WorldWideScience

Sample records for assisted protein folding

  1. CoinFold: a web server for protein contact prediction and contact-assisted protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Renyu; Liu, Shiwang; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-07-01

    CoinFold (http://raptorx2.uchicago.edu/ContactMap/) is a web server for protein contact prediction and contact-assisted de novo structure prediction. CoinFold predicts contacts by integrating joint multi-family evolutionary coupling (EC) analysis and supervised machine learning. This joint EC analysis is unique in that it not only uses residue coevolution information in the target protein family, but also that in the related families which may have divergent sequences but similar folds. The supervised learning further improves contact prediction accuracy by making use of sequence profile, contact (distance) potential and other information. Finally, this server predicts tertiary structure of a sequence by feeding its predicted contacts and secondary structure to the CNS suite. Tested on the CASP and CAMEO targets, this server shows significant advantages over existing ones of similar category in both contact and tertiary structure prediction. PMID:27112569

  2. Folding of β-barrel membrane proteins in lipid bilayers - Unassisted and assisted folding and insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Jörg H

    2015-09-01

    In cells, β-barrel membrane proteins are transported in unfolded form to an outer membrane into which they fold and insert. Model systems have been established to investigate the mechanisms of insertion and folding of these versatile proteins into detergent micelles, lipid bilayers and even synthetic amphipathic polymers. In these experiments, insertion into lipid membranes is initiated from unfolded forms that do not display residual β-sheet secondary structure. These studies therefore have allowed the investigation of membrane protein folding and insertion in great detail. Folding of β-barrel membrane proteins into lipid bilayers has been monitored from unfolded forms by dilution of chaotropic denaturants that keep the protein unfolded as well as from unfolded forms present in complexes with molecular chaperones from cells. This review is aimed to provide an overview of the principles and mechanisms observed for the folding of β-barrel transmembrane proteins into lipid bilayers, the importance of lipid-protein interactions and the function of molecular chaperones and folding assistants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25983306

  3. GroEL-Assisted Protein Folding: Does It Occur Within the Chaperonin Inner Cavity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady V. Semisotnov

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The folding of protein molecules in the GroEL inner cavity under the co-chaperonin GroES lid is widely accepted as a crucial event of GroEL-assisted protein folding. This review is focused on the data showing that GroEL-assisted protein folding may proceed out of the complex with the chaperonin. The models of GroEL-assisted protein folding assuming ligand-controlled dissociation of nonnative proteins from the GroEL surface and their folding in the bulk solution are also discussed.

  4. Nucleic acid chaperons: a theory of an RNA-assisted protein folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Jan C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background Proteins are assumed to contain all the information necessary for unambiguous folding (Anfinsen's principle. However, ab initio structure prediction is often not successful because the amino acid sequence itself is not sufficient to guide between endless folding possibilities. It seems to be a logical to try to find the "missing" information in nucleic acids, in the redundant codon base. Results mRNA energy dot plots and protein residue contact maps were found to be rather similar. The structure of mRNA is also conserved if the protein structure is conserved, even if the sequence similarity is low. These observations led me to suppose that some similarity might exist between nucleic acid and protein folding. I found that amino acid pairs, which are co-located in the protein structure, are preferentially coded by complementary codons. This codon complementarity is not perfect; it is suboptimal where the 1st and 3rd codon residues are complementary to each other in reverse orientation, while the 2nd codon letters may be, but are not necessarily, complementary. Conclusion Partial complementary coding of co-locating amino acids in protein structures suggests that mRNA assists in protein folding and functions not only as a template but even as a chaperon during translation. This function explains the role of wobble bases and answers the mystery of why we have a redundant codon base.

  5. Discovery of Proteomic Code with mRNA Assisted Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Biro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3x redundancy of the Genetic Code is usually explained as a necessity to increase the mutation-resistance of the genetic information. However recent bioinformatical observations indicate that the redundant Genetic Code contains more biological information than previously known and which is additional to the 64/20 definition of amino acids. It might define the physico-chemical and structural properties of amino acids, the codon boundaries, the amino acid co-locations (interactions in the coded proteins and the free folding energy of mRNAs. This additional information, which seems to be necessary to determine the 3D structure of coding nucleic acids as well as the coded proteins, is known as the Proteomic Code and mRNA Assisted Protein Folding.

  6. Folding of newly translated membrane protein CCR5 is assisted by the chaperonin GroEL-GroES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haixia; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jiqiang; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro folding of newly translated human CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), which belongs to the physiologically important family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been studied in a cell-free system supplemented with the surfactant Brij-35. The freshly synthesized CCR5 can spontaneously fold into its biologically active state but only slowly and inefficiently. However, on addition of the GroEL-GroES molecular chaperone system, the folding of the nascent CCR5 was significantly enhanced, as was the structural stability and functional expression of the soluble form of CCR5. The chaperonin GroEL was partially effective on its own, but for maximum efficiency both the GroEL and its GroES lid were necessary. These results are direct evidence for chaperone-assisted membrane protein folding and therefore demonstrate that GroEL-GroES may be implicated in the folding of membrane proteins.

  7. Disassembly of yeast 80S ribosomes into subunits is a concerted action of ribosome-assisted folding of denatured protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-22

    It has been shown by several groups that ribosome can assist folding of denatured protein in vitro and the process is conserved across the species. Domain V of large ribosomal rRNA which occupies the intersubunit side of the large subunit was identified as the key player responsible for chaperoning the folding process. Thus, it is conceivable that denatured protein needs to access the intersubunit space of the ribosome in order to get folded. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of release of the protein from the eukaryotic ribosome following reactivation. We have observed significant splitting of yeast 80S ribosome when incubated with the denatured BCAII protein. Energy-free disassembly mechanism functions in low Mg(+2) ion concentration for prokaryotic ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes do not show significant splitting even at low Mg(+2) ion concentration. In this respect, denatured protein-induced disassembly of eukaryotic ribosome without the involvement of any external energy source is intriguing. For prokaryotic ribosomes, it was reported that the denatured protein induces ribosome splitting into subunits in order to access domain V-rRNA. In contrast, our results suggest an alternative mechanism for eukaryotic ribosomal rRNA-mediated protein folding and subsequent separation of the subunits by which release of the activated-protein occurs. PMID:26723252

  8. Simulations of protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simple, phenomenological, Monte-Carlo code that predicts the three-dimensional structure of globular proteins from the DNA sequences that define them. We have applied this code to two small proteins, the villin headpiece (1VII) and colel rop (1ROP). Our code folds both proteins to within 5 A rms of their native structures

  9. Simulations of Protein Folding

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, M; Cahill, K E; Cahill, Michael; Fleharty, Mark; Cahill, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a simple, phenomenological, Monte-Carlo code that predicts the three-dimensional structure of globular proteins from the DNA sequences that define them. We have applied this code to two small proteins, the villin headpiece (1VII) and cole1 rop (1ROP). Our code folded the 36-residue villin headpiece to a mean rms distance of less than 5 A from its native structure as revealed by NMR; it folded a 56-residue fragment of the protein cole1 rop to within 11 A of its native structure. The denatured starting configurations of these two proteins were, respectively, 29 A and 55 A distant from their native structures.

  10. Chirality and Protein Folding

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiecinska, Joanna I.; Cieplak, Marek

    2004-01-01

    There are several simple criteria of folding to a native state in model proteins. One of them involves crossing of a threshold value of the RMSD distance away from the native state. Another checks whether all native contacts are established, i.e. whether the interacting amino acids come closer than some characteristic distance. We use Go-like models of proteins and show that such simple criteria may prompt one to declare folding even though fragments of the resulting conformations have a wron...

  11. Protein folding and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    González-Diáz, P F

    1997-01-01

    Protein denaturing induced by supercooling is interpreted as a process where some or all internal symmetries of the native protein are spontaneously broken. Hence, the free-energy potential corresponding to a folding-funnel landscape becomes temperature-dependent and describes a phase transition. The idea that deformed vortices could be produced in the transition induced by temperature quenching, from native proteins to unfolded conformations is discussed in terms of the Zurek mechanism that implements the analogy between vortices, created in the laboratory at low energy, and the cosmic strings which are thought to have been left after symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. An experiment is proposed to test the above idea which generalizes the cosmological analogy to also encompass biological systems and push a step ahead the view that protein folding is a biological equivalent of the big bang.

  12. Chirality and protein folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinska, Joanna I; Cieplak, Marek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2005-05-11

    There are several simple criteria of folding to a native state in model proteins. One of them involves crossing of a threshold value of the root mean square deviation distance away from the native state. Another checks whether all native contacts are established, i.e. whether the interacting amino acids come closer than some characteristic distance. We use Go-like models of proteins and show that such simple criteria may prompt one to declare folding even though fragments of the resulting conformations have a wrong sense of chirality. We propose that a better condition of folding should augment the simple criteria with the requirement that most of the local values of the chirality should be nearly native. The kinetic discrepancy between the simple and compound criteria can be substantially reduced in the Go-like models by providing the Hamiltonian with a term which favours native values of the local chirality. We study the effects of this term as a function of its amplitude and compare it to other models such as ones with side groups and ones with angle-dependent potentials.

  13. Chirality and protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinska, Joanna I.; Cieplak, Marek

    2005-05-01

    There are several simple criteria of folding to a native state in model proteins. One of them involves crossing of a threshold value of the root mean square deviation distance away from the native state. Another checks whether all native contacts are established, i.e. whether the interacting amino acids come closer than some characteristic distance. We use Go-like models of proteins and show that such simple criteria may prompt one to declare folding even though fragments of the resulting conformations have a wrong sense of chirality. We propose that a better condition of folding should augment the simple criteria with the requirement that most of the local values of the chirality should be nearly native. The kinetic discrepancy between the simple and compound criteria can be substantially reduced in the Go-like models by providing the Hamiltonian with a term which favours native values of the local chirality. We study the effects of this term as a function of its amplitude and compare it to other models such as ones with side groups and ones with angle-dependent potentials.

  14. Probing the Ca2+-assisted pi-pi interaction during Ca2+-dependent protein folding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matyska Lišková, Petra; Fišer, Radovan; Macek, Pavel; Chmelík, Josef; Sýkora, Jan; Bednárová, Lucie; Konopásek, I.; Bumba, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2016), s. 531-541. ISSN 1744-683X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0717; GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk LO1509 Grant ostatní: OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : METAL-ION-BINDING * NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS * RTX PROTEINS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.029, year: 2014

  15. Chaperonin-Assisted Protein Folding: Relative Population of Asymmetric and Symmetric GroEL:GroES Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Shubhasis; Gupta, Amit J; Yan, Xiao; Miličić, Goran; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2015-06-19

    The chaperonin GroEL, a cylindrical complex consisting of two stacked heptameric rings, and its lid-like cofactor GroES form a nano-cage in which a single polypeptide chain is transiently enclosed and allowed to fold unimpaired by aggregation. GroEL and GroES undergo an ATP-regulated interaction cycle that serves to close and open the folding cage. Recent reports suggest that the presence of non-native substrate protein alters the GroEL/ES reaction by shifting it from asymmetric to symmetric complexes. In the asymmetric reaction mode, only one ring of GroEL is GroES bound and the two rings function sequentially, coupled by negative allostery. In the symmetric mode, both GroEL rings are GroES bound and are folding active simultaneously. Here, we find that the results of assays based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer recently used to quantify symmetric complexes depend strongly on the fluorophore pair used. We therefore developed a novel assay based on fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy to accurately measure GroEL:GroES stoichiometry. This assay avoids fluorophore labeling of GroEL and the use of GroEL cysteine mutants. Our results show that symmetric GroEL:GroES2 complexes are substantially populated only in the presence of non-foldable model proteins, such as α-lactalbumin and α-casein, which "over-stimulate" the GroEL ATPase and uncouple the negative GroEL inter-ring allostery. In contrast, asymmetric complexes are dominant both in the absence of substrate and in the presence of foldable substrate proteins. Moreover, uncoupling of the GroEL rings and formation of symmetric GroEL:GroES2 complexes is suppressed at physiological ATP:ADP concentration. We conclude that the asymmetric GroEL:GroES complex represents the main folding active form of the chaperonin. PMID:25912285

  16. Teaching computers to fold proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2004-01-01

    A new general algorithm for optimization of potential functions for protein folding is introduced. It is based upon gradient optimization of the thermodynamic stability of native folds of a training set of proteins with known structure. The iterative update rule contains two thermodynamic averages...... which are estimated by (generalized ensemble) Monte Carlo. We test the learning algorithm on a Lennard-Jones (LJ) force field with a torsional angle degrees-of-freedom and a single-atom side-chain. In a test with 24 peptides of known structure, none folded correctly with the initial potential functions...

  17. Protein folding and wring resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    1997-01-01

    protein folding takes place when the amplitude of a wring excitation becomes so large that it is energetically favorable to bend the protein backbone. The condition under which such structural transformations can occur is found, and it is shown that both cold and hot denaturation (the unfolding of......The polypeptide chain of a protein is shown to obey topological contraints which enable long range excitations in the form of wring modes of the protein backbone. Wring modes of proteins of specific lengths can therefore resonate with molecular modes present in the cell. It is suggested that...... proteins) are natural consequences of the suggested wring mode model. Native (folded) proteins are found to possess an intrinsic standing wring mode....

  18. Protein folding and wring resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    1997-01-01

    protein folding takes place when the amplitude of a wring excitation becomes so large that it is energetically favorable to bend the protein backbone. The condition under which such structural transformations can occur is found, and it is shown that both cold and hot denaturation (the unfolding of...

  19. Protein folding, protein homeostasis, and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Van Drie

    2011-01-01

    Proteins fold into their functional 3-dimensional structures from a linear amino acid sequence. In vitro this process is spontaneous; while in vivo it is orchestrated by a specialized set of proteins, called chaperones. Protein folding is an ongoing cellular process, as cellular proteins constantly undergo synthesis and degradation. Here emerging links between this process and cancer are reviewed. This perspective both yields insights into the current struggle to develop novel cancer chemotherapeutics and has implications for future chemotherapy discovery.

  20. Hydrodynamic Interactions in Protein Folding

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Niewieczerzał, Szymon

    2008-01-01

    We incorporate hydrodynamic interactions (HI) in a coarse-grained and structure-based model of proteins by employing the Rotne-Prager hydrodynamic tensor. We study several small proteins and demonstrate that HI facilitate folding. We also study HIV-1 protease and show that HI make the flap closing dynamics faster. The HI are found to affect time correlation functions in the vicinity of the native state even though they have no impact on same time characteristics of the structure fluctuations ...

  1. Hydrodynamic interactions in protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Niewieczerzał, Szymon

    2009-03-01

    We incorporate hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) in a coarse-grained and structure-based model of proteins by employing the Rotne-Prager hydrodynamic tensor. We study several small proteins and demonstrate that HIs facilitate folding. We also study HIV-1 protease and show that HIs make the flap closing dynamics faster. The HIs are found to affect time correlation functions in the vicinity of the native state even though they have no impact on same time characteristics of the structure fluctuations around the native state.

  2. PREFACE Protein folding: lessons learned and new frontiers Protein folding: lessons learned and new frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Rohit V.; Nussinov, Ruth

    2009-03-01

    multi-scale dynamical problem when one considers the synergies between protein expression, spontaneous folding, chaperonin-assisted folding, protein targeting, the kinetics of post-translational modifications, protein degradation, and of course the drive to avoid aggregation. Further, there is growing recognition that cells not only tolerate but select for proteins that are intrinsically disordered. These proteins are essential for many crucial activities, and yet their inability to fold in isolation makes them prone to proteolytic processing and aggregation. In the series of papers that make up this special focus on protein folding in physical biology, leading researchers provide insights into diverse cross-sections of problems in protein folding. Barrick provides a concise review of what we have learned from the study of two-state folders and draws attention to how several unanswered questions are being approached using studies on large repeat proteins. Dissecting the contribution of hydration-mediated interactions to driving forces for protein folding and assembly has been extremely challenging. There is renewed interest in using hydrostatic pressure as a tool to access folding intermediates and decipher the role of partially hydrated states in folding, misfolding, and aggregation. Silva and Foguel review many of the nuances that have been uncovered by perturbing hydrostatic pressure as a thermodynamic parameter. As noted above, protein folding in vivo is expected to be considerably more complex than the folding of two-state proteins in dilute solutions. Lucent et al review the state-of-the-art in the development of quantitative theories to explain chaperonin-assisted folding in vivo. Additionally, they highlight unanswered questions pertaining to the processing of unfolded/misfolded proteins by the chaperone machinery. Zhuang et al present results that focus on the effects of surface tethering on transition state ensembles and folding mechanisms of a model two

  3. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of protein folding

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Y.; Feixas, F; Eun, C; McCammon, JA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Folding of four fast-folding proteins, including chignolin, Trp-cage, villin headpiece and WW domain, was simulated via accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD). In comparison with hundred-of-microsecond timescale conventional molecular dynamics (cMD) simulations performed on the Anton supercomputer, aMD captured complete folding of the four proteins in significantly shorter simulation time. The folded protein conformations were found within 0.2-2.1 Å of the native ...

  4. Protein folding in a force clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Szymczak, P.

    2006-05-01

    Kinetics of folding of a protein held in a force clamp are compared to an unconstrained folding. The comparison is made within a simple topology-based dynamical model of ubiquitin. We demonstrate that the experimentally observed variations in the end-to-end distance reflect microscopic events during folding. However, the folding scenarios in and out of the force clamp are distinct.

  5. Protein folding guides disulfide bond formation

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Meng; Wang, Wei; Thirumalai, D.

    2015-01-01

    Anfinsen inferred the principles of protein folding by studying a protein containing four disulfide bonds in the native state. However, how protein folding drives disulfide bond formation is poorly understood despite the role such proteins play in variety of extracellular and intracellular functions. We developed a method to mimic the complex chemistry of disulfide bond formation in molecular simulations, which is used to decipher the mechanism of folding of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibito...

  6. Reduced alphabet for protein folding prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin

    2015-04-01

    What are the key building blocks that would have been needed to construct complex protein folds? This is an important issue for understanding protein folding mechanism and guiding de novo protein design. Twenty naturally occurring amino acids and eight secondary structures consist of a 28-letter alphabet to determine folding kinetics and mechanism. Here we predict folding kinetic rates of proteins from many reduced alphabets. We find that a reduced alphabet of 10 letters achieves good correlation with folding rates, close to the one achieved by full 28-letter alphabet. Many other reduced alphabets are not significantly correlated to folding rates. The finding suggests that not all amino acids and secondary structures are equally important for protein folding. The foldable sequence of a protein could be designed using at least 10 folding units, which can either promote or inhibit protein folding. Reducing alphabet cardinality without losing key folding kinetic information opens the door to potentially faster machine learning and data mining applications in protein structure prediction, sequence alignment and protein design. PMID:25641420

  7. Purification of correctly oxidized MHC class I heavy-chain molecules under denaturing conditions: a novel strategy exploiting disulfide assisted protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferré, Henrik; Ruffet, Emmanuel; Blicher, Thomas; Sylvester-Hvid, Christina; Nielsen, Lise Lotte B; Hobley, Timothy J; Thomas, Owen R T; Buus, Søren

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to develop a strategy for purifying correctly oxidized denatured major histocompability complex class I (MHC-I) heavy-chain molecules, which on dilution, fold efficiently and become functional. Expression of heavy-chain molecules in bacteria results in the formation...... of insoluble cellular inclusion bodies, which must be solubilized under denaturing conditions. Their subsequent purification and refolding is complicated by the fact that (1). correct folding can only take place in combined presence of beta(2)-microglobulin and a binding peptide; and (2). optimal in......-chain molecules with correct disulfide bonding are formed under non-reducing denaturing conditions and separated from scrambled disulfide bond forms by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. In the second step, rapid refolding of the oxidized heavy chains is afforded by disulfide bond-assisted folding in the...

  8. Purification of correctly oxidized MHC class I heavy-chain molecules under denaturing conditions: A novel strategy exploiting disulfide assisted protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferré, Henrik; Ruffet, E.; Blicher, T.; Sylvester-Hvid, C.; Nielsen, L.L.B.; Hobley, Timothy John; Thomas, Owen R. T.; Buus, S.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to develop a strategy for purifying correctly oxidized denatured major histocompability complex class I (MHC-I) heavy-chain molecules, which on dilution, fold efficiently and become functional. Expression of heavy-chain molecules in bacteria results in the formation...... of insoluble cellular inclusion bodies, which must be solubilized under denaturing conditions. Their subsequent purification and refolding is complicated by the fact that (1) correct folding can only take place in combined presence of beta(2)-microglobulin and a binding peptide; and (2) optimal in...... correct disulfide bonding are formed under non-reducing denaturing conditions and separated from scrambled disulfide bond forms by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. In the second step, rapid refolding of the oxidized heavy chains is afforded by disulfide bond-assisted folding in the presence of beta...

  9. Protein folding in a force-clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Szymczak, Piotr

    2006-03-01

    Kinetics of folding of a protein held in a force-clamp are compared to an unconstrained folding. The comparison is made within a simple topology-based dynamical model of ubiquitin. We demonstrate that the experimentally observed rapid changes in the end-to-end distance mirror microscopic events during folding. However, the folding scenarios in and out of the force-clamp are distinct.

  10. Protein folding in a force-clamp

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Szymczak, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Kinetics of folding of a protein held in a force-clamp are compared to an unconstrained folding. The comparison is made within a simple topology-based dynamical model of ubiquitin. We demonstrate that the experimentally observed variations in the end-to-end distance reflect microscopic events during folding. However, the folding scenarios in and out of the force-clamp are distinct.

  11. Protein Folding and Self-Organized Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Arun; Murray, Joelle

    Proteins are known to fold into tertiary structures that determine their functionality in living organisms. However, the complex dynamics of protein folding and the way they consistently fold into the same structures is not fully understood. Self-organized criticality (SOC) has provided a framework for understanding complex systems in various systems (earthquakes, forest fires, financial markets, and epidemics) through scale invariance and the associated power law behavior. In this research, we use a simple hydrophobic-polar lattice-bound computational model to investigate self-organized criticality as a possible mechanism for generating complexity in protein folding.

  12. Co- and post-translational protein folding in the ER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellgaard, Lars; McCaul, Nicholas; Chatsisvili, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    variety of ER-specific protein modifications. Here, we review chaperone-assisted co- and post-translational folding and assembly in the ER and underline the influence of protein modifications on these processes. We emphasize how method development has helped advance the field by allowing researchers to......The biophysical rules that govern folding of small, single-domain proteins in dilute solutions are now quite well understood. The mechanisms underlying co-translational folding of multidomain and membrane-spanning proteins in complex cellular environments are often less clear. The endoplasmic...... reticulum (ER) produces a plethora of membrane and secretory proteins, which must fold and assemble correctly before ER exit - if these processes fail, misfolded species accumulate in the ER or are degraded. The ER differs from other cellular organelles in terms of the physicochemical environment and the...

  13. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Membrane Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto A. Roman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding protein folding has been one of the great challenges in biochemistry and molecular biophysics. Over the past 50 years, many thermodynamic and kinetic studies have been performed addressing the stability of globular proteins. In comparison, advances in the membrane protein folding field lag far behind. Although membrane proteins constitute about a third of the proteins encoded in known genomes, stability studies on membrane proteins have been impaired due to experimental limitations. Furthermore, no systematic experimental strategies are available for folding these biomolecules in vitro. Common denaturing agents such as chaotropes usually do not work on helical membrane proteins, and ionic detergents have been successful denaturants only in few cases. Refolding a membrane protein seems to be a craftsman work, which is relatively straightforward for transmembrane β-barrel proteins but challenging for α-helical membrane proteins. Additional complexities emerge in multidomain membrane proteins, data interpretation being one of the most critical. In this review, we will describe some recent efforts in understanding the folding mechanism of membrane proteins that have been reversibly refolded allowing both thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. This information will be discussed in the context of current paradigms in the protein folding field.

  14. Understanding Protein Non-Folding

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir N. Uversky; Dunker, A Keith

    2010-01-01

    This review describes the family of intrinsically disordered proteins, members of which fail to form rigid 3-D structures under physiological conditions, either along their entire lengths or only in localized regions. Instead, these intriguing proteins/regions exist as dynamic ensembles within which atom positions and backbone Ramachandran angles exhibit extreme temporal fluctuations without specific equilibrium values. Many of these intrinsically disordered proteins are known to carry out im...

  15. Towards a systematic classification of protein folds

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Bohr, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    A lattice model Hamiltonian is suggested for protein structures that can explain the division into structural fold classes during the folding process. Proteins are described by chains of secondary structure elements, With the hinges in between being the important degrees of freedom. The protein structures are given a unique name, which simultaneously represent a linear string of physical coupling constants describing hinge spin interactions. We have defined a metric and a precise distance mea...

  16. Protein folding on a chip

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory are proposing to use a super- computer originally developed to simulate elementary particles in high- energy physics to help determine the structures and functions of proteins, including, for example, the 30,000 or so proteins encoded by the human genome" (1 page)

  17. Cotranslational folding of deeply knotted proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Chwastyk, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Proper folding of deeply knotted proteins has a very low success rate even in structure-based models which favor formation of the native contacts but have no topological bias. By employing a structure-based model, we demonstrate that cotranslational folding on a model ribosome may enhance the odds to form trefoil knots for protein YibK without any need to introduce any non-native contacts. The ribosome is represented by a repulsive wall that keeps elongating the protein. On-ribosome folding p...

  18. A Survey of Protein Fold Recognition Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abual-Rub

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Predicting the tertiary structure of proteins from their linear sequence is really a big challenge in biology. This challenge is related to the fact that the traditional computational methods are not powerful enough to search for the correct structure in the huge conformational space. This inadequate capability of the computational methods, however, is a major obstacle in facing this problem. Trying to solve the problem of the protein fold recognition, most of the researchers have examined the use of the protein threading technique. This problem is known as NP-hard; researchers have used various methods such as neural networks, Monte Carlo, support vector machine and genetic algorithms to solve it. Some researchers tried the use of the parallel evolutionary methods for protein fold recognition but it is less well known. Approach: We reviewed various algorithms that have been developed for protein structure prediction by threading and fold recognition. Moreover, we provided a survey of parallel evolutionary methods for protein fold recognition. Results: The findings of this survey showed that evolutionary methods can be used to resolve the protein fold recognition problem. Conclusion: There are two aspects of protein fold recognition problem: First is the computational difficulty and second is that current energy functions are still not accurate enough to calculate the free energy of a given conformation.

  19. Stochastic Resonance in Protein Folding Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Aram; Platkov, Max; Gruebele, Martin; Papoian, Garegin A

    2016-05-01

    Although protein folding reactions are usually studied under static external conditions, it is likely that proteins fold in a locally fluctuating cellular environment in vivo. To mimic such behavior in in vitro experiments, the local temperature of the solvent can be modulated either harmonically or using correlated noise. In this study, coarse-grained molecular simulations are used to investigate these possibilities, and it is found that both periodic and correlated random fluctuations of the environment can indeed accelerate folding kinetics if the characteristic frequencies of the applied fluctuations are commensurate with the internal timescale of the folding reaction; this is consistent with the phenomenon of stochastic resonance observed in many other condensed-matter processes. To test this theoretical prediction, the folding dynamics of phosphoglycerate kinase under harmonic temperature fluctuations are experimentally probed using Förster resonance energy transfer fluorescence measurements. To analyze these experiments, a combination of theoretical approaches is developed, including stochastic simulations of folding kinetics and an analytical mean-field kinetic theory. The experimental observations are consistent with the theoretical predictions of stochastic resonance in phosphoglycerate kinase folding. When combined with an alternative experiment on the protein VlsE using a power spectrum analysis, elaborated in Dave et al., ChemPhysChem 2016, 10.1002/cphc.201501041, the overall data overwhelmingly point to the experimental confirmation of stochastic resonance in protein folding dynamics. PMID:26992148

  20. Cotranslational folding of deeply knotted proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper folding of deeply knotted proteins has a very low success rate even in structure-based models which favor formation of the native contacts but have no topological bias. By employing a structure-based model, we demonstrate that cotranslational folding on a model ribosome may enhance the odds to form trefoil knots for protein YibK without any need to introduce any non-native contacts. The ribosome is represented by a repulsive wall that keeps elongating the protein. On-ribosome folding proceeds through a a slipknot conformation. We elucidate the mechanics and energetics of its formation. We show that the knotting probability in on-ribosome folding is a function of temperature and that there is an optimal temperature for the process. Our model often leads to the establishment of the native contacts without formation of the knot. (paper)

  1. Cotranslational folding of deeply knotted proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwastyk, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Proper folding of deeply knotted proteins has a very low success rate even in structure-based models which favor formation of the native contacts but have no topological bias. By employing a structure-based model, we demonstrate that cotranslational folding on a model ribosome may enhance the odds to form trefoil knots for protein YibK without any need to introduce any non-native contacts. The ribosome is represented by a repulsive wall that keeps elongating the protein. On-ribosome folding proceeds through a a slipknot conformation. We elucidate the mechanics and energetics of its formation. We show that the knotting probability in on-ribosome folding is a function of temperature and that there is an optimal temperature for the process. Our model often leads to the establishment of the native contacts without formation of the knot.

  2. Cotranslational folding of deeply knotted proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Chwastyk, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Proper folding of deeply knotted proteins has a very low success rate even in structure-based models which favor formation of the native contacts but have no topological bias. By employing a structure-based model, we demonstrate that cotranslational folding on a model ribosome may enhance the odds to form trefoil knots for protein YibK without any need to introduce any non-native contacts. The ribosome is represented by a repulsive wall that keeps elongating the protein. On-ribosome folding proceeds through a a slipknot conformation. We elucidate the mechanics and energetics of its formation. We show that the knotting probability in on-ribosome folding is a function of temperature and that there is an optimal temperature for the process. Our model often leads to the establishment of the native contacts without formation of the knot.

  3. Exploring the mechanisms of protein folding

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ji; Ren, Ying; Li, Jinghai

    2013-01-01

    Neither of the two prevalent theories, namely thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability, provides a comprehensive understanding of protein folding. The thermodynamic theory is misleading because it assumes that free energy is the exclusive dominant mechanism of protein folding, and attributes the structural transition from one characteristic state to another to energy barriers. Conversely, the concept of kinetic stability overemphasizes dominant mechanisms that are related to kinetic factors. This article explores the stability condition of protein structures from the viewpoint of meso-science, paying attention to the compromise in the competition between minimum free energy and other dominant mechanisms. Based on our study of complex systems, we propose that protein folding is a meso-scale, dissipative, nonlinear and non-equilibrium process that is dominated by the compromise between free energy and other dominant mechanisms such as environmental factors. Consequently, a protein shows dynamic structures,...

  4. Structural characteristics of novel protein folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Folds are the basic building blocks of protein structures. Understanding the emergence of novel protein folds is an important step towards understanding the rules governing the evolution of protein structure and function and for developing tools for protein structure modeling and design. We explored the frequency of occurrences of an exhaustively classified library of supersecondary structural elements (Smotifs, in protein structures, in order to identify features that would define a fold as novel compared to previously known structures. We found that a surprisingly small set of Smotifs is sufficient to describe all known folds. Furthermore, novel folds do not require novel Smotifs, but rather are a new combination of existing ones. Novel folds can be typified by the inclusion of a relatively higher number of rarely occurring Smotifs in their structures and, to a lesser extent, by a novel topological combination of commonly occurring Smotifs. When investigating the structural features of Smotifs, we found that the top 10% of most frequent ones have a higher fraction of internal contacts, while some of the most rare motifs are larger, and contain a longer loop region.

  5. Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force....

  6. Co- and Post-Translational Protein Folding in the ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellgaard, Lars; McCaul, Nicholas; Chatsisvili, Anna; Braakman, Ineke

    2016-06-01

    The biophysical rules that govern folding of small, single-domain proteins in dilute solutions are now quite well understood. The mechanisms underlying co-translational folding of multidomain and membrane-spanning proteins in complex cellular environments are often less clear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces a plethora of membrane and secretory proteins, which must fold and assemble correctly before ER exit - if these processes fail, misfolded species accumulate in the ER or are degraded. The ER differs from other cellular organelles in terms of the physicochemical environment and the variety of ER-specific protein modifications. Here, we review chaperone-assisted co- and post-translational folding and assembly in the ER and underline the influence of protein modifications on these processes. We emphasize how method development has helped advance the field by allowing researchers to monitor the progression of folding as it occurs inside living cells, while at the same time probing the intricate relationship between protein modifications during folding. PMID:26947578

  7. Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force.......A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long...

  8. Fold assisted transport in graphene systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Bastos, Ramon; Faria, Daiara; Jiang, Yuhang; Mao, Jinhai; Li, Guohong; Andrei, Eva Y.; Latge, Andrea; Sandler, Nancy

    Sasaki pointed out that a constant uniaxial strain applied along the zigzag direction in graphene causes localized states, akin to edge states in nanoribbons. These states are dispersionless and can carry ballistic transport. Recent experiments reported the presence of ballistic channels in graphene grown on SiC characterized with STM spectroscopy. In this work, we show that out-of plane deformations in the form of folds produce states as those predicted by Sasaki. Using tight-binding calculations and recursive Green's function methods, we obtain conductance, density of states (DOS), local density of states, and band structure (BS) for graphene nanoribbons with zigzag termination. Regions with enhanced DOS are identified in the deformed area corresponding to states in new flattened bands in the BS and new ballistic channels in the conductance. Adjusting the fold parameters, desired properties of these states can be tailored. Our results show that folds could serve as pathways for electronic transport and open the possibility of circuitry design within a simple graphene membrane. Support: DOE-FG02-99ER45742, NSF-DMR 1207108 and 1508325.

  9. Restrictions to protein folding determined by the protein size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Alexei V; Bogatyreva, Natalya S; Garbuzynskiy, Sergiy O

    2013-06-27

    Experimentally measured rates of spontaneous folding of single-domain globular proteins range from microseconds to hours: the difference (11 orders of magnitude!) is akin to the difference between the life span of a mosquito and the age of the Universe. We show that physical theory with biological constraints outlines the possible range of folding rates for single-domain globular proteins of various size and stability, and that the experimentally measured folding rates fall within this narrow "golden triangle" built without any adjustable parameters, filling it almost completely. This "golden triangle" also successfully predicts the maximal allowed size of the "foldable" protein domains, as well as the maximal size of protein domains that fold under solely thermodynamic (rather than kinetic) control. In conclusion, we give a phenomenological formula for dependence of the folding rate on the size, shape and stability of the protein fold. PMID:23684724

  10. Recognition of protein folds via dipolar couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alignment of proteins in dilute liquid crystalline medium gives rise to residual dipolar couplings which provide orientational information of vectors connecting the interacting nuclei. Considering that proteins are mainly composed of regular secondary structures in a finite number of different mutual orientations, main chain dipolar couplings appear sufficient to reveal structural resemblance. Similarity between dipolar couplings measured from a protein and corresponding values computed from a known structure imply homologous structures. For dissimilar structures the agreement between experimental and calculated dipolar couplings remains poor. In this way protein folds can be readily recognized prior to a comprehensive structure determination. This approach has been demonstrated by showing the similarity in fold between the hitherto unknown structure of calerythrin and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins from Nereis diversicolor and Branchiostoma lanceolatum with known crystal structures

  11. Recognition of protein folds via dipolar couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annila, Arto [VTT Chemical Technology (Finland); Aitio, Helena [University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology (Finland); Thulin, Eva [University of Lund, Department of Physical Chemistry 2 (Sweden); Drakenberg, Torbjoern [VTT Chemical Technology (Finland)

    1999-07-15

    Alignment of proteins in dilute liquid crystalline medium gives rise to residual dipolar couplings which provide orientational information of vectors connecting the interacting nuclei. Considering that proteins are mainly composed of regular secondary structures in a finite number of different mutual orientations, main chain dipolar couplings appear sufficient to reveal structural resemblance. Similarity between dipolar couplings measured from a protein and corresponding values computed from a known structure imply homologous structures. For dissimilar structures the agreement between experimental and calculated dipolar couplings remains poor. In this way protein folds can be readily recognized prior to a comprehensive structure determination. This approach has been demonstrated by showing the similarity in fold between the hitherto unknown structure of calerythrin and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins from Nereis diversicolor and Branchiostoma lanceolatum with known crystal structures.

  12. Critical aspects of hierarchical protein folding

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Alex; Jensen, Mogens H.; Sneppen, Kim; Zocchi, Giovanni

    1998-01-01

    We argue that the first order folding transitions of proteins observed at physiological chemical conditions end in a critical point for a given temperature and chemical potential of the surrounding water. We investigate this critical point using a hierarchical Hamiltonian and determine its universality class. This class differs qualitatively from those of other known models.

  13. Cooperativity and Contact Order in Protein Folding

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek

    2004-01-01

    The effects of cooperativity are studied within Go-Lennard-Jones models of proteins by making the contact interactions dependent on the proximity to the native conformation. The kinetic universality classes are found to remain the same as in the absence of cooperativity. For a fixed native geometry, small changes in the effective contact map may affect the folding times in a chance way and to the extent that is comparable to the shift in the folding times due to cooperativity. The contact ord...

  14. Glycoprotein folding and quality-control mechanisms in protein-folding diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Ferris

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of proteins – from translation to folding to export – encompasses a complex set of events that are exquisitely regulated and scrutinized to ensure the functional quality of the end products. Cells have evolved to capitalize on multiple post-translational modifications in addition to primary structure to indicate the folding status of nascent polypeptides to the chaperones and other proteins that assist in their folding and export. These modifications can also, in the case of irreversibly misfolded candidates, signal the need for dislocation and degradation. The current Review focuses on the glycoprotein quality-control (GQC system that utilizes protein N-glycosylation and N-glycan trimming to direct nascent glycopolypeptides through the folding, export and dislocation pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A diverse set of pathological conditions rooted in defective as well as over-vigilant ER quality-control systems have been identified, underlining its importance in human health and disease. We describe the GQC pathways and highlight disease and animal models that have been instrumental in clarifying our current understanding of these processes.

  15. Protein folding and the organization of the protein topology universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen,, Kresten; Røgen, Peter; Paci, Emanuele; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism by which proteins fold to their native states has been the focus of intense research in recent years. The rate-limiting event in the folding reaction is the formation of a conformation in a set known as the transition-state ensemble. The structural features present within such...... residues and, in addition, that the topology of the transition state is closer to that of the native state than to that of any other fold in the protein universe. Here, we review the evidence for these conclusions and suggest a molecular mechanism that rationalizes these findings by presenting a view of...... protein folds that is based on the topological features of the polypeptide backbone, rather than the conventional view that depends on the arrangement of different types of secondary-structure elements. By linking the folding process to the organization of the protein structure universe, we propose an...

  16. Analysis of protein folds using protein contact networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pankaj Barah; Somdatta Sinha

    2008-08-01

    Proteins are important biomolecules, which perform diverse structural and functional roles in living systems. Starting from a linear chain of amino acids, proteins fold to different secondary structures, which then fold through short- and long-range interactions to give rise to the final three-dimensional shapes useful to carry out the biophysical and biochemical functions. Proteins are defined as having a common `fold' if they have major secondary structural elements with same topological connections. It is known that folding mechanisms are largely determined by a protein's topology rather than its interatomic interactions. The native state protein structures can, thus, be modelled, using a graph-theoretical approach, as coarse-grained networks of amino acid residues as `nodes' and the inter-residue interactions/contacts as `links'. Using the network representation of protein structures and their 2D contact maps, we have identified the conserved contact patterns (groups of contacts) representing two typical folds – the EF-hand and the ubiquitin-like folds. Our results suggest that this direct and computationally simple methodology can be used to infer about the presence of specific folds from the protein's contact map alone.

  17. The role of ascorbate in protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, András; Lőrincz, Tamás

    2014-05-01

    Ascorbate was linked to protein folding a long time ago. At the first level of this connection, it had been shown that ascorbate functions as an essential cofactor in the hydroxylation enzymes involved in collagen synthesis. Although the hydroxylation reactions catalyzed by the members of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase family are considered to be ascorbate dependent, the hydroxylation of proline alone does not need ascorbate. Prolyl 4-hydroxylases participate in two catalytic reactions: one in which proline residues are hydroxylated, while 2-oxoglutarate is decarboxylated and molecular oxygen is consumed. This reaction is ascorbate independent. However, in another reaction, prolyl 4-hydroxylases catalyze the decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate uncoupled from proline hydroxylation but still needing molecular oxygen. At this time, ferrous iron is oxidized and the protein is rendered catalytically inactive until reduced by ascorbate. At the second level of the connection, the oxidation and the oxidized form of ascorbate, dehydroascorbate, is involved in the formation of disulfide bonds of secretory proteins. The significance of the dehydroascorbate reductase activity of protein disulfide isomerase was debated because protein disulfide isomerase as a dehydroascorbate reductase was found to be too slow to be the major route for the reduction of dehydroascorbate (and formation of disulfides) in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. However, very recently, low tissue ascorbate levels and a noncanonical scurvy were observed in endoplasmic reticulum thiol oxidase- and peroxiredoxin 4-compromised mice. This novel observation implies that ascorbate may be involved in oxidative protein folding and creates a link between the disulfide bond formation (oxidative protein folding) and hydroxylation. PMID:24150425

  18. Structure Characterization of the Folding Intermediates of Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Although the native state and the fully unfolded state of proteins have been extensively studied, the folding pathway and intermediates in the protein folding process have not been thoroughly investigated.To understand the mechanisms of protein folding, the early intermediates in the protein folding process must be clearly characterized.The present paper is a mini review containing 20 references involving studies on folding intermediates of several proteins.

  19. Coarse grained description of the protein folding

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Hoang, Trinh Xuan

    1998-01-01

    We consider two- and three-dimensional lattice models of proteins which were characterized previously. We coarse grain their folding dynamics by reducing it to transitions between effective states. We consider two methods of selection of the effective states. The first method is based on the steepest descent mapping of states to underlying local energy minima and the other involves an additional projection to maximally compact conformations. Both methods generate connectivity patterns that al...

  20. Universality classes in folding times of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Hoang, Trinh Xuan

    2002-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations in simplified models allow one to study the scaling properties of folding times for many proteins together under a controlled setting. We consider three variants of the Go models with different contact potentials and demonstrate scaling described by power laws and no correlation with the relative contact order parameter. We demonstrate existence of at least three kinetic universality classes which are correlated with the types of structure: the alpha-, alpha--be...

  1. Protein Folding: Search for Basic Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Y. Torshin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How a unique three-dimensional structure is rapidly formed from the linear sequence of a polypeptide is one of the important questions in contemporary science. Apart from biological context of in vivo protein folding (which has been studied only for a few proteins, the roles of the fundamental physical forces in the in vitro folding remain largely unstudied. Despite a degree of success in using descriptions based on statistical and/or thermodynamic approaches, few of the current models explicitly include more basic physical forces (such as electrostatics and Van Der Waals forces. Moreover, the present-day models rarely take into account that the protein folding is, essentially, a rapid process that produces a highly specific architecture. This review considers several physical models that may provide more direct links between sequence and tertiary structure in terms of the physical forces. In particular, elaboration of such simple models is likely to produce extremely effective computational techniques with value for modern genomics.

  2. Universality Classes in Folding Times of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Hoang, Trinh Xuan

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations in simplified models allow one to study the scaling properties of folding times for many proteins together under a controlled setting. We consider three variants of the Go models with different contact potentials and demonstrate scaling described by power laws and no correlation with the relative contact order parameter. We demonstrate existence of at least three kinetic universality classes that are correlated with the types of structure: the α-, α-β-, and β- proteins have the scaling exponents of ∼1.7, 2.5, and 3.2, respectively. The three classes merge into one when the contact range is truncated at a reasonable value. We elucidate the role of the potential associated with the chirality of a protein. PMID:12524300

  3. Recognizing the fold of a protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Andrew; Pearl, Frances; Sillitoe, Ian; Slidel, Tim; Mott, Richard; Thornton, Janet; Orengo, Christine

    2003-09-22

    This paper reports a graph-theoretic program, GRATH, that rapidly, and accurately, matches a novel structure against a library of domain structures to find the most similar ones. GRATH generates distributions of scores by comparing the novel domain against the different types of folds that have been classified previously in the CATH database of structural domains. GRATH uses a measure of similarity that details the geometric information, number of secondary structures and number of residues within secondary structures, that any two protein structures share. Although GRATH builds on well established approaches for secondary structure comparison, a novel scoring scheme has been introduced to allow ranking of any matches identified by the algorithm. More importantly, we have benchmarked the algorithm using a large dataset of 1702 non-redundant structures from the CATH database which have already been classified into fold groups, with manual validation. This has facilitated introduction of further constraints, optimization of parameters and identification of reliable thresholds for fold identification. Following these benchmarking trials, the correct fold can be identified with the top score with a frequency of 90%. It is identified within the ten most likely assignments with a frequency of 98%. GRATH has been implemented to use via a server (http://www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/cath/Grath.pl). GRATH's speed and accuracy means that it can be used as a reliable front-end filter for the more accurate, but computationally expensive, residue based structure comparison algorithm SSAP, currently used to classify domain structures in the CATH database. With an increasing number of structures being solved by the structural genomics initiatives, the GRATH server also provides an essential resource for determining whether newly determined structures are related to any known structures from which functional properties may be inferred. PMID:14512345

  4. Improving decoy databases for protein folding algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Lindsey, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 ACM. Predicting protein structures and simulating protein folding are two of the most important problems in computational biology today. Simulation methods rely on a scoring function to distinguish the native structure (the most energetically stable) from non-native structures. Decoy databases are collections of non-native structures used to test and verify these functions. We present a method to evaluate and improve the quality of decoy databases by adding novel structures and removing redundant structures. We test our approach on 17 different decoy databases of varying size and type and show significant improvement across a variety of metrics. We also test our improved databases on a popular modern scoring function and show that they contain a greater number of native-like structures than the original databases, thereby producing a more rigorous database for testing scoring functions.

