describes the problems of egg donation, surrogacy, PGD,and multiple pregnancies, explore the reasons for the abuse of assisted reproductive technology, assisted reproductive technology to promote ethical role of women, respect for women's demands are the solution to preventing the abuse of assisted reproductive technology.

  6. Prospect of sperm DNA damage and assisted reproductive technology research%精子DNA损伤与辅助生殖研究前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丹丹; 李少鹏; 李彦; 赵晓瑞; 王泽兰; 潘潇

    2015-01-01

    放化疗、吸烟、辐射、睾丸和附睾的温度变化等都会造成精子DNA不同程度的损伤。目前已有多种方法可以较好地检测精子DNA的损伤程度,但是这些检测方法还有待完善。精子DNA损伤与育龄妇女的妊娠结局相关,为提高辅助生殖技术的成功率减少精子DNA损伤,可采用去除病因、中医药治疗、取睾丸精子行 ICSI和IMSI等方法。鉴于此,对精子DNA损伤的原因、检测方法、妊娠结局与治疗方法作一综述。%There are multiple factors which cause sperm DNA damage,such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy, smoking, electromagnetic radiation and temperature of the testis/epididymis. Improving the methods of sperm DNA damage detection is still necessary. A number of studies have reported that sperm DNA damage is associated with reproductive outcome. For the sake of succeeding in ART and the reducing of sperm DNA damage, some treatments are taken into consideration, such as exterminating the causes, oral antioxidant drugs, traditional Chinese medicine and ICSI /IMSI with testis sperm. This review focuses on the mechanism and detection of sperm DNA damage, it’s association with reproductive outcomes, and relevant treatment strategies in assisted reproductive technology.

  7. Assisted reproductive technologies in Portuguese law--commentary to the Judgment no. 101/2009, of March the 3rd of the Portuguese Constitutional Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Vera Lúcia; Vale e Reis, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Recently the Portuguese Constitutional Court was asked to analyze the constitutionality of the law on assisted reproduction, Law nr 32/2006. The request was presented by a conservative group, arguing, basically, that the law disregarded the juridical protection due to the embryo and to the participants in reproductive techniques. The main critics pointed out were related with the legitimacy of using reproductive techniques, the absence of a maximum age for beneficiaries, the authorization of embryo experimentation, the decision of not criminalizing every contract of surrogate motherhood, among some other critics. However, the Court concluded that none of the pointed norms went against Constitutional rules and principles.

  8. Coste de las técnicas de reproducción asistida en un hospital público Cost of assisted reproduction technology in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Navarro Espigares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La mayoría de trabajos sobre costes de las técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA identifican el coste directo del procedimiento, sin considerar elementos como los costes estructurales o intermedios, de gran importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el coste por proceso de las TRA realizadas en un hospital público en 2003 y compararlo con los resultados de 1998 en el mismo centro. Métodos: El estudio se realiza en la Unidad de Reproducción Humana (URH del Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves de Granada en 1998 y 2003. Partiendo de los costes totales de dicha unidad, y mediante una metodología de distribución de costes basada en la estructura de costes, calculamos el coste por proceso de las TRA realizadas en este centro, considerando los costes completos. Resultados: Entre 1998 y 2003, la actividad y los costes de la URH analizada evolucionan de forma distinta. El análisis de la actividad muestra la consolidación de técnicas, como la microinyección espermática (ICSI y la desaparición de otras (ciclo sin reproducción asistida e inseminación artificial conyugal intracervical. En todos los procesos, los costes unitarios por ciclo y por embarazo disminuyen en el período analizado. Conclusiones: Se han producido importantes cambios en la estructura de costes de las TRA de la URH-HUVN entre 1998-2003. Mientras algunos procesos desaparecen, otros se consolidan con una elevada actividad. Los avances técnicos y las innovaciones organizativas, junto con un «efecto aprendizaje», han alterado la estructura de costes de las TRA.Objectives: Most studies on the costs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART identify the total cost of the procedure with the direct cost, without considering important items such as overhead or intermediate costs. The objective of this study was to determine the cost per ART procedure in a public hospital in 2003 and to compare the results with those in the same hospital in 1998

  9. The Psychologist's Role in Family Building with Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell, Susan G.

    About 1 in 12 couples in the United States face the "how to have" element of reproductive choices. Assistive Reproductive Technology (ART) involves manipulation of genetic material outside of the body. Infertile couples have a large range of options in the achievement of a conception and are easily overwhelmed. As new choices are offered to…

  10. Assisted Reproduction versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison of the Developmental Outcomes in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Anthis, Kristine S.; Needelman, Howard

    2004-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technology is increasing rapidly. Research, although sparse, has resulted in inconsistent findings as to the developmental prognosis for infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and the use of fertility drugs. In the present study, the authors compared twins who were…

  11. Psychiatric disorders among women and men in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Hageman, Ida; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted

    2013-01-01

    disorders and ART treatment in both sexes have only been sparsely explored. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: The main objective of this national register-based cohort study is to assess women's and men's mental health before, during, and after ART treatment in comparison with the mental health in an age......-matched population-based cohort of couples with no history of ART treatment. Furthermore, the objective is to study the reproductive outcome of ART treatment among women who have a registered diagnosis of a mental disorder or have used medication for mental disorders prior to ART treatment compared with women in ART...... treatment without a mental disorder. We will establish the Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) cohort including all women registered with ART treatment in the Danish in vitro fertilisation Register during 1994-2009 (N=42 915) and their partners. An age-matched population-based comparison cohort of women...

  12. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  13. Are assisted reproduction technologies associated with categorical or dimensional aspects of psychopathology in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood? Results from a Danish prospective nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, T; Juul Hansen, K; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Mohr-Jensen, C

    2017-01-24

    An increasing number of children are conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (ART), but little is known about the long-term risk in terms of mental health outcomes. All twin and singleton children conceived via ART and born in 1995 were sampled from the Danish in vitro fertilization registry and matched to four spontaneously conceived (SC) children. The children were followed-up at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 18 years in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry, to estimate the prevalence of all possible psychiatric diagnoses; dimensional aspects of psychopathology were assessed at the age of 14 years, using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The study included 858 ART children and 3436 SC children. ART and SC children were not clinically distinguishable on either the categorical measures of psychopathology at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 18 years, or on CBCL scale scores at the age of 14 years. The findings remained nonsignificant after controlling for sample differences. This large, prospective, nationwide cohort study provides evidence to support that ART exposure does not increase the risk of adverse mental health outcomes considered as a whole, while power was limited to discard an effect of ART on specific mental health disorders.

  14. Health and development of children born after assisted reproductive technology and sub-fertility compared to naturally conceived children: data from a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G. Sutcliffe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a non-matched case-control study using data from two large national cohort studies, we investigated whether indicators of child health and development up to 7 years of age differ between children conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART, children born after sub-fertility (more than 24 months of trying for conception and other children. Information on ART use/sub-fertility was available for 23,649 children. There were 227 cases (children conceived through ART and two control groups: 783 children born to sub-fertile couples, and 22,639 children born to couples with no fertility issues. In models adjusted for social and demographic factors there were significant differences between groups in rate of hospital admissions before the children were 9 months old (P=0.029, with the ART group showing higher rates of hospital admission than the no fertility issues control group, the sub-fertile control group being intermediate between the two. Children born after ART had comparable health and development beyond 9 months of age to their naturally conceived peers. This applied to the whole sample and to a sub-sample of children from deprived neighborhoods.

  15. Effects of the use of assisted reproductive technologies and an obesogenic environment on resistance artery function and diabetes biomarkers in mice offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco I Ramirez-Perez

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity affects the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in offspring. Also the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART has been associated with cardiovascular deficiencies in offspring. Obese women often suffer from infertility and use ART to achieve a pregnancy, but the combined effects of maternal obesity and ART on cardiovascular health and incidence of diabetes in the offspring is not known. Here, we report the effects of the use of ART within an obesogenic environment, consisting of feeding a western diet (WD to dams and offspring, on resistance artery function and presence of diabetes biomarkers in juvenile mice offspring. Our results indicate that WD and ART interacted to induce endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries isolated from 7-week-old mice offspring. This was determined by presence of a reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation compared to controls. The arteries from these WD-ART mice also had greater wall cross-sectional areas and wall to lumen ratios indicative of vascular hypertrophic remodeling. Of the diabetes biomarkers measured, only resistin was affected by a WD×ART interaction. Serum resistin was significantly greater in WD-ART offspring compared to controls. Diet and sex effects were observed in other diabetes biomarkers. Our conclusion is that in mice the use of ART within an obesogenic environment interacts to favor the development of endothelial dysfunction in the resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, while having marginal effects on diabetes biomarkers.

  16. Social nesting: changes in social network and support across the transition to parenthood in couples that conceived spontaneously or through assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Sofia; Boivin, Jacky; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Soares, Isabel

    2010-04-01

    Research showed that following the birth of a first child, parents increase contact with family members and diminish contact with friends, however, these changes may differ when conception is achieved through assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Based on the convoy model (Kahn & Antonucci, 1980) perspective of close relationships, we examined changes across the transition to parenthood in the social networks and support of men and women that conceived spontaneously or through ART. Thirty one women and 22 men (22 couples) that conceived through ART and 28 women and 24 men (24 couples) with a spontaneous conception provided data on social network and support from nuclear family, extended family, and friends twice: at 24-weeks pregnancy and 4-months postpartum. Results demonstrated that, regardless of method of conception, during the transition to parenthood new parents showed a strong nesting movement towards their nuclear family, perceiving increasing levels of nuclear family support across time. Extended family seemed to have only a secondary role on the social nesting movement and a withdrawal from friends was also observed. Considering the primary role nuclear family members seem to have on providing effective support to child-rearing, a greater emphasis on the importance of parents' relationship with their own parents and siblings could be made and social and working policies that prevent the displacement of families geographically also should be considered.

  17. Analysis of Gene Impriting during Assisted Reproductive Technology%辅助生殖技术中基因印迹分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪彩珠(综述); 冯贵雪(审校); 张波(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Clinical data of human assisted reproduction have shown that the assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with spontaneous abortion,premature birth , perinatal death and low birth weight children,as well as some diseases related to imprinting genes. During gamete and pre-implantation embryo development, any mistakes of genomic imprinting, including erasure, re -establishment and maintenance, would lead defects of embryonic development, even embryonic death. ART manipulation is just in the process of imprinting genes. So, those abnormal outcomes of ART could be related with abnormal expression of imprinted genes. The main manipulation of ART, including ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic spern injection (ICSI), cell biopsy for PGD, and in vitro culture, could influence the gene expression and phenotype, thus affect the growth and development potential of offspring by disturbing the reconstruction and maintenance of genomic imprinting.%人类辅助生殖临床数据已经显示,辅助生殖技术(ART)与自发流产、早产和围生期死亡、低体质量儿以及一些印迹疾病有关。在配子及胚胎早期发育过程中,基因印迹需经历印迹擦除、重建和维持过程,其中任何一个环节出错都可能导致胚胎发育缺陷,甚至死亡。ART恰施于这一表观遗传重编程的关键时期。因此,这些异常结局可能与ART导致的印迹基因的异常表达有关。而ART中主要的治疗手段有促排卵、体外受精、胞浆内单精子注射(ICSI)和体外培养。这些操作通过干扰基因印迹的重建和维持,影响基因表达和表型,进而影响配子和早期胚胎的发育,从而影响子代的生长发育潜能。

  18. Zinc protects sperm quality in assisted reproductive technology%辅助生殖技术中锌对精子的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正尧; 吴金香; 尤柳霞; 蔡俊峰

    2015-01-01

    Aim:To study the action of zinc that reduces sperm damage in assisted reproductive tech-nology.Methods:The preferred sperms selected by density gradient centrifugation were divided into blank control group,hydrogen peroxide-treated group,and experimental group which was treated with both hydrogen peroxide and Zinc;The three groups were compared in sperm motility,viability,sperm plasma membrane integrity,and sperm DNA fragmentation after 5h incubation.Results:The sperm mo-tility and vitality decreased,the membrane integrity was destroyed,and the sperm DNA was damaged af-ter the sperms were incubated with hydrogen peroxide.However,Zinc could protect the sperms from the damage significantly.Conclusion:Zinc reduces sperm damage in the assisted reproductive technology, and thereby improves the quality of sperm.%目的:探讨辅助生殖技术中锌保护精子损伤的作用。方法:应用精子密度梯度离心的方法进行精子优选,优选的精子分为空白对照组、过氧化氢处理组和实验组,实验组受过氧化氢刺激同时加入锌,培养5h 后比较3组精子的存活率、活力、精子质膜完整性及精子 DNA 碎片。结果:过氧化氢刺激后精子的存活率、活力差,精子质膜完整性破坏,大量精子 DNA 损伤,而锌能明显保护精子质量的作用。结论:在辅助生殖技术中锌可抑制精子损伤,从而提高精子质量的作用。

  19. Correlation between male age, WHO sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation, chromatin packaging and outcome in assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, M; De Jonge, C; Cox, A; Janssen, M; Bosmans, E; Ombelet, W

    2011-06-01

    In the human, male ageing results in reproductive hormonal and cellular changes that can influence semen quality (volume, motility, concentration and morphology) and ultimately result in a reduced fertilising capacity and a longer 'time to pregnancy' for ageing men as well as an increased risk for miscarriage. This prospective cohort study of 278 patients undergoing a first in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment was undertaken to examine whether patient's age was reflected in sperm motility, concentration, morphology as well as in DNA fragmentation (DFI) and immature chromatin (unprocessed nuclear proteins and/or poorly condensed chromatin) as measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay. This study also investigated the possible influence of male age (after correcting for female age) on their fertilising capacity, on obtaining a pregnancy and a healthy baby at home. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any male age-related influences on sperm parameters like concentration, motility or morphology. No significant male age-related increase in DFI or immature chromatin was demonstrable for these patients. Elevated male age, after correcting for female age, was not related to lower fertilisation rates or significant decreases in the chance for a healthy baby at home.

  20. 辅助生殖年代生殖外科与输卵管修复性手术%Reproductive surgery and microsurgery of the fallopian tubes in assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关菁

    2015-01-01

    在辅助生殖技术占据生殖医学主导地位的今天,生殖外科手术的作用一直未曾改变。对于体外受精(IVF)而言,生殖外科手术并非其竞争对手,而是重要的治疗补充。IVF 与生殖外科手术的有效结合才会使不孕症患者得到最合理最完善的治疗。输卵管病变的外科修复作为生殖外科手术中最重要的一个环节,其诊断技术、手术理念及手术操作技巧都对医生有着近乎苛刻的要求。其中包括手术患者的甄选、术前对不孕症患者资料的系统分析、输卵管造影的精细解读以期达到在手术前对即将实施的手术的步骤及术后的结果有一个清晰的了解。但目前国内输卵管外科修复手术的现状则与这种要求相去甚远。大部分生殖中心并没有自己独立的手术团队,更没有显微输卵管整复的专家团队,这种高难度的腹腔镜下显微外科手术一直以来只能由普通妇科医生实施。因此,我们有必要将输卵管性疾病的手术原则加以规范,并对此种手术的实施者进行长期而持续的技术支持与培训。%Today, assisted reproductive technology has dominated reproductive medicine, the reproductive surgery still plays an important role in infertility treatment. Reproductive surgery is more than a competing discipline, it is complementary to the techniques of in vitro fertilization. The most accurate treatment for infertility patients can only be achieved if both techniques complement each other to ultimately provide optimal outcomes for patients. As the most important part of the reproductive surgery, the success rates of microsurgery of the fallopian tubes is highly dependent on the skill level of the surgeon. Preoperative evaluation included patient selection, infertility related data, fine interpretation of HSG, then reaching guiding surgical procedures and predict postoperative results. But the current status of the domestic tubal

  1. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005: results generated from European registers by ESHRE: ESHRE. The European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2005 are presented in this ninth report. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. METHODS: From 30 countries, 923 clinics reported 418 111 treatment cycles including: IVF (118 074...

  2. Using a Delphi consensus process to develop an acupuncture treatment protocol by consensus for women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART are increasingly utilised for resolving difficulties conceiving. These technologies are expensive to both the public purse and the individual consumers. Acupuncture is widely used as an adjunct to ART with indications that it may assist reducing the time to conception and increasing live birth rates. Heterogeneity is high between treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to examine what fertility acupuncturists consider key components of best practice acupuncture during an ART cycle, and to establish an acupuncture protocol by consensus. Methods Fifteen international acupuncturists with extensive experience treating women during ART interventions participated in 3 rounds of Delphi questionnaires. The first round focused on identifying the parameters of acupuncture treatment as adjunct to ART, the second round evaluated statements derived from the earlier round, and the third evaluated specific parameters for a proposed trial protocol. Consensus was defined as greater than 80% agreement. Results Significant agreement was achieved on the parameters of best practice acupuncture, including an acupuncture protocol suitable for future research. Study participants confirmed the importance of needling aspects relating to the dose of acupuncture, the therapeutic relationship, tailoring treatment to the individual, and the role of co-interventions. From two rounds of the Delphi a consensus was achieved on seven treatment parameters for the design of the acupuncture treatment to be used in a clinical trial of acupuncture as an adjunct to ART. The treatment protocol includes the use of the traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture, use of manual acupuncture, a first treatment administered between day 6–8 of the stimulated ART cycle which is individualised to the participant, two treatments will be administered on the day of embryo transfer, and will include points SP8, SP10, LR3, ST29, CV4

  3. 人类辅助生殖技术临床实践中的伦理问题及对策%Ethical Problems and Countermeasures of Clinical Practice of Human Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应可满; 任建枝

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of human assisted reproductive technology brings hope and happiness to infertile and sterile couples, at the same time, it has great impact on the ethnical problems. The principles for human assisted reproductive technologies are analyzed to ensure the healthy development of human assisted reproductive technology to propose the countermeasures of the existing problems.%人类辅助生殖技术的飞速发展,给众多不孕不育家庭带来希望和幸福的同时,也不可避免地对人类原有的社会伦理观念产生了巨大的冲击.文章分析了在临床工作中如何处理辅助生殖技术与伦理道德的矛盾关系问题,提出了辅助生殖技术伦理问题的应对策略.

  4. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS): utility in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2008-07-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have now been extensively incorporated in the management of infertile couples. But even after rapid methodological and technological advances the success rates of these procedures have been below expectations. This has led to development of many sperm preparation protocols to obtain an ideal semen sample for artificial reproduction. Sperm apoptosis has been heavily linked to failures in reproductive techniques. One of the earliest changes shown by apoptotic spermatozoa is externalization of phosphatidyl serine. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) is a novel sperm preparation technique that separates apoptotic and non-apoptotic spermatozoa based on the expression of phosphatidylserine. This has led to the incorporation of MACS as a sperm preparation technique. The review highlights the principle and mechanism of this novel technique and enumerates its advantages as a sperm preparation technique. Its utility in ART as an efficient tool for sperm recovery and its application in cryopreservation of semen samples is also explained.

  5. 体外培养与胚胎移植的策略选择%Strategies of in Vitro Culture and Embryo Transfer in Human Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    人类辅助生殖技术(ART)是目前解决不孕症最为有效的治疗方式之一。在ART治疗过程中,体外培养条件以及胚胎移植的策略是直接影响其临床活产率和单胎妊娠率的关键因素。体外培养条件主要包括温度、pH值、氧浓度、培养液的成分以及培养过程中不同阶段是否应该更换培养液等。胚胎移植的策略则包含胚胎移植数量的选择、卵裂期与囊胚期移植的选择以及优质囊胚指标的选择等。结合近期国外研究成果对体外培养条件以及胚胎移植的策略中仍然存在争议的一些问题进行了探讨和综述。%Human assisted reproductive technology (ART) is one of the most effective therapies for human infertility. In vitro culture condition and the strategy of embryo transfer are important factors of ART outcomes such as the live birth rate and the singleton pregnancies rate. Those conditions of in vitro culture include temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, medium and sequential or continuous culture. The strategy of embryo transfer involves the elective single or double embryo transfer, transfer in cleavage or blastocyst stage, and the index for selecting the best blastocyst. Based on recent studies, this review discussed above controversial problems.

  6. Sperm selection in assisted reproductive technology: An update%辅助生殖中的精子优选研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋岳强; 沙艳伟

    2012-01-01

    精子优选是辅助生殖技术中的重要环节.精子活力和形态等常规参数是评估精子的重要内容,近年来精子超微结构、DNA完整性、凋亡和膜成熟度等特征逐渐受到关注,针对这些特征筛选精子成为精子优选技术发展的方向.本文介绍了近年来发展起来的电泳法、电动电位法、透明质酸结合法、膜联蛋白V选择法、形态选择性单精子注射技术(IMSI)和微流控芯片法的技术原理,除微流控芯片法外其它技术均已应用于IVF或ICSI治疗中,同时对各种技术的优缺点和应用效果等方面做一综述.%Sperm selection plays an important role in assisted reproductive technology. In recent years, sperm evaluation is not limited to the assessment of sperm motility and morphology, but involves more other sperm characteristics such as sperm infrastructure, DNA integrity, apoptosis and membrane. Assessment based on these characteristics is becoming the aim of sperm selection. This article gives an overview on several newly developed techniques for sperm selection according to different technical principles, such as electrophoretic separation, zeta potential, HA binding, Annexin V binding, intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) and microfluidic sperm sorter, which have all been applied to IVF or ICSI with the exception of microfluidic sperm sorter. It also introduces the advantages, disadvantages and application effects of these techniques.

  7. Transnational connections of health professionals: medicoscapes and assisted reproduction in Ghana and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörbst, V.; Gerrits, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Based on our comparative fieldwork in two private fertility clinics in Accra (Ghana) and Kampala (Uganda), we explore the transnational mobility of providers involved in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and analyze how resulting transnational networks influence the realization a

  8. Assisted reproductive technology treatment outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naasan, M

    2012-05-01

    Information on the outcomes of ART treatments in Ireland is not readily available to Irish practitioners. The data for hospital affiliated clinics has been made available for many years and is included in the hospital reports. We present a 10-year analysis of the Irish ART results voluntarily reported by six out of seven IVF clinics. The data was collected from published ESHRE reports and from results (2007-8) not yet published. Data collected included: number of clinics and ART cycles, female age, clinical and multiple pregnancy rates and treatment complications. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 31.7% for IVF and 29.8% for ICSI. The proportion of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries for IVF and ICSI combined was 75%, 23.35% and 1.64%. The rate of ovarian hyperstimulation was 0.8%. ART practice in Ireland is safe, effective and responsible. Financial and societal savings could result from the introduction of state funded IVF with compulsory eSET where recommended.

  9. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Surveillance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 1992, Congress enacted the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act (FCSRCA). The act requires CDC to collect data from clinics and submit an annual...

  10. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2012-01-01

    Jäderberg I, Thomsen SF, Kyvik KO, Skytthe A, Backer V. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 140-145. We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted...... reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression...

  11. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter; Bungum, Leif

    2014-01-01

    It is well-documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conflicting regarding the influence of male body mass index (BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology...

  12. Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Nanette; Sierra, Sony

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Analyser l’effet du recours à la procréation assistée (PA) sur les issues périnatales, identifier les aspects propres aux issues de naissance et à la PA qui nécessitent des recherches approfondies, et fournir des lignes directrices permettant l’optimisation de la prise en charge obstétricale et du counseling des parents potentiels canadiens. Issues : Le présent document compare les issues périnatales constatées dans le cadre de différents types de grossesse attribuable à la PA les unes aux autres, ainsi qu’à celles qui sont constatées dans le cadre des grossesses conçues de façon spontanée. Les cliniciens seront mieux renseignés au sujet des issues indésirables associées à la PA qui ont été documentées, y compris les complications obstétricales, les issues périnatales indésirables, les gestations multiples, les anomalies congénitales structurelles, les anomalies chromosomiques et les troubles de l’empreinte génomique. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans MEDLINE et The Cochrane Library entre janvier 2005 et décembre 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« assisted reproduction », « assisted reproductive technology », « ovulation induction », « intracytoplasmic sperm injection », « embryo transfer » et « in vitro fertilization »). Les résultats n’ont pas été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles; les études (tous devis confondus) publiées en anglais entre janvier 2005 et décembre 2012 ont été analysées, et des publications additionnelles ont été identifiées à partir des bibliographies de ces études. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en août 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a

  13. Full in vitro fertilization laboratory mechanization: toward robotic assisted reproduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meseguer, Marcos; Krühne, Ulrich; Laursen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the current efforts made to standardize different steps of assisted reproductive technology processes by the introduction of new technologies for the nonsubjective sperm selection process, oocyte denudation by mechanical removal of cumulus cells, oocyte positioning, sperm...... motility screening, fertilization, embryo culture, media replacement by microfluidics, and monitoring of embryo development by time-lapse photography, embryo secretions, and/or O2 consumption. These technologies could be integrated in a unique and fully automated device. Design: Pubmed database...... and research and development data from authors. Setting: University-affiliated private center. Patient(s): None. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measurement(s): None. Result(s): Several technologies would be useful for: 1) selection of sperm based on viability; 2) manipulation and removal of the cumulus...

  14. Misconduct in third-party assisted reproduction: a committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Physicians who are told or discover information that would be material to another party's participation in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) arrangement (such as lawyer's, donor's, gestational carrier's, or intended parent's) should encourage disclosure to that party. In some instances, it is ethically and legally permissive for the physician to either disclose material information to an affected party or to transfer care of a patient to another willing provider. In all cases involving the legal status or rights of the parties, referral to legal professionals is advised.

  15. 21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction catheters. 884.6110 Section 884.6110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6160 - Assisted reproduction labware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction labware. 884.6160 Section 884.6160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section 884.6120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  18. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section 884.6100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  19. 21 CFR 884.6200 - Assisted reproduction laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction laser system. 884.6200 Section 884.6200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  20. 21 CFR 884.6130 - Assisted reproduction microtools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction microtools. 884.6130 Section 884.6130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  1. Do assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies require additional antenatal care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, E; Ben-Ami, I; Maymon, R

    2013-02-01

    Iatrogenic twinning has become the main side-effect assisted reproduction treatment. We have evaluated the evidence for additional care that assisted-reproduction twins may require compared with spontaneous twins. Misacarriages are increased in women with tubal problems and after specific treatments. Assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies complicated by a vanishing twin after 8 weeks have an increased risk of preterm delivery and of low and very low birthweight compared with singleton assisted-reproduction pregnancies. Monozygotic twin pregnancies occur at a higher rate after assisted reproduction treatment and are associated with a higher risk of perinatal complications. The incidence of placenta praevia and vasa praevia is increased in assisted-reproduction twin pregnancies. Large cohort studies do not indicate a higher rate of fetal congenital malformations in assisted-reproduction twins. Overall, assisted-reproduction twins in healthy women assisted-reproduction twins is only increased in women with a pre-existing medical condition such as hypertensive disorders and diabetes and most of these risks can be avoided with single-embryo transfer. Following the birth of the first IVF baby, rumours started to spread in both the medical literature and the media about the long-term health effects for children born following assisted reproduction treatment. However, after more than 30 years, the most common complications associated with IVF treatment remain indirect and technical such as the failure of treatment and ovarian hyperstimulation. Iatrogenic twinning has become the main side-effect of assisted reproduction treatment and the increasing number of twin pregnancies, in particular in older women, has generated numerous debates on the need for additional healthcare provision. In this review, we have evaluated the evidence for additional care that assisted-conception twin pregnancies may require compared with spontaneous twin pregnancies. Twin pregnancies are

  2. 妇科恶性肿瘤治疗后辅助生育技术的应用问题%Application of assisted reproductive technology after treatment of gynecological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梅; 陈子江

    2013-01-01

    妇科恶性肿瘤治疗后的患者,应及时综合评估以卵巢储备功能为代表的各项生育功能,对其中的不孕患者可以实施促排卵、人工授精、体外受精-胚胎移植等辅助生殖技术,目前认为是安全可行的.%After treatment of gynecological malignant tumor,patients who have fertility requirement should be timely and comprehensive evaluate the reproductive function, among which the ovarian reserve function is the most important. Assisted reproductive technologies such as ovulate induction , artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer are safe for infertility women.

  3. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  4. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  5. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  6. Assistive Technology and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Joseph P.; Beard, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Educators and caregivers now have the opportunity to individualize and differentiate instructions with many technological devices never before available. Assistive Technology is being introduced in the classroom at all levels as a tool for teachers to help deliver instruction to all students. Assistive Technology is widely used to ensure…

  7. Psychological conditions of pregnant women received assisted reproductive technology%辅助生殖技术妊娠妇女心理健康状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵丽华; 张小建; 曹学华; 罗宏; 马静; 刘朗; 代玲

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨辅助生殖技术(ART)妊娠妇女心理健康状况,为ART妊娠妇女心理护理提供理论依据.方法:采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)中国修订版进行问卷调查,选择2009年6月至2010年6月在我院生殖中心接受ART的妊娠妇女110例作为研究对象,分孕早期、孕中期、孕晚期三次进行问卷调查,并与在我院产科门诊做系统保健的110例自然妊娠妇女作对照分析.结果:妊娠早期ART妊娠妇女的焦虑因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.189,P<0.05);妊娠晚期ART妊娠妇女的焦虑因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.219,P<0.01);妊娠早期ART妊娠妇女抑郁因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.176,P<0.05);妊娠晚期ART妊娠妇女抑郁因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.183,P<0.01).结论:ART妊娠妇女心理健康明显低于自然妊娠妇女,加强对ART妊娠妇女心理干预势在必行.%Objective: To explore the psychological conditions of the pregnant woman received assisted reproductive technology (ART) which can provide reference for clinical care. Methods: Chinese revised version of Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) was used in this survey. A total of 110 cases of pregnancy who received ART from June 2009 to June 2010 in our hospital enrolled in this study. The other 110 cases of natural pregnancy were selected as comparative group. All of them had been investigated three times when they were in the time of early pregnancy, mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy. Results: In early pregnancy and late pregnancy, the anxiety factor scores of the pregnant woman received ART in both early and late stage of pregnancy were significantly higher than the natural pregnant women (t=2.189, P<0.05 and t=2.219, P<0.01). Meanwhile, the depression factor scores in both early and late stage of pregnant women after ART were higher than the natural pregnancy women (t=2.176, P<0.05 and (=2.183, P<0.01)Conclusion: Mental health of pregnant women received ART was significantly

  8. 325例辅助受孕子代的出生情况%Neonatal outcomes of 325 neonates conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩; 邹小英; 周细中; 张清学; 王斌; 李宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the neonatal outcomes between infants of assisted conception (AC) and natural conception (NC). Methods A prospective case-control study was conducted.Eligible mothers were invited to this study at 28 weeks of gestation and were followed up to delivery.All newborns were examined by pediatricians right after birth.Data including gestational age,birth weight,admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU),and presence of any major malformation were collected.Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13.0.Difference between two groups was compared by x2 test. Results Six hundred and seventy-three newborns were enrolled into this study,including 325 in AC group and 348 in NC group.There were no differences between the demographic characteristics of the two groups,including maternal age,parents' education,family income and proportion of primipara (P>0.05).The incidences of twins (32.62% vs 3.45%,x2 =98.88),preterm birth (30.46% vs 7.76%,x2=56.92),low birth weight infant (32.31% vs 8.91%,x2 =57.07)and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (27.38% vs 8.91%,x2 =39.16) and proportion of cesarean birth (62.77% vs 21.55%,x2=117.64) in AC group were significantly higher than in NC group (all P<0.01),except for the incidence of birth defect (4.62% vs 2.59%,x2=2.01,P> 0.05).However,no significant differences was found in the above items when only singletons were compared between the two groups (P>0.05),except for the cesarean section rate (61.18% vs 22.03%,x2 =100.93,P<0.01).There were no difference in any of the above neonatal outcomes when different assisted reproductive technologies applied were compared (in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer,intracytoplasmic sperm injection and frozen embryo transfer) (P>0.05). Conclusions Neonatal outcome after assisted conception is a bit worse than natural conception,which might mainly due to the large proportion of multiple pregnancy after assisted conception.In order

  9. Banning reproductive travel: Turkey's ART legislation and third-party assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtin, Zeynep B

    2011-11-01

    In March 2010, Turkey became the first country to legislate against the cross-border travel of its citizens seeking third-party reproductive assistance. Although the use of donor eggs, donor spermatozoa and surrogacy had been illegal in Turkey since the introduction of a regulatory framework for assisted reproductive treatment in 1987, men and women were free to access these treatments in other jurisdictions. In some cases, such travel for cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) was even facilitated by sophisticated arrangements between IVF clinics in Turkey and in other countries, particularly in Cyprus. However, new amendments to Turkey's assisted reproduction legislation specifically forbid travel for the purposes of third-party assisted reproduction. This article outlines the cultural context of assisted reproductive treatment in Turkey; details the Turkish assisted reproduction legislation, particularly as it pertains to third-party reproductive assistance; explores Turkish attitudes towards donor gametes and surrogacy; assesses the existence and extent of CBRC prior to March 2010; and discusses some of the legal, ethical and practical implications of the new legislation. As CBRC becomes an increasingly pertinent issue, eliciting debate and discussion at both national and international levels, it is important to carefully consider the particular circumstances and potential consequences of this unique example.

  10. Cryopreservation of Oocytes and Embryos in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konc J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation has become an integral component of assisted reproductive technology. The ability to cryopreserve, thaw, and establish pregnancies with supernumerary preimplantation embryos has become an important tool in fertility treatment. Human oocyte cryopreservation has practical application in preserving fertility for individuals prior to cancer treatments. While the efficiency of oocyte and embryo freezing technology has increased over time, there is still room for improvement, since even under ideal circumstances the clinical pregnancy rate from frozen embryo transfer is approximately two-thirds of that from the fresh transfer of embryos. Thus, studies connected with cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos are very important to the expansion of effective clinical services. This review gives a summary of the theoretical and technical aspects of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation.