  5. The folding of knotted proteins: insights from lattice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faísca, Patrícia F. N.; Travasso, Rui D. M.; Charters, Tiago; Nunes, Ana; Cieplak, Marek

    2010-03-01

    We carry out systematic Monte Carlo simulations of Gō lattice proteins to investigate and compare the folding processes of two model proteins whose native structures differ from each other due to the presence of a trefoil knot located near the terminus of one of the protein chains. We show that the folding time of the knotted fold is larger than that of the unknotted protein and that this difference in folding time is particularly striking in the temperature region below the optimal folding temperature. Both proteins display similar folding transition temperatures, which is indicative of similar thermal stabilities. By using the folding probability reaction coordinate as an estimator of folding progression we have found out that the formation of the knot is mainly a late folding event in our shallow knot system.

  6. The folding of knotted proteins: insights from lattice simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carry out systematic Monte Carlo simulations of Gō lattice proteins to investigate and compare the folding processes of two model proteins whose native structures differ from each other due to the presence of a trefoil knot located near the terminus of one of the protein chains. We show that the folding time of the knotted fold is larger than that of the unknotted protein and that this difference in folding time is particularly striking in the temperature region below the optimal folding temperature. Both proteins display similar folding transition temperatures, which is indicative of similar thermal stabilities. By using the folding probability reaction coordinate as an estimator of folding progression we have found out that the formation of the knot is mainly a late folding event in our shallow knot system

  7. Origination of the Protein Fold Repertoire from Oily Pluripotent Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Mannige, Ranjan V.

    2014-01-01

    While the repertoire of protein folds that exists today underlies most of life’s capabilities, our mechanistic picture of protein fold origination is incomplete. This paper discusses a hypothetical mechanism for the emergence of the protein fold repertoire from highly dynamic and collapsed peptides, exemplified by peptides with high oil content or hydrophobicity. These peptides are called pluripotent to emphasize their capacity to evolve into numerous folds transiently available to them. As e...

  8. Improving Protein Fold Recognition by Deep Learning Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Taeho; Hou, Jie; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2015-12-01

    For accurate recognition of protein folds, a deep learning network method (DN-Fold) was developed to predict if a given query-template protein pair belongs to the same structural fold. The input used stemmed from the protein sequence and structural features extracted from the protein pair. We evaluated the performance of DN-Fold along with 18 different methods on Lindahl’s benchmark dataset and on a large benchmark set extracted from SCOP 1.75 consisting of about one million protein pairs, at three different levels of fold recognition (i.e., protein family, superfamily, and fold) depending on the evolutionary distance between protein sequences. The correct recognition rate of ensembled DN-Fold for Top 1 predictions is 84.5%, 61.5%, and 33.6% and for Top 5 is 91.2%, 76.5%, and 60.7% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of single DN-Fold (DN-FoldS), which showed the comparable results at the level of family and superfamily, compared to ensemble DN-Fold. Finally, we extended the binary classification problem of fold recognition to real-value regression task, which also show a promising performance. DN-Fold is freely available through a web server at http://iris.rnet.missouri.edu/dnfold.

  9. Prediction of protein folding rates from simplified secondary structure alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin

    2015-10-21

    Protein folding is a very complicated and highly cooperative dynamic process. However, the folding kinetics is likely to depend more on a few key structural features. Here we find that secondary structures can determine folding rates of only large, multi-state folding proteins and fails to predict those for small, two-state proteins. The importance of secondary structures for protein folding is ordered as: extended β strand > α helix > bend > turn > undefined secondary structure>310 helix > isolated β strand > π helix. Only the first three secondary structures, extended β strand, α helix and bend, can achieve a good correlation with folding rates. This suggests that the rate-limiting step of protein folding would depend upon the formation of regular secondary structures and the buckling of chain. The reduced secondary structure alphabet provides a simplified description for the machine learning applications in protein design. PMID:26247139

  10. Protein folding includes oligomerization – examples from the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christis, C.; Lubsen, N.H.; Braakman, I.

    2008-01-01

    A correct three-dimensional structure is a prerequisite for protein functionality, and therefore for life. Thus, it is not surprising that our cells are packed with proteins that assist protein folding, the process in which the native three-dimensional structure is formed. In general, plasma membran

  11. A Grammatical Inference Sequential Mining Algorithm for Protein Fold Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Taysir Hassan A.Soliman; Ahmed Sharaf Eldin; Marwa M. Ghareeb; Mohammed E. Marie

    2014-01-01

    Protein fold recognition plays an important role in computational protein analysis since it can determine protein function whose structure is unknown. In this paper, a Classified Sequential Pattern mining technique for Protein Fold Recognition (CSPF) is proposed. CSPF technique consists of two main phases: the sequential mining pattern phase and the fold recognition phase. In the sequential mining pattern phase, Mix & Test algorithm is developed based on Grammatical Inference, which is used a...

  12. Fluorescence of Alexa Fluor dye tracks protein folding

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Lindhoud; Westphal, Adrie H.; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.; Jan Willem Borst; van Mierlo, Carlo P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is an important tool for the characterization of protein folding. Often, a protein is labeled with appropriate fluorescent donor and acceptor probes and folding-induced changes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) are monitored. However, conformational changes of the protein potentially affect fluorescence properties of both probes, thereby profoundly complicating interpretation of FRET data. In this study, we assess the effects protein folding has on fluoresc...

  13. Green fluorescent protein as a reporter of prion protein folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Kevin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amino terminal half of the cellular prion protein PrPc is implicated in both the binding of copper ions and the conformational changes that lead to disease but has no defined structure. However, as some structure is likely to exist we have investigated the use of an established protein refolding technology, fusion to green fluorescence protein (GFP, as a method to examine the refolding of the amino terminal domain of mouse prion protein. Results Fusion proteins of PrPc and GFP were expressed at high level in E.coli and could be purified to near homogeneity as insoluble inclusion bodies. Following denaturation, proteins were diluted into a refolding buffer whereupon GFP fluorescence recovered with time. Using several truncations of PrPc the rate of refolding was shown to depend on the prion sequence expressed. In a variation of the format, direct observation in E.coli, mutations introduced randomly in the PrPc protein sequence that affected folding could be selected directly by recovery of GFP fluorescence. Conclusion Use of GFP as a measure of refolding of PrPc fusion proteins in vitro and in vivo proved informative. Refolding in vitro suggested a local structure within the amino terminal domain while direct selection via fluorescence showed that as little as one amino acid change could significantly alter folding. These assay formats, not previously used to study PrP folding, may be generally useful for investigating PrPc structure and PrPc-ligand interaction.

  14. Stabilization of partially folded states in protein folding/misfolding transitions by hydrostatic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira S.T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, hydrostatic pressure has been extensively used in the study of both protein folding and misfolding/aggregation. Compared to other chemical or physical denaturing agents, a unique feature of pressure is its ability to induce subtle changes in protein conformation, which allow the stabilization of partially folded intermediate states that are usually not significantly populated under more drastic conditions (e.g., in the presence of chemical denaturants or at high temperatures. Much of the recent research in the field of protein folding has focused on the characterization of folding intermediates since these species appear to be involved in a variety of disease-causing protein misfolding and aggregation events. The exact mechanisms of these biologicalphenomena, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we review recent examples of the use of hydrostatic pressure as a tool to obtain insight into the forces and energetics governing the productive folding or the misfolding and aggregation of proteins.

  15. Multiple folding pathways of proteins with shallow knots and co-translational folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwastyk, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-07-01

    We study the folding process in the shallowly knotted protein MJ0366 within two variants of a structure-based model. We observe that the resulting topological pathways are much richer than identified in previous studies. In addition to the single knot-loop events, we find novel, and dominant, two-loop mechanisms. We demonstrate that folding takes place in a range of temperatures and the conditions of most successful folding are at temperatures which are higher than those required for the fastest folding. We also demonstrate that nascent conditions are more favorable to knotting than off-ribosome folding.

  16. Multiple folding pathways of proteins with shallow knots and co-translational folding

    CERN Document Server

    Chwastyk, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    We study the folding process in the shallowly knotted protein MJ0366 within two variants of a structure-based model. We observe that the resulting topological pathways are much richer than identified in previous studies. In addition to the single knot-loop events, we find novel, and dominant, two-loop mechanisms. We demonstrate that folding takes place in a range of temperatures and the conditions of most successful folding are at temperatures which are higher than those required for the fastest folding. We also demonstrate that nascent conditions are more favorable to knotting than off-ribosome folding.

  17. Modeling Protein Folding and Applying It to a Relevant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Allan; Goetze, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The different levels of protein structure that can be easily understood by creating a model that simulates protein folding, which can then be evaluated by applying it to a relevant activity, is presented. The materials required and the procedure for constructing a protein folding model are mentioned.

  18. Microwave-enhanced folding and denaturation of globular proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Bohr, Henrik(Department of Physics, B.307, Danish Technical University, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark); Bohr, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that microwave irradiation can affect the kinetics of the folding process of some globular proteins, especially beta-lactoglobulin. At low temperature the folding from the cold denatured phase of the protein is enhanced, while at a higher temperature the denaturation of the protein from its folded state is enhanced. In the latter case, a negative temperature gradient is needed for the denaturation process, suggesting that the effects of the microwaves are nonthermal. This supports...

  19. Master equation approach to protein folding

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Henkel, Malte; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of two 12-monomer heteropolymers on the square lattice is studied exactly within the master equation approach. The time evolution of the occupancy of the native state is determined. At low temperatures, the median folding time follows the Arrhenius law and is governed by the longest relaxation time. For good folders, significant kinetic traps appear in the folding funnel whereas for bad folders, the traps also occur in non-native energy valleys.

  20. Molecular Recognition by Templated Folding of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toto, Angelo; Camilloni, Carlo; Giri, Rajanish; Brunori, Maurizio; Vendruscolo, Michele; Gianni, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins often become structured upon interacting with their partners. The mechanism of this ‘folding upon binding’ process, however, has not been fully characterised yet. Here we present a study of the folding of the intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of c-Myb (c-Myb) upon binding its partner KIX. By determining the structure of the folding transition state for the binding of wild-type and three mutational variants of KIX, we found a remarkable plasticity of the folding pathway of c-Myb. To explain this phenomenon, we show that the folding of c-Myb is templated by the structure of KIX. This adaptive folding behaviour, which occurs by heterogeneous nucleation, differs from the robust homogeneous nucleation typically observed for globular proteins. We suggest that this templated folding mechanism may enable intrinsically disordered proteins to achieve specific and reliable binding with multiple partners while avoiding aberrant interactions.

  1. Inferring the Rate-Length Law of Protein Folding

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the rate-length scaling law of protein folding, a key undetermined scaling law in the analytical theory of protein folding. We demonstrate that chain length is a dominant factor determining folding times, and that the unambiguous determination of the way chain length corre- lates with folding times could provide key mechanistic insight into the folding process. Four specific proposed laws (power law, exponential, and two stretched exponentials) are tested against one an- other, and it is found that the power law best explains the data. At the same time, the fit power law results in rates that are very fast, nearly unreasonably so in a biological context. We show that any of the proposed forms are viable, conclude that more data is necessary to unequivocally infer the rate-length law, and that such data could be obtained through a small number of protein folding experiments on large protein domains.

  2. Protein folding: A complex potential for the driving force

    CERN Document Server

    Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2013-01-01

    Using the Helmholtz decomposition of the vector field of folding fluxes in a reduced space of collective variables, a potential of the driving force for protein folding is determined. The potential has two components and can be written as a complex function. One component is responsible for the source and sink of the folding flows (representing, respectively, the unfolded states and the native state of the protein), and the other accounts for the vorticity of the flow that is produced at the boundaries of the main flow by the contact of the moving folding "fluid" with the quiescent surroundings. The theoretical consideration is illustrated by calculations for a model $\\beta$-hairpin protein.

  3. Lattice model for rapidly folding protein-like heteropolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, I; Vishveshwara, S; Cieplak, M; Maritan, A; Banavar, J R

    1995-01-01

    Protein folding is a relatively fast process considering the astronomical number of conformations in which a protein could find itself. Within the framework of a lattice model, we show that one can design rapidly folding sequences by assigning the strongest attractive couplings to the contacts present in a target native state. Our protein design can be extended to situations with both attractive and repulsive contacts. Frustration is minimized by ensuring that all the native contacts are again strongly attractive. Strikingly, this ensures the inevitability of folding and accelerates the folding process by an order of magnitude. The evolutionary implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:7568102

  4. Effects of confinement and crowding on folding of model proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciechowski, M.; Cieplak, Marek

    2008-01-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations for a simple coarse-grained model of crambin placed inside of a softly repulsive sphere of radius R. The confinement makes folding at the optimal temperature slower and affects the folding scenarios, but both effects are not dramatic. The influence of crowding on folding are studied by placing several identical proteins within the sphere, denaturing them, and then by monitoring refolding. If the interactions between the proteins are dominated by the e...

  5. Effects of ribosomal exit tunnel on protein's cotranslational folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo, folding of many proteins occurs during their synthesis in the ribosome and continues after they have escaped from the ribosomal exit tunnel. In this research, we investigate the confinement effects of the ribosome on the cotranslational folding of three proteins, of PDB codes 1PGA, 1CRN and 2RJX, by using a coarse-grained model and molecular dynamics simulation. The exit tunnel is modeled as a hollow cylinder attached to a flat wall, whereas a Go-like model is adopted for the proteins. Our results show that the exit tunnel has a strong effect on the folding mechanism by setting an order by which the secondary and tertiary structures are formed. For protein 1PGA, the folding follows two different folding routes. The presence of the tunnel also improves the foldability of protein. (author)

  6. Effects of confinement and crowding on folding of model proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, M; Cieplak, Marek

    2008-12-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations for a simple coarse-grained model of crambin placed inside of a softly repulsive sphere of radius R. The confinement makes folding at the optimal temperature slower and affects the folding scenarios, but both effects are not dramatic. The influence of crowding on folding are studied by placing several identical proteins within the sphere, denaturing them, and then by monitoring refolding. If the interactions between the proteins are dominated by the excluded volume effects, the net folding times are essentially like for a single protein. An introduction of inter-proteinic attractive contacts hinders folding when the strength of the attraction exceeds about a half of the value of the strength of the single protein contacts. The bigger the strength of the attraction, the more likely is the occurrence of aggregation and misfolding. PMID:18832007

  7. Protein folding, protein structure and the origin of life: Theoretical methods and solutions of dynamical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical methods and solutions of the dynamics of protein folding, protein aggregation, protein structure, and the origin of life are discussed. The elements of a dynamic model representing the initial stages of protein folding are presented. The calculation and experimental determination of the model parameters are discussed. The use of computer simulation for modeling protein folding is considered.

  8. Folding and Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Small Tim Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrain Ceh-Pavia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Correct and timely folding is critical to the function of all proteins. The importance of this is illustrated in the biogenesis of the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS “small Tim” proteins. Biogenesis of the small Tim proteins is regulated by dedicated systems or pathways, beginning with synthesis in the cytosol and ending with assembly of individually folded proteins into functional complexes in the mitochondrial IMS. The process is mostly centered on regulating the redox states of the conserved cysteine residues: oxidative folding is crucial for protein function in the IMS, but oxidized (disulfide bonded proteins cannot be imported into mitochondria. How the redox-sensitive small Tim precursor proteins are maintained in a reduced, import-competent form in the cytosol is not well understood. Recent studies suggest that zinc and the cytosolic thioredoxin system play a role in the biogenesis of these proteins. In the IMS, the mitochondrial import and assembly (MIA pathway catalyzes both import into the IMS and oxidative folding of the small Tim proteins. Finally, assembly of the small Tim complexes is a multistep process driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions; however, the chaperone function of the complex might require destabilization of these interactions to accommodate the substrate. Here, we review how folding of the small Tim proteins is regulated during their biogenesis, from maintenance of the unfolded precursors in the cytosol, to their import, oxidative folding, complex assembly and function in the IMS.

  9. Atomistic description of the folding of a dimeric protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piana, Stefano; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Shaw, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are increasingly being used to describe the folding of individual proteins and protein domains at an atomic level of detail. Isolated protein domains, however, are rarely observed in vivo, where multidomain proteins and multimeric assemblies are far more...

  10. Fluorescence of Alexa fluor dye tracks protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lindhoud

    Full Text Available Fluorescence spectroscopy is an important tool for the characterization of protein folding. Often, a protein is labeled with appropriate fluorescent donor and acceptor probes and folding-induced changes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET are monitored. However, conformational changes of the protein potentially affect fluorescence properties of both probes, thereby profoundly complicating interpretation of FRET data. In this study, we assess the effects protein folding has on fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 488 (A488, which is commonly used as FRET donor. Here, A488 is covalently attached to Cys69 of apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii. Although coupling of A488 slightly destabilizes apoflavodoxin, the three-state folding of this protein, which involves a molten globule intermediate, is unaffected. Upon folding of apoflavodoxin, fluorescence emission intensity of A488 changes significantly. To illuminate the molecular sources of this alteration, we applied steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The results obtained show that tryptophans cause folding-induced changes in quenching of Alexa dye. Compared to unfolded protein, static quenching of A488 is increased in the molten globule. Upon populating the native state both static and dynamic quenching of A488 decrease considerably. We show that fluorescence quenching of Alexa Fluor dyes is a sensitive reporter of conformational changes during protein folding.

  11. Towards a systematic classification of protein folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Bohr, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    multiples of these domains. It is shown that the same magic numbers are robust and occur as well for packing on other nonclosed packed lattices. We have performed a statistical analysis of available protein structures and found agreement with the predicted preferred abundances of proteins with a predicted...

  12. Structure-based prediction of protein-folding transition paths

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, William M

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general theory to describe the distribution of protein-folding transition paths. We show that transition paths follow a predictable sequence of high-free-energy transient states that are separated by free-energy barriers. Each transient state corresponds to the assembly of one or more discrete, cooperative units, which are determined directly from the native structure. We show that the transition state on a folding pathway is reached when a small number of critical contacts are formed between a specific set of substructures, after which folding proceeds downhill in free energy. This approach suggests a natural resolution for distinguishing parallel folding pathways and provides a simple means to predict the rate-limiting step in a folding reaction. Our theory identifies a common folding mechanism for proteins with diverse native structures and establishes general principles for the self-assembly of polymers with specific interactions.

  13. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  14. Protein folding pathology in domestic animals*

    OpenAIRE

    Gruys, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7–10 nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross...

  15. Slow alpha helix formation during folding of a membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, M L; Wallace, B A; Flitsch, S L; Booth, P J

    1997-01-01

    Very little is known about the folding of proteins within biological membranes. A "two-stage" model has been proposed on thermodynamic grounds for the folding of alpha helical, integral membrane proteins, the first stage of which involves formation of transmembrane alpha helices that are proposed to behave as autonomous folding domains. Here, we investigate alpha helix formation in bacteriorhodopsin and present a time-resolved circular dichroism study of the slow in vitro folding of this protein. We show that, although some of the protein's alpha helices form early, a significant part of the protein's secondary structure appears to form late in the folding process. Over 30 amino acids, equivalent to at least one of bacteriorhodopsin's seven transmembrane segments, slowly fold from disordered structures to alpha helices with an apparent rate constant of about 0.012 s-1 at pH 6 or 0.0077 s-1 at pH 8. This is a rate-limiting step in protein folding, which is dependent on the pH and the composition of the lipid bilayer. PMID:8993333

  16. Multiple folding pathways of proteins with shallow knots and co-translational folding

    OpenAIRE

    Chwastyk, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We study the folding process in the shallowly knotted protein MJ0366 within two variants of a structure-based model. We observe that the resulting topological pathways are much richer than identified in previous studies. In addition to the single knot-loop events, we find novel, and dominant, two-loop mechanisms. We demonstrate that folding takes place in a range of temperatures and the conditions of most successful folding are at temperatures which are higher than those required for the fast...

  17. Toward a Theory on the Stability of Protein Folding: Challenges for Folding Models

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Walter

    2011-01-01

    We adopt the point of view that analysis of the stability of the protein folding process is central to understanding the underlying physics of folding. Stability of the folding process means that many perturbations do not disrupt the progress from the random coil to the native state. In this paper we explore the stability of folding using established methods from physics and mathematics. Our result is a preliminary theory of the physics of folding. We suggest some tests of these ideas using folding simulations. We begin by supposing that folding events are related in some way to mechanical waves on the molecule. We adopt an analytical approach to the physics which was pioneered by M.V. Berry, (in another context), based upon mathematics developed mainly by R. Thom and V.I. Arnold. We find that the stability of the folding process can be understood in terms of structures known as caustics, which occur in many kinds of wave phenomena. The picture that emerges is that natural selection has given us a set of prot...

  18. Investigation of the parallel tempering method for protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Alexander; Herges, Thomas; Verma, Abhinav; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    We investigate the suitability and efficiency of an adapted version of the parallel tempering method for all-atom protein folding. We have recently developed an all-atom free energy force field (PFF01) for protein structure prediction with stochastic optimization methods. Here we report reproducible folding of the 20-amino-acid trp-cage protein and the conserved 40-amino-acid three-helix HIV accessory protein with an adapted parallel tempering method. We find that the native state, for both proteins, is correctly predicted to 2 Å backbone root mean square deviation and analyse the efficiency of the simulation approach.

  19. Folding and escape of nascent proteins at ribosomal exit tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Phuong Thuy; Hoang, Trinh Xuan

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the interplay between post-translational folding and escape of two small single-domain proteins at the ribosomal exit tunnel by using Langevin dynamics with coarse-grained models. It is shown that at temperatures lower or near the temperature of the fastest folding, folding proceeds concomitantly with the escape process, resulting in vectorial folding and enhancement of foldability of nascent proteins. The concomitance between the two processes, however, deteriorates as temperature increases. Our folding simulations as well as free energy calculation by using umbrella sampling show that, at low temperatures, folding at the tunnel follows one or two specific pathways without kinetic traps. It is shown that the escape time can be mapped to a one-dimensional diffusion model with two different regimes for temperatures above and below the folding transition temperature. Attractive interactions between amino acids and attractive sites on the tunnel wall lead to a free energy barrier along the escape route of the protein. It is suggested that this barrier slows down the escape process and consequently promotes correct folding of the released nascent protein.

  20. Protein folding pathology in domestic animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRUYS Erik

    2004-01-01

    Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7-10 nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross beta pleated sheets. About 25 different types of amyloid have been characterised. In animals,AA-amyloid is the most frequent type. Other types of amyloid in animals represent: AIAPP (in cats), AApoAⅠ, AApoAⅡ,localised AL-amyloid, amyloid in odontogenic or mammary tumors and amyloid in the brain. In old dogs Aβ and in sheep APrPsc-amyloid can be encountered. AA-amyloidosis is a systemic disorder with a precursor in blood, acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA). In chronic inflammatory processes AA-amyloid can be deposited. A rapid crystallization of SAA to shown to penetrate the enteric barrier. Amyloid fibrils can aggregate from various precursor proteins in vitro in particular at acidic pH and when proteolytic fragments are formed. Molecular chaperones influence this process. Tissue data point to amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysosomes and near cell surfaces. A comparison can be made of the fibrillogenesis in prion diseases and in enhanced AA-amyloidosis. In the reactive form, acute phase SAA is the supply of the precursor protein,whereas in tho prion diseases, cell membrane proteins form a structural source. Aβ-amyloid in brain tissue of aged dogs showing signs of dementia forms a canine counterpart of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (ccSDAT) in man. Misfolded proteins remain potential food hazards. Developments concerning prevention of amyloidogenesis and therapy of amyloid deposits are shortly commented.

  1. Review: Protein folding pathology in domestic animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRUYSErik

    2004-01-01

    Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7-10nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross beta pleated sheets. About 25 different types of amyloid have been characterised. In animals, AA-amyloid is the most frequent type. Other types of amyloid in animals represent: AIAPP (in cats), AApoAⅠ, AApoAⅡ, localised AL-amyloid, amyloid in odontogenic or mammary tumors and amyloid in the brain. In old dogs Aβ and in sheep APrPsc-amyloid can be encountered. AA-amyloidosis is a systemic disorder with a precursor in blood, acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA). In chronic inflammatory processes AA-amyloid can be deposited. A rapid crystallization of SAA to amyloid fibrils on small beta-sheeted fragments, the ‘amyloid enhancing factor' (AEF), is known and the AEF has been shown to penetrate the enteric barrier. Amyloid fibrils can aggregate from various precursor proteins in vitro in particular at acidic pH and when proteolytic fragments are formed. Molecular chaperones influence this process. Tissue data point to amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysosomes and near cell surfaces. A comparison can be made of the fibrillogenesis in prion diseases and in enhanced AA-amyloidosis. In the reactive form, acute phase SAA is the supply of the precursor protein, whereas in the prion diseases, cell membrane proteins form a structural source. AI3-amyloid in brain tissue of aged dogs showing signs of dementia forms a canine counterpart of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (ccSDAT) in man. Misfolded proteins remain potential food hazards. Developments concerning prevention of amyloidogenesis

  2. Solitons and protein folding: An In Silico experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, N.; Dai, J.; Sieradzan, A.; Niemi, A.

    2015-10-01

    Protein folding [1] is the process of formation of a functional 3D structure from a random coil — the shape in which amino-acid chains leave the ribosome. Anfinsen's dogma states that the native 3D shape of a protein is completely determined by protein's amino acid sequence. Despite the progress in understanding the process rate and the success in folding prediction for some small proteins, with presently available physics-based methods it is not yet possible to reliably deduce the shape of a biologically active protein from its amino acid sequence. The protein-folding problem endures as one of the most important unresolved problems in science; it addresses the origin of life itself. Furthermore, a wrong fold is a common cause for a protein to lose its function or even endanger the living organism. Soliton solutions of a generalized discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation (GDNLSE) obtained from the energy function in terms of bond and torsion angles κ and τ provide a constructive theoretical framework for describing protein folds and folding patterns [2]. Here we study the dynamics of this process by means of molecular-dynamics simulations. The soliton manifestation is the pattern helix-loop-helix in the secondary structure of the protein, which explains the importance of understanding loop formation in helical proteins. We performed in silico experiments for unfolding one subunit of the core structure of gp41 from the HIV envelope glycoprotein (PDB ID: 1AIK [3]) by molecular-dynamics simulations with the MD package GROMACS. We analyzed 80 ns trajectories, obtained with one united-atom and two different all-atom force fields, to justify the side-chain orientation quantification scheme adopted in the studies and to eliminate force-field based artifacts. Our results are compatible with the soliton model of protein folding and provide first insight into soliton-formation dynamics.

  3. Metal ion coupled protein folding and allosteric motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Many proteins need the help of cofactors for their successful folding and functioning. Metal ions, i.e., Zn2+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ etc., are typical biological cofactors. Binding of metal ions can reshape the energy landscapes of proteins, thereby modifying the folding and allosteric motions. For example, such binding may make the intrinsically disordered proteins have funneled energy landscapes, consequently, ensures their spontaneous folding. In addition, the binding may activate certain biological processes by inducing related conformational changes of regulation proteins. However, how the local interactions involving the metal ion binding can induce the global conformational motions of proteins remains elusive. Investigating such question requires multiple models with different details, including quantum mechanics, atomistic models, and coarse grained models. In our recent work, we have been developing such multiscale methods which can reasonably model the metal ion binding induced charge transfer, protonation/deprotonation, and large conformational motions of proteins. With such multiscale model, we elucidated the zinc-binding induced folding mechanism of classical zinc finger and the calcium-binding induced dynamic symmetry breaking in the allosteric motions of calmodulin. In addition, we studied the coupling of folding, calcium binding and allosteric motions of calmodulin domains. In this talk, I will introduce the above progresses on the metal ion coupled protein folding and allosteric motions. We thank the finacial support from NSFC and the 973 project.

  4. Mechanical Modeling and Computer Simulation of Protein Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigozhin, Maxim B.; Scott, Gregory E.; Denos, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, science education and modern technology are bridged to teach students at the high school and undergraduate levels about protein folding and to strengthen their model building skills. Students are guided from a textbook picture of a protein as a rigid crystal structure to a more realistic view: proteins are highly dynamic…

  5. Protein Collapse is Encoded in the Folded State Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Himadri S; Hinczewski, Michael; Hori, Naoto; Chakrabarti, Shaon; Thirumalai, D

    2016-01-01

    Natural protein sequences that self-assemble to form globular structures are compact with high packing densities in the folded states. It is known that proteins unfold upon addition of denaturants, adopting random coil structures. The dependence of the radii of gyration on protein size in the folded and unfolded states obeys the same scaling laws as synthetic polymers. Thus, one might surmise that the mechanism of collapse in proteins and polymers ought to be similar. However, because the number of amino acids in single domain proteins is not significantly greater than about two hundred, it has not been resolved if the unfolded states of proteins are compact under conditions that favor the folded states - a problem at the heart of how proteins fold. By adopting a theory used to derive polymer-scaling laws, we find that the propensity for the unfolded state of a protein to be compact is universal and is encoded in the contact map of the folded state. Remarkably, analysis of over 2000 proteins shows that protei...

  6. Protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics from atomistic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piana, Stefano; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Shaw, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in simulation techniques and computing hardware have created a substantial overlap between the timescales accessible to atomic-level simulations and those on which the fastest-folding proteins fold. Here we demonstrate, using simulations of four variants of the human villin headpiece, how......¦-values, and folding pathways provides support for the notion that a norleucine double mutant of villin folds five times faster than the wild-type sequence, but following a slightly different pathway. This work showcases how computer simulation has now developed into a mature tool for the quantitative computational...

  7. Microwave-enhanced folding and denaturation of globular proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Bohr, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that microwave irradiation can affect the kinetics of the folding process of some globular proteins, especially beta-lactoglobulin. At low temperature the folding from the cold denatured phase of the protein is enhanced, while at a higher temperature the denaturation of the protein from...... its folded state is enhanced. In the latter case, a negative temperature gradient is needed for the denaturation process, suggesting that the effects of the microwaves are nonthermal. This supports the notion that coherent topological excitations can exist in proteins. The application of microwaves...... hold promises for a wide range of biotechnological applications, such as protein synthesis, protein aggregation, etc., and may have implications for biological systems as well....

  8. NMR and protein folding: equilibrium and stopped-flow studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Frieden, C.; Hoeltzli, S D; Ropson, I. J.

    1993-01-01

    NMR studies are now unraveling the structure of intermediates of protein folding using hydrogen-deuterium exchange methodologies. These studies provide information about the time dependence of formation of secondary structure. They require the ability to assign specific resonances in the NMR spectra to specific amide protons of a protein followed by experiments involving competition between folding and exchange reactions. Another approach is to use 19F-substituted amino acids to follow change...

  9. Combining Optimal Control Theory and Molecular Dynamics for Protein Folding

    OpenAIRE

    Yaman Arkun; Mert Gur

    2012-01-01

    Combining Optimal Control Theory and Molecular Dynamics for Protein Folding Yaman Arkun1*, Mert Gur2¤ 1 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2 Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract A new method to develop low-energy folding routes for proteins is presented. The novel aspect of the proposed approach is the synergistic use of optimal control theory with Molecular Dynamic...

  10. Solitons and protein folding: An In Silico experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein folding [1] is the process of formation of a functional 3D structure from a random coil — the shape in which amino-acid chains leave the ribosome. Anfinsen’s dogma states that the native 3D shape of a protein is completely determined by protein’s amino acid sequence. Despite the progress in understanding the process rate and the success in folding prediction for some small proteins, with presently available physics-based methods it is not yet possible to reliably deduce the shape of a biologically active protein from its amino acid sequence. The protein-folding problem endures as one of the most important unresolved problems in science; it addresses the origin of life itself. Furthermore, a wrong fold is a common cause for a protein to lose its function or even endanger the living organism. Soliton solutions of a generalized discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation (GDNLSE) obtained from the energy function in terms of bond and torsion angles κ and τ provide a constructive theoretical framework for describing protein folds and folding patterns [2]. Here we study the dynamics of this process by means of molecular-dynamics simulations. The soliton manifestation is the pattern helix–loop–helix in the secondary structure of the protein, which explains the importance of understanding loop formation in helical proteins. We performed in silico experiments for unfolding one subunit of the core structure of gp41 from the HIV envelope glycoprotein (PDB ID: 1AIK [3]) by molecular-dynamics simulations with the MD package GROMACS. We analyzed 80 ns trajectories, obtained with one united-atom and two different all-atom force fields, to justify the side-chain orientation quantification scheme adopted in the studies and to eliminate force-field based artifacts. Our results are compatible with the soliton model of protein folding and provide first insight into soliton-formation dynamics

  11. Solitons and protein folding: An In Silico experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilieva, N., E-mail: nevena.ilieva@parallel.bas.bg [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Bulgarian Aacademy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dai, J., E-mail: daijing491@gmail.com [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Sieradzan, A., E-mail: adams86@wp.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk (Poland); Niemi, A., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); LMPT–CNRS, Université de Tours, Tours (France)

    2015-10-28

    Protein folding [1] is the process of formation of a functional 3D structure from a random coil — the shape in which amino-acid chains leave the ribosome. Anfinsen’s dogma states that the native 3D shape of a protein is completely determined by protein’s amino acid sequence. Despite the progress in understanding the process rate and the success in folding prediction for some small proteins, with presently available physics-based methods it is not yet possible to reliably deduce the shape of a biologically active protein from its amino acid sequence. The protein-folding problem endures as one of the most important unresolved problems in science; it addresses the origin of life itself. Furthermore, a wrong fold is a common cause for a protein to lose its function or even endanger the living organism. Soliton solutions of a generalized discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation (GDNLSE) obtained from the energy function in terms of bond and torsion angles κ and τ provide a constructive theoretical framework for describing protein folds and folding patterns [2]. Here we study the dynamics of this process by means of molecular-dynamics simulations. The soliton manifestation is the pattern helix–loop–helix in the secondary structure of the protein, which explains the importance of understanding loop formation in helical proteins. We performed in silico experiments for unfolding one subunit of the core structure of gp41 from the HIV envelope glycoprotein (PDB ID: 1AIK [3]) by molecular-dynamics simulations with the MD package GROMACS. We analyzed 80 ns trajectories, obtained with one united-atom and two different all-atom force fields, to justify the side-chain orientation quantification scheme adopted in the studies and to eliminate force-field based artifacts. Our results are compatible with the soliton model of protein folding and provide first insight into soliton-formation dynamics.

  12. Origination of the Protein Fold Repertoire from Oily Pluripotent Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan V. Mannige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While the repertoire of protein folds that exists today underlies most of life’s capabilities, our mechanistic picture of protein fold origination is incomplete. This paper discusses a hypothetical mechanism for the emergence of the protein fold repertoire from highly dynamic and collapsed peptides, exemplified by peptides with high oil content or hydrophobicity. These peptides are called pluripotent to emphasize their capacity to evolve into numerous folds transiently available to them. As evidence, the paper will discuss previous simulation work on the superior fold evolvability of oily peptides, trace (“fossil” evidence within proteomes seen today, and a general relationship between protein dynamism and evolvability. Aside from implications on the origination of protein folds, the hypothesis implies that the vanishing utility of a random peptide in protein origination may be relatively exaggerated, as some random peptides with a certain composition (e.g., oily may fare better than others. In later sections, the hypothesis is discussed in the context of existing discussions regarding the spontaneous origination of biomolecules.

  13. Folding of Proteins in Go Models with Angular Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Hoang, Trinh Xuan

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics studies of Go models of proteins with the 10-12 contact potential and the bond and dihedral angle terms indicate statistical similarities to other Go models, e.g. with the Lennard-Jones contact potentials. The folding times depend on the protein size as power laws with the exponents depending on the native structural classes. There is no dependence of the folding times on the relative contact order even though the folding scenarios are governed mostly by the contact order.

  14. Protein folding: a perspective for biology, medicine and biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Yon

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, protein folding is an extremely active field of research including aspects of biology, chemistry, biochemistry, computer science and physics. The fundamental principles have practical applications in the exploitation of the advances in genome research, in the understanding of different pathologies and in the design of novel proteins with special functions. Although the detailed mechanisms of folding are not completely known, significant advances have been made in the understanding of this complex process through both experimental and theoretical approaches. In this review, the evolution of concepts from Anfinsen's postulate to the "new view" emphasizing the concept of the energy landscape of folding is presented. The main rules of protein folding have been established from in vitro experiments. It has been long accepted that the in vitro refolding process is a good model for understanding the mechanisms by which a nascent polypeptide chain reaches its native conformation in the cellular environment. Indeed, many denatured proteins, even those whose disulfide bridges have been disrupted, are able to refold spontaneously. Although this assumption was challenged by the discovery of molecular chaperones, from the amount of both structural and functional information now available, it has been clearly established that the main rules of protein folding deduced from in vitro experiments are also valid in the cellular environment. This modern view of protein folding permits a better understanding of the aggregation processes that play a role in several pathologies, including those induced by prions and Alzheimer's disease. Drug design and de novo protein design with the aim of creating proteins with novel functions by application of protein folding rules are making significant progress and offer perspectives for practical applications in the development of pharmaceuticals and medical diagnostics.

  15. Assessment of optimized Markov models in protein fold classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampros, Christos; Simos, Thomas; Exarchos, Themis P; Exarchos, Konstantinos P; Papaloukas, Costas; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2014-08-01

    Protein fold classification is a challenging task strongly associated with the determination of proteins' structure. In this work, we tested an optimization strategy on a Markov chain and a recently introduced Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with reduced state-space topology. The proteins with unknown structure were scored against both these models. Then the derived scores were optimized following a local optimization method. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the annotation of the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database were used for the evaluation of the proposed methodology. The results demonstrated that the fold classification accuracy of the optimized HMM was substantially higher compared to that of the Markov chain or the reduced state-space HMM approaches. The proposed methodology achieved an accuracy of 41.4% on fold classification, while Sequence Alignment and Modeling (SAM), which was used for comparison, reached an accuracy of 38%. PMID:25152041

  16. The energy computation paradox and ab initio protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Faver

    Full Text Available The routine prediction of three-dimensional protein structure from sequence remains a challenge in computational biochemistry. It has been intuited that calculated energies from physics-based scoring functions are able to distinguish native from nonnative folds based on previous performance with small proteins and that conformational sampling is the fundamental bottleneck to successful folding. We demonstrate that as protein size increases, errors in the computed energies become a significant problem. We show, by using error probability density functions, that physics-based scores contain significant systematic and random errors relative to accurate reference energies. These errors propagate throughout an entire protein and distort its energy landscape to such an extent that modern scoring functions should have little chance of success in finding the free energy minima of large proteins. Nonetheless, by understanding errors in physics-based score functions, they can be reduced in a post-hoc manner, improving accuracy in energy computation and fold discrimination.

  17. [Protein Folding and Stability in the Presence of Osmolytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonin, A V; Uversky, V N; Kuznetsova, I M; Turoverov, K K

    2016-01-01

    Osmolytes are molecules with the function among others to align hydrostatic pressure between intracellular and extracellular spaces. Accumulation of osmolytes occurs in the cell in response to stress caused by pressure change, change in temperature, pH, and concentration of inorganic salts. Osmolytes can prevent native proteins denaturation and promote folding of unfolding proteins. Investigation of the osmolytes effect on these processes is essential for understanding the mechanisms of folding and functioning of proteins in vivo. A score of works, devoted to the effect of osmolytes on proteins, are not always consistent with each other. In this review an attempt was made to systemize available array of data on the subject and consider the problem of folding and stability of proteins in solutions in the presence of osmolytes from the single viewpoint. PMID:27192822

  18. Topology and structural self-organization in folded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, M.; Krokhotin, Andrey; Niemi, Antti J.

    2013-10-01

    Topological methods are indispensable in theoretical studies of particle physics, condensed matter physics, and gravity. These powerful techniques have also been applied to biological physics. For example, knowledge of DNA topology is pivotal to the understanding as to how living cells function. Here, the biophysical repertoire of topological methods is extended, with the aim to understand and characterize the global structure of a folded protein. For this, the elementary concept of winding number of a vector field on a plane is utilized to introduce a topological quantity called the folding index of a crystallographic protein. It is observed that in the case of high resolution protein crystals, the folding index, when evaluated over the entire length of the crystallized protein backbone, has a very clear and strong propensity towards integer values. The observation proposes that the way how a protein folds into its biologically active conformation is a structural self-organization process with a topological facet that relates to the concept of solitons. It is proposed that the folding index has a potential to become a useful tool for the global, topological characterization of the folding pathways.

  19. Enhanced protein fold recognition using a structural alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschavanne, Patrick; Tufféry, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Fold recognition from sequence can be an important step in protein structure and function prediction. Many methods have tackled this goal. Most of them, based on sequence alignment, fail for sequences of low similarity. Alignment-free approaches can provide an efficient alternative. For such approaches, the identification of efficient fold discriminatory features is critical. We propose a new fold recognition approach that relies on the encoding of the local structure of proteins using a Hidden Markov Model Structural Alphabet. This encoding provides a 1D description of the conformation of complete proteins structures, including loops. At the fold level, compared with the classical secondary structure helix, strand, and coil states, such encoding is expected to provide the means of a better discrimination between loop conformations, hence providing better fold identification. Compared with previous related approaches, this supplement of information results in significant improvement. When combining this information with supplementary information of secondary structure and residue burial, we obtain a fold recognition accuracy of 78% for 27 protein families, that is, 8% higher than the best available method so far, and of 68% for 60 families. Corresponding scores at the class level are of 92% and 90% indicating that mispredictions are mostly within structural classes. PMID:19089985

  20. A hierarchical scheme for cooperativity and folding in proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Alex; Jensen, Mogens H.; Sneppen, Kim; Zocchi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We propose a protein model based on a hierarchy of constraints that force the protein to follow certain pathways when changing conformation. The model exhibits a first order phase transition, cooperativity and is exactly solvable. It also shows an unexpected symmetry between folding and unfolding pathways as suggested by a recent experiment.

  1. Protein folding: Vexing debates on a fundamental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Stefano; Jemth, Per

    2016-05-01

    The folding of proteins has been at the heart of protein chemistry and biophysics ever since the pioneering experiments by the labs of Fred Richards and Christian Anfinsen. But, despite nearly 60years of intense research, there are unresolved issues and a lively debate regarding some aspects of this fundamental problem. In this review we give a personal account on some key topics in the field: (i) the nature of the denatured state of a protein, (ii) nucleation sites in the folding reaction, and (iii) the time it takes for individual molecules to traverse the transition state. PMID:27018826

  2. Folding of proteins in presculpted free energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of the tube model of protein have indicated that the free energy landscape of proteins is presculpted by symmetry of the protein backbone and geometrical constraints played by the hydrogen bonds. In this study, we investigate the role of amino acid sequences in the folding of proteins. We consider two models that are differed by sequence specificity: the tube HP model with hydrophobic (H) and polar (P) sequences, and the tube Go model with native-centric contact potentials. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out for two sequences of length of 48 amino acids, whose ground states are a three-helix bundle and a GB1-like structure. The results show that folding in the Go model is more cooperative than in the HP model. In the HP model the collapse transition and the folding transition are separated, whereas in the Go model the two transitions coincide. (author)

  3. Accurate prediction of cellular co-translational folding indicates proteins can switch from post- to co-translational folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissley, Daniel A.; Sharma, Ajeet K.; Ahmed, Nabeel; Friedrich, Ulrike A.; Kramer, Günter; Bukau, Bernd; O'Brien, Edward P.

    2016-02-01

    The rates at which domains fold and codons are translated are important factors in determining whether a nascent protein will co-translationally fold and function or misfold and malfunction. Here we develop a chemical kinetic model that calculates a protein domain's co-translational folding curve during synthesis using only the domain's bulk folding and unfolding rates and codon translation rates. We show that this model accurately predicts the course of co-translational folding measured in vivo for four different protein molecules. We then make predictions for a number of different proteins in yeast and find that synonymous codon substitutions, which change translation-elongation rates, can switch some protein domains from folding post-translationally to folding co-translationally--a result consistent with previous experimental studies. Our approach explains essential features of co-translational folding curves and predicts how varying the translation rate at different codon positions along a transcript's coding sequence affects this self-assembly process.

  4. Protein folding and misfolding shining light by infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a new and innovative technology to study protein folding/misfolding events in the broad arsenal of techniques conventionally used in this field. The progress in understanding protein folding and misfolding is primarily due to the development of biophysical methods which permit to probe conformational changes with high kinetic and structural resolution. The most commonly used approaches rely on rapid mixing methods to initiate the folding event via a sudden change in solvent conditions. Traditionally, techniques such as fluorescence, circular dichroism or visible absorption are applied to probe the process. In contrast to these techniques, infrared spectroscopy came into play only very recently, and the progress made in this field up to date which now permits to probe folding events over the time scale from picoseconds to minutes has not yet been discussed in a book. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the developments as seen by some of the main contributors to the field...

  5. Folding and Stabilization of Native-Sequence-Reversed Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuanzhao; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-01-01

    Though the problem of sequence-reversed protein folding is largely unexplored, one might speculate that reversed native protein sequences should be significantly more foldable than purely random heteropolymer sequences. In this article, we investigate how the reverse-sequences of native proteins might fold by examining a series of small proteins of increasing structural complexity ({\\alpha}-helix, \\b{eta}-hairpin, {\\alpha}-helix bundle, and {\\alpha}/\\b{eta}-protein). Employing a tandem protein structure prediction algorithmic and molecular dynamics simulation approach, we find that the ability of reverse sequences to adopt native-like folds is strongly in influenced by protein size and the flexibility of the native hydrophobic core. For \\b{eta}-hairpins with reverse-sequences that fail to fold, we employ a simple mutational strategy for guiding stable hairpin formation that involves the insertion of amino acids into the \\b{eta}-turn region. This systematic look at reverse sequence duality sheds new light on t...

  6. Sequencing of folding events in Go-like proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Trinh Xuan; Cieplak, Marek

    2000-01-01

    We have studied folding mechanisms of three small globular proteins: crambin (CRN), chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) and the fyn Src Homology 3 domain (SH3) which are modelled by a Go-like Hamiltonian with the Lennard-Jones interactions. It is shown that folding is dominated by a well-defined sequencing of events as determined by establishment of particular contacts. The order of events depends primarily on the geometry of the native state. Variations in temperature, coupling strengths and visc...

  7. Scaling of Folding Properties in Go Models of Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Xuan Hoang, Trinh

    2000-01-01

    Insights about scaling of folding properties of proteins are obtained bystudying folding in heteropolymers described by Go-like Hamiltonians. Bothlattice and continuum space models are considered. In the latter case, themonomer-monomer interactions correspond to the Lennard-Jones potential.Several statistical ensembles of the two- and three-dimensional targetnative conformations are considered. Among them are maximally compactconformations which are confined to a lattice and those which are o...

  8. Criteria for folding in structure-based models of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wołek, Karol; Cieplak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In structure-based models of proteins, one often assumes that folding is accomplished when all contacts are established. This assumption may frequently lead to a conceptual problem that folding takes place in a temperature region of very low thermodynamic stability, especially when the contact map used is too sparse. We consider six different structure-based models and show that allowing for a small, but model-dependent, percentage of the native contacts not being established boosts the foldi...

  9. Peptide folding in the presence of interacting protein crowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille, Anna; Mohanty, Sandipan; Irbäck, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Using Monte Carlo methods, we explore and compare the effects of two protein crowders, BPTI and GB1, on the folding thermodynamics of two peptides, the compact helical trp-cage and the β-hairpin-forming GB1m3. The thermally highly stable crowder proteins are modeled using a fixed backbone and rotatable side-chains, whereas the peptides are free to fold and unfold. In the simulations, the crowder proteins tend to distort the trp-cage fold, while having a stabilizing effect on GB1m3. The extent of the effects on a given peptide depends on the crowder type. Due to a sticky patch on its surface, BPTI causes larger changes than GB1 in the melting properties of the peptides. The observed effects on the peptides stem largely from attractive and specific interactions with the crowder surfaces, and differ from those seen in reference simulations with purely steric crowder particles.

  10. Robustness of downhill folding: guidelines for the analysis of equilibrium folding experiments on small proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Athi N; Perez-Jimenez, Raúl; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Muñoz, Victor

    2005-05-24

    Previously, we identified the protein BBL as a downhill folder. This conclusion was based on the statistical mechanical analysis of equilibrium experiments performed in two variants of BBL, one with a fluorescent label at the N-terminus, and another one labeled at both ends. A recent report has claimed that our results are an artifact of label-induced aggregation and that BBL with no fluorescent labels and a longer N-terminal tail folds in a two-state fashion. Here, we show that singly and doubly labeled BBL do not aggregate, unfold reversibly, and have the same thermodynamic properties when studied under appropriate experimental conditions (e.g., our original conditions (1)). With an elementary analysis of the available data on the nonlabeled BBL (2), we also show that this slightly more stable BBL variant is not a two-state folder. We discuss the problems that led to its previous misclassification and how they can be avoided. Finally, we investigate the equilibrium unfolding of the singly labeled BBL with both ends protected by acetylation and amidation. This variant has the same thermodynamic stability of the nonlabeled BBL and displays all the equilibrium signatures of downhill folding. From all these observations, we conclude that fluorescent labels do not perturb the thermodynamic properties of BBL, which consistently folds downhill regardless of its stability and specific protein tails. The work on BBL illustrates the shortcomings of applying conventional procedures intended to distinguish between two-state and three-state folding models to small fast-folding proteins. PMID:15895987

  11. Topology, Geometry, and Stability: Protein Folding and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The protein folding problem must ultimately be solved on all length scales from the atomic up through a hierarchy of complicated structures. By analyzing the stability of the folding process using physics and mathematics, this paper shows that features without length scales, i.e. topological features, are potentially of central importance. Topology is a natural mathematical tool for the study of shape and we avail ourselves of that tool to examine the relationship between the amino acid sequence and the shapes of protein molecules. We apply what we learn to conjectures about their biological evolution.

  12. Folding and design in coarse-grained protein models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in coarse-grained lattice and off-lattice protein models are reviewed. The sequence dependence of thermodynamical folding properties are investigated and evidence for non-randomness of the binary sequences of good folders are discussed. Similar patterns for non-randomness are found for real proteins. Dynamical parameter MC methods, such as the tempering and multisequence algorithms, are essential in order to obtain these results. Also, a new MC method for design, the inverse of folding, is presented. Here, one maximizes conditional probabilities rather than minimizing energies. By construction, this method ensures that the designed sequences represent good folders thermodynamically

  13. A twist on folding: Predicting optimal sequences and optimal folds of simple protein models with the hidden-force algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kolossváry, István

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new way of looking at global optimization of off-lattice protein models. We present a dual optimization concept of predicting optimal sequences as well as optimal folds. We validate the utility of the recently introduced hidden-force Monte Carlo optimization algorithm by finding significantly lower energy folds for minimalist protein models than previously reported. Further, we also find the protein sequence that yields the lowest energy fold amongst all sequences for a given chain length and residue mixture. In particular, for protein models with a binary sequence, we show that the sequence-optimized folds form more compact cores than the lowest energy folds of the historically fixed, Fibonacci-series sequences of chain lengths of 13, 21, 34, 55, and 89. We emphasize that while the protein model we used is minimalist, the methodology is applicable to detailed protein models, and sequence optimization may yield novel folds and aid de novo protein design.

  14. Interferences of Silica Nanoparticles in Green Fluorescent Protein Folding Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Géraldine; Devineau, Stéphanie; Aude, Jean Christophe; Boulard, Yves; Pasquier, Hélène; Labarre, Jean; Pin, Serge; Renault, Jean Philippe

    2016-01-12

    We investigated the relationship between unfolded proteins, silica nanoparticles and chaperonin to determine whether unfolded proteins could stick to silica surfaces and how this process could impair heat shock protein activity. The HSP60 catalyzed green fluorescent protein (GFP) folding was used as a model system. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics of denatured GFP were measured, showing that denaturation increases GFP affinity for silica surfaces. This affinity is maintained even if the surfaces are covered by a protein corona and allows silica NPs to interfere directly with GFP folding by trapping it in its unstructured state. We determined also the adsorption isotherms of HSP60 and its chaperonin activity once adsorbed, showing that SiO2 NP can interfere also indirectly with protein folding through chaperonin trapping and inhibition. This inhibition is specifically efficient when NPs are covered first with a layer of unfolded proteins. These results highlight for the first time the antichaperonin activity of silica NPs and ask new questions about the toxicity of such misfolded proteins/nanoparticles assembly toward cells. PMID:26649773

  15. Entropic formulation for the protein folding process: hydrophobic stability correlates with folding rates

    CERN Document Server

    Molin, J P Dal

    2016-01-01

    We assume that the protein folding process follows two autonomous steps: the conformational search for the native, mainly ruled by the hydrophobic effect; and, the final adjustment stage, which eventually gives stability to the native. Our main tool of investigation is a 3D lattice model provided with a ten-letter alphabet, the stereochemical model. This model was conceived for Monte Carlo (MC) simulations when one keeps in mind the kinetic behavior of protein-like chains in solution. In order to characterize the folding characteristic time ({\\tau}) by two distinct sampling methods, first we present two sets of 10^{3} MC simulations for a fast protein-like sequence. For these sets of folding times, {\\tau} and {\\tau}_{q} were obtained with the application of the standard Metropolis algorithm (MA), and a modified algorithm (M_{q}A). The results for {\\tau}_{q}reveal two things: i) the hydrophobic chain-solvent interactions plus a set of inter-residues steric constraints are enough to emulate the first stage of t...

  16. Periodic and stochastic thermal modulation of protein folding kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkov, Max; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-07-21

    Chemical reactions are usually observed either by relaxation of a bulk sample after applying a sudden external perturbation, or by intrinsic fluctuations of a few molecules. Here we show that the two ideas can be combined to measure protein folding kinetics, either by periodic thermal modulation, or by creating artificial thermal noise that greatly exceeds natural thermal fluctuations. We study the folding reaction of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase driven by periodic temperature waveforms. As the temperature waveform unfolds and refolds the protein, its fluorescence color changes due to FRET (Förster resonant Energy Transfer) of two donor/acceptor fluorophores labeling the protein. We adapt a simple model of periodically driven kinetics that nicely fits the data at all temperatures and driving frequencies: The phase shifts of the periodic donor and acceptor fluorescence signals as a function of driving frequency reveal reaction rates. We also drive the reaction with stochastic temperature waveforms that produce thermal fluctuations much greater than natural fluctuations in the bulk. Such artificial thermal noise allows the recovery of weak underlying signals due to protein folding kinetics. This opens up the possibility for future detection of a stochastic resonance for protein folding subject to noise with controllable amplitude. PMID:25053342

  17. Periodic and stochastic thermal modulation of protein folding kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical reactions are usually observed either by relaxation of a bulk sample after applying a sudden external perturbation, or by intrinsic fluctuations of a few molecules. Here we show that the two ideas can be combined to measure protein folding kinetics, either by periodic thermal modulation, or by creating artificial thermal noise that greatly exceeds natural thermal fluctuations. We study the folding reaction of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase driven by periodic temperature waveforms. As the temperature waveform unfolds and refolds the protein, its fluorescence color changes due to FRET (Förster resonant Energy Transfer) of two donor/acceptor fluorophores labeling the protein. We adapt a simple model of periodically driven kinetics that nicely fits the data at all temperatures and driving frequencies: The phase shifts of the periodic donor and acceptor fluorescence signals as a function of driving frequency reveal reaction rates. We also drive the reaction with stochastic temperature waveforms that produce thermal fluctuations much greater than natural fluctuations in the bulk. Such artificial thermal noise allows the recovery of weak underlying signals due to protein folding kinetics. This opens up the possibility for future detection of a stochastic resonance for protein folding subject to noise with controllable amplitude

  18. How does a simplified-sequence protein fold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnera, Enrico; Pellarin, Riccardo; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2009-09-16

    To investigate a putatively primordial protein we have simplified the sequence of a 56-residue alpha/beta fold (the immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G) by replacing it with polyalanine, polythreonine, and diglycine segments at regions of the sequence that in the folded structure are alpha-helical, beta-strand, and turns, respectively. Remarkably, multiple folding and unfolding events are observed in a 15-micros molecular dynamics simulation at 330 K. The most stable state (populated at approximately 20%) of the simplified-sequence variant of protein G has the same alpha/beta topology as the wild-type but shows the characteristics of a molten globule, i.e., loose contacts among side chains and lack of a specific hydrophobic core. The unfolded state is heterogeneous and includes a variety of alpha/beta topologies but also fully alpha-helical and fully beta-sheet structures. Transitions within the denatured state are very fast, and the molten-globule state is reached in structure of the wild-type is more rigid than the molten-globule conformation of the simplified-sequence variant. The difference in structural stability and the very fast folding of the simplified protein suggest that evolution has enriched the primordial alphabet of amino acids mainly to optimize protein function by stabilization of a unique structure with specific tertiary interactions. PMID:19751679

  19. Reducing the dimensionality of the protein-folding search problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellapa, George D; Rose, George D

    2012-08-01

    How does a folding protein negotiate a vast, featureless conformational landscape and adopt its native structure in biological real time? Motivated by this search problem, we developed a novel algorithm to compare protein structures. Procedures to identify structural analogs are typically conducted in three-dimensional space: the tertiary structure of a target protein is matched against each candidate in a database of structures, and goodness of fit is evaluated by a distance-based measure, such as the root-mean-square distance between target and candidate. This is an expensive approach because three-dimensional space is complex. Here, we transform the problem into a simpler one-dimensional procedure. Specifically, we identify and label the 11 most populated residue basins in a database of high-resolution protein structures. Using this 11-letter alphabet, any protein's three-dimensional structure can be transformed into a one-dimensional string by mapping each residue onto its corresponding basin. Similarity between the resultant basin strings can then be evaluated by conventional sequence-based comparison. The disorder → order folding transition is abridged on both sides. At the onset, folding conditions necessitate formation of hydrogen-bonded scaffold elements on which proteins are assembled, severely restricting the magnitude of accessible conformational space. Near the end, chain topology is established prior to emergence of the close-packed native state. At this latter stage of folding, the chain remains molten, and residues populate natural basins that are approximated by the 11 basins derived here. In essence, our algorithm reduces the protein-folding search problem to mapping the amino acid sequence onto a restricted basin string. PMID:22692765

  20. Computational investigations of folded self-avoiding walks related to protein folding

    OpenAIRE

    Bahi, Jacques; Guyeux, Christophe; Mazouzi, Kamel; Philippe, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Various subsets of self-avoiding walks naturally appear when investigating existing methods designed to predict the 3D conformation of a protein of interest. Two such subsets, namely the folded and the unfoldable self-avoiding walks, are studied computationally in this article. We show that these two sets are equal and correspond to the whole $n$-step self-avoiding walks for $n\\leqslant 14$, but that they are different for numerous $n \\geqslant 108$, which are common protein lengths. Concrete...

  1. Physics of Caustics and Protein Folding: Mathematical Parallels

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The energy for protein folding arises from multiple sources and is not large in total. In spite of the many specific successes of energy landscape and other approaches, there still seems to be some missing guiding factor that explains how energy from diverse small sources can drive a complex molecule to a unique state. We explore the possibility that the missing factor is in the geometry. A comparison of folding with other physical phenomena, together with analytic modeling of a molecule, led us to analyze the physics of optical caustic formation and of folding behavior side-by-side. The physics of folding and caustics is ostensibly very different but there are several strong parallels. This comparison emphasizes the mathematical similarity and also identifies differences. Since the 1970's, the physics of optical caustics has been developed to a very high degree of mathematical sophistication using catastrophe theory. That kind of quantitative application of catastrophe theory has not previously been applied ...

  2. Criteria for folding in structure-based models of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołek, Karol; Cieplak, Marek

    2016-05-01

    In structure-based models of proteins, one often assumes that folding is accomplished when all contacts are established. This assumption may frequently lead to a conceptual problem that folding takes place in a temperature region of very low thermodynamic stability, especially when the contact map used is too sparse. We consider six different structure-based models and show that allowing for a small, but model-dependent, percentage of the native contacts not being established boosts the folding temperature substantially while affecting the time scales of folding only in a minor way. We also compare other properties of the six models. We show that the choice of the description of the backbone stiffness has a substantial effect on the values of characteristic temperatures that relate both to equilibrium and kinetic properties. Models without any backbone stiffness (like the self-organized polymer) are found to perform similar to those with the stiffness, including in the studies of stretching.

  3. Aggregation of natively folded proteins: a theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliable identification of β-aggregating stretches in protein sequences is essential for the development of therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as other pathological conditions associated with protein deposition. While the list of aggregation related diseases is growing, it has also been shown that many proteins that are normally well behaved can be induced to aggregate in vitro. This fact suggests the existence of a unified framework that could explain both folding and aggregation. By assuming this universal behaviour, we have recently introduced an algorithm (PASTA: prediction of amyloid structure aggregation), which is based on a sequence-specific energy function derived from the propensity of two residue types to be found paired in neighbouring strands within β-sheets in globular proteins. The algorithm is able to predict the most aggregation-prone portions of several proteins initially unfolded, in excellent agreement with experimental results. Here, we apply the method to a set of proteins which are known to aggregate, but which are natively folded. The quality of the prediction is again very high, corroborating the hypothesis that the amyloid structure is stabilized by the same physico-chemical determinants as those operating in folded proteins

  4. Single-domain protein folding: a multi-faceted problem

    CERN Document Server

    Junier, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    We review theoretical approaches, experiments and numerical simulations that have been recently proposed to investigate the folding problem in single-domain proteins. From a theoretical point of view, we emphasize the energy landscape approach. As far as experiments are concerned, we focus on the recent development of single-molecule techniques. In particular, we compare the results obtained with two main techniques: single protein force measurements with optical tweezers and single-molecule fluorescence in studies on the same protein (RNase H). This allows us to point out some controversial issues such as the nature of the denatured and intermediate states and possible folding pathways. After reviewing the various numerical simulation techniques, we show that on-lattice protein-like models can help to understand many controversial issues.

  5. A step ahead: combining protein purification and correct folding selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Marco Ario

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of recombinant protein expression seems unpredictable and even good yields of soluble proteins do not guarantee the correct folding. The search for soluble constructs can be performed by exploiting libraries and speeded up by automation, but these approaches are money and time consuming and the tags used for affinity purification can mask the real stability of the target proteins. The ideal purification protocol would include the structure quality control. A recent paper commented in this article describes a phage-display method to screen for antibodies that are able to re-fold after heat-denaturation and can be selectively affinity-purified only if monodispersed. It turned out that the proteins with high recovery performance after heat-shock were also suitable for efficient recombinant expression.

  6. Protein disulfide-isomerase interacts with a substrate protein at all stages along its folding pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G Irvine

    Full Text Available In contrast to molecular chaperones that couple protein folding to ATP hydrolysis, protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI catalyzes protein folding coupled to formation of disulfide bonds (oxidative folding. However, we do not know how PDI distinguishes folded, partly-folded and unfolded protein substrates. As a model intermediate in an oxidative folding pathway, we prepared a two-disulfide mutant of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI and showed by NMR that it is partly-folded and highly dynamic. NMR studies show that it binds to PDI at the same site that binds peptide ligands, with rapid binding and dissociation kinetics; surface plasmon resonance shows its interaction with PDI has a Kd of ca. 10(-5 M. For comparison, we characterized the interactions of PDI with native BPTI and fully-unfolded BPTI. Interestingly, PDI does bind native BPTI, but binding is quantitatively weaker than with partly-folded and unfolded BPTI. Hence PDI recognizes and binds substrates via permanently or transiently unfolded regions. This is the first study of PDI's interaction with a partly-folded protein, and the first to analyze this folding catalyst's changing interactions with substrates along an oxidative folding pathway. We have identified key features that make PDI an effective catalyst of oxidative protein folding - differential affinity, rapid ligand exchange and conformational flexibility.

  7. Hands-on force spectroscopy: weird springs and protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Manfred

    2008-05-01

    A force spectroscopy model experiment is presented using a low-cost tensile apparatus described earlier. Force-extension measurements of twisted rubber bands are obtained. They exhibit a complex nonlinear elastic behaviour that resembles atomic force spectroscopy investigations of molecules of titin, a muscle protein. The model experiments open up intriguing possibilities to stimulate insight into entropy-driven self-organization of soft biological matter at the nanometre scale and into protein folding by hands-on experience and analogical transfer.

  8. Allosteric Switching by Mutually Exclusive Folding of Protein Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Radley, Tracy L.; Markowska, Anna I.; Bettinger, Blaine T.; Ha, Jeung-Hoi; Loh, Stewart N.

    2003-01-01

    Many proteins are built from structurally and functionally distinct and domains. A major goal is to understand how conformational change transmits information between domains in order to achieve biological activity. A two-domain, bi-functional fusion protein has been designed so that the mechanical stress imposed by the folded structure of one subunit causes the other subunit to unfold, and vice versa. The construct consists of ubiquitin inserted into a surface loop of barnase. The distance b...

  9. Atomic-level structure characterization of an ultrafast folding mini-protein denatured state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Rogne

    Full Text Available Atomic-level analyses of non-native protein ensembles constitute an important aspect of protein folding studies to reach a more complete understanding of how proteins attain their native form exhibiting biological activity. Previously, formation of hydrophobic clusters in the 6 M urea-denatured state of an ultrafast folding mini-protein known as TC5b from both photo-CIDNP NOE transfer studies and FCS measurements was observed. Here, we elucidate the structural properties of this mini-protein denatured in 6 M urea performing (15N NMR relaxation studies together with a thorough NOE analysis. Even though our results demonstrate that no elements of secondary structure persist in the denatured state, the heterogeneous distribution of R(2 rate constants together with observing pronounced heteronuclear NOEs along the peptide backbone reveals specific regions of urea-denatured TC5b exhibiting a high degree of structural rigidity more frequently observed for native proteins. The data are complemented with studies on two TC5b point mutants to verify the importance of hydrophobic interactions for fast folding. Our results corroborate earlier findings of a hydrophobic cluster present in urea-denatured TC5b comprising both native and non-native contacts underscoring their importance for ultra rapid folding. The data assist in finding ways of interpreting the effects of pre-existing native and/or non-native interactions on the ultrafast folding of proteins; a fact, which might have to be considered when defining the starting conditions for molecular dynamics simulation studies of protein folding.

  10. Computational investigations of folded self-avoiding walks related to protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Jacques M; Guyeux, Christophe; Mazouzi, Kamel; Philippe, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Various subsets of self-avoiding walks naturally appear when investigating existing methods designed to predict the 3D conformation of a protein of interest. Two such subsets, namely the folded and the unfoldable self-avoiding walks, are studied computationally in this article. We show that these two sets are equal and correspond to the whole n-step self-avoiding walks for n≤14, but that they are different for numerous n≥108, which are common protein lengths. Concrete counterexamples are provided and the computational methods used to discover them are completely detailed. A tool for studying these subsets of walks related to both pivot moves and protein conformations is finally presented. PMID:24268180

  11. Combining optimal control theory and molecular dynamics for protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaman Arkun

    Full Text Available A new method to develop low-energy folding routes for proteins is presented. The novel aspect of the proposed approach is the synergistic use of optimal control theory with Molecular Dynamics (MD. In the first step of the method, optimal control theory is employed to compute the force field and the optimal folding trajectory for the Cα atoms of a Coarse-Grained (CG protein model. The solution of this CG optimization provides an harmonic approximation of the true potential energy surface around the native state. In the next step CG optimization guides the MD simulation by specifying the optimal target positions for the Cα atoms. In turn, MD simulation provides an all-atom conformation whose Cα positions match closely the reference target positions determined by CG optimization. This is accomplished by Targeted Molecular Dynamics (TMD which uses a bias potential or harmonic restraint in addition to the usual MD potential. Folding is a dynamical process and as such residues make different contacts during the course of folding. Therefore CG optimization has to be reinitialized and repeated over time to accomodate these important changes. At each sampled folding time, the active contacts among the residues are recalculated based on the all-atom conformation obtained from MD. Using the new set of contacts, the CG potential is updated and the CG optimal trajectory for the Cα atoms is recomputed. This is followed by MD. Implementation of this repetitive CG optimization-MD simulation cycle generates the folding trajectory. Simulations on a model protein Villin demonstrate the utility of the method. Since the method is founded on the general tools of optimal control theory and MD without any restrictions, it is widely applicable to other systems. It can be easily implemented with available MD software packages.

  12. Allosteric switching by mutually exclusive folding of protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Tracy L; Markowska, Anna I; Bettinger, Blaine T; Ha, Jeung-Hoi; Loh, Stewart N

    2003-09-19

    Many proteins are built from structurally and functionally distinct domains. A major goal is to understand how conformational change transmits information between domains in order to achieve biological activity. A two-domain, bi-functional fusion protein has been designed so that the mechanical stress imposed by the folded structure of one subunit causes the other subunit to unfold, and vice versa. The construct consists of ubiquitin inserted into a surface loop of barnase. The distance between the amino and carboxyl ends of ubiquitin is much greater than the distance between the termini of the barnase loop. This topological constraint causes the two domains to engage in a thermodynamic tug-of-war in which only one can exist in its folded state at any given time. This conformational equilibrium, which is cooperative, reversible, and controllable by ligand binding, serves as a model for the coupled binding and folding mechanism widely used to mediate protein-protein interactions and cellular signaling processes. The position of the equilibrium can be adjusted by temperature or ligand binding and is monitored in vivo by cell death. This design forms the basis for a new class of cytotoxic proteins that can be activated by cell-specific effector molecules, and can thus target particular cell types for destruction. PMID:12963365

  13. WeFold: a coopetition for protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, George A; Liwo, Adam; Khatib, Firas; Zhou, Hongyi; Chopra, Gaurav; Bacardit, Jaume; Bortot, Leandro O; Faccioli, Rodrigo A; Deng, Xin; He, Yi; Krupa, Pawel; Li, Jilong; Mozolewska, Magdalena A; Sieradzan, Adam K; Smadbeck, James; Wirecki, Tomasz; Cooper, Seth; Flatten, Jeff; Xu, Kefan; Baker, David; Cheng, Jianlin; Delbem, Alexandre C B; Floudas, Christodoulos A; Keasar, Chen; Levitt, Michael; Popović, Zoran; Scheraga, Harold A; Skolnick, Jeffrey; Crivelli, Silvia N

    2014-09-01

    The protein structure prediction problem continues to elude scientists. Despite the introduction of many methods, only modest gains were made over the last decade for certain classes of prediction targets. To address this challenge, a social-media based worldwide collaborative effort, named WeFold, was undertaken by 13 labs. During the collaboration, the laboratories were simultaneously competing with each other. Here, we present the first attempt at "coopetition" in scientific research applied to the protein structure prediction and refinement problems. The coopetition was possible by allowing the participating labs to contribute different components of their protein structure prediction pipelines and create new hybrid pipelines that they tested during CASP10. This manuscript describes both successes and areas needing improvement as identified throughout the first WeFold experiment and discusses the efforts that are underway to advance this initiative. A footprint of all contributions and structures are publicly accessible at http://www.wefold.org. PMID:24677212

  14. Fold Recognition Using Sequence Fingerprints of Protein Local Substructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtafovych, A A; Hvidsten, T; Komorowski, J; Fidelis, K

    2003-06-04

    A protein local substructure (descriptor) is a set of several short non-overlapping fragments of the polypeptide chain. Each descriptor describes local environment of a particular residue and includes only those segments that are located in the proximity of this residue. Similar descriptors from the representative set of proteins were analyzed to reveal links between the substructures and sequences of their segments. Using detected sequence-based fingerprints specific geometrical conformations are assigned to new sequences. The ability of the approach to recognize correct SCOP folds was tested on 273 sequences from the 49 most popular folds. Good predictions were obtained in 85% of cases. No performance drop was observed with decreasing sequence similarity between target sequences and sequences from the training set of proteins.

  15. Energetics-Based Methods for Protein Folding and Stability Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, M. Ariel; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-06-01

    Over the past 15 years, a series of energetics-based techniques have been developed for the thermodynamic analysis of protein folding and stability. These techniques include Stability of Unpurified Proteins from Rates of amide H/D Exchange (SUPREX), pulse proteolysis, Stability of Proteins from Rates of Oxidation (SPROX), slow histidine H/D exchange, lysine amidination, and quantitative cysteine reactivity (QCR). The above techniques, which are the subject of this review, all utilize chemical or enzymatic modification reactions to probe the chemical denaturant- or temperature-induced equilibrium unfolding properties of proteins and protein-ligand complexes. They employ various mass spectrometry-, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-, and optical spectroscopy-based readouts that are particularly advantageous for high-throughput and in some cases multiplexed analyses. This has created the opportunity to use protein folding and stability measurements in new applications such as in high-throughput screening projects to identify novel protein ligands and in mode-of-action studies to identify protein targets of a particular ligand.

  16. Dissection of SARS Coronavirus Spike Protein into Discrete Folded Fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuang; CAI Zhen; CHEN Yong; LIN Zhanglin

    2006-01-01

    The spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mediates cell fusion by binding to target cell surface receptors. This paper reports a simple method for dissecting the viral protein and for searching for foldable fragments in a random but systematic manner. The method involves digestion by DNase I to generate a pool of short DNA segments, followed by an additional step of reassembly of these segments to produce a library of DNA fragments with random ends but controllable lengths. To rapidly screen for discrete folded polypeptide fragments, the reassembled gene fragments were further cloned into a vector as N-terminal fusions to a folding reporter gene which was a variant of green fluorescent protein. Two foldable fragments were identified for the SARS-CoV spike protein, which coincide with various anti-SARS peptides derived from the hepated repeat (HR) region 2 of the spike protein. The method should be applicable to other viral proteins to isolate antigen or vaccine candidates, thus providing an alternative to the full-length proteins (subunits) or linear short peptides.

  17. Folding pathways of a helix-turn-helix model protein

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, D

    1997-01-01

    A small model polypeptide represented in atomic detail is folded using Monte Carlo dynamics. The polypeptide is designed to have a native conformation similar to the central part of the helix-turn-helix protein ROP. Starting from a beta-strand conformation or two different loop conformations of the protein glutamine synthetase, six trajectories are generated using the so-called window move in dihedral angle space. This move changes conformations locally and leads to realistic, quasi-continuously evolving trajectories. Four of the six trajectories end in stable native-like conformations. Their folding pathways show a fast initial development of a helix-bend-helix motif, followed by a dynamic behaviour predicted by the diffusion-collision model of Karplus and Weaver. The phenomenology of the pathways is consistent with experimental results.

  18. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  19. Living With Radical Uncertainty. The Exemplary case of Folding Protein

    CERN Document Server

    Licata, Ignazio

    2010-01-01

    Laplace's demon still makes strong impact on contemporary science, in spite of the fact that Logical Mathematics outcomes, Quantum Physics advent and more recently Complexity Science have pointed out the crucial role of uncertainty in the World's descriptions. We focus here on the typical problem of folding protein as an example of uncertainty, radical emergence and a guide to the "simple" principles for studying complex systems.

  20. Energetic frustrations in protein folding at residue resolution: a homologous simulation study of Im9 proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiang Sun

    Full Text Available Energetic frustration is becoming an important topic for understanding the mechanisms of protein folding, which is a long-standing big biological problem usually investigated by the free energy landscape theory. Despite the significant advances in probing the effects of folding frustrations on the overall features of protein folding pathways and folding intermediates, detailed characterizations of folding frustrations at an atomic or residue level are still lacking. In addition, how and to what extent folding frustrations interact with protein topology in determining folding mechanisms remains unclear. In this paper, we tried to understand energetic frustrations in the context of protein topology structures or native-contact networks by comparing the energetic frustrations of five homologous Im9 alpha-helix proteins that share very similar topology structures but have a single hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic mutual mutation. The folding simulations were performed using a coarse-grained Gō-like model, while non-native hydrophobic interactions were introduced as energetic frustrations using a Lennard-Jones potential function. Energetic frustrations were then examined at residue level based on φ-value analyses of the transition state ensemble structures and mapped back to native-contact networks. Our calculations show that energetic frustrations have highly heterogeneous influences on the folding of the four helices of the examined structures depending on the local environment of the frustration centers. Also, the closer the introduced frustration is to the center of the native-contact network, the larger the changes in the protein folding. Our findings add a new dimension to the understanding of protein folding the topology determination in that energetic frustrations works closely with native-contact networks to affect the protein folding.

  1. Environmental Fluctuations and Stochastic Resonance in Protein Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Kapil; Davtyan, Aram; Papoian, Garegin A; Gruebele, Martin; Platkov, Max

    2016-05-01

    Stochastic resonance is a mechanism whereby a weak signal becomes detectable through the addition of noise. It is common in many macroscopic biological phenomena, but here we ask whether it can be observed in a microscopic biological phenomenon, protein folding. We investigate the folding kinetics of the protein VlsE, with a folding relaxation time of about 0.7 seconds at 38 °C in vitro. First we show that the VlsE unfolding/refolding reaction can be driven by a periodic thermal excitation above the reaction threshold. We detect the reaction by fluorescence from FRET labels on VlSE and show that accurate rate coefficients and activation barriers can be obtained from modulated kinetics. Then we weaken the periodic temperature modulation below the reaction threshold, and show that addition of artificial thermal noise speeds up the reaction from an undetectable to a detectable rate. We observe a maximum in the recovered signal as a function of thermal noise, a stochastic resonance. Simulation of a small model-protein, analysis in an accompanying theory paper, and our experimental result here all show that correlated noise is a physically and chemically plausible mechanism by which cells could modulate biomolecular dynamics during threshold processes such as signaling. PMID:26711088

  2. Origin of entropy convergence in hydrophobic hydration and protein folding

    CERN Document Server

    Garde, S; García, A; Paulaitis, M E; Pratt, L R; Garde, Shekhar; Hummer, Gerhard; Garcia, Angel E.; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    1996-01-01

    An information theory model is used to construct a molecular explanation why hydrophobic solvation entropies measured in calorimetry of protein unfolding converge at a common temperature. The entropy convergence follows from the weak temperature dependence of occupancy fluctuations for molecular-scale volumes in water. The macroscopic expression of the contrasting entropic behavior between water and common organic solvents is the relative temperature insensitivity of the water isothermal compressibility. The information theory model provides a quantitative description of small molecule hydration and predicts a negative entropy at convergence. Interpretations of entropic contributions to protein folding should account for this result.

  3. Protein GB1 Folding and Assembly from Structural Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Linse

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Folding of the Protein G B1 domain (PGB1 shifts with increasing salt concentration from a cooperative assembly of inherently unstructured subdomains to an assembly of partly pre-folded structures. The salt-dependence of pre-folding contributes to the stability minimum observed at physiological salt conditions. Our conclusions are based on a study in which the reconstitution of PGB1 from two fragments was studied as a function of salt concentrations and temperature using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Salt was found to induce an increase in β-hairpin structure for the C-terminal fragment (residues 41 – 56, whereas no major salt effect on structure was observed for the isolated N-terminal fragment (residues 1 – 41. In line with the increasing evidence on the interrelation between fragment complementation and stability of the corresponding intact protein, we also find that salt effects on reconstitution can be predicted from salt dependence of the stability of the intact protein. Our data show that our variant (which has the mutations T2Q, N8D, N37D and reconstitutes in a manner similar to the wild type displays the lowest equilibrium association constant around physiological salt concentration, with higher affinity observed both at lower and higher salt concentration. This corroborates the salt effects on the stability towards denaturation of the intact protein, for which the stability at physiological salt is lower compared to both lower and higher salt concentrations. Hence we conclude that reconstitution reports on molecular factors that govern the native states of proteins.

  4. Benchmarking consensus model quality assessment for protein fold recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuffin Liam J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selecting the highest quality 3D model of a protein structure from a number of alternatives remains an important challenge in the field of structural bioinformatics. Many Model Quality Assessment Programs (MQAPs have been developed which adopt various strategies in order to tackle this problem, ranging from the so called "true" MQAPs capable of producing a single energy score based on a single model, to methods which rely on structural comparisons of multiple models or additional information from meta-servers. However, it is clear that no current method can separate the highest accuracy models from the lowest consistently. In this paper, a number of the top performing MQAP methods are benchmarked in the context of the potential value that they add to protein fold recognition. Two novel methods are also described: ModSSEA, which based on the alignment of predicted secondary structure elements and ModFOLD which combines several true MQAP methods using an artificial neural network. Results The ModSSEA method is found to be an effective model quality assessment program for ranking multiple models from many servers, however further accuracy can be gained by using the consensus approach of ModFOLD. The ModFOLD method is shown to significantly outperform the true MQAPs tested and is competitive with methods which make use of clustering or additional information from multiple servers. Several of the true MQAPs are also shown to add value to most individual fold recognition servers by improving model selection, when applied as a post filter in order to re-rank models. Conclusion MQAPs should be benchmarked appropriately for the practical context in which they are intended to be used. Clustering based methods are the top performing MQAPs where many models are available from many servers; however, they often do not add value to individual fold recognition servers when limited models are available. Conversely, the true MQAP methods

  5. Directed evolution methods for improving polypeptide folding and solubility and superfolder fluorescent proteins generated thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2007-09-18

    The current invention provides methods of improving folding of polypeptides using a poorly folding domain as a component of a fusion protein comprising the poorly folding domain and a polypeptide of interest to be improved. The invention also provides novel green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and red fluorescent proteins that have enhanced folding properties.

  6. Combining in Vitro Folding with Cell Free Protein Synthesis for Membrane Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Paul J; Hein, Christopher; Hoffmann, Beate; Matulef, Kimberly; Bernhard, Frank; Dötsch, Volker; Valiyaveetil, Francis I

    2016-08-01

    Cell free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a promising methodology for protein expression. While polypeptide production is very reliable and efficient using CFPS, the correct cotranslational folding of membrane proteins during CFPS is still a challenge. In this contribution, we describe a two-step protocol in which the integral membrane protein is initially expressed by CFPS as a precipitate followed by an in vitro folding procedure using lipid vesicles for converting the protein precipitate to the correctly folded protein. We demonstrate the feasibility of using this approach for the K(+) channels KcsA and MVP and the amino acid transporter LeuT. We determine the crystal structure of the KcsA channel obtained by CFPS and in vitro folding to show the structural similarity to the cellular expressed KcsA channel and to establish the feasibility of using this two-step approach for membrane protein production for structural studies. Our studies show that the correct folding of these membrane proteins with complex topologies can take place in vitro without the involvement of the cellular machinery for membrane protein biogenesis. This indicates that the folding instructions for these complex membrane proteins are contained entirely within the protein sequence. PMID:27384110

  7. Hsp70 biases the folding pathways of client proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Ashok; Rosenzweig, Rina; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Kay, Lewis E

    2016-05-17

    The 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) family of chaperones bind cognate substrates to perform a variety of different processes that are integral to cellular homeostasis. Although detailed structural information is available on the chaperone, the structural features of folding competent substrates in the bound form have not been well characterized. Here we use paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) NMR spectroscopy to probe the existence of long-range interactions in one such folding competent substrate, human telomere repeat binding factor (hTRF1), which is bound to DnaK in a globally unfolded conformation. We show that DnaK binding modifies the energy landscape of the substrate by removing long-range interactions that are otherwise present in the unbound, unfolded conformation of hTRF1. Because the unfolded state of hTRF1 is only marginally populated and transiently formed, it is inaccessible to standard NMR approaches. We therefore developed a (1)H-based CEST experiment that allows measurement of PREs in sparse states, reporting on transiently sampled conformations. Our results suggest that DnaK binding can significantly bias the folding pathway of client substrates such that secondary structure forms first, followed by the development of longer-range contacts between more distal parts of the protein. PMID:27140645

  8. Predictive energy landscapes for folding membrane protein assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Ha H; Kim, Bobby L; Schafer, Nicholas P; Wolynes, Peter G

    2015-12-28

    We study the energy landscapes for membrane protein oligomerization using the Associative memory, Water mediated, Structure and Energy Model with an implicit membrane potential (AWSEM-membrane), a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model previously optimized under the assumption that the energy landscapes for folding α-helical membrane protein monomers are funneled once their native topology within the membrane is established. In this study we show that the AWSEM-membrane force field is able to sample near native binding interfaces of several oligomeric systems. By predicting candidate structures using simulated annealing, we further show that degeneracies in predicting structures of membrane protein monomers are generally resolved in the folding of the higher order assemblies as is the case in the assemblies of both nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and V-type Na(+)-ATPase dimers. The physics of the phenomenon resembles domain swapping, which is consistent with the landscape following the principle of minimal frustration. We revisit also the classic Khorana study of the reconstitution of bacteriorhodopsin from its fragments, which is the close analogue of the early Anfinsen experiment on globular proteins. Here, we show the retinal cofactor likely plays a major role in selecting the final functional assembly. PMID:26723586

  9. Folding Behaviors of Protein (Lysozyme) Confined in Polyelectrolyte Complex Micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Gen; Jiang, Yao-Wen; Chen, Zhan; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2016-04-19

    The folding/unfolding behavior of proteins (enzymes) in confined space is important for their properties and functions, but such a behavior remains largely unexplored. In this article, we reported our finding that lysozyme and a double hydrophilic block copolymer, methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)5K-block-poly(l-aspartic acid sodium salt)10 (mPEG5K-b-PLD10), can form a polyelectrolyte complex micelle with a particle size of ∼30 nm, as verified by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The unfolding and refolding behaviors of lysozyme molecules in the presence of the copolymer were studied by microcalorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Upon complex formation with mPEG5K-b-PLD10, lysozyme changed from its initial native state to a new partially unfolded state. Compared with its native state, this copolymer-complexed new folding state of lysozyme has different secondary and tertiary structures, a decreased thermostability, and significantly altered unfolding/refolding behaviors. It was found that the native lysozyme exhibited reversible unfolding and refolding upon heating and subsequent cooling, while lysozyme in the new folding state (complexed with the oppositely charged PLD segments of the polymer) could unfold upon heating but could not refold upon subsequent cooling. By employing the heating-cooling-reheating procedure, the prevention of complex formation between lysozyme and polymer due to the salt screening effect was observed, and the resulting uncomplexed lysozyme regained its proper unfolding and refolding abilities upon heating and subsequent cooling. Besides, we also pointed out the important role the length of the PLD segment played during the formation of micelles and the monodispersity of the formed micelles. Furthermore, the lysozyme-mPEG5K-b-PLD10 mixtures prepared in this work were all transparent, without the formation of large aggregates or precipitates in solution as frequently observed in other protein

  10. Folding dynamics of a family of beta-sheet proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Denis

    2008-03-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) consist of ten anti-parallel beta strands and two small alpha helices. The beta strands are arranged into two nearly orthogonal five-strand beta sheets that surround the interior cavity, which binds unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. In the brain isoform (BFABP), these are very important for the development of the central nervous system and neuron differentiation. Furthermore, BFABP is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases including cancer and neuronal degenerative disorders. In this work, site-directed spin labeling combined with EPR techniques have been used to study the folding mechanism of BFABP. In the first series of studies, we labeled the two Cys residues at position 5 and 80 in the wild type protein with an EPR spin marker; in addition, two singly labeled mutants at positions 5 and 80 in the C80A and C5A mutants, respectively, were also produced and used as controls. The changes in the distances between the two residues were examined by a pulsed EPR method, DEER (Double Electron Electron Resonance), as a function of guanidinium hydrochloride concentration. The results were compared with those from CW EPR, circular dichroism and fluorescence measurements, which provide the information regarding sidechain mobility, secondary structure and tertiary structure, respectively. The results will be discussed in the context of the folding mechanism of the family of fatty acid binding proteins.

  11. Calculation of the free energy and cooperativity of protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kentsis

    Full Text Available Calculation of the free energy of protein folding and delineation of its pre-organization are of foremost importance for understanding, predicting and designing biological macromolecules. Here, we introduce an energy smoothing variant of parallel tempering replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMS that allows for efficient configurational sampling of flexible solutes under the conditions of molecular hydration. Its usage to calculate the thermal stability of a model globular protein, Trp cage TC5b, achieves excellent agreement with experimental measurements. We find that the stability of TC5b is attained through the coupled formation of local and non-local interactions. Remarkably, many of these structures persist at high temperature, concomitant with the origin of native-like configurations and mesostates in an otherwise macroscopically disordered unfolded state. Graph manifold learning reveals that the conversion of these mesostates to the native state is structurally heterogeneous, and that the cooperativity of their formation is encoded largely by the unfolded state ensemble. In all, these studies establish the extent of thermodynamic and structural pre-organization of folding of this model globular protein, and achieve the calculation of macromolecular stability ab initio, as required for ab initio structure prediction, genome annotation, and drug design.

  12. Heuristic algorithm for off-lattice protein folding problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mao; HUANG Wen-qi

    2006-01-01

    Enlightened by the law of interactions among objects in the physical world, we propose a heuristic algorithm for solving the three-dimensional (3D) off-lattice protein folding problem. Based on a physical model, the problem is converted from a nonlinear constraint-satisfied problem to an unconstrained optimization problem which can be solved by the well-known gradient method. To improve the efficiency of our algorithm, a strategy was introduced to generate initial configuration. Computational results showed that this algorithm could find states with lower energy than previously proposed ground states obtained by nPERM algorithm for all chains with length ranging from 13 to 55.