  11. The Shift in Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasak, Erin; Ranaldo, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that executive functioning deficits are a common area of concern for students and young adults with a variety of different intellectual disabilities. Assistive technology can be invaluable in aiding students and young adults in compensating for these deficits. The Assistive Technology Act of 1998, and the IDEA…

  12. The devil we know: the implications of bill C-38 for assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Alana; Cohen, Sara R

    2013-07-01

    In June 2012, the Canadian House of Commons passed the so-called omnibus budget bill, making several important changes to the governance of assisted reproduction in Canada. The bill (Bill C-38) was widely criticized for its unwieldy size and rapid passage through Parliament, preventing adequate parliamentary debate and public scrutiny. Given the substantive nature of the amendments to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act made by Bill C-38, and the lack of relevant discussion about these changes both before and following its passage, this commentary is intended to identify how Bill C-38 may alter the governance of reproductive technologies in Canada. In this commentary, we address some of the more significant changes made by Bill C-38 to the regulation of reproductive medicine in Canada. We identify the benefits and challenges of closing Assisted Human Reproduction Canada, noting that doing so eliminates a much-needed forum for stakeholder consultation in this field. Further, we explore the implications of moving the regulation of donor semen from the Food and Drugs Act to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act; these include increased liability for physicians, and opportunities to expand the existing regulations to account for the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer Canadians using donor gametes and recent advances in reproductive technologies. Overall, we argue that although the implementation of a policy framework in this field remains highly dependent on yet-to-be written regulations, the changes to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act enabled by Bill C-38 may significantly alter how Canadians interact with reproductive technologies.

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life and Primi-Gravid: A Comparative Study of Natural Conception and Conception by Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ARTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI, total calorie intake and physical activity (PA as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS in follicular fluid (FF. Materials and Methods: This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. Results: There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001. The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03 and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02. MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Conclusion: Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  14. Steroids pretreatment in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, V; Streda, R; Mardesic, T; Tosner, J; Heracek, J

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to present an overview of trials and appreciate the relevant data on the effect of steroids pretreatment (oral contraceptives, 17β-estradiol and estradiol valerate) in assisted reproduction cycles. The subject of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics during steroids pretreatment cycles focused on the prevention of ovarian cysts, the positive contraceptive effect on the onset of regular period during long gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist protocol. In gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist protocol the review is interested in supporting ovarian stimulation in low responders, the idea of cycle scheduling and improving treatment outcomes. The method is a review from MEDLINE/Pubmed database between 1994 and July 2012. We identified 15 randomised controlled trials (n=3069 patients). One trail (n=83 patients) assessed GnRH agonist protocol with or without steroids pretreatment, 8 trials (n=1884 patients) assessed GnRH antagonist protocols with or without steroids pretreatment and 6 trials (n=1102 patients) assessed GnRH antagonist protocols versus agonist ones with steroid pretreatment. Data demonstrates that oral contraceptives offer the effective prevention of functional ovarian cysts, the predictable onset of period during desensitisation. Existing data suggest that pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills or estradiol valerate give no advantage concerning number of oocytes or pregnancy rate. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills aiming to avoid weekend oocytes retrievals has to be more elucidated. In low responders oral contraceptive pill pretreatment may be beneficial in improving ovarian responses by reducing the amount of gonadotropins and the number of days required for ovarian stimulation. Current research indicates that also 17β-estradiol may be encouraging pretreatment in low responders and in cycle scheduling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'.

  15. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-03-01

    We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0.773 respectively) compared with children born after spontaneous conception. Assisted reproduction did not modify the heritability of atopic diseases. This study does not support an association between assisted reproduction and development of atopic diseases. This result must be confirmed in subsequent studies, preferably of singleton populations.

  16. 辅助生殖技术对子代远期预后的影响%Impact of assisted reproductive technology on the long-term prognosis of offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程秀永

    2014-01-01

    随着人类辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)的快速发展和普及,ART出生儿童在社会总人口中的比重不断增大.虽然多数ART子代安全性的研究显示令人乐观的结果,但部分研究结果的不一致性甚至较大的争议仍令人担忧.ART对子代围生期结局、出生缺陷、生长发育、神经预后及印记疾病的风险仍然存在.因此,对ART儿童进行持续长期随访以评估其对子代远期预后的影响尤为重要.%With the rapid development of assisted reproductive technique (ART),children conceived through ART represent a substantial proportion of the population.Although most researchesonthe safety of A RT offspring are optimistically,it is still worrisome that there are some inconsistent even controversial results.The risk of ARToffspringin perinatal outcomes,birth defects,growth and development,neurological prognosis and imprinting disorders still exist.Therefore,the persistent long-term follow-up of ART children to assess its impact on the long-term prognosis of offspring is particularly important.

  17. 辅助生殖技术中锌抑制精子氧化损伤作用%Zinc protects sperm from being damaged by reactive oxygen species in assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芦地; 吴金香; 王正尧; 谢远志

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨辅助生殖技术中锌对精子损伤的保护作用。方法以辅助生殖技术中常用的密度梯度离心法优选后的精子为研究对象,以过氧化氢为损伤刺激物,应用国联精子检测系统、光学显微镜以及精子DNA碎片分析试剂盒的方法比较精子的活力与存活率,精子质膜完整性以及精子DNA碎片形成,从而分析锌抑制过氧化氢对精子的损伤作用。结果过氧化氢刺激后精子的活动力与存活率差,精子质膜完整性破坏,大量精子DNA损伤,而锌能明显保护精子的损伤作用。结论精子损伤与氧化刺激密切相关,在辅助生殖技术中锌可抑制精子的损伤作用。%Objective To explore the protective action of zinc insperm damage during assisted reproductive technology.Methods Preferring the sperm samples which were selected by density gradient centrifugation in assisted reproductive technology were used for the study. Uder stimulation of hydrogen peroxide, sperm motility, viability, sperm membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation were detected by Goodline sperm detection system, optical microscopy and sperm DNA fragmentation assay kit respectively, and the effect of Zinc on sperm damage from hydrogen peroxide was evaluated.Results The motility and vitality of sperms were decreased, the membrane integrity was destroyed and lots of sperm DNA were damaged under hydrogen peroxide stimulation. However, Zinc could protect sperm from damage obviously.Conclusion Sperm injury is closely associated with oxidative stimulation. Zinc could induce sperm damage in assisted reproductive technology.

  18. Assistive technology for disabled clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, A F

    1998-01-01

    Numerous resources exist for consumers who wish to explore the benefits of assistive technology. Consumers can tap into the knowledge base of rehabilitation technology suppliers, therapists, and physicians, and follow a step-by-step process to use new technologies to improve their daily lives.

  19. Hispanics' Awareness of Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Alberto; Ostrander, Noam

    2009-01-01

    This study compared Hispanics' awareness of services available to acquire assistive technology and whether they actually sought help to the findings from a national sample. The study assists the field by providing information on a group largely ignored in the literature. The authors sought to answer the following research questions: Are there…

  20. Exploration on the Ethical Principles of Follow-up Work of Assisted Reproductive Technology%辅助生殖技术随访工作中的伦理原则探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建伟; 刘艺

    2014-01-01

    随着人类辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology ,ART )的发展,术后进行的定期随访工作在 ART 中的伦理学问题不断凸显,有必要对其重视及规范。从伦理原则角度探讨了 ART 随访工作中存在的诸多伦理学问题,即个人隐私权保护的缺失、知情同意的形式化、医源性多胎的伦理困境等。保密互盲、知情同意、保护患者、保护后代等伦理原则监督和规范ART近期及远期随访工作,对于引导人类辅助生殖技术健康发展,具有重大现实意义。%With the development of human assisted reproductive technology (ART ) ,the ethical issues of regulating follow-up work of ART become more and more obvious .This paper discussed the common ethical issues in the follow-up work of ART from the view of ethical principles ,such as the lack of protection of personal privacy ,formalization of the principle of informed consent ,the ethical dilemma of iatrogenic multiple births and so forth .The principles of confidentiality and double-blind ,informed consent ,protection of patient’s and future generations’ rights ,supervision and regulation of short and long term follow-up work are of great practical importance to guiding the healthy development .

  1. 325例辅助受孕儿24月龄时精神运动发育水平研究%Psychomotor development at 24 months old in 325 children conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩; 潘琼; 邹小英; 周细中; 张清学; 李宏

    2012-01-01

    [目的] 通过研究辅助受孕儿24月龄时的精神运动发育水平,以评价辅助生殖技术的安全性. [方法] 采用前瞻性对照研究方法,实验组为人工辅助受孕妊娠儿,对照组为自然受孕妊娠儿,将两组人群在母亲年龄、产次、家庭社会阶层、双亲受教育程度等几个方面进行配对,均自母亲孕28周起入组登记定期随访收集相关资料并由经过培训的指定专业人员采用CDCC婴幼儿发育量表定期对其行精神运动发育评估至24月龄,获得智力发育指数及运动发育指数.[结果] 辅助受孕儿童至24月龄时其精神运动发育水平与自然受孕儿童相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). [结论]辅助受孕儿童24月龄时的精神运动发育水平正常,初步证明我国目前的辅助生殖技术是安全的.%[Objective] To compare the psychomotor development at 24 months old in children born after assisted conception with a control group of children conceived naturally. [Methods] A mached control study was performed on the psychomotor development of 24 months old in children conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology. The control group was matched according to maternal age,parity,social class and level of maternal education. The suitable mothers were invited to participate at 28 weeks of gestation and were followed up to delivery. The children of two groups were followed up to 24 months old and a formal developmental assessment was done with the CDCC Scales of Children Development. [Result] No statistically significant differences were found in the mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) between study and control groups, as asssessed by the CDCC Scales. (Conclusion] The level of psychomotor development at 24 months old in children born after assisted conception was normal. So the assisted reproductive technology is safety in china.

  2. The Efficacy of Assisted Reproduction in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Impact of Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, S; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Fedder, Jens;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we analyze the chance of a live birth and the impact of inflammatory bowel disease surgery in women with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This is a nationwide cohort study base...

  3. Pregnancy following breast cancer using assisted reproduction and its effect on long-term outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldrat, Oranite; Kroman, Niels; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We have previously shown that pregnancy is safe following breast cancer, even in endocrine sensitive disease. Yet infertility remains common following systemic treatment. To date, no study has evaluated the safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) after breast cancer...

  4. Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... easier for a caregiver to care for a disabled person. The term “rehabilitative technology” is sometimes used to refer to aids used ... technology Adaptive devices or equipment Assistive devices and technology Communication aids Independent ... NICHD Research Advances of 2016 Getting to Know the New NICHD Director NIH to host scientific workshop on ...

  5. Lifestyle-related factors and access to medically assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, W; de Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P

    2010-03-01

    Lifestyle is increasingly recognized as an outcome-determining factor in assisted reproduction, not only with regard to the cost-effectiveness but also in view of the balance of benefits and risks, including risks related to the welfare of the future child. This document briefly summarizes the evidence concerning the impact of three lifestyle-related factors (obesity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) on both natural and assisted reproduction (IVF) and discusses the implications of this for the practice of medically assisted reproduction in the light of relevant ethical principles. The central question is whether and to what extent fertility treatment of obese, smoking or drinking patients should be made conditional on prior lifestyle changes.

  6. 34 CFR 300.105 - Assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistive technology. 300.105 Section 300.105 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.105 Assistive technology. (a) Each public agency must ensure that assistive technology devices or assistive technology services, or both, as those...

  7. Maternal and neonatal health outcomes following assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, A; Reichman, B; Boyko, V; Hourvitz, A; Ron-El, R; Lerner-Geva, L

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the risk for maternal complications in women and neonatal outcomes in children conceived following assisted reproductive treatment as compared with spontaneously conception and also separately evaluated conventional IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The prospective cohort included 1161 women with singleton pregnancies: 561 who conceived following assisted reproduction (223 following IVF and 338 following ICSI) and 600 who conceived spontaneously. No differences were observed in pregnancy complications (including spontaneous abortion, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes and Caesarean delivery) except for significantly increased risk for excess vaginal bleeding in assisted reproduction pregnancies (21.4% versus 12.9%; OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.37), which was prominent in women who reported polycystic ovary syndrome. Neonates born following assisted reproduction had increased risk for prematurity (10.6% versus 5.3%; OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.87), and IVF, but not ICSI, was associated with significantly increased risk for prematurity (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.28-4.37) and low birthweight (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.46). In conclusion, this study observed only an increased risk for excess vaginal bleeding as a pregnancy-associated complication in singleton pregnancies following assisted compared with spontaneous conception. However, singleton neonates born following IVF, but not ICSI, were at increased risk for prematurity.

  8. 辅助生育中子宫内膜异位症与前置胎盘的相关性%The correlation between endometriosis and placenta previa in assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅秀娟; 周勇; 金杭美

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate placenta previa associated with endometriosis in assisted reproduc-tive technology.Methods: Consecutive 2 060 pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology were recruited between 2008 and 2012 in Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The risk of pla-centa previa after assisted fertilization was analyzed. Relation of nine variables was examined, i.e. maternal age, BMI, gravidity, parity, previous abortion, previous cesarean delivery, endometriosis, ovulatory disorder, and male infertility, to placenta previa by logistic regression analysis. The correlation between endometriosis severity with placenta previa was analyzed by the nonparametric test of Spearman correlation analysis.Results: In 110 women with placenta previa, there were 69 cases complicated with endometriosis. We found that endometriosis (odds ratio=19.7; 95% CI=0.5-300.6) were signiifcantly associated with placenta previa. Endometriosis was more seri-ous more prone to placenta previa (the Kendall correlation coefifcient is 0.274, Spearman correlation coefifcient is 0.281, allP<0.001).Conclusion: Our ifndings suggest that endometriosis is associated with an increased risk of placenta previa in assisted reproductive technology. The higher degree of endometriosis, the more possible of placenta previa.%目的:探讨在辅助生育中子宫内膜异位症和前置胎盘的相关性。方法:回顾性分析2008年1月至2012年12月在浙江大学附属妇产科医院接受辅助生殖技术病例,根据纳入标准其中胚胎移植成功且并在单胎28周后分娩者有2060例,有110例发生了前置胎盘。回顾病史分析孕妇年龄、体质量指数、孕次、产次、流产次数、剖宫产史、子宫内膜异位症、排卵障碍、男性不孕等9个指标,分析它们与前置胎盘的相关性。同时对子宫内膜异位症分型与前置胎盘的相关性做进一步研究。结果:2060例观察资料中子宫内

  9. Assisted hatching in assisted reproduction: a state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadeh, Mohamad Eid; Fischer-Hammadeh, Constanze; Ali, Khaled Refaat

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that one in six couples experience some delay in conception and an increasing number require treatment by the assisted conception (AC) procedures of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).The implantation rate of embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization cycles is generally less than 20%. The exposure of oocytes and embryos to the artificial conditions of in vitro culture may have negative effects on the embryo's ability to undergo normal hatching, resulting in low rates of implantation following IVF and embryo transfer. Human embryos resulting from superovulation develop more slowly in vitro compared to embryos in vivo, manifest a relatively high degree of cytogenetic abnormalities and undergo cellular fragmentation. Artificially disrupting the zona pellucida is known as assisted hatching (AH) and there is some evidence that embryos that have undergone zona manipulation for assisted hatching tend to implant one day earlier than unhatched embryos. A variety of techniques have since been employed to assist embryo hatching, including partial mechanical zona dissection, zona drilling and zona thinning, making use of acid tyrodes, proteinases, piezon vibrator manipulators and lasers. This review will consider the impact of IVF conditions on zona pellucida physiology, zona hardening, different techniques of assisted hatching, who may benefit from assisted hatching and potential hazards.

  10. Influence of Paternal Age on Assisted Reproduction Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    We Will Retrospectively Assess Our Databases in Our Clinic:; Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Valencia (Spain); Searching for Assisted Reproduction Procedures; (IUI, Standard IVF/ICSI Cycles and Ovum Donation IVF/ICSI Cycles); Who Were Referred to Our Unit to Cryopreserve Sperm During the Period; From January 2000 to December 2006.

  11. Male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Pedro, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    to infertility and related treatments. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The main research questions addressed in this review were 'Does male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction (MAR) treatment vary over time?' and 'Which psychosocial variables act as protective or risk factors...

  12. Build an Assistive Technology Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) by its very nature consists of a variety of personal and customized tools for multiple learning styles and physical challenges. The author not only encourages students, parents, and educators to advocate for AT services, she also wants them to go a step further and build their own AT toolkits that can instill independence…

  13. Perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies among cases of spontaneous conception and assisted reproduction technology%自然妊娠和辅助生育技术妊娠双胎的母婴围产期预后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蔚琳; 宋英娜; 刘俊涛; 高劲松

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the perinatal and neonatal outcomes of assisted reproduction technology (ART) twin pregnancies and those of spontaneously conceived twin pregnancies (SC). Methods The medical files of ART and naturally conceived twin pregnancies were studied retrospectively.Data concerning maternal characteristics, obstetric complications and neonatal outcomes were recorded and compared. Results Mean maternal age was higher in ART group than in SC group [ (34.23±4. 13) ys vs (32. 02±4. 45) ys, P<0. 05)]. No significant differences were found in obstetric complication between the two groups. The mean gestational age and the incidence of neonatal infection were lower in ART group [ (251.87±15. 16) days,3. 7%] than in SC group [ (256. 04±12. 26) d, 9.4%] (P<0. 05). Conclusion The obstetric complications and neonatal outcomes have no significant differences in ART twin pregnancies and naturally conceived twin pregnancies.%目的 比较自然妊娠和辅助牛育技术(assisted reproduction technology,ART)妊娠双胎的母婴围产期预后.方法 选择北京协和医院定期随诊并分娩的双胎211例,其中自然妊娠142例,ART妊娠69例,回顾性分析两组孕妇一般情况、围产期并发症、分娩情况及新生儿并发症.结果 ①ART组孕妇年龄[(34.23±4.13)岁]大于自然妊娠组孕妇[(32.02±4.45)岁],P<0.05.两组孕妇围产期并发症的发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);②ART组新生儿平均孕龄小于自然妊娠组,(251.87±15.16)d比(256.04±12.26)d,且新牛儿感染发牛率低,5(3.7%)比26(9.4%),P<0.05.结论 与自然妊娠双胎相比,ART双胎妊娠不增加孕妇围产期并发症的风险,而且新生儿健康状态与自然妊娠双胎相当.

  14. 辅助生殖技术精子表观遗传质量评价的必要性%Necessity to evaluate epigenetic quality of the sperm for assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛少钦; 李文艳; 王燕; 张丽娜; 张玉华

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART). with directly dealing and optimizing the so-called qualified sperm, can be applied to treat male infertility patients with oligospermia, asthenospermia, teratospermia, azoospermia and failure of the common in vitro fertilization (IVF), which disobeying the biological laws of natural insemination, resulting in high epigenetic risk for patients owing to epigenetic defect of sperm. And optimization of highly qualified sperm is one of the methods to reduce the genetic and epigenetic risk of ART. By reviewing the epigenetic defects of ART sperm, as well as related diseases, this peper aims at understanding the mechanism of the risks resulting from the epigenetic defects of ART sperm and further shows that the qualification control of ART sperm via detecting its epigenetic factors, such as methylated DNA, acetylated histone and methylated histone, is essential for reducing the epigenetic risk from ART.%辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)可通过直接操作、优化单个精子,用于男性少精,弱精、精子畸形,无精子和常规体外受精周期失败等,因违背自然受精的生物学法则而具有很大的遗传风险,其中精子质量优化是降低ART遗传与表现遗传风险的重要手段之一.本文对ART精子表观遗传缺陷及其相关疾病进行综述,以进一步认识精子表现遗传缺陷导致后代表观遗传风险增加的分子机理,阐明ART精子有待于通过DNA甲基化、组蛋白乙酰化、组蛋白甲基化等表观遗传因子进行严格质量控制,切实降低ART遗传及表现遗传缺陷风险的必要性.

  15. Assistive Technology and Affective Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Garay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of attention towards affective communication in assistive technology and disability research can be potentially overcome thanks to the development of affective computing and affective mediation areas. This document describes the main impairments and disorders that may involve affective communication deficits. We also present several affective mediation technologies that are being applied or may be integrated in assistive technologies in order to improve affective communication for a range of disabilities. Finally, we describe our experience with Gestele, an application that incorporates multimodal elements of affective mediation for people with mobility impairments, as well as the results of an empirical study conducted to evaluate the application’s validity in communication via telephone.

  16. Assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Streich, Wj; Hildebrandt, Tb

    2007-09-01

    Over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. Recent surveys estimate the wild Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. For the five rhinoceros species, black (Diceros bicornis), white (Ceratotherium simum), Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis), Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus Sumatrensis), the population estimates of 3610, 11 330, 2400, 60 and 300, respectively, are of even greater concern. Protected against habitat loss, poaching and left undisturbed, rhinoceros and elephants reproduce well in the wild. But small and decreasing populations make successful captive management of these taxa increasingly important. In captivity, however, most populations face possible 'extinction' because of historically poor reproductive performance. From the first descriptions of the reproductive anatomy and the oestrous cycle (Laws 1969; Kassam and Lasley 1981; Balke et al. 1988a,b; Plotka et al. 1988; Godfrey et al. 1991) to the present use of advanced assisted reproduction technologies, researchers have strive to understand the function and dysfunction of the reproductive biology of these charismatic species. This paper reviewed the current knowledge on rhinoceros and elephant reproduction biology, reproductive cycle, gestation, dystocia, reproductive pathology, oestrous induction and artificial insemination, sperm sexing, IVF and contraception, and how this knowledge is or might be used to aid species conservation for maximal reproductive efficiency and enhancement of genetic management.

  17. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6170 Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems. (a) Identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction water and water...

  18. Toward a gender-sensitive assisted reproduction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchin, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The recent case of the UK woman who lost her legal struggle to be impregnated with her own frozen embryos, raises critical issues about the meaning of reproductive autonomy and the scope of regulatory practices. I revisit this case within the context of contemporary debate about the moral and legal dimensions of assisted reproduction. I argue that the gender neutral context that frames discussion of regulatory practices is unjust unless it gives appropriate consideration to the different positions women and men occupy in relation to reproductive processes and their options for autonomous choice. First, I consider relevant legal rulings, media debate, and scholarly commentary. Then I discuss the concept of reproductive autonomy imbedded in this debate. I argue that this concept conflates informed consent and reproductive autonomy, thereby providing an excessively narrow reading of autonomy that fails to give due regard to relations among individuals or the social, political and economic environment that shapes their options. I contrast this notion of autonomy with feminist formulations that seek to preserve respect for the agency of individuals without severing them from the conditions of their embodiment, their surrounding social relationships, or the political contexts that shape their options. Taking these considerations into account I weigh the advantages of regulation over the commercial market arrangement that prevails in some countries and suggest general guidelines for a regulatory policy that would more equitably resolve conflicting claims to reproductive autonomy.

  19. Discontinuation Decision in Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are recognizedas established and increasingly successful forms of treatment for infertility, yet significant numbersof couples discontinue treatment without achieving a live birth. This study aims to identify majorfactors that influence the decision to discontinue IVF/ICSI treatments.Materials and Methods: We studied the data of 338 couples who discontinued their infertilitytreatments after three cycles; based on medical records and phone contact. The main measure wasthe reason for stopping their treatments.Results: Economical problems were cited by 212 couples (62.7%, as their mean income wassignificantly less than other couples (p<0.0001. Lack of success was reported as a reason by229 (67.8%, from whom 165 (72% also had economical problems. Achieving independent-ART pregnancy was the reason for discontinuation in 20 (5.9% couples. Psychological stress,depression and anxiety were reported as other cessation factors by 169 (50%, 148 (43.8% and 182(53.8% couples, respectively.Conclusion: This survey suggests that the most common reasons for assisted reproductivetechnique (ART discontinuation after three cycles are: prior unsuccessful cycles, economicaland psychological problems. Therefore, the substantial proportion of couples could benefit frompsychological intervention, increasing awareness of ART outcomes and health funding to copemore adequately with failed treatments.

  20. Application of Anti-müllerian Hormone in Assisted Reproductive Technology%抗苗勒管激素在辅助生殖技术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯双苗; 苏迎春; 孙莹璞

    2009-01-01

    研究发现,与传统的预测卵巢储备能力的指标,如卵泡刺激素(follicle stimulating hormone,FSH)、雌二醇(estradiol,E2)、抑制素B(inhibin B,INH B)和基础窦卵泡计数(antral follicle count,AFC)等相比,抗苗勒管激素(anti-Müllerian hormone,AMH)作为评估卵巢储备能力和人类辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)结局的指标,已显示出极大的优越性.有助于指导生殖医生制定合理的促排卵用药方案和预测体外受精-胚胎移植(in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer,IVF-ET)的成功率及其预后.首先论述在人类ART中垂体降调节和控制性超排卵药物对AMH分泌功能的影响,其次比较AMH评估卵巢储备能力和IVF-ET结局的优越性,最后评价AMH在多囊卵巢综合征(polycystin ovarian syndrome,PCOS)患者的特殊应用价值.

  1. Analysis of pregnancy results of singleton pregnancy and twin pregnancy by assisted reproductive technology%辅助生殖技术单胎妊娠和双胎妊娠结局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸蕾; 张丁; 蒲娇

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析辅助生殖技术助孕成功妊娠的单胎妊娠和双胎妊娠妇女的妊娠结局,旨在为患者选择单胚胎或双胚胎移植提供参考。方法对我院通过辅助生殖技术助孕成功的237例单胎妊娠(单胎妊娠组)和126例双胎妊娠(双胎妊娠组)孕妇进行回顾性分析。结果单胎妊娠组平均分娩孕周长于双胎妊娠组(P <0.05);双胎妊娠组早产率、妊娠并发症发生率、妊娠高血压疾病发生率、低体重出生儿发生率均高于单胎妊娠组(P <0.05)。结论与多胎妊娠比较,单胎妊娠能够明显降低孕期并发症的风险,降低早产率和剖宫率。%Objective To provide the advice on choosing singleton embryo transfer or multiple embryo transfer by analyzing the abortion,premature birth,and the mode of production of singleton pregnancy and twin pregnancy by assisted reproductive technolo-gy.Methods The clinical data of two hundred and thirty-seven cases of twin pregnancy (twin pregnancy group)and 126 cases of sin-gle pregnancy (single pregnancy group)by assisted reproductive technology in our hospital were retrospective analyzed.Results In twin pregnancy group,premature delivery rate,pregnancy complications occurrence rate,hypertension of pregnancy rate,low birth weight newborns rate was higher,the average birth gestational age was shorter than in single pregnancy group(P <0.05).Conclusion Com-paring with multiple pregnancy,single pregnancy could reduce the risk of pregnancy complications,the rate of preterm birth rates and cesarean section rate significantly.

  2. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis:A plus for assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziken M; Osaikhuwuomwan J; Osemwenkha A; Iribhogbe O; Orhue A

    2015-01-01

    Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART) was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  3. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis: A plus for assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aziken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  4. The morality of assisted reproduction and genetic manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the pros and cons of various forms of assisted reproduction, including the use of so-called 'genetic manipulation'. He shows how in ethics the only arguments with any chance of reaching a consensus (or at least an agreement are those of the rational type, based on universally acceptable ethical principles or corroborated by empirical facts and real life experience (as the starting point for identifying problems requiring analysis. After an analysis in which he identifies the incoherence and inconsistency of arguments against assisted reproduction, the author defends the right of human beings to decide autonomously about the most healthy forms of procreation, including those involving genetic manipulation. His starting point is the moral principle by which it is morally preferable to intervene in natural processes (as opposed to not intervening whenever this implies preventing and reducing disease and suffering

  5. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  6. Validity and security of assisted reproductive technology%辅助生殖技术的有效性和安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓明

    2012-01-01

    体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)技术是不孕症治疗的重大突破,随着卵胞浆内单精子注射、胚胎植入前遗传学诊断等衍生技术的日趋完善和不断突破,IVF-ET已经成为生命科学领域发展最迅猛的技术之一;但目前IVF-ET的周期妊娠率仍徘徊于40%左右.如何提高IVF的成功率是值得深思的问题;同时,卵巢过度刺激综合征、多胎妊娠等并发症的发生也是临床医师需要时刻注意的问题.IVF应遵循简单、经济、有效的原则,在提高妊娠率的同时,应特别关注对其风险进行评估.%In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) technology is a major breakthrough for the treatment of infertility. Along with the maturation and breakthrough of derivative technologies including intracytoplasmic sperm injection and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, IVF-ET has become one of the fastest-growing technologies in life sciences. However, the cycle pregnancy rate of IVF-ET is still hovering around 40% . How to improve the success rate of IVF is worth pondering. Meanwhile, how to reduce or avoid the occurrence of complications such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple gestation pregnancy is the problem that clinicians need to remain vigilant of. In IVF, the simple, economical and effective principle should be followed, and the risk prevention should be particularly concerned about in the process of improving pregnancy rate.

  7. Assisted Reproduction and the Courts: The Case of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Linda S.; Schmid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze appellate court cases heard in California between 1960 and 2000 that focus on the status of children conceived through reproductive technology in an effort to examine the role of the courts in defining parentage and family in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. In the absence of legislation, the primary…

  8. The Race Idea in Reproductive Technologies: Beyond Epistemic Scientism and Technological Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Camisha

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the limitations of epistemic scientism for understanding the role the concept of race plays in assisted reproductive technology (ART) practices. Two major limitations centre around the desire to use scientific knowledge to bring about social improvement. In the first case, undue focus is placed on debunking the scientific reality of racial categories and characteristics. The alternative to this approach is to focus instead on the way the race idea functions in ART practices. Doing so reveals how the race idea (1) helps to define the reproductive "problems" different groups of women are experiencing and to dictate when and how they should be "helped"; (2) helps to resolve tensions about who should be considered the real parents of children produced by reproductive technologies; and (3) is used to limit ART use where that use threatens to denaturalize the very sociopolitical landscape the race idea has created. In the second case, scientific knowledge regarding reproduction is thought to call for technological control over that reproduction. This leads to an overemphasis on personal responsibility and a depoliticization of racialized social inequalities.

  9. Epigenetic Alterations in Density Selected Human Spermatozoa for Assisted Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan Yu

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates that assisted reproductive technologies (ART may be associated with several epigenetic diseases such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS or Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS. Selection of sperm by density-gradients in ART has improved DNA integrity and sperm quality; however, epigenetic alterations associated with this approach are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated DNA methylation and histone retention profiles in raw sperm and selected sperm derived from the same individual and separated by using density-gradients. Results from a study group consisting of 93 males demonstrated that both global DNA methylation and histone retention levels decreased in density selected sperm. Compared to unselected raw sperm, histone transition rates decreased by an average of 27.2% in selected sperm, and the global methylation rate was 3.8% in unselected sperm and 3.3% in the selected sperm. DNA methylation and histone retention location profiling analyses suggested that these alterations displayed specific location patterns in the human genome. Changes in the pattern of hypomethylation largely occurred in transcriptional factor gene families such as HOX, FOX, and GATA. Histone retention increased in 67 genes, whereas it was significantly clustered in neural development-related gene families, particularly the olfactory sensor gene family. Although a causative relationship could not be established, the results of the present study suggest the possibility that sperm with good density also possess unique epigenetic profiles, particularly for genes involved in neural and olfactory development. As increasing evidence demonstrates that epigenetics plays a key role in embryonic development and offspring growth characteristics, the specific epigenetic alterations we observed in selected sperm may influence the transcriptional process and neural development in embryos.

  10. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Verma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction includes Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation, Sexing of semen and embryos, cloning, transgenesis, stem cell technology, embryo genomics, micro and nanotechnology has been included. Recently in some of these fields remarkable progress has been made. None the less, imperfections are remaining and sustained efforts will be required to optimize existing and invent new technologies. Before referring an animal for an ART, the practitioner should be able to identify the underlying cause of subfertility of that animal. Knowing the complexity as well as the risks of these techniques, enables practitioners to refer a sub-fertile animal to the least complex and most appropriate and successful ART that can overcome specific causes of infertility. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 301-310

  11. Single-arm, observational study of the ease of use of a redesigned pen device to deliver recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin alfa for assisted reproductive technology treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illingworth PJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Illingworth,1 Robert Lahoud,1 Frank Quinn,1 Kendal Chidwick,2 Claire Wilkinson,2 Gavin Sacks1 1IVFAustralia, Greenwich, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Scientific Affairs, Merck Serono Australia Pty Ltd, Frenchs Forest, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Evaluation of patients’ ease of use of the redesigned, disposable, ready-to-use ­follitropin alfa pen during controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology. Methods: This single-center, observational, open-label, single-arm study recruited infertile normo-ovulatory women (aged 18–45 years. Nurses trained patients to self-administer recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone daily using the follitropin alfa pen (300 IU, 450 IU, and 900 IU. Before treatment, patients completed Questionnaire A. Following self-administered treatment, on stimulation days 5–6 and 7–8 (within a day of receiving recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, patients completed Questionnaire B. Nurses completed an ease-of-learning/teaching questionnaire. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients rating the pen as “easy/very easy” to use (Questionnaire B on the final visit before recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin. Secondary endpoints included: proportion of patients rating the follitropin alfa pen as easy to learn, use, prepare, deliver, and dispose of (Questionnaires A and B. Proportions (95% confidence intervals [CIs] were provided for primary and secondary endpoints. Adverse events were reported descriptively. Results: Eighty-six patients received recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone. Of the 72 patients who had completed the overall assessment questions, 66 (91.7%; 95% CI =82.7%–96.9% found the pen “easy” to use. Also, 70/86 (81.4% patients “strongly agreed/agreed” that, overall, it was easy to learn how to use the pen; 72/86 (83.7% “strongly agreed/agreed” that easily understandable, verbal information was provided; and 70/86

  12. Joint reproductive autonomy: does Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd provide for a gender-neutral approach to assisted reproductive rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Assisted reproductive technology encompasses methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. Whilst these methods are more commonly used by couples suffering from problems of infertility, some forms of assistance are employed by fertile couples, for example pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. The overall regulatory framework in the UK is predominantly found in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The usual rules relating to consent and autonomy apply and were discussed in depth in Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd and later in Evans v United Kingdom. This paper considers whether the Evans litigation envisages the possibility of further encouraging joint autonomy in the use of zygotes and whether there is a continuing right to autonomy by the party not bearing the pregnancy.