  13. Fold homology detection using sequence fragment composition profiles of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Armando D; Rackovsky, Shalom R

    2010-10-01

    The effectiveness of sequence alignment in detecting structural homology among protein sequences decreases markedly when pairwise sequence identity is low (the so-called "twilight zone" problem of sequence alignment). Alternative sequence comparison strategies able to detect structural kinship among highly divergent sequences are necessary to address this need. Among them are alignment-free methods, which use global sequence properties (such as amino acid composition) to identify structural homology in a rapid and straightforward way. We explore the viability of using tetramer sequence fragment composition profiles in finding structural relationships that lie undetected by traditional alignment. We establish a strategy to recast any given protein sequence into a tetramer sequence fragment composition profile, using a series of amino acid clustering steps that have been optimized for mutual information. Our method has the effect of compressing the set of 160,000 unique tetramers (if using the 20-letter amino acid alphabet) into a more tractable number of reduced tetramers (approximately 15-30), so that a meaningful tetramer composition profile can be constructed. We test remote homology detection at the topology and fold superfamily levels using a comprehensive set of fold homologs, culled from the CATH database that share low pairwise sequence similarity. Using the receiver-operating characteristic measure, we demonstrate potentially significant improvement in using information-optimized reduced tetramer composition, over methods relying only on the raw amino acid composition or on traditional sequence alignment, in homology detection at or below the "twilight zone". PMID:20635424

  14. Constructing Templates for Protein Structure Prediction by Simulation of Protein Folding Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Kifer, Ilona; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2008-01-01

    How a one-dimensional protein sequence folds into a specific 3D structure remains a difficult challenge in structural biology. Many computational methods have been developed in an attempt to predict the tertiary structure of the protein; most of these employ approaches that are based on the accumulated knowledge of solved protein structures.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of protein folding and stability using a tryptophan modification protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingrong; Strickland, Erin C; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2014-07-15

    Described here is the development of a mass spectrometry-based covalent labeling protocol that utilizes the reaction of dimethyl(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)sulfonium bromide (HNSB) with tryptophan (Trp) residues to measure protein folding free energies (ΔG(f) values). In the protocol, the chemical denaturant dependence of the rate at which globally protected Trp residues in a protein react with HNSB is evaluated using either a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analysis of the intact protein or a quantitative, bottom-up proteomics analysis using isobaric mass tags. In the proof-of-principle studies performed here, the protocol yielded accurate ΔG(f) values for the two-state folding proteins, lysozyme and cytochrome c. The protocol also yielded an accurate measure of the dissociation constant (K(d) value) for the binding of N,N',N″-triacetylchitotriose to lysozyme, and it successfully detected the binding of brinzolamide to BCA II, a non-two-state folding protein. The HNSB protocol can be used in combination with SPROX (stability of proteins from rates of oxidation), a previously reported technique that exploits the hydrogen peroxide oxidation of methionine (Met) residues in proteins to make ΔG(f) value measurements. Incorporating the HNSB protocol into SPROX increased the peptide and protein coverage in proteome-wide SPROX experiments by 50% and 25%, respectively. As part of this work, the precision of proteome-wide ΔG(f) value measurements using the combined HNSB and SPROX protocol is also evaluated. PMID:24896224

  16. A Simple and Effective Protein Folding Activity Suitable for Large Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive hands-on simulation of protein folding suitable for use in large lecture classes. This activity uses a minimum of parts, tools, and skill to simulate some of the fundamental principles of protein folding. The major concepts targeted are that proteins begin as linear polypeptides and fold to…

  17. Fast mapping of global protein folding states by multivariate NMR: a GPS for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Underhaug, Jarl; Otzen, Daniel E; Nielsen, Niels Christian

    2010-01-01

    To obtain insight into the functions of proteins and their specific roles, it is important to establish efficient procedures for exploring the states that encapsulate their conformational space. Global Protein folding State mapping by multivariate NMR (GPS NMR) is a powerful high-throughput method...... in, protein-folding state maps. The method is fast, sensitive, and robust, and it works without isotope-labelling. The unique capabilities of GPS NMR to identify different folding states and to compare different unfolding processes are demonstrated by mapping of the equilibrium folding space of...... bovine alpha-lactalbumin in the presence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, and compare these with other surfactants, acid, denaturants and heat....

  18. An experimental survey of the transition between two-state and downhill protein folding scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Feng LIU; Du, Deguo; Fuller, Amelia A.; Davoren, Jennifer E.; Wipf, Peter; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Gruebele, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A kinetic and thermodynamic survey of 35 WW domain sequences is used in combination with a model to discern the energetic requirements for the transition from two-state folding to downhill folding. The sequences used exhibit a 600-fold range of folding rates at the temperature of maximum folding rate. Very stable proteins can achieve complete downhill folding when the temperature is lowered sufficiently below the melting temperature, and then at even lower temperatures they become two-state f...

  19. Generic Coarse-Grained Model for Protein Folding and Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereau, Tristan; Deserno, Markus

    2009-03-01

    The complexity involved in protein structure is not only due to the rich variety of amino acids, but also the inherent weak interactions, comparable to thermal energy, and important cooperative phenomena. This presents a challenge in atomistic simulations, as it is associated with high-dimensionality and ruggedness of the energy landscape as well as long equilibration times. We have recently developed a coarse-grained (CG) implicit solvent peptide model which has been designed to reproduce key consequences of the abovementioned weak interactions. Its intermediate level of resolution, four beads per amino acid, allows for accurate sampling of local conformations by designing a force field that relies on simple interactions. A realistic ratio of α-helix to β-sheet content is achieved by mimicking a nearest-neighbor dipole interaction. We tune the model in order to fold helical proteins while systematically comparing the structure with NMR data. Very good agreement is achieved for proteins that have simple tertiary structures. We further probe the effects of cooperativity between amino acids by looking at peptide aggregation, where hydrophobic peptide fragments cooperatively form large-scale β-sheet structures. The model is able to reproduce features from atomistic simulations on a qualitative basis.

  20. Personification algorithm for protein folding problem:Improvements in PERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wenqi; Lü Zhipeng

    2004-01-01

    PERM is the most efficient approach for solving protein folding problem based on simple lattice model. In this article a personification explanation of PERM is proposed. A new version of PERM, population control algorithm with two main improvements is presented: one is that it is able to redefine the weight and its predicted value in PERM, and the other is that it is able to unify the calculation of weight when choosing possible branches. The improved PERM is more efficient than the previous version; specifically it can find the known lowest energy states for the four well-known difficult instances and is generally several to hundreds times faster than PERM. It is noteworthy that with the improved PERM we found new lowest energy configurations of three of the four difficult problems missed in previous papers.

  1. Unexpected fold in the circumsporozoite protein target of malaria vaccines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doud, Michael B.; Koksal, Adem C.; Mi, Li-Zhi; Song, Gaojie; Lu, Chafen; Springer, Timothy A. (Harvard-Med)

    2012-10-09

    Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is the major surface component of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites and is essential for host cell invasion. A vaccine containing tandem repeats, region III, and thrombospondin type-I repeat (TSR) of CS is efficacious in phase III trials but gives only a 35% reduction in severe malaria in the first year postimmunization. We solved crystal structures showing that region III and TSR fold into a single unit, an '{alpha}TSR' domain. The {alpha}TSR domain possesses a hydrophobic pocket and core, missing in TSR domains. CS binds heparin, but {alpha}TSR does not. Interestingly, polymorphic T-cell epitopes map to specialized {alpha}TSR regions. The N and C termini are unexpectedly close, providing clues for sporozoite sheath organization. Elucidation of a unique structure of a domain within CS enables rational design of next-generation subunit vaccines and functional and medicinal chemical investigation of the conserved hydrophobic pocket.

  2. Probing folding free energy landscape of small proteins through minimalistic models: Folding of HP-36 and -amyloid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arnab Mukherjee; Biman Bagchi

    2003-10-01

    Folding dynamics and energy landscape picture of protein conformations of HP-36 and -amyloid (A) are investigated by extensive Brownian dynamics simulations, where the inter amino acid interactions are given by a minimalistic model (MM) we recently introduced [J. Chem. Phys. 118 4733 (2003)]. In this model, a protein is constructed by taking two atoms for each amino acid. One atom represents the backbone C atom, while the other mimics the whole side chain residue. Sizes and interactions of the side residues are all different and specific to a particular amino acid. The effect of water-mediated folding is mapped into the MM by suitable choice of interaction parameters of the side residues obtained from the amino acid hydropathy scale. A new non-local helix potential is incorporated to generate helices at the appropriate positions in a protein. Simulations have been done by equilibrating the protein at high temperature followed by a sudden quench. The subsequent folding is monitored to observe the dynamics of topological contacts (topo), relative contact order parameter (RCO), and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) from the realprotein native structure. The folded structures of different model proteins (HP-36 and ) resemble their respective real native state rather well. The dynamics of folding shows multistage decay, with an initial hydrophobic collapse followed by a long plateau. Analysis of topo and RCO correlates the late stage folding with rearrangement of the side chain residues, particularly those far apart in the sequence. The long plateau also signifies large entropic free energy barrier near the native state, as predicted from theories of protein folding.

  3. New approach to protein fold recognition based on Delaunay tessellation of protein structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Cho, S.J.; Vaisman, I.I.; Tropsha, A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We propose new algorithms for sequence-structure compatibility (fold recognition) searches in multidimensional sequence-structure space. Individual amino acid residues in protein structures are represented by their C{sup {alpha}} atoms; thus each protein is described as a collection of points in three-dimensional space. Delaunay tessellation of a protein generates an aggregate of space-filling, irregular tetrahedra, or Delaunay simplices. Statistical analysis of quadruplet residue compositions of all Delaunay simplices in a representative dataset of protein structures leads to a novel four body contact residue potential expressed as log likelihood factor q. The q factors are calculated for native 20 letter amino acid alphabet and several reduced alphabets. Two sequence structure compatibility functions are computed as (i) the sum of q factors for all Delaunay simplices in a given protein, or (ii) 3D-1D Delaunay tessellation profiles where the individual residue profile value is calculated as the sum of q factors for all simplices that share this vertex residue. Both threading functions have been implemented in structure-recognizes-sequence and sequence-recognizes-structure protocols for protein fold recognition. We find that both profile and total score based threading functions can distinguish both the native fold from incorrect folds for a sequence, and the native sequence from non-native sequences for a fold. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Folding Behaviour for Proteins BBL and E3BD with Gō-like Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Guang-Hong; ZHANG Jian; WANG Jun; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Folding behaviour of protein BBL and its homologue domain E3BD are studied by using an off-lattice Gō-like model. It is found that the folding behaviours of these two proteins are different. Protein BBL folds in a downhill manner, which is consistent with experiments. In contrast, protein E3BD folds cooperatively and has a bimodal distribution of the Q values (the similarity to the native state). By analysing the native structures of the two proteins, it is found that the difference in folding behaviours can be attributed to the different structural features described by the number of nonlocal contacts per residue.

  5. Protein folding and protein metallocluster studies using synchrotron small angler X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliezer, D.

    1994-06-01

    Proteins, biological macromolecules composed of amino-acid building blocks, possess unique three dimensional shapes or conformations which are intimately related to their biological function. All of the information necessary to determine this conformation is stored in a protein`s amino acid sequence. The problem of understanding the process by which nature maps protein amino-acid sequences to three-dimensional conformations is known as the protein folding problem, and is one of the central unsolved problems in biophysics today. The possible applications of a solution are broad, ranging from the elucidation of thousands of protein structures to the rational modification and design of protein-based drugs. The scattering of X-rays by matter has long been useful as a tool for the characterization of physical properties of materials, including biological samples. The high photon flux available at synchrotron X-ray sources allows for the measurement of scattering cross-sections of dilute and/or disordered samples. Such measurements do not yield the detailed geometrical information available from crystalline samples, but do allow for lower resolution studies of dynamical processes not observable in the crystalline state. The main focus of the work described here has been the study of the protein folding process using time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering measurements. The original intention was to observe the decrease in overall size which must accompany the folding of a protein from an extended conformation to its compact native state. Although this process proved too fast for the current time-resolution of the technique, upper bounds were set on the probable compaction times of several small proteins. In addition, an interesting and unexpected process was detected, in which the folding protein passes through an intermediate state which shows a tendency to associate. This state is proposed to be a kinetic molten globule folding intermediate.

  6. Deducing the Energetic Cost of Protein Folding in Zinc Finger Proteins Using Designed Metallopeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc finger transcription factors represent the largest single class of metalloproteins in the human genome. Binding of Zn(II) to their canonical Cys4, Cys3His1, or Cys2His2 sites results in metal-induced protein folding events required to achieve their proper structure for biological activity. The thermodynamic contribution of Zn(II) in each of these coordination spheres toward protein folding is poorly understood because of the coupled nature of the metal-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Using an unstructured peptide scaffold, GGG, we have employed fluorimetry, potentiometry, and calorimetry to determine the thermodynamics of Zn(II) binding to the Cys4, Cys3His1, and Cys2His2 ligand sets with minimal interference from protein folding effects. The data show that Zn(II) complexation is entropy driven and modulated by proton release. The formation constants for Zn(II)-GGG with a Cys4, Cys3His1, or Cys2His2 site are 5.6 x 1016, 1.5 x 1015, or 2.5 x 1013 M-1, respectively. Thus, the Zn(II)-Cys4, Zn(II)-Cys3His1, and Zn(II)-Cys2His2 interactions can provide up to 22.8, 20.7, and 18.3 kcal/mol, respectively, in driving force for protein stabilization, folding, and/or assembly at pH values above the ligand pKa values. While the contributions from the three coordination motifs differ by 4.5 kcal/mol in Zn(II) affinity at pH 9.0, they are equivalent at physiological pH, ?G = -16.8 kcal/mol or a Ka = 2.0 x 1012 M-1. Calorimetric data show that this is due to proton-based enthalpy-entropy compensation between the favorable entropic term from proton release and the unfavorable enthalpic term due to thiol deprotonation. Since protein folding effects have been minimized in the GGG scaffold, these peptides possess nearly the tightest Zn(II) affinities possible for their coordination motifs. The Zn(II) affinities in each coordination motif are compared between the GGG scaffold and natural zinc finger proteins to determine the free energy required to fold the latter

  7. Numerical Simulation of Folding and Unfolding of Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Kouza, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    The thesis examines in detail the folding and unfolding processes of a number of proteins including hbSBD, DDLNF4, single and multi Ubiquitin. Using simplified coarse-grained off-lattice Go model and CD experiments we have shown the two-state behavior of hbSBD protein. It was shown that refolding pathways of single Ubiquitin depend on what end is anchored to the surface. Namely, the fixation of the N-terminal changes refolding pathways but anchoring the C-terminal leaves them unchanged. Interestingly, the end fixation has no effect on multi-domain Ubiquitin. Using the Go modeling and all-atom models with explicit water, we have studied the mechanical unfolding mechanism of DDFLN4 in detail. We predict that, contrary to the AFM experiments, an additional unfolding peak would occur at the end-to-end $\\Delta R \\approx 1.5 $nm in the force-extension curve. Our study reveals the important role of non-native interactions which are responsible for a peak located at $\\Delta R \\approx 22 $nm. This peak can not be enco...

  8. Protein folding and protein metallocluster studies using synchrotron small angler X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins, biological macromolecules composed of amino-acid building blocks, possess unique three dimensional shapes or conformations which are intimately related to their biological function. All of the information necessary to determine this conformation is stored in a protein's amino acid sequence. The problem of understanding the process by which nature maps protein amino-acid sequences to three-dimensional conformations is known as the protein folding problem, and is one of the central unsolved problems in biophysics today. The possible applications of a solution are broad, ranging from the elucidation of thousands of protein structures to the rational modification and design of protein-based drugs. The scattering of X-rays by matter has long been useful as a tool for the characterization of physical properties of materials, including biological samples. The high photon flux available at synchrotron X-ray sources allows for the measurement of scattering cross-sections of dilute and/or disordered samples. Such measurements do not yield the detailed geometrical information available from crystalline samples, but do allow for lower resolution studies of dynamical processes not observable in the crystalline state. The main focus of the work described here has been the study of the protein folding process using time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering measurements. The original intention was to observe the decrease in overall size which must accompany the folding of a protein from an extended conformation to its compact native state. Although this process proved too fast for the current time-resolution of the technique, upper bounds were set on the probable compaction times of several small proteins. In addition, an interesting and unexpected process was detected, in which the folding protein passes through an intermediate state which shows a tendency to associate. This state is proposed to be a kinetic molten globule folding intermediate

  9. Predicting protein folding pathways at the mesoscopic level based on native interactions between secondary structure elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since experimental determination of protein folding pathways remains difficult, computational techniques are often used to simulate protein folding. Most current techniques to predict protein folding pathways are computationally intensive and are suitable only for small proteins. Results By assuming that the native structure of a protein is known and representing each intermediate conformation as a collection of fully folded structures in which each of them contains a set of interacting secondary structure elements, we show that it is possible to significantly reduce the conformation space while still being able to predict the most energetically favorable folding pathway of large proteins with hundreds of residues at the mesoscopic level, including the pig muscle phosphoglycerate kinase with 416 residues. The model is detailed enough to distinguish between different folding pathways of structurally very similar proteins, including the streptococcal protein G and the peptostreptococcal protein L. The model is also able to recognize the differences between the folding pathways of protein G and its two structurally similar variants NuG1 and NuG2, which are even harder to distinguish. We show that this strategy can produce accurate predictions on many other proteins with experimentally determined intermediate folding states. Conclusion Our technique is efficient enough to predict folding pathways for both large and small proteins at the mesoscopic level. Such a strategy is often the only feasible choice for large proteins. A software program implementing this strategy (SSFold is available at http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/shsze/ssfold.

  10. Transferable coarse-grained potential for $\\textit{de novo}$ protein folding and design

    CERN Document Server

    Coluzza, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Protein folding and design are major biophysical problems, the solution of which would lead to important applications especially in medicine. Here a novel protein model capable of simultaneously provide quantitative protein design and folding is introduced. With computer simulations it is shown that, for a large set of real protein structures, the model produces designed sequences with similar physical properties to the corresponding natural occurring sequences. The designed sequences are not yet fully realistic and require further experimental testing. For an independent set of proteins, notoriously difficult to fold, the correct folding of both the designed and the natural sequences is also demonstrated. The folding properties are characterized by free energy calculations. which not only are consistent among natural and designed proteins, but we also show a remarkable precision when the folded structures are compared to the experimentally determined ones. Ultimately, this novel coarse-grained protein model ...

  11. Protein folding and models of dynamics on the lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Trinh Xuan; Cieplak, Marek

    1998-01-01

    We study folding in 16-monomer heteropolymers on the square lattice. For a given sequence, thermodynamic properties and stability of the native state are unique. However, the kinetics of folding depends on the model of dynamics adopted for the time evolution of the system. We consider three such models: Rouse-like dynamics with either single monomer moves or with single and double monomer moves, and the 'slithering snake' dynamics. Usually, the snake dynamics has poorer folding properties com...

  12. Structure determination of archaea-specific ribosomal protein L46a reveals a novel protein fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yingang, E-mail: fengyg@qibebt.ac.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266101 (China); Song, Xiaxia [Department of Biological Science and Engineering, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin, Jinzhong [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Xuan, Jinsong [Department of Biological Science and Engineering, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Cui, Qiu [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266101 (China); Wang, Jinfeng [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • The archaea-specific ribosomal protein L46a has no homology to known proteins. • Three dimensional structure and backbone dynamics of L46a were determined by NMR. • The structure of L46a represents a novel protein fold. • A potential rRNA-binding surface on L46a was identified. • The potential position of L46a on the ribosome was proposed. - Abstract: Three archaea-specific ribosomal proteins recently identified show no sequence homology with other known proteins. Here we determined the structure of L46a, the most conserved one among the three proteins, from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 using NMR spectroscopy. The structure presents a twisted β-sheet formed by the N-terminal part and two helices at the C-terminus. The L46a structure has a positively charged surface which is conserved in the L46a protein family and is the potential rRNA-binding site. Searching homologous structures in Protein Data Bank revealed that the structure of L46a represents a novel protein fold. The backbone dynamics identified by NMR relaxation experiments reveal significant flexibility at the rRNA binding surface. The potential position of L46a on the ribosome was proposed by fitting the structure into a previous electron microscopy map of the ribosomal 50S subunit, which indicated that L46a contacts to domain I of 23S rRNA near a multifunctional ribosomal protein L7ae.

  13. Structure determination of archaea-specific ribosomal protein L46a reveals a novel protein fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The archaea-specific ribosomal protein L46a has no homology to known proteins. • Three dimensional structure and backbone dynamics of L46a were determined by NMR. • The structure of L46a represents a novel protein fold. • A potential rRNA-binding surface on L46a was identified. • The potential position of L46a on the ribosome was proposed. - Abstract: Three archaea-specific ribosomal proteins recently identified show no sequence homology with other known proteins. Here we determined the structure of L46a, the most conserved one among the three proteins, from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 using NMR spectroscopy. The structure presents a twisted β-sheet formed by the N-terminal part and two helices at the C-terminus. The L46a structure has a positively charged surface which is conserved in the L46a protein family and is the potential rRNA-binding site. Searching homologous structures in Protein Data Bank revealed that the structure of L46a represents a novel protein fold. The backbone dynamics identified by NMR relaxation experiments reveal significant flexibility at the rRNA binding surface. The potential position of L46a on the ribosome was proposed by fitting the structure into a previous electron microscopy map of the ribosomal 50S subunit, which indicated that L46a contacts to domain I of 23S rRNA near a multifunctional ribosomal protein L7ae

  14. A versatile selection system for folding competent proteins using genetic complementation in a eukaryotic host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, C.; Kjaerulff, S.; Muller, S.;

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant expression of native or modified eukaryotic proteins is pivotal for structural and functional studies and for industrial and pharmaceutical production of proteins. However, it is often impeded by the lack of proper folding. Here, we present a stringent and broadly applicable eukaryotic...... in vivo selection system for folded proteins. It is based on genetic complementation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth marker gene invertase fused C-terminally to a protein library. The fusion proteins are directed to the secretion system, utilizing the ability of the eukaryotic protein quality...... demonstrated using a complex insertion mutant library of TNF-alpha, from which different folding competent mutant proteins were uncovered....

  15. Defective folding and rapid degradation of mutant proteins is a common disease mechanism in genetic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Bross, P; Jørgensen, M M;

    2000-01-01

    Many disease-causing point mutations do not seriously compromise synthesis of the affected polypeptide but rather exert their effects by impairing subsequent protein folding or stability of the folded protein. This often results in rapid degradation of the affected protein. The concepts...

  16. Defective folding and rapid degradation of mutant proteins is a common disease mechanism in genetic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Bross, Peter; Jørgensen, Malene Munk;

    2000-01-01

    Many disease-causing point mutations do not seriously compromise synthesis of the affected polypeptides but rather exert their effects by impairing subsequent protein folding or stability of the folded protein. This often results in rapid degradation of the affected protein. The concepts...

  17. A New Heuristic Algorithm for Protein Folding in the HP Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykov, Metodi; Angelov, Slav; Yanev, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    This article presents an efficient heuristic for protein folding. The protein folding problem is to predict the compact three-dimensional structure of a protein based on its amino acid sequence. The focus is on an original integer programming model derived from a platform used for Contact Map Overlap problem. PMID:27153764

  18. Mathematics, Thermodynamics, and Modeling to Address Ten Common Misconceptions about Protein Structure, Folding, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robic, Srebrenka

    2010-01-01

    To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative…

  19. SHuffle, a novel Escherichia coli protein expression strain capable of correctly folding disulfide bonded proteins in its cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobstein Julie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using

  20. A spatio-temporal mining approach towards summarizing and analyzing protein folding trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucar Duygu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding the protein folding mechanism remains a grand challenge in structural biology. In the past several years, computational theories in molecular dynamics have been employed to shed light on the folding process. Coupled with high computing power and large scale storage, researchers now can computationally simulate the protein folding process in atomistic details at femtosecond temporal resolution. Such simulation often produces a large number of folding trajectories, each consisting of a series of 3D conformations of the protein under study. As a result, effectively managing and analyzing such trajectories is becoming increasingly important. In this article, we present a spatio-temporal mining approach to analyze protein folding trajectories. It exploits the simplicity of contact maps, while also integrating 3D structural information in the analysis. It characterizes the dynamic folding process by first identifying spatio-temporal association patterns in contact maps, then studying how such patterns evolve along a folding trajectory. We demonstrate that such patterns can be leveraged to summarize folding trajectories, and to facilitate the detection and ordering of important folding events along a folding path. We also show that such patterns can be used to identify a consensus partial folding pathway across multiple folding trajectories. Furthermore, we argue that such patterns can capture both local and global structural topology in a 3D protein conformation, thereby facilitating effective structural comparison amongst conformations. We apply this approach to analyze the folding trajectories of two small synthetic proteins-BBA5 and GSGS (or Beta3S. We show that this approach is promising towards addressing the above issues, namely, folding trajectory summarization, folding events detection and ordering, and consensus partial folding pathway identification across trajectories.

  1. Connecting thermal and mechanical protein (un)folding landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Noel, Jeffrey K; Sulkowska, Joanna I; Levine, Herbert; Onuchic, José N

    2014-12-16

    Molecular dynamics simulations supplement single-molecule pulling experiments by providing the possibility of examining the full free energy landscape using many coordinates. Here, we use an all-atom structure-based model to study the force and temperature dependence of the unfolding of the protein filamin by applying force at both termini. The unfolding time-force relation τ(F) indicates that the force-induced unfolding behavior of filamin can be characterized into three regimes: barrier-limited low- and intermediate-force regimes, and a barrierless high-force regime. Slope changes of τ(F) separate the three regimes. We show that the behavior of τ(F) can be understood from a two-dimensional free energy landscape projected onto the extension X and the fraction of native contacts Q. In the low-force regime, the unfolding rate is roughly force-independent due to the small (even negative) separation in X between the native ensemble and transition state ensemble (TSE). In the intermediate-force regime, force sufficiently separates the TSE from the native ensemble such that τ(F) roughly follows an exponential relation. This regime is typically explored by pulling experiments. While X may fail to resolve the TSE due to overlap with the unfolded ensemble just below the folding temperature, the overlap is minimal at lower temperatures where experiments are likely to be conducted. The TSE becomes increasingly structured with force, whereas the average order of structural events during unfolding remains roughly unchanged. The high-force regime is characterized by barrierless unfolding, and the unfolding time approaches a limit of ∼10 μs for the highest forces we studied. Finally, a combination of X and Q is shown to be a good reaction coordinate for almost the entire force range. PMID:25517160

  2. Efficient fold-change detection based on protein-protein interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Buijsman, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Various biological sensory systems exhibit a response to the relative change of the stimulus, often reffered to as fold-change detection. Here, we present a mechanism consisting of two interacting proteins, able to detect a fold-change effectively. This mechanism, in contrast to other proposed mechanisms, does not consume chemical energy and is not subject to transcriptional and translational noise. We show by analytical and numerical calculations that the mechanism can have a fast, precise and efficient response for parameters that are relevant to eukaryotic cells.

  3. Structural classification of proteins and structural genomics: new insights into protein folding and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article surveys the protein structures determined by Joint Center for Structural Genomics and published in this special issue of Acta Crystallographica Section F. During the past decade, the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) centres have become major contributors of new families, superfamilies and folds to the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database. The PSI results have increased the diversity of protein structural space and accelerated our understanding of it. This review article surveys a selection of protein structures determined by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG). It presents previously undescribed β-sheet architectures such as the double barrel and spiral β-roll and discusses new examples of unusual topologies and peculiar structural features observed in proteins characterized by the JCSG and other Structural Genomics centres

  4. Classification of protein fold classes by knot theory and prediction of folds by neural networks: A combined theoretical and experimental approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramnarayan, K.; Bohr, Henrik; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    We present different means of classifying protein structure. One is made rigorous by mathematical knot invariants that coincide reasonably well with ordinary graphical fold classification and another classification is by packing analysis. Furthermore when constructing our mathematical fold classi...

  5. An expanded view of the protein folding landscape of PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Greta; Pedersen, Søren W; Chi, Celestine N.; Strømgaard, Kristian; Gianni, Stefano; Jemth, Per

    2012-01-01

    Most protein domains fold in an apparently co-operative and two-state manner with only the native and denatured states significantly populated at any experimental condition. However, the protein folding energy landscape is often rugged and different transition states may be rate limiting for the...... folding reaction under different conditions, as seen for the PDZ protein domain family. We have here analyzed the folding kinetics of two PDZ domains and found that a previously undetected third transition state is rate limiting under conditions that stabilize the native state relative to the denatured...

  6. Interplay between native topology and non-native interactions in the folding of tethered proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the interplay of native topology and non-native interactions on surface-tethered protein folding via extensive Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice model. In particular, we investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of protein-like sequences enclosing different amounts of non-native interactions to protein energetics, and which were designed to fold to distinct native topologies. Our results show that the high-contact order (CO) structure renders a folding transition that is robust to (external) steric constraints and non-native interactions. On the other hand, the folding process of the simple low-CO topology can be easily hampered by the presence of a nearby chemically inert plane. In this case, if non-native interactions are highly conspicuous during folding they can actually drive chain collapse into a very native-like trapped state, which impedes the formation of the native structure. The analysis of folding kinetics reveals that the empirical correlation between folding rate and CO may not apply to surface-tethered protein folding. Indeed, results reported here show that depending on the native environment of the tethered chain terminus the folding rate of a low-CO topology can become so drastically small that the high-CO topology actually folds faster under the same conditions. We predict that complex topologies are more likely to conserve their bulk folding mechanism upon surface tethering. (paper)

  7. Potential application of FoldX force field based protein modeling in zinc finger nucleases design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, ZuYong; Mei, Gui; Zhao, ChunPeng; Chen, YaoSheng

    2011-05-01

    Engineered sequence-specific zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) make the highly efficient modification of eukaryotic genomes possible. However, most current strategies for developing zinc finger nucleases with customized sequence specificities require the construction of numerous tandem arrays of zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), and subsequent largescale in vitro validation of their DNA binding affinities and specificities via bacterial selection. The labor and expertise required in this complex process limits the broad adoption of ZFN technology. An effective computational assisted design strategy will lower the complexity of the production of a pair of functional ZFNs. Here we used the FoldX force field to build 3D models of 420 ZFP-DNA complexes based on zinc finger arrays developed by the Zinc Finger Consortium using OPEN (oligomerized pool engineering). Using nonlinear and linear regression analysis, we found that the calculated protein-DNA binding energy in a modeled ZFP-DNA complex strongly correlates to the failure rate of the zinc finger array to show significant ZFN activity in human cells. In our models, less than 5% of the three-finger arrays with calculated protein-DNA binding energies lower than -13.132 kcal mol(-1) fail to form active ZFNs in human cells. By contrast, for arrays with calculated protein-DNA binding energies higher than -5 kcal mol(-1), as many as 40% lacked ZFN activity in human cells. Therefore, we suggest that the FoldX force field can be useful in reducing the failure rate and increasing efficiency in the design of ZFNs. PMID:21455692

  8. Denatured state is critical in determining the properties of model proteins designed on different folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amatori, Andrea; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Tiana, Guido; Broglia, Richardo A.

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamics of proteins designed on three common folds (SH3, chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 [CI2], and protein G) is studied with a simplified C alpha, model and compared with the thermodynamics of proteins designed on random-generated folds. The model allows to design sequences to fold within a d......RMSD ranging from 1.2 to 4.2 angstrom from the crystallographic native conformation and to study properties that are hard to be measured experimentally. It is found that the denatured state of all of them is not random but is, to different extents, partially structured. The degree of structure is more abundant...... for SH3 and protein G, giving rise to a weaker stability but a more efficient folding kinetics than CI2 and, even more, than the random-generated folds. Consequently, the features of the unfolded state seem to be as important in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of these proteins as...

  9. The Folding of de Novo Designed Protein DS119 via Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Moye; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Zhuqing

    2016-01-01

    As they are not subjected to natural selection process, de novo designed proteins usually fold in a manner different from natural proteins. Recently, a de novo designed mini-protein DS119, with a βαβ motif and 36 amino acids, has folded unusually slowly in experiments, and transient dimers have been detected in the folding process. Here, by means of all-atom replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations, several comparably stable intermediate states were observed on the folding free-energy landscape of DS119. Conventional molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations showed that when two unfolded DS119 proteins bound together, most binding sites of dimeric aggregates were located at the N-terminal segment, especially residues 5-10, which were supposed to form β-sheet with its own C-terminal segment. Furthermore, a large percentage of individual proteins in the dimeric aggregates adopted conformations similar to those in the intermediate states observed in REMD simulations. These results indicate that, during the folding process, DS119 can easily become trapped in intermediate states. Then, with diffusion, a transient dimer would be formed and stabilized with the binding interface located at N-terminals. This means that it could not quickly fold to the native structure. The complicated folding manner of DS119 implies the important influence of natural selection on protein-folding kinetics, and more improvement should be achieved in rational protein design. PMID:27128902

  10. The Folding of de Novo Designed Protein DS119 via Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moye Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As they are not subjected to natural selection process, de novo designed proteins usually fold in a manner different from natural proteins. Recently, a de novo designed mini-protein DS119, with a βαβ motif and 36 amino acids, has folded unusually slowly in experiments, and transient dimers have been detected in the folding process. Here, by means of all-atom replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD simulations, several comparably stable intermediate states were observed on the folding free-energy landscape of DS119. Conventional molecular dynamics (CMD simulations showed that when two unfolded DS119 proteins bound together, most binding sites of dimeric aggregates were located at the N-terminal segment, especially residues 5–10, which were supposed to form β-sheet with its own C-terminal segment. Furthermore, a large percentage of individual proteins in the dimeric aggregates adopted conformations similar to those in the intermediate states observed in REMD simulations. These results indicate that, during the folding process, DS119 can easily become trapped in intermediate states. Then, with diffusion, a transient dimer would be formed and stabilized with the binding interface located at N-terminals. This means that it could not quickly fold to the native structure. The complicated folding manner of DS119 implies the important influence of natural selection on protein-folding kinetics, and more improvement should be achieved in rational protein design.

  11. Intact protein folding in the glutathione-depleted endoplasmic reticulum implicates alternative protein thiol reductants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Avezov, Edward; Zyryanova, Alisa; Konno, Tasuku; Mendes-Silva, Leonardo; Pinho Melo, Eduardo; Harding, Heather P; Ron, David

    2014-01-01

    Protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires efficient protein thiol oxidation, but also relies on a parallel reductive process to edit disulfides during the maturation or degradation of secreted proteins. To critically examine the widely held assumption that reduced ER glutathione fuels disulfide reduction, we expressed a modified form of a cytosolic glutathione-degrading enzyme, ChaC1, in the ER lumen. ChaC1(CtoS) purged the ER of glutathione eliciting the expected kinetic defect in oxidation of an ER-localized glutathione-coupled Grx1-roGFP2 optical probe, but had no effect on the disulfide editing-dependent maturation of the LDL receptor or the reduction-dependent degradation of misfolded alpha-1 antitrypsin. Furthermore, glutathione depletion had no measurable effect on induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR); a sensitive measure of ER protein folding homeostasis. These findings challenge the importance of reduced ER glutathione and suggest the existence of alternative electron donor(s) that maintain the reductive capacity of the ER.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03421.001. PMID:25073928

  12. Selecting fast folding proteins by their rate of convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Gridnev, Dmitry K; Garcia, Martin E

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general method for predicting potentially good folders from a given number of amino acid sequences. Our approach is based on the calculation of the rate of convergence of each amino acid chain towards the native structure using only the very initial parts of the dynamical trajectories. It does not require any preliminary knowledge of the native state and can be applied to different kinds of models, including atomistic descriptions. We tested the method within both the lattice and off-lattice model frameworks and obtained several so far unknown good folders. The unbiased algorithm also allows to determine the optimal folding temperature and takes by 3--4 orders of magnitude less time steps than those needed to compute folding times.

  13. Thermal Folding and Mechanical Unfolding Pathways of Protein Secondary Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Hoang, Trinh Xuan; Robbins, Mark O.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical stretching of secondary structures is studied through molecular dynamics simulations of a Go-like model. Force vs. displacement curves are studied as a function of the stiffness and velocity of the pulling device. The succession of stretching events, as measured by the order in which contacts are ruptured, is compared to the sequencing of events during thermal folding and unfolding. Opposite cross-correlations are found for an $\\alpha$-helix and a $\\beta$-hairpin structure. In a ta...

  14. Funnels, Pathways and the Energy Landscape of Protein Folding A Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Bryngelson, J D; Socci, N D; Wolynes, P G

    1995-01-01

    The understanding, and even the description of protein folding is impeded by the complexity of the process. Much of this complexity can be described and understood by taking a statistical approach to the energetics of protein conformation, that is, to the energy landscape. The statistical energy landscape approach explains when and why unique behaviors, such as specific folding pathways, occur in some proteins and more generally explains the distinction between folding processes common to all sequences and those peculiar to individual sequences. This approach also gives new, quantitative insights into the interpretation of experiments and simulations of protein folding thermodynamics and kinetics. Specifically, the picture provides simple explanations for folding as a two-state first-order phase transition, for the origin of metastable collapsed unfolded states and for the curved Arrhenius plots observed in both laboratory experiments and discrete lattice simulations. The relation of these quantitative ideas ...

  15. Using tryptophan fluorescence to measure the stability of membrane proteins folded in liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, C. Preston; Fleming, Karen G.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the thermodynamic stability of folded membrane proteins require methods for monitoring their conformation that are free of experimental artifacts. For tryptophan fluorescence emission experiments with membrane proteins folded into liposomes, there are two significant sources of artifacts: the first is light scattering by the liposomes; the second is the nonlinear relationship of some tryptophan spectral parameters with changes in protein conformation. Both of these so...

  16. Machine Learning: How Much Does It Tell about Protein Folding Rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Corrales

    Full Text Available The prediction of protein folding rates is a necessary step towards understanding the principles of protein folding. Due to the increasing amount of experimental data, numerous protein folding models and predictors of protein folding rates have been developed in the last decade. The problem has also attracted the attention of scientists from computational fields, which led to the publication of several machine learning-based models to predict the rate of protein folding. Some of them claim to predict the logarithm of protein folding rate with an accuracy greater than 90%. However, there are reasons to believe that such claims are exaggerated due to large fluctuations and overfitting of the estimates. When we confronted three selected published models with new data, we found a much lower predictive power than reported in the original publications. Overly optimistic predictive powers appear from violations of the basic principles of machine-learning. We highlight common misconceptions in the studies claiming excessive predictive power and propose to use learning curves as a safeguard against those mistakes. As an example, we show that the current amount of experimental data is insufficient to build a linear predictor of logarithms of folding rates based on protein amino acid composition.

  17. Structure-approximating inverse protein folding problem in the 2D HP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arvind; Manuch, Ján; Stacho, Ladislav

    2005-12-01

    The inverse protein folding problem is that of designing an amino acid sequence which has a particular native protein fold. This problem arises in drug design where a particular structure is necessary to ensure proper protein-protein interactions. In this paper, we show that in the 2D HP model of Dill it is possible to solve this problem for a broad class of structures. These structures can be used to closely approximate any given structure. One of the most important properties of a good protein (in drug design) is its stability--the aptitude not to fold simultaneously into other structures. We show that for a number of basic structures, our sequences have a unique fold. PMID:16379538

  18. Respective Roles of Short-and Long-Range Interactions in Protein Folding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Long-hui; HU Min; ZHOU Huai-bei; LIU Juan

    2004-01-01

    A new method was presented to discuss the respective roles of short- and long-range interactions in protein folding. It's based on an off-lattice model, which is also being called as toy model. Simulated annealing algorithm was used to search its native conformation. When it is applied to analysis proteins 1agt and 1aho, we find that helical segment cannot fold into native conformation without the influence of long-range interactions. That's to say that long-range interactions are the main determinants in protein folding.

  19. Quantifying the Sources of Kinetic Frustration in Folding Simulations of Small Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Savol, Andrej J.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments and atomistic simulations of polypeptides have revealed structural intermediates that promote or inhibit conformational transitions to the native state during folding. We invoke a concept of “kinetic frustration” to quantify the prevalence and impact of these behaviors on folding rates within a large set of atomistic simulation data for 10 fast-folding proteins, where each protein’s conformational space is represented as a Markov state model of conformational transitions. Our grap...

  20. Hydration of the folding transition-state ensemble of a protein

    OpenAIRE

    Brun, Ludovic; Isom, Daniel G.; Velu, Priya; García-Moreno, Bertrand; Royer, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A complete description of the mechanisms of protein folding requires knowledge of the structural and physical character of the folding transition state ensembles (TSE). A key question remains, concerning the role of hydration of the hydrophobic core in determining folding mechanisms. To address this we probed the state of hydration of the TSE of staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) by examining the fluorescence-detected pressure-jump relaxation behavior of six SNase variants in which a residue in ...

  1. Stochastic and statistical analyses for investigating protein folding kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Molecular. Fecha de lectura: 12-01-2015 Understanding how proteins are able to perform the multiple roles and activities they normally do is very important for our understanding of life. How or Why proteins adopt particular conformational states that facilitate their functional...

  2. Overexpression and purification of folded domain of prostate cancer related proteins MSMB and PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Mohini; Agarwal, Nipanshu; Dinda, Amit; Yadav, Subhash C

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of domains of a human protein using recombinant DNA technology has been challenging because individual domains intend to accumulate as non-soluble aggregate when expressed separately. Studies on identifying right sequences for a domain to be able to fold independently may help understand the folding pattern and underlying protein-engineering events to isolate the functional domains of a protein. In this report, individual domains of prostate cancer related biomarkers; MSMB and PSA were overexpressed in bacterial system and purified in their folded forms using affinity chromatography. The western blotting experiment using domain specific antibodies further confirmed these proteins. The designed nucleotide sequences domains were truncated using fold index software and folding were predicted by phyre2 and I-TASSER software. Other parameters were optimized for their overexpression and purification using Co-NTA affinity chromatography. Purified domains of each protein showed secondary structures such as α + β type for PSA, α/β and β type for the each domains of PSA and MSMB respectively. This is the first report on producing PSA and MSMB individual domains in functional folded forms. This study may help produce the folded domain of many such proteins to be used for better diagnostic purpose. PMID:27038170

  3. Systematic characterization of protein folding pathways using diffusion maps: Application to Trp-cage miniprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the mechanisms by which proteins fold from disordered amino-acid chains to spatially ordered structures remains an area of active inquiry. Molecular simulations can provide atomistic details of the folding dynamics which complement experimental findings. Conventional order parameters, such as root-mean-square deviation and radius of gyration, provide structural information but fail to capture the underlying dynamics of the protein folding process. It is therefore advantageous to adopt a method that can systematically analyze simulation data to extract relevant structural as well as dynamical information. The nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique known as diffusion maps automatically embeds the high-dimensional folding trajectories in a lower-dimensional space from which one can more easily visualize folding pathways, assuming the data lie approximately on a lower-dimensional manifold. The eigenvectors that parametrize the low-dimensional space, furthermore, are determined systematically, rather than chosen heuristically, as is done with phenomenological order parameters. We demonstrate that diffusion maps can effectively characterize the folding process of a Trp-cage miniprotein. By embedding molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of Trp-cage folding in diffusion maps space, we identify two folding pathways and intermediate structures that are consistent with the previous studies, demonstrating that this technique can be employed as an effective way of analyzing and constructing protein folding pathways from molecular simulations

  4. Systematic characterization of protein folding pathways using diffusion maps: Application to Trp-cage miniprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Beom; Dsilva, Carmeline J.; Debenedetti, Pablo G., E-mail: pdebene@princeton.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Kevrekidis, Ioannis G. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Understanding the mechanisms by which proteins fold from disordered amino-acid chains to spatially ordered structures remains an area of active inquiry. Molecular simulations can provide atomistic details of the folding dynamics which complement experimental findings. Conventional order parameters, such as root-mean-square deviation and radius of gyration, provide structural information but fail to capture the underlying dynamics of the protein folding process. It is therefore advantageous to adopt a method that can systematically analyze simulation data to extract relevant structural as well as dynamical information. The nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique known as diffusion maps automatically embeds the high-dimensional folding trajectories in a lower-dimensional space from which one can more easily visualize folding pathways, assuming the data lie approximately on a lower-dimensional manifold. The eigenvectors that parametrize the low-dimensional space, furthermore, are determined systematically, rather than chosen heuristically, as is done with phenomenological order parameters. We demonstrate that diffusion maps can effectively characterize the folding process of a Trp-cage miniprotein. By embedding molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of Trp-cage folding in diffusion maps space, we identify two folding pathways and intermediate structures that are consistent with the previous studies, demonstrating that this technique can be employed as an effective way of analyzing and constructing protein folding pathways from molecular simulations.

  5. New insights of protein folding as learned from beta-sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuanming; Gao, Shan; Ruan, Jishou; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    The folding of denatured proteins into their native conformations is called Anfinsen’s dogma, and is the rationale for predicting protein structures based on primary sequences. Through the last 40 years of study, all available algorithms which either predict 3D or 2D protein structures, or predict the rate of protein folding based on the amino acid sequence alone, are limited in accuracy (80 %). This fact has led some researchers to look for the lost information, from mRNA to protein...

  6. Max Delbruck Prize in Biological Physics Lecture: Single-molecule protein folding and transition paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William

    2012-02-01

    The transition path is the tiny fraction of an equilibrium molecular trajectory when a transition occurs by crossing the free energy barrier between two states. It is a uniquely single-molecule property, and has not yet been observed experimentally for any system in the condensed phase. The importance of the transition path in protein folding is that it contains all of the mechanistic information on how a protein folds. As a major step toward observing transition paths, we have determined the average transition-path time for a fast and a slow-folding protein from a photon-by-photon analysis of fluorescence trajectories in single-molecule FRET experiments. While the folding rate coefficients differ by 10,000-fold, surprisingly, the transition-path times differ by less than 5-fold, showing that a successful barrier crossing event takes almost the same time for a fast- and a slow-folding protein, i.e. almost the same time to fold when it actually happens.

  7. Improvement of the relative entropy based protein folding method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The "relative entropy" has been used as a minimization function to predict the tertiary structure of a protein backbone, and good results have been obtained. However, in our previous work, the ensemble average of the contact potential was estimated by an approximate calculation. In order to improve the theoretical integrity of the relative-entropy-based method, a new theoretical calculation method of the ensemble average of the contact potential was presented in this work, which is based on the thermodynamic perturbation theory. Tests of the improved algorithm were performed on twelve small proteins. The root mean square deviations of the predicted versus the native structures from Protein Data Bank range from 0.40 to 0.60 nm. Compared with the previous approximate values, the average prediction accuracy is improved by 0.04 nm.

  8. Folding of phage P22 coat protein monomers: kinetic and thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assemble into a virus with icosahedral symmetry, capsid proteins must be able to attain multiple conformations. Whether this conformational diversity is achieved during folding of the subunit, or subsequently during assembly, is not clear. Phage P22 coat protein offers an ideal model to investigate the folding of a monomeric capsid subunit since its folding is independent of assembly. Our early studies indicated that P22 coat protein monomers could be folded into an assembly-competent state in vitro, with evidence of a kinetic intermediate. Using urea denaturation, coat protein monomers are shown to be marginally stable. The reversible folding of coat protein follows a three-state model, N ↔ I ↔ U, with an intermediate exhibiting most of the tryptophan fluorescence of the folded state, but little secondary structure. Folding and unfolding kinetics monitored by circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence, and bisANS fluorescence indicate that several kinetic intermediates are populated sequentially through parallel channels en route to the native state. Additionally, two native states were identified, suggesting that the several conformers required to assemble an icosahedral capsid may be found in solution before assembly ensues

  9. Detecting Selection on Protein Stability through Statistical Mechanical Models of Folding and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bastolla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The properties of biomolecules depend both on physics and on the evolutionary process that formed them. These two points of view produce a powerful synergism. Physics sets the stage and the constraints that molecular evolution has to obey, and evolutionary theory helps in rationalizing the physical properties of biomolecules, including protein folding thermodynamics. To complete the parallelism, protein thermodynamics is founded on the statistical mechanics in the space of protein structures, and molecular evolution can be viewed as statistical mechanics in the space of protein sequences. In this review, we will integrate both points of view, applying them to detecting selection on the stability of the folded state of proteins. We will start discussing positive design, which strengthens the stability of the folded against the unfolded state of proteins. Positive design justifies why statistical potentials for protein folding can be obtained from the frequencies of structural motifs. Stability against unfolding is easier to achieve for longer proteins. On the contrary, negative design, which consists in destabilizing frequently formed misfolded conformations, is more difficult to achieve for longer proteins. The folding rate can be enhanced by strengthening short-range native interactions, but this requirement contrasts with negative design, and evolution has to trade-off between them. Finally, selection can accelerate functional movements by favoring low frequency normal modes of the dynamics of the native state that strongly correlate with the functional conformation change.

  10. Hands-on Force Spectroscopy: Weird Springs and Protein Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    A force spectroscopy model experiment is presented using a low-cost tensile apparatus described earlier. Force-extension measurements of twisted rubber bands are obtained. They exhibit a complex nonlinear elastic behaviour that resembles atomic force spectroscopy investigations of molecules of titin, a muscle protein. The model experiments open up…

  11. Comprehensive classification of nucleotidyltransferase fold proteins: identification of novel families and their representatives in human

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchta, K.; Knizewski, L.; Wyrwicz, L. S.; Rychlewski, L.; Ginalski, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of large and highly diverse superfamily of nucleotidyltransferase fold proteins by providing a global picture about their evolutionary history, sequence-structure diversity and fulfilled functional roles. Using top-of-the-line homology detection method combined with transitive searches and fold recognition, we revised the realm of these superfamily in numerous databases of catalogued protein families and structures, and identified 10 new families o...

  12. A comprehensive database of verified experimental data on protein folding kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Wagaman, Amy S; Coburn, Aaron; Brand-Thomas, Itai; Dash, Barnali; Jaswal, Sheila S

    2014-01-01

    Insights into protein folding rely increasingly on the synergy between experimental and theoretical approaches. Developing successful computational models requires access to experimental data of sufficient quantity and high quality. We compiled folding rate constants for what initially appeared to be 184 proteins from 15 published collections/web databases. To generate the highest confidence in the dataset, we verified the reported lnkf value and exact experimental construct and conditions fr...

  13. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K; Haglund, Ellinor; Schug, Alexander; Onuchic, José N

    2015-12-28

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein's functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism. PMID:26723626

  14. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Schug, Alexander; Onuchic, José N.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein's functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism.

  15. Structure of the thioredoxin-fold domain of human phosducin-like protein 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray crystal structure of the Trx-fold domain of hPDCL2 was solved at 2.70 Å resolution and resembled the Trx-fold domain of rat phosducin. Human phosducin-like protein 2 (hPDCL2) has been identified as belonging to subgroup II of the phosducin (Pdc) family. The members of this family share an N-terminal helix domain and a C-terminal thioredoxin-fold (Trx-fold) domain. The X-ray crystal structure of the Trx-fold domain of hPDCL2 was solved at 2.70 Å resolution and resembled the Trx-fold domain of rat phosducin. Comparative structural analysis revealed the structural basis of their putative functional divergence

  16. An update of the DEF database of protein fold class predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reczko, Martin; Karras, Dimitris; Bohr, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    An update is given on the Database of Expected Fold classes (DEF) that contains a collection of fold-class predictions made from protein sequences and a mail server that provides new predictions for new sequences. To any given sequence one of 49 fold-classes is chosen to classify the structure...... related to the sequence with high accuracy. The updated predictions system is developed using data from the new version of the 3D-ALI database of aligned protein structures and thus is giving more reliable and more detailed predictions than the previous DEF system....

  17. The statistical properties of protein folding in the {\\phi}^4 theory

    CERN Document Server

    Januar, M; Handoko, L T

    2013-01-01

    The statistical properties of protein folding within the {\\phi}^4 model are investigated. The calculation is performed using statistical mechanics and path integral method. In particular, the evolution of heat capacity in term of temperature is given for various levels of the nonlinearity of source and the strength of interaction between protein backbone and nonlinear source. It is found that the nonlinear source contributes constructively to the specific heat especially at higher temperature when it is weakly interacting with the protein backbone. This indicates increasing energy absorption as the intensity of nonlinear sources are getting greater. The simulation of protein folding dynamics within the model is also refined.

  18. Water promotes the sealing of nanoscale packing defects in folding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A net dipole moment is shown to arise from a non-Debye component of water polarization created by nanoscale packing defects on the protein surface. Accordingly, the protein electrostatic field exerts a torque on the induced dipole, locally impeding the nucleation of ice at the protein–water interface. We evaluate the solvent orientation steering (SOS) as the reversible work needed to align the induced dipoles with the Debye electrostatic field and computed the SOS for the variable interface of a folding protein. The minimization of the SOS is shown to drive protein folding as evidenced by the entrainment of the total free energy by the SOS energy along trajectories that approach a Debye limit state where no torque arises. This result suggests that the minimization of anomalous water polarization at the interface promotes the sealing of packing defects, thereby maintaining structural integrity and committing the protein chain to fold. (fast track communication)

  19. Modulation of the maladaptive stress response to manage diseases of protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Martino Roth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of protein folding arise because of the inability of an altered peptide sequence to properly engage protein homeostasis components that direct protein folding and function. To identify global principles of misfolding disease pathology we examined the impact of the local folding environment in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD, Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and cystic fibrosis (CF. Using distinct models, including patient-derived cell lines and primary epithelium, mouse brain tissue, and Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that chronic expression of misfolded proteins not only triggers the sustained activation of the heat shock response (HSR pathway, but that this sustained activation is maladaptive. In diseased cells, maladaptation alters protein structure-function relationships, impacts protein folding in the cytosol, and further exacerbates the disease state. We show that down-regulation of this maladaptive stress response (MSR, through silencing of HSF1, the master regulator of the HSR, restores cellular protein folding and improves the disease phenotype. We propose that restoration of a more physiological proteostatic environment will strongly impact the management and progression of loss-of-function and gain-of-toxic-function phenotypes common in human disease.

  20. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein’s functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism

  1. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Onuchic, José N., E-mail: jonuchic@rice.edu [Center for Theoretical Biological Physics and Department of Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Schug, Alexander [Steinbuch Centre for Computing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein’s functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism.

  2. Is protein folding problem really a NP-complete one ? First investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Bahi, Jacques M.; Bienia, Wojciech; Côté, Nathalie; Guyeux, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    To determine the 3D conformation of proteins is a necessity to understand their functions or interactions with other molecules. It is commonly admitted that, when proteins fold from their primary linear structures to their final 3D conformations, they tend to choose the ones that minimize their free energy. To find the 3D conformation of a protein knowing its amino acid sequence, bioinformaticians use various models of different resolutions and artificial intelligence tools, as the protein fo...

  3. The Safety Dance: Biophysics of Membrane Protein Folding and Misfolding in a Cellular Context

    OpenAIRE

    Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Most biological processes require the production and degradation of proteins, a task that weighs heavily on the cell. Mutations that compromise the conformational stability of proteins place both specific and general burdens on cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in ways that contribute to numerous diseases. Efforts to elucidate the chain of molecular events responsible for diseases of protein folding address one of the foremost challenges in biomedical science. However, relatively li...

  4. Early folding events protect aggregation-prone regions of a β-rich protein

    OpenAIRE

    Budyak, Ivan L.; Krishnan, Beena; Marcelino-Cruz, Anna M.; Ferrolino, Mylene C.; Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Gierasch, Lila M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein folding and aggregation inevitably compete with one another. This competition is even keener for proteins with frustrated landscapes, such as those rich in β-structure. Interestingly, despite their rugged energy landscapes and high β-sheet content, intracellular lipid-binding proteins (iLBPs) appear to successfully avoid aggregation, as they are not implicated in aggregation diseases. In this study, we used a canonical iLBP, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (CRABP1), to better...

  5. Prediction of the optimal set of contacts to fold the smallest knotted protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotted protein chains represent a new motif in protein folds. They have been linked to various diseases, and recent extensive analysis of the Protein Data Bank shows that they constitute 1.5% of all deposited protein structures. Despite thorough theoretical and experimental investigations, the role of knots in proteins still remains elusive. Nonetheless, it is believed that knots play an important role in mechanical and thermal stability of proteins. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of native, shadow-specific and non-native interactions which describe free energy landscape of the smallest knotted protein (PDB id 2efv). We show that the addition of shadow-specific contacts in the loop region greatly enhances folding kinetics, while the addition of shadow-specific contacts along the C-terminal region (H3 or H4) results in a new folding route with slower kinetics. By means of direct coupling analysis (DCA) we predict non-native contacts which also can accelerate kinetics. Next, we show that the length of the C-terminal knot tail is responsible for the shape of the free energy barrier, while the influence of the elongation of the N-terminus is not significant. Finally, we develop a concept of a minimal contact map sufficient for 2efv protein to fold and analyze properties of this protein using this map. (paper)

  6. Prediction of the optimal set of contacts to fold the smallest knotted protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski-Tumanski, P.; Jarmolinska, A. I.; Sulkowska, J. I.

    2015-09-01

    Knotted protein chains represent a new motif in protein folds. They have been linked to various diseases, and recent extensive analysis of the Protein Data Bank shows that they constitute 1.5% of all deposited protein structures. Despite thorough theoretical and experimental investigations, the role of knots in proteins still remains elusive. Nonetheless, it is believed that knots play an important role in mechanical and thermal stability of proteins. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of native, shadow-specific and non-native interactions which describe free energy landscape of the smallest knotted protein (PDB id 2efv). We show that the addition of shadow-specific contacts in the loop region greatly enhances folding kinetics, while the addition of shadow-specific contacts along the C-terminal region (H3 or H4) results in a new folding route with slower kinetics. By means of direct coupling analysis (DCA) we predict non-native contacts which also can accelerate kinetics. Next, we show that the length of the C-terminal knot tail is responsible for the shape of the free energy barrier, while the influence of the elongation of the N-terminus is not significant. Finally, we develop a concept of a minimal contact map sufficient for 2efv protein to fold and analyze properties of this protein using this map.

  7. Fluorescent in situ folding control for rapid optimization of cell-free membrane protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Müller-Lucks

    Full Text Available Cell-free synthesis is an open and powerful tool for high-yield protein production in small reaction volumes predestined for high-throughput structural and functional analysis. Membrane proteins require addition of detergents for solubilization, liposomes, or nanodiscs. Hence, the number of parameters to be tested is significantly higher than with soluble proteins. Optimization is commonly done with respect to protein yield, yet without knowledge of the protein folding status. This approach contains a large inherent risk of ending up with non-functional protein. We show that fluorophore formation in C-terminal fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP indicates the folding state of a membrane protein in situ, i.e. within the cell-free reaction mixture, as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD, proteoliposome reconstitution and functional assays. Quantification of protein yield and in-gel fluorescence intensity imply suitability of the method for membrane proteins of bacterial, protozoan, plant, and mammalian origin, representing vacuolar and plasma membrane localization, as well as intra- and extracellular positioning of the C-terminus. We conclude that GFP-fusions provide an extension to cell-free protein synthesis systems eliminating the need for experimental folding control and, thus, enabling rapid optimization towards membrane protein quality.

  8. Precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding: From time series correlation analysis to atomistic mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P. J.; Lai, S. K., E-mail: sklai@coll.phy.ncu.edu.tw [Complex Liquids Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli 320 Taiwan (China); Molecular Science and Technology Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Cheong, S. A. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-05-28

    Folded conformations of proteins in thermodynamically stable states have long lifetimes. Before it folds into a stable conformation, or after unfolding from a stable conformation, the protein will generally stray from one random conformation to another leading thus to rapid fluctuations. Brief structural changes therefore occur before folding and unfolding events. These short-lived movements are easily overlooked in studies of folding/unfolding for they represent momentary excursions of the protein to explore conformations in the neighborhood of the stable conformation. The present study looks for precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding within these rapid fluctuations through a combination of three techniques: (1) ultrafast shape recognition, (2) time series segmentation, and (3) time series correlation analysis. The first procedure measures the differences between statistical distance distributions of atoms in different conformations by calculating shape similarity indices from molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. The second procedure is used to discover the times at which the protein makes transitions from one conformation to another. Finally, we employ the third technique to exploit spatial fingerprints of the stable conformations; this procedure is to map out the sequences of changes preceding the actual folding and unfolding events, since strongly correlated atoms in different conformations are different due to bond and steric constraints. The aforementioned high-frequency fluctuations are therefore characterized by distinct correlational and structural changes that are associated with rate-limiting precursors that translate into brief segments. Guided by these technical procedures, we choose a model system, a fragment of the protein transthyretin, for identifying in this system not only the precursory signatures of transitions associated with α helix and β hairpin, but also the important role played by weaker correlations in such protein

  9. Precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding: From time series correlation analysis to atomistic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folded conformations of proteins in thermodynamically stable states have long lifetimes. Before it folds into a stable conformation, or after unfolding from a stable conformation, the protein will generally stray from one random conformation to another leading thus to rapid fluctuations. Brief structural changes therefore occur before folding and unfolding events. These short-lived movements are easily overlooked in studies of folding/unfolding for they represent momentary excursions of the protein to explore conformations in the neighborhood of the stable conformation. The present study looks for precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding within these rapid fluctuations through a combination of three techniques: (1) ultrafast shape recognition, (2) time series segmentation, and (3) time series correlation analysis. The first procedure measures the differences between statistical distance distributions of atoms in different conformations by calculating shape similarity indices from molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. The second procedure is used to discover the times at which the protein makes transitions from one conformation to another. Finally, we employ the third technique to exploit spatial fingerprints of the stable conformations; this procedure is to map out the sequences of changes preceding the actual folding and unfolding events, since strongly correlated atoms in different conformations are different due to bond and steric constraints. The aforementioned high-frequency fluctuations are therefore characterized by distinct correlational and structural changes that are associated with rate-limiting precursors that translate into brief segments. Guided by these technical procedures, we choose a model system, a fragment of the protein transthyretin, for identifying in this system not only the precursory signatures of transitions associated with α helix and β hairpin, but also the important role played by weaker correlations in such protein

  10. Structure of a Trypanosoma brucei α/β-hydrolase fold protein with unknown function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. brucei gene Tb10.6k15.0140 codes for an α/β-hydrolase fold protein of unknown function. The 2.2 Å crystal structure shows that members of this sequence family retain a conserved Ser residue at the expected site of a catalytic nucleophile, but that trypanosomatid sequences lack structural homologs for the other expected residues of the catalytic triad. The structure of a structural genomics target protein, Tbru020260AAA from Trypanosoma brucei, has been determined to a resolution of 2.2 Å using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protein belongs to Pfam sequence family PF08538 and is only distantly related to previously studied members of the α/β-hydrolase fold family. Structural superposition onto representative α/β-hydrolase fold proteins of known function indicates that a possible catalytic nucleophile, Ser116 in the T. brucei protein, lies at the expected location. However, the present structure and by extension the other trypanosomatid members of this sequence family have neither sequence nor structural similarity at the location of other active-site residues typical for proteins with this fold. Together with the presence of an additional domain between strands β6 and β7 that is conserved in trypanosomatid genomes, this suggests that the function of these homologs has diverged from other members of the fold family

  11. Bridging Experiments and Native-Centric Simulations of a Downhill Folding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Athi N; De Sancho, David

    2015-11-25

    Experiments and atomistic simulations have independently contributed to the mechanistic understanding of protein folding. However, a coherent detailed picture explicitly combining both is currently lacking, a problem that seriously limits the amount of information that can be extracted. An alternative to atomistic models with physics-based potentials is the native-centric (i.e., Go̅ type) coarse-grained models, which for many years have been successfully employed to qualitatively understand features of protein folding energy landscapes. Again, quantitative validation of Go̅ models against experimental equilibrium unfolding curves is often not attempted. Here we use an atomistic topology-based model to study the folding mechanism of PDD, a protein that folds over a marginal thermodynamic barrier of ∼0.5 kBT at midpoint conditions. We find that the simulations are in exquisite agreement with several equilibrium experimental measurements including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), an observable that is possibly the most challenging to reproduce from explicit-chain models. The dynamics, inferred using a detailed Markov state model, display a classical Chevron-like trend with a continuum of relaxation times under both folding and unfolding conditions, a signature feature of downhill folding. The number of populated microstates and the connectivity between them are shown to be temperature dependent with a maximum near the thermal denaturation midpoint, thus linking the macroscopic observation of a peak in the DSC profile of downhill folding proteins and the underlying microstate dynamics. The mechanistic picture derived from our analysis thus sheds light on the intricate and tunable nature of the downhill protein folding ensembles. In parallel, our work highlights the power of coarse-grained models to reproduce experiments at a quantitative level while also pointing at specific directions for their improvement. PMID:26524123

  12. Protein folding in hydrophobic-polar lattice model: a flexible ant colony optimization approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, X-M.; Zhang, J.(High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA); Xiao, J.; Li, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a flexible ant colony (FAC) algorithm for solving protein folding problems based on the hydrophobic-polar square lattice model. Collaborations of novel pheromone and heuristic strategies in the proposed algorithm make it more effective in predicting structures of proteins compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  13. Protein folding in hydrophobic-polar lattice model: a flexible ant-colony optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Li, Yun

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a flexible ant colony (FAC) algorithm for solving protein folding problems based on the hydrophobic-polar square lattice model. Collaborations of novel pheromone and heuristic strategies in the proposed algorithm make it more effective in predicting structures of proteins compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:18537736

  14. Fast identification of folded human protein domains expressed in E. coli suitable for structural analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Brigitte

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput protein structure analysis of individual protein domains requires analysis of large numbers of expression clones to identify suitable constructs for structure determination. For this purpose, methods need to be implemented for fast and reliable screening of the expressed proteins as early as possible in the overall process from cloning to structure determination. Results 88 different E. coli expression constructs for 17 human protein domains were analysed using high-throughput cloning, purification and folding analysis to obtain candidates suitable for structural analysis. After 96 deep-well microplate expression and automated protein purification, protein domains were directly analysed using 1D 1H-NMR spectroscopy. In addition, analytical hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC was used to detect natively folded protein. With these two analytical methods, six constructs (representing two domains were quickly identified as being well folded and suitable for structural analysis. Conclusion The described approach facilitates high-throughput structural analysis. Clones expressing natively folded proteins suitable for NMR structure determination were quickly identified upon small scale expression screening using 1D 1H-NMR and/or analytical HIC. This procedure is especially effective as a fast and inexpensive screen for the 'low hanging fruits' in structural genomics.

  15. Introducing the Levinthal's Protein Folding Paradox and Its Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    The protein folding (Levinthal's) paradox states that it would not be possible in a physically meaningful time to a protein to reach the native (functional) conformation by a random search of the enormously large number of possible structures. This paradox has been solved: it was shown that small biases toward the native conformation result…

  16. A Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Training Empirical Potential Functions of Protein Folding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-hong; LI Wei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper are reported the local minimum problem by means of current greedy algorithm for training the empirical potential function of protein folding on 8623 non-native structures of 31 globular proteins and a solution of the problem based upon the simulated annealing algorithm. This simulated annealing algorithm is indispensable for developing and testing highly refined empirical potential functions.

  17. Importance of Translational Entropy of Water in Biological Self-Assembly Processes like Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kinoshita

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review our studies on the folding/unfolding mechanisms of proteins. In biological self-assembly processes such as protein folding, the number of accessible translational configurations of water in the system increases greatly, leading to a large gain in the water entropy. The usual view looking at only the water in the close vicinity of the protein surface is capable of elucidating neither the large entropic gain upon apoplastocyanin folding, which has recently been found in a novel experimental study, nor the pressure and cold denaturation. With the emphasis on the translational entropy of water, we are presently constructing a reliable method for predicting the native structure of a protein from its amino-acid sequence.

  18. Participation of Low Molecular Weight Electron Carriers in Oxidative Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Mandl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative protein folding is mediated by a proteinaceous electron relay system, in which the concerted action of protein disulfide isomerase and Ero1 delivers the electrons from thiol groups to the final acceptor. Oxygen appears to be the final oxidant in aerobic living organisms, although the existence of alternative electron acceptors, e.g. fumarate or nitrate, cannot be excluded. Whilst the protein components of the system are well-known, less attention has been turned to the role of low molecular weight electron carriers in the process. The function of ascorbate, tocopherol and vitamin K has been raised recently. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that these redox-active compounds can contribute to the functioning of oxidative folding. This review focuses on the participation of small molecular weight redox compounds in oxidative protein folding.

  19. Direct observation of transition paths during the folding of proteins and nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Krishna; Foster, Daniel A N; Dee, Derek R; Yu, Hao; Wang, Feng; Woodside, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Transition paths, the fleeting trajectories through the transition states that dominate the dynamics of biomolecular folding reactions, encapsulate the critical information about how structure forms. Owing to their brief duration, however, they have not previously been observed directly. We measured transition paths for both nucleic acid and protein folding, using optical tweezers to observe the microscopic diffusive motion of single molecules traversing energy barriers. The average transit times and the shapes of the transit-time distributions agreed well with theoretical expectations for motion over the one-dimensional energy landscapes reconstructed for the same molecules, validating the physical theory of folding reactions. These measurements provide a first look at the critical microscopic events that occur during folding, opening exciting new avenues for investigating folding phenomena. PMID:27124461

  20. The ribosome can prevent aggregation of partially folded protein intermediates: studies using the Escherichia coli ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular chaperones that support de novo folding of proteins under non stress condition are classified as chaperone 'foldases' that are distinct from chaperone' holdases' that provide high affinity binding platform for unfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation specifically under stress conditions. Ribosome, the cellular protein synthesis machine can act as a foldase chaperone that can bind unfolded proteins and release them in folding competent state. The peptidyl transferase center (PTC located in the domain V of the 23S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosome (bDV RNA is the chaperoning center of the ribosome. It has been proposed that via specific interactions between the RNA and refolding proteins, the chaperone provides information for the correct folding of unfolded polypeptide chains. RESULTS: We demonstrate using Escherichia coli ribosome and variants of its domain V RNA that the ribosome can bind to partially folded intermediates of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (BCAII and lysozyme and suppress aggregation during their refolding. Using mutants of domain V RNA we demonstrate that the time for which the chaperone retains the bound protein is an important factor in determining its ability to suppress aggregation and/or support reactivation of protein. CONCLUSION: The ribosome can behave like a 'holdase' chaperone and has the ability to bind and hold back partially folded intermediate states of proteins from participating in the aggregation process. Since the ribosome is an essential organelle that is present in large numbers in all living cells, this ability of the ribosome provides an energetically inexpensive way to suppress cellular aggregation. Further, this ability of the ribosome might also be crucial in the context that the ribosome is one of the first chaperones to be encountered by a large nascent polypeptide chains that have a tendency to form partially folded intermediates immediately following their synthesis.

  1. Protein structure, stability and folding in the cell -- in silico biophysical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    How the crowded environment inside a cell affects the structural conformation of a protein with aspherical shape is a vital question because the geometry of proteins and protein-protein complexes are far from globules in vivo. Here we address this question by combining computational and experimental studies of a spherical protein (i.e. apoflavodoxin), a football-shaped protein (i.e., Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE) and a dumbbell-shaped protein (i.e. calmodulin) under crowded, cell-like conditions. The results show that macromolecular crowding affects protein folding dynamics as well as an overall protein shape associated with changes in secondary structures. Our work demonstrates the malleability of ``native'' proteins and implies that crowding-induced shape changes may be important for protein function and malfunction in vivo.

  2. Protein Folding Mechanism of the Dimeric AmphiphysinII/Bin1 N-BAR Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Tobias; Balbach, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The human AmphyphisinII/Bin1 N-BAR domain belongs to the BAR domain superfamily, whose members sense and generate membrane curvatures. The N-BAR domain is a 57 kDa homodimeric protein comprising a six helix bundle. Here we report the protein folding mechanism of this protein as a representative of this protein superfamily. The concentration dependent thermodynamic stability was studied by urea equilibrium transition curves followed by fluorescence and far-UV CD spectroscopy. Kinetic unfolding and refolding experiments, including rapid double and triple mixing techniques, allowed to unravel the complex folding behavior of N-BAR. The equilibrium unfolding transition curve can be described by a two-state process, while the folding kinetics show four refolding phases, an additional burst reaction and two unfolding phases. All fast refolding phases show a rollover in the chevron plot but only one of these phases depends on the protein concentration reporting the dimerization step. Secondary structure formation occurs during the three fast refolding phases. The slowest phase can be assigned to a proline isomerization. All kinetic experiments were also followed by fluorescence anisotropy detection to verify the assignment of the dimerization step to the respective folding phase. Based on these experiments we propose for N-BAR two parallel folding pathways towards the homodimeric native state depending on the proline conformation in the unfolded state. PMID:26368922

  3. Computer simulation study of folding thermodynamics and kinetics of proteins in osmolytes and denaturants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In living cells, the presence of macromolecular crowders, such as osmolytes or denaturants, strongly affects the stability of folded proteins. The overall effects depend on the size, concentration, and chemical properties of the crowding agents. This work uses an all-atom G o-bar model of the Trp-cage in spherical solvents to probe the physical origin of protein stabilization/destabilization by osmolytes/denturants. The solvent quality is controlled by the solvent-protein contact εPS that can represent repulsive osmolytes (εPS > 0) or attractive denaturants (εPS < 0). The model is used to show that protein stabilization by osmolytes proceeds by an excluded volume, entropy-driven mechanism. Protein destabilization by denaturant is shown to be driven by changes in enthalpy. It is found that small osmolytes are the most effective stabilizer of proteins. Folding simulations of the Trp-cage in osmolytes observe a two-fold increase in folding rates, for small osmolytes. This is due to an osmolyte-induced shift to more compact unfolded protein conformations.

  4. An enhanced partial order curve comparison algorithm and its application to analyzing protein folding trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ota Motonori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how proteins fold is essential to our quest in discovering how life works at the molecular level. Current computation power enables researchers to produce a huge amount of folding simulation data. Hence there is a pressing need to be able to interpret and identify novel folding features from them. Results In this paper, we model each folding trajectory as a multi-dimensional curve. We then develop an effective multiple curve comparison (MCC algorithm, called the enhanced partial order (EPO algorithm, to extract features from a set of diverse folding trajectories, including both successful and unsuccessful simulation runs. The EPO algorithm addresses several new challenges presented by comparing high dimensional curves coming from folding trajectories. A detailed case study on miniprotein Trp-cage 1 demonstrates that our algorithm can detect similarities at rather low level, and extract biologically meaningful folding events. Conclusion The EPO algorithm is general and applicable to a wide range of applications. We demonstrate its generality and effectiveness by applying it to aligning multiple protein structures with low similarities. For user's convenience, we provide a web server for the algorithm at http://db.cse.ohio-state.edu/EPO.

  5. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Mechanical Forces during Protein Folding by using Molecular Force Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, Tim; Hoffmann, Marvin T; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-05-18

    Detailed folding pathways of proteins are still largely unknown. Real-time monitoring of mechanical forces acting in proteins during structural transitions would provide deep insights into these highly complex processes. Here, we propose two molecular force probes that can be incorporated into the protein backbone to gain insight into the magnitude and direction of mechanical forces acting in proteins during natural folding and unfolding through their optical spectroscopic response. In fact, changes in the infrared and Raman spectra are proportional to the mechanical force deforming the force probes, and the relevant bands can be intensified and shifted to a transparent window in the protein spectrum by isotopic substitution. As a result, the proposed molecular force probes can act as "force rulers", allowing the spectroscopic observation and measurement of mechanical forces acting within the proteins under natural conditions without external perturbation. PMID:26928925

  6. Protein structure prediction using a docking-based hierarchical folding scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifer, Ilona; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J

    2011-06-01

    The pathways by which proteins fold into their specific native structure are still an unsolved mystery. Currently, many methods for protein structure prediction are available, and most of them tackle the problem by relying on the vast amounts of data collected from known protein structures. These methods are often not concerned with the route the protein follows to reach its final fold. This work is based on the premise that proteins fold in a hierarchical manner. We present FOBIA, an automated method for predicting a protein structure. FOBIA consists of two main stages: the first finds matches between parts of the target sequence and independently folding structural units using profile-profile comparison. The second assembles these units into a 3D structure by searching and ranking their possible orientations toward each other using a docking-based approach. We have previously reported an application of an initial version of this strategy to homology based targets. Since then we have considerably enhanced our method's abilities to allow it to address the more difficult template-based target category. This allows us to now apply FOBIA to the template-based targets of CASP8 and to show that it is both very efficient and promising. Our method can provide an alternative for template-based structure prediction, and in particular, the docking-basedranking technique presented here can be incorporated into any profile-profile comparison based method. PMID:21445943

  7. Protein folds recognized by an intelligent predictor based-on evolutionary and structural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ngaam J; Ding, Xue-Ming; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2016-02-01

    Protein fold recognition is an important and essential step in determining tertiary structure of a protein in biological science. In this study, a model termed NiRecor is developed for recognizing protein folds based on artificial neural networks incorporated in an adaptive heterogeneous particle swarm optimizer. The main contribution of NiRecor is that it is a data-driven and highly-performing predictor without manually tuning control parameters for different data sets. In biological science, since evolutionary- and structure-based information of amino acid sequences is greatly important in determination of tertiary structure of a protein, accordingly, in NiRecor we employ two different feature sets, which involve position specific scoring matrix and secondary structure prediction matrix, to predict the structural classes of protein folds. The experimental results demonstrate the proposed method is powerful in predicting protein folds with higher precisions by improvements of 1.1 ∼7.8 percentages on three benchmark datasets by comparing with several existing predictors. PMID:26502837

  8. Protein Folding-How and Why: By Hydrogen Exchange, Fragment Separation, and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, S Walter; Mayne, Leland; Kan, Zhong-Yuan; Hu, Wenbing

    2016-07-01

    Advanced hydrogen exchange (HX) methodology can now determine the structure of protein folding intermediates and their progression in folding pathways. Key developments over time include the HX pulse labeling method with nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, the fragment separation method, the addition to it of mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, and recent improvements in the HX MS technique and data analysis. Also, the discovery of protein foldons and their role supplies an essential interpretive link. Recent work using HX pulse labeling with MS analysis finds that a number of proteins fold by stepping through a reproducible sequence of native-like intermediates in an ordered pathway. The stepwise nature of the pathway is dictated by the cooperative foldon unit construction of the protein. The pathway order is determined by a sequential stabilization principle; prior native-like structure guides the formation of adjacent native-like structure. This view does not match the funneled energy landscape paradigm of a very large number of folding tracks, which was framed before foldons were known and is more appropriate for the unguided residue-level search to surmount an initial kinetic barrier rather than for the overall unfolded-state to native-state folding pathway. PMID:27145881

  9. Folding and unfolding of a non-fluorescent mutant of green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP), from the Pacific jellyfish A. victoria, has numerous uses in biotechnology and cell and molecular biology as a protein marker because of its specific chromophore, which is spontaneously created after proper protein folding. After formation, the chromophore is very stable and it remains intact during protein unfolding, meaning that the GFP unfolding process is not the reverse of the original folding reaction; i.e., the principles of microscopic reversibility do not apply. We have generated the mutant S65T/G67A-GFP, which is unable to efficiently form the cyclic chromophore, with the goal of investigating the folding, unfolding and competing aggregation of GFP under fully reversible conditions. Our studies have been performed in the presence of guanidinium hydrochloride (GdnHCl). The GFP conformation was monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, and fluorescence of 1,1'-bis(4-anilino-5-naphthalenesulphonic acid) (bis-ANS). Light scattering was used to follow GFP aggregation. We conclude from these fluorescence measurements that S65T/G67A-GFP folding is largely reversible. During equilibrium folding, the first step is the formation of a molten globule, prone to aggregation

  10. Local and non-local native topologies reveal the underlying folding landscape of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to Plaxco, Simons, Baker and others, it is now well known that the two-state single domain protein folding rate is fairly well predicted from knowledge of the topology of the native structure. Plaxco et al found that the folding rates of two-state proteins correlate with the average degree to which native contacts are 'local' within the chain sequence: fast-folders usually have mostly local structures. Here, we dissected the native topology further by focusing on non-local and local contacts using lower and upper bounds of allowable sequence separation in computing the average contact order. We analyzed non-local and local contacts of 82 two-state proteins whose experimental folding rates span over six orders of magnitude. We observed that both the number of non-local contacts and the average sequence separation of non-local contacts (non-local CO) are both negatively correlated with the folding rate, showing that the non-local contacts dominate the barrier-crossing process. Surprisingly, the local contact orders of the proteins also correlate with the folding rates. However, this correlation shows a strong positive trend indicating the role of a diffusive search in the denatured basin

  11. Sampling-based exploration of folded state of a protein under kinematic and geometric constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Peggy

    2011-10-04

    Flexibility is critical for a folded protein to bind to other molecules (ligands) and achieve its functions. The conformational selection theory suggests that a folded protein deforms continuously and its ligand selects the most favorable conformations to bind to. Therefore, one of the best options to study protein-ligand binding is to sample conformations broadly distributed over the protein-folded state. This article presents a new sampler, called kino-geometric sampler (KGS). This sampler encodes dominant energy terms implicitly by simple kinematic and geometric constraints. Two key technical contributions of KGS are (1) a robotics-inspired Jacobian-based method to simultaneously deform a large number of interdependent kinematic cycles without any significant break-up of the closure constraints, and (2) a diffusive strategy to generate conformation distributions that diffuse quickly throughout the protein folded state. Experiments on four very different test proteins demonstrate that KGS can efficiently compute distributions containing conformations close to target (e.g., functional) conformations. These targets are not given to KGS, hence are not used to bias the sampling process. In particular, for a lysine-binding protein, KGS was able to sample conformations in both the intermediate and functional states without the ligand, while previous work using molecular dynamics simulation had required the ligand to be taken into account in the potential function. Overall, KGS demonstrates that kino-geometric constraints characterize the folded subset of a protein conformation space and that this subset is small enough to be approximated by a relatively small distribution of conformations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Structural insights into the evolution of a non-biological protein: importance of surface residues in protein fold optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Smith

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic profiling of amino acid substitution patterns in proteins has led many to conclude that most structural information is carried by interior core residues that are solvent inaccessible. This conclusion is based on the observation that buried residues generally tolerate only conserved sequence changes, while surface residues allow more diverse chemical substitutions. This notion is now changing as it has become apparent that both core and surface residues play important roles in protein folding and stability. Unfortunately, the ability to identify specific mutations that will lead to enhanced stability remains a challenging problem. Here we discuss two mutations that emerged from an in vitro selection experiment designed to improve the folding stability of a non-biological ATP binding protein. These mutations alter two solvent accessible residues, and dramatically enhance the expression, solubility, thermal stability, and ligand binding affinity of the protein. The significance of both mutations was investigated individually and together, and the X-ray crystal structures of the parent sequence and double mutant protein were solved to a resolution limit of 2.8 and 1.65 A, respectively. Comparative structural analysis of the evolved protein to proteins found in nature reveals that our non-biological protein evolved certain structural features shared by many thermophilic proteins. This experimental result suggests that protein fold optimization by in vitro selection offers a viable approach to generating stable variants of many naturally occurring proteins whose structures and functions are otherwise difficult to study.

  13. BCL::MP-Fold: membrane protein structure prediction guided by EPR restraints

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Axel Walter; Woetzel, Nils; Karakas, Mert; Weiner, Brian; Meiler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    For many membrane proteins the determination of their topology remains a challenge for methods like X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has evolved as an alternative technique to study structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of membrane protein topology determination using limited EPR distance and accessibility measurements. The BCL::MP-Fold (BioChemical Library membrane protein fold) algorithm assembles secondary structure elements (SSEs) in the membrane using a Monte Carlo Metropolis (MCM) approach. Sampled models are evaluated using knowledge-based potential functions and agreement with the EPR data and a knowledge-based energy function. Twenty-nine membrane proteins of up to 696 residues are used to test the algorithm. The RMSD100 value of the most accurate model is better than 8{\\AA} for twenty-seven, better than 6{\\AA} for twenty-two and better than 4{\\AA} for fifte...

  14. Purification and characterization of oligonucleotide binding (OB)-fold protein from medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Mohd; Haque, Md Anzarul; Wahiduzzaman; Dar, Mohammad Aasif; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    The oligonucleotide binding fold (OB-fold) is a small structural motif present in many proteins. It is originally named for its oligonucleotide or oligosaccharide binding properties. These proteins have been identified as essential for replication, recombination and repair of DNA. We have successfully purified a protein contains OB-fold from the stem of Tinospora cordifolia, a medicinal plants of north India. Stems were crushed and centrifuged, and fraction obtained at 60% ammonium sulphate was extensively dialyzed and applied to the weak anion exchange chromatography on Hi-Trap DEAE-FF in 50mM Tris-HCl buffer at pH 8.0. Eluted fractions were concentrated and applied to gel filtration column to get pure protein. We observed a single band of 20-kDa on SDS-PAGE. Finally, the protein was identified as OB-fold by MALDI-TOF. The purified OB-fold protein was characterized for its secondary structural elements using circular dichroism (CD) in the far-UV region. Generally the OB-fold has a characteristic feature as five-stranded beta-sheet coiled to form a closed beta- barrel. To estimate its chemical stability, guanidinium chloride-induced denaturation curve was followed by observing changes in the far-UV CD as a function of the denaturant concentration. Analysis of this denaturation curve gave values of 8.90±0.25kcalmol(-1) and 3.78±0.18M for ΔGD° (Gibbs free energy change at 25°C) and Cm (midpoint of denaturation), respectively. To determine heat stability parameters of OB-fold protein, differential scanning calorimetry was performed. Calorimetric values of ΔGD°, Tm (midpoint of denaturation), ΔHm (enthalpy change at Tm), and ΔCp (constant-pressure heat capacity change) are 9.05±0.27kcalmol(-1), 85.2±0,3°C, 105±4kcalmol(-1) and 1.6±0.08kcalmol(-1)K(-1). This is the first report on the isolation, purification and characterization of OB-fold protein from a medicinal plant T. cordifolia. PMID:26613539

  15. Translational diffusion of hydration water correlates with functional motions in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fichou, Yann; Gallat, Francois-Xavier; Wood, Kathleen; Gabel, Frank; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Heyden, Matthias; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Orecchini, Andrea; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Wuttke, Joachim; Tobias, Douglas J.; Weik, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Hydration water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300 K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human protein tau and the globular maltose binding protein. Quasi-elastic broadening is fitted with a model of translating, rotating and immobile water molecules. In both experiment and simulation, the translational component markedly increases at the protein dynamical transition (around 240 K), regardless of whether the protein is intrinsically disordered or folded. Thus, we generalize the notion that the translational diffusion of water molecules on a protein surface promotes the large-amplitude motions of proteins that are required for their biological activity.

  16. Folding peptides and proteins with all-atom physics: methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, M. Scott

    2008-03-01

    Computational methods offer powerful tools for investigating proteins and peptides at the molecular-level; however, it has proven challenging to reproduce the long time scale folding processes of these molecules at a level that is both faithful to the atomic driving forces and attainable with modern commodity cluster computing. Alternatively, the past decade has seen significant progress in using bioinformatics-based approaches to infer the three dimensional native structures of proteins, drawing upon extensive knowledge databases of known protein structures [1]. These methods work remarkably well when a homologous protein can be found to provide a structural template for a candidate sequence. However, in cases where homology to database proteins is low, where the folding pathway is of interest, or where conformational flexibility is substantial---as in many emerging protein and peptide technologies---bioinformatics methods perform poorly. There is therefore great interest in seeing purely physics-based approaches succeed. We discuss a purely physics-based, database-free folding method, relying on proper thermal sampling (replica exchange molecular dynamics) and molecular potential energy functions. In order to surmount the tremendous computational demands of all-atom folding simulations, our approach implements a conformational search strategy based on a putative protein folding mechanism called zipping and assembly [2-4]. That is, we explicitly seek out potential folding pathways inferred from short simulations, and iteratively pursue all such routes by coaxing a polypeptide chain along them. The method is called the Zipping and Assembly Method (ZAM) and it works in two parts: (1) the full polypeptide chain is broken into small fragments that are first simulated independently and then successively re-assembled into larger segments with further sampling, and (2) consistently stable structure in fragments is detected and locked into place, in order to avoid re

  17. Development and application of a free energy force field for all atom protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins are the workhorses of all cellular life. They constitute the building blocks and the machinery of all cells and typically function in specific three-dimensional conformations into which each protein folds. Currently over one million protein sequences are known, compared to about 40,000 structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (the world-wide database of protein structures). Reliable theoretical methods for protein structure prediction could help to reduce the gap between sequence and structural databases and elucidate the biological information in structurally unresolved sequences. In this thesis we explore an approach for protein structure prediction and folding that is based on the Anfinsen's hypothesis that most proteins in their native state are in thermodynamic equilibrium with their environment. We have developed a free energy forcefield (PFF02) that locates the native conformation of many proteins from all structural classes at the global minimum of the free-energy model. We have validated the forcefield against a large decoy set (Rosetta). The average root mean square deviation (RMSD) for the lowest energy structure for the 32 proteins of the decoy set was only 2.14 Aa from the experimental conformation. We have successfully implemented and used stochastic optimization methods, such as the basin hopping technique and evolutionary algorithms for all atom protein structure prediction. The evolutionary algorithm performs exceptionally well on large supercomputational architectures, such as BlueGene and MareNostrum. Using the PFF02 forcefield, we were able to fold 13 proteins (12-56 amino acids), which include helix, sheet and mixed secondary structure. On average the predicted structure of these proteins deviated from their experimental conformation by only 2.89 Aa RMSD. (orig.)

  18. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  19. CATHEDRAL: a fast and effective algorithm to predict folds and domain boundaries from multidomain protein structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Redfern

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present CATHEDRAL, an iterative protocol for determining the location of previously observed protein folds in novel multidomain protein structures. CATHEDRAL builds on the features of a fast secondary-structure-based method (using graph theory to locate known folds within a multidomain context and a residue-based, double-dynamic programming algorithm, which is used to align members of the target fold groups against the query protein structure to identify the closest relative and assign domain boundaries. To increase the fidelity of the assignments, a support vector machine is used to provide an optimal scoring scheme. Once a domain is verified, it is excised, and the search protocol is repeated in an iterative fashion until all recognisable domains have been identified. We have performed an initial benchmark of CATHEDRAL against other publicly available structure comparison methods using a consensus dataset of domains derived from the CATH and SCOP domain classifications. CATHEDRAL shows superior performance in fold recognition and alignment accuracy when compared with many equivalent methods. If a novel multidomain structure contains a known fold, CATHEDRAL will locate it in 90% of cases, with <1% false positives. For nearly 80% of assigned domains in a manually validated test set, the boundaries were correctly delineated within a tolerance of ten residues. For the remaining cases, previously classified domains were very remotely related to the query chain so that embellishments to the core of the fold caused significant differences in domain sizes and manual refinement of the boundaries was necessary. To put this performance in context, a well-established sequence method based on hidden Markov models was only able to detect 65% of domains, with 33% of the subsequent boundaries assigned within ten residues. Since, on average, 50% of newly determined protein structures contain more than one domain unit, and typically 90% or more of these

  20. How Similar Are Protein Folding and Protein Binding Nuclei? Examination of Vibrational Motions of Energy Hot Spots and Conserved Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Haliloglu, Turkan; Keskin, Ozlem; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    The underlying physico-chemical principles of the interactions between domains in protein folding are similar to those between protein molecules in binding. Here we show that conserved residues and experimental hot spots at intermolecular binding interfaces overlap residues that vibrate with high frequencies. Similarly, conserved residues and hot spots are found in protein cores and are also observed to vibrate with high frequencies. In both cases, these residues contribute significantly to t...

  1. Monte Carlo simulation study of melittin: Protein folding and temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajjemi, M.; Ketabi, S.; Amiri, A.

    2006-11-01

    The tetramerization of melittin, a 26-amino-acid peptide, is considered as a model for protein folding. The Monte Carlo simulation was used to study the folding arrangement of melittin, and the results are compared with the experiment. An acceptance rate of 50% for new configurations is achieved by using ranges of ±0.001 Å for the translations and ±15°C for the rotations. Around 311 K, the folded structure of the protein has the greatest stability; the range from -40 to -80 shows the best ϕ angles for melittin. The final optimized structure of melittin strongly depends on the temperature. The melittin tetramer is found to have a temperature of maximum stability ranging from 35.5 to 43°C.

  2. A Differential Evolution Approach for Protein Folding Using a Lattice Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heitor Silverio Lopes; Reginaldo Bitello

    2007-01-01

    Protein folding is a relevant computational problem in Bioinformatics, for which many heuristic algorithms have been proposed. This work presents a methodology for the application of differential evolution (DE) to the problem of protein folding, using the bi-dimensional hydrophobic-polar model. DE is a relatively recent evolutionary algorithm, and has been used successfully in several engineering optimization problems, usually with continuous variables. We introduce the concept of genotype-phenotype mapping in DE in order to provide a mapping between the real-valued vector and an actual folding. The methodology is detailed and several experiments with benchmarks are done. We compared the results with other similar implementations. The proposed DE has shown to be competitive, statistically consistent and very promising.