  13. Assisted reproductive technology in the treatment of male infertility: Potential risks and tactics%男性不育的辅助生殖技术处理:潜在风险与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴继灿

    2011-01-01

    辅助生殖技术是上世纪末出现的治疗男性不育的重要手段,它在男性不育的治疗中有着不可替代的作用,但有关男性不育的辅助生殖技术处理也存在潜在风险,在男性不育的诊疗中如何规避这些潜在风险值得男性生殖健康领域的工作者思考.本文对辅助生殖技术潜在风险进行总结,同时,为提高男性不育的治疗效果,尽量减少辅助生殖技术带来的风险,提出了包括患者的评估、健康教育以及治疗等男性不育规范化处理方面的一些建议,并强调病因处理和抗氧化治疗在男性不育治疗中的重要作用.%Assisted reproductive technology ( ART), developed in the end of last century, has been playing an irreplaceable role in the treatment of male infertility, though it does have its potential risks, including the induction of monozygotic twins, premature delivery, high incidence of birth defects, etc. How to avoid these risks has posed a challenge and demands earnest attention from andrologists. This article summarizes the main potential risks of ART and proposes some tactics concerning patient evaluation, health education and treatment standardization, so as to optimize the outcomes and minimize the risks. Meanwhile, emphasis is placed on the importance of etiological and anti-oxidant strategies in the treatment of male infertility.

  14. An Assistive Technology Design Framework for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Marshall, Paul; Obel, Carsten;

    In this paper, we present a design framework for ADHD assistive technologies that aims to give researchers grounding in the background research on the condition, to provide a lingua franca, and to highlight potential research directions for HCI researchers within assistive technology. The design...... framework couples ADHD patient challenge areas to technological opportunities and it provides a set of practical design strategies for developing successful assistive technologies for people with ADHD. The framework is based on empirical studies, ADHD research, and related work on assistive technologies. We...... map existing assistive technologies and potential new research efforts to the framework concepts. This way we show how it is used to support and advance the research and development of novel assistive technologies for the ADHD domain....

  15. An Assistive Technology Design Framework for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Marshall, Paul; Obel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a design framework for ADHD assistive technologies that aims to give researchers grounding in the background research on the condition, to provide a lingua franca, and to highlight potential research directions for HCI researchers within assistive technology. The design...... framework couples ADHD patient challenge areas to technological opportunities and it provides a set of practical design strategies for developing successful assistive technologies for people with ADHD. The framework is based on empirical studies, ADHD research, and related work on assistive technologies. We...... map existing assistive technologies and potential new research efforts to the framework concepts. This way we show how it is used to support and advance the research and development of novel assistive technologies for the ADHD domain....

  16. Outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Baxi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : There is a continuous controversy regarding the obstetric perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques (ART. There is an ongoing discussion whether theses parameters may show poorer results as compared to spontaneous conception. Aims: To evaluate the outcome of multifetal pregnancies and to compare maternal and neonatal complications between spontaneously conceived and assisted reproductive therapy. Settings and Design : Prospective case-control study. Materials and Methods :In this prospective case-control study of 2-year duration, obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared in 36 ART twin pregnancies (Group A with 138 twins who conceived naturally (Group B. The outcomes were analyzed and used for a comparison between spontaneous and assisted multifetal pregnancies. Statistical Analysis : The continuous variables were analyzed by Student′s t -test and categorical variables were analyzed with Fisher′s exact test. Results : Pregnancy-related complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension, antepartum hemorrhage, were similar in both groups. Incidence of cesarean section, preterm delivery, and hospital stay was significantly more in Group A vs. Group B, P < 0.001. The newborns in the assisted group had more complications than the spontaneous group; most notable were respiratory distress syndrome, newborn intensive care admission, sepsis, and longer hospital stay (4.8 days vs. 1.6 days, P < 0.001. Conclusions : Increased rates of cesarean section and preterm delivery are the main reasons for increased obstetric risk in pregnancies conceived through ART. Preterm birth and neonatal prematurity-related complications were the main cause for longer stay in hospital in ART-conceived twins.

  17. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction. PMID:27579148

  18. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nevoral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART, because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction.

  19. AMH: An ovarian reserve biomarker in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, C; Fonseca, F L A; Rodart, I F; Cavalcanti, V; Gastaldo, G; Christofolini, D M; Barbosa, C P; Bianco, B

    2014-11-01

    Ovarian reserve tests provide knowledge of a possible response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in patients undergoing assisted reproduction treatment, allowing management and alteration of treatment protocol with the appropriate dose of gonadotrophin. Several parameters have been used as predictors of ovarian response. The basal FSH serum level on the third day of the menstrual cycle seemed to be the best predictor, but with significant intraindividual variability from one cycle to another. Thus, the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) emerges as a new ovarian test marker. AMH is produced exclusively in the gonads, by the granulosa cells, and plays an important role in folliculogenesis, acting on the modulation of follicular recruitment in the granulosa cells in order to limit the number of recruited oocytes and to regulate the number of growing follicles and their selection for ovulation. It has been suggested that AMH is strongly associated with oocyte yield after ovarian stimulation and could therefore be capable of predicting the ovarian response and the quality of oocytes and embryos. In this review, we discuss the role of AMH in assisted reproduction outcomes.

  20. 卵子线粒体老化——辅助生殖技术面临的瓶颈%Oocyte Mitochondiral Aging——Bottleneck of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤江静; 尹萍; 邵敬於; 段涛; 滕晓明; 韩毅冰

    2013-01-01

    卵子老化是辅助生殖失败的一个重要原因.目前,许多妇女生育年龄不断推迟,导致卵 子老化问题日益严重.线粒体是细胞中提供能量的重要细胞器,体细胞衰老与线粒体功能异常密切相关.由于线粒体是卵子/胚胎中数量最多的细胞器,推测线粒体功能的损伤可能在卵子老化、受精成功率和体外胚胎发育方面,也起到重要作用.本文根据前人的研究成果,阐述了线粒体在卵子成熟、受精以及胚胎发育过程中的作用,分析了线粒体老化对卵子质量和受精胚胎发育的影响,证明提高卵母细胞中线粒体功能,对提高卵母细胞/体外受精胚胎的质量具有重要的意义.%"Oocyte aging" is an important cause for IVF failure and poor embryo quality. At present, many women delay their pregnancy to the later part of their childbearing years which makes "oocyte aging" a more important etiology for infertility. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with somatic cells senescence. Because mitochondria are the most abundant organelles in oocytes/embryos, we speculate that mitochondrial dysfunction may have an important role in oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development too. In this article, we have reviewed the function of mitochondria during oocyte maturation, fertilization and the following embryo development. Techniques improving mitochondrial function in the oocytes could not only prevent the oocyte aging process, but also improve the quality of embryos from assisted reproductive technology (ART).

  1. Health Care, Capabilities, and AI Assistive Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Scenarios involving the introduction of artificially intelligent (AI) assistive technologies in health care practices raise several ethical issues. In this paper, I discuss four objections to introducing AI assistive technologies in health care practices as replacements of human care. I analyse them

  2. Cryopreservation of Embryos and Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Konc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  3. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, János; Kanyó, Katalin; Kriston, Rita; Somoskői, Bence; Cseh, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification) of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  4. Rules and economic features connected with adoption and medical assisted reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hemion Braho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this brief study is to analyze the phenomenon of adoption and the assisted reproductive technologies, not from a social point of view as experts often do, but on an economic point of view. This could be possible analyzing first of all the laws regulating these “markets” and the influence of this regulation on the economic aspects. Although it could seem immoral to study this social aspects connected with filiation, we know that the social desire of some parents or some individuals ...

  5. 人工助孕子代的体格和神经精神发育状况%Physiological and neuropsychological development in children born after assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思锐; 任榕娜; 刘芸

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)受孕的子代新生儿期和远期的体格和神经精神发育状况,以评价ART的安全性. 方法 选取2006年1月至2011年6月在南京军区福州总医院生殖中心借助ART受孕并成功分娩的孕妇的84例6个月~6岁的儿童作为ART子代组,同期自然受孕者的子代84例作为对照组.x2或t检验比较2组儿童新生儿期及6个月~6岁时的体格和神经精神发育状况. 结果 ART子代和自然受孕子代的新生儿期情况(母亲生育年龄、母妊娠合并糖尿病、母妊娠期高血压疾病、分娩方式、居住地、父母受教育程度、出生身长、出生体重、早产、低出生体重、出生窒息、入住新生儿重症监护病房)差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05).ART子代发育迟缓的发生率为6.0%(5/84),社会生活能力有问题的发生率为1.2% (1/84),与自然受孕子代[4.8% (4/84)和1.2%(1/84)]差异无统计学意义(x2=0.12和0.00,P均>0.05).ART子代的发育商与自然受孕子代相比,差异也无统计学意义[(95.9±6.1)分与(94.8±5.1)分,t=1.25,P=0.21].但双胎儿童较单胎儿童有更高的早产率[41.8%(33/79)与10.1%(9/89),x2=22.37,OR=6.38,95% CI:2.81~14.50,P=0.00]、低出生体重率[51.9%(41/79)与6.7%(6/89),x2=42.35,OR=14.93,95% CI:5.84~38.16,P=0.00]、出生窒息率[10.1%(8/79)与1.1%(1/89),x2=6.69,OR=9.92,95%CI:1.21~81.15,P=0.01]、入住新生儿重症监护病房率[36.7%(29/79)与14.6%(13/89),x2=10.90,OR=3.39,95%CI:1.61~7.14,P=0.00]和发育迟缓率[11.4% (9/79)与0.0%(0/89),x2=10.71,RR=0.11,P=0.00]. 结论 ART似乎没有对子代的体格和神经精神发育状况产生不良影响,但双胎是使早产儿、低出生体重儿、出生窒息、入住NICU、发育迟缓发生率增加的重要因素,需控制ART导致的双胎及多胎妊娠率.%Objective To analysis newborn stage and long-term physiological and

  6. Consentir incertezas: o consentimento informado e a (desregulação das tecnologias de reprodução assistida Consenting to uncertainties: informed consent and (deregulation of assisted reproductive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Manuela Ribeiro Dias da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa a analisar os contornos locais de criação e utilização dos autoconhecimentos de médicos e "leigos" envolvidos em processos de procriação medicamente assistida a partir do confronto das práticas discursivas destes atores sociais em torno das expectativas, das incertezas e das responsabilidades associadas a estas técnicas em Portugal. Os médicos avaliam as (incertezas das aplicações dessas técnicas com base em categorias de caráter naturalista e essencialista. Mais, esses critérios são instrumentalizados para eclipsar a ausência de explicação "científica" para os (insucessos, reproduzindo a crença no caráter "miraculoso" do progresso científico e tecnológico. A compreensão profana dos benefícios e das limitações dessas técnicas reflete uma atitude reverencial face à medicina e ao paradigma racionalista da perspectiva biomédica, ainda que seja possível vislumbrar alguns espaços de autonomia e resistência face às propostas médicas. As eventuais incertezas dessas técnicas são perspectivadas como efeitos excepcionais e intrínsecos à prática da medicina, aos quais têm de se submeter de forma individual. As mulheres, em particular, identificam-se como as principais responsáveis pela maximização da probabilidade de "sucesso" dessas técnicas.This article aims to analyze the characteristics in the creation and utilization of self-knowledge by physicians and "laypersons" involved in assisted reproductive technologies, based on a comparison of their respective discursive practices concerning expectations, uncertainties, and responsibilities associated with these techniques in Portugal. Physicians evaluate the (uncertainties in the application of these techniques based on naturalist and essentialist categories. However, such arguments are then used as an ideological instrument to disguise the lack of a "scientific" explanation for the failures, thereby reproducing the belief in the "miraculous

  7. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lise hTomsen; Peter Humaidan; Leif Bungum; Mona Bungum

    2014-01-01

    It is well‑documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conlficting regarding the inlfuence of male body mass index(BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology(ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non‑obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility center. Self‑reported information on paternal height and weight were recorded and BMI was calculated. The men were divided into four BMI categories: underweight BMI30kgm−2. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guideline and sperm DNA integrity was analyzed by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay(SCSA). No statistically signiifcant effect of male BMI was seen on conventional semen parameters(sperm concentration, total sperm count, seminal volume and motility) or on SCSA‑results. Furthermore, the outcome of ART regarding fertilization rate, number of good quality embryos(GQE), implantation and pregnancy outcome was not inlfuenced by the increasing male BMI.

  8. Recent trends in assistive technology for mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Rachel E; Fregly, Benjamin J; Boninger, Michael L; Chan, Leighton; Rodgers, Mary M; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2012-04-20

    Loss of physical mobility makes maximal participation in desired activities more difficult and in the worst case fully prevents participation. This paper surveys recent work in assistive technology to improve mobility for persons with a disability, drawing on examples observed during a tour of academic and industrial research sites in Europe. The underlying theme of this recent work is a more seamless integration of the capabilities of the user and the assistive technology. This improved integration spans diverse technologies, including powered wheelchairs, prosthetic limbs, functional electrical stimulation, and wearable exoskeletons. Improved integration is being accomplished in three ways: 1) improving the assistive technology mechanics; 2) improving the user-technology physical interface; and 3) sharing of control between the user and the technology. We provide an overview of these improvements in user-technology integration and discuss whether such improvements have the potential to be transformative for people with mobility impairments.

  9. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  10. Influence of Chinese Medicine on the Rate of Sperm Aneuploidy and Assisted Reproductive Technology Result%中药治疗对精子非整倍体率及辅助生殖结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩临晓; 孙晓岩; 陈博; 郑志涛; 钟秋生; 潘瑞华

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study the influence of Chinese medicine on the rate of sperm aneuploidy and assisted reproductive technology(ART ) result .Methods 58 infertile men with oligoasthenoterazoospermia w ho received ART treatment were divided into experimental group (26 cases )and control group (32 cases ) .The experimental group received ART treatment after 3 course of Chinese medicine .The control group received ART treatment di‐rectly .Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH )was used to analyze spermatozoa chromosomes .The rate of fertili‐zation ,the rate of cleavage ,the rate of high embryo ,he rate of useful embryo ,the rate of pregnancy ,the rate of a‐bortion and the rate of implantation were observed and compared between two groups .Results Before treatment , the rate of sperm aneuploidy for experimental group and control group was 2.3% and 2.1% respectively ,with no significant difference .After treatment ,the rate of sperm aneuploidy for experimental group was 1.7% w hich was significant lower than before ( P < 0.05) .For experimental group and control group ,the rate of fertilization was 82.55% ,80. 80% ,the rate of cleavage was 99.25% ,98.77% ,the rate of high embryo was 24.91% ,24.07% ,the rate of useful embryo was 76.23% ,70.68% ,the rate of pregnancy was 57.69% ,31.25% ,the rate of abortion was 7.70% ,12.50% ,the rate of implantation was 38.98% ,22.20% .There was significant difference for the rate of pregnancy and implantation between two groups (both P< 0.05) .Conclusion Chinese medicine can reduce the rate of sperm aneuploidy and improve ART result .%目的研究中药治疗对少弱畸形精子症患者的精子染色体非整倍体率及辅助生殖技术(as‐sisted reproductive technology ,ART )结局的影响。方法将58例要求接受 ART 的少弱畸形精子症患者随机分为试验组和对照组。试验组26例,采用生精汤治疗3个月后进行精子染色体分析,再接受辅助生殖治疗;对照组32例,

  11. Analysis The Effect Factors of Discarded Embryos Culture to Blastocyst in Assisted Reproductive Technology%辅助生殖技术中废弃胚胎继续培养的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丽娜; 吴晓云; 朱玉蓉; 邱惠麒; 刘春玲

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨辅助生殖技术中废弃胚胎继续培养的潜能,为今后利用废弃胚胎建立胚胎干细胞系提供参考.方法 将D1观察为无原核(0PN)、单原核(1PN)、多原核(≥3PN)和受精正常(2PN),D3评分为Ⅳ级的胚胎继续培养至囊胚期,观察囊胚形成率.比较年龄、受精方式、不同来源、D3卵裂球细胞数、D3胚胎碎片与囊胚形成率的关系.结果 共收集143个取卵周期499个废弃胚胎进行继续培养,形成囊胚105个(21.04%),优质囊胚为24个(22.86%).年龄、不同来源、D3卵裂球的奇偶性、D2卵裂球的数目各组之间差异不显著(P>0.05);受精方式、D3卵裂球数目、胚胎碎片各组之间差异显著(P<0.05).结论 部分废弃胚胎有继续发育成囊胚的潜能,受精方式、D3卵裂球的数目和胚胎碎片情况可能为囊胚形成的主要影响因素.%Objective To explore the developmental potential of discarded embryos in assisted reproductive technology, thus to provide the reference to set up the embryonic stem cell lines in future. Methods All embryos with non - pronucleus(OPN) , a single pronu-cleus( 1PN) , a number of pronucleus(3PN) and normal fertilization (2PN) but score for IV level embryos in d3 were cultured into blas-tula by the sequential method. The blastulation rates were observed. The relationships between the blastula formation and the patient age, fertilization way, embryos from different sources, the blastomere numbers and fragments at d3 were studied. Results A total of 143 fresh cycles about 499 discarded embryos were collected and formed 105 blastulas (21. 04% ) , among which 24 were high - quality blastulas (22.86% ). The patient age, embryos from different sources, the parity of the blastomere number and the blastomere number at d2 in each groups were no significant differences(P >0.05). The fertilization way, the blastomere number at d3 , fragments in each groups were significant differences( P <0. 05). Conclusion

  12. 辅助生殖技术后特殊部位异位妊娠8例临床分析%Clinical analysis of assisted reproductive technology in 8 cases with ectopic pregnancy of specific position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芬; 王仙萍; 王咏莲; 武学清

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnosis and treatment plan of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in specific ectopic pregnancy.Methods 8 cases with specific ectopic pregnancy in our center from January 2014 to June 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. After the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy were promptly underwent laparoscopic surgery.Results Eight cases were pathologically confirmed ectopic pregnancy, intrauterine pregnancy with tubal pregnancy were four cases, and interstitial tubal pregnancy were two cases, one case with bilateral tubal pregnancies, one case with abdominal pregnancy. 4 cases with ectopic pregnancy after intrauterine pregnancy did not occur abortion, one case had been childbirth, the neonatal currently had no obvious abnormalities, and the other three cases were continuing pregnancy. The remaining four cases were in the postoperative serum hCG to normal within 30 days.Conclusion In patients with clinical work for ART should be carefully followed up after, and should be given individualized treatment combined with patient needs based on the patient's condition. Incidence of ectopic pregnancy after ART treatment by a variety of factors, clinical work should be strengthened to specific ectopic pregnancy awareness and attention in order to avoid misdiagnosis.%目的:探讨在辅助生殖技术(ART)后特殊部位异位妊娠的诊治方案。方法对我中心2014年1~6月ART后特殊部位异位妊娠8例进行回顾性分析,其诊断为异位妊娠后均及时进行了腹腔镜手术。结果8例术后病理均证实为异位妊娠,其中宫内妊娠合并输卵管妊娠4例,输卵管间质部妊娠2例,双侧输卵管同时妊娠1例,腹腔妊娠1例。术后宫内妊娠合并异位妊娠患者4例术后均未发生流产,其中1例已分娩,新生儿目前无明显异常,另3例目前仍在继续妊娠中。其余4例患者血HCG均在术后30d之内降至正常。结论在临床工作中对于进行ART后的患者应

  13. Survey and Analysis on the Attitude toward the Assisted Reproductive Technology among Undergraduate Nursing Students%本科护生人工辅助生殖技术认同度的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马语莲; 杨秀木

    2012-01-01

    Objective; Aimed to investigate the approve degree toward the assisted reproductive technology ( ART) among undergraduate nursing students and its influence factors, analyze the ethical erroneous zone exists in their thoughts. Methods; A self - designed questionnaire was used in 372 undergraduate nursing students, the content included common demographic data, a typical case with some ethical questions. Results: The undergraduate nursing students had a tolerant manner to ART. 70% of all students had negative manner to " celebrity sperm bank"and 16. 3% had negative manner to the child who comes from "celebrity sperm bank" will become celebrity.Furthermore, 54. 1% students disagreed to tell the child who comes from "celebrity sperm bank"the truth. There was a significant difference between students with different gender toward " celebrity sperm bank" , " single mother" and " surrogate mother" ( P < 0. 05 ) , and students with different family income toward " single mother" (P < 0.05). Conclusion; Most of the undergraduate nursing studentshad rational cognition to ART, however, a small a-mount still had ethical incorrect cognition toward ART, thus it is necessary to give corresponding education to undergraduate nursing students.%目的 探讨本科护生对人工辅助生殖技术的认同度及相关影响因素,分析本科护生思想中存在的伦理误区.方法 自行设计人工辅助生殖技术认同度调查问卷,包括学生的一般资料、一个典型案例及所附带的6个伦理问题,对372名本科护生进行问卷调查.结果 本科护生对人工辅助生殖技术伦理问题持较为宽容的态度;70%的本科护生对“名人精子库”持否定态度;16.3%的本科护生对“名人精子库”诞生的孩子必然成为名人的说法持否定态度;54.1%的本科护生对告知由人工辅助技术出生的孩子其真实身世的态度上是否定的.不同性别本科护生在“名人精子库”、“单身母亲”、“

  14. Autologous Germline Mitochondrial Energy Transfer (AUGMENT) in Human Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian aging is characterized by a decline in both the total number and overall quality of oocytes, the latter of which has been experimentally tied to mitochondrial dysfunction. Clinical studies in the late 1990s demonstrated that transfer of cytoplasm aspirated from eggs of young female donors into eggs of infertile women at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection improved pregnancy success rates. However, donor mitochondria were identified in offspring, and the United States Food and Drug Administration raised questions about delivery of foreign genetic material into human eggs at the time of fertilization. Accordingly, heterologous cytoplasmic transfer, while promising, was in effect shut down as a clinical protocol. The recent discovery of adult oogonial (oocyte-generating) stem cells in mice, and subsequently in women, has since re-opened the prospects of delivering a rich source of pristine and patient-matched germline mitochondria to boost egg health and embryonic developmental potential without the need for young donor eggs to obtain cytoplasm. Herein we overview the science behind this new protocol, which has been patented and termed autologous germline mitochondrial energy transfer, and its use to date in clinical studies for improving pregnancy success in women with a prior history of assisted reproduction failure.

  15. Center for Assistive Technology & Environmental Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new address and college name * The Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access Georgia Institute of Technology (GT) College of Design 512 Means St., Suite 300, Atlanta, GA 30332-0156 (for shipping, please use 30318) U.S.A. Phone: 404-894-4960 (v/tty) ... | Privacy Agreement

  16. Zona hardening, zona drilling and assisted hatching: new achievements in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, A; Van Steirteghem, A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to fertilization, the zona pellucida surrounding the mammalian oocyte acts as a species-specific sperm barrier and is involved in sperm binding. After fertilization, the zona plays a role in blocking polyspermic fertilization, it protects the integrity of the preimplantation embryo during early embryonic development, and also helps its oviductal transport. Zona hardening occurs naturally after fertilization in order to ensure this threefold function. A combination of lysins produced by the cleaving embryo or the uterus and physical expansion then reduces the zona thickness in preparation for hatching. Zona hardening, although not readily quantifiable, may also be induced by in vitro culture and by in vivo aging. Indeed, prolonged exposure of human oocytes and embryos to artificial culture conditions seems to impair their ability to implant. Implantation rates are also inversely correlated with advanced female age. Recently, failure of the embryonic zona pellucida to rupture following blastocyst expansion has been put forward as a possible contributing factor in implantation failure. In order to help embryos escape from their zonae during blastocyst expansion, different types of assisted hatching have been developed. Zona drilling involves the creation of an opening in the zona with acidified medium, whereas zona slitting is carried out in the same manner as partial zona dissection. In zona thinning, the zona is just made thinner over a certain area without a hole or a slit being created. More recently, laser-assisted hatching has been introduced. In vitro studies with both mouse and human embryos have indicated that an artificial gap in the zona pellucida significantly improves the hatching ability of blastocysts grown in vitro as compared to non-micromanipulated embryos. However, the clinical relevance of assisted hatching within an assisted reproduction program remains controversial and elusive. Very few randomized studies are available. Most reports are of

  17. Zinc protects sperm from being damaged by reactive oxygen species in assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinxiang; Wu, Shiqiang; Xie, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhengyao; Wu, Ruiyun; Cai, Junfeng; Luo, Xiangmin; Huang, Suzhen; You, Liuxia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of zinc on hydrogen peroxide-induced sperm damage in assisted reproduction techniques. First, sperms were selected from semen samples of 20 healthy men prepared by density gradient centrifugation. Selected sperm were treated with either 0.001% H(2)O(2), 12.5 nM ZnCL(2), 0.001% H(2)O(2) + 12.5 nM ZnCL(2) or 0.9% NaCl(2) (control). After this treatment, the motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation of sperms in each group were analysed by Goodline sperm detection system, optical microscopy and sperm DNA fragmentation assay. Poorer motility, vitality, membrane integrity and more DNA damage were found in sperms treated by H(2)O(2), compared with control. When sperms were treated with both H(2)O(2) and zinc, however, all indicators were improved compared with H(2)O(2) alone. There was a close association between oxidative stimulation and sperm injury; zinc could inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of sperm in assisted reproductive technology. However, the presence of zinc in culture medium can decrease the sperm quality without addition of peroxide.

  18. Effect of embryo freezing on perinatal outcome after assisted reproduction techniques: lessons from the Latin American Registry of Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Juan-Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Embryo cryopreservation is an integral part of assisted reproduction techniques; it allows the sequential transfer of all embryos, thus diminishing the risk of multiple pregnancies and associated perinatal complications. To address concerns about the safety of this procedure, neonatal outcome after 43,070 fresh embryo transfers was compared with 12,068 frozen-thawed embryo transfers (FET). After adjusting for maternal age, gestational age, embryo development at time of transfer, number of babies born and gestational order, FET was not found to be associated with an increase in perinatal mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81 to 3.62); preterm birth (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.18); or extreme preterm birth (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.06). Furthermore, after correcting for known confounding factors, FET was found to be associated with an increase in neonatal weight of 39.7 g (95% CI 1.54 to 64.10; P < 0.0001). Embryo cryopreservation was, therefore, not associated with an increase in the risk of poor perinatal outcome.

  19. Assistive Technology for Individuals with Special Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lupasc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disabled people face barriers in performing their various activities, including teaching. By using assistive technologies for different activities, people with disabilities may be able to perform a wider range of tasks independently. Fortunately, it helps to reduce many of these barriers, but, unfortunately, disabled people (learning, autism or ADHD face a variety of barriers when they want to use software tools or hardware devices. In this regard, assistive technologies are available to help persons with different types of disabilities, from cognitive problems to physical impairment. Hardware devices and software tools (known as adaptive or assistive technologies have been developed to provide functional alternatives for all individuals with disabilities, depending on the type of disability. In addition, the use of assistive technologies to support them is an effective approach for many persons with disabilities, regardless of the type of disability. Additionally, individuals with disabilities often experience greater success when they are allowed to use their abilities to work around their disabilities (the challenges they imply. Moreover, mobile devices are useful for their ability to weave Internet access and social networking into the daily life. To the people with disabilities, these devices have the potential to unlock unprecedented new possibilities for communication or navigation. In this context, some actual assistive technology and approaches to use them are described in this paper.

  20. Infertility and assisted reproduction in Denmark. Epidemiology and psychosocial consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lone

    2006-11-01

    Clinically a couple is considered to be infertile after at least one year without contraception and without pregnancy. There was scant knowledge about the prevalences of infertility, involuntary childlessness and the seeking of fertility treatment and only few longitudinal studies about the psychosocial consequences of infertility and its treatment. This thesis is about the epidemiological aspects of infertility; the conceptualization and measurement of important psychosocial aspects of infertility; and a medical sociological analysis of the associations between these psychosocial variables among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on nine papers. The three main purposes were: (i) to review critically, population based studies of infertility and medical care seeking in industrialised countries. Further, to examine these prevalences and subsequent motherhood among women in former assisted reproduction in a Danish population. (ii) To develop measures of psychosocial consequences of infertility: fertility problem stress, marital benefit, communication, coping strategies, attitudes to and evaluation of fertility treatment. (iii) To examine these phenomena and to analyse their interrelations among Danish women and men in fertility treatment. The thesis is based on four empirical studies: (i) The Women and Health Survey, a cross-sectional population-based study among 15-44 year old women (n=907, 25-44 year old) in Copenhagen County, 1989. (ii) The Psychosocial Infertility Interview Study, a qualitative interview study among 16 couples (n=2 participants) infertility treatment at The Fertility Clinic, Herlev University Hospital,1992. (iii) The Infertility Cohort, a longitudinal cohort study consecutively including all couples (n=250 participants) beginning anew fertility treatment period at one of four public (Braedstrup, Herlev, Odense, Rigshospitalet) and one private fertility clinic (Trianglen),2000-2002. (iv) The Communication and Stress

  1. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policyEuropean Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C.; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogent...

  2. 辅助生殖受孕的三胎妊娠减胎术后妊娠结局分析%The pregnancy outcomes of selective reduction of triplet pregnancy by assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕媚; 孙雯; 肖雪; 杜培丽; 张慧丽; 孙斌; 汤雯婷; 匡丽云; 陈敦金

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the outcomes of selective reduction of triplet pregnancy by assisted reproductive technology. Methods The clinical data of 31 women who succeeded in conception by vitro fertilization-embryo transfer in the third affiliated hospital of Guangzhou Medical University were retrospectively investigated to analyze and compare the rates of abortion from triplet pregnancy, twin pregnancy and single pregnancy after selective reduction of triplet pregnancy, the incidence of pregnant complications, outcomes of perinatal period. Results There were no significant differences between triplet pregnancy and the twin and single pregnancy after selective reduction of triplet pregnancy in terms of pregnancy and parity time, fetal disease, premature rupture of membrane, severe eclampsism, gestational diabetes and postpartum hemorrhage (P>0.05). There were significant differences in gestational weeks, birth weight, rate of premature birth, rate of neonatal transfer to NICU and neonatal RDS: The gestational time in the triplet group longer than the groups of twin pregnancy and single pregnancy after selective reduction of triplet pregnancy (P<0.05). (37.3 ± 1.9) vs. (35.2 ± 0.9), (32.6 ± 2.3), respectively), the rate of premature birth dropped (100%vs. 100%, 33.3%, respectively), the body weight was increased (1 707 ± 360.4)g vs. (2 066.1 ± 307.5)g, (2 712.5 ± 514.1)g, respectively and the neonatal complication rate was reduced (P<0.05). Conclusion The selective reduction of multiple pregnancy may decrease the risk of premature birth and reduce the rate of lower body weight of neonates, improving the pregnancy outcomes, but the higher rate of abortion at the early or middle course of pregnancy after selective reduction is worth our attention.%目的:探讨体外受精-胚胎移植术后三胎妊娠减胎前后的妊娠结局。方法:回顾性分析2011年10月至2013年12月广州医科大学附属第三医院收治的辅助生殖受孕病例31例

  3. 关于不孕夫妇生育态度和对辅助生殖技术接受性的调查%Views and Acceptance of Fertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Infertile Couples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑中; 洪燕; 赵晓明; 陈珠宝

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解接受辅助生殖技术(ART)的不孕不育夫妇对生育以及对ART的看法.方法:以问卷调查的形式对接受ART的夫妇双方进行调查.问卷内容涉及夫妇双方基本情况、不孕情况、对生育以及ART的看法等.结果:共发放问卷866份,回收问卷866份,有效问卷837份.涉及不孕夫妇410对.平均不孕时间4.5±2.9年,其中57.7%来自城市,42.3%来自农村.城市居民就诊年龄大于农村居民.18.3%的被调查者有避孕史,城市居民避孕的比例高于农村居民(30.4% vs 6.7%),避孕目的以工作因素为主.希望生育的主要原因是喜欢孩子(51.4%),仅6.8%的患者认为是由于家庭和社会的压力.当得知患有不孕症时,仅有15.9%的被调查者首选ART;城市居民对ART的担忧比农村居民多(31.9% vs 17.8%,P<0.05);女方较男方对可能造成的自身影响更担心(P<0.05).而超过半数的被调查者认为不会告知周围的人自己接受ART,接近50%的人在是否告知子代为ART儿问题上持不确定态度.同一对夫妇在选择解决不孕手段和对周围人告知上的一致性超过50%,而在对子代的告知方面一致性不高.结论:不孕夫妇生育的目的主要是出于对孩子的喜爱,然而对ART仍持谨慎态度.%Objective: To understand the acceptance of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in infertile couples on fertility and the views of the ART. Methods: A questionnaire survey for couples undergoing ART investigation was performed. Questions addressed the following areas: general condition, history of infertility, and views on fertility and acceptance of ART. Results: A total of 866 people were involved, retrieving 866 questionnaires in which 837 were effective including 410 couples. The average time of infertility was 4.5 + 2.9 years, 57.7% were urban residents and 41.2% were rural residents. Of all the 837 people, 18.3% had chosen contraception before. The rate of contraception in

  4. Assistive Technology for Every Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Barbara Foulks

    2008-01-01

    The Montessori philosophy advocates that the classroom be a reflection of the home, the community, and the world. Now, a century after Maria Montessori founded her Casa dei Bambini, the world is becoming a high-technology society, with computers a part of everyday American lives. Computers are almost a household necessity, and basic…

  5. Status of human assisted reproduction in Spain: results from the new registry of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosser, Roser; Gispert, Rosa; Torné, Mar; Calaf, Joaquim

    2009-11-01

    The FIVCAT. NET database in Catalonia is the only official obligatory registry of human assisted reproduction practitioners in Spain. The present study assessed the effectiveness and outcomes of assisted reproduction over the period 2001-2005 relative to other established worldwide registries. The data analysed were derived from all centres conducting assisted reproduction in Catalonia, and included users of the services (resident and non-resident); all cycles performed; descriptive characteristics of the assisted reproduction procedures; and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Effectiveness of assisted reproduction was measured by standard indicators such as rates of pregnancy and rates of live births per pregnancy. The results indicated that the preferred number of embryos for transfer changed from three to two over this period. Pregnancies per transfer improved from 33.2% to 37.1% (from 36.9% to 40.2% using fresh embryos and from to 18.4% to 27.0% with frozen embryos). Multiple births decreased from 50.1% to 38.6%, premature births from 37.5% to 28.3% and low-birth-weight infants from 38.0% to 25.6%. It is concluded that the conduct of assisted reproduction in Catalonia has improved considerably and compares favourably with other countries, not only with respect to the level of activity, but also the effectiveness and outcomes achieved, although the quality of the sociodemographic information requires improvement.

  6. Designing Assistive Technologies for the ADHD Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    (ADHD). In this paper, we identify a set of challenges that children with ADHD typically experience, which provides an empirical foundation for pervasive health researchers to address the ADHD domain. The work is grounded in extensive empirical studies and it is contextualized using literature on ADHD....... Based on these studies, we also present lessons learned that are relevant to consider when designing assistive technology to support children with ADHD. Finally, we provide an example (CASTT) of our own work to illustrate how the presented findings can frame research activities and be used to develop...... novel assistive technology to empower children with ADHD and improve their wellbeing....

  7. Premature Delivery of Children Born after Assisted Reproductive Technology and Spontaneous Conceptions:A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Study%辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产状况研究的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏宏伟; 任春娥; 韩海艳; 乔鹏云; 姜俊怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare premature delivery of children who were born after assisted reproductive technology and after natural pregnancy.Methods Searched PubMed,EBSCO,Cochrane Library,China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database ,VIP Data-base for Chinese Technical Periodicals ,and references of the involved studies ,which included premature delivery of infants born after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conceptions .Cochrane Collaborations RevMan 5.0 software was used to do data analyses .Results Ninteen studies including 2 453 288 children were involved.Studies showed that the rate of preterm births in ART group was obviously higher than that in the natural pregnancy group (P<0.05).Conclusion Children born after ART may have higher risk of preterm births .There-fore,the pregnant women after assisted reproductive technology should make good antenatal care work and try to avoid premature delivery .%  目的评价辅助生殖技术后新生儿的早产状况。方法计算机检索中国学术期刊网络出版总库,维普中文科技期刊全文数据库,PubMed,EBSCO全文数据库和Cochrane Library等,并辅以手工检索等方式,纳入辅助生殖技术后妊娠和自然妊娠的新生儿早产状况比较的队列研究文献,并用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析。结果共有19个研究文献纳入,新生儿共2453288例。 Meta分析结果表明:辅助生殖技术后新生儿早产发生率高于自然妊娠儿(P<0.05),其OR为2.47,95%CI为(1.87,3.27)。结论辅助生殖技术后新生儿发生早产的风险比自然妊娠儿高。因此,经辅助生殖技术后妊娠的孕妇,应积极做好产前保健工作,尽量避免早产发生。

  8. Filiação e tecnologias de reprodução assistida: entre medicina e direito Filiation and usage of assisted reproductive technologies: between medicine and law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane da Costa Moás

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem o intuito de analisar os critérios jurídicos de determinação das relações parentais, propondo a reflexão sobre a paternidade ou maternidade homossexual como manifestação do direito à vida familiar. Para tanto, discute-se o impacto das seguintes inovações biotecnológicas: por um lado, a possibilidade de concepção fora do corpo humano, que ameaça quebrar o valor simbólico que sempre assimilou a categoria de genitor àquela de pai, ameaça esta que se apresenta de forma mais marcante quando a demanda pela reprodução assistida se dá por casais de mesmo sexo. Por outro, a disponibilidade de exames genéticos que permitem o acesso à verdade biológica com alto grau de confiabilidade, provocando verdadeiro embate entre o critério biológico de determinação da paternidade e o critério sócio-afetivo.The present work aims to analyze the juridical criteria for determining the paternal-filial relations, proposing a reflection about homosexual paternity or maternity as a natural consequence of the right to family life. Along these lines, it is necessary to analyze the current discussion on the impact of biotechnological innovations on important issues, such as: the possibility of conception outside the human body, threatening to crush the symbolic value that has always assimilated the category of genitor to that of father, markedly when the demand for assisted reproduction is made by couples of the same sex; the availability of genetic exams that allow access to the biological truth with high level of trustworthiness, causing a real clash between the biological and the social-affective criteria for determination of paternity.

  9. Rules and economic features connected with adoption and medical assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemion Braho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this brief study is to analyze the phenomenon of adoption and the assisted reproductive technologies, not from a social point of view as experts often do, but on an economic point of view. This could be possible analyzing first of all the laws regulating these “markets” and the influence of this regulation on the economic aspects. Although it could seem immoral to study this social aspects connected with filiation, we know that the social desire of some parents or some individuals to have children and their possibility is oriented by laws, economic possibilities and economy in general. This study is based on an empirical methodology, taking as study-case Italy and trying not to give any ethic orientation.

  10. Assistive technologies for brain-injured gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, Jason; Gnanayutham, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys assistive technologies which make video games more accessible for people who have an acquired brain injury (ABI). As medical care improves, an increasing number of people survive ABI. Video games have been shown to provide therapeutic benefits in many medical contexts, and rehabilitation for ABI survivors has been shown to be facilitated by playing some types of video game. Therefore, technologies which improve the accessibility of games have the potential to bring a form...

  11. 34 CFR 300.6 - Assistive technology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistive technology service. 300.6 Section 300.6... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.6 Assistive technology service. Assistive technology service means any service that directly assists a child with a disability in...

  12. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim You

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated cytogenetic results occurring with first trimester pregnancy loss, and assessed the type and frequency of chromosomal abnormalities after assisted reproductive treatment (ART and compared them with a control group. We also compared the rate of chromosomal abnormalities according to infertility causes in ICSI group. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was made of all patients who were referred to the Genetics Laboratory of Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center from 2005 to 2009 because of clinical abortion with a subsequent dilation and evacuation (D&E performed, and patients were grouped by type of conception as follows: conventional IVF (in vitro fertilization (n = 114, ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection (n = 140, and control (natural conception or intrauterine insemination [IUI] (n = 128. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results A total 406 specimens were referred to laboratory, ten abortuses were excluded, and in 14 cases, we did not get any spontaneous metaphase, chromosomal constitutions of 382 specimens were successfully obtained with conventional cytogenetic methods. Overall, 52.62% of the miscarriages were found to be cytogenetically abnormal among all patients, the frequency was 48.4% in the control group, 54.3% of miscarriages after ICSI and 55.3% after conventional IVF (p = 0.503. The most prevalent abnormalities were autosomal trisomy, however, nine (11.69% sex chromosome aneuploidy were noted in the ICSI group vs. four (6.45% and two (3.23% cases in the conventional IVF group and control group. We compared chromosomal abnormalities of miscarriages after ICSI according to infertility factor. 55.71% underwent ICSI due to male factors, 44.29% due to non-male factors. ICSI group having male factors showed significantly higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities than ICSI group having non-male factors (65.8% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.009, odds ratio = 1.529, 95% CI = 1

  14. Assistive Technologies: A Lifeline for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg

    2015-01-01

    As students with disabilities increasingly are included into the general education classroom, teachers at all grade levels need to be knowledgeable about supports that promote student success. An assistive technology (AT) is any device or program that promotes the success of students with disabilities. This article provides an overview of ATs and…

  15. Human reproductive technologies and the law: a select committee report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The House of Commons Science & Technology Committee has reviewed the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act. It considered a) the balance between legislation, regulation and reproductive freedom; b) the role of Parliament in human reproductive technologies; and c) the foundation, adequacy and appropriateness of the ethical framework for legislation. It also considered the Act itself and the workings of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. Its report is written from a very liberal perspective, but is a very thorough overview of current issues and debate in the field. There follow, slightly abridged, the conclusions and recommendations of the 200-page report.

  16. Noise resonance : Technological sound reproduction and the logic of filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    What is it about noise that attracted musicians and listeners over the past century? Noise Resonance: Technological Sound Reproduction and the Logic of Filtering sets out to answer this question through an extensive conceptual revaluation of the role of noise and distortion in sound and music. The b

  17. The future of mothering: reproductive technology and feminist theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchin, A

    1986-01-01

    An exploration of (I) alternative perspectives toward recent innovations in reproductive technology: support for new techniques for the sake of the kind of feminist future they facilitate; unqualified opposition despite therapeutic benefit to individual women; or qualified opposition depending upon specific threats to women's interests and (II) relationships between these positions and values bound up with mothering practices.

  18. Children of the new reproductive technologies: social and genetic parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; van Balen, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review empirical studies on families created by new reproductive technologies (NRT) in which only one parent has a genetic link to the child. Methodology: Literature search was conducted among computerized databases. Inclusion criteria were that studies should focus on childrearing or

  19. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Lilit; Lumsden, Jo; O'Sullivan, Dympna; Bartlett, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    There are around 285 million visually impaired people worldwide, and around 370,000 people are registered as blind or partially sighted in the UK. Ongoing advances in information technology (IT) are increasing the scope for IT-based mobile assistive technologies to facilitate the independence, safety, and improved quality of life of the visually impaired. Research is being directed at making mobile phones and other handheld devices accessible via our haptic (touch) and audio sensory channels. We review research and innovation within the field of mobile assistive technology for the visually impaired and, in so doing, highlight the need for successful collaboration between clinical expertise, computer science, and domain users to realize fully the potential benefits of such technologies. We initially reflect on research that has been conducted to make mobile phones more accessible to people with vision loss. We then discuss innovative assistive applications designed for the visually impaired that are either delivered via mainstream devices and can be used while in motion (e.g., mobile phones) or are embedded within an environment that may be in motion (e.g., public transport) or within which the user may be in motion (e.g., smart homes).

  20. The Efficacy of Assisted Reproduction in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Impact of Surgery-A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, S; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Fedder, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we analyze the chance of a live birth and the impact of inflammatory bowel disease surgery in women with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This is a nationwide cohort study based...

  1. Using an Assistive Technology Toolkit to Promote Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Sharon; Floyd, Kim; Jeffs, Tara

    2008-01-01

    Although the use of assistive technology for young children is increasing, the lack of awareness and the lack of training continue to act as major barriers to providers using assistive technology. This article describes an assistive technology toolkit designed for use with young children with disabilities that can be easily assembled and…

  2. 34 CFR 300.5 - Assistive technology device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistive technology device. 300.5 Section 300.5... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.5 Assistive technology device. Assistive technology device means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether...

  3. First trimester screening for Down syndrome and assisted reproduction: no basis for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Larsen, S O; Shalmi, A;

    2001-01-01

    In pregnancies obtained after assisted reproduction the false-positive rate of second trimester Down syndrome (DS) screening is increased by 1.5-3-fold. This may cause an increase in the number of amniocenteses and the fetal loss rate. The present study for the first time examined whether assisted...... pregnancies. Therefore the false-positive rate in Down syndrome screening should be independent of the method of conception....

  4. Assistive Technology: Bridging End-users and Technology%Assistive Technology:Bridging End-users and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renzo Andrich; Serenella Besio

    2011-01-01

    One of the basic aspects that determines the success or failure in the use of assistive technologies on the part of people with disabilities is constituted by the ability that provide a disabled person with the technology that corresponds effectively to his needs and to his capabilities,thus to interpret correctly the problems and to find the right ways of transferring this technological "knowledge".If the aids answer the effective needs and capabilities of the person he can achieve significant improvement to reach the goals of his individual rehabilitative project.The article highlights the key factors of success.

  5. Assistive Technology Based on Robotics and Rise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyu; WANG Kaixuan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assistive technology based on robotics,rehabilitation robot and intelligent assistive devices.Domestic intelligence assistive devices include intelligent prosthetics,intelligent orthotics,intelligent walker,assistive devices for smart home environment control,intelligent life assistive devices; Domestic intelligent rehabilitation robot include upper limb rehabilitation robot,hand rehabilitation robot,lower limb rehabilitation robot,robotic smart wheelchair,intelligent nursing bed,daily care robot,the development trend of intelligent assistive devices and rehabilitation robot.

  6. First trimester biochemistry in pregnancies conceived using assisted reproduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Ekelund, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Pernille

    Objective: To examine the effects of method of conception on first trimester PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and the dependency of gestational age at the time of sampling on these effects Methods: Data on more than 100 000 spontaneously conceived and on 6 859 pregnancies conceived by assisted reproducti...

  7. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  8. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings.

  9. Two Y genes can replace the entire Y chromosome for assisted reproduction in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M; Stoytcheva, Zoia; Ward, Monika A

    2014-01-03

    The Y chromosome is thought to be important for male reproduction. We have previously shown that, with the use of assisted reproduction, live offspring can be obtained from mice lacking the entire Y chromosome long arm. Here, we demonstrate that live mouse progeny can also be generated by using germ cells from males with the Y chromosome contribution limited to only two genes, the testis determinant factor Sry and the spermatogonial proliferation factor Eif2s3y. Sry is believed to function primarily in sex determination during fetal life. Eif2s3y may be the only Y chromosome gene required to drive mouse spermatogenesis, allowing formation of haploid germ cells that are functional in assisted reproduction. Our findings are relevant, but not directly translatable, to human male infertility cases.

  10. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2008-01-01

    Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother) carrying a child for another person\\/s (commissioning person\\/couple), based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person\\/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR) is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas\\' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person\\/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced.

  11. Use of polarized light microscopy in porcine reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Maside, C; Gil, M A; Muñoz, M; Cuello, C; Díez, C; Sánchez-Osorio, J R; Martín, D; Gomis, J; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Carrocera, S; Martinez, E A; Gómez, E

    2011-09-01

    The meiotic spindle in the oocyte is composed of microtubules and plays an important role during chromosome alignment and separation at meiosis. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) could be useful for a non-invasive evaluation of the meiotic spindle and may allow removal of nuclear structures without fluorochrome staining and ultraviolet exposure. In this study, PLM was used to assess its potential application in porcine reproductive technologies. The objectives of the present study were to assess the efficiency of PLM to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes; to examine its effects on the oocyte developmental competence; to select oocytes based on the presence of the meiotic spindle detected by PLM; and to assess the efficiency oocyte enucleation assisted with PLM. In the first experiment, the presence of microtubule-polymerized protein was assessed and confirmed in oocytes (n = 117) by immunostaining and chromatin detection. In the second experiment, oocytes (n = 160) were exposed or not (controls) to PLM for 10 minutes, and then parthenogenetically activated and cultured in vitro. In the third experiment, development competence of oocytes with a positive or negative signal to PLM was analyzed after in vitro fertilization. Finally, oocytes (n = 54) were enucleated using PLM as a tool to remove the meiotic spindle. A positive PLM signal was detected in 98.2 % of the oocytes, which strongly correlated (r = 1; p PLM did not differ significantly from controls on cleavage, total blastocyst, expanded blastocyst rates and total cell numbers. The percentage of oocytes at the MII stage and blastocyst formation rate in the negative PLM group significantly differed from control and PLM positive groups. Overall efficiency of spindle removal using the PLM-Oosight system was 92.6%. These results suggest that polarized light microscopy is an efficient system to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes and does

  12. Assistive Technologies for Communication and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Simsik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT affect all aspects of life, in the time of technical progress there are also special assistive devices developed that makes the daily life easier. The use of the ICT is rapidly becoming an essential part of social, educational and economic of sphere of European citizens’ life. There is a concern whether the products and services, that are available nowadays, are fully accessible to the public area, but also to elderly people and people with disabilities. The aim of this article is to acquire an outline about recent programmes of information society (Slovakia and EU, to revue the basic knowledge about the accessible ICT related to the equal opportunities for people with disabilities and to the social inclusion and describes the principles of accessible technologies (design for all, accessible webpages, electronic services. ICTs offer the enormous potential to maintain, improve quality of life, integration and independence.

  13. Immunohistochemical features of progesterone receptors expression of placental barrier in women with multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Zadorozhna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal disorders are one of the main known causes of miscarriage and preterm birth in multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART. Progesterone and the number of its receptors play an important role in the preservation and prolongation of pregnancy and it is the pressing issue of our time. The study of placentas, as the main site of synthesis of progesterone, has high informative potential and it is the most important diagnostic object, and information received by its research is essential for the full conclusion on the causes, mechanisms, close and long-term effects of multiple pregnancy pathology. Aim. The aim of our study was to investigate immunohistochemical features of placentas from women with dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies in spontaneous fertilization and after use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Methods and results. According to this goal we examined 94 women, 44 of whom had multiple pregnancies due to ART, 42 with separate multiple pregnancy and 38 women with a singleton pregnancy. We carried out clinical and statistical analysis of the course of pregnancy and childbirth in the studied groups. During the study it was found that multiple pregnancies due to assisted reproduction belong to the high risk of gestation, at which premature births occur much more frequently than in singleton pregnancies. We were the first to carry out the immunohistochemical study of placentas in which the highest expression of progesterone receptors in the nuclei of cells of decidua (45% related to the parent structure of the placenta from women with multiple pregnancies caused by ART is found. It is also found that with increasing gestational age, there has been a significant decrease in the expression of the activity of progesterone receptors (from 45 to 2.5%, regardless of the method of conception and the number of fetuses. Conclusions. The results of the study point to the definitive link of structures of

  14. ADVANCES IN REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN CATTLE: FROM ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TO CLONING
    AVANCES EN BIOTECNOLOÍA REPRODUCTIVA EN BOVINOS: DE LA INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL A LA CLONACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolini, L.R; Bertolini, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    The urge for the control of reproductive processes in animals has propelled a great gain in knowledge, also setting off the development of four generations of assisted reproductive technologies (AR T) for humans and animals. The use of assisted reproductive techniques has been of great importance in livestock production. In general terms, the main first three generations of ARTs, including 1) artificial insemination (AI) and gamete and embryo freezing, 2) multiple ovulation and embryo transfe...

  15. Science and technology analyst's assistant, revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromaty, A. S.; Adams, T. L.; Cunningham, J. F.; Tollander, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a research prototype software system named ASTA (Assistant for Science and Technology Analysis) that employs artificial intelligence technology to interpret radar signals and infer the probable nature of the radar system that produces them. Such analyses are of interest, for example, to engineers who wish to reverse-engineer an electronic system. Architecturally, ASTA is a multiple-process consulting expert system operating in a personal workstation environment. It comprises two principal components: an expert system that reasons using knowledge of electronic system design, radar physics, and signal analysis techniques, and a multiform-based user interface that maintains a separate database describing the complete state of interaction with the user, including a simplified user preference model, an interactive help subsystem, and a database of prior (completed or partial) analyses. These two processes are loosely coupled; that is, they operate in strictly separated namespaces, and they communicate using a mixture of synchronous (remote procedure call) and asynchronous (true) message passing. Message-based synchronization techniques are employed to assist in maintaining consistency between the two processes.

  16. 夫妇一方携带乙肝病毒对辅助生殖治疗中胚胎发育的影响%The Impact of HBV Carried by One of a Couple on Embryonic Development in Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪; 任春娥; 乔鹏云; 韩海艳; 张茂翔; 杨丽; 刘慧莹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨夫妇一方携带乙型肝炎病毒( HBV)对辅助生殖治疗( ART)中胚胎发育的影响。方法回顾性分析自2013年7月~2014年6月因女方不孕因素行体外受精联合胚胎移植技术( IVF)治疗的188个周期,其中研究组为52例乙肝携带者,包含男方乙肝表面抗原( HBsAg )阳性39个周期,女方乙肝表面抗原(HBsAg)阳性13个周期,正常对照组136个周期。比较两组患者的受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率、冻存率之间的差异性。结果夫妇一方携带HBV较正常夫妇在ART中胚胎发育差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论夫妇一方携带HBV不影响辅助生殖治疗中的胚胎发育。%Objective To investigate the impact of HBV carried by one of a couple on embryonic develop-ment in assisted reproductive technology .Methods An analysis of IVF-ET patients medical records of 188 cyclesfrom July 2013 to June 2014 in the center for female infertility was made .Among them,HBV carriers were 52 cycles,including the man HBs-Ag positive 39 cycles,the woman HBs-Ag positive 13cycles,while normal control group were 136 cycles. The fertilization rate ,cleavage rate ,high quality embryo rate and cryopreservation rate of the two groups were compared by embryo development criteria .Results There were no statistical difference between the two groups for the matched cri-teria( P>0.05) .Conclusion Either of the couple carried HBV has no effect on embryonic development in assisted re-productive technology .

  17. New reproductive technologies, ethics and legislation in Brazil: a delayed debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, D

    2001-06-01

    This paper focuses on the debate about the utilization of new reproductive technologies in Brazil, and the paths taken in the Brazilian National Congress in an attempt to draw up legislation to regulate the clinical practice of human assisted reproduction. British documents, such as the Warnock Report and Human Fertilization and Embriology [sic] Authority (HFEA) are used for thorough reference. The analysis of the Law Projects in the National Congress, the Resolution by the Federal Medicine Council, Resolution 196/96 and documents by the the Ministerio Publico (Public Prosecution Office), supplied the bases for the discussion. The principal question involved is the observation of different technical and moral prientations [sic] that influence the conduct of the issue in the legislative process. It is possible to observe that the main focus of the projects relates to the rights and interests of the children, to those possibly benefited by the technique and to embryo reduction. Very little attention has been directed to the issues of sexual and reproductive rights and to the health of the women submitted to the new reproductive techologies [sic].

  18. Including Assistive Technology in Teacher Preparation: Exploring One Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poel, Elissa Wolfe; Wood, Jackie; Schmidt, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Assistive Technology (AT) is specifically addressed in the most recent reauthorization of IDEA, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004). The law insures that assistive devices and services

  19. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate.

  20. Racial and ethnic differences in assisted reproduction treatment outcomes: the benefit of racial admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Setti, Amanda S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Taitson, Paulo Franco; Borges, Edson

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether racial and ethnic differences affect the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology in the Brazilian population. 1497 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were split into groups according to the patient's ethnicity: Caucasian (n = 2131), Mestizo (n = 358), Asian (n = 174), Black (n = 115) and Indian (n = 260). ICSI outcomes were compared among the groups. Body mass index was highest in the Black group, followed by the Mestizo, Indian, Caucasian and Asian groups (p > 0.001). The FSH dose (p > 0.001) was highest among Indians, followed by Asians and Caucasians, and the dose was lowest among Blacks and Mestizos. In contrast, the oocyte yield was highest among Mestizos, followed by Indians, Blacks and Caucasians, and lowest among Asians (p = 0.005). The fertilisation rate was highest among Mestizos, followed by Blacks, Indians and Caucasians, whereas Asians had the lowest fertilisation rate (p = 0.004). Pregnancy and implantation rates were also highest among Mestizos, followed by Blacks, Indians and Caucasians, whereas the Asian patients had the lowest rates (p = 0.008 and p > 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, our evidence suggests a possible beneficial effect of racial admixture on ICSI outcomes.

  1. NASA's southeast technology transfer alliance: A cooperative technology assistance initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Harry G.; Sheehan, William; Johnson, Anne

    1996-03-01

    Since 1958, NASA has been charged with actively assisting in the transfer of technologies derived from the United States space program into the industrial sector of the U.S. economy. This has historically been accomplished through technology transfer offices working independently at each NASA field center. NASA recently restructured the program to provide regional coordination, maximize efficiencies, eliminate redundancies, and capitalize on each center's fundamental technology strengths. The nation is divided into six NASA technology transfer geographical regions with each region containing one or more NASA field centers and a regional technology transfer center. The southeast region includes the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. The NASA field centers in this region are: the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama; the Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and the Stennis Space Center in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The centers have teamed to focus primarily on regional industries and businesses, to provide a wide range of resources for U.S. industries, including access to unique government facilities, regional workshops, and technical problem solving. Hundreds of American businesses have benefited from this new regional initiative, as evidenced by reports of over 10,500 added or saved jobs and over 988 million worth of economic impacts as a result of their technology transfer activities.

  2. Assistive Technology and Mathematics Education: Reports from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is a critical content area and assistive technology can benefit students with high incidence disabilities in accessing and achieving in this domain. Yet, the field lacks awareness of how often teachers use assistive technology in mathematics and what types of technology they are using. This study sought to understand teachers' self…

  3. 15 CFR 1160.3 - Assistance to industrial technology partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.3 Assistance to industrial... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance to industrial...

  4. Current controversies in turner syndrome: Genetic testing, assisted reproduction, and cardiovascular risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ackermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Turner syndrome (TS require close medical follow-up and management for cardiac abnormalities, growth and reproductive issues. This review summarizes current controversies in this condition, including: 1 the optimal genetic testing for Turner syndrome patients, particularly with respect to identification of Y chromosome material that may increase the patient's risk of gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma, 2 which patients should be referred for bilateral gonadectomy and the recommended timing of such referral, 3 options for assisted reproduction in these patients and associated risks, 4 the increased risk of mortality associated with pregnancy in this population, and 5 how best to assess and monitor cardiovascular risks.

  5. Assistive Technologies to Empower Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The prevalence of ADHD is approximately 5-7% for all school age children and 2-3% for adults. The disorder is associated with both social and academic impairments, increased risk of criminal convictions, as well as poor quality of life. This signals a great loss for society......, and an even greater loss for the individual with ADHD, as this handicap will affect them for the rest of their lives. ADHD is a major societal challenge and the annual estimated societal cost of ADHD (for children) has been estimated to be up to $52.4 billion in the United States alone. The research objective...... of this dissertation has therefore been to contribute to the limited research on assistive technologies for the ADHD domain, in order to address the societal and personal challenges associated with ADHD. A design framework for the ADHD domain was developed through interdisciplinary collaborations with ADHD domain...

  6. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra;

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Design. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Setting. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Sample. Seven...... hundred and thirty-nine couples having no child at study entry and with data on kind of treatment and live birth (yes/no) for each treatment attempt at the specialized public fertility clinic. Methods. Treatment data for medically assisted reproduction attempts conducted at the public fertility clinics...... or not – were estimated at 6607€. Costs per live birth of women relatively modest. The results can be generalized...

  7. Successful Pregnancy Following Assisted Reproduction in Woman With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Hypertension: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, José Fernando; de Macedo, Gustavo Capinzaiki; Campos, Luciana Aparecida; Baltatu, Ovidiu Constantin

    2015-09-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have a poor prognosis of pregnancy, since it is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity, including spontaneous miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal death and pre-term delivery. We report a case with successful pregnancy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and hypertension. A 39-year-old nulliparous woman presented with systemic lupus erythematosus with antinuclear and antiphospholipid antibodies, hypertension and recurrent pregnancy loss presented for assisted reproduction. The patient responded well to enoxaparin and prednisone during both assisted reproduction and prenatal treatment. This case report indicates that prescription of immunosuppressant and blood thinners can be safely recommended throughout the whole prenatal period in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Enoxaparin and prednisone may be prescribed concurrently during pregnancy.

  8. Ethics and regulation of inter-country medically assisted reproduction: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Carmel; Moreno, Adi; Eyal, Hedva; Leibel, Michal; Schuz, Rhona; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) for the treatment of infertility has brought benefit to many individuals around the world. But infertility and its treatment continue to be a cause of suffering, and over the past decade, there has been a steady growth in a new global market of inter-country medically assisted reproduction (IMAR) involving 'third-party' individuals acting as surrogate mothers and gamete donors in reproductive collaborations for the benefit of other individuals and couples who wish to have children. At the same time there is evidence of a double standard of care for third-party women involved in IMAR, violations of human rights of children and women, and extreme abuses that are tantamount to reproductive trafficking. This paper is the report of an inter-disciplinary working group of experts who convened in Israel to discuss the complex issues of IMAR. In Israel too IMAR practices have grown rapidly in recent years, mainly because of restrictions on access to domestic surrogacy for same sex couples and a chronically insufficient supply of egg cells for the treatment of couples and singles in need. Drawing upon local expertise, the paper describes documented practices that are harmful, suggests principles of good practice based on an ethic of care, and calls for action at the international, national and professional levels to establish a human rights based system of international governance for IMAR based on three regulatory models: public health monitoring, inter-country adoption, and trafficking in human beings, organs and tissues.

  9. Principles for fostering the transdisciplinary development of assistive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Jennifer; Jackson, Piper; Mulvenna, Maurice; Sixsmith, Judith; Sixsmith, Andrew; Mihailidis, Alex; Kontos, Pia; Miller Polgar, Janice; Grigorovich, Alisa; Martin, Suzanne

    2016-04-07

    Developing useful and usable assistive technologies often presents complex (or "wicked") challenges that require input from multiple disciplines and sectors. Transdisciplinary collaboration can enable holistic understanding of challenges that may lead to innovative, impactful and transformative solutions. This paper presents generalised principles that are intended to foster transdisciplinary assistive technology development. The paper introduces the area of assistive technology design before discussing general aspects of transdisciplinary collaboration followed by an overview of relevant concepts, including approaches, methodologies and frameworks for conducting and evaluating transdisciplinary working and assistive technology design. The principles for transdisciplinary development of assistive technologies are presented and applied post hoc to the COACH project, an ambient-assisted living technology for guiding completion of activities of daily living by older adults with dementia as an illustrative example. Future work includes the refinement and validation of these principles through their application to real-world transdisciplinary assistive technology projects. Implications for rehabilitation Transdisciplinarity encourages a focus on real world 'wicked' problems. A transdisciplinary approach involves transcending disciplinary boundaries and collaborating with interprofessional and community partners (including the technology's intended users) on a shared problem. Transdisciplinarity fosters new ways of thinking about and doing research, development, and implementation, expanding the scope, applicability, and commercial viability of assistive technologies.

  10. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility.

  11. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  12. Learning about Assistive Technology: Hispanics and a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    As early as 1988, the United States federal government mandated the creation of formal and informal programs to increase acquisition of assistive technology by persons with disabilities, with a special attention to underrepresented groups. This study compared the methods used by Hispanics with disabilities to learn about assistive technology with…

  13. Assistive Technology: What Every School Leader Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, Allen; Carpenter, Laura Bowden; Wright, James V.

    2009-01-01

    For many students with disabilities to be successful learners in the general education curriculum, they must receive supplemental aids and services. Assistive Technology commonly referred to as AT, fits both the definition of supplemental aids as well as related services for students with disabilities. Assistive Technology services and devices…

  14. Assistive Technology Competencies for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derrick W.; Kelley, Pat; Maushak, Nancy J.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Lan, William Y.

    2009-01-01

    Using the expert opinion of more than 30 professionals, this Delphi study set out to develop a set of assistive technology competencies for teachers of students with visual impairments. The result of the study was the development of a highly reliable and valid set of 111 assistive technology competencies. (Contains 2 tables.)

  15. Young Children with Physical Disabilities: Caregiver Perspectives about Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Adria; Campbell, Philippa H.; Wilcox, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver reports of problematic activities/routines with their young children with physical disabilities and types of assistive technology used as solutions were investigated in this study. In addition, caregiver competence with assistive technology use and ways in which caregivers received information and training were also examined. A subset of…

  16. Evaluating an Assistive Technology Resource Center in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is intended to present the procedure and outcomes of an evaluation of the Assistive Technology Resource Center in a city of Taiwan. The evaluation was initiated by Chiayi City Government through inviting three professionals in the field of assistive technology as evaluators. For the purpose of evaluation, the Executive…

  17. Assistive Technology for Persons with Physical Disabilities: Evaluation and Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigby, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a compilation of published studies that evaluated assistive technology interventions for children and adults with physical disabilities. The first chapter introduces the need for and the challenges involved in studying the outcomes of assistive technology interventions. The pers

  18. Rehabilitation Counselors' Perceptions of Importance and Competence of Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung Jen

    2013-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) has been identified as one of the most effective interventions for rehabilitation purposes of individuals with disabilities. Due to the positive potentials, assistive technology has attracted tremendous attention among the rehabilitation counselors during the past decades. As a result, numerous AT devices have been…

  19. Medical devices; obstetrical and gynecological devices; classification of the assisted reproduction embryo image assessment system. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order, and will be part of the codified language for the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  20. Clinical and molecular analyses of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: Comparison between spontaneous conception and assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Jair; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Fernández, García-Moya; Segovia, Mabel; Perandones, Claudia; Pérez Jurado, Luis A; Esteller, Manel; Fraga, Mario; Arias, Pedro; Gordo, Gema; Dapía, Irene; Mena, Rocío; Palomares, María; Pérez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Nevado, Julián; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Martinez-Glez, Víctor; Vallespín, Elena; Monk, David; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by an excessive prenatal and postnatal growth, macrosomia, macroglossia, and hemihyperplasia. The molecular basis of this syndrome is complex and heterogeneous, involving genes located at 11p15.5. BWS is correlated with assisted reproductive techniques. BWS in individuals born following assisted reproductive techniques has been found to occur four to nine times higher compared to children with to BWS born after spontaneous conception. Here, we report a series of 187 patients with to BWS born either after assisted reproductive techniques or conceived naturally. Eighty-eight percent of BWS patients born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR in comparison with 49% for patients with BWS conceived naturally. None of the patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypermethylation of H19/IGF2:IG-DMR, neither CDKN1 C mutations nor patUPD11. We did not find differences in the frequency of multi-locus imprinting disturbances between groups. Patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had an increased frequency of advanced bone age, congenital heart disease, and decreased frequency of earlobe anomalies but these differences may be explained by the different molecular background compared to those with BWS and spontaneous fertilization. We conclude there is a correlation of the molecular etiology of BWS with the type of conception. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿体格及精神运动发育状况的影响%Influence of psychological intervention on physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向红; 蒙顺好; 骆绮云; 陈玉珍; 于雯昶; 阙文清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of psychological intervention on the physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology. Methods 329 cases of ART born children in our hospital were set as the experimental group,the parturients were given pertinent psychological intervention.254 cases of children of spontaneous pregnancy were selected as the control group.The two groups were given follow-up for 24 months.Their physical condition at birth and psychomotor development during follow - up period were compared. Results Compared with the control group,length of infants at birth,body mass of the experimental group were significantly lower,and the incidence rate of premature birth,low birth weight,NICU stay during neonatal stage were higher.But there were no differences in psychomotor development between two groups. Conclusions ART born children of 24-month old show normal psychomotor development,but there are still more unfavorable physical factors,therefore,pertinent nursing intervention should be given based upon psychological intervention in clinic.%目的 探讨心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿的体格和精神运动发育状况的影响.方法 将利用现代辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)出生的329例婴儿列为实验组,并对其家长进行相应的心理干预;另选取同期出生的254例自然妊娠婴儿列为对照组.随访至24月龄,对2组婴儿出生时的体格状况及随访期的精神运动发育状况进行比较.结果 2组相比,实验组婴儿出生时的身长、体质量均显著低于对照组,而其早产、低出生体质量、新生儿期入住NICU等的发生率均显著高于对照组;但2组的精神运动发育指标比较无显著差异.结论 24个月内的ART婴儿精神运动发育正常,但其还存在着较多的体格不利因素,因此临床上应在结合心理干预的基础上予以针对性的措施.