  3. Folding of small knotted proteins: Insights from a mean field coarse-grained model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small but relevant number of proteins whose native structure is known features nontrivial topology, i.e., they are knotted. Understanding the process of folding from a swollen unknotted state to the biologically relevant native conformation is, for these proteins, particularly difficult, due to their rate-limiting topological entanglement. To shed some light into this conundrum, we introduced a structure-based coarse-grained model of the protein, where the information about the folded conformation is encoded in bonded angular interactions only, which do not favor the formation of native contacts. A stochastic search scheme in parameter space is employed to identify a set of interactions that maximizes the probability to attain the knotted state. The optimal knotting pathways of the two smallest knotted proteins, obtained through this approach, are consistent with the results derived by means of coarse-grained as well as full atomistic simulations

  4. Cooperative folding of intrinsically disordered domains drives assembly of a strong elongated protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszka, Dominika T.; Whelan, Fiona; Farrance, Oliver E.; Fung, Herman K. H.; Paci, Emanuele; Jeffries, Cy M.; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Baldock, Clair; Baumann, Christoph G.; Brockwell, David J.; Potts, Jennifer R.; Clarke, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria exploit surface proteins to adhere to other bacteria, surfaces and host cells. Such proteins need to project away from the bacterial surface and resist significant mechanical forces. SasG is a protein that forms extended fibrils on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus and promotes host adherence and biofilm formation. Here we show that although monomeric and lacking covalent cross-links, SasG maintains a highly extended conformation in solution. This extension is mediated through obligate folding cooperativity of the intrinsically disordered E domains that couple non-adjacent G5 domains thermodynamically, forming interfaces that are more stable than the domains themselves. Thus, counterintuitively, the elongation of the protein appears to be dependent on the inherent instability of its domains. The remarkable mechanical strength of SasG arises from tandemly arrayed `clamp' motifs within the folded domains. Our findings reveal an elegant minimal solution for the assembly of monomeric mechano-resistant tethers of variable length.

  5. Folding of small knotted proteins: Insights from a mean field coarse-grained model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Saeed; Potestio, Raffaello, E-mail: potestio@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    A small but relevant number of proteins whose native structure is known features nontrivial topology, i.e., they are knotted. Understanding the process of folding from a swollen unknotted state to the biologically relevant native conformation is, for these proteins, particularly difficult, due to their rate-limiting topological entanglement. To shed some light into this conundrum, we introduced a structure-based coarse-grained model of the protein, where the information about the folded conformation is encoded in bonded angular interactions only, which do not favor the formation of native contacts. A stochastic search scheme in parameter space is employed to identify a set of interactions that maximizes the probability to attain the knotted state. The optimal knotting pathways of the two smallest knotted proteins, obtained through this approach, are consistent with the results derived by means of coarse-grained as well as full atomistic simulations.

  6. Flexible segments modulate co-folding of dUTPase and nucleocapsid proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Nemeth-Pongracz, V.; Barabas, O.; Fuxreiter, M; Simon, I; Pichova, I.; Rumlova, M.; Zabranska, H.; Svergun, D. I.; Petoukhov, M.; Harmat, V.; Klement, E.; Hunyadi-Gulyas, E.; Medzihradszky, K. F.; Konya, E.; Vertessy, B G

    2006-01-01

    The homotrimeric fusion protein nucleocapsid (NC)-dUTPase combines domains that participate in RNA/DNA folding, reverse transcription, and DNA repair in Mason-Pfizer monkey betaretrovirus infected cells. The structural organization of the fusion protein remained obscured by the N- and C-terminal flexible segments of dUTPase and the linker region connecting the two domains that are invisible in electron density maps. Small-angle X-ray scattering reveals that upon oligonucleotide binding the NC...

  7. Structural features of the GroEL-GroES nano-cage required for rapid folding of encapsulated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Chang, HC; Roeben, A; Wischnewski, D; Wischnewski, N; Kerner, MJ; Hartl, FU; Hayer-Hartl, M

    2006-01-01

    . Additionally, interactions with the C-terminal, mildly hydrophobic Gly-Gly-Met repeat sequences of GroEL protruding into the cavity, and repulsion effects from the negatively charged cavity wall were required for rapid folding of some proteins. We suggest that by combining these features, the chaperonin cage......GroEL and GroES form a chaperonin nano-cage for proteins up to similar to 60 kDa to fold in isolation. Here we explored the structural features of the chaperonin cage critical for rapid folding of encapsulated substrates. Modulating the volume of the GroEL central cavity affected folding speed in...... accordance with confinement theory. Small proteins (similar to 30 kDa) folded more rapidly as the size of the cage was gradually reduced to a point where restriction in space slowed folding dramatically. For larger proteins (similar to 40-50 kDa), either expanding or reducing cage volume decelerated folding...

  8. Protein folding trajectories can be described quantitatively by one-dimensional diffusion over measured energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Krishna; Manuel, Ajay P.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2016-07-01

    Protein folding features a diffusive search over a multidimensional energy landscape in conformational space for the minimum-energy structure. Experiments, however, are usually interpreted in terms of a one-dimensional (1D) projection of the full landscape onto a practical reaction coordinate. Although simulations have shown that folding kinetics can be described well by diffusion over a 1D projection, 1D approximations have not yet been fully validated experimentally. We used folding trajectories of single molecules held under tension in optical tweezers to compare the conditional probability of being on a transition path, calculated from the trajectory, with the prediction for ideal 1D diffusion over the measured 1D landscape, calculated from committor statistics. We found good agreement for the protein PrP (refs ,) and for one of the structural transitions in a leucine-zipper coiled-coil, but not for a second transition in the coiled-coil, owing to poor reaction-coordinate quality. These results show that 1D descriptions of folding can indeed be good, even for complex tertiary structures. More fundamentally, they also provide a fully experimental validation of the basic physical picture of folding as diffusion over a landscape.

  9. Long range correlations and folding angle with applications to α-helical proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conformational complexity of chain-like macromolecules such as proteins and other linear polymers is much larger than that of point-like atoms and molecules. Unlike particles, chains can bend, twist, and even become knotted. Thus chains might also display a much richer phase structure. Unfortunately, it is not very easy to characterize the phase of a long chain. Essentially, the only known attribute is the radius of gyration. The way how it changes when the degree of polymerization becomes different, and how it evolves when the ambient temperature and solvent properties change, is commonly used to disclose the phase. But in any finite length chain there are corrections to scaling that complicate the detailed analysis of the phase structure. Here we introduce a quantity that we call the folding angle to identify and scrutinize the phase structure, as a complement to the radius of gyration. We argue for a mean-field level relationship between the folding angle and the scaling exponent in the radius of gyration. We then estimate the value of the folding angle in the case of crystallographic α-helical protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. We also show how the experimental value of the folding angle can be obtained computationally, using a semiclassical Born-Oppenheimer description of α-helical chiral chains

  10. Long range correlations and folding angle with applications to α-helical proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokhotin, Andrey, E-mail: Andrei.Krokhotine@cern.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Nicolis, Stam, E-mail: Stam.Nicolis@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-03-07

    The conformational complexity of chain-like macromolecules such as proteins and other linear polymers is much larger than that of point-like atoms and molecules. Unlike particles, chains can bend, twist, and even become knotted. Thus chains might also display a much richer phase structure. Unfortunately, it is not very easy to characterize the phase of a long chain. Essentially, the only known attribute is the radius of gyration. The way how it changes when the degree of polymerization becomes different, and how it evolves when the ambient temperature and solvent properties change, is commonly used to disclose the phase. But in any finite length chain there are corrections to scaling that complicate the detailed analysis of the phase structure. Here we introduce a quantity that we call the folding angle to identify and scrutinize the phase structure, as a complement to the radius of gyration. We argue for a mean-field level relationship between the folding angle and the scaling exponent in the radius of gyration. We then estimate the value of the folding angle in the case of crystallographic α-helical protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. We also show how the experimental value of the folding angle can be obtained computationally, using a semiclassical Born-Oppenheimer description of α-helical chiral chains.

  11. Protein-fold recognition using an improved single-source K diverse shortest paths algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhota, John; Xie, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Protein structure prediction, when construed as a fold recognition problem, is one of the most important applications of similarity search in bioinformatics. A new protein-fold recognition method is reported which combines a single-source K diverse shortest path (SSKDSP) algorithm with Enrichment of Network Topological Similarity (ENTS) algorithm to search a graphic feature space generated using sequence similarity and structural similarity metrics. A modified, more efficient SSKDSP algorithm is developed to improve the performance of graph searching. The new implementation of the SSKDSP algorithm empirically requires 82% less memory and 61% less time than the current implementation, allowing for the analysis of larger, denser graphs. Furthermore, the statistical significance of fold ranking generated from SSKDSP is assessed using ENTS. The reported ENTS-SSKDSP algorithm outperforms original ENTS that uses random walk with restart for the graph search as well as other state-of-the-art protein structure prediction algorithms HHSearch and Sparks-X, as evaluated by a benchmark of 600 query proteins. The reported methods may easily be extended to other similarity search problems in bioinformatics and chemoinformatics. The SSKDSP software is available at http://compsci.hunter.cuny.edu/~leixie/sskdsp.html. Proteins 2016; 84:467-472. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800480

  12. Note: Network random walk model of two-state protein folding: Test of the theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Murphy, Ronan D.; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2013-01-01

    We study two-state protein folding in the framework of a toy model of protein dynamics. This model has an important advantage: it allows for an analytical solution for the sum of folding and unfolding rate constants [A. M. Berezhkovskii, F. Tofoleanu, and N.-V. Buchete, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 7, 2370 (2011), 10.1021/ct200281d] and hence for the reactive flux at equilibrium. We use the model to test the Kramers-type formula for the reactive flux, which was derived assuming that the protein dynamics is described by a Markov random walk on a network of complex connectivity [A. Berezhkovskii, G. Hummer, and A. Szabo, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 205102 (2009), 10.1063/1.3139063]. It is shown that the Kramers-type formula leads to the same result for the reactive flux as the sum of the rate constants.

  13. Rapid expansion of the protein disulfide isomerase gene family facilitates the folding of venom peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Li, Qing; Jackson, Ronneshia L; Song, Albert S; Boomsma, Wouter; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K; Gruber, Christian W; Purcell, Anthony W; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M; Ellgaard, Lars

    2016-03-22

    Formation of correct disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum is a crucial step for folding proteins destined for secretion. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play a central role in this process. We report a previously unidentified, hypervariable family of PDIs that represents the most diverse gene family of oxidoreductases described in a single genus to date. These enzymes are highly expressed specifically in the venom glands of predatory cone snails, animals that synthesize a remarkably diverse set of cysteine-rich peptide toxins (conotoxins). Enzymes in this PDI family, termed conotoxin-specific PDIs, significantly and differentially accelerate the kinetics of disulfide-bond formation of several conotoxins. Our results are consistent with a unique biological scenario associated with protein folding: The diversification of a family of foldases can be correlated with the rapid evolution of an unprecedented diversity of disulfide-rich structural domains expressed by venomous marine snails in the superfamily Conoidea. PMID:26957604

  14. Shedding light on protein folding, structural and functional dynamics by single molecule studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavishi, Krutika; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    in non-synchronized ensemble measurements. Single molecule studies have thus provided novel insights about how the dynamic sampling of the free energy landscape dictates all aspects of protein behavior; from its folding to function. Here we will survey some of the state of the art contributions in...... deciphering mechanisms that underlie protein folding, structural and functional dynamics by single molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques. We will discuss a few selected examples highlighting the power of the emerging techniques and finally discuss the future improvements and directions.......The advent of advanced single molecule measurements unveiled a great wealth of dynamic information revolutionizing our understanding of protein dynamics and behavior in ways unattainable by conventional bulk assays. Equipped with the ability to record distribution of behaviors rather than the mean...

  15. A multi-directional rapidly exploring random graph (mRRG) for protein folding

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Shuvra Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Modeling large-scale protein motions, such as those involved in folding and binding interactions, is crucial to better understanding not only how proteins move and interact with other molecules but also how proteins misfold, thus causing many devastating diseases. Robotic motion planning algorithms, such as Rapidly Exploring Random Trees (RRTs), have been successful in simulating protein folding pathways. Here, we propose a new multi-directional Rapidly Exploring Random Graph (mRRG) specifically tailored for proteins. Unlike traditional RRGs which only expand a parent conformation in a single direction, our strategy expands the parent conformation in multiple directions to generate new samples. Resulting samples are connected to the parent conformation and its nearest neighbors. By leveraging multiple directions, mRRG can model the protein motion landscape with reduced computational time compared to several other robotics-based methods for small to moderate-sized proteins. Our results on several proteins agree with experimental hydrogen out-exchange, pulse-labeling, and F-value analysis. We also show that mRRG covers the conformation space better as compared to the other computation methods. Copyright © 2012 ACM.

  16. The garlic compound ajoene targets protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschula, Catherine H; Hunter, Roger; Cotton, Jonathan; Tuveri, Rossana; Ngarande, Ellen; Dzobo, Kevin; Schäfer, Georgia; Siyo, Vuyolwethu; Lang, Dirk; Kusza, Daniel A; Davies, Bronwen; Katz, Arieh A; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-08-01

    Ajoene is a natural allylsulfur compound found in crushed garlic that arrests growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. To gain mechanistic insights into the cytotoxicity of ajoene in cancer cells, two fluorescently labelled ajoene analogs with dansyl- (DP) and fluorescein- (FOX) tags were synthesized. The tagged ajoenes were found to retain their activity at inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast-cancer and WHCO1 human esophageal-cancer cells. Both tagged ajoenes localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by live cell confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and confirmed by generating an MDA-MB-231 cell line expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the ER. DP appears to S-thiolate multiple protein targets in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by immunoblotting under non-reducing conditions only; and a competition assay demonstrated that DP and Z-ajoene in fact share the same target. Ajoene S-thiolation interfered with protein folding and led to an accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates and activated the unfolded protein response (UPR). Consistent with this mechanism, increased levels of GRP78 and total ubiquitinated proteins were observed; and an ER-folded protein, type-1 collagen, was tracked to the proteasome following ajoene treatment. The intracellular protein aggregates were observed by CLSM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is the first time that ajoene has been shown to target protein folding in the ER of cancer cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26207910

  17. Looking at proteins: representations, folding, packing, and design. Biophysical Society National Lecture, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J S; Richardson, D C; Tweedy, N B; Gernert, K M; Quinn, T P; Hecht, M H; Erickson, B W; Yan, Y; McClain, R D; Donlan, M E

    1992-11-01

    Looking at proteins is an active process of interpretation and selection, emphasizing some features and deleting others. Multiple representations are needed, for such purposes as showing motions or conveying both the chain connectivity and the three-dimensional shape simultaneously. In studying and comparing protein structures, ideas are suggested about the determinants of tertiary structure and of folding (e.g., that Greek key beta barrels may fold up two strands at a time). The design and synthesis of new proteins "from scratch" provides a route toward the experimental testing of such ideas. It has also been a fruitful new perspective from which to look at structures, requiring such things as statistics on very narrowly defined structural categories and explicit attention to "negative design" criteria that actively block unwanted alternatives (e.g., reverse topology of a helix bundle, or edge-to-edge aggregation of beta sheets). Recently, the field of protein design has produced a rather unexpected general result: apparently we do indeed know enough to successfully design proteins that fold into approximately correct structures, but not enough to design unique, native-like structures. The degree of order varies considerably, but even the best designed material shows multiple conformations by NMR, more similar to a "molten globule" folding intermediate than to a well ordered native tertiary structure. In response to this conclusion, we are now working on systems that test useful questions with approximate structures (such as determining which factors most influence the choice of helix-bundle topology) and also analyzing how natural proteins achieve unique core conformations (e.g., for side chains on the interior side of a beta sheet, illustrated in the kinemages). PMID:1477272

  18. The ModFOLD4 server for the quality assessment of 3D protein models

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffin, Liam J; Buenavista, Maria T.; Roche, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Once you have generated a 3D model of a protein, how do you know whether it bears any resemblance to the actual structure? To determine the usefulness of 3D models of proteins, they must be assessed in terms of their quality by methods that predict their similarity to the native structure. The ModFOLD4 server is the latest version of our leading independent server for the estimation of both the global and local (per-residue) quality of 3D protein models. The server produces both machine reada...

  19. Mycobacterial PE_PGRS Proteins Contain Calcium-Binding Motifs with Parallel β-roll Folds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nandita; Bachhawat; Balvinder; Singh

    2007-01-01

    The PE_PGRS family of proteins unique to mycobacteria is demonstrated to con- rain multiple calcium-binding and glycine-rich sequence motifs GGXGXD/NXUX. This sequence repeat constitutes a calcium-binding parallel/3-roll or parallel β-helix structure and is found in RTX toxins secreted by many Gram-negative bacteria. It is predicted that the highly homologous PE_PGRS proteins containing multiple copies of the nona-peptide motif could fold into similar calcium-binding structures. The implication of the predicted calcium-binding property of PE_PGRS proteins in the Ught of macrophage-pathogen interaction and pathogenesis is presented.

  20. Dissection of the Zipping-and-Assembly Mechanism for Folding of Model Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipping-and-assembly mechanism (ZAM) is a new mechanism describing the kinetics of protein folding. To dissect the validity of this mechanism for various protein-like systems, a prediction test based on three-dimensional HP lattice models is carried out. It is found that only the native structures of a part of protein-like models could be predicted with a ZAM-based method. The detailed comparisons between the model proteins which are predicted or failed with the ZAM-based method suggest that the ZAM is likely to be applicable for the model proteins with the weak hydrophobicity, the low contact order for native conformations, and the large separation between the energies of native state and denatured states. These observations bring us more information about the protein-like systems for which the ZAM could be applied. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. How the diffusivity profile reduces the arbitrariness of protein folding free energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hinczewski, Michael; Dzubiella, Joachim; Netz, Roland R

    2010-01-01

    The concept of a protein diffusing in its free energy folding landscape has been fruitful for both theory and experiment. Yet the choice of the reaction coordinate (RC) introduces an undesirable degree of arbitrariness into the problem. We analyze extensive simulation data of an alpha-helix in explicit water solvent as it stochastically folds and unfolds. The free energy profiles for different RCs exhibit significant variation, some having an activation barrier, others not. We show that this variation has little effect on the predicted folding kinetics if the diffusivity profiles are properly taken into account. This kinetic quasi-universality is rationalized by an RC rescaling, which, due to the reparameterization invariance of the Fokker-Planck equation, allows the combination of free energy and diffusivity effects into a single function, the rescaled free energy profile. This rescaled free energy indeed shows less variation among different RCs than the bare free energy and diffusivity profiles separately d...

  2. Studies of protein structure in solution and protein folding using synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingling

    1996-04-01

    Synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) has been applied to the structural study of several biological systems, including the nitrogenase complex, the heat shock cognate protein (hsc70), and lysozyme folding. The structural information revealed from the SAXS experiments is complementary to information obtained by other physical and biochemical methods, and adds to our knowledge and understanding of these systems.

  3. Core-Shell Model of Folding-Unfolding Transitions (UFT) in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroutiounian, Svetlana

    2008-03-01

    There are ˜10^N conformations for a protein of length N to sort out randomly in search of lowest free energy state. Can protein folding be simple and fast? Core-shell model introduces principles, proposes mechanisms and scores residues of fast, reversible UFT in protein. According to it, during UFT the realm of intra-residual interactions leads the residue motion. The scaffold of hydrophilic residues forms external shell of unstructured, tube-like protein in unfolded state, just as the hydrophobic residues form internal scaffold -- core, of the protein in folded state. As UFT proceeds, residue slides into lowest-score position permitted by its structure. Model accounts for experimentally observed features of UFT. It is based on three principles: 1) During UFT protein is virtual - its features or structure are inferred only statistically and with limited precision; 2) Mechanism of UFT memory is not longitudinal, but transverse; 3) Native design overrides specific features of residues - the alphabet of amino acids assumes an intrinsic score-function. Per-residue mechanism of UFT is proposed and score-function is described. Difference graphs of transitional score-function and average genome-wide abundance index show that our score-function is the order parameter of UFT in protein and by virtue of being it, reveals transitional key residues. It echoes the multiple-tier and funnel concepts of FEL perspective. Monte Carlo simulations of UFT in myoglobin illustrate the idea.

  4. Interaction Networks in Protein Folding via Atomic-Resolution Experiments and Long-Time-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sborgi, Lorenzo; Verma, Abhinav; Piana, Stefano; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Cerminara, Michele; Santiveri, Clara M; Shaw, David E; de Alba, Eva; Muñoz, Victor

    2015-05-27

    The integration of atomic-resolution experimental and computational methods offers the potential for elucidating key aspects of protein folding that are not revealed by either approach alone. Here, we combine equilibrium NMR measurements of thermal unfolding and long molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the folding of gpW, a protein with two-state-like, fast folding dynamics and cooperative equilibrium unfolding behavior. Experiments and simulations expose a remarkably complex pattern of structural changes that occur at the atomic level and from which the detailed network of residue-residue couplings associated with cooperative folding emerges. Such thermodynamic residue-residue couplings appear to be linked to the order of mechanistically significant events that take place during the folding process. Our results on gpW indicate that the methods employed in this study are likely to prove broadly applicable to the fine analysis of folding mechanisms in fast folding proteins. PMID:25924808

  5. Protein folding: understanding the role of water and the low Reynolds number environment as the peptide chain emerges from the ribosome and folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Siddhartha; Voorheis, H Paul

    2014-12-21

    The mechanism of protein folding during early stages of the process has three determinants. First, moving water molecules obey the rules of low Reynolds number physics without an inertial component. Molecular movement is instantaneous and size insensitive. Proteins emerging from the ribosome move and rotate without an external force if they change shape, forming and propagating helical structures that increases translocational efficiency. Forward motion ceases when the shape change or propelling force ceases. Second, application of quantum field theory to water structure predicts the spontaneous formation of low density coherent units of fixed size that expel dissolved atmospheric gases. Structured water layers with both coherent and non-coherent domains, form a sheath around the new protein. The surface of exposed hydrophobic amino acids is protected from water contact by small nanobubbles of dissolved atmospheric gases, 5 or 6 molecules on average, that vibrate, attracting even widely separated resonating nanobubbles. This force results from quantum effects, appearing only when the system is within and interacts with an oscillating electromagnetic field. The newly recognized quantum force sharply bends the peptide and is part of a dynamic field determining the pathway of protein folding. Third, the force initiating the tertiary folding of proteins arises from twists at the position of each hydrophobic amino acid, that minimizes surface exposure of the hydrophobic amino acids and propagates along the protein. When the total bend reaches 360°, the leading segment of water sheath intersects the trailing segment. This steric self-intersection expels water from overlapping segments of the sheath and by Newton׳s second law moves the polypeptide chain in an opposite direction. Consequently, with very few exceptions that we enumerate and discuss, tertiary structures are absent from proteins without hydrophobic amino acids, which control the early stages of protein

  6. Rapid measurement of residual dipolar couplings for fast fold elucidation of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasia, Rodolfo M. [Jean-Pierre Ebel CNRS/CEA/UJF, Institut de Biologie Structurale (France); Lescop, Ewen [CNRS, Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (France); Palatnik, Javier F. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas (Argentina); Boisbouvier, Jerome, E-mail: jerome.boisbouvier@ibs.fr; Brutscher, Bernhard, E-mail: Bernhard.brutscher@ibs.fr [Jean-Pierre Ebel CNRS/CEA/UJF, Institut de Biologie Structurale (France)

    2011-11-15

    It has been demonstrated that protein folds can be determined using appropriate computational protocols with NMR chemical shifts as the sole source of experimental restraints. While such approaches are very promising they still suffer from low convergence resulting in long computation times to achieve accurate results. Here we present a suite of time- and sensitivity optimized NMR experiments for rapid measurement of up to six RDCs per residue. Including such an RDC data set, measured in less than 24 h on a single aligned protein sample, greatly improves convergence of the Rosetta-NMR protocol, allowing for overnight fold calculation of small proteins. We demonstrate the performance of our fast fold calculation approach for ubiquitin as a test case, and for two RNA-binding domains of the plant protein HYL1. Structure calculations based on simulated RDC data highlight the importance of an accurate and precise set of several complementary RDCs as additional input restraints for high-quality de novo structure determination.

  7. Secondary Structural Change Can Occur Diffusely and Not Modularly during Protein Folding and Unfolding Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Pooja; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2016-05-11

    A major goal of protein folding studies is to understand the structural basis of the coupling between stabilizing interactions, which leads to cooperative conformational change. The goal is challenging because of the difficulty in simultaneously measuring global cooperativity by determining population distributions of the conformations present, and the structures of these conformations. Here, hydrogen exchange (HX) into the small protein monellin was carried out under conditions where structure-opening is rate limiting for most backbone amide sites. Detection by mass spectrometry allowed characterization of not only segment-specific structure-opening rates but also the cooperativity of unfolding of the different secondary structural segments of the protein. The segment-specific pattern of HX reveals that the backbone hydrogen-bonding network disassembles in a structurally diffuse, asynchronous manner. A comparison of the site-specific transient opening rates of secondary and tertiary structure in the protein provides a structural rationale for the observation that unfolding is hierarchical and describable by exponential kinetics, despite being diffuse. Since unfolding was studied in native conditions, the sequence of events during folding in the same conditions will be the reverse of the sequence of events observed during unfolding. Hence, the formation of secondary structural units during folding would also occur in a non-cooperative, diffuse, and asynchronous manner. PMID:27093885

  8. Measuring ultrafast protein folding rates from photon-by-photon analysis of single molecule fluorescence trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hoi Sung, E-mail: chunghoi@niddk.nih.gov [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0520 (United States); Cellmer, Troy; Louis, John M. [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0520 (United States); Eaton, William A., E-mail: eaton@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0520 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Photon trajectories were measured for an ultrafast folding protein using single molecule FRET. ► Folding rates were obtained from a photon-by-photon analysis using a maximum likelihood method. ► Incorporating acceptor blinking into the analysis improved the accuracy of the extracted rates. ► The rates agree with the results from both the correlation analysis and ensemble laser temperature-jump. - Abstract: Folding and unfolding rates for the ultrafast folding villin subdomain were determined from a photon-by-photon analysis of fluorescence trajectories in single molecule FRET experiments. One of the obstacles to measuring fast kinetics in single molecule fluorescence experiments is blinking of the fluorophores on a timescale that is not well separated from the process of interest. By incorporating acceptor blinking into a two-state kinetics model, we show that it is possible to extract accurate rate coefficients on the microsecond time scale for folding and unfolding using the maximum likelihood method of Gopich and Szabo. This method yields the most likely parameters of a given model that can reproduce the observed photon trajectories. The extracted parameters agree with both the decay rate of the donor–acceptor cross correlation function and the results of ensemble equilibrium and kinetic experiments using nanosecond laser temperature jump.

  9. Measuring ultrafast protein folding rates from photon-by-photon analysis of single molecule fluorescence trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Photon trajectories were measured for an ultrafast folding protein using single molecule FRET. ► Folding rates were obtained from a photon-by-photon analysis using a maximum likelihood method. ► Incorporating acceptor blinking into the analysis improved the accuracy of the extracted rates. ► The rates agree with the results from both the correlation analysis and ensemble laser temperature-jump. - Abstract: Folding and unfolding rates for the ultrafast folding villin subdomain were determined from a photon-by-photon analysis of fluorescence trajectories in single molecule FRET experiments. One of the obstacles to measuring fast kinetics in single molecule fluorescence experiments is blinking of the fluorophores on a timescale that is not well separated from the process of interest. By incorporating acceptor blinking into a two-state kinetics model, we show that it is possible to extract accurate rate coefficients on the microsecond time scale for folding and unfolding using the maximum likelihood method of Gopich and Szabo. This method yields the most likely parameters of a given model that can reproduce the observed photon trajectories. The extracted parameters agree with both the decay rate of the donor–acceptor cross correlation function and the results of ensemble equilibrium and kinetic experiments using nanosecond laser temperature jump

  10. Phages have adapted the same protein fold to fulfill multiple functions in virion assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Lia; Pell, Lisa G.; Neudecker, Philipp; Pirani, Nawaz; Liu, Amanda; Baker, Lindsay A.; Rubinstein, John L.; Maxwell, Karen L.; Davidson, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships may exist among very diverse groups of proteins even though they perform different functions and display little sequence similarity. The tailed bacteriophages present a uniquely amenable system for identifying such groups because of their huge diversity yet conserved genome structures. In this work, we used structural, functional, and genomic context comparisons to conclude that the head–tail connector protein and tail tube protein of bacteriophage λ diverged from a common ancestral protein. Further comparisons of tertiary and quaternary structures indicate that the baseplate hub and tail terminator proteins of bacteriophage may also be part of this same family. We propose that all of these proteins evolved from a single ancestral tail tube protein fold, and that gene duplication followed by differentiation led to the specialized roles of these proteins seen in bacteriophages today. Although this type of evolutionary mechanism has been proposed for other systems, our work provides an evolutionary mechanism for a group of proteins with different functions that bear no sequence similarity. Our data also indicate that the addition of a structural element at the N terminus of the λ head–tail connector protein endows it with a distinctive protein interaction capability compared with many of its putative homologues. PMID:20660769

  11. Designability and cooperative folding in a four-letter hydrophobic-polar model of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Guang; Tang, Lei-Han

    2006-11-01

    The two-letter hydrophobic-polar (HP) model of Lau and Dill [Macromolecules 22, 3986 (1989)] has been widely used in theoretical studies of protein folding due to its conceptual and computational simplicity. Despite its success in elucidating various aspects of the sequence-structure relationship, thermodynamic behavior of the model is not in agreement with a sharp two-state folding transition of many single-domain proteins. To gain a better understanding of this discrepancy, we consider an extension of the HP model by including an “antiferromagnetic” (AF) interaction in the contact potential that favors amino acid residues with complementary attributes. With an enlarged four-letter alphabet, the density of states on the low energy side can be significantly decreased. Computational studies of the four-letter HP model are performed on 36-mer sequences on a square lattice. It is found that the designability of folded structures in the extended model exhibits strong correlation with that of the two-letter HP model, while the AF interaction alone selects a very different class of structures that resembles the Greek key motif for beta sheets. A procedure is introduced to select sequences which have the largest energy gap to the native state. Based on density of states and specific heat calculations in the full configuration space, we show that the optimized sequence is able to fold nearly as cooperatively as a corresponding Gō model.

  12. Similar folds with different stabilization mechanisms: the cases of prion and doppel proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Giorgio

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein misfolding is the main cause of a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. In particular, in Prion-related diseases the normal cellular form of the Prion Protein PrP (PrPC is converted into the infectious PrPSc through a conformational process during which it acquires a high β-sheet content. Doppel is a protein that shares a similar native fold, but lacks the scrapie isoform. Understanding the molecular determinants of these different behaviours is important both for biomedical and biophysical research. Results In this paper, the dynamical and energetic properties of the two proteins in solution is comparatively analyzed by means of long time scale explicit solvent, all-atom molecular dynamics in different temperature conditions. The trajectories are analyzed by means of a recently introduced energy decomposition approach (Tiana et al, Prot. Sci. 2004 aimed at identifying the key residues for the stabilization and folding of the protein. Our analysis shows that Prion and Doppel have two different cores stabilizing the native state and that the relative contribution of the nucleus to the global stability of the protein for Doppel is sensitively higher than for PrP. Moreover, under misfolding conditions the Doppel core is conserved, while the energy stabilization network of PrP is disrupted. Conclusion These observations suggest that different sequences can share similar native topology with different stabilizing interactions and that the sequences of the Prion and Doppel proteins may have diverged under different evolutionary constraints resulting in different folding and stabilization mechanisms.

  13. Transient calnexin interaction confers long-term stability on folded K+ channel protein in the ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rajesh; Lee, Eun Jeon; Papazian, Diane M

    2004-06-15

    We recently showed that an unglycosylated form of the Shaker potassium channel protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and degraded by proteasomes in mammalian cells despite apparently normal folding and assembly. These results suggest that channel proteins with a native structure can be substrates for ER-associated degradation. We have now tested this hypothesis using the wild-type Shaker protein. Wild-type Shaker is degraded by cytoplasmic proteasomes when it is trapped in the ER and prevented from interacting with calnexin. Neither condition alone is sufficient to destabilize the protein. Proteasomal degradation of the wild-type protein is abolished when ER mannosidase I trimming of the core glycan is inhibited. Our results indicate that transient interaction with calnexin provides long-term protection from ER-associated degradation. PMID:15161937

  14. Folding thermodynamics of model four-strand antiparallel beta-sheet proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, H; Zhou, Y; Jang, Hyunbum; Hall, Carol K.; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties for three different types of off-lattice four-strand beta-sheet protein models interacting via a hybrid Go-type potential have been investigated. Discontinuous molecular dynamic simulations have been performed for different sizes of the bias gap g, an artificial measure of a model protein's preference for its native state. The thermodynamic transition temperatures are obtained by calculating the squared radius of gyration, the root-mean-squared pair separation fluctuation, the specific heat, the internal energy of the system, and the Lindemann disorder parameter. In spite of the simplicity, the protein-like heteropolymers have shown a complex set of protein transitions as observed in experimental studies. Starting from high temperature, these transitions include a collapse transition, a disordered-to-ordered globule transition, a folding transition, and a liquid-to-solid transition. These transitions strongly depend on the native-state geometry of the model proteins and the size o...

  15. A Criterion That Determines Fast Folding of Proteins A Model Study

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, C J; Camacho, Carlos J.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the statistical mechanics of a full set of two-dimensional protein-like heteropolymers, whose thermodynamics is characterized by the coil-to-globular ($T_\\theta$) and the folding ($T_f$) transition temperatures. For our model, the typical time scale for reaching the unique native conformation is shown to scale as $\\tau_f\\sim F(M)\\exp(\\sigma/\\sigma_0)$, where $\\sigma=1-T_f/T_\\theta$, $M$ is the number of residues, and $F(M)$ scales algebraically with $M$. We argue that $T_f$ scales linearly with the inverse of entropy of low energy non-native states, whereas $T_\\theta$ is almost independent of it. As $\\sigma\\rightarrow 0$, non-productive intermediates decrease, and the initial rapid collapse of the protein leads to structures resembling the native state. Based solely on {\\it accessible} information, $\\sigma$ can be used to predict sequences that fold rapidly.

  16. Interaction Networks in Protein Folding via Atomic-Resolution Experiments and Long-Time-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Sborgi, Lorenzo; Verma, Abhinav; Piana, Stefano; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Cerminara, Michele; Santiveri, Clara M.; Shaw, David E.; de Alba, Eva; Muñoz, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The integration of atomic-resolution experimental and computational methods offers the potential for elucidating key aspects of protein folding that are not revealed by either approach alone. Here, we combine equilibrium NMR measurements of thermal unfolding and long molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the folding of gpW, a protein with two-state-like, fast folding dynamics and cooperative equilibrium unfolding behavior. Experiments and simulations expose a remarkably complex patter...

  17. Protein folding: Defining a standard set of experimental conditions and a preliminary kinetic data set of two-state proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Karen L.; Wildes, D.; Zarrine-Afsar, A.;

    2005-01-01

    rates, thermodynamics, and structure across diverse sets of proteins. These difficulties include the wide, potentially confounding range of experimental conditions and methods employed to date and the difficulty of obtaining correct and complete sequence and structural details for the characterized...... constructs. The lack of a single approach to data analysis and error estimation, or even of a common set of units and reporting standards, further hinders comparative studies of folding. In an effort to overcome these problems, we define here a consensus set of experimental conditions (25°C at pH 7.0, 50 m......M buffer), data analysis methods, and data reporting standards that we hope will provide a benchmark for experimental studies. We take the first step in this initiative by describing the folding kinetics of 30 apparently two-state proteins or protein domains under the consensus conditions. The goal of our...

  18. Protein folding simulations of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic model by combining tabu search with genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianzi; Cui, Qinghua; Shi, Guihua; Ma, Songde

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid algorithm combining genetic algorithms and tabu search is presented. In the proposed hybrid algorithm, the idea of tabu search is applied to the crossover operator. We demonstrate that the hybrid algorithm can be applied successfully to the protein folding problem based on a hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model. The results show that in all cases the hybrid algorithm works better than a genetic algorithm alone. A comparison with other methods is also made.

  19. Amino acid alphabet reduction preserves fold information contained in contact interactions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Armando D

    2015-12-01

    To reduce complexity, understand generalized rules of protein folding, and facilitate de novo protein design, the 20-letter amino acid alphabet is commonly reduced to a smaller alphabet by clustering amino acids based on some measure of similarity. In this work, we seek the optimal alphabet that preserves as much of the structural information found in long-range (contact) interactions among amino acids in natively-folded proteins. We employ the Information Maximization Device, based on information theory, to partition the amino acids into well-defined clusters. Numbering from 2 to 19 groups, these optimal clusters of amino acids, while generated automatically, embody well-known properties of amino acids such as hydrophobicity/polarity, charge, size, and aromaticity, and are demonstrated to maintain the discriminative power of long-range interactions with minimal loss of mutual information. Our measurements suggest that reduced alphabets (of less than 10) are able to capture virtually all of the information residing in native contacts and may be sufficient for fold recognition, as demonstrated by extensive threading tests. In an expansive survey of the literature, we observe that alphabets derived from various approaches-including those derived from physicochemical intuition, local structure considerations, and sequence alignments of remote homologs-fare consistently well in preserving contact interaction information, highlighting a convergence in the various factors thought to be relevant to the folding code. Moreover, we find that alphabets commonly used in experimental protein design are nearly optimal and are largely coherent with observations that have arisen in this work. PMID:26407535

  20. High-Pressure SAXS Study of Folded and Unfolded Ensembles of Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schroer, Martin A.; Paulus, Michael; Jeworrek, Christoph; Krywka, Christina; Schmacke, Saskia; Zhai, Yong; Wieland, D. C. Florian; Christoph J. Sahle; Chimenti, Michael; Royer, Catherine A.; Garcia-Moreno, Bertrand; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland

    2010-01-01

    A structural interpretation of the thermodynamic stability of proteins requires an understanding of the structural properties of the unfolded state. High-pressure small-angle x-ray scattering was used to measure the effects of temperature, pressure, denaturants, and stabilizing osmolytes on the radii of gyration of folded and unfolded state ensembles of staphylococcal nuclease. A set of variants with the internal Val-66 replaced with Ala, Tyr, or Arg was used to examine how changes in the vol...

  1. Production, purification and oxidative folding of the mouse recombinant prion protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, A.; Bednárová, Lucie; Holada, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 391-397. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD310/05/H533 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/04/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : recombinant prion protein * production * purification * folding Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/mbu/folia/

  2. Defects in Protein Folding Machinery Affect Cell Wall Integrity and Reduce Ethanol Tolerance in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Aswathy; Pullepu, Dileep; Reddy, Praveen Kumar; Uddin, Wasim; Kabir, M Anaul

    2016-07-01

    The chaperonin complex CCT/TRiC (chaperonin containing TCP-1/TCP-1 ring complex) participates in the folding of many crucial proteins including actin and tubulin in eukaryotes. Mutations in genes encoding its subunits can affect protein folding and in turn, the physiology of the organism. Stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important in fermentation reactions and operates through overexpression and underexpression of genes, thus altering the protein profile. Defective protein folding machinery can disturb this process. In this study, the response of cct mutants to stress conditions in general and ethanol in specific was investigated. CCT1 mutants showed decreased resistance to different conditions tested including osmotic stress, metal ions, surfactants, reducing and oxidising agents. Cct1-3 mutant with the mutation in the conserved ATP-binding region showed irreversible defects than other mutants. These mutants were found to have inherent cell wall defects and showed decreased ethanol tolerance. This study reveals that cell wall defects and ethanol sensitivity are linked. Genetic and proteomic analyses showed that the yeast genes RPS6A (ribosomal protein), SCL1 (proteasomal subunit) and TDH3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) on overexpression, improved the growth of cct1-3 mutant on ethanol. We propose the breakdown of common stress response pathways caused by mutations in CCT complex and the resulting scarcity of functional stress-responsive proteins, affecting the cell's defence against different stress agents in cct mutants. Defective cytoskeleton and perturbed cell wall integrity reduce the ethanol tolerance in the mutants which are rescued by the extragenic suppressors. PMID:26992923

  3. Systematic analysis of short internal indels and their impact on protein folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jun-tao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein sequence insertions/deletions (indels can be introduced during evolution or through alternative splicing (AS. Alternative splicing is an important biological phenomenon and is considered as the major means of expanding structural and functional diversity in eukaryotes. Knowledge of the structural changes due to indels is critical to our understanding of the evolution of protein structure and function. In addition, it can help us probe the evolution of alternative splicing and the diversity of functional isoforms. However, little is known about the effects of indels, in particular the ones involving core secondary structures, on the folding of protein structures. The long term goal of our study is to accurately predict the protein AS isoform structures. As a first step towards this goal, we performed a systematic analysis on the structural changes caused by short internal indels through mining highly homologous proteins in Protein Data Bank (PDB. Results We compiled a non-redundant dataset of short internal indels (2-40 amino acids from highly homologous protein pairs and analyzed the sequence and structural features of the indels. We found that about one third of indel residues are in disordered state and majority of the residues are exposed to solvent, suggesting that these indels are generally located on the surface of proteins. Though naturally occurring indels are fewer than engineered ones in the dataset, there are no statistically significant differences in terms of amino acid frequencies and secondary structure types between the "Natural" indels and "All" indels in the dataset. Structural comparisons show that all the protein pairs with short internal indels in the dataset preserve the structural folds and about 85% of protein pairs have global RMSDs (root mean square deviations of 2Å or less, suggesting that protein structures tend to be conserved and can tolerate short insertions and deletions. A few pairs

  4. Variation in the Subcellular Localization and Protein Folding Activity among Arabidopsis thaliana Homologs of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Y. L. Yuen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs catalyze the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds to properly fold nascent polypeptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Classical animal and yeast PDIs possess two catalytic thioredoxin-like domains (a, a′ and two non-catalytic domains (b, b′, in the order a-b-b′-a′. The model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes 12 PDI-like proteins, six of which possess the classical PDI domain arrangement (AtPDI1 through AtPDI6. Three additional AtPDIs (AtPDI9, AtPDI10, AtPDI11 possess two thioredoxin domains, but without intervening b-b′ domains. C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP fusions to each of the nine dual-thioredoxin PDI homologs localized predominantly to the ER lumen when transiently expressed in protoplasts. Additionally, expression of AtPDI9:GFP-KDEL and AtPDI10: GFP-KDDL was associated with the formation of ER bodies. AtPDI9, AtPDI10, and AtPDI11 mediated the oxidative folding of alkaline phosphatase when heterologously expressed in the Escherichia coli protein folding mutant, dsbA−. However, only three classical AtPDIs (AtPDI2, AtPDI5, AtPDI6 functionally complemented dsbA−. Interestingly, chemical inducers of the ER unfolded protein response were previously shown to upregulate most of the AtPDIs that complemented dsbA−. The results indicate that Arabidopsis PDIs differ in their localization and protein folding activities to fulfill distinct molecular functions in the ER.

  5. Wang-Landau sampling of the interplay between surface adsorption and folding of HP lattice proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying Wai [ORNL; Wuest, Thomas [Swiss Federal Research Institute, Switzerland; Landau, David P [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01

    Generic features associated with the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces are reviewed within the framework of the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model. The thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of various HP protein sequences interacting with attractive surfaces have been studied using extensive Wang-Landau sampling with different types of surfaces, each of which attracts either: all monomers, only hydrophobic (H) monomers, or only polar (P) monomers, respectively. Consequently, different types of folding behavior occur for varied surface strengths. Analysis of the combined patterns of various structural observables, e.g., the derivatives of the numbers of interaction contacts, together with the specific heat, leads to the identification of fundamental categories of folding and transition hierarchies. We also inferred a connection between the transition categories and the relative surface strengths, i.e., the ratios of the surface attractive strengths to the intra-chain attraction among H monomers. We thus believe that the folding hierarchies and identification scheme are generic for different HP sequences interacting with attractive surfaces, regardless of the chain length, sequence, or surface attraction.

  6. Rapid expansion of the protein disulfide isomerase gene family facilitates the folding of venom peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Li, Qing; Jackson, Ronneshia L;

    2016-01-01

    Formation of correct disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum is a crucial step for folding proteins destined for secretion. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play a central role in this process. We report a previously unidentified, hypervariable family of PDIs that represents the most dive...... evolution of an unprecedented diversity of disulfide-rich structural domains expressed by venomous marine snails in the superfamily Conoidea....... diverse gene family of oxidoreductases described in a single genus to date. These enzymes are highly expressed specifically in the venom glands of predatory cone snails, animals that synthesize a remarkably diverse set of cysteine-rich peptide toxins (conotoxins). Enzymes in this PDI family, termed...