  2. 接受辅助生殖技术治疗患者的心理健康状况及其心理干预措施的研究进展%Psychological survey and psychological interventions in infertility patients with assisted reproductive ;technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰玲; 韦立红; 韦继红

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,assisted reproductive technology (ART)is one of the most effective methods to treat infertility. Infertility patients have severe psychological problems at different treatment stages.Researches showed that the success of ART treatment,not only related with the patient′s own pathology and physiology,but also related with the patient′s psychological pressure during the treatment.The clinical successful pregnancy rate is associated with mental health,so psychological intervention during ART process is very important for infertility patients and medical staff.More attention about psychological interventions and education should be paid to infertility patients with ART.%目前,辅助生殖技术(ART)是治疗不孕不育最有效的方法。不孕不育患者在接受 ART治疗的不同阶段均面临不同的心理压力。接受 ART 治疗患者的临床成功妊娠率与其心理健康水平相关,若心理压力过大,可降低妊娠率和成功分娩率。因此,对接受 ART 治疗患者的心理干预,是ART 治疗过程中重要的组成部分。笔者拟对接受 ART 治疗患者的心理健康状况及其心理干预措施的研究进展进行综述。

  3. Model of Providing Assistive Technologies in Special Education Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Chakpitak, Nopasit

    2015-05-14

    Most students diagnosed with disabilities in Thai special education schools received assistive technologies, but this did not guarantee the greatest benefits. The purpose of this study was to survey the provision, use and needs of assistive technologies, as well as the perspectives of key informants regarding a model of providing them in special education schools. The participants were selected by the purposive sampling method, and they comprised 120 students with visual, physical, hearing or intellectual disabilities from four special education schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand; and 24 key informants such as parents or caregivers, teachers, school principals and school therapists. The instruments consisted of an assistive technology checklist and a semi-structured interview. Results showed that a category of assistive technologies was provided for students with disabilities, with the highest being "services", followed by "media" and then "facilities". Furthermore, mostly students with physical disabilities were provided with assistive technologies, but those with visual disabilities needed it more. Finally, the model of providing assistive technologies was composed of 5 components: Collaboration; Holistic perspective; Independent management of schools; Learning systems and a production manual for users; and Development of an assistive technology center, driven by 3 major sources such as Government and Private organizations, and Schools.

  4. Global Health Care Justice, Delivery Doctors and Assisted Reproduction: Taking a Note From Catholic Social Teachings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This article will examine the Catholic concept of global justice within a health care framework as it relates to women's needs for delivery doctors in the developing world and women's demands for assisted reproduction in the developed world. I will first discuss justice as a theory, situating it within Catholic social teachings. The Catholic perspective on global justice in health care demands that everyone have access to basic needs before elective treatments are offered to the wealthy. After exploring specific discrepancies in global health care justice, I will point to the need for delivery doctors in the developing world to provide basic assistance to women who hazard many pregnancies as a priority before offering assisted reproduction to women in the developed world. The wide disparities between maternal health in the developing world and elective fertility treatments in the developed world are clearly unjust within Catholic social teachings. I conclude this article by offering policy suggestions for moving closer to health care justice via doctor distribution.

  5. [Bacteriospermia in Assisted Reproductive Techniques: effects of bacteria on spermatozoa and seminal plasma, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitrelle, F; Robin, G; Lefebvre, C; Bailly, M; Selva, J; Courcol, R; Lornage, J; Albert, M

    2012-04-01

    The presence of bacteria in semen could induce impairment of sperm morphology, alteration of sperm function and mechanical or functional obstruction of the seminal tract. The term of bacteriospermia does not signify infection. Bacteriospermia and male accessory gland infection (MAGI) have indeed to be distinguished. They may lead both to male infertility but their diagnosis and treatment options differ. This review summarizes effects of bacteria and leucocytospermia on sperm parameters and functions. Then, indications, benefits and risks of treatment of bacteriospermia and MAGI, in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) will be discussed. For bacteria commonly observed in semen, this review aims at defining some thresholds above which a treatment is required. These thresholds were established according to literature, according to French microbiology society and in function of our usual practice. This review should help practitioners of reproductive medicine to take care of bacteriospermia in semen.

  6. Use of assistive technologies in academic libraries: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manorama; Shukla, Archana

    2014-01-01

    The present article attempts to highlight the use of assistive technologies in academic libraries in India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. It dwells upon the use and importance of assistive technologies in general and their use for visually challenged learners in particular. Further, it gives suggestions for implementing assistive technologies in academic libraries for making visually challenged students self-reliant learners in accomplishing their academic and research pursuits. The present study adopted convenience sampling for collecting the data, which was collected between December 15, 2012 and January 18, 2013.

  7. Computer-Assisted Technology for the Twice Exceptional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Technology helps students develop coping strategies to deal with various learning differences. Assistive technology is a common intervention provided to students with disabilities and generally varies depending on student need. Within gifted education, the use of computers and technology is concentrated on curricular applications and activities…

  8. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists for assisted reproductive technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Inany, Hesham G.; Youssef, Mohamed A.; Ayeleke, Reuben Olugbenga; Brown, Julie; Lam, Wai Sun; Broekmans, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists can be used to prevent a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) without the hypo-oestrogenic side-effects, flare-up, or long down-regulation period associated with agonists. The antagonists direct

  9. DNA fragmentation of spermatozoa and assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ralf; Kierspel, Eva; Hajimohammad, Marjam; Stalf, Thomas; Hoogendijk, Christiaan; Mehnert, Claas; Menkveld, Roelof; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard; Kruger, Thinus F

    2003-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing knowledge of the fertilization process, there is still a need for better understanding of the causes of sperm DNA fragmentation and its impact on fertilization and pregnancy. For this reason, human sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated by means of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ejaculate and in the spermatozoa themselves. These data were correlated with fertilization and pregnancy data from IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) patients. Sperm DNA fragmentation did not correlate with fertilization rate, but there was a significantly reduced pregnancy rate in IVF patients inseminated with TUNEL-positive spermatozoa. ICSI patients exhibited the same tendency. This implies that spermatozoa with damaged DNA are able to fertilize an oocyte, but at the time the paternal genome is switched on, further development stops. The determination of ROS in the ejaculate and the percentage of ROS-producing spermatozoa revealed markedly stronger correlations between sperm functions (i.e. motility) and the percentage of ROS-producing spermatozoa. The influence of seminal leukocytes, known to produce large amounts of oxidants, on sperm DNA fragmentation should not be neglected.

  10. Influencing Factor Analysis of Different Ovarian Stimulation Programs on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Patients with Endometriosis%不同促排卵方案对子宫内膜异位症妊娠结局的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳兰; 曹云霞; 程玲慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of different varian stimulation programs on the pregnancy outcome of assisted reproductive technology in patients with endometriosis. Methods;262 cycles of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcomes in patients with endometriosis treated in First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Reproductive Medicine Center from January 2008 to March 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. According to different controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) programs, the cycles were divided into three groups, A group for the super prolonged therapy group, B group for the short-therapy group, C group for the prolonged therapy group. Patient age, infertility type, infertility duration, serum CA125 before down regulation, basic FSH, LH, E2 levels, basic sinus follicle numbers,Gn start dosage, Gn duration, Gn total dosage, E2, P, LH levels at retrieval day, endometrial thickness, retrieved numbers of oo-cyte, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rate, and the relationship of serum CA125 after down regulation in group A and the clinical pregnancy rate, were all compared among the three groups. Results:?The mean age of group B was older than that of group A and group C (P0. 05). ?The basic level of FSH, Gn start dosage, LH level on retrieval day for group 8 were higher than those for group A and C( P 20 KU/L (18.31% and 17.65%) (P<0. 05). Conclusions;For mild endometriosis, early diagnosis and choice of assisted reproductive technology can effectively increase the clinical pregnancy rate. For moderate and severe endometriosis, when choosing super prolonged therapy program, checking serum CA125 can assist the judgement of pregnancy rate.%目的:了解不同促排卵方案对行体外受精-胚胎移植( IVF-ET)子宫内膜异位症(EMT)患者妊娠结局的影响.方法:回顾性分析安徽医科大学第一附属医院生殖医学中心2008年1月至2010年3月因EMT行IVF-ET共262周期的临床资料,根据超促排卵方

  11. The Role of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Razavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA is known to contribute one half of the genomic material to the offspring. The integrity of sperm DNA is important in fertilization, embryonic and fetal development, and postnatal child well being. The nature has created multiple barriers that allow only the fittest sperm to reach and fertilize an oocyte. However, assisted reproductive techniques (ART, like IVF and ICSI, may allow sperms with abnormal genomic material to enter the oocyte with minimal effort. This article describes structure of sperm DNA and different mechanism involved in sperm chromatin anomalies and DNA damage. Furthermore, this study elaborates possible sperm selection methods that may improve the outcome of ART.

  12. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  13. Intellectual Disability and Assistive Technology: Opening the GATE Wider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Fleur Heleen; Dinsmore, John; Khasnabis, Chapal; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has launched a program to promote Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology (GATE). The objective of the GATE program is to improve access to high quality, affordable assistive technology for people with varying disabilities, diseases, and age-related conditions. As a first step, GATE has developed the assistive products list, a list of priority assistive products based on addressing the greatest need at population level. A specific group of people who can benefit from user appropriate assistive technology are people with intellectual disabilities. However, the use of assistive products by people with intellectual disabilities is a neglected area of research and practice, and offers considerable opportunities for the advancement of population health and the realization of basic human rights. It is unknown how many people with intellectual disabilities globally have access to appropriate assistive products and which factors influence their access. We call for a much greater focus on people with intellectual disabilities within the GATE program. We present a framework for understanding the complex interaction between intellectual disability, health and wellbeing, and assistive technology.

  14. Elaboration and validation of an assistive technology assessment questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Assistive Technologies consists of resources, methods, and strategies favoring autonomy and inclusion of elderly and people with disabilities, being scarce in the literature instruments assessing them. A methodology study conducted with a panel of specialists and people with visual impairment, aimed to elaborate and validate a questionnaire to assess educational assistive technology. To consider an item as valid, we used 80% as agreement percentage, and validity and reliability of the questionnaire were calculated. Assistive Technology was characterized in six attributes: objectives, access, clarity, structure and presentation, relevance and efficacy, interactivity, and 19 items were elaborated to compose the questionnaire. From those, 11 obtained percentages higher than 80%, seven were modified and one was excluded. The instrument Cronbach’s alpha was 0,822, guaranteeing validity and reliability of the tool to assess health education Assistive Technology, and therefore, its use is indicated.

  15. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Iranian Infertile Males who are Candidates for Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Salahshourifar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study offers our contribution on the topic by a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in a population of Iranian infertile men attending assisted reproduction programs.Materials and Methods: Cytogenetic analysis was performed according to standard methods on cultured cells obtained from the patient peripheral blood. In all, 874 files belonging to male partner of each couple were classified as follows: azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality in respect of morphology and motility.Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 136(15.5% individuals of the whole population studied including 12.0 %, 1.2 % and 2.0% of azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality, respectively. Of those, 116 (13.2% had sex chromosome abnormalities and 20(2.3% had autosomal chromosome abnormalities.Conclusion: We observed high frequency of aneuploidy and sex chromosomal mosaicism in azoospermic men and high structural aberrations in males with low sperm quality. We suggested that type of chromosomal abnormalities had an inverse relation to sperm count. So that, high chromosomal aneuploidy was detected in males with lower sperm count and high structural aberration was detected in males with low sperm quality. Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of male infertility. Consequently, Genetic testing and counselling is indicated for infertile men with abnormal semen parameters with either abnormal karyotype or normal karyotype before applying assisted reproductive techniques.

  16. Fake it till you make it: Policymaking and assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise; Downie, Jocelyn; Snow, Dave

    2014-06-01

    The Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHR Act) came into effect in 2004. The AHR Act stipulates in s.12 that no reimbursement of expenditures incurred in the course of donating gametes, maintaining or transporting in vitro embryos, or providing surrogacy services is permitted, except in accordance with the regulations and with receipts. Ten years later, Health Canada still has not drafted the regulations governing reimbursement. Section 12 is therefore still not in force. Health Canada and others have asserted that there is a Health Canada policy on reimbursement and that reimbursement with receipts is legally permissible. We dispute the existence of such a policy and its legitimacy (if it exists). We also challenge the decision by Health Canada not to produce regulations and thereby make it possible for Parliament to bring s.12 into force. This intentional lack of action is worrisome on at least two fronts. First, it sidesteps the processes required for regulations and thereby ducks the Parliamentary oversight very deliberately built into the AHR Act. Second, it leaves Canadians who provide and who access assisted human reproduction uncertain about what is and is not permitted, and therefore fearful of, or at risk of, prosecution. We conclude that Health Canada should take the steps necessary to put regulations in front of Parliament so that Parliament will then be able to pass regulations and bring s.12 into force. Canadians should demand no less.

  17. [Literature review and state of the art of the Italian law on medically assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Delbon, P; Conti, A; Sirignano, A

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the current situation of medically assisted reproduction in Italy after the promulgation of Law 40 in 2004. This law is actually completely different from the origin version. The controversial points like reproduction for couples who bear genetic diseases, prohibition of heterologous fertilization, cryoconservation of the embryos, obligation to perform just one and contemporaneous implant of all the embryos produced, are today definitively erased. This new situation is due to the jurisprudence of the Italian Courts but especially to the changes introduced by the European Court of Human Rights and by the questions of constitutionality raised by some Italian Courts. After analysis of the legislation, the views of various authors are compared, and the weaknesses and strong points of the law are considered from the point of view of legal medicine, science and bioethics. After ten years of operation of this law Italy has returned to a situation that existed before the law. In fact the old law was only full of prohibitions. Now is possible to do heterologous fertilization and this article photographs the current situation of hospitals for assisted procreation in Italy. The work also comments on procreative tourism, a direct consequence of this law, and on the status of women, who must be the subject and not the object of the legislation.

  18. Are there optimal numbers of oocytes, spermatozoa and embryos in assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milachich, Tanya; Shterev, Atanas

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this overview is to discuss the current information about the search for the optimum yield of gametes in assisted reproduction, as one of the major pillars of IVF success. The first topic is focused on the number of male gametes and the possible impact of some genetic traits on these parameters. The number of spermatozoa did not seem to be crucial when there is no severe male factor of infertility. Genetic testing prior to using those sperm cells is very important. Different methods were applied in order to elect the "best" spermatozoa according to specific indications. The next problem discussed is the importance of the number of oocytes collected. Several studies have agreed that "15 oocytes is the perfect number," as the number of mature oocytes is more important. However, if elective single embryo transfer is performed, the optimal number of oocytes will enable a proper embryo selection. The third problem discussed concerns fertility preservation. Many educational programs promote and encourage procreation at maternal ages between 20-35 years, since assisted reproduction is unable to fully overcome the effects of female aging and fertility loss after that age. It is also strongly recommended to ensure a reasonable number of cryopreserved mature oocytes, preferably in younger ages (<35), for which an average of two stimulation cycles are likely required. For embryo cryopreservation, the "freeze all" strategy suggests the vitrification of good embryos, therefore quality is prior to number and patient recruitment for this strategy should be performed cautiously.

  19. Investigation of nursing students’ and professional nurses’ attitudes towards ethical issues of assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balari C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Various ethical problems have emerged regarding Assisted Reproduction (AR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of nursing students and professional nurses against assisted reproduction with emphasis on current ethical issues.Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and Χ2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean age of nurses was 34,41±7,28 years old, while mean age of students was 21,83±3,07 years old. Nursing students are more receptive regarding cryopreserved human germ cells for future use, cloning of embryos and AR above 40 years of age. Conclusions: The attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students upon bioethical issues of AR are quite different. Nursing students seem more receptive against new methods of AR.

  20. A Unified Semantic Framework for the description of assistive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstadinidou, Aggeliki; Kaklanis, Nikolaos; Votis, Konstantinos; Tzovaras, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the Semantic Alignment Tool, a unified, classified, ontological framework, for the description of assistive solutions that comprises information from different sources automatically. The Semantic Alignment Tool is a component of the Cloud4All/GPII infrastructure that enables users to add and/or modify descriptions of assistive technologies and align their specific settings with similar settings in an ontological model based on ISO 9999. The current work presents the interaction of the Semantic Alignment Tool with external sources that contain descriptions and metadata for Assistive Technologies (ATs) in order to achieve their synchronization in the same semantic model.

  1. Changing Family Practices with Assistive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Müller, Jörg; Marshall, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families in establis...

  2. Comparison of semen quality and outcome of assisted reproductive techniques in Chinese men with and without hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Ping Zhou; Xiao-ling Hu; Yi-Min Zhu; Fan Qu; Sai-Jun Sun; Yu-Li Qian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART). A total of 916 men (457 HBV-positive and 459 HBV-negative) seeking fertility assistance from January 2008 to December 2009 at the Women's Hospital in the School of Medicine at Zhejiang University were analysed for semen parameters. Couples in which the men were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-seropositive were categorized as HBV-positive and included 587 in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and 325 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles from January 2004 to December 2009; negative controls were matched for female age, date of ova retrieval, ART approach used (IVF or ICSI) and randomized in a ratio of 1:1 according to the ART treatment cycles (587 for IVF and 325 for ICSI). HBV-infected men exhibited lower semen volume, lower total sperm count as well as poor sperm motility and morphology (P0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that HBV infection independently contributed to increased rates of asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia/azoospermia (P<0.05) as well as decreased rates of implantation and clinical pregnancy in ICSI cycles (P<0.05). Our results suggest that HBV infection in men is associated with poor sperm quality and worse ICSI and embryo transfer outcomes but does not affect the outcome of IVF and embryo transfer.

  3. Using Assistive Technology to Meet Diverse Learner Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtts, Stephanie; Dobbins, Nicole; Takemae, Natsuko

    2012-01-01

    Implementing new and advanced technology for instruction and access to the curriculum for the increasingly diverse student populations in schools can be a daunting task for even the most tech-savvy school personnel. This task can be even more challenging when devices, tools, and systems associated with assistive, or adaptive, technology are part…

  4. The Effects of Assistive Technology on Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze assistive technology literature for students with disabilities. The literature search rendered N = 57 literature and n = 17 manuscripts were identified in the special education technology field studies. Each source was evaluated according to the following criteria: types of disability, learning objectives…

  5. Ventricular Assist Devices: Physiology Meets Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    vaslr resbane, and icrue systemic cir(nlatkm O(Mchet at aL. 1988). Non-ulsatile flow results in VADs 19 mico ulatory shiting snd edema formation...than 45 ininHg, and the oxygen saturation greater than 95 percent (Ley,, 1991). Hypoxeinia. initially may be due to pulmonary edema or a mild form of...1990). Combined Registry for the clinical use of mechanical ventricular assist devices: postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock. o36(1), 43-46. Mondejar, E

  6. Epigenetic Consequences of Artificial Reproductive Technologies to the Bovine Imprinted Genes SNRPN, H19/IGF2 and IGF2R

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    Lawrence C. Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal breeders have made widespread use of assisted reproductive technologies to accelerate genetic improvement programs aimed at obtaining more, better and cheaper food products. Selection approaches have traditionally focused on Mendel’s laws of inheritance using parental phenotypic characteristics and quantitative genetics approaches to choose the best parents for the next generation, regardless of their gender. However, apart from contributing DNA sequence variants, male and female gametes carry parental-specific epigenetic marks that play key roles during pre- and post-natal development and growth of the offspring. We herein review the epigenetic anomalies that are associated with artificial reproductive technologies in current use in animal breeding programs. For instance, we demonstrate that bovine embryos and foetuses derived by in vitro culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer show epigenetic anomalies in the differentially methylated regions controlling the expression of some imprinted genes. Although these genomic imprinting errors are undetected in the somatic tissues after birth, further research is warranted to examine potential germ cell transmission of epimutations and the potential risks of reproducing cattle using artificial reproductive technologies.

  7. Clinical analysis on preterm birth related factors and premature outcomes in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies and spontaneous pregnancies%辅助生殖技术妊娠和自然妊娠早产相关因素及早产儿结局临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 杨晓葵; 张为远

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the primary factors of preterm birth and birth outcomes of preterm neonates in assisted reproductive technology ( ART) pregnancies and spontaneous pregnancies .Methods The data of 223 ART pregnancies with premature delivery and 5 677 natural pregnancies with premature delivery hospitalized in Beijing Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital affiliated of Capital Medical University from October 2010 to May 2012 were analyzed retrospectively ,general maternal characteristics , pregnancy complications , delivery weeks , mode of delivery , premature weight , Apgar scores and perinatal outcomes of two groups were compared.Results The proportion of elderly parturient women was higher in ART group ( single birth pregnancy 39.8 %, twin pregnancy 26.2 %) than natural pregnancies group ( single birth pregnancy 14.8 %,twin pregnancy 13.3 % ) ( P0.05).The Apgar scores of the two groups had no significant difference (P>0.05).Cesarean delivery was the main delivery mode in both groups .Cesarean section rate of ART group was higher than spontaneous pregnancy group , and cesarean section rate in twin pregnancies was higher , the differences were significant ( P<0.05 ) .Hypertensive disorder , placentae abruption , breech presentation and low birth weight were the main risk factors of poor birth outcomes in preterm neonates .Conclusion Preterm birth and birth outcomes of preterm neonates were related with pregnancy complications and delivery complications , rather than pregnancy pattern .%目的:探讨辅助生殖技术( assisted reproductive technology , ART)助孕妊娠和自然妊娠孕妇发生早产的主要因素及早产儿出生结局的相关影响因素。方法选择2010年10月至2012年5月在首都医科大学附属北京妇产医院分娩的行 ART 助孕妊娠的早产孕妇223例和同期分娩的自然受孕早产孕妇5677例进行回顾性分析,比较ART妊娠早产孕妇与自然妊娠早产孕妇的妊娠合并症及并发症、

  8. Assisted reproduction with gametes and embryos: what research is needed and fundable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, George E

    2016-01-01

    Principles for selecting future research projects include interests of investigators, fundability, potential applications, ethical considerations, being able to formulate testable hypotheses and choosing the best models, including selection of the most appropriate species. The following 10 areas of assisted reproduction seem especially appropriate for further research: efficacious capacitation of bovine spermatozoa in vitro; improved in vitro bovine oocyte maturation; decreasing variability and increasing efficacy of bovine superovulation; improved fertility of sexed semen; improving equine IVF; improving cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa; understanding differences between males in success of sperm cryopreservation and reasons for success in competitive fertilisation; mechanisms of reprogramming somatic cell nuclei after nuclear transfer; regulation of differentiation of ovarian primordial follicles; and means by which spermatozoa maintain fertility during storage in the epididymis. Issues are species specific for several of these topics, in most cases because the biology is species specific.

  9. FSH treatment in infertile males candidate to assisted reproduction improved sperm DNA fragmentation and pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Ghezzi, Marco; Cosci, Ilaria; Sartini, Barbara; Bottacin, Alberto; Engl, Bruno; Di Nisio, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-07-27

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether follicle-stimulating hormone treatment improves sperm DNA parameters and pregnancy outcome in infertile male candidates to in-vitro fertilization.Observational study in 166 infertile male partners of couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization. Eighty-four patients were receiving follicle-stimulating hormone treatment (cases) and 82 refused treatment (controls). Semen parameters, sexual hormones, and sperm nucleus (fluorescence in-situ hybridization, acridine orange, TUNEL, and γH2AX) were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1), when all subjects underwent assisted reproduction techniques. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance.Compared to baseline, cases showed significant improvements in seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation indexes after follicle-stimulating hormone therapy (all P fragmentation index and lower double strand breaks (P fragmentation, which in turn leads to increased pregnancy rates in infertile males undergoing in-vitro fertilization. In particular, double strand breaks (measured with γH2AX test) emerged as the most sensible parameter to follicle-stimulating hormone treatment in predicting reproductive outcome.

  10. Marital stability and quality in families created by assisted reproduction techniques: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, L; Casey, P; Jadva, V; Golombok, S

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of children are being born with the use of assisted reproduction techniques such as donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy. There have been concerns that the use of these third-party reproduction techniques may have a negative effect on the quality of the relationship between the mother and father. Marital stability and quality was examined in a UK sample of donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy families and families in which children were naturally conceived. Interview and questionnaire assessments of marital stability and quality were collected from mothers and fathers over five time points, when the children in the families were aged 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10. Of those families who participated when children were 10years old, a minority of couples in each family type had divorced/separated and few differences emerged between the different family types in terms of mothers' or fathers' marital quality. Despite concerns, couples in families created by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy were found to be functioning well.

  11. HLA-G regulatory haplotypes and implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; Mattar, Sibelle Botogosque; Vargas, Rafael Gustavo; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; Bicalho, Maria da Graça

    2012-09-01

    The role of HLA-G in several clinical conditions related to reproduction has been investigated. Important polymorphisms have been found within the 5'URR and 3'UTR regions of the HLA-G promoter. The aim of the present study was to investigate 16 SNPs in the 5'URR and 14-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism located in the 3'UTR region of the HLA-G gene and its possible association with the implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatments (ART). The case group was composed of 25 ART couples. Ninety-four couples with two or more term pregnancies composed the control group. Polymorphism haplotype frequencies of the HLA-G were determined for both groups. The Haplotype 5, Haplotype 8 and Haplotype 11 were absolute absence in ART couples. The HLA-G*01:01:02a, HLA-G*01:01:02b alleles and the 14-bp ins polymorphism, Haplotype 2, showed an increased frequency in case women and similar distribution between case and control men. However, this susceptibility haplotype is significantly presented in case women and in couple with failure implantation after treatment, which led us to suggest a maternal effect, associated with this haplotype, once their presence in women is related to a higher number of couples who underwent ART.

  12. Oxidative Stress and its Role in Female Infertility and Assisted Reproduction: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are involved in physiological functions and act as mediators invarious signaling processes. Elevated or sustained generation of free radicals and non radicalspecies derived from free radicals can lead to an imbalance in the intracellular redox homeostasis.Normally, any excess levels of reactive radical and nonradical species generated are interceptedby antioxidants. An excess of the free radicals however, can precipitate pathologies in thefemale reproductive tract. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in various pathological conditionssuch as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal teratogenecity, preterm labor andintrauterine growth retardation, all of which lead to an immense burden of maternal and fetal,morbidity and mortality. In addition evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in theproinflammatory changes seen with polycystic ovarian disease and also in the pathogenesisof endometriosis and tubal factor infertility. Our review captures the role of OS in assistedreproduction specifically in in vitro fertilization (IVF/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI and in vitro maturation of oocytes (IVM. We also examine the role antioxidants playin modifying the fertility outcomes with assisted reproductive techniques. Finally in vivo andin vitro strategies to modulate the influence of ROS and establish an optimal redox state arealso discussed.

  13. HLA-G profile of infertile couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Nardi, Fabiola Silva; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; da Graça Bicalho, Maria

    2016-12-01

    HLA-G codes for a non-classical class I (Ib) protein which is mainly expressed in trophoblast cells. Many pieces of evidence pointed out its essential role conferring immunological tolerance to the fetus. Some HLA-G alleles have been linked to enhanced or reduced HLA-G protein levels expression, which have been associated with reproductive failure. In this study 33 couples undergoing ART (assisted reproduction treatment; n=66) and 120 couples who conceived naturally (controls; n=240) were enrolled in the study. Genotyping was performed by SBT and tagged an 1837bp at 5'URR as well as exons 2, 3 and4 of HLA-G. Alleles, genotypes and haplotypes were compared between infertile and control groups using Fisher Exact Test. The haplotype HLA-G(∗)010101b/HLA-G(∗)01:01:01 showed statistically significant higher frequency in control groups. The immunogenetics of infertility is complex and might be dependent on different genes involved in the establishment of a successful pregnancy. A better understanding of HLA-G alleles and haplotypes structure and how the genetic diversity at their regulatory sites could impact on their level of expression and build up the susceptibility or protection conditions may shed light on the comprehension of immunogenetics mechanisms acting at the fetus-maternal interface.

  14. Regulating Lesbian Motherhood: Gender, Sexuality and Medically Assisted Reproduction in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.

  15. PROMOTING EQUALITY THROUGH ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, A SOCIOECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria NEAGU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the proposed paper is to identify a possible cost benefit evaluation of assistive technologies in the context of promoting equal opportunities in life. Equal opportunities represent more than just ensuring an equitable framework for all individuals; equality represents recognition and respect for all individuals no matter the differences among us. The paper debates the issues of equality in the context of assistive technologies advance. The use of assistive technology was found to be predictive of enjoyment of human rights and increased capabilities for those with special needs. Because promoting equality among individuals necessitates more than doing nothing it is obvious that we should think of evaluating the costs and the benefits of such actions taking into consideration socio and economic aspects. The topic has a novelty and an applicability character mostly for our country.

  16. Oral contraceptive pill, progestogen or estrogen pre-treatment for ovarian stimulation protocols for women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, B.; Oirschot, S.M. van; Farquhar, C.; Rombauts, L.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many subfertile women, assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is the only hope for a pregnancy and live birth. The combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) given prior to the hormone therapy in an IVF cycle may result in better pregnancy outcomes of ART. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether p

  17. The total pregnancy potential per oocyte aspiration after assisted reproduction-in how many cycles are biologically competent oocytes available?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, J G; Rodríguez, N M; Andreasen, L D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: While stimulation of women prior to assisted reproduction is associated with increased success rates, the total biological pregnancy potential per stimulation cycle is rarely assessed. METHODS: Retrospective sequential cohort study of the cumulative live birth rate in 1148 first IVF...

  18. [AAL: Ambient Assisted Living Assistive technologies for healthy ageing and opportunities for medicine and caring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misoch, Sabina

    2015-09-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) summarizes various connected digital networked assisting technologies with the aim to support elderly and chronically ill people and to improve their quality of life. This paper defines the term AAL and shows different fields of application for AAL technologies. It illustrates the role of AAL against the background of the societal and demographic changes, of the expected growth of older people in need of care, and of the ongoing trend of singularisation of elderly. We describe medical application areas with new opportunities for the use of AAL technologies. The article highlights further the importance of the technical acceptance of these technologies by the end users, which we deem to be the most critical factor for the diffusion and use of AAL technologies in the forthcoming years.

  19. Results and unsolved problems following the amendment to the Italian Law on assisted reproduction brought about by the Constitutional Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinelli, Andrea; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Darretta, Valeria; Anserini, Paola

    2012-07-01

    Since the approval of Law N° 40/2004, Italian specialists have been applying assisted reproductive techniques in compliance with a number of restrictions. Several attempts were made to find a solution to the practical and ethical issues brought about by this restrictive legislation. Finally, in May 2009, the Italian Constitutional Court banned most of the limitations. In the last year the authors worked together to study the impact of the Italian Constitutional Court modifications on assisted reproduction from both a gynecological and medico-legal point of view. Despite the clinically positive impact of the ruling, a lot of technical and legal unsolved issues still exist. Analyzing these problems, the authors stress the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to achieve adequate legislation in order to improve patients' outcome and avoid "reproductive migration" from Italy to other European Countries. New regulation could also be important for practitioners by keeping the risk of legal troubles to the minimum.

  20. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO ELDER: INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fernandes de Albuquerque

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar a produção científica nas produções que abordam o assunto tecnologias assistivas direcionadas ao idoso. Metodologia: realizou-se uma Revisão Integrativa da Literatura cujo universo do estudo foi constituído por publicações disseminadas nos bancos de dados, LILACS, MEDLINE e SCIELO, que contemplavam a temática. Como critérios de inclusão definiu-se artigos completos em português, com os descritores, Tecnologia Assistiva, tecnologia assistiva para idosos e assistência tecnológica para idosos, no período de 2005 à 2011. Resultados: foram encontrados 2 artigos completos, na LILACS que atendiam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: a produção científica pertinente às tecnologias assistivas e idoso ainda é pouco expressiva na literatura nacional da área de Saúde. Devendo haver um enriquecimento do acervo bibliográfico dessa área de estudo resultando em disseminação do conhecimento acerca da aplicação de Tecnologia Assistivas como alternativa para o desempenho ativo desse crescente grupo populacional. 