  7. Protein family and fold occurrence in genomes: power-law behaviour and evolutionary model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J; Luscombe, N M; Gerstein, M

    2001-11-01

    Global surveys of genomes measure the usage of essential molecular parts, defined here as protein families, superfamilies or folds, in different organisms. Based on surveys of the first 20 completely sequenced genomes, we observe that the occurrence of these parts follows a power-law distribution. That is, the number of distinct parts (F) with a given genomic occurrence (V) decays as F=aV(-b), with a few parts occurring many times and most occurring infrequently. For a given organism, the distributions of families, superfamilies and folds are nearly identical, and this is reflected in the size of the decay exponent b. Moreover, the exponent varies between different organisms, with those of smaller genomes displaying a steeper decay (i.e. larger b). Clearly, the power law indicates a preference to duplicate genes that encode for molecular parts which are already common. Here, we present a minimal, but biologically meaningful model that accurately describes the observed power law. Although the model performs equally well for all three protein classes, we focus on the occurrence of folds in preference to families and superfamilies. This is because folds are comparatively insensitive to the effects of point mutations that can cause a family member to diverge beyond detectable similarity. In the model, genomes evolve through two basic operations: (i) duplication of existing genes; (ii) net flow of new genes. The flow term is closely related to the exponent b and can accommodate considerable gene loss; however, we demonstrate that the observed data is reproduced best with a net inflow, i.e. with more gene gain than loss. Moreover, we show that prokaryotes have much higher rates of gene acquisition than eukaryotes, probably reflecting lateral transfer. A further natural outcome from our model is an estimation of the fold composition of the initial genome, which potentially relates to the common ancestor for modern organisms. Supplementary material pertaining to this work

  8. In vivo labelling of proteins associated with folded chromosomes of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins associated with the pre-replicative (g1) and post-replicative (g2) folded chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be labelled in vivo by growing cells in acetate vegetative medium containing [35S]methionine. In both sporulating (MATa/MATα) and non-sporulating (MATa/MATa, MATα/MATα) diploids proteins associated with the resting stage genome (g0) can be labelled with [35S]methionine during nitrogen starvation and in sporulation medium. In addition, in MATa/MATα diploids proteins associated with the meiotic replication form (r) can also be labelled. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of the labelled proteins from the various folded genome forms showed that the g1 and g2 patterns are, with the exception of one polypeptide band, essentially identical. Several differences distinguished the r and g0 patterns from those of the g1 and g2 structures. At least four polypeptide bands distinguish the r and g0 patterns. No significant differences were observed between the g0 proteins of sporulating and non-sporulating diploids. (author)

  9. High-Pressure SAXS Study of Folded and Unfolded Ensembles of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Martin A.; Paulus, Michael; Jeworrek, Christoph; Krywka, Christina; Schmacke, Saskia; Zhai, Yong; Wieland, D. C. Florian; Sahle, Christoph J.; Chimenti, Michael; Royer, Catherine A.; Garcia-Moreno, Bertrand; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland

    2010-01-01

    A structural interpretation of the thermodynamic stability of proteins requires an understanding of the structural properties of the unfolded state. High-pressure small-angle x-ray scattering was used to measure the effects of temperature, pressure, denaturants, and stabilizing osmolytes on the radii of gyration of folded and unfolded state ensembles of staphylococcal nuclease. A set of variants with the internal Val-66 replaced with Ala, Tyr, or Arg was used to examine how changes in the volume and polarity of an internal microcavity affect the dimensions of the native state and the pressure sensitivity of the ensemble. The unfolded state ensembles achieved for these proteins with high pressure were more compact than those achieved at high temperature, and were all very sensitive to the presence of urea and glycerol. Substitutions at the hydrophobic core detectably altered the conformation of the protein, even in the folded state. The introduction of a charged residue, such as Arg, inside the hydrophobic interior of a protein could dramatically alter the structural properties, even those of the unfolded state. The data suggest that a charge at an internal position can interfere with the formation of transient hydrophobic clusters in the unfolded state, and ensure that the pressure-unfolded form of a protein occupies the maximum volume possible. Only at high temperatures does the radius of gyration of the unfolded state ensemble approach the value for a statistical random coil. PMID:21081092

  10. Role of the dihedral angle potential in the nucleation pathway of protein folding

    CERN Document Server

    Djikaev, Y S

    2006-01-01

    A kinetic model for the nucleation mechanism of protein folding is proposed. A protein is modeled as a heteropolymer consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic beads with equal constant bond lengths and bond angles. The total energy of the heteropolymer is determined by the repulsive/attractive interactions of non-linked beads and the contribution from the dihedral angles involved. Their parameters can be rigorously defined, unlike the ill defined surface tension of a cluster of protein residues which is the basis of the previous model. As a crucial idea of the model, the dihedral potential in which a selected bead is involved is averaged over all possible configurations of neighboring beads along the protein chain. The resulting average dihedral potential of the residue is constant far enough from the cluster, but increases monotonically with decreasing distance below a threshold value. An overall potential around the cluster wherein a residue performs a chaotic motion is a combination of the average dihedral...

  11. Revisiting the NMR structure of the ultrafast downhill folding protein gpW from bacteriophage λ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Sborgi

    Full Text Available GpW is a 68-residue protein from bacteriophage λ that participates in virus head morphogenesis. Previous NMR studies revealed a novel α+β fold for this protein. Recent experiments have shown that gpW folds in microseconds by crossing a marginal free energy barrier (i.e., downhill folding. These features make gpW a highly desirable target for further experimental and computational folding studies. As a step in that direction, we have re-determined the high-resolution structure of gpW by multidimensional NMR on a construct that eliminates the purification tags and unstructured C-terminal tail present in the prior study. In contrast to the previous work, we have obtained a full manual assignment and calculated the structure using only unambiguous distance restraints. This new structure confirms the α+β topology, but reveals important differences in tertiary packing. Namely, the two α-helices are rotated along their main axis to form a leucine zipper. The β-hairpin is orthogonal to the helical interface rather than parallel, displaying most tertiary contacts through strand 1. There also are differences in secondary structure: longer and less curved helices and a hairpin that now shows the typical right-hand twist. Molecular dynamics simulations starting from both gpW structures, and calculations with CS-Rosetta, all converge to our gpW structure. This confirms that the original structure has strange tertiary packing and strained secondary structure. A comparison of NMR datasets suggests that the problems were mainly caused by incomplete chemical shift assignments, mistakes in NOE assignment and the inclusion of ambiguous distance restraints during the automated procedure used in the original study. The new gpW corrects these problems, providing the appropriate structural reference for future work. Furthermore, our results are a cautionary tale against the inclusion of ambiguous experimental information in the determination of protein

  12. The ribosome in action: Tuning of translational efficiency and protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnina, Marina V

    2016-08-01

    The cellular proteome is shaped by the combined activities of the gene expression and quality control machineries. While transcription plays an undoubtedly important role, in recent years also translation emerged as a key step that defines the composition and quality of the proteome and the functional activity of proteins in the cell. Among the different post-transcriptional control mechanisms, translation initiation and elongation provide multiple checkpoints that can affect translational efficiency. A multitude of specific signals in mRNAs can determine the frequency of translation initiation, choice of the open reading frame, global and local elongation velocities, and the folding of the emerging protein. In addition to specific signatures in the mRNAs, also variations in the global pools of translation components, including ribosomes, tRNAs, mRNAs, and translation factors can alter translational efficiencies. The cellular outcomes of phenomena such as mRNA codon bias are sometimes difficult to understand due to the staggering complexity of covariates that affect codon usage, translation, and protein folding. Here we summarize the experimental evidence on how the ribosome-together with the other components of the translational machinery-can alter translational efficiencies of mRNA at the initiation and elongation stages and how translation velocity affects protein folding. We seek to explain these findings in the context of mechanistic work on the ribosome. The results argue in favour of a new understanding of translation control as a hub that links mRNA homeostasis to production and quality control of proteins in the cell. PMID:27198711

  13. Protein folding as a driving force for dual protein targeting in eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Kalderon, Bella; Pines, Ophry

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that in eukaryotic cells molecules of one protein can be located in several subcellular locations, a phenomenon termed dual targeting, dual localization, or dual distribution. The differently localized identical or nearly identical proteins are termed “echoforms.” Our conventional definition of dual targeted proteins refers to situations in which one of the echoforms is translocated through/into a membrane. Thus, dual targeted proteins are recognized by at least one orga...

  14. A replica exchange Monte Carlo algorithm for protein folding in the HP model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmygelska Alena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ab initio protein folding problem consists of predicting protein tertiary structure from a given amino acid sequence by minimizing an energy function; it is one of the most important and challenging problems in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. The ab initio protein folding problem is computationally challenging and has been shown to be NP MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaat0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1egaryqtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvdaiqaacqWFneVtcqqGqbauaaa@3961@-hard even when conformations are restricted to a lattice. In this work, we implement and evaluate the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC method, which has already been applied very successfully to more complex protein models and other optimization problems with complex energy landscapes, in combination with the highly effective pull move neighbourhood in two widely studied Hydrophobic Polar (HP lattice models. Results We demonstrate that REMC is highly effective for solving instances of the square (2D and cubic (3D HP protein folding problem. When using the pull move neighbourhood, REMC outperforms current state-of-the-art algorithms for most benchmark instances. Additionally, we show that this new algorithm provides a larger ensemble of ground-state structures than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, it scales well with sequence length, and it finds significantly better conformations on long biological sequences and sequences with a provably unique ground-state structure, which is believed to be a characteristic of real proteins. We also present evidence that our REMC algorithm can fold sequences which exhibit significant interaction between termini in the hydrophobic core relatively easily. Conclusion We demonstrate that REMC utilizing the pull move

  15. Automated high-throughput dense matrix protein folding screen using a liquid handling robot combined with microfluidic capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Philip; Winters, Dwight; Walker, Kenneth W

    2016-04-01

    Modern molecular genetics technology has made it possible to swiftly sequence, clone and mass-produce recombinant DNA for the purpose of expressing heterologous genes of interest; however, recombinant protein production systems have struggled to keep pace. Mammalian expression systems are typically favored for their ability to produce and secrete proteins in their native state, but bacterial systems benefit from rapid cell line development and robust growth. The primary drawback to prokaryotic expression systems are that recombinant proteins are generally not secreted at high levels or correctly folded, and are often insoluble, necessitating post-expression protein folding to obtain the active product. In order to harness the advantages of prokaryotic expression, high-throughput methods for executing protein folding screens and the subsequent analytics to identify lead conditions are required. Both of these tasks can be accomplished using a Biomek 3000 liquid handling robot to prepare the folding screen and to subsequently prepare the reactions for assessment using Caliper microfluidic capillary electrophoresis. By augmenting a protein folding screen with automation, the primary disadvantage of Escherichia coli expression has been mitigated, namely the labor intensive identification of the required protein folding conditions. Furthermore, a rigorous, quantitative method for identifying optimal protein folding buffer aids in the rapid development of an optimal production process. PMID:26678961

  16. Combinatorial modeling of protein folding kinetics: free energy profiles and rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Eric R. [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 5, Room 104, Bethesda, MD 20892-0520 (United States); Eaton, William A. [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 5, Room 104, Bethesda, MD 20892-0520 (United States)]. E-mail: eaton@helix.nih.gov

    2004-12-27

    A combinatorial approach has been used to determine the optimal assumptions and robustness of simple statistical mechanical models for protein folding. By combining alternative plausible assumptions and different enumeration schemes for constructing partition functions, 76 closely related Ising-like models were generated. These include various contiguous sequence approximations, the possibility of forming a disordered loop between ordered segments, the use of an atomistic or coarse-grained representation of the protein structure, and the choice of ordered residues or native contacts as a reaction coordinate. We also consider all 2{sup N} conformations of an N-residue protein (e.g., 10{sup 30} conformations for a 100-residue protein). Although the number of configurations is much too large to list, a free energy profile can be calculated using a build-up procedure by accumulation and recombination of partial partition functions. The predictions of the 76 models were tested against two kinds of experimental data - folding rates and the determination of two-state behavior for 25 proteins. Two-state behavior was judged by the relative magnitude of the dominant relaxation calculated from the rate matrix for motion on the free energy profile. The relative performance of each assumption was evaluated using rank sum statistics which show, with the exception of the single sequence approximation, that this class of models is not sensitive to alternative assumptions. Two-state free energy profiles are calculated for almost all but the {alpha}-helical proteins, and surprisingly accurate rates are predicted in both the absence and presence of denaturant. The combinatorics also show that an {alpha}-carbon representation of the protein structure does nearly as well as atomistic descriptions, possibly reflecting partial interatomic interactions between native residues in structures of the transition state ensemble. With its coarse-grained description of both the energy and entropy

  17. Monitoring Backbone Hydrogen-Bond Formation in β-Barrel Membrane Protein Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschle, Thomas; Rios Flores, Perla; Opitz, Christian; Müller, Daniel J; Hiller, Sebastian

    2016-05-10

    β-barrel membrane proteins are key components of the outer membrane of bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Their three-dimensional structure is defined by a network of backbone hydrogen bonds between adjacent β-strands. Here, we employ hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange in combination with NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to monitor backbone hydrogen bond formation during folding of the outer membrane protein X (OmpX) from E. coli in detergent micelles. Residue-specific kinetics of interstrand hydrogen-bond formation were found to be uniform in the entire β-barrel and synchronized to formation of the tertiary structure. OmpX folding thus propagates via a long-lived conformational ensemble state in which all backbone amide protons exchange with the solvent and engage in hydrogen bonds only transiently. Stable formation of the entire OmpX hydrogen bond network occurs downhill of the rate-limiting transition state and thus appears cooperative on the overall folding time scale. PMID:27062600

  18. Structure of the minimized α/β-hydrolase fold protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the minimized α/β-hydrolase fold protein encoded by the gene TTHA1544 from T. thermophilus HB8 has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The gene encoding TTHA1544 is a singleton found in the Thermus thermophilus HB8 genome and encodes a 131-amino-acid protein. The crystal structure of TTHA1544 has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion method in order to elucidate its function. There are two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Each molecule consists of four α-helices and six β-strands, with the β-strands composing a central β-sheet. A structural homology search revealed that the overall structure of TTHA1544 resembles the α/β-hydrolase fold, although TTHA1544 lacks the catalytic residues of a hydrolase. These results suggest that TTHA1544 represents the minimized α/β-hydrolase fold and that an additional component would be required for its activity

  19. Shedding Light on Protein Folding, Structural and Functional Dynamics by Single Molecule Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika Bavishi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The advent of advanced single molecule measurements unveiled a great wealth of dynamic information revolutionizing our understanding of protein dynamics and behavior in ways unattainable by conventional bulk assays. Equipped with the ability to record distribution of behaviors rather than the mean property of a population, single molecule measurements offer observation and quantification of the abundance, lifetime and function of multiple protein states. They also permit the direct observation of the transient and rarely populated intermediates in the energy landscape that are typically averaged out in non-synchronized ensemble measurements. Single molecule studies have thus provided novel insights about how the dynamic sampling of the free energy landscape dictates all aspects of protein behavior; from its folding to function. Here we will survey some of the state of the art contributions in deciphering mechanisms that underlie protein folding, structural and functional dynamics by single molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques. We will discuss a few selected examples highlighting the power of the emerging techniques and finally discuss the future improvements and directions.

  20. Protein Folding Activity of the Ribosome (PFAR –– A Target for Antiprion Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriya Banerjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting mammals. Prions are misfolded amyloid aggregates of the prion protein (PrP, which form when the alpha helical, soluble form of PrP converts to an aggregation-prone, beta sheet form. Thus, prions originate as protein folding problems. The discovery of yeast prion(s and the development of a red-/white-colony based assay facilitated safe and high-throughput screening of antiprion compounds. With this assay three antiprion compounds; 6-aminophenanthridine (6AP, guanabenz acetate (GA, and imiquimod (IQ have been identified. Biochemical and genetic studies reveal that these compounds target ribosomal RNA (rRNA and inhibit specifically the protein folding activity of the ribosome (PFAR. The domain V of the 23S/25S/28S rRNA of the large ribosomal subunit constitutes the active site for PFAR. 6AP and GA inhibit PFAR by competition with the protein substrates for the common binding sites on the domain V rRNA. PFAR inhibition by these antiprion compounds opens up new possibilities for understanding prion formation, propagation and the role of the ribosome therein. In this review, we summarize and analyze the correlation between PFAR and prion processes using the antiprion compounds as tools.

  1. Improving protein fold recognition and structural class prediction accuracies using physicochemical properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raicar, Gaurav; Saini, Harsh; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil; Sharma, Alok

    2016-08-01

    Predicting the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a protein is an important task in the field of bioinformatics and biological sciences. However, directly predicting the 3-D structure from the primary structure is hard to achieve. Therefore, predicting the fold or structural class of a protein sequence is generally used as an intermediate step in determining the protein's 3-D structure. For protein fold recognition (PFR) and structural class prediction (SCP), two steps are required - feature extraction step and classification step. Feature extraction techniques generally utilize syntactical-based information, evolutionary-based information and physicochemical-based information to extract features. In this study, we explore the importance of utilizing the physicochemical properties of amino acids for improving PFR and SCP accuracies. For this, we propose a Forward Consecutive Search (FCS) scheme which aims to strategically select physicochemical attributes that will supplement the existing feature extraction techniques for PFR and SCP. An exhaustive search is conducted on all the existing 544 physicochemical attributes using the proposed FCS scheme and a subset of physicochemical attributes is identified. Features extracted from these selected attributes are then combined with existing syntactical-based and evolutionary-based features, to show an improvement in the recognition and prediction performance on benchmark datasets. PMID:27164998

  2. Transient ribosomal attenuation coordinates protein synthesis and co-translational folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gong; Hubalewska, Magdalena; Ignatova, Zoya

    2009-03-01

    Clustered codons that pair to low-abundance tRNA isoacceptors can form slow-translating regions in the mRNA and cause transient ribosomal arrest. We report that folding efficiency of the Escherichia coli multidomain protein SufI can be severely perturbed by alterations in ribosome-mediated translational attenuation. Such alterations were achieved by global acceleration of the translation rate with tRNA excess in vitro or by synonymous substitutions to codons with highly abundant tRNAs both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, the global slow-down of the translation rate modulated by low temperature suppresses the deleterious effect of the altered translational attenuation pattern. We propose that local discontinuous translation temporally separates the translation of segments of the peptide chain and actively coordinates their co-translational folding. PMID:19198590

  3. Mechanical cavopulmonary assist for the univentricular Fontan circulation using a novel folding propeller blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Amy L; Ballman, Kimberly K; Myers, Cynthia D; Litwak, Kenneth N; Frankel, Steven H; Rodefeld, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    A blood pump specifically designed to operate in the unique anatomic and physiologic conditions of a cavopulmonary connection has never been developed. Mechanical augmentation of cavopulmonary blood flow in a univentricular circulation would reduce systemic venous pressure, increase preload to the single ventricle, and temporarily reproduce a scenario analogous to the normal two-ventricle circulation. We hypothesize that a folding propeller blood pump would function optimally in this cavopulmonary circulation. The hydraulic performance of a two-bladed propeller prototype was characterized in an experimental flow loop using a blood analog fluid for 0.5-3.5 lpm at rotational speeds of 3,600-4,000 rpm. We also created five distinctive blood pump designs and evaluated their hydraulic performance using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The two-bladed prototype performed well over the design range of 0.5-3.5 lpm, producing physiologic pressure rises of 5-18 mm Hg. Building upon this proof-of-concept testing, the CFD analysis of the five numerical models predicted a physiologic pressure range of 5-40 mm Hg over 0.5-4 lpm for rotational speeds of 3,000-7,000 rpm. These preliminary propeller designs and the two-bladed prototype achieved the expected hydraulic performance. Optimization of these configurations will reduce fluid stress levels, remove regions of recirculation, and improve the hydraulic performance of the folding propeller. This propeller design produces the physiologic pressures and flows that are in the ideal range to mechanically support the cavopulmonary circulation and represents an exciting new therapeutic option for the support of a univentricular Fontan circulation. PMID:18043158

  4. Solving Protein Folding Problem using Elitism-Based Compact Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Badr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are vital components of living cells. A number of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Cystic fibrosis and Mad Cow diseases are shown to result from misfunctioning of proteins. Problem statement: Protein folding problem is the process of predicting the optimal 3D molecular structure of a protein, or tertiary structure, which is an indication of its proper function. Approach: An enhancement over persistent elitist compact genetic algorithm (pe-cGA was made to minimize the energy of proteins indicating how far it is from its optimal 3D structure. Energy was calculated using the Empirical Conformational Energy Program for Peptides (ECEPP package. Results: Experiments were performed on the Met-enkephalin protein. The enhanced algorithm reached an energy of -7.378 in 140,000 iterations surpassing the Distributed Genetic Algorithm (DGA which reached the same energy in 700,000 iterations. A comparison was also made with the Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA which did not reach this energy in the first place. Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that the enhanced algorithm is superior to DGA and BGA and a computational alternative to costly laboratory methods and an efficient means for solving organic docking problems.

  5. Modeling the effect of codon translation rates on co-translational protein folding mechanisms of arbitrary complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniparoli, Luca; O'Brien, Edward P.

    2015-04-01

    In a cell, the folding of a protein molecule into tertiary structure can begin while it is synthesized by the ribosome. The rate at which individual amino acids are incorporated into the elongating nascent chain has been shown to affect the likelihood that proteins will populate their folded state, indicating that co-translational protein folding is a far from equilibrium process. Developing a theoretical framework to accurately describe this process is, therefore, crucial for advancing our understanding of how proteins acquire their functional conformation in living cells. Current state-of-the-art computational approaches, such as molecular dynamics simulations, are very demanding in terms of the required computer resources, making the simulation of co-translational protein folding difficult. Here, we overcome this limitation by introducing an efficient approach that predicts the effects that variable codon translation rates have on co-translational folding pathways. Our approach is based on Markov chains. By using as an input a relatively small number of molecular dynamics simulations, it allows for the computation of the probability that a nascent protein is in any state as a function of the translation rate of individual codons along a mRNA's open reading frame. Due to its computational efficiency and favorable scalability with the complexity of the folding mechanism, this approach could enable proteome-wide computational studies of the influence of translation dynamics on co-translational folding.

  6. A structural basis for cellular uptake of GST-fold proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Morris

    Full Text Available It has recently emerged that glutathione transferase enzymes (GSTs and other structurally related molecules can be translocated from the external medium into many different cell types. In this study we aim to explore in detail, the structural features that govern cell translocation and by dissecting the human GST enzyme GSTM2-2 we quantatively demonstrate that the α-helical C-terminal domain (GST-C is responsible for this property. Attempts to further examine the constituent helices within GST-C resulted in a reduction in cell translocation efficiency, indicating that the intrinsic GST-C domain structure is necessary for maximal cell translocation capacity. In particular, it was noted that the α-6 helix of GST-C plays a stabilising role in the fold of this domain. By destabilising the conformation of GST-C, an increase in cell translocation efficiency of up to ∼2-fold was observed. The structural stability profiles of these protein constructs have been investigated by circular dichroism and differential scanning fluorimetry measurements and found to impact upon their cell translocation efficiency. These experiments suggest that the globular, helical domain in the 'GST-fold' structural motif plays a role in influencing cellular uptake, and that changes that affect the conformational stability of GST-C can significantly influence cell translocation efficiency.

  7. Interaction networks in protein folding via atomic-resolution experiments and long-time-scale molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sborgi, Lorenzo; Verma, Abhinav; Piana, Stefano;

    2015-01-01

    to investigate the folding of gpW, a protein with two-state-like, fast folding dynamics and cooperative equilibrium unfolding behavior. Experiments and simulations expose a remarkably complex pattern of structural changes that occur at the atomic level and from which the detailed network of residue...

  8. In silico study of amyloid beta-protein folding relevant to Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam Ng, Alfonso Ramon

    Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) folding is the initial step in the formation of the early toxic Abeta assemblies that are critically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abeta exists in two main alloforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42, composed of 40 and 42 residues, respectively. Abeta42 aggregates faster, forms more toxic assemblies, and is linked more strongly to AD. Two amino acids of Abeta42, I41 and A42, profoundly affect the behavior of Abeta40 and Abeta42. To examine why this happens, I study Abeta40 and Abeta42 folding using discrete molecular dynamics and a four-bead protein model with backbone hydrogen bonding and residue-specific effective hydropathic and electrostatic interactions. In particular, I explore a range of values of the hydropathic (EHP) and electrostatic (ECH) potential energies. For each peptide, I create a hundred different initial conformations for each set of parameters (EHP,E CH). I investigate the Abeta40 and Abeta42 monomer folding in a wide temperature range and quantify the folded structures by calculating the secondary structure propensities and the intramolecular contact maps. For each set of parameters (EHP,ECH), I calculate an average beta-strand secondary structure propensity in the Abeta40 and Abeta42 monomers as a function of temperature. I compare these simulated results with experimental circular dichroism measurements and estimate the model physiological temperature and the model parameters (E HP,ECH) that best fit the experimental conditions. The results show that in the temperature range [278K,350K], the average beta-strand in Abeta42 is larger than that of Abeta40, which is in agreement with experiments. The model predicts that the average beta-strand propensity should decrease for T>350K. At low temperatures, both Abeta40 and Abeta42 adopt a predominantly collapsed-coil conformation with small amounts of an beta-helical secondary structure (<1%). At high temperatures, beta-strand rich structures are more prominent (19%). Also, the

  9. Conformational disorder in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins from nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological macromolecules are, by essence, dynamical systems. While the importance of this flexibility is nowadays well established, the accurate characterization of the conformational disorder of these systems remains an important challenge. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a unique tool to probe these motions at atomic level, through the analysis of spin relaxation or residual dipolar couplings. The latter allows all motions occurring at timescales faster than the millisecond to be investigated, including physiologically important timescales. The information presents in those couplings is interpreted here using mainly analytical approaches in order to quantify the amounts of dynamics present in folded protein, to determine the direction of those motions and to obtain structural information within this conformational disorder. These analytical approaches are complemented by numerical methods, that allowed the observation of phenomena from a different point of view or the investigation of other systems such as intrinsically disordered proteins. All of these studies demonstrate an important complementarity between structural order and conformational disorder. (author)

  10. Efficient and reproducible folding simulations of the Trp-case protein with multiscale molecular dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA XueFeng; ZHANG Song; HUANG go; ZHOU Yun; SUN ZhiRong

    2008-01-01

    Folding simulations are often time-consuming or highly sensitive to the initial conformation of the simulation even for mini protein like the Trp-cage. Here, we present a multiscale molecular dynamics method which appears to be both efficient and insensitive to the starting conformation based on the testing results from the Trp-cage protein. In this method the simulated system is simultaneously modeled on atoms and coarse-grained particles with incremental coarsening levels. The dynamics of coarse-grained particles are adapted to the recent trajectories of finer-grained particles instead of fixed and parameterized energy functions as used in previous coarse-grained models. In addition, the compositions of coarse-grained particles are allowed to be updated automatically based on the coherence during its history. Starting from the fully extended conformation and other several different conformations of the Trp-cage protein, our method successfully finds out the native-like conformations of the Trp-cage protein in the largest cluster of the trajectories in all of the eight performed simulations within at most 10 ns simulation time. The results show that approaches based on multiscale modeling are promising for ab initio protein structure prediction.

  11. Thermodynamic Stabilization of the Folded Domain of Prion Protein Inhibits Prion Infection in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Kong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, are associated with the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, into a protease-resistant form, PrPSc. Here, we show that mutation-induced thermodynamic stabilization of the folded, α-helical domain of PrPC has a dramatic inhibitory effect on the conformational conversion of prion protein in vitro, as well as on the propagation of TSE disease in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing a human prion protein variant with increased thermodynamic stability were found to be much more resistant to infection with the TSE agent than those expressing wild-type human prion protein, in both the primary passage and three subsequent subpassages. These findings not only provide a line of evidence in support of the protein-only model of TSEs but also yield insight into the molecular nature of the PrPC→PrPSc conformational transition, and they suggest an approach to the treatment of prion diseases.

  12. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation rescues native folding in loss of function protein misfolding diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Song, Wensi; Brancati, Giovanna; Segatori, Laura

    2011-12-16

    Lysosomal storage disorders are often caused by mutations that destabilize native folding and impair trafficking of secretory proteins. We demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) prevents native folding of mutated lysosomal enzymes in patient-derived fibroblasts from two clinically distinct lysosomal storage disorders, namely Gaucher and Tay-Sachs disease. Prolonging ER retention via ERAD inhibition enhanced folding, trafficking, and activity of these unstable enzyme variants. Furthermore, combining ERAD inhibition with enhancement of the cellular folding capacity via proteostasis modulation resulted in synergistic rescue of mutated enzymes. ERAD inhibition was achieved by cell treatment with small molecules that interfere with recognition (kifunensine) or retrotranslocation (eeyarestatin I) of misfolded substrates. These different mechanisms of ERAD inhibition were shown to enhance ER retention of mutated proteins but were associated with dramatically different levels of ER stress, unfolded protein response activation, and unfolded protein response-induced apoptosis. PMID:22006919

  13. Flexible segments modulate co-folding of dUTPase and nucleocapsid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh-Pongrácz, Veronika; Barabás, Orsolya; Fuxreiter, Mónika; Simon, István; Pichová, Iva; Rumlová, Michalea; Zábranská, Helena; Svergun, Dmitri; Petoukhov, Maxim; Harmat, Veronika; Klement, Eva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Eva; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Kónya, Emese; Vértessy, Beáta G

    2007-01-01

    The homotrimeric fusion protein nucleocapsid (NC)-dUTPase combines domains that participate in RNA/DNA folding, reverse transcription, and DNA repair in Mason-Pfizer monkey betaretrovirus infected cells. The structural organization of the fusion protein remained obscured by the N- and C-terminal flexible segments of dUTPase and the linker region connecting the two domains that are invisible in electron density maps. Small-angle X-ray scattering reveals that upon oligonucleotide binding the NC domains adopt the trimeric symmetry of dUTPase. High-resolution X-ray structures together with molecular modeling indicate that fusion with NC domains dramatically alters the conformation of the flexible C-terminus by perturbing the orientation of a critical beta-strand. Consequently, the C-terminal segment is capable of double backing upon the active site of its own monomer and stabilized by non-covalent interactions formed with the N-terminal segment. This co-folding of the dUTPase terminal segments, not observable in other homologous enzymes, is due to the presence of the fused NC domain. Structural and genomic advantages of fusing the NC domain to a shortened dUTPase in betaretroviruses and the possible physiological consequences are envisaged. PMID:17169987

  14. Pharmacological chaperone reshapes the energy landscape for folding and aggregation of the prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amar Nath; Neupane, Krishna; Rezajooei, Negar; Cortez, Leonardo M; Sim, Valerie L; Woodside, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    The development of small-molecule pharmacological chaperones as therapeutics for protein misfolding diseases has proven challenging, partly because their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we study Fe-TMPyP, a tetrapyrrole that binds to the prion protein PrP and inhibits misfolding, examining its effects on PrP folding at the single-molecule level with force spectroscopy. Single PrP molecules are unfolded with and without Fe-TMPyP present using optical tweezers. Ligand binding to the native structure increases the unfolding force significantly and alters the transition state for unfolding, making it more brittle and raising the barrier height. Fe-TMPyP also binds the unfolded state, delaying native refolding. Furthermore, Fe-TMPyP binding blocks the formation of a stable misfolded dimer by interfering with intermolecular interactions, acting in a similar manner to some molecular chaperones. The ligand thus promotes native folding by stabilizing the native state while also suppressing interactions driving aggregation. PMID:27346148

  15. The Principle of Stationary Action in Biophysics: Stability in Protein Folding

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Processes that proceed reliably from a variety of initial conditions to a unique final form, regardless of moderately changing conditions, are of obvious importance in biophysics. Protein folding is a case in point. We show that the action principle can be applied directly to study the stability of biological processes. The action principle in classical physics starts with the first variation of the action and leads immediately to the equations of motion. The second variation of the action leads in a natural way to powerful theorems that provide quantitative treatment of stability and focusing and also explain how some very complex processes can behave as though some seemingly important forces drop out. We first apply these ideas to the non-equilibrium states involved in two-state folding. We treat torsional waves and use the action principle to talk about critical points in the dynamics. For some proteins the theory resembles TST. We reach several quantitative and qualitative conclusions. Besides giving an e...

  16. Pharmacological chaperone reshapes the energy landscape for folding and aggregation of the prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amar Nath; Neupane, Krishna; Rezajooei, Negar; Cortez, Leonardo M.; Sim, Valerie L.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The development of small-molecule pharmacological chaperones as therapeutics for protein misfolding diseases has proven challenging, partly because their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we study Fe-TMPyP, a tetrapyrrole that binds to the prion protein PrP and inhibits misfolding, examining its effects on PrP folding at the single-molecule level with force spectroscopy. Single PrP molecules are unfolded with and without Fe-TMPyP present using optical tweezers. Ligand binding to the native structure increases the unfolding force significantly and alters the transition state for unfolding, making it more brittle and raising the barrier height. Fe-TMPyP also binds the unfolded state, delaying native refolding. Furthermore, Fe-TMPyP binding blocks the formation of a stable misfolded dimer by interfering with intermolecular interactions, acting in a similar manner to some molecular chaperones. The ligand thus promotes native folding by stabilizing the native state while also suppressing interactions driving aggregation. PMID:27346148

  17. GANDivAWeb: A web server for detecting early folding units ("foldons" from protein 3D structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arun

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has long been known that small regions of proteins tend to fold independently and are then stabilized by interactions between these distinct subunits or modules. Such units, also known as autonomous folding units (AFUs or"foldons" play a key role in protein folding. A knowledge of such early folding units has diverse applications in protein engineering as well as in developing an understanding of the protein folding process. Such AFUs can also be used as model systems in order to study the structural organization of proteins. Results In an earlier work, we had utilized a global network partitioning algorithm to identify modules in proteins. We had shown that these modules correlate well with AFUs. In this work, we have developed a webserver, GANDivAWeb, to identify early folding units or "foldons" in networks using the algorithm described earlier. The website has three functionalities: (a It is able to display information on the modularity of a database of 1420 proteins used in the original work, (b It can take as input an uploaded PDB file, identify the modules using the GANDivA algorithm and email the results back to the user and (c It can take as input an uploaded PDB file and a results file (obtained from functionality (b and display the results using the embedded viewer. The results include the module decomposition of the protein, plots of cartoon representations of the protein colored by module identity and connectivity as well as contour plots of the hydrophobicity and relative accessible surface area (RASA distributions. Conclusion We believe that the GANDivAWeb server, will be a useful tool for scientists interested in the phenomena of protein folding as well as in protein engineering. Our tool not only provides a knowledge of the AFUs through a natural graph partitioning approach but is also able to identify residues that are critical during folding. It is our intention to use this tool to study the topological

  18. HIV-1 Envelope Proteins Complete Their Folding into Six-helix Bundles Immediately after Fusion Pore Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Markosyan, Ruben M; Cohen, Fredric S.; Melikyan, Grigory B.

    2003-01-01

    Fusion proteins of many viruses, including HIV-1 envelope protein (Env), fold into six-helix bundle structures. Fusion between individual Env-expressing cells and target cells was studied by fluorescence microscopy, and a temperature jump technique, to determine whether folding of Env into a bundle is complete by the time fusion pores have formed. Lowering temperature to 4°C immediately after a pore opened halted pore growth, which quickly resumed when temperature was raised again. HIV gp41-d...

  19. Mimicking the folding pathway to improve homology-free protein structure prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Karl; Debartolo, Joe; Colubri, Andres; Jha, Abhishek; Fitzgerald, James; Sosnick, Tobin

    2010-03-01

    Since demonstrating that a protein's sequence encodes its structure, the prediction of structure from sequence remains an outstanding problem that impacts numerous scientific disciplines including many genome projects. By iteratively fixing secondary structure assignments of residues during Monte Carlo simulations of folding, our coarse grained model without information concerning homology or explicit side chains outperforms current homology-based secondary structure prediction methods for many proteins. The computationally rapid algorithm using only single residue (phi, psi) dihedral angle moves also generates tertiary structures of comparable accuracy to existing all-atom methods for many small proteins, particularly ones with low homology. Hence, given appropriate search strategies and scoring functions, reduced representations can be used for accurately predicting secondary structure as well as providing three-dimensional structures, thereby increasing the size of proteins approachable by homology-free methods and the accuracy of template methods whose accuracy depends on the quality of the input secondary structure. Inclusion of information from evolutionarily related sequences enhances the statistics and the accuracy of the predictions.

  20. Single-molecule kinetics under force: probing protein folding and enzymatic activity with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wesley

    2010-03-01

    Weak non-covalent bonds between and within single molecules govern many aspects of biological structure and function (e.g. DNA base-paring, receptor-ligand binding, protein folding, etc.) In living systems, these interactions are often subject to mechanical forces, which can greatly alter their kinetics and activity. My group develops and applies novel single-molecule manipulation techniques to explore and quantify these force-dependent kinetics. Using optical tweezers, we have quantified the force-dependent unfolding and refolding kinetics of different proteins, including the cytoskeletal protein spectrin in collaboration with E. Evans's group [1], and the A2 domain of the von Willebrand factor blood clotting protein in collaboration with T. Springer's group [2]. Furthermore, we have studied the kinetics of the ADAMTS13 enzyme acting on a single A2 domain, and have shown that physiolgical forces in the circulation can act as a cofactor for enzymatic cleavage, regulating hemostatic activity [2]. References: 1. E. Evans, K. Halvorsen, K. Kinoshita, and W.P. Wong, Handbook of Single Molecule Biophysics, P. Hinterdorfer, ed., Springer (2009). 2. X. Zhang, K. Halvorsen, C.-Z. Zhang, W.P. Wong, and T.A. Springer, Science 324 (5932), 1330-1334 (2009).

  1. Kinks, loops, and protein folding, with protein A as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics and energetics of formation of loops in the 46-residue N-terminal fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A has been studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using coarse-grained molecular dynamics with the united-residue (UNRES) force field. The results have been analyzed in terms of a kink (heteroclinic standing wave solution) of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. In the case of proteins, the DNLS equation arises from a Cα-trace-based energy function. Three individual kink profiles were identified in the experimental three-α-helix structure of protein A, in the range of the Glu16-Asn29, Leu20-Asn29, and Gln33-Asn44 residues, respectively; these correspond to two loops in the native structure. UNRES simulations were started from the full right-handed α-helix to obtain a clear picture of kink formation, which would otherwise be blurred by helix formation. All three kinks emerged during coarse-grained simulations. It was found that the formation of each is accompanied by a local free energy increase; this is expressed as the change of UNRES energy which has the physical sense of the potential of mean force of a polypeptide chain. The increase is about 7 kcal/mol. This value can thus be considered as the free energy barrier to kink formation in full α-helical segments of polypeptide chains. During the simulations, the kinks emerge, disappear, propagate, and annihilate each other many times. It was found that the formation of a kink is initiated by an abrupt change in the orientation of a pair of consecutive side chains in the loop region. This resembles the formation of a Bloch wall along a spin chain, where the Cα backbone corresponds to the chain, and the amino acid side chains are interpreted as the spin variables. This observation suggests that nearest-neighbor side chain–side chain interactions are responsible for initiation of loop formation. It was also found that the individual kinks are

  2. Kinks, loops, and protein folding, with protein A as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokhotin, Andrey, E-mail: Andrei.Krokhotine@cern.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Liwo, Adam, E-mail: adam@chem.univ.gda.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Maisuradze, Gia G., E-mail: gm56@cornell.edu; Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.edu [Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 (United States); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours, France and Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-01-14

    The dynamics and energetics of formation of loops in the 46-residue N-terminal fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A has been studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using coarse-grained molecular dynamics with the united-residue (UNRES) force field. The results have been analyzed in terms of a kink (heteroclinic standing wave solution) of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. In the case of proteins, the DNLS equation arises from a C{sup α}-trace-based energy function. Three individual kink profiles were identified in the experimental three-α-helix structure of protein A, in the range of the Glu16-Asn29, Leu20-Asn29, and Gln33-Asn44 residues, respectively; these correspond to two loops in the native structure. UNRES simulations were started from the full right-handed α-helix to obtain a clear picture of kink formation, which would otherwise be blurred by helix formation. All three kinks emerged during coarse-grained simulations. It was found that the formation of each is accompanied by a local free energy increase; this is expressed as the change of UNRES energy which has the physical sense of the potential of mean force of a polypeptide chain. The increase is about 7 kcal/mol. This value can thus be considered as the free energy barrier to kink formation in full α-helical segments of polypeptide chains. During the simulations, the kinks emerge, disappear, propagate, and annihilate each other many times. It was found that the formation of a kink is initiated by an abrupt change in the orientation of a pair of consecutive side chains in the loop region. This resembles the formation of a Bloch wall along a spin chain, where the C{sup α} backbone corresponds to the chain, and the amino acid side chains are interpreted as the spin variables. This observation suggests that nearest-neighbor side chain–side chain interactions are responsible for initiation of loop formation. It was also found that the individual

  3. Web-based computational chemistry education with CHARMMing II: Coarse-grained protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Pickard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A lesson utilizing a coarse-grained (CG Gō-like model has been implemented into the CHARMM INterface and Graphics (CHARMMing web portal (www.charmming.org to the Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM molecular simulation package. While widely used to model various biophysical processes, such as protein folding and aggregation, CG models can also serve as an educational tool because they can provide qualitative descriptions of complex biophysical phenomena for a relatively cheap computational cost. As a proof of concept, this lesson demonstrates the construction of a CG model of a small globular protein, its simulation via Langevin dynamics, and the analysis of the resulting data. This lesson makes connections between modern molecular simulation techniques and topics commonly presented in an advanced undergraduate lecture on physical chemistry. It culminates in a straightforward analysis of a short dynamics trajectory of a small fast folding globular protein; we briefly describe the thermodynamic properties that can be calculated from this analysis. The assumptions inherent in the model and the data analysis are laid out in a clear, concise manner, and the techniques used are consistent with those employed by specialists in the field of CG modeling. One of the major tasks in building the Gō-like model is determining the relative strength of the nonbonded interactions between coarse-grained sites. New functionality has been added to CHARMMing to facilitate this process. The implementation of these features into CHARMMing helps automate many of the tedious aspects of constructing a CG Gō model. The CG model builder and its accompanying lesson should be a valuable tool to chemistry students, teachers, and modelers in the field.

  4. The structure of a haemopexin-fold protein from cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) suggests functional diversity of haemopexins in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of CP4, a haemopexin-fold protein from cow pea (Vigna unguiculata), has been determined at 2.1 Å resolution. The haemopexin fold is present in almost all life forms and is utilized for carrying out diverse physiological functions. The structure of CP4, a haemopexin-fold protein from cow pea (Vigna unguiculata), was determined at 2.1 Å resolution. The protein exists as a monomer both in solution and in the crystal. The structure revealed a typical four-bladed β-propeller topology. The protein exhibits 42% sequence similarity to LS-24 from Lathyrus sativus, with substantial differences in the surface-charge distribution and in the oligomeric state. A structure-based sequence analysis of haemopexin-fold proteins of plant and mammalian origin established a sequence signature associated with the haemopexin motif. This signature sequence enabled the identification of other proteins with possible haemopexin-like topology of both plant and animal origin. Although CP4 shares a structural fold with LS-24 and other haemopexins, biochemical studies indicated possible functional differences between CP4 and LS-24. While both of these proteins exhibit spermine-binding potential, CP4 does not bind to haem, unlike LS-24

  5. A protein folding potential that places the native states of a large number of proteins near a local minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crippen Gordon M

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a simple method to train a potential function for the protein folding problem which, even though trained using a small number of proteins, is able to place a significantly large number of native conformations near a local minimum. The training relies on generating decoys by energy minimization of the native conformations using the current potential and using a physically meaningful objective function (derivative of energy with respect to torsion angles at the native conformation during the quadratic programming to place the native conformation near a local minimum. Results We also compare the performance of three different types of energy functions and find that while the pairwise energy function is trainable, a solvation energy function by itself is untrainable if decoys are generated by minimizing the current potential starting at the native conformation. The best results are obtained when a pairwise interaction energy function is used with solvation energy function. Conclusions We are able to train a potential function using six proteins which places a total of 42 native conformations within ~4 Å rmsd and 71 native conformations within ~6 Å rmsd of a local minimum out of a total of 91 proteins. Furthermore, the threading test using the same 91 proteins ranks 89 native conformations to be first and the other two as second.

  6. Characterization of Non-Trivial Neighborhood Fold Constraints from Protein Sequences using Generalized Topohydrophobicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Fourty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of key features of protein structures, such as secondary structure, solvent accessibility and number of contacts between residues, provides useful structural constraints for comparative modeling, fold recognition, ab-initio fold prediction and detection of remote relationships. In this study, we aim at characterizing the number of non-trivial close neighbors, or long-range contacts of a residue, as a function of its “topohydrophobic” index deduced from multiple sequence alignments and of the secondary structure in which it is embedded. The “topohydrophobic” index is calculated using a twoclass distribution of amino acids, based on their mean atom depths. From a large set of structural alignments processed from the FSSP database, we selected 1485 structural sub-families including at least 8 members, with accurate alignments and limited redundancy. We show that residues within helices, even when deeply buried, have few non-trivial neighbors (0–2, whereas β-strand residues clearly exhibit a multimodal behavior, dominated by the local geometry of the tetrahedron (3 non-trivial close neighbors associated with one tetrahedron; 6 with two tetrahedra. This observed behavior allows the distinction, from sequence profiles, between edge and central β-strands within β-sheets. Useful topological constraints on the immediate neighborhood of an amino acid, but also on its correlated solvent accessibility, can thus be derived using this approach, from the simple knowledge of multiple sequence alignments.

  7. FoldMiner and LOCK 2: protein structure comparison and motif discovery on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jessica; Brutlag, Douglas

    2004-07-01

    The FoldMiner web server (http://foldminer.stanford.edu/) provides remote access to methods for protein structure alignment and unsupervised motif discovery. FoldMiner is unique among such algorithms in that it improves both the motif definition and the sensitivity of a structural similarity search by combining the search and motif discovery methods and using information from each process to enhance the other. In a typical run, a query structure is aligned to all structures in one of several databases of single domain targets in order to identify its structural neighbors and to discover a motif that is the basis for the similarity among the query and statistically significant targets. This process is fully automated, but options for manual refinement of the results are available as well. The server uses the Chime plugin and customized controls to allow for visualization of the motif and of structural superpositions. In addition, we provide an interface to the LOCK 2 algorithm for rapid alignments of a query structure to smaller numbers of user-specified targets. PMID:15215444

  8. Evaluating the effects of cutoffs and treatment of long-range electrostatics in protein folding simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piana

    Full Text Available The use of molecular dynamics simulations to provide atomic-level descriptions of biological processes tends to be computationally demanding, and a number of approximations are thus commonly employed to improve computational efficiency. In the past, the effect of these approximations on macromolecular structure and stability has been evaluated mostly through quantitative studies of small-molecule systems or qualitative observations of short-timescale simulations of biological macromolecules. Here we present a quantitative evaluation of two commonly employed approximations, using a test system that has been the subject of a number of previous protein folding studies--the villin headpiece. In particular, we examined the effect of (i the use of a cutoff-based force-shifting technique rather than an Ewald summation for the treatment of electrostatic interactions, and (ii the length of the cutoff used to determine how many pairwise interactions are included in the calculation of both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Our results show that the free energy of folding is relatively insensitive to the choice of cutoff beyond 9 Å, and to whether an Ewald method is used to account for long-range electrostatic interactions. In contrast, we find that the structural properties of the unfolded state depend more strongly on the two approximations examined here.

  9. A comparative method for finding and folding RNA secondary structures within protein-coding regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Meyer, Irmtraud Margret; Forsberg, Roald; Simmonds, Peter; Hein, Jotun

    2004-01-01

    Existing computational methods for RNA secondary-structure prediction tacitly assume RNA to only encode functional RNA structures. However, experimental studies have revealed that some RNA sequences, e.g. compact viral genomes, can simultaneously encode functional RNA structures as well as proteins...... that RNA-DECODER's parameters can be automatically trained to successfully fold known secondary structures within the HCV genome. We scan the genomes of HCV and polio virus for conserved secondary-structure elements, and analyze performance as a function of available evolutionary information. On known...... secondary structures, RNA-DECODER shows a sensitivity similar to the programs MFOLD, PFOLD and RNAALIFOLD. When scanning the entire genomes of HCV and polio virus for structure elements, RNA-DECODER's results indicate a markedly higher specificity than MFOLD, PFOLD and RNAALIFOLD....

  10. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  11. The unfolded protein response in retinal vascular diseases: implications and therapeutic potential beyond protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sarah X; Ma, Jacey H; Bhatta, Maulasri; Fliesler, Steven J; Wang, Joshua J

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex, step-wise process of new vessel formation that is involved in both normal embryonic development as well as postnatal pathological processes, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Aberrant blood vessel growth, also known as neovascularization, in the retina and the choroid is a major cause of vision loss in severe eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and central and branch retinal vein occlusion. Yet, retinal neovascularization is causally and dynamically associated with vasodegeneration, ischemia, and vascular remodeling in retinal tissues. Understanding the mechanisms of retinal neovascularization is an urgent unmet need for developing new treatments for these devastating diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests a vital role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) in regulation of angiogenesis, in part through coordinating the secretion of pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as VEGF, and modulating endothelial cell survival and activity. Herein, we summarize current research in the context of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and UPR signaling in retinal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, highlighting potential implications of targeting these stress response pathways in the prevention and treatment of retinal vascular diseases that result in visual deficits and blindness. PMID:25529848

  12. Disulfide bond formation and folding of plant peroxidases expressed as inclusion body protein in Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase negative strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, K; Ostergaard, L; Welinder, K G

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli is widely used for the production of proteins, which are of interest in structure and function studies. The folding yield of inclusion body protein is, however, generally low (a few percent) for proteins such as the plant and fungal peroxidases, which contain four disulfide bonds......, two Ca2+ ions, and a heme group. We have studied the expression yield and folding efficiency of (i) a novel Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase, ATP N; and (ii) barley grain peroxidase, BP 1. The expression yield ranges from 0 to 60 microgram/ml of cell culture depending on the peroxidase gene and the...

  13. On the origins of the weak folding cooperativity of a designed ββα ultrafast protein FSD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wu

    Full Text Available FSD-1, a designed small ultrafast folder with a ββα fold, has been actively studied in the last few years as a model system for studying protein folding mechanisms and for testing of the accuracy of computational models. The suitability of this protein to describe the folding of naturally occurring α/β proteins has recently been challenged based on the observation that the melting transition is very broad, with ill-resolved baselines. Using molecular dynamics simulations with the AMBER protein force field (ff96 coupled with the implicit solvent model (IGB = 5, we shed new light into the nature of this transition and resolve the experimental controversies. We show that the melting transition corresponds to the melting of the protein as a whole, and not solely to the helix-coil transition. The breadth of the folding transition arises from the spread in the melting temperatures (from ∼325 K to ∼302 K of the individual transitions: formation of the hydrophobic core, β-hairpin and tertiary fold, with the helix formed earlier. Our simulations initiated from an extended chain accurately predict the native structure, provide a reasonable estimate of the transition barrier height, and explicitly demonstrate the existence of multiple pathways and multiple transition states for folding. Our exhaustive sampling enables us to assess the quality of the Amber ff96/igb5 combination and reveals that while this force field can predict the correct native fold, it nonetheless overstabilizes the α-helix portion of the protein (Tm = ∼387K as well as the denatured structures.

  14. Folding free energy surfaces of three small proteins under crowding: validation of the postprocessing method by direct simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a ‘postprocessing’ method for modeling biochemical processes such as protein folding under crowded conditions (Qin and Zhou 2009 Biophys. J. 97 12–19). In contrast to the direct simulation approach, in which the protein undergoing folding is simulated along with crowders, the postprocessing method requires only the folding simulation without crowders. The influence of the crowders is then obtained by taking conformations from the crowder-free simulation and calculating the free energies of transferring to the crowders. This postprocessing yields the folding free energy surface of the protein under crowding. Here the postprocessing results for the folding of three small proteins under ‘repulsive’ crowding are validated by those obtained previously by the direct simulation approach (Mittal and Best 2010 Biophys. J. 98 315–20). This validation confirms the accuracy of the postprocessing approach and highlights its distinct advantages in modeling biochemical processes under cell-like crowded conditions, such as enabling an atomistic representation of the test proteins. (paper)

  15. How Co-translational Folding of Multi-domain Protein Is Affected by Elongation Schedule: Molecular Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hori, Naoto; Takada, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Co-translational folding (CTF) facilitates correct folding in vivo, but its precise mechanism remains elusive. For the CTF of a three-domain protein SufI, it was reported that the translational attenuation is obligatory to acquire the functional state. Here, to gain structural insights on the underlying mechanisms, we performed comparative molecular simulations of SufI that mimic CTF as well as refolding schemes. A CTF scheme that relied on a codon-based prediction of translational rates exhi...

  16. Hydrophobic photolabeling as a new method for structural characterization of molten globule and related protein folding intermediates.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Silva, P. R.; Lala, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in attempts to unravel the protein folding mechanism have indicated the need to identify the folding intermediates. Despite their transient nature, in a number of cases it has been possible to detect and characterize some of the equilibrium intermediates, for example, the molten globule (MG) state. The key features of the MG state are retention of substantial secondary structure of the native state, considerable loss of tertiary structure leading to increased hydrophobic expos...

  17. Identification of Characteristic Protein Folding Channels in a Coarse-Grained Hydrophobic-Polar Peptide Model

    OpenAIRE

    Schnabel, Stefan; Bachmann, Michael; Janke, Wolfhard

    2007-01-01

    Folding channels and free-energy landscapes of hydrophobic-polar heteropolymers are discussed on the basis of a minimalistic off-lattice coarse-grained model. We investigate how rearrangements of hydrophobic and polar monomers in a heteropolymer sequence lead to completely different folding behaviors. Studying three exemplified sequences with the same content of hydrophobic and polar residues, we can reproduce within this simple model two-state folding, folding through intermediates, as well ...

  18. Novel fold of VirA, a type III secretion system effector protein from Shigella flexneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jamaine; Wang, Jiawei; Tropea, Joseph E.; Zhang, Di; Dauter, Zbigniew; Waugh, David S.; Wlodawer, Alexander (SAIC); (NCI)

    2009-01-28

    VirA, a secreted effector protein from Shigella sp., has been shown to be necessary for its virulence. It was also reported that VirA might be related to papain-like cysteine proteases and cleave {alpha}-tubulin, thus facilitating intracellular spreading. We have now determined the crystal structure of VirA at 3.0 {angstrom} resolution. The shape of the molecule resembles the letter 'V,' with the residues in the N-terminal third of the 45-kDa molecule (some of which are disordered) forming one clearly identifiable domain, and the remainder of the molecule completing the V-like structure. The fold of VirA is unique and does not resemble that of any known protein, including papain, although its N-terminal domain is topologically similar to cysteine protease inhibitors such as stefin B. Analysis of the sequence conservation between VirA and its Escherichia coli homologs EspG and EspG2 did not result in identification of any putative protease-like active site, leaving open a possibility that the biological function of VirA in Shigella virulence may not involve direct proteolytic activity.

  19. Bloch spin waves and emergent structure in protein folding with HIV envelope glycoprotein as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng; Sieradzan, Adam; Ilieva, Nevena

    2016-03-01

    We inquire how structure emerges during the process of protein folding. For this we scrutinize collective many-atom motions during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce, develop, and employ various topological techniques, in combination with analytic tools that we deduce from the concept of integrable models and structure of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The example we consider is an α -helical subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41. The helical structure is stable when the subunit is part of the biological oligomer. But in isolation, the helix becomes unstable, and the monomer starts deforming. We follow the process computationally. We interpret the evolving structure both in terms of a backbone based Heisenberg spin chain and in terms of a side chain based XY spin chain. We find that in both cases the formation of protein supersecondary structure is akin the formation of a topological Bloch domain wall along a spin chain. During the process we identify three individual Bloch walls and we show that each of them can be modelled with a precision of tenths to several angstroms in terms of a soliton solution to a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  20. The PAM domain, a multi-protein complex-associated module with an all-alpha-helix fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaurralde Elisa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimeric protein complexes have a role in many cellular pathways and are highly interconnected with various other proteins. The characterization of their domain composition and organization provides useful information on the specific role of each region of their sequence. Results We identified a new module, the PAM domain (PCI/PINT associated module, present in single subunits of well characterized multiprotein complexes, like the regulatory lid of the 26S proteasome, the COP-9 signalosome and the Sac3-Thp1 complex. This module is an around 200 residue long domain with a predicted TPR-like all-alpha-helical fold. Conclusions The occurrence of the PAM domain in specific subunits of multimeric protein complexes, together with the role of other all-alpha-helical folds in protein-protein interactions, suggest a function for this domain in mediating transient binding to diverse target proteins.

  1. Structure–function–folding relationships and native energy landscape of dynein light chain protein: nuclear magnetic resonance insights

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Krishna Mohan; Ramakrishna V Hosur

    2009-09-01

    The detailed characterization of the structure, dynamics and folding process of a protein is crucial for understanding the biological functions it performs. Modern biophysical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have provided a way to obtain accurate structural and thermodynamic information on various species populated on the energy landscape of a given protein. In this context, we review here the structure–function–folding relationship of an important protein, namely, dynein light chain protein (DLC8). DLC8, the smallest subunit of the dynein motor complex, acts as a cargo adaptor. The protein exists as a dimer under physiological conditions and dissociates into a pure monomer below pH 4. Cargo binding occurs at the dimer interface. Dimer stability and relay of perturbations through the dimer interface are anticipated to be playing crucial roles in the variety of functions the protein performs. NMR investigations have provided great insights into these aspects of DLC8 in recent years.

  2. Tannin-assisted aggregation of natively unfolded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, D.; Narayanan, T.; Hagenmuller, D.; Baron, A.; Guyot, S.; Cabane, B.; Bouhallab, S.

    2008-06-01

    Tannin-protein interactions are essentially physical: hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond-mediated. We explored the tannin-assisted protein aggregation on the case of β-casein, which is a natively unfolded protein known for its ability to form micellar aggregates. We used several tannins with specified length. Our SAXS results show that small tannins increase the number of proteins per micelle, but keeping their size constant. It leads to a tannin-assisted compactization of micelles. Larger tannins, with linear dimensions greater than the crown width of micelles, lead to the aggregation of micelles by a bridging effect. Experimental results can be understood within a model where tannins are treated as effective enhancers of hydrophobic attraction between specific sites in proteins.

  3. De novo design of a four-fold symmetric TIM-barrel protein with atomic-level accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Velasco, D. Alejandro Fernandez; Höcker, Birte; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts for over 25 years, de novo protein design has not succeeded in achieving the TIM-barrel fold. Here we describe the computational design of 4-fold symmetrical (β/α)8-barrels guided by geometrical and chemical principles. Experimental characterization of 33 designs revealed the importance of sidechain-backbone hydrogen bonding for defining the strand register between repeat units. The X-ray crystal structure of a designed thermostable 184-residue protein is nearly identical with the designed TIM-barrel model. PSI-BLAST searches do not identify sequence similarities to known TIM-barrel proteins, and sensitive profile-profile searches indicate that the design sequence is distant from other naturally occurring TIM-barrel superfamilies, suggesting that Nature has only sampled a subset of the sequence space available to the TIM-barrel fold. The ability to de novo design TIM-barrels opens new possibilities for custom-made enzymes. PMID:26595462

  4. Early kinetic intermediate in the folding of acyl-CoA binding protein detected by fluorescence labeling and ultrarapid mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Maki, Kosuke; Kragelund, Birthe B;

    2002-01-01

    Early conformational events during folding of acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP), an 86-residue alpha-helical protein, were explored by using a continuous-flow mixing apparatus with a dead time of 70 micros to measure changes in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and tryptophan-dansyl fluorescence...... energy transfer. Although the folding of ACBP was initially described as a concerted two-state process, the tryptophan fluorescence measurements revealed a previously unresolved phase with a time constant tau = 80 micros, indicating formation of an intermediate with only slightly enhanced fluorescence of...... partially collapsed states with approximately 1/3 of the solvent-accessible surface buried. The findings indicate that ultrafast mixing methods combined with sensitive conformational probes can reveal transient accumulation of intermediate states in proteins with apparent two-state folding mechanisms....

  5. The Role of Backbone Hydrogen Bonds in the Transition State for Protein Folding of a PDZ Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren W. Pedersen

    Full Text Available Backbone hydrogen bonds are important for the structure and stability of proteins. However, since conventional site-directed mutagenesis cannot be applied to perturb the backbone, the contribution of these hydrogen bonds in protein folding and stability has been assessed only for a very limited set of small proteins. We have here investigated effects of five amide-to-ester mutations in the backbone of a PDZ domain, a 90-residue globular protein domain, to probe the influence of hydrogen bonds in a β-sheet for folding and stability. The amide-to-ester mutation removes NH-mediated hydrogen bonds and destabilizes hydrogen bonds formed by the carbonyl oxygen. The overall stability of the PDZ domain generally decreased for all amide-to-ester mutants due to an increase in the unfolding rate constant. For this particular region of the PDZ domain, it is therefore clear that native hydrogen bonds are formed after crossing of the rate-limiting barrier for folding. Moreover, three of the five amide-to-ester mutants displayed an increase in the folding rate constant suggesting that the hydrogen bonds are involved in non-native interactions in the transition state for folding.

  6. Protein P7 of the cystovirus φ6 is located at the three-fold axis of the unexpanded procapsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Katz

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the location of protein P7, the RNA packaging factor, in the procapsid of the φ6 cystovirus. A comparison of cryo-electron microscopy high-resolution single particle reconstructions of the φ6 complete unexpanded procapsid, the protein P2-minus procapsid (P2 is the RNA directed RNA-polymerase, and the P7-minus procapsid, show that prior to RNA packaging the P7 protein is located near the three-fold axis of symmetry. Difference maps highlight the precise position of P7 and demonstrate that in P7-minus particles the P2 proteins are less localized with reduced densities at the three-fold axes. We propose that P7 performs the mechanical function of stabilizing P2 on the inner protein P1 shell which ensures that entering viral single-stranded RNA is replicated.

  7. Folding behavior of four silks of giant honey bee reflects the evolutionary conservation of aculeate silk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitip, Jakkrawut; Trueman, Holly E; Kaehler, Benjamin D; Huttley, Gavin A; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Sutherland, Tara D

    2015-04-01

    Multiple gene duplication events in the precursor of the Aculeata (bees, ants, hornets) gave rise to four silk genes. Whilst these homologs encode proteins with similar amino acid composition and coiled coil structure, the retention of all four homologs implies they each are important. In this study we identified, produced and characterized the four silk proteins from Apis dorsata, the giant Asian honeybee. The proteins were readily purified, allowing us to investigate the folding behavior of solutions of individual proteins in comparison to mixtures of all four proteins at concentrations where they assemble into their native coiled coil structure. In contrast to solutions of any one protein type, solutions of a mixture of the four proteins formed coiled coils that were stable against dilution and detergent denaturation. The results are consistent with the formation of a heteromeric coiled coil protein complex. The mechanism of silk protein coiled coil formation and evolution is discussed in light of these results. PMID:25712559

  8. Structures of two Arabidopsis thaliana major latex proteins represent novel helix-grip folds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, Betsy L.; Song, Jikui; de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Peterson, Francis C.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.; (MCW); (UW)

    2009-06-02

    Here we report the first structures of two major latex proteins (MLPs) which display unique structural differences from the canonical Bet v 1 fold described earlier. MLP28 (SwissProt/TrEMBL ID Q9SSK9), the product of gene At1g70830.1, and the At1g24000.1 gene product (Swiss- Prot/TrEMBL ID P0C0B0), proteins which share 32% sequence identity, were independently selected as foldspace targets by the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics. The structure of a single domain (residues 17-173) of MLP28 was solved by NMR spectroscopy, while the full-length At1g24000.1 structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. MLP28 displays greater than 30% sequence identity to at least eight MLPs from other species. For example, the MLP28 sequence shares 64% identity to peach Pp-MLP119 and 55% identity to cucumber Csf2.20 In contrast, the At1g24000.1 sequence is highly divergent (see Fig. 1), containing a gap of 33 amino acids when compared with all other known MLPs. Even when the gap is excluded, the sequence identity with MLPs from other species is less than 30%. Unlike some of the MLPs from other species, none of the A. thaliana MLPs have been characterized biochemically. We show by NMR chemical shift mapping that At1g24000.1 binds progesterone, demonstrating that despite its sequence dissimilarity, the hydrophobic binding pocket is conserved and, therefore, may play a role in its biological function and that of the MLP family in general.

  9. Multiphase Simulated Annealing Based on Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein Distribution Applied to Protein Folding Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausto-Solis, Juan; Liñán-García, Ernesto; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan Paulo; González-Barbosa, J Javier; González-Flores, Carlos; Castilla-Valdez, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid Multiphase Simulated Annealing Algorithm using Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein distributions (MPSABBE) is proposed. MPSABBE was designed for solving the Protein Folding Problem (PFP) instances. This new approach has four phases: (i) Multiquenching Phase (MQP), (ii) Boltzmann Annealing Phase (BAP), (iii) Bose-Einstein Annealing Phase (BEAP), and (iv) Dynamical Equilibrium Phase (DEP). BAP and BEAP are simulated annealing searching procedures based on Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein distributions, respectively. DEP is also a simulated annealing search procedure, which is applied at the final temperature of the fourth phase, which can be seen as a second Bose-Einstein phase. MQP is a search process that ranges from extremely high to high temperatures, applying a very fast cooling process, and is not very restrictive to accept new solutions. However, BAP and BEAP range from high to low and from low to very low temperatures, respectively. They are more restrictive for accepting new solutions. DEP uses a particular heuristic to detect the stochastic equilibrium by applying a least squares method during its execution. MPSABBE parameters are tuned with an analytical method, which considers the maximal and minimal deterioration of problem instances. MPSABBE was tested with several instances of PFP, showing that the use of both distributions is better than using only the Boltzmann distribution on the classical SA. PMID:27413369

  10. Multiphase Simulated Annealing Based on Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein Distribution Applied to Protein Folding Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-García, Ernesto; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan Paulo; González-Barbosa, J. Javier; González-Flores, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid Multiphase Simulated Annealing Algorithm using Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein distributions (MPSABBE) is proposed. MPSABBE was designed for solving the Protein Folding Problem (PFP) instances. This new approach has four phases: (i) Multiquenching Phase (MQP), (ii) Boltzmann Annealing Phase (BAP), (iii) Bose-Einstein Annealing Phase (BEAP), and (iv) Dynamical Equilibrium Phase (DEP). BAP and BEAP are simulated annealing searching procedures based on Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein distributions, respectively. DEP is also a simulated annealing search procedure, which is applied at the final temperature of the fourth phase, which can be seen as a second Bose-Einstein phase. MQP is a search process that ranges from extremely high to high temperatures, applying a very fast cooling process, and is not very restrictive to accept new solutions. However, BAP and BEAP range from high to low and from low to very low temperatures, respectively. They are more restrictive for accepting new solutions. DEP uses a particular heuristic to detect the stochastic equilibrium by applying a least squares method during its execution. MPSABBE parameters are tuned with an analytical method, which considers the maximal and minimal deterioration of problem instances. MPSABBE was tested with several instances of PFP, showing that the use of both distributions is better than using only the Boltzmann distribution on the classical SA. PMID:27413369

  11. Investigation of the three-dimensional lattice HP protein folding model using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio L. Custódio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the hydrophobic-polar (HP protein folding model was developed using a genetic algorithm (GA to find the optimal structures on a 3D cubic lattice. A modification was introduced to the scoring system of the original model to improve the model's capacity to generate more natural-like structures. The modification was based on the assumption that it may be preferable for a hydrophobic monomer to have a polar neighbor than to be in direct contact with the polar solvent. The compactness and the segregation criteria were used to compare structures created by the original HP model and by the modified one. An islands' algorithm, a new selection scheme and multiple-points crossover were used to improve the performance of the algorithm. Ten sequences, seven with length 27 and three with length 64 were analyzed. Our results suggest that the modified model has a greater tendency to form globular structures. This might be preferable, since the original HP model does not take into account the positioning of long polar segments. The algorithm was implemented in the form of a program with a graphical user interface that might have a didactical potential in the study of GA and on the understanding of hydrophobic core formation.

  12. Early Events, Kinetic Intermediates and the Mechanism of Protein Folding in Cytochrome c

    OpenAIRE

    Kliger, David S.; Goldbeck, Robert A.; Eefei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the early events in cytochrome c folding are reviewed with a focus on the evidence for folding intermediates on the submillisecond timescale. Evidence from time-resolved absorption, circular dichroism, magnetic circular dichroism, fluorescence energy and electron transfer, small-angle X-ray scattering and amide hydrogen exchange studies on the t £ 1 ms timescale reveals a picture of cytochrome c folding that starts with the ~ 1-ms conformational diffusion dynamics of the un...

  13. A first-principles model of early evolution: emergence of gene families, species, and preferred protein folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin B Zeldovich

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we develop a microscopic physical model of early evolution where phenotype--organism life expectancy--is directly related to genotype--the stability of its proteins in their native conformations-which can be determined exactly in the model. Simulating the model on a computer, we consistently observe the "Big Bang" scenario whereby exponential population growth ensues as soon as favorable sequence-structure combinations (precursors of stable proteins are discovered. Upon that, random diversity of the structural space abruptly collapses into a small set of preferred proteins. We observe that protein folds remain stable and abundant in the population at timescales much greater than mutation or organism lifetime, and the distribution of the lifetimes of dominant folds in a population approximately follows a power law. The separation of evolutionary timescales between discovery of new folds and generation of new sequences gives rise to emergence of protein families and superfamilies whose sizes are power-law distributed, closely matching the same distributions for real proteins. On the population level we observe emergence of species--subpopulations that carry similar genomes. Further, we present a simple theory that relates stability of evolving proteins to the sizes of emerging genomes. Together, these results provide a microscopic first-principles picture of how first-gene families developed in the course of early evolution.

  14. A first-principles model of early evolution: emergence of gene families, species, and preferred protein folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldovich, Konstantin B; Chen, Peiqiu; Shakhnovich, Boris E; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2007-07-01

    In this work we develop a microscopic physical model of early evolution where phenotype--organism life expectancy--is directly related to genotype--the stability of its proteins in their native conformations-which can be determined exactly in the model. Simulating the model on a computer, we consistently observe the "Big Bang" scenario whereby exponential population growth ensues as soon as favorable sequence-structure combinations (precursors of stable proteins) are discovered. Upon that, random diversity of the structural space abruptly collapses into a small set of preferred proteins. We observe that protein folds remain stable and abundant in the population at timescales much greater than mutation or organism lifetime, and the distribution of the lifetimes of dominant folds in a population approximately follows a power law. The separation of evolutionary timescales between discovery of new folds and generation of new sequences gives rise to emergence of protein families and superfamilies whose sizes are power-law distributed, closely matching the same distributions for real proteins. On the population level we observe emergence of species--subpopulations that carry similar genomes. Further, we present a simple theory that relates stability of evolving proteins to the sizes of emerging genomes. Together, these results provide a microscopic first-principles picture of how first-gene families developed in the course of early evolution. PMID:17630830

  15. Fluid-assisted particulate flow of turbidites at very low temperature: A key to tight folding in a submarine Variscan foreland basin of SW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F. O.; Burg, J.-P.; Lechmann, S. M.; Schmalholz, S. M.

    2010-04-01

    The problem addressed in this article is how sedimentary formations like turbidites in a foreland basin, which include layers with apparently great competence contrast, can be tightly folded in a regular manner under very low temperature and pressure. This raises two major issues: the rheological behavior of the rocks at the time of folding and the role played by fluids. In order to understand very low temperature folding and the structural evolution of a submarine foreland basin, we carried out detailed structural work in turbidites with alternating sandstone and shale, for which estimated peak temperature conditions were top diagenetic to very low grade metamorphism. Folds are tight to isoclinal, with local collapsed hinges, which implies that the incompetent shale was mobile enough to flow away from strongly flattened areas. We did not find evidence for cataclastic flow or crystal plasticity at mesoscopic and microscopic scales. Other structures (mostly boudins, foliations, conjugate brittle faults, and quartz veins) associated with folds denote anisotropic compaction by fluid extraction during regional shortening. This is possible if the folded rocks were unconsolidated, fluid-saturated sediments. The estimated low peak temperature is consistent with the shale being unlithified. Poorly cemented grains are free to slide past one another under shallow burial or high pore pressure conditions. Following this line of thought, we consider independent particulate flow assisted by fluids under very low confining pressure (bean bag analogy) as the rock deformation mechanism active during the described intense folding. Similar deformation is likely occurring (and has occurred) in other submarine accretionary wedges.

  16. The Role of Short-Chain Conjugated Poly-(R-3-Hydroxybutyrate (cPHB in Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosetta N. Reusch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly-(R-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, a linear polymer of R-3-hydroxybutyrate (R-3HB, is a fundamental constituent of biological cells. Certain prokaryotes accumulate PHB of very high molecular weight (10,000 to >1,000,000 residues, which is segregated within granular deposits in the cytoplasm; however, all prokaryotes and all eukaryotes synthesize PHB of medium-chain length (~100–200 residues which resides within lipid bilayers or lipid vesicles, and PHB of short-chain length (<12 residues which is conjugated to proteins (cPHB, primarily proteins in membranes and organelles. The physical properties of cPHB indicate it plays important roles in the targeting and folding of cPHB-proteins. Here we review the occurrence, physical properties and molecular characteristics of cPHB, and discuss its influence on the folding and structure of outer membrane protein A (OmpA of Escherichia coli.

  17. Exact enumeration of Hamiltonian walks on the 4 × 4 × 4 cube and applications to protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamiltonian walks on lattices are model systems for compact polymers such as proteins. Here we enumerate exactly the number of Hamiltonian walks on the 4 × 4 × 4 cube and give estimates up to the 7 × 7 × 7 cube through Monte Carlo methods. We find that the number of configurations grows faster with chain length than previously anticipated. Finally, we discuss uniqueness of ground states in the HP model for protein folding. (paper)

  18. Loss of dispersion energy changes the stability and folding/unfolding equilibrium of the Trp-Cage protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Jiří; Vondrášek, Jiří; Hobza, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 16 (2009), s. 5657-5660. ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA203/06/1727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Trp-Cage protein * dispersion energy * protein folding Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.471, year: 2009

  19. Early Events, Kinetic Intermediates and the Mechanism of Protein Folding in Cytochrome c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Kliger

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic studies of the early events in cytochrome c folding are reviewed with a focus on the evidence for folding intermediates on the submillisecond timescale. Evidence from time-resolved absorption, circular dichroism, magnetic circular dichroism, fluorescence energy and electron transfer, small-angle X-ray scattering and amide hydrogen exchange studies on the t £ 1 ms timescale reveals a picture of cytochrome c folding that starts with the ~ 1-ms conformational diffusion dynamics of the unfolded chains. A fractional population of the unfolded chains collapses on the 1 – 100 ms timescale to a compact intermediate IC containing some native-like secondary structure. Although the existence and nature of IC as a discrete folding intermediate remains controversial, there is extensive high time-resolution kinetic evidence for the rapid formation of IC as a true intermediate, i.e., a metastable state separated from the unfolded state by a discrete free energy barrier. Final folding to the native state takes place on millisecond and longer timescales, depending on the presence of kinetic traps such as heme misligation and proline mis-isomerization. The high folding rates observed in equilibrium molten globule models suggest that IC may be a productive folding intermediate. Whether it is an obligatory step on the pathway to the high free energy barrier associated with millisecond timescale folding to the native state, however, remains to be determined.

  20. Simian Virus 40 depends on ER protein folding and quality control factors for entry into host cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelhaas, Mario; Malmström, Johan; Pelkmans, Lucas; Haugstetter, Johannes; Ellgaard, Lars; Grünewald, Kay; Helenius, Ari

    2007-01-01

    12 of 72 VP1 pentamers. Cryo-electron tomography indicated that loss of interchain disulfides coupled with calcium depletion induces selective dissociation of the 12 vertex pentamers, a step likely to mimic uncoating of the virus in the cytosol. Thus, the virus utilizes the protein folding machinery...

  1. Active site mutations in yeast protein disulfide isomerase cause dithiothreitol sensitivity and a reduced rate of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Tachibana, C; Winther, Jakob R.

    1997-01-01

    . Such mutations had no significant effect on growth. The domains however, were not equivalent since the rate of folding of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) in vivo was reduced by inactivation of the a domain but not the a' domain. To investigate the relevance of PDI redox potential, the G and H positions of...... each CGHC active site were randomly mutagenized. The resulting mutant PDIs were ranked by their growth phenotype on medium containing increasing concentrations of DTT. The rate of CPY folding in the mutants showed the same ranking as the DTT sensitivity, suggesting that the oxidative power of PDI is an...... important factor in folding in vivo. Mutants with a PDI that cannot perform oxidation reactions on its own (CGHS) had a strongly reduced growth rate. The growth rates, however, did not correlate with CPY folding, suggesting that the protein(s) required for optimal growth are dependent on PDI for oxidation...

  2. Insights from the Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Topoisomerase I with a Novel Protein Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Kemin; Cao, Nan; Cheng, Bokun; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching

    2016-01-16

    The DNA topoisomerase I enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtTOP1) is essential for the viability of the organism and survival in a murine model. This topoisomerase is being pursued as a novel target for the discovery of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. In this study, we succeeded in obtaining a structure of MtTOP1 by first predicting that the C-terminal region of MtTOP1 contains four repeated domains that do not involve the Zn-binding tetracysteine motifs seen in the C-terminal domains of Escherichia coli topoisomerase I. A construct (amino acids A2-T704), MtTOP1-704t, that includes the N-terminal domains (D1-D4) and the first predicted C-terminal domain (D5) of MtTOP1 was expressed and found to retain DNA cleavage-religation activity and catalyze single-stranded DNA catenation. MtTOP1-704t was crystallized, and a structure of 2.52 angstrom resolution limit was obtained. The structure of the MtTOP1 N-terminal domains has features that have not been observed in other previously available bacterial topoisomerase I crystal structures. The first C-terminal domain D5 forms a novel protein fold of a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet stabilized by a crossing-over alpha-helix. Since there is only one type IA topoisomerase present in Mycobacteriaceae and related Actinobacteria, this subfamily of type IA topoisomerase may be required for multiple functions in DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and repair. The unique structural features observed for MtTOP1 may allow these topoisomerase I enzymes to carry out physiological functions associated with topoisomerase III enzyme in other bacteria.

  3. How Co-translational Folding of Multi-domain Protein Is Affected by Elongation Schedule: Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hori, Naoto; Takada, Shoji

    2015-07-01

    Co-translational folding (CTF) facilitates correct folding in vivo, but its precise mechanism remains elusive. For the CTF of a three-domain protein SufI, it was reported that the translational attenuation is obligatory to acquire the functional state. Here, to gain structural insights on the underlying mechanisms, we performed comparative molecular simulations of SufI that mimic CTF as well as refolding schemes. A CTF scheme that relied on a codon-based prediction of translational rates exhibited folding probability markedly higher than that by the refolding scheme. When the CTF schedule is speeded up, the success rate dropped. These agree with experiments. Structural investigation clarified that misfolding of the middle domain was much more frequent in the refolding scheme than that in the codon-based CTF scheme. The middle domain is less stable and can fold via interactions with the folded N-terminal domain. Folding pathway networks showed the codon-based CTF gives narrower pathways to the native state than the refolding scheme. PMID:26158498

  4. Water and molecular chaperones act as weak links of protein folding networks: energy landscape and punctuated equilibrium changes point towards a game theory of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Istvan A.; Szalay, Mate S.; Csermely, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Water molecules and molecular chaperones efficiently help the protein folding process. Here we describe their action in the context of the energy and topological networks of proteins. In energy terms water and chaperones were suggested to decrease the activation energy between various local energy minima smoothing the energy landscape, rescuing misfolded proteins from conformational traps and stabilizing their native structure. In kinetic terms water and chaperones may make the punctuated equ...

  5. Identification of intermediate species in protein-folding by quantitative analysis of amplitudes in time-domain fluorescence spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anoop M Saxena; G Krishnamoorthy; Jayant B Udgaonkar; N Periasamy

    2007-03-01

    In protein-folding studies it is often required to differentiate a system with only two-states, namely the native (N) and unfolded (U) forms of the protein present at any condition of the solvent, from a situation wherein intermediate state(s) could also be present. This differentiation of a two-state from a multi-state structural transition is non-trivial when studied by the several steady-state spectroscopic methods that are popular in protein-folding studies. In contrast to the steady-state methods, time-resolved fluorescence has the capability to reveal the presence of heterogeneity of structural forms due to the `fingerprint’ nature of fluorescence lifetimes of various forms. In this work, we establish this method by quantitative analysis of amplitudes associated with fluorescence lifetimes in multiexponential decays. First, we show that we can estimate, accurately, the relative population of species from two-component mixtures of non-interacting molecules such as fluorescent dyes, peptides and proteins. Subsequently, we demonstrate, by analysing the amplitudes of fluorescence lifetimes which are controlled by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), that the equilibrium folding-unfolding transition of the small singledomain protein barstar is not a two-step process.

  6. Property-based sequence representations do not adequately encode local protein folding information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, A D; Rackovsky, S

    2007-06-01

    We examine the informatic characteristics of amino acid representations based on physical properties. We demonstrate that sequences rewritten using contracted alphabets based on physical properties do not encode local folding information well. The best four-character alphabet can only encode approximately 57% of the maximum possible amount of structural information. This result suggests that property-based representations that operate on a local length scale are not likely to be useful in homology searches and fold-recognition exercises. PMID:17387739

  7. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni Cj0090 protein reveals a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold among bacterial lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seonghee; Kawai, Fumihiro; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2012-12-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The genome of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborn pathogen, is predicted to contain over 20 lipoproteins. However, the functions of the majority of C. jejuni lipoproteins remain unknown. The Cj0090 protein is encoded by a lipoprotein operon composed of cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091. Here, we report the crystal structure of Cj0090 at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold with β-sandwich architecture. The structure suggests that Cj0090 may be involved in protein-protein interactions, consistent with a possible role for bacterial lipoproteins. PMID:22987763

  8. Dependence of α-helical and β-sheet amino acid propensities on the overall protein fold type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara Kazuo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of studies have been carried out to obtain amino acid propensities for α-helices and β-sheets. The obtained propensities for α-helices are consistent with each other, and the pair-wise correlation coefficient is frequently high. On the other hand, the β-sheet propensities obtained by several studies differed significantly, indicating that the context significantly affects β-sheet propensity. Results We calculated amino acid propensities for α-helices and β-sheets for 39 and 24 protein folds, respectively, and addressed whether they correlate with the fold. The propensities were also calculated for exposed and buried sites, respectively. Results showed that α-helix propensities do not differ significantly by fold, but β-sheet propensities are diverse and depend on the fold. The propensities calculated for exposed sites and buried sites are similar for α-helix, but such is not the case for the β-sheet propensities. We also found some fold dependence on amino acid frequency in β-strands. Folds with a high Ser, Thr and Asn content at exposed sites in β-strands tend to have a low Leu, Ile, Glu, Lys and Arg content (correlation coefficient = −0.90 and to have flat β-sheets. At buried sites in β-strands, the content of Tyr, Trp, Gln and Ser correlates negatively with the content of Val, Ile and Leu (correlation coefficient = −0.93. "All-β" proteins tend to have a higher content of Tyr, Trp, Gln and Ser, whereas "α/β" proteins tend to have a higher content of Val, Ile and Leu. Conclusions The α-helix propensities are similar for all folds and for exposed and buried residues. However, β-sheet propensities calculated for exposed residues differ from those for buried residues, indicating that the exposed-residue fraction is one of the major factors governing amino acid composition in β-strands. Furthermore, the correlations we detected suggest that amino acid composition is related to folding

  9. Mechanism of chromophore assisted laser inactivation employing fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mark A; Rajfur, Zenon; Chen, Zaozao; Humphrey, David; Yang, Bing; Sligar, Stephen G; Jacobson, Ken

    2009-03-01

    Chromophore assisted laser inactivation (CALI) is a technique that uses irradiation of chromophores proximate to a target protein to inactivate function. Previously, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mediated CALI has been used to inactivate EGFP-fusion proteins in a spatio-temporally defined manner within cells, but the mechanism of inactivation is unknown. To help elucidate the mechanism of protein inactivation mediated by fluorescent protein CALI ([FP]-CALI), the activities of purified glutathione-S-transferase-FP (GST-EXFP) fusions were measured after laser irradiation in vitro. Singlet oxygen and free radical quenchers as well as the removal of oxygen inhibited CALI, indicating the involvement of a reactive oxygen species (ROS). At higher concentrations of protein, turbidity after CALI increased significantly indicating cross-linking of proximate fusion proteins suggesting that damage of residues on the surface of the protein, distant from the active site, results in inactivation. Control experiments removed sample heating as a possible cause of these effects. Different FP mutants fused to GST vary in their CALI efficiency in the order enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) > enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) > enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), while a GST construct that binds fluorescein-based arsenical hairpin binder (FlAsH) results in significantly higher CALI efficiency than any of the fluorescent proteins (XFPs) tested. It is likely that the hierarchy of XFP effectiveness reflects the balance between ROS that are trapped within the XFP structure and cause fluorophore and chromophore bleaching and those that escape to effect CALI of proximate proteins. PMID:19199572

  10. The contributions of protein disulfide isomerase and its homologues to oxidative protein folding in the yeast endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Ruoyu; Wilkinson, Bonney; Solovyov, Anton; Winther, Jakob R.; Holmgren, Arne; Lundström-Ljung, Johanna; Gilbert, Hiram F

    2004-01-01

    In vitro, protein disulfide isomerase (Pdi1p) introduces disulfides into proteins (oxidase activity) and provides quality control by catalyzing the rearrangement of incorrect disulfides (isomerase activity). Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an essential protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bu...

  11. Unfolding and Folding of the Three-Helix Bundle Protein KIX in the Absence of Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schennach, Moritz; Schneeberger, Eva-Maria; Breuker, Kathrin

    2016-03-01

    Electron capture dissociation was used to probe the structure, unfolding, and folding of KIX ions in the gas phase. At energies for vibrational activation that were sufficiently high to cause loss of small molecules such as NH3 and H2O by breaking of covalent bonds in about 5% of the KIX (M + nH)n+ ions with n = 7-9, only partial unfolding was observed, consistent with our previous hypothesis that salt bridges play an important role in stabilizing the native solution fold after transfer into the gas phase. Folding of the partially unfolded ions on a timescale of up to 10 s was observed only for (M + nH)n+ ions with n = 9, but not n = 7 and n = 8, which we attribute to differences in the distribution of charges within the (M + nH)n+ ions.

  12. A knowledge-based potential highlights unique features of membrane α-helical and β-barrel protein insertion and folding

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Daniel; Davis, Alexander; Nanda, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Outer membrane β-barrel proteins differ from α-helical inner membrane proteins in lipid environment, secondary structure, and the proposed processes of folding and insertion. It is reasonable to expect that outer membrane proteins may contain primary sequence information specific for their folding and insertion behavior. In previous work, a depth-dependent insertion potential, Ez, was derived for α-helical inner membrane proteins. We have generated an equivalent potential for TM β-barrel prot...

  13. Folding machineries displayed on a cation-exchanger for the concerted refolding of cysteine- or proline-rich proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dae-Hee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli has been most widely used for the production of valuable recombinant proteins. However, over-production of heterologous proteins in E. coli frequently leads to their misfolding and aggregation yielding inclusion bodies. Previous attempts to refold the inclusion bodies into bioactive forms usually result in poor recovery and account for the major cost in industrial production of desired proteins from recombinant E. coli. Here, we describe the successful use of the immobilized folding machineries for in vitro refolding with the examples of high yield refolding of a ribonuclease A (RNase A and cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO. Results We have generated refolding-facilitating media immobilized with three folding machineries, mini-chaperone (a monomeric apical domain consisting of residues 191–345 of GroEL and two foldases (DsbA and human peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase by mimicking oxidative refolding chromatography. For efficient and simple purification and immobilization simultaneously, folding machineries were fused with the positively-charged consecutive 10-arginine tag at their C-terminal. The immobilized folding machineries were fully functional when assayed in a batch mode. When the refolding-facilitating matrices were applied to the refolding of denatured and reduced RNase A and CHMO, both of which contain many cysteine and proline residues, RNase A and CHMO were recovered in 73% and 53% yield of soluble protein with full enzyme activity, respectively. Conclusion The refolding-facilitating media presented here could be a cost-efficient platform and should be applicable to refold a wide range of E. coli inclusion bodies in high yield with biological function.

  14. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni Cj0090 protein reveals a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold among bacterial lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Paek, Seonghee; Kawai, Fumihiro; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The genome of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborn pathogen, is predicted to contain over 20 lipoproteins. However, the functions of the majority of C. jejuni lipoproteins remain unknown. The Cj0090 protein is encoded by a lipoprotein operon composed of cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091. Here, we report the crystal structure of Cj0090 at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold wit...

  15. Basic Tilted Helix Bundle – A new protein fold in human FKBP25/FKBP3 and HectD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We describe the structure of a novel fold in FKBP25 and HectD. • The new fold is named the Basic Tilted Helix Bundle (BTHB) domain. • A conserved basic surface patch is presented, suggesting a functional role. - Abstract: In this paper, we describe the structure of a N-terminal domain motif in nuclear-localized FKBP251–73, a member of the FKBP family, together with the structure of a sequence-related subdomain of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HectD1 that we show belongs to the same fold. This motif adopts a compact 5-helix bundle which we name the Basic Tilted Helix Bundle (BTHB) domain. A positively charged surface patch, structurally centered around the tilted helix H4, is present in both FKBP25 and HectD1 and is conserved in both proteins, suggesting a conserved functional role. We provide detailed comparative analysis of the structures of the two proteins and their sequence similarities, and analysis of the interaction of the proposed FKBP25 binding protein YY1. We suggest that the basic motif in BTHB is involved in the observed DNA binding of FKBP25, and that the function of this domain can be affected by regulatory YY1 binding and/or interactions with adjacent domains

  16. Basic Tilted Helix Bundle – A new protein fold in human FKBP25/FKBP3 and HectD1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, Sara; Montecchio, Meri [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Chemistry, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Lemak, Alexander [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada); Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farès, Christophe [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada); Almlöf, Jonas [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Chemistry, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Li, Yanjun [Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, 101 College St, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada); Yee, Adelinda [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada); Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Arrowsmith, Cheryl H. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada); Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, 101 College St, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada); Dhe-Paganon, Sirano [Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, 101 College St, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada); Sunnerhagen, Maria, E-mail: maria.sunnerhagen@liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Chemistry, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • We describe the structure of a novel fold in FKBP25 and HectD. • The new fold is named the Basic Tilted Helix Bundle (BTHB) domain. • A conserved basic surface patch is presented, suggesting a functional role. - Abstract: In this paper, we describe the structure of a N-terminal domain motif in nuclear-localized FKBP25{sub 1–73}, a member of the FKBP family, together with the structure of a sequence-related subdomain of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HectD1 that we show belongs to the same fold. This motif adopts a compact 5-helix bundle which we name the Basic Tilted Helix Bundle (BTHB) domain. A positively charged surface patch, structurally centered around the tilted helix H4, is present in both FKBP25 and HectD1 and is conserved in both proteins, suggesting a conserved functional role. We provide detailed comparative analysis of the structures of the two proteins and their sequence similarities, and analysis of the interaction of the proposed FKBP25 binding protein YY1. We suggest that the basic motif in BTHB is involved in the observed DNA binding of FKBP25, and that the function of this domain can be affected by regulatory YY1 binding and/or interactions with adjacent domains.

  17. Multipixel