  1. Efficient blastomere biopsy for mouse embryo splitting for future applications in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to establish a safe, efficient biopsy procedure for embryo splitting using the mouse model for future applications in human assisted reproduction. From mouse embryos at the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell stage, half the number of blastomeres were microsurgically biopsied and transferred into empty mouse zonae pellucidae. Twin embryonic development was monitored during in-vitro culture. Blastocyst developmental rate using 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-cell splitting was 74.4, 75.0, 66.7 and 38.4 respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 94.9, 97.5, 92.7 and 83.8%. Blastocysts from 2-, 4-, and 6-cell splitting resulted in elevated hatching rates compared with non-operated blastocysts (87.5%), due to the Tyrode-assisted hatching effect. Blastocyst morphology was superior from 2- and 4-cell splitting when compared with 6- and 8-cell splitting. Furthermore, outgrowth of twin blastocysts from 2- and 4-cell splitting showed well-developed colonies with trophoblast cells and clusters of ICM cells, whereas those obtained from 6- and 8-cell splitting frequently formed small-sized colonies. Due to the high twinning success rate obtained under the experimental conditions employed in this study, it appears that with further modifications and proper safeguards, such embryo splitting efforts could have potential applications in humans.

  2. 人工助孕子代的体格和神经心理发育研究进展%Growth of the children conceived by assisted reproduction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思锐

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the physiological and psychological state of the children conceived by different assisted reproduction techniques,studies confirm that the current assisted reproductive technology is safe,and there is no adverse effect on the physiological and psychological state of offspring.However,the high multiple pregnancy rate caused by assisted reproductive technology can affect the growth and psychological state of the children conceived by different assisted reproduction techniques,which is to be resolved.%该文分析不同人工助孕技术出生的子代体格和神经心理发育情况,证实目前人工助孕技术是安全的,对子代的生理以及心理无不良影响产生.但是人工助孕技术导致的多胎妊娠率增高是影响子代生长发育和神经心理发育状况的重要因素,需要相应的解决措施.

  3. AMH and AMHR2 Polymorphisms and AMH Serum Level Can Predict Assisted Reproduction Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Peluso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In human assisted reproduction, the ovarian response to exogenous recombinant Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH therapy is variable and difficult to predict. The standard protocol of ovarian hyperstimulation can result in satisfactory response; however, an unsatisfactory response necessitates FSH dose adjustment or results in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Polymorphisms in AMH and AMHR2 genes appear to affect hormone biological activities, thus affecting follicle recruitment and development, leading to infertility. We aimed to evaluate AMH and AMHR2 polymorphisms in infertile women, and correlate those findings with AMH, FSH and estradiol serum level response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, as well as assisted reproduction outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 186 infertile women that underwent one cycle of high complexity assisted reproductive treatment. Blood samples were collected and a TaqMan assay was used for AMH G146T/rs10407022 and AMHR2 A-482G/rs2002555, A10G/rs11170555, C1749G/rs2071558 and G4952A/rs3741664 genotyping, and FSH, estradiol and AMH levels were measured. The findings were correlated to human reproduction outcomes. Results: AMH rs10407022 and AMHR2 rs2002555 polymorphisms were not associated with hormonal measurements, whereas AMHR2 rs11170555 and rs3741664 were positively associated with AMH, estradiol and FSH levels. The genotype distribution of AMH and AMHR2 genes according to Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation did not show a positive association. However, an association with AFC, degree of oocyte maturation (allele G of AMHR2 rs2071558 the number of embryos produced (alleles T and G of AMH rs10407022 and AMHR2 rs2002555, respectively and frozen embryo (allele G of AMHR2 rs11170555 were found to be statistically associated. Considering COH, serum AMH and AFC were a positive predictor to OHSS. Regarding serum AMH and assisted reproduction outcomes, a positive correlation

  4. 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann; Dong, Hua

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14), incorporating the 11th Cambridge Workshop on Rehabilitation Robotics, held in Cambridge, England in March 2016. It presents novel and state-of-the-art research from an international group of leaders in the fields of universal access and assistive technology. It explores various issues including the reconciliation of usability, accessibility and inclusive design, the design of inclusive assistive and rehabilitation systems, measuring product demand and human capabilities, data mining and visualizing inclusion, legislation in inclusive design, and situational inclusive interfaces (automotive and aerospace). This book provides an invaluable resource to researchers, postgraduates, design practitioners, therapists and clinical practitioners, as well as design teachers.

  5. 78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... slate of applicants developed for the Assistive Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program (AFP) in... AT AFP. The notice indicated that the absolute and competitive preference priorities in the notice.... L. 113-006). In FY 2012, we received 15 applications for AT AFP grants and made three grant...

  6. Using Anchored Instruction to Teach about Assistive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, A. Edward; Morse, Timothy E.

    1996-01-01

    A training module about assistive technology using an integrated hypermedia format and principles of anchored instruction was developed and field tested with 57 undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals. The trainees responded positively to the anchored instruction. This article details the module's development, evaluation, and…

  7. Approaches for Evaluating the Usability of Assistive Technology Product Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Mi; Sprigle, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    User input is an important component to help guide designers in producing a more usable product. Evaluation of prototypes is one method of obtaining this input, but methods for evaluating assistive technology prototypes during design have not been adequately described or evaluated. This project aimed to compare different methods of evaluating…

  8. Teacher Knowledge of Assistive Technology for Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, Laura Hembree

    2013-01-01

    This nonexperimental, mixed-methods study explored elementary general and special education teachers' knowledge related to assistive technology as both teacher groups are charged with the appropriate education of students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. The study sought to examine the nature of the knowledge that drives the decision…

  9. Status of Assistive Technology Instruction in University Personnel Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Margaret E.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2012-01-01

    The reauthorization of IDEA mandates that students with a disability must be considered for assistive technology (AT). However, in order to implement the mandate, teachers and related service personnel must be knowledgeable about many aspects of AT. The purpose of this study was to gauge the extent to which personnel preparation programs believe…

  10. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  11. The Role of Assistive Technology in Self-Perceived Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D.; Woodgate, Roberta L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of how assistive technology (AT) contributes to self-perceived participation for individuals with spinal cord injuries and to propose a revised definition of AT in light of the findings. A grounded theory study of 19 adults with spinal cord injuries was conducted. Participants engaged in…

  12. Effective Assistive Technology Consideration and Implications for Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vita L.; Hinesmon-Matthews, Lezlee J.

    2014-01-01

    Often the consideration of assistive technology devices and services during the individualized education program (IEP) process is overlooked. Because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) authorized this consideration, IEP team members must be keenly aware of the importance they hold in providing this valuable input. Thus, IEP…

  13. Assistive Technology User Group Perspectives of Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Stoner, Julia B.; Watts, Emily H.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing usage of assistive technology (AT) usage in early childhood education settings serving children who are at-risk or who have developmental disabilities, there is a corresponding need for effective professional development experiences such as user groups to develop skills in using AT. Using a collective case study approach, 10…

  14. Improving Vocabulary Skills through Assistive Technology: Rick's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey-Glenn, Pam F.; Gentry, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This case study examines the use of two assistive technologies, the Franklin Language Master 6000b and Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, as visual support systems to aid in the vocabulary acquisition skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention used children's literature and best practices in teaching vocabulary skills in…

  15. Framework for dementia Quality of Life assessment with Assistive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for a Quality of Life (QOL) evaluation tool that is sensitive, flexible, computerized, and specific to assistive technology (AT) for dementia care. Using the appropriate evaluation tool serves to improve methodologies that are used for AT assessment...

  16. Comparison of prenatal ultrasound screening results and fetal health status of twin pregnancy and twin pregnancy in assisted reproductive technology%辅助生殖技术受孕双胎与自然受孕双胎的产前超声筛查结果及胎儿的健康状况比较观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋华景; 郭津含; 陈静; 林丽璇; 熊剑

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the prenatal ultrasound screening results and fetal health status of twin pregnancy and twin pregnancy in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Methods 90 cases of pregnant women with twin pregnancy after ART from January 2011 to June 2015 were selected as observation group, 100 cases of spontaneous twin pregnant women were selected as control group. The relevant data of prenatal ultrasound examination and fetal situation were collected, and pregnancy outcome of the two groups were compared. Results Polyhydramnios, umbilical cord around the neck, the incidence of premature rupture of membranes rate, placenta previa incidence, anemia rate and postpartum hemorrhage incidence of the two groups had no significant difference (P 0.05). Twin transfusion syndrome incidence of observation group was significantly lower than that of control group (P 0.05). The average body weight of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group (P <0.05). Conclusion ART twin pregnancy does not increase the risk of perinatal complications. Compared to natural pregnancy, it has obvious advantages on amniotic fluid abnormalities, changes in the umbilical cord and the twin transfusion syndrome.%目的:比较辅助生殖技术受孕双胎与自然受孕双胎的产前超声筛查结果及胎儿的健康状况。方法选取2011年1月~2015年6月期间在我院应用辅助生殖技术(ART)怀孕双胎90例孕妇设为观察组,及同期自然受孕双胎100例孕妇为参照组,收集产前超声检测得到的相关数据以及胎儿情况,对比分析并比较两组的妊娠结局。结果两组在羊水过多、脐带绕颈发生率、胎膜早破发生率、前置胎盘发生率、贫血发生率和产后出血发生率等方面比较无显著差异(P<0.05);观察组平均羊水量显著多于参照组,羊水过少、脐带附着位置变化发生率显著低于参照组(P<0.05)。两组患者胎儿畸形率、

  17. 男性血清抗苗勒管激素水平对辅助生殖结局的预测价值%Anti-Müllerian hormone in male serum and prediction of the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁锋; 李予; 陈静华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate male serum anti-Müillerian hormone (AMH) in assessing semen quality and predicting the pregnancy outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Methods: A total of 103 male patients under ICSI were allotted to Groups A (normal sperm concentration control, n = 29), B (oligospermia, n = 27), C (obstructive azoospermia, n = 29) and D (non-obstructive azoospermia, n = 18 ). The contents of serum AMH and other related sexual hormones were determined by ELISA,and their correlations were analyzed with the seminal quality on the day of semen collection and with the pregnancy outcomes after ICSI.Results: The contents of male serum AMH were (5.03 ± 0.44), (3.70 ± 0.44), (5.39 ± 0.71) and (7.31 ± 1.64) pmol/L,respectively, in Groups A, B, C and D, with no statistically significant differences among the four groups ( F = 2.02, P > 0.05).The egg fertilization rate of the 103 couples was (76.13 ± 23.66) %, not significantly correlated with the male serum AMH level (P > 0.05). The contents of male serum AMH in the pregnancy and non-pregnancy groups were (6.19 ± 1.05) and (4.72 ± 1.64)pmol/L, respectively, with no significant difference ( t = 1. 281, P > 0.05). Conclusion: The level of male serum AMH can neither reflect spermatogenesis of men nor predict the egg fertilization rate and pregnancy outcomes after ICSI, and therefore cannot be used alone as a serological predictive marker of ICSI outcomes.%目的:探讨男性血清抗苗勒管激素(AMH)对精液质量及人工助孕妊娠结局的预测价值.方法:103例行卵细胞质内单精子注射(ICSI)治疗的男性患者,分为精于浓度正常组(29例)、少精子症组(27例)、梗阻性无精子症组(29例)和非梗阻性无精子症组(18例),采用ELISA法检测男性血清AMH及其他相关性激素水平,结合其取精当天精液质量及助孕后妊娠结局进行分析.结果:①34组不同精液质量血清AMH含量分别为(5.03±0.44)、(3.70±0.44)、(5.39±0

  18. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources.

  19. Live birth and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease receiving assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Larsen, P V; Fedder, J;

    2016-01-01

    was live births per ART treatment cycle. We controlled for multiple covariates in the analyses. Our secondary outcomes were adverse birth outcomes. RESULTS: The chance of a live birth for each embryo transfer was significantly reduced in ART treatments in women with UC (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.58 to 0......OBJECTIVE: To examine the chance of live births and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared with women without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This was a nationwide.......92), but not significantly reduced in the full model of ART treatments in women with CD (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.14). Surgery for CD before ART treatment significantly reduced the chance of live birth for each embryo transfer (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.91). In children conceived through ART treatment by women with UC...

  20. The cumulative effect of assisted reproduction procedures on placental development and epigenetic perturbations in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Eric; Vrooman, Lisa A; Fischer, Erin; Ord, Teri; Mainigi, Monica A; Coutifaris, Christos; Schultz, Richard M; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2015-12-15

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are associated with several complications including low birth weight, abnormal placentation and increased risk for rare imprinting disorders. Indeed, experimental studies demonstrate ART procedures independent of existing infertility induce epigenetic perturbations in the embryo and extraembryonic tissues. To test the hypothesis that these epigenetic perturbations persist and result in adverse outcomes at term, we assessed placental morphology and methylation profiles in E18.5 mouse concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF) in two different genetic backgrounds. We also examined embryo transfer (ET) and superovulation procedures to ascertain if they contribute to developmental and epigenetic effects. Increased placental weight and reduced fetal-to-placental weight ratio were observed in all ART groups when compared with naturally conceived controls, demonstrating that non-surgical embryo transfer alone can impact placental development. Furthermore, superovulation further induced overgrowth of the placental junctional zone. Embryo transfer and superovulation defects were limited to these morphological changes, as we did not observe any differences in epigenetic profiles. IVF placentae, however, displayed hypomethylation of imprinting control regions of select imprinted genes and a global reduction in DNA methylation levels. Although we did not detect significant differences in DNA methylation in fetal brain or liver samples, rare IVF concepti displayed very low methylation and abnormal gene expression from the normally repressed allele. Our findings suggest that individual ART procedures cumulatively increase placental morphological abnormalities and epigenetic perturbations, potentially causing adverse neonatal and long-term health outcomes in offspring.

  1. Assistive technology for visually impaired women for use of the female condom: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Duarte Wanderley Cavalcante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To validate assistive technology for visually impaired women to learn how to use the female condom. METHOD a methodological development study conducted on a web page, with data collection between May and October 2012. Participants were 14 judges; seven judges in sexual and reproductive health (1st stage and seven in special education (2nd stage. RESULTS All items have reached the adopted parameter of 70% agreement. In Stage 1 new materials were added to represent the cervix, and instructions that must be heard twice were included in the 2nd stage. CONCLUSION The technology has been validated and is appropriate for its objectives, structure / presentation and relevance. It is an innovative, low cost and valid instrument for promoting health and one which may help women with visual disabilities to use the female condom.

  2. Reproductive technologies as social innovations in the system of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Viktorovna Nifantova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to such important problem as Russians’ reproductive health worsening that defines health of posterity and viability of generations, and appreciably impacts on the birth rate. Statistics of contraception among women of reproductive age, statistics of induced abortions occurrence, statistics of primary, and secondary infertility are investigated. Data of Public Opinion Foundation on problems of child-free marriages and reproductive rights of citizens are given. Results of medical, scientific centers about additional reproductive technologies practice such as in vitro fertilization (EKO, surrogate motherhood, etc. are shown. The importance of state support of these technologies and liberalization of legal control of the realization of a desire to be parents as the most important tool of demographic policy is emphasized. The questions of raising the public importance of family planning, sex education, family and moral values among young formation, healthy lifestyle, responsible motherhood and paternity are explored in the article.

  3. Theoretic models for recommendation and implementation of assistive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Jesus Alves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The latest international researches seek to understand the factors affecting the successful use of assistive technology devices through studies regarding the assessments systematizing; abandonment of devices; or theoric models that consider the aspects of those devices implementation. In Brazil the researches are focused on developing new technologies and there are still not sufficient studies related to the successful use of devices and ways of assistive technology implementation. Objective: To identify conceptual models used for indication and implementation of assistive technology devices. Method: Literature review. The survey was conducted in six databases: CINAHAL, Eric, GALE, LILACS, MEDLINE e PsycInfo. A critical analysis described by Grant and Booth was used. Results: There are no records of a Brazilian survey and among 29 selected articles, 17 conceptual models used in the area of AT were found; of these, 14 were specific to AT. The results showed that the new conceptual models of TA are under development and the conceptual model “Matching Person and Technology – MPT” was the most mentioned. Conclusion: We can observe that the practices related to TA area in international context shows a correlation with conceptual models, thus, we hope this study might have the capacity to contribute for the propagation of this precepts at national level

  4. Impact of Aging and Cognition on Hearing Assistive Technology Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Lindsey E; Messersmith, Jessica J

    2015-08-01

    Many factors go into appropriate recommendation and use of hearing assistive technology (HAT). The aging auditory system presents with its own complications and intricacies; there are many types of age-related hearing loss, and it is possible that the underlying cause of hearing loss can significantly impact the recommendations and performance with HATs. The audiologist should take into consideration peripheral and central auditory function when selecting HATs for the aging adult population as well as when selecting appropriate types of technology including personal sound amplification products, hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive technology. The cognitive ability of the patient plays a central role in the recommendations of HAT. It is possible that the use of HATs could mitigate some of the effects of cognitive decline and thus should be considered as early as possible. Assessment of ability and appropriate recommendations are crucial to consistent use of HAT devices.

  5. 高龄不孕患者不同辅助生殖技术的胚胎发育情况及妊娠结局分析%Analysis of Embryonic Development and Pregnancy Outcomes in Elderly Infertile Women Undergoing Different Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琳; 陈秀娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨年龄因素对高龄不孕患者接受辅助生殖技术(ART)后胚胎发育情况及妊娠结局的影响。方法选择2013年7月至2014年1月于内蒙古医科大学附属医院生殖中心行体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)及卵胞浆内单精子显微注射(ICSI)的不孕患者155例为研究对象,共计184个周期。按照年龄,将纳入患者分为3组:Ⅰ组(n =67,周期数为63,35岁≤年龄0.05)。本研究遵循的程序符合内蒙古医科大学附属医院人体试验委员会制定的伦理学标准,得到该委员会批准,分组征得受试对象知情同意,并与之签署临床研究知情同意书。结果①Ⅲ组接受 IVF-ET 和 ICSI 者的新鲜胚胎妊娠率较Ⅰ组显著降低,且差异有统计学意义(P 0.05)。3组间接受 IVF-ET 和 ICSI 者的冷冻胚胎妊娠率及胚胎冷冻率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。②Ⅲ组妊娠率与胚胎种植率均较Ⅰ组及Ⅱ组显著降低,且差异均有统计学意义(P 0.05);3组间受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率、优质胚胎移植率、自然流产率及活婴出生率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。③相同 ART 下,3组间受精率、卵裂率及优质胚胎率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论年龄因素可影响高龄不孕患者胚胎着床及妊娠成功。%Objective To analyze factor of age effect on embryonic development and pregnancy outcomes in elderly infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive technology(ART).Methods A total of 1 55 infertile patients who were undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET)and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI ) in Reproductive Medical Center,Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University from July 2013 to January 2014 were chosen as study subjects,and total cycles were 184.According to age,they were divided into three groups:group Ⅰ(n=67,63 cycles,35 years old≤age0.05).The study protocol was approved by the Ethical

  6. Round-table multidisciplinary counselling of couples with HIV prior to assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin, Sibil; Steimann, Sabine; Bitzer, Johannes; Hösli, Irene; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Elzi, Luigia; Klimkait, Thomas; Rudin, Christoph; Battegay, Manuel; De Geyter, Christian

    2008-08-01

    Assisted reproduction is used to support couples with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in achieving pregnancy without compromising the health of the partner or the offspring. This complex situation requires a joint effort by experts from different medical fields over prolonged periods. In order to fulfil all requirements, a comprehensive multidisciplinary counselling approach was initiated through round-table conventions of experts together with individual couples. The aim of this novel approach was an informed sharing of responsibility in the decision-making process, and also to ensure the adherence of the couples. The experts' and the couples' experience of the multidisciplinary meetings was evaluated using structured questionnaires. A total of 34 couples were referred, 15 with the male partner HIV infected, 15 with the female partner infected, four with both partners infected. Twenty-two couples participated in the multidisciplinary counselling. Three couples withdrew after counselling. Fourteen pregnancies were achieved leading to the birth of eight children. The experts viewed the panel's composition and the decision-making process as valuable, necessary and beneficial to the couples. The responding couples considered the meetings to be clarifying and helpful and they felt respected. It is concluded that the round-table multidisciplinary meeting approach is a feasible option for HIV-affected couples with infertility.

  7. The Chromosomal Constitution of Embryos Arising from Monopronuclear Oocytes in Programmes of Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Rosenbusch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of oocytes showing only one pronucleus during assisted reproduction is associated with uncertainty. A compilation of data on the genetic constitution of different developmental stages shows that affected oocytes are able to develop into haploid, diploid, and mosaic embryos with more or less complex chromosomal compositions. In the majority of cases (~80%, haploidy appears to be caused by gynogenesis, whereas parthenogenesis or androgenesis is less common. Most of the diploid embryos result from a fertilization event involving asynchronous formation of the two pronuclei or pronuclear fusion at a very early stage. Uniparental diploidy may sometimes occur if one pronucleus fails to develop and the other pronucleus already contains a diploid genome or alternatively a haploid genome undergoes endoreduplication. In general, the chance of obtaining a biparental diploid embryo appears higher after conventional in vitro fertilization than after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. If a transfer of embryos obtained from monopronuclear oocytes is envisaged, it should be tried to culture them up to the blastocyst since most haploid embryos are not able to reach this stage. Comprehensive counselling of patients on potential risks is advisable before transfer and a preimplantation genetic diagnosis could be offered if available.

  8. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 23: medically assisted reproduction in singles, lesbian and gay couples, and transsexual people†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wert, G; Dondorp, W; Shenfield, F; Barri, P; Devroey, P; Diedrich, K; Tarlatzis, B; Provoost, V; Pennings, G

    2014-09-01

    This Task Force document discusses ethical issues arising with requests for medically assisted reproduction from people in what may be called 'non-standard' situations and relationships. The document stresses that categorically denying access to any of these groups cannot be reconciled with a human rights perspective. If there are concerns about the implications of assisted reproduction on the wellbeing of any of the persons involved, including the future child, a surrogate mother or the applicants themselves, these concerns have to be considered in the light of the available scientific evidence. When doing so it is important to avoid the use of double standards. More research is needed into the psychosocial implications of raising children in non-standard situations, especially with regard to single women, male homosexual couples and transsexual people.

  9. Assistive technology and passengers with special assistance needs in air transport: contributions to cabin design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Campese

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been significant growth in air transport worldwide, as well as in Brazil. However, studies have emphasized that disabled, obese, and elderly passengers face difficulties when using this means of transport. Among these difficulties, issues related to passengers’ own assistive devices, including damage, loss, or the impossibility of using during the entire flight, stand out. Therefore, the present study aims to understand the trends in assistive technology focusing on cabin design. This research is based upon literature review, interviews with manufacturers and research centers, visits to specialized trade fairs, and patent search. The results revealed a great diversity of assistive products, its trends, and an increase in their use, which affect aircraft cabin design, especially in terms of space, access, and stowage of these devices.

  10. Psychological implications of domestic assistive technology for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Cesta, Amedeo; Cortellessa, Gabriella; Giuliani, Maria Vittoria; Pecora, Federico; Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Tiberio, Lorenza

    2007-01-01

    The ROBOCARE Domestic Environment (RDE) is the result of a three-year project aimed at developing cognitive support technology for elderly people. Specifically, the domestic environment is equipped with sensors, intelligent software components and devices which cooperate to provide cognitive support to the assisted person. The ROBOCARE interaction capabilities have been concentrated in a robotic mediator who acts as the main communication channel between the users and the intelligent domestic...

  11. Assistive Technologies for Aged Care: Supportive or Empowering?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Vichitvanichphong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore the potentials of assistive technologies to support seniors’ independent living. The work looks at two salient aspects of utilizing technologies for elderly, namely direct support and empowering technologies. The research undertakes a comprehensive analysis of attempts that have been made through investigation of the literature. For this purpose, a realist review of relevant papers published since 2000 has been conducted. The paper concludes that although much research in this area targets the direct support for older adults, the effective use of technologies to maintain seniors’ physical and cognitive abilities requires further investigations. This can provide avenues of opportunities that would empower seniors for their independent living.

  12. Pervasive assistive technology for people with dementia: a UCD case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Rønn-Andersen, Kristoffer; Bien, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Smart mobile and wearable technology offers exciting opportunities to support people with dementia (PwD). Its ubiquity and popularity could even benefit user adoption – a great challenge for assistive technology (AT) for PwD that calls for user-centred design (UCD) methods. This study describes...... a user-centred approach to developing and testing AT based on off-the-shelf pervasive technologies. A prototype is created by combining a smartphone, smartwatch and various applications to offer six support features. This is tested among five end-users (PwD) and their caregivers. Controlled usability...... testing was followed by field testing in a real-world context. Data is gathered from video recordings, interaction logs, system usability scale questionnaires, logbooks, application usage logs and interviews structured on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model. The data is analysed...

  13. Quality of assistive technologies in the home care for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Due to demographic changes, the number of elderly people who are in need of care is increasing. Assistive technologies make it possible for many elderly people to remain home despite their health conditions, which many prefer. Quality is an essential element of nursing care, and the elderly are becoming increasingly aware of this and are beginning to make high demands. The aims of this paper, which is based on a master's thesis, were to identify quality criteria in the field of assistive technologies and to present indicators for measuring quality. An extensive literature research was conducted for the theoretical part, and the empirical part employed a qualitative survey. The results show that the elderly's contentment and quality of life are the decisive factors for quality. A catalogue of quality indicators was developed by merging the results from literature with those from the expert consultation. To conclude, further research in this context, based on the results of this paper, is needed, in order to support the increasing use of assistive technologies.

  14. Assistive Technology and Supplementary Treatment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Lotan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS is a neurological disorder, affecting mainly females, caused by MECP2 mutations usually resulting in severe physical disability. Due to the physical challenges faced by the individual with RS and her family, her rehabilitation program should support her throughout different daily activities, contexts, and surroundings. Rehabilitation interventions to reverse physical impairments include exercise of various types and different physical modalities. Nevertheless, in the vast majority of cases, hands-on therapeutic intervention opportunities are available for the client through a minute part of her waking hours. Hence, a supplementary system is required in order to engulf the child with a comprehensive network of support. Supplementary intervention can support physical impairment by introducing adaptive techniques, environmental modifications, and assistive technologies. The therapy program of an individual with RS should include the use of assistive technology when such devices improve the user's performance. The term “supplementary management” relates to the fact that this intervention may be performed by nonprofessionals with the supervision of a qualified therapist. Such an intervention can further support the therapeutic goals of the child, at a time when direct intervention is not supplied. The present article will review the available literature on the topic of assistive technology, incorporating the clinical knowledge of the author in the field of RS.

  15. Assistive technology and employment: experiences of Californians with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Patricia; Kaye, H Stephen; Reed, Myisha; Doe, Tanis M

    2006-01-01

    For people with disabilities, work remains the best route to independence and enacting one's own choices. Assistive technology (AT) is often crucial in removing barriers to employment, and in enabling workers with disabilities to work more productively. A participatory action research project known as Community Research for Assistive Technology surveyed people with disabilities using Independent Living Centers throughout California, in part to identify barriers to employment and study use of job-related AT to overcome such barriers. Across disability groups, disability itself was cited as the primary barrier to employment, with potential loss of benefits and lack of education cited as secondary barriers. A majority of working respondents reported using assistive technology (such as adapted telephones, wheelchairs, magnifiers, and adapted computer equipment) or services to perform job functions. The vast majority of those using job-related AT reported substantial benefits to their productivity and self-esteem. Employees' requests for AT as a workplace accommodation were granted more often than not, but many other employees had to pay for their own workplace AT.

  16. Pervasive assistive technology for people with dementia: a UCD case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Rønn-Andersen, Kristoffer; Bien, Paulina;

    2016-01-01

    Smart mobile and wearable technology offers exciting opportunities to support people with dementia (PwD). Its ubiquity and popularity could even benefit user adoption – a great challenge for assistive technology (AT) for PwD that calls for user-centred design (UCD) methods. This study describes a...... adoption profiles are used to provide a set of recommendations for practitioners and further research. These contribute toward UCD practices for improved smart, pervasive AT for dementia.......Smart mobile and wearable technology offers exciting opportunities to support people with dementia (PwD). Its ubiquity and popularity could even benefit user adoption – a great challenge for assistive technology (AT) for PwD that calls for user-centred design (UCD) methods. This study describes...... testing was followed by field testing in a real-world context. Data is gathered from video recordings, interaction logs, system usability scale questionnaires, logbooks, application usage logs and interviews structured on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model. The data is analysed...

  17. The Great Equalizer: Assistive Technology Launches a New Era in Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Describes how assistive technology can be used to facilitate the mainstreaming of students with disabilities, focusing on: different types of technology that are useful; the importance of mainstreaming; how to learn what assistive choices are available; and how inclusive education is enhanced by assistive technology in one California school…

  18. 自然妊娠和辅助生殖技术妊娠母婴不良结局及其危险因素分析%Adverse Outcomes and Risk Factors of Maternal and Child Out-comes in Natural Pregnancy and Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昱; 钟群英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the adverse outcome of natural pregnancy and maternal reproduc-tive technology assisted (ART) pregnancy and its risk factors, so as to provide basis for the pre-vention of adverse outcome. Methods 100 ART pregnant women who had antenatal examination in our hospital and had follow up till the childbirth from April, 2014 to April, 2015 were ran-domly selected as ART group, and other 500 natural pregnancy pregnant women in the same pe-riod were selected as controls. Maternal adverse outcome and its risk factors of two groups were compared. Results Premature birth, abortion, cesarean section and other adverse pregnancy out-come incidence of ART group (87.0%) are higher than that of the control group (59.2%) (P<0.05). Single factor analysis results showed that multiple pregnancy, age, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), body mass index (BMI), abortion history were related factor of adverse pregnancy outcome of ART pregnancy,and age, pregnancy hypertension, GDM, BMI, history of abortion were related factor of natural maternal (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Further Logistic multivariate regression analysis re-sults showed that age, GDM, history of abortion, pregnancy hypertension and age, history of GDM, abortion, multiple pregnancies were risk factors of respectively adverse outcome of natural maternal pregnancy and ART pregnancy (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions Incidence of maternal adverse pregnancy outcome of ART pregnant women is highand related to age, GDM, history of abortion and multiple pregnancies,and adverse pregnancy outcome of natural pregnancy is related to age, GDM, history of abortion and pregnancy hypertension. According to the different risk factors ad-verse pregnancy outcomes to adopt appropriate intervention, avoiding older pregnancy or abortion, active prevention and treatment of GDM and management of multiple births as early as possible can help to improve the ART pregnancy outcomes.%目的:探讨自然妊娠和辅助生殖技术(ART

  19. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty.

  20. Refractive Error and Fixation Conditions of Infants Born by Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate the refractive error and oculomotor conditions of infants born by assisted reproductive techniques (ART in patients referring to Royan Institute as well as Child Health and Development Center.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 ART-exposed infants aged less than 9 months were tested by retinoscopy, fixation conditions, Hirschberg and Doll's eye maneuver.Results: The average refractive error of these infants shows hyperopic Shift +0.9±1.1 D. The average astigmatism recorded in these infants is -0.6±0.6D. The prevalence of refractive errors in these infants is myopia 6%, hyperopia 85% and emmetropia 9%. Impairment of fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll's eye maneuver was respectively observed in 20.4, 1.4 and 3.7% of the studied infants.Conclusion Given the sensitivities in the visual system development process and critical period which is important for every infant in the very first months of birth, it seems that visual-ocular studies are more important in ART-exposed infants who were exposed to different factors until their birth. The results of refractive errors, fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll’s head maneuver which was conducted in this study for these infants reveal that, it is likely that visual impairment in these infants is higher than the results of foreign studies. However, lack of access to population studies in infants below 1 year of age in Iran necessitates more extensive studies and follow-ups of vision of ART-exposed infants more seriously.

  1. Assistive Technology Needs and Measurement of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Technologies for Independent Living of Older Hispanics: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M; Jutai, Jeffrey; Santiago, Angélica; Torres, Víctor; Benítez, Keyla; Torres, Mayra

    2016-09-01

    (1) Knowledge about the assistive technology (AT) needs and psychosocial impact of AT in different populations is needed because the adoption, retention, or abandonment of AT may be influenced by the psychosocial impact that AT has on its users. The aims of this study were to: (a) identify the AT needs of a sample of Hispanic older adults with functional limitations, (b) describe the psychosocial impact of these technologies on the sample's quality of life, and (c) describe the methodological challenges in using the Puerto Rican version of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale (PR-PIADS) with a Hispanic sample. (2) Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a sample of 60 participants. Data was collected using the Assistive Technology Card Assessment Questionnaire (ATCAQ) and the PR-PIADS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis. (3) Results: The sample's most frequently reported needs for AT devices were in the areas of cooking, home tasks, and home safety activities. The sample reported a positive impact of AT use in their quality of life. Several methodological challenges of the PIADS were identified. (4) Conclusions: The sample has unmet needs for using AT devices to overcome difficulties in daily living activities.

  2. Assistive Technology Needs and Measurement of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Technologies for Independent Living of Older Hispanics: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Orellano-Colón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Knowledge about the assistive technology (AT needs and psychosocial impact of AT in different populations is needed because the adoption, retention, or abandonment of AT may be influenced by the psychosocial impact that AT has on its users. The aims of this study were to: (a identify the AT needs of a sample of Hispanic older adults with functional limitations; (b describe the psychosocial impact of these technologies on the sample’s quality of life; and (c describe the methodological challenges in using the Puerto Rican version of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale (PR-PIADS with a Hispanic sample; (2 Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a sample of 60 participants. Data was collected using the Assistive Technology Card Assessment Questionnaire (ATCAQ and the PR-PIADS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis; (3 Results: The sample’s most frequently reported needs for AT devices were in the areas of cooking, home tasks, and home safety activities. The sample reported a positive impact of AT use in their quality of life. Several methodological challenges of the PIADS were identified; (4 Conclusions: The sample has unmet needs for using AT devices to overcome difficulties in daily living activities.

  3. A technology roadmap of assistive technologies for dementia care in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Taro; Fujinami, Tsutomu; Phaal, Robert; Ikawa, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The number of elderly people in Japan is growing, which raises the issue of dementia, as the probability of becoming cognitively impaired increases with age. There is an increasing need for caregivers, who are well-trained, experienced and can pay special attention to the needs of people with dementia. Technology can play an important role in helping such people and their caregivers. A lack of mutual understanding between caregivers and researchers regarding the appropriate uses of assistive technologies is another problem. A vision of person-centred care based on the use of information and communication technology to maintain residents' autonomy and continuity in their lives is presented. Based on this vision, a roadmap and a list of challenges to realizing assistive technologies have been developed. The roadmap facilitates mutual understanding between caregivers and researchers, resulting in appropriate technologies to enhance the quality of life of people with dementia.

  4. Socializing the public: invoking Hannah Arendt's critique of modernity to evaluate reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The article examines the writings of one of the most influential political philosophers, Hannah Arendt, and specifically focuses on her views regarding the distinction between the private and the public and the transformation of the public to the social by modernity. Arendt's theory of human activity and critique of modernity are explored to critically evaluate the social contributions and implications of reproductive technologies especially where the use of such technologies is most dominant within Western societies. Focusing on empirical studies on new reproductive technologies in Israel, it is argued, powerfully demonstrates Arendt's theory, and broadens the perspectives through which society should evaluate these new technologies towards a more reflective understanding of its current laws and policies and their affect on women more generally.

  5. Towards Transnational Feminisms. Some reflections and concerns in relation to the globalization of reproductive technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of the concept of ‘transnational feminisms’ as a differentiated notion from ‘global sisterhood’ within feminist postcolonial criticism. This is done in order to examine its usefulness for interrogating the globalization of reproductive technologies and women’s ri

  6. How old is too old? A contribution to the discussion on age limits for assisted reproduction technique access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourková, Jiřina; Konečná, Hana; Burcin, Boris; Kučera, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, the Czech Republic established the women's age limit for access to assisted reproduction techniques at age 49 years. In this paper, the acceptability of this age limit from the children's perspective in the Czech Republic is assessed. Although the necessity of balancing the interests of parents and children is acknowledged, little research has taken children's interests into account. We have attempted to map out 'children's interests', asking older children and adolescents (aged 11-25 years) how old they would prefer their parents to be: Czech respondents would prefer to have younger parents. This finding is consistent with the optimal biological childbearing age rather than with the current postponement to a later age. So far, assisted reproduction techniques have been largely regarded as a medical treatment justifying the current women's age limit of 49 years. Had the children's perspective been taken into account, this age limit might have been lower than 49 years. We propose that reproductive health policy should adequately reflect multiple perspectives as an integral part of a multi-layered support system of a society.

  7. Application of three-dimensional ultrasound in assisted reproductive medicine%三维超声在辅助生殖医学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铭; 戴晴

    2011-01-01

    辅助生殖技术是治疗不孕不育的重要手段.近年来三维超声发展迅速,在该领域发挥着重要作用.本文综述三维超声成像技术及其在辅助生殖中的临床应用.%Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is an important tool in infertility management. Three-dimensional ultrasound has been developing fast in recent years and playing an important role in this field. The technique of three-dimensional ultrasound and its clinical application in ART were reviewed in this article.

  8. The effect of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on stress in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technlogy (ART) treatment: A randomized controlled pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Signe Maria Schneevoigt; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Infertile couples undergoing fertility treatments may experience stress and could benefit from psychological intervention. Expressive Writing Intervention (EWI) has shown promising results on various psychological outcomes, yet only one study has applied the method to infertility......-related stress. Our aim was to assess feasibility and effectiveness of EWI for patients in treatment with Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Design and participants. Patients enrolling in their first ART treatment at the fertility clinic, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark were offered to participate....... A total of 82 participants (45 women, 37 men), mean age: 33.17, were randomized to home-based EWI or neutral writing control group and completed an infertility-related stress questionnaire at treatment enrollment, 3 weeks later (at the time of down regulation), and 6 weeks after the intervention...

  9. 7th Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, J; Heylighen, A; Dong, H; Inclusive Designing : Joining Usability, Accessibility, and Inclusion

    2014-01-01

    ‘Inclusive Designing’ presents the proceedings of the seventh Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14). It represents a unique multi-disciplinary workshop for the Inclusive Design Research community where designers, computer scientists, engineers, architects, ergonomists, policymakers and user communities can exchange ideas. The research presented at CWUAAT '14 develops methods, technologies, tools and guidance that support product designers and architects to design for the widest possible population for a given range of capabilities, within a contemporary social and economic context. In the context of developing demographic changes leading to greater numbers of older people and people with disabilities, the general field of Inclusive Design Research strives to relate the capabilities of the population to the design of products. Inclusive populations of older people contain a greater variation in sensory, cognitive and physical user capabilities. These variations may be...

  10. 'Not so wrong that we are prepared to threaten the entire service': the regulation of reproductive technologies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, M

    2001-01-01

    In the UK human embryo research and infertility treatments are regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), a national statutory body set up in 1991. Clinics are required by law to be licensed by the HFEA and open to inspection. In 1999 there were 107 clinics licensed to carry out IVF and/or donor insemination. There are regional variations in National Health Service funding and seventy-five percent of those treated pay for most of their treatment, usually to avoid long waiting lists or because they do not meet the eligibility criteria set by their local health authority. Having described the code of practice laid down by the HFEA the paper discusses the implications of new reproductive technologies from a social science perspective, focusing on three topics which continue to be debated by the media, the regulatory authorities, health professionals and 'lay' people. First, age limits and other criteria for assisted reproduction which raise the question 'who should be allowed to reproduce?' Second, donor anonymity and the question of payment for donors. Finally, the screening and selection of embryos for implantation and the recurring theme in the media of 'designer babies'. The HFEA can be seen to fulfill its intended role, mediating between the infertility professionals, patients and the wider general public. It seeks to allay public fears while supporting professionals by avoiding restrictions on research and treatment and by consulting with the public as to when extensions to research will be acceptable.

  11. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  12. Impact of swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In

  13. Prenatal testing among women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques in Denmark 1995-2000: a national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are generally older than women with spontaneously conceived pregnancies, and are consequently more likely to carry a child affected by a chromosomal disorder. Furthermore, a significantly increased rate of chromosomal...... abnormalities after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the use and results of prenatal invasive diagnostic testing in a national Danish cohort of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ICSI pregnancies. Additionally, we examined to what extent second...

  14. Pervasive assistive technology for people with dementia: a UCD case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Rønn-Andersen, Kristoffer V H; Bień, Paulina; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Forchhammer, Birgitte Hysse; Maier, Anja M

    2016-12-01

    Smart mobile and wearable technology offers exciting opportunities to support people with dementia (PwD). Its ubiquity and popularity could even benefit user adoption - a great challenge for assistive technology (AT) for PwD that calls for user-centred design (UCD) methods. This study describes a user-centred approach to developing and testing AT based on off-the-shelf pervasive technologies. A prototype is created by combining a smartphone, smartwatch and various applications to offer six support features. This is tested among five end-users (PwD) and their caregivers. Controlled usability testing was followed by field testing in a real-world context. Data is gathered from video recordings, interaction logs, system usability scale questionnaires, logbooks, application usage logs and interviews structured on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model. The data is analysed to evaluate usability, usefulness and user acceptance. Results show some promise for user adoption, but highlight challenges to be overcome, emphasising personalisation and familiarity as key considerations. The complete findings regarding usability issues, usefulness of support features and four identified adoption profiles are used to provide a set of recommendations for practitioners and further research. These contribute toward UCD practices for improved smart, pervasive AT for dementia.

  15. Acoustic user interfaces for ambient-assisted living technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Stefan; Moritz, Niko; Appell, Jens-E; Meis, Markus; Bartsch, Christian; Bitzer, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This contribution discusses technologies for acoustic user interaction in ambient-assisted living (AAL) scenarios. Acoustic user interfaces allow for a natural and convenient way to interact with technical systems e.g. via sound or speech presentation or via speech input by means of automatic speech recognition (ASR) as well as by detection and classification of acoustic events. Older persons targeted by AAL technologies especially need more easy-to-use methods to interact with inherently complex supporting technology. As an example we designed and evaluated an application for acoustic user interaction with a multi-media reminder and calendar system. For this purpose, mainly older participants were involved in user studies to continuously evaluate and support the development strictly following a user-centred design process. The results suggest a wide acceptance of acoustic user interfaces by older users either for controlling inherently complex AAL systems by using robust ASR technologies or as a natural and ambient way of presenting information to the user. However, further research is needed to increase the robustness of ASR systems when using hands-free equipment, i.e. to provide a real ambient way of interaction, and to introduce personalised speech and sound presentation schemes accounting for the individual hearing capabilities and sound preferences.

  16. Novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas: bioética e controvérsias New reproductive conception technologies: bioethics and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tamanini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de alguns dos múltiplos aspectos éticos/bioéticos e de gênero no campo das novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas (NTRc. A literatura nele apresentada aponta para a pluralidade de situações e abordagens possíveis em um campo multidimensional e controvertido. Explicita alguns princípios éticos/bioéticos do agir biomédico encontrados durante pesquisa com casais heterossexuais que fizeram reprodução assistida e com médic@s especialistas em reprodução humana no Sul do Brasil.1 Apresenta os pressupostos éticos/bioéticos sancionadores do agir médico e da continuidade dos chamados tratamentos para engravidar, e analisa os mecanismos utilizados para reerguer as expectativas dos casais em situação de desconfiança ou de insucesso.This article concerns some of the multiple ethical-bioethical and gender issues in the field of new reproductive and contraceptive technologies. The literature presented points to the plurality of possible situations and approaches in a multidimensional and controversial field. It presents some ethical-bioethical principals of biomedical action found in the study of heterosexual couples who use assisted reproduction. and of medical specialists in human reproduction in southern Brazil. It presents the ethical-bioethical presumptions that sanction medical behavior and the continuity of the so-called impregnation treatments, and analyzes the mechanisms used to raise the expectations of couples who lack confidence or success.

  17. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability...... of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  18. Assistive Technology Approaches for Large-Scale Assessment: Perceptions of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Christopher; Thurlow, Martha; Altman, Jason; Timmons, Joe; Kato, Kentaro

    2009-01-01

    Assistive technology approaches to aid students with visual impairments are becoming commonplace in schools. These approaches, however, present challenges for assessment because students' level of access to different technologies may vary by school district and state. To better understand what assistive technology tools are used in reading…

  19. New Literacy Studies: An Alternative Frame for Preparing Teachers to Use Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraian, Srikala; Surabian, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Even as research continues to suggest the potential of assistive technology for improving student outcomes, it remains under-utilized in schools. Among numerous challenges to the effective utilization of assistive technology, research has suggested that educators are inadequately prepared to consider and implement the use of such technologies. In…

  20. Preferences and Practices among Students Who Read Braille and Use Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Students who read braille use assistive technology to engage in literacy tasks and to access the general curriculum. There is little research on the ways in which technology has changed the reading and writing practices and preferences of students who use braille, nor is there much research on how assistive technology is learned by…

  1. Final priority; Rehabilitation Services Administration--Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality assistive technology (AT) alternative financing programs (AFPs) that meet rigorous standards in order to enable individuals with disabilities to access and acquire assistive technology devices and services necessary to achieve education, community living, and employment goals.

  2. Providing Assistive Technology Applications as a Service Through Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Users with disabilities interact with Personal Computers (PCs) using Assistive Technology (AT) software solutions. Such applications run on a PC that a person with a disability commonly uses. However the configuration of AT applications is not trivial at all, especially whenever the user needs to work on a PC that does not allow him/her to rely on his / her AT tools (e.g., at work, at university, in an Internet point). In this paper, we discuss how cloud computing provides a valid technological solution to enhance such a scenario.With the emergence of cloud computing, many applications are executed on top of virtual machines (VMs). Virtualization allows us to achieve a software implementation of a real computer able to execute a standard operating system and any kind of application. In this paper we propose to build personalized VMs running AT programs and settings. By using the remote desktop technology, our solution enables users to control their customized virtual desktop environment by means of an HTML5-based web interface running on any computer equipped with a browser, whenever they are.

  3. Refuting a misguided campaign against the goal of single-embryo transfer and singleton birth in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Robert J; Richter, Kevin S; Jones, Howard W

    2013-10-01

    Much recent progress has been made by assisted reproductive technology (ART) professionals toward minimizing the incidence of multiple pregnancy following ART treatment. While a healthy singleton birth is widely considered to be the ideal outcome of such treatment, a vocal minority continues a campaign to advocate the benefits of multiple embryo transfer as treatment and twin pregnancy as outcome for most ART patients. Proponents of twinning argue four points: that patients prefer twins, that multiple embryo transfer maximizes success rates, that the costs per infant are lower with twins and that one twin pregnancy and birth is associated with no higher risk than two consecutive singleton pregnancies and births. We find fault with the reasoning and data behind each of these tenets. First, we respect the principle of patient autonomy to choose the number of embryos for transfer but counter that it has been shown that better patient education reduces their desire for twins. In addition, reasonable and evidentially supported limits may be placed on autonomy in exchange for public or private insurance coverage for ART treatment, and counterbalancing ethical principles to autonomy exist, especially beneficence (doing good) and non-maleficence (doing no harm). Second, comparisons between success rates following single-embryo transfer (SET) and double-embryo transfers favor double-embryo transfers only when embryo utilization is not comparable; cumulative pregnancy and birth rates that take into account utilization of cryopreserved embryos (and the additional cryopreserved embryo available with single fresh embryo transfer) consistently demonstrate no advantage to double-embryo transfer. Third, while comparisons of costs are system dependent and not easy to assess, several independent studies all suggest that short-term costs per child (through the neonatal period alone) are lower with transfers of one rather than two embryos. And, finally, abundant evidence conclusively

  4. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    2016-03-01

    The Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) measures the absolute infrared (IR) spectral radiance (watts per square meter per steradian per wavenumber) of the sky directly above the instrument. More information about the instrument can be found through the manufacturer’s website. The spectral measurement range of the instrument is 3300 to 520 wavenumbers (cm-1) or 3-19.2 microns for the normal-range instruments and 3300 to 400 cm-1 or 3-25 microns, for the extended-range polar instruments. Spectral resolution is 1.0 cm-1. Instrument field-of-view is 1.3 degrees. Calibrated sky radiance spectra are produced on cycle of about 141 seconds with a group of 6 radiance spectra zenith having dwell times of about 14 seconds each interspersed with 55 seconds of calibration and mirror motion. The ASSIST data is comparable to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data and can be used for 1) evaluating line-by-line radiative transport codes, 2) detecting/quantifying cloud effects on ground-based measurements of infrared spectral radiance (and hence is valuable for cloud property retrievals), and 3) calculating vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace gases.

  5. Risk assessment of medically assisted reproduction and advanced maternal ages in the development of Prader-Willi syndrome due to UPD(15)mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, K; Murakami, N; Fukami, M; Kagami, M; Nagai, T; Ogata, T

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that disomic oocyte-mediated uniparental disomy 15 (UPD(15)mat) is increased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) born after medically assisted reproduction (MAR). However, it remains unknown whether the increase is primarily due to MAR procedure itself or advanced maternal childbearing ages as a predisposing factor for the disomic oocyte production. To examine this matter, we studied 122 naturally conceived PWS patients (PWS-NC group) and 13 MAR-conceived patients (PWS-MAR group). The relative frequency of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat was significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group (7/13 vs 20/122, p = 0.0045), and the maternal childbearing ages were significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group [median (range), 38 (26-45) vs 30 (19-42), p = 0.0015]. However, the logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between the occurrence of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat and MAR, after adjusting for childbearing age (p = 0.25). Consistent with this, while the frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived livebirths was higher in the PWS patients than in the Japanese general population (6.4% vs 1.1%, p = 0.00018), the distribution of childbearing ages was significantly skewed to the increased ages in the PWS patients (p < 2.2 × 10(-16) ). These results argue against a positive association of MAR procedure itself with the development of UPD(15)mat.

  6. Cost effectiveness and efficiency in assistive technology service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C G

    1993-01-01

    In order to develop and maintain a viable service delivery program, the realities of cost effectiveness and cost efficiency in providing assistive technology must be addressed. Cost effectiveness relates to value of the outcome compared to the expenditures. Cost efficiency analyzes how a provider uses available resources to supply goods and services. This paper describes how basic business principles of benefit/cost analysis can be used to determine cost effectiveness. In addition, basic accounting principles are used to illustrate methods of evaluating a program's cost efficiency. Service providers are encouraged to measure their own program's effectiveness and efficiency (and potential viability) in light of current trends. This paper is meant to serve as a catalyst for continued dialogue on this topic.

  7. Assistive technologies for managing language disorders in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Blanka Klimova,1 Petra Maresova,2 Kamil Kuca3,4 1Department of Applied Linguistics, 2Department of Economics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, 3Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 4Center for Basic and Applied Research, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Abstract: At present, the number of elderly people is rapidly increasing, which represents a significant threat in terms of their care when they fall ill. One of the most common aging diseases nowadays is dementia, whose symptoms sooner or later include loss of cognitive functioning. Cognitive disorders can vary from serious mental retardation to inability to recall things, to the loss or disorder of specific cognitive functions such as communication. These disorders not only affect the quality of people’s own life but also impose a substantial burden on their families, particularly on their caregivers. Therefore, the aim of this article is to highlight the role of assistive technologies (ATs for managing language impairments in dementia in order to improve patients’ quality of life. In addition, ATs focused on training patients’ memory are also mentioned, since they can help patients to maintain their language skills. Furthermore, these ATs can delay the need for institutional care, as well as significantly reduce costs on patient care. The importance of future research in the area of the development of ATs for managing the language impairments in dementia is also discussed. There is a general trend toward the personalization of patient needs and requirements in the area of ATs. For the purpose of this article, a method of literature review of available sources defining language disorders and providing characteristic features of language disorders in dementia is used. In addition, a method of comparison of different research studies exploring ATs focused on

  8. Fix It with TAPE: Repurposing Technology to Be Assistive Technology for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Shurr, Jordan C.; Tom, Kinsey; Jasper, Andrea D.; Bassette, Laura; Miller, Bridget; Flanagan, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how practitioners can repurpose technology--common and socially desirable technology in particular--to be assistive technology for students with high-incidence disabilities. The authors provide a framework for practitioners to consider technology for repurposing: TAPE (Transportable, Available, Practical, Engaging) and…

  9. Children's Satisfaction with Assistive Technology Solutions for Schoolwork Using the Quest 2.1: Children's Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchland, Sonya; Kernot, Jocelyn; Parkyn, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the levels of satisfaction children 8-18 years experienced with assistive technology items used to assist them in their schoolwork. Modified from the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction (QUEST 2.0), the QUEST 2.1: Children's Version was developed to enable scoring by children with or without parent assistance. The QUEST 2.1:…

  10. Improving Assistive Technology Service by Using 3D Printing: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Takuro; Tomiita, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology services are essential for adapting assistive devices to the individual needs of users with disabilities. In this study, we attempted to apply three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to three actual cases, and to study its use, effectiveness, and future applications. We assessed the usefulness of 3D printing technology by categorizing its utilization after reviewing the outcomes of these case studies. In future work, we aim to gather additional case studies and derive information on using 3D printing technology that will enable its effective application in the process of assistive technology services.

  11. Impact of reproductive technologies on dairy food production in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies drive the efficiency of managing dairy cows because the lactation cycle of the dairy cow depends on regular calving to renew lactation yields. Achieving timely pregnancies to allow calving every 12-14 months, therefore, is critical in modern dairy production. To meet the demands to produce sufficient milk for fluid and dairy products, various technologies are applied to enhance efficiencies on the dairy farm. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, ultrasonographic and chemical detection of pregnancy, various monitors that detect or predict estrus, and handheld communication and testing devices allow managers to retrieve information to make cow-side decisions about health and reproductive status. Genomic testing of young potential sires or young heifers is now possible and can provide information about their genetic merit years before any progeny tests can be completed. In many countries, the challenge faced by dairy producers is their ability to afford these technologies in the face of rising feed and labor costs and volatile milk prices received at the farm gate. Government policies often place obstacles, trade barriers, and unfunded mandates that preclude operations from making a modest profit. Unlike nearly all other manufacturing industries, agriculture producers have little control over the price received for their products. Therefore, dairy production is vulnerable to many uncontrolled factors including climate, government policy, economic conditions, and skilled labor shortages. It is clear that the impact of emerging and current reproductive technologies is critical to the management of dairy cattle to produce sufficient milk to meet consumer demands for quality fluid and dairy products.

  12. Technology-assisted Interventions for Parents of Young Children: Emerging Practices, Current Research, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Cristin M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms...

  13. Recent advances in bird sperm morphometric analysis and its role in male gamete characterization and reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Santiago-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcopulatory sexual selection through sperm competition may be an important evolutionary force affecting many reproductive traits, including sperm morphometrics. Environmental factors such as pollutants, pesticides, and climate change may affect different sperm traits, and thus reproduction, in sensitive bird species. Many sperm-handling processes used in assisted reproductive techniques may also affect the size of sperm cells. The accurately measured dimensions of sperm cell structures (especially the head can thus be used as indicators of environmental influences, in improving our understanding of reproductive and evolutionary strategies, and for optimizing assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., sperm cryopreservation for use with birds. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph provides an accurate and reliable method for assessing sperm morphometry, reducing the problem of subjectivity associated with human visual assessment. Computerized systems have been standardized for use with semen from different mammalian species. Avian spermatozoa, however, are filiform, limiting their analysis with such systems, which were developed to examine the approximately spherical heads of mammalian sperm cells. To help overcome this, the standardization of staining techniques to be used in computer-assessed light microscopical methods is a priority. The present review discusses these points and describes the sperm morphometric characteristics of several wild and domestic bird species.

  14. Using Assistive Technology in Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Rufus Olanrewaju; Liman, Nalado Abubakar; Longpoe, Patricia Kwalzoom

    2015-01-01

    This paper was written to expose the meaning, benefits, and answer why the use of assistive technology for children with learning disabilities. The paper discussed the various types of assistive technology devices that were designed and used to solve written language, reading, listening, memory and mathematic problems of children with learning…

  15. Assistive Technology for Students with Disabilities: Resources and Challenges Encountered by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Dawn LaRae

    2012-01-01

    Assistive technology may be a solution for students with disabilities who are struggling to achieve academic growth; however, the consideration for assistive technology process is not prevalent in schools. The purpose of this qualitative study was to take an in-depth look at the processes and factors that teachers of students with disabilities…

  16. Use of Assistive Technology by Students with Visual Impairments: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the use of assistive technology by students in the United States who are visually impaired through a secondary analysis of a nationally representative database. It found that the majority of students were not using assistive technology. Implications for interventions and potential changes in policy or practice are…

  17. Assistive Technology and Supports Provision: A Selective Review of the Literature and Proposed Areas of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Brian R.; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Shih, Minyi; Seok, Soohwha

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-one research articles were examined to investigate the empirical evidence supporting the use of assistive technology as a type of support for people with intellectual disability in relation to the seven domains of support provision identified in the Supports Intensity Scale. Results indicated that assistive technology devices can be a…

  18. Middle School Special Education Teachers' Perceptions and Use of Assistive Technology in Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Emily C.; Richardson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In this research the authors examined middle school special education teachers' perceptions of assistive technology during literacy instruction with students with high incidence disabilities. A survey explored the use, effectiveness, and factors impacting use or effectiveness of assistive technology for literacy teaching and learning. Results…

  19. Preschool Teachers' Perception and Use of Hearing Assistive Technology in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri H.; Poole, Bridget; Munoz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored how often sound-field amplification and personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems are used in preschool classrooms, teacher perceptions of advantages and disadvantages of using hearing assistive technology, and teacher recommendations for hearing assistive technology use. Method: The study used a cross-sectional survey…

  20. Evaluating Assistive Technology in Early Childhood Education: The Use of a Concurrent Time Series Probe Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.

    2009-01-01

    As assistive technology applications are increasingly implemented in early childhood settings for children who are at risk or who have disabilities, it is critical that teachers utilize observational approaches to determine whether targeted assistive technology-supported interventions make a difference in children's learning. One structured…

  1. Perceptions of Disability-Services Administrators about Assistive Technology at Postsecondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the manifestation of assistive technology at postsecondary institutions from the perspectives of disability-services administrators, through their personal experiences. Exploration of assistive-technology-related experiences presents the potential to improve understanding of the operation of this vital…

  2. Raising Awareness of Assistive Technology in Older Adults through a Community-Based, Cooperative Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Debra M.; Markham, Melinda Stafford

    2012-01-01

    The Fashion an Easier Lifestyle with Assistive Technology (FELAT) curriculum was developed as a needs-based, community educational program provided through a state Cooperative Extension Service. The overall goal for participants was to raise awareness of assistive technology. Program evaluation included a postassessment and subsequent interview to…

  3. Assistive Technology for Students with Visual Impairments: Challenges and Needs in Teachers' Preparation Programs and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 165 teachers of students with visual impairments in Texas to examine their perceptions of their knowledge of assistive technology. The results showed that they had significant deficits in knowledge in 55 (74.32%) of the 74 assistive technology competencies that were examined and that 57.5% of them lacked…

  4. Assistive Technology in Teacher-Training Programs: A National and International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safhi, Mohammad Y.; Zhou, Li; Smith, Derrick W.; Kelley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here investigated how assistive technology training is being integrated into teacher preparation programs for teachers of students with visual impairments worldwide. The survey investigated how knowledge of assistive technology is addressed (whether in specific courses or by embedding the content throughout the program), what…

  5. Teachers' Initial and Sustained Use of an Instructional Assistive Technology Tool: Exploring the Mitigating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Flanagan, Sara; Heutsche, Anne; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Englert, Carol Sue

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explored factors that mitigated teachers implementing an instructional assistive technology and factors that mitigated its sustained use. Specifically, it explored these issues in relation to a social studies based instructional assistive technology (Virtual History Museum [VHM]), which was originally implemented…

  6. Special Education Teachers' Use of Assistive Technology with Students Who Have Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Cynthia; Snell, Martha; Gansneder, Bruce; Dexter, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' integration of computer-based assistive technology has been linked to positive educational outcomes for students with disabilities. This study was conducted to identify factors that are predictive of integrating assistive technology into teaching practices among general and special education teachers of students with severe disabilities.…

  7. Students with Special Educational Needs and Assistive Technologies: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Raziye

    2017-01-01

    The term "assistive technologies" refers to the equipment, devices and apparatus, and the services, systems, processes and adaptations made to the environment that support and facilitate their functions, used by persons with special education needs. This study is a literature review of the use of assistive technologies in the education…

  8. Proposal of a flowchart for the development process of Assistive Technology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda do Nascimento Maia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In exploratory interviews and unsystematic observations with professionals working in the field of rehabilitation of persons with disabilities, we observed that there is a lack of systematic development in the process of assistive technology resources, resulting in products with low quality of usability. The main objective of the present study was to contribute, through a methodological proposal, to the formation of occupational therapists in the process of developing objects for persons with disabilities. The methodology used was a brief review of the steps taken in this research. The survey was conducted and recorded relying on the following steps: literature review; organization of the research project; presentation of data from field research conducted with occupational therapists who produce objects of assistive technology; assessment and interview with users; application of questionnaires to teachers of assistive technology disciplines; interviews with occupational therapists who perform making assistive technology products to other professionals; proposal of a flowchart for the development of assistive technology resources.

  9. The Right Way Through the Region of Sin: Islam, Bioethics and New Reproductive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pišev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s numerous debates were held in the House of Lords on the scientific research of embryos, with certain participants attempting to point out the difference between two styles of thought, namely, religious and scientific thought. Yet was the conflict in the House of Lords between two styles of thinking, or rather between the proponents of the scientific approach, on the one hand, and the proponents of religious thought, on the other, for intellectual and moral domination in society? Clearly, these debates hinted at something beyond and something more complex than a mere concern about embryos. What was actually being problematized? Or, to put it differently, to what extent does the use of bioreproductive technologies call into question the notions and issues of ethics, procreation and kinship, regardless of the religious dogma that considers the possibilities of their application? This paper will be confined to an analysis of Islamic dogma and any correspondences between this dogma and certain aspects of the new reproductive technologies. Still, in order to be able to discuss the relation between the new reproductive technologies and Islamic ethics, it is necessary to devote the greater part of this paper to an interpretation of how man is perceived in the context of the Koran.

  10. Ethik, Recht und Theologie. Reproduktionstechnologien in Polen Ethics, Law, and Theology—Reproductive Technologies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Lettow

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Die bisherigen Debatten um Stammzellforschung, Klonen und Reproduktionstechnologien wurden in Deutschland weitgehend im nationalstaatlichen Rahmen und mit Blick auf Entwicklungen im angelsächsischen Raum geführt. Dabei sind diese Forschungsrichtungen und Technologien kein genuin „westliches“ Phänomen – immerhin wurde das erste Retortenkind in Polen bereits 1987 geboren. Heidi Hofmann lässt in ihrem Band polnische Philosoph/-innen, Jurist/-innen und Politikerinnen zu Wort kommen und öffnet den Blick dafür, dass die Art und Weise, in der Reproduktionstechnologien gesellschaftlich problematisiert werden, in Polen durch ganz andere politische, kulturelle und historische Konstellationen geprägt ist als in Deutschland.In Germany, the hitherto existing debates on stem-cell research, cloning, and reproductive technologies were carried out for the most part in the governmental setting and with developments in the Anglo-Saxon realm in mind. However, these research directions and technologies are by no means a genuinely “western” phenomenon—after all, the first “test-tube baby” was born in Poland as early as 1987. Heidi Hofmann’s book provides Polish philosophers, lawyers, and politicians with a platform to be heard. She thus makes it possible for readers to understand that the ways in which reproductive technologies are problematized in society are affected by very different political, cultural, and historical constellations in Poland than in Germany.

  11. New frontiers in human assisted reproduction ‑ from research to clinical practice: Several considerations (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Venturella, Roberta; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato

    2016-11-01

    In the era of very late, or advanced, motherhood, in which 'egg banks', 'social' egg‑freezing, egg donation and surrogacy represent a potential solution to a number of obstacles to human reproduction, what is the role of scientists and clinicians involved in assisted reproduction? In light of the apprehension that, in the future, through fertility treatment infertility may be passed on to the offspring, boundaries of medical vs. 'social' infertility are being created. Scientists and clinicians are joining forces in a synergistic effort to improve the effectiveness of infertility care by introducing novel therapeutic protocols with the intent of customising care and improving cost‑effectiveness, testing novel drugs and formulations, and searching for novel markers (for estimating biological age) and nomograms (to optimise the yield of a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle). On the other hand, political, social and health institutions are doing little to educate young women with respect to disinformation and to increase their awareness regarding age as the predominant factor that contributes towards the decline in fertility. Nevertheless, despite the great advances that have been made, 38 years after the birth of the first baby via in vitro fertilisation, the intricate road leading from the antral follicle to the fully developed baby continues to be designated as being too 'expensive', 'empirical', 'mysterious' or 'bound by ethics', with few significant improvements in terms of real cost‑effectiveness.

  12. Difficult embryo transfers or blood on catheter and assisted reproductive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James A S; Martins, Wellington P; Nastri, Carolina O; Raine-Fenning, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether a difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter affects assisted reproduction outcomes. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). We aimed to determine the risk ratio (RR) associated with difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter for the following outcomes: live birth, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage. We identified 3066 papers, of which 194 were reviewed and nine were included. The outcome of live birth was not reported in any of the included studies and the effect on miscarriage was too imprecise for any conclusions. Pooled analysis of five studies demonstrated lower clinical pregnancy rates following a non-easy embryo transfer (RR=0.75; 95% CI=0.66-0.86). This included three studies showing subjectively difficult transfers reducing clinical pregnancies (RR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.87) and two studies in which the need for additional manoeuvers reduced clinical pregnancies (RR=0.78; 95% CI=0.67-0.91). The presence of blood on the transfer catheter did not affect clinical pregnancy rates (RR=0.96; 95% CI=0.82-1.14) in five studies. We concluded that low quality evidence suggests that a difficult embryo transfer but not a bloody catheter reduces the chance of achieving a clinical pregnancy. More good quality studies are needed to evaluate the effect of difficult embryo transfer and the presence of blood on the catheter on the main outcomes of assisted reproduction.

  13. EC assisted start-up experiments reproduction in FTU and AUG for simulations of the ITER case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granucci, G.; Ricci, D.; Farina, D.; Figini, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cavinato, M. [F4E C/Josep Pla2, Torres Diagonal Litoral - Building 83 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mattei, M. [CREATE via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Stober, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Tudisco, O. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The breakdown and plasma start-up in ITER are well known issues studied in the last few years in many tokamaks with the aid of calculation based on simplified modeling. The thickness of ITER metallic wall and the voltage limits of the Central Solenoid Power Supply strongly limit the maximum toroidal electric field achievable (0.3 V/m), well below the level used in the present generation of tokamaks. In order to have a safe and robust breakdown, the use of Electron Cyclotron Power to assist plasma formation and current rump up has been foreseen. This has raised attention on plasma formation phase in presence of EC wave, especially in order to predict the required power for a robust breakdown in ITER. Few detailed theory studies have been performed up to nowadays, due to the complexity of the problems. A simplified approach, extended from that proposed in ref[1] has been developed including a impurity multispecies distribution and an EC wave propagation and absorption based on GRAY code. This integrated model (BK0D) has been benchmarked on ohmic and EC assisted experiments on FTU and AUG, finding the key aspects for a good reproduction of data. On the basis of this, the simulation has been devoted to understand the best configuration for ITER case. The dependency of impurity distribution content and neutral gas pressure limits has been considered. As results of the analysis a reasonable amount of power (1 - 2 MW) seems to be enough to extend in a significant way the breakdown and current start up capability of ITER. The work reports the FTU data reproduction and the ITER case simulations.

  14. Emerging issues and current trends in assistive technology use 2007-2010: practising, assisting and enabling learning for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Chris; Brown, David; Evett, Lindsay; Standen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Following an earlier review in 2007, a further review of the academic literature relating to the uses of assistive technology (AT) by children and young people was completed, covering the period 2007-2011. As in the earlier review, a tripartite taxonomy: technology uses to train or practise, technology uses to assist learning and technology uses to enable learning, was used in order to structure the findings. The key markers for research in this field and during these three years were user involvement, AT on mobile mainstream devices, the visibility of AT, technology for interaction and collaboration, new and developing interfaces and inclusive design principles. The paper concludes by locating these developments within the broader framework of the Digital Divide.

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to Community Mobility for Assistive Technology Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Layton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is frequently described in terms of individual body function and structures however contemporary views of disability also recognise the role of environment in creating disability. Aim. To identify consumer perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators to optimal mobility for a heterogeneous population of impaired Victorians who use assistive technology in their daily lives. Method. An accessible survey investigated the impact of supports or facilitators upon actual and desired life outcomes and health-related quality of life, from 100 AT users in Victoria, Australia. This paper reports upon data pertaining to community mobility. Results. A range of barriers and enablers to community mobility were identified including access to AT devices, environmental interventions, public transport, and inclusive community environs. Substantial levels of unmet need result in limited personal mobility and community participation. Outcomes fall short of many principles enshrined in current policy and human rights frameworks. Conclusion. AT devices as well as accessible and inclusive home and community environs are essential to maximizing mobility for many. Given the impact of the environment upon the capacity of individuals to realise community mobility, this raises the question as to whether rehabilitation practitioners, as well as prescribing AT devices, should work to build accessible communities via systemic advocacy.

  16. Fertility tourism: circumventive routes that enable access to reproductive technologies and substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Sven

    2011-01-01

    “Fertility tourism” is a journalistic eye‐catcher focusing on the phenomenon of patients who search for a reproductive treatment in another country in order to circumvent laws, access restrictions, or waiting lists in their home country. In Europe, the reasons why people seek reproductive treatments outside their national boundaries are quite diverse, in part because regulations differ so much among countries. Beginning with four examples of people who crossed borders for an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with gamete donation, this article provides some insight into these transnational circumvention practices based on material from ethnographic fieldwork and interviews in Spain, Denmark, and the Czech Republic. In all three countries, gamete donation is made strictly anonymous. Clinical practices such as egg donor recruitment and phenotypical matching between donors and recipients serve to naturalize the substitution of gametes and to install social legitimacy through resemblance markers with the prospective child. In comparison to other areas of medical tourism, which are subjects of debate as a consequence of neoliberal health politics and international medical competition, mobility in the area of reproductive technologies is deeply intertwined with new forms of doing kinship. For prospective parents, it holds a promise of generating offspring who could pass as biogenetically conceived children. Therefore, IVF with gamete donation is mostly modeled after conceptions of nature. Through anonymity and concealment it creates forms of nonrelatedness that leave space for future imaginings and traces of transnational genetic creators.

  17. Review: MicroRNAs in assisted reproduction and their potential role in IVF failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Brachnis, Nikos; Liassidou, Aspasia; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Bettocchi, Stefano; Chrelias, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression stability. In the endometrium, miRNAs are involved in the dynamic changes associated with the menstrual cycle, implicated in implantation and in reproductive disorders. We performed a review in an attempt to assess the potential biological pathways linking altered miRNAs profiles with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) failure. Crucially, as miRNAs appear to have a significant role in the course of reproduction, they are excellent research candidates with the potential to enable a better understanding over the underlying molecular activities that prevent implantation and further progression of the embryo. Further steps include in-depth pathway mapping of the implantation process and the characterization of the respective miRNAs and associated links. The efficiency of any intervention should determine whether miRNA profiling could possibly be adopted in routine practice to substantially improve the diagnostic accuracy and, in parallel, the directed treatment of the next-generation IVF.

  18. Sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques inherit deletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the Y chromosome and the DAZ gene copy number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau Kai, C; Juul, A; McElreavey, K

    2008-01-01

    number, supplemented with haplogroup typing in deleted patients, were performed, in combination with clinical assessments in 264 fathers and their sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART), and in 168 fertile men with normal sperm concentration. RESULTS: In the ART fathers group...

  19. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  20. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  1. Assistive technologies for managing language disorders in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka; Maresova, Petra; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    At present, the number of elderly people is rapidly increasing, which represents a significant threat in terms of their care when they fall ill. One of the most common aging diseases nowadays is dementia, whose symptoms sooner or later include loss of cognitive functioning. Cognitive disorders can vary from serious mental retardation to inability to recall things, to the loss or disorder of specific cognitive functions such as communication. These disorders not only affect the quality of people's own life but also impose a substantial burden on their families, particularly on their caregivers. Therefore, the aim of this article is to highlight the role of assistive technologies (ATs) for managing language impairments in dementia in order to improve patients' quality of life. In addition, ATs focused on training patients' memory are also mentioned, since they can help patients to maintain their language skills. Furthermore, these ATs can delay the need for institutional care, as well as significantly reduce costs on patient care. The importance of future research in the area of the development of ATs for managing the language impairments in dementia is also discussed. There is a general trend toward the personalization of patient needs and requirements in the area of ATs. For the purpose of this article, a method of literature review of available sources defining language disorders and providing characteristic features of language disorders in dementia is used. In addition, a method of comparison of different research studies exploring ATs focused on delaying language disorders in dementia in order to postpone patients' need for institutional care is also exploited.

  2. A survey of assistive technology service providers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthanat, Sajay; Elsaesser, Linda-Jeanne; Bauer, Stephen

    2017-01-26

    This study investigates perspectives of assistive technology service (ATS) providers regarding their education and training, interdisciplinary standards of practice, use of a common language framework, funding policies, utilization of evidence and outcomes measurement. A survey underpinned by AT legislations and established guidelines for practice was completed by 318 certified AT providers. More than 30% of the providers reported their education and training as inadequate to fulfil four of the seven primary roles of ATS. Nearly 90% of providers expressed awareness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains for interdisciplinary communication. However, only 45% felt that they could effectively utilize the ICF in their documentation. About 75% of the providers acknowledged the lack of a recognized standard for the provision of services. Prevailing inadequacies in funding were negatively impacting the quality of ATS, as expressed by 88% of respondents. Translation of evidence to practice was identified as a major challenge by 41% of service providers. Providers were predominantly documenting outcomes through informal interviews (54%) or non-standard instruments (26%). Findings support the need for strengthening professional curriculum, pre-service and in-service training and an established standard to support effective, interdisciplinary AT services and data collection to support public policy decisions. Implications for Rehabilitation This study validates the need to strengthen education and training of AT service providers by enhancing professional curriculum as well as their engagement in pre-service and in-service training activities. This study draws attention to health care funding policies and practices that critically impact the quality of AT services. This study signifies the need for an established interdisciplinary standard among AT professionals to support effective communication, service coordination and

  3. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H. (Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineers, Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory)

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  4. Magnetic activated cell sorting: an effective method for reduction of sperm DNA fragmentation in varicocele men prior to assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degheidy, T; Abdelfattah, H; Seif, A; Albuz, F K; Gazi, S; Abbas, S

    2015-10-01

    Semen parameters of varicocele men have been usually suspected to exhibit higher levels of abnormalities including DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic markers. Negative correlation between increased level of DNA fragmentation and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) outcome has been studied by several authors. In the current study, we aim to evaluate the possible value of magnetic activated cell sorting (MACs) technology in reduction of DNA fragmentation in infertile varicocele patients prior to ART. Semen samples, collected from 36 varicocele patients, were prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Every sample was subsequently divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was kept untouched as pre-MACs control while the other aliquot was subjected to MACs technique, for depletion of apoptotic spermatozoa, and serves as post-MACs test. Sperm count, motility and DNA fragmentations were evaluated for both control and test samples. Post-MACs samples showed no deleterious reduction in total sperm motility (80.64 ± 6.97%) compared with control samples (80.97 ± 7.74%) while sperm DNA fragmentations were significantly reduced in post-MACs samples (9.61 ± 5.62%) compared with pre-MACs controls (12.43 ± 6.29%) (P fragmentation in infertile varicocele patients prior to ART.

  5. 76 FR 28426 - Applications for New Awards; Assistive Technology Act of 1998, as Amended (AT Act)-National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Applications for New Awards; Assistive Technology Act of 1998, as Amended (AT Act)--National Activities--Data... collection and reporting. Statutory Requirements--Assistive Technology Act Data Collection and Reporting...) Education, including goals involving the provision of assistive technology to individuals with...

  6. The biology and methodology of assisted reproduction in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Monika; Duselis, Amanda R; Graft, Audrey; Pryor, William; Crossland, Janet; Vrana, Paul B; Szalai, Gabor

    2012-01-15

    Although laboratory-reared species of the genus Peromyscus-including deer mice-are used as model animals in a wide range of research, routine manipulation of Peromyscus embryogenesis and reproduction has been lagging. The objective of the present study was to optimize conditions for oocyte and/or embryo retrieval and for in vitro culturing. On average, 6.4 oocytes per mouse were recovered when two doses of 15 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) were given 24 h apart, followed by 15 IU of hCG 48 h later. Following this hormone priming, females mated overnight with a fertile male yielded an average of 9.1 two-cell stage embryos. Although two-cell stage embryos developed to 8-cell stage in Potassium Simplex Optimized Medium (KSOM; Millipore-Chemicon, Billerica, MA, USA) in vitro, but not further, embryos recovered at the 8- to 16-cell stages developed into fully expanded blastocysts when cultured in M16 media in vitro. These blastocysts had full potential to develop into late stage fetuses and possibly into live pups. As a result of the present work, all stages of Peromyscus preimplantation development are now obtainable in numbers sufficient for molecular or other analyses. These advances provide the opportunity for routine studies involving embryo transfer (e.g., chimeras, transgenics), and preservation of genetic lines by cryopreservation.

  7. Technology assisted education: An overview of success factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asgarkhani

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on the role of digital and web technologies in learning. It discusses that technology alone cannot deliver successful learning outcomes. In rolling out technology-enabled learning solutions a range of other factors must be taken into consideration. A model for technology-based learning values and pilot study of a group of technology-enabled digital learning initiatives in institutions are presented to highlight the importance of people and process related factors alongside technology. The outcome of this preliminary study is presented; it indicates no significant strategic gains were derived from the use of web-technologies.

  8. Perinatal Outcomes of Newborn Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Dadashloo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcomes of such pregnancies have been rarely evaluated in our country. Adescriptive study was planned to assess the health and condition of neonates conceived with assistedtechniques in a one year period.Materials and Methods: At Royan Institute, Tehran, 443 women who became pregnant by oneof the assisted techniques in vitro fertilization (IVF, intrauterine insemination (IUI andintracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI enrolled in a descriptive study during 16 month periodbeginning on September, 2007. The sampling method used was non-incidental, consecutive.Questionnaires regarding the contents of the baby birth card were completed after interviews withthe mothers. The time from fertilization of the ovum until delivery was considered as the gestational(conception age. Pregnant mothers were under periodic evaluation until delivery. Women withstillborn babies were followed via phone contact.Results: From a total of 443 conceptions, there were 13 (2.9% pregnancies demised in utero(stillbirths and 10 (2.6% who died during the neonatal period. Additionally, 133 (43% infantswere born after multifetal pregnancies and 96 (31% infants were prematurely born. There were 106(34.3% infants with low birth weight (LBW; less than 2500 g, of which 83 (78.3% LBW infantswere multiplets. After completion of the study, 71 women were still passing their pregnancy periodand no assessed.Conclusion: The most important factor for untoward perinatal events was multifetal pregnancy. Suchpregnancies were more frequently complicated and higher risk. Low birth weight and prematuritywere more frequent in singletons conceived by assisted techniques in respect to control singletons.

  9. Navajo-ABLE: Replication Model Navajo Assistive Technology Loan Program. Final Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Katie Jebb

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of the Navajo Assistive Bank of Loanable Equipment (Navajo-ABLE), a federally funded program designed to provide assistive technology (AT) devices, services, technical information, funding information, and training for Navajo children and youth with disabilities. The program was operated and…

  10. Promoting Participation in Schoolwork: Assistive Technology Use by Children with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchland, Sonya; Parkyn, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Assistive technology items are frequently prescribed to assist children with physical disabilities to minimise the barriers they experience in undertaking schoolwork. A range of items are recommended from computers to access systems and specialised software. However, it is not known what the range of items that children with physical disabilities…

  11. Ethical Issues Related to the Use/Non-Use of Assistive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Albert M.

    2009-01-01

    Assistive technologies (AT) can provide significant assistance in accomplishing the tasks of daily living for persons who have disabilities. Five types of ethical principles underlie the distribution and use of AT: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, autonomy and fidelity. Beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, most directly affect the…

  12. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  13. Internet-Assisted Technologies for English Language Teaching in Turkish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Although the enormous potential of the Internet has gained attention in Internet-assisted language teaching (IALT), a solid background of research is still lacking about/investigating English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' use of Internet assistive technologies. This study set out to determine Turkish university level EFL…

  14. Internet-Assisted Technologies for English Language Teaching in Turkish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Although the enormous potential of the Internet has gained attention in Internet-assisted language teaching (IALT), a solid background of research is still lacking about/investigating English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' use of Internet assistive technologies. This study set out to determine Turkish university level EFL instructors'…

  15. Production of reproductively sterile fish: A mini-review of germ cell elimination technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zohar, Yonathan

    2015-09-15

    As seafood consumption shifts from fisheries harvests to artificially propagated aquatic species, the increase of aquaculture activities poses a biological threat to our environment. Selectively bred, non-native and (eventually) genetically engineered farmed fish may escape from aquaculture operations, propagate and/or interbreed with wild stocks and subsequently alter the genetic makeup of populations in the environment. Thus, an effective strategy for bio-containment of farmed fish is critically needed. Farming reproductively sterile fish is the most environmentally sustainable approach to ensure complete bio-containment in large-scale aquaculture operations. Chromosome set manipulations to produce sterile fish, including polyploidy and hybridization, are currently the most common practices in the aquaculture industry. However, they do not always result in 100% sterility of the treated fish. Moreover, triploid fish typically do not perform as well as the non-manipulated diploids under commercial culture conditions. In the last half decade, several genetic engineering methods have been developed to produce sterile fish. In this review, we will address the latest technologies that use transgenic approaches to eliminate germ cells, resulting in the production of sterile fish. These latest advances also led us to the development of egg/embryo immersion methodologies to deliver and screen compounds that can be used to eliminate primordial germ cells and produce sterile fish. This emerging non-transgenic strategy for the production of reproductively sterile fish in aquaculture will also be discussed.

  16. Advanced High Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-assist Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EV) when entering earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in...

  17. Sound-based assistive technology support to hearing, speaking and seeing

    CERN Document Server

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    This book "Sound-based Assistive Technology" explains a technology to help speech-, hearing- and sight-impaired people. They might benefit in some way from an enhancement in their ability to recognize and produce speech or to detect sounds in their surroundings. Additionally, it is considered how sound-based assistive technology might be applied to the areas of speech recognition, speech synthesis, environmental recognition, virtual reality and robots. It is the primary focus of this book to provide an understanding of both the methodology and basic concepts of assistive technology rather than listing the variety of assistive devices developed in Japan or other countries. Although this book presents a number of different topics, they are sufficiently independent from one another that the reader may begin at any chapter without experiencing confusion. It should be acknowledged that much of the research quoted in this book was conducted in the author's laboratories both at Hokkaido University and the University...

  18. Fetal subjects and maternal objects: reproductive technology and the new fetal/maternal relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, S

    1996-10-01

    This essay examines three tendencies nurtured in the practices of reproductive technology - tendencies with profoundly disturbing implications for us as individuals and as social beings. They are: 1) the increasing subjectification of the fetus (that is, the increasing tendency to posit a fetal subject), 2) the increasing objectification of the gestating woman, leading to her representation as interchangeable object rather than unique subject, and 3) the increasing tendency to conceive of the fetus and the mother as social, medical, and legal antagonists. Considering the construction of fetus, mother, and the fetal/maternal relation in earlier (Western) historical periods, a contemporary work of literature, a government report, and the popular press, I argue that as the fetus is increasingly being understood as a subject, the mother is increasingly being reduced to an antagonist, an obstacle to fetal health, and an object. The essay concludes by offering some tentative conclusions about the general process of fetal subjectification in the United States and Europe.

  19. Utilization of Information Technology to Assist Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    The advance of information technologies has provided educational reform with favorable material conditions and means of support. This paper is an attempt to explore the ways to utilize information technology to facilitate the development of modern translation teaching.

  20. A Brief Introduction of Assistive Technology Service Delivery System in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, MyungJoon; Jung, SungMin

    2015-01-01

    Social participation of People with Disability in Republic of Korea has been grown last few years. Also demand of Assistive Technology has been increased as well. Responding these needs, the public benefits of Assistive Technology Device in Republic of Korea in 2014 was USD 1.7 billion which had been increased by 27 percent during the last five years. Despite an increase in the budget, effort to build Assistive Technology Service Delivery System (ATSDS) was not enough. Therefore, Ministry of Health and Welfare in Korea decided to build ATSDS in Republic of Korea in 2009. In this paper, the process of establishing ATSDS and 2014 outcomes of ATSDS are presented in details. For more than six years efforts of establishing national-wide ATSDS, nine Assistive Technology Centers were actively running in their delivery of service in 2014. As of 2014 outcomes of ATSDS, 14,056 cases were delivered through nine Assistive Technology Centers. The presence of ATSDS proved increase in accessibility for Assistive Technology for People with Disability followed by improvement of the quality of life of them.

  1. The Evolution of Legislation in the Field of Medically Assisted Reproduction and Embryo Stem Cell Research in European Union Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR, involving in vitro fertilisation (IVF, and research on embryos have created expectation to many people affected by infertility; at the same time it has generated a surplus of laws and ethical and social debates. Undoubtedly, MAR represents a rather new medical field and constant developments in medicine and new opportunities continue to defy the attempt to respond to those questions. In this paper, the authors reviewed the current legislation in the 28 EU member states trying to evaluate the different legislation paths adopted over the last 15 years and highlighting those EU countries with no specific legislation in place and MAR is covered by a general health Law and those countries in which there are no laws in this field but only “guidelines.” The second aim of this work has been to compare MAR legislation and embryo research in EU countries, which derive from different origins ranging from an extremely prohibitive approach versus a liberal one, going through a cautious regulatory approach.

  2. Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm high-magnification for predicting outcome of assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gemma; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel A; Carreras, Ramón; Brassesco, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Over the last years, major improvements in the field of male infertility diagnosis have been achieved. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of sperm DNA integrity and sperm vacuolisation for predicting outcome in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments. A cohort study from 152 infertile couples undergoing sperm DNA fragmentation and high-magnification tests prior to an assisted reproduction treatment was designed. We found that the most predictive cutoff for pregnancy was 25.5% of DNA fragmentation with a negative predictive value of 72.7% (P=0.02). For the degree of vacuolisation, the best predictor of pregnancy was 73.5% of vacuolated sperm grades III+IV with a negative predictive value of 39.4% (P=0.09), which was not statistically significant. In conclusion, sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 25.5% could be associated with higher probability of failure IVF treatment. Regarding the results of the sperm analysis at high magnification, they do not allow us to predict whether or not patients will become pregnant.

  3. Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm high-magnification for predicting outcome of assisted reproduction treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gemma; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel A; Carreras, Ramón; Brassesco, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, major improvements in the field of male infertility diagnosis have been achieved. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of sperm DNA integrity and sperm vacuolisation for predicting outcome in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments. A cohort study from 152 infertile couples undergoing sperm DNA fragmentation and high-magnification tests prior to an assisted reproduction treatment was designed. We found that the most predictive cutoff for pregnancy was 25.5% of DNA fragmentation with a negative predictive value of 72.7% (P=0.02). For the degree of vacuolisation, the best predictor of pregnancy was 73.5% of vacuolated sperm grades III+IV with a negative predictive value of 39.4% (P=0.09), which was not statistically significant. In conclusion, sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 25.5% could be associated with higher probability of failure IVF treatment. Regarding the results of the sperm analysis at high magnification, they do not allow us to predict whether or not patients will become pregnant. PMID:23912311

  4. Direct-to-consumer advertising of success rates for medically assisted reproduction: a review of national clinic websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Andy; Roberts, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To establish how medically assisted reproduction (MAR) clinics report success rates on their websites. Setting Websites of private and NHS clinics offering in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in the UK. Participants We identified clinics offering IVF using the Choose a Fertility Clinic facility on the website of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). Of 81 clinics identified, a website could not be found for 2, leaving 79 for inclusion in the analysis. Primary and secondary outcome measures Outcome measures reported by clinic websites. The numerator and denominator included in the outcome measure were of interest. Results 53 (67%) websites reported their performance using 51 different outcome measures. It was most common to report pregnancy (83% of these clinics) or live birth rates (51%). 31 different ways of reporting pregnancy and 9 different ways of reporting live birth were identified. 11 (21%) reported multiple birth or pregnancy rates. 1 clinic provided information on adverse events. It was usual for clinics to present results without relevant contextual information such as sample size, reporting period, the characteristics of patients and particular details of treatments. Conclusions Many combinations of numerator and denominator are available for the purpose of reporting success rates for MAR. The range of reporting options available to clinics is further increased by the possibility of presenting results for subgroups of patients and for different time periods. Given the status of these websites as advertisements to patients, the risk of selective reporting is considerable. Binding guidance is required to ensure consistent, informative reporting. PMID:28082363

  5. [Analysis of key vision position technologies in robot assisted surgical system for total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Liu, Yuncai; Wu, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongjian

    2008-02-01

    Robot assisted surgery is becoming a widely popular technology and is now entering the total knee replacement. The development of total knee replacement and the operation system structure are introduced in this paper. The vision position technology and the related calibration technology, which are very important, are also analyzed. The experiments of error analysis in our WATO system demonstrate that the position and related calibration technologies have a high precision and can satisfy surgical requirement.

  6. Assistive technology pricing in Australia: is it efficient and equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Michael P; Verikios, George

    2017-02-06

    Objective To examine available systematically collected evidence regarding prices for assistive technology (AT; e.g. disability aids and equipment) in Australia with other comparable countries. Issues of appropriate AT pricing are coming to the fore as a consequence of efforts to move to consumer-centric purchasing decisions with the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and also in the recent aged care reforms.Methods We identified and present three sets of AT price comparisons. Two comparisons were based solely on the lowest prices advertised on the internet, and one comparison examined recommended retail prices. Variables essential to ensuring accurate comparisons, as well as significant supply-chain issues were also examined and considered in the analyses.Results The first internet-only price comparison found that overall AT prices were 38% higher in Australia compared to other countries, but did not factor in shipping and other related costs that are essential to include given that most AT is imported. The second internet-only price comparison found that overall Australian prices were 24% lower when shipping and related costs were included. The recommended retail price comparisons found that Australian prices were between 14% and 27% lower. Prices for internet-only retailers (those with no bricks-and-mortar presence) are consistently lower for all products than those sold by retailers with actual shop-fronts. Further, there is no evidence of suppliers earning supranormal profits in Australia.Conclusions The results indicate that AT prices in Australia are efficient and equitable, with no significant indicators of market failure which would require government intervention. Efforts to reduce prices through the excessive use of large-scale government procurement programs are likely to reduce diversity and innovation in AT and raise AT prices over time. Open markets and competition with centralised tracking of purchases and providers to minimise possible

  7. The "Second Place" Problem: Assistive Technology in Sports and (Re) Constructing Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D A

    2016-02-01

    Objections to the use of assistive technologies (such as prostheses) in elite sports are generally raised when the technology in question is perceived to afford the user a potentially "unfair advantage," when it is perceived as a threat to the purity of the sport, and/or when it is perceived as a precursor to a slippery slope toward undesirable changes in the sport. These objections rely on being able to quantify standards of "normal" within a sport so that changes attributed to the use of assistive technology can be judged as causing a significant deviation from some baseline standard. This holds athletes using assistive technologies accountable to standards that restrict their opportunities to achieve greatness, while athletes who do not use assistive technologies are able to push beyond the boundaries of these standards without moral scrutiny. This paper explores how constructions of fairness and "normality" impact athletes who use assistive technology to compete in a sporting venue traditionally populated with "able-bodied" competitors. It argues that the dynamic and obfuscated construction of "normal" standards in elite sports should move away from using body performance as the measuring stick of "normal," toward alternate forms of constructing norms such as defining, quantifying, and regulating the mechanical actions that constitute the critical components of a sport. Though framed within the context of elite sports, this paper can be interpreted more broadly to consider problems with defining "normal" bodies in a society in which technologies are constantly changing our abilities and expectations of what normal means.

  8. School, Family and Other Influences on Assistive Technology Use: Access and Challenges for Students with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Meng Ee; Cohen, Libby

    2011-01-01

    Assistive technologies are essential enablers for individuals with visual impairments, but although Singapore is technologically advanced, students with visual impairments are not yet full participants in this technological society. This study investigates the barriers and challenges to the use of assistive technologies by students with visual…

  9. Ambient Assistive Technologies (AAT): socio-technology as a powerful tool for facing the inevitable sociodemographic challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Astrid M; Plischke, Herbert; Kohls, Niko B

    2010-06-07

    Due to the socio-demographic change in most developed western countries, elderly populations have been continuously increasing. Therefore, preventive and assistive systems that allow elderly people to independently live in their own homes as long as possible will become an economical if not ethical necessity. These respective technologies are being developed under the term "Ambient Assistive Technologies" (AAT). The EU-funded AAT-project Ambient Lighting Assistance for an Ageing Population (ALADIN) has established the long-term goal to create an adaptive system capable of improving the residential lighting conditions of single living elderly persons also aiming at supporting the preservation of their independence.Results of an earlier survey revealed that the elderly perceived their current lighting situation as satisfactory, whereas interviewers assessed in-house lighting as too dark and risk-laden. The overall results of ALADIN showed a significant increase in well-being from the baseline final testing with the new adaptive lighting system.Positive results for wellbeing and life quality suggest that the outcome effects may be attributed to the introduction of technology as well as to social contacts arising from participating in the study. The technological guidance of the study supervisors, in particular, may have produced a strong social reactivity effect that was first observed in the famous Hawthorne experiments in the 1930s. As older adults seem to benefit both from meaningful social contacts as well as assistive technologies, the question arises how assistive technology can be socially embedded to be able to maximize positive health effects. Therefore ethical guidelines for development and use of new assistive technologies for handicapped/older persons have to be developed and should be discussed with regard to their applicability in the context of AAT.

  10. Ambient Assistive Technologies (AAT: socio-technology as a powerful tool for facing the inevitable sociodemographic challenges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plischke Herbert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the socio-demographic change in most developed western countries, elderly populations have been continuously increasing. Therefore, preventive and assistive systems that allow elderly people to independently live in their own homes as long as possible will become an economical if not ethical necessity. These respective technologies are being developed under the term "Ambient Assistive Technologies" (AAT. The EU-funded AAT-project Ambient Lighting Assistance for an Ageing Population (ALADIN has established the long-term goal to create an adaptive system capable of improving the residential lighting conditions of single living elderly persons also aiming at supporting the preservation of their independence. Results of an earlier survey revealed that the elderly perceived their current lighting situation as satisfactory, whereas interviewers assessed in-house lighting as too dark and risk-laden. The overall results of ALADIN showed a significant increase in well-being from the baseline final testing with the new adaptive lighting system. Positive results for wellbeing and life quality suggest that the outcome effects may be attributed to the introduction of technology as well as to social contacts arising from participating in the study. The technological guidance of the study supervisors, in particular, may have produced a strong social reactivity effect that was first observed in the famous Hawthorne experiments in the 1930s. As older adults seem to benefit both from meaningful social contacts as well as assistive technologies, the question arises how assistive technology can be socially embedded to be able to maximize positive health effects. Therefore ethical guidelines for development and use of new assistive technologies for handicapped/older persons have to be developed and should be discussed with regard to their applicability in the context of AAT.

  11. Assistive Technology and Dolphin Therapy: A Wonderful Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eli; Thomasson, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    Madison is a four-year-old child who was born with cerebral palsy and cortical vision impairment. As a result, she has limited use of her extremities and is just starting to walk with assistance. She is predominately non-verbal, with the exception of a few words. This article describes how Island Dolphin Care (IDC), a nonprofit agency in Key…

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Time Compressed Animated Delivery Multimedia Technology on Student Learning in Reproductive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.; Oki, Angela C.; Senger, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a multimedia technology referred to as "Time Compressed Animated Delivery" (TCAD), on student learning in a junior-level reproductive physiology course. In experiment 1, participating students received one of two presentations of the same instructional material: TCAD and a lecture captured on video. At the…

  13. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES ACCORDING TO THE ISO 15189:2007 STANDARD - EVALUATION OF THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN AN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION LABORATORY

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Sialakouma; Palmer, G A; M. Botsaki; X. Papanikou; N.M. Vaxevanidis

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical science is a sensitive discipline and presents unique challenges due to its social character, continuous development and competitiveness. The issue of quality management systems and accreditation is gaining increasing interest in this sector. All over Europe, Health Services Units have started to introduce quality management systems and harmonization of criteria for accreditation is of increasing importance. Moreover, clinical laboratories, like the Assisted Reproduction laboratori...

  14. Current treatment status of traditional Chinese medicine in assisted reproductive techniques%中医药在辅助生殖技术中的治疗现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖娟; 程玲

    2012-01-01

    中医药近年在以体外受精-胚胎移植为代表的辅助生殖技术中常有报道,本文从体外受精-胚胎移植前治疗、移植周期中治疗、对子宫内膜容受性的调节、对并发症卵巢过度刺激综合征的调节、针刺治疗和食疗等方面综述了中医药在辅助生殖技术中的应用现状,从而认为祖国医学与现代辅助生殖技术相结合,可有效地提高不孕不育症治疗的成功率,减少并发症.%In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine has been frequently reported in assisted reproductive techniques, especially in vitro fertilization-embryo transplantation. This paper reviewed the current application status of traditional Chinese medicine in assisted reproductive techniques from treatment before in vitro fertilization-embryo transplantation, treatment during transplantation cycle, regulation of endometrial receptivity, regulation of concurrent ovarian hyperstimula-tion syndrome, acupuncture treatment, diet therapy and another aspects, thus concluding that the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and modern assisted reproductive techniques can effective improve the success rate of infertility disease treatment and reduce complications.

  15. The effect of peri-implantation administration of uterine relaxing agents in assisted reproduction treatment cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Dhillon, Rima K; Chu, Justin; Rajkhowa, Madhurima; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2016-04-01

    Sub-endometrial junctional zone peristalsis is increased by ovarian stimulation and traumatic embryo transfer, and is linked with decreased implantation and pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction treatments. Various agents have been used to inhibit uterine hyper-peristalsis at the time of embryo transfer with conflicting results. This systematic review aimed to identify if uterine relaxants administered in the peri-implantation period during assisted reproduction treatments could improve pregnancy outcomes through literature search with no language restrictions. The review reports on 3546 patients in 17 randomized controlled trials published between 1993 and 2014. Women undergoing assisted reproduction techniques who either received a uterine relaxant agent in the peri-implantation period versus placebo or no treatment were included. Primary outcome was live birth rate. The meta-analyses did not show statistically significant benefit of any uterine relaxing agents on live birth rate. Other meta-analyses did not show a significant effect on the clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy and multiple pregnancy rate. Most of the included studies were of low quality and lacked significant power to detect minimally important effect. Evidence is insufficient to recommend using these agents in routine practice. Further methodologically robust randomized controlled trials with more refined selection criteria might reveal a beneficial effect.

  16. Promoting Technology-Assisted Active Learning in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…

  17. Assessing acceptance of assistive social agent technology by older adults: the Almere model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, M.; Kröse, B.; Evers, V.; Wielinga, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of technology acceptance that is specifically developed to test the acceptance of assistive social agents by elderly users. The research in this paper develops and tests an adaptation and theoretical extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTA

  18. Assistive Technology in Special Education and the Universal Design for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Using technology can help students with disabilities to enhance and improve their independence in academic and employment tasks, their participation in classroom discussions, along with helping them to accomplish some difficult academic tasks. This paper discusses the role and benefits of using assistive technology in the Universal Design for…

  19. Differentiated Instructional Strategies and Assistive Technology in Brazil: Are We Talking about the Same Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Gerusa Ferreira; Goncalves, Adriana Garcia; Elias, Nassim Chamel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the association of educational strategies and differentiated instructions with assistive technology for special education students. The use of technology is an important ally for mediation among teachers, students and academic content. For special education students, there is a need to promote general…

  20. Assistive Technologies for Students with Disabilities: A Survey of Access and Use in Turkish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Ismahan Arslan; Inan, Fethi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the assistive technology needs of university students with disabilities and the availability of these technologies. It also explored the attitudes of the students with disabilities toward computers and the extent to which these are used by students with disabilities. Data was collected through a questionnaire, from 22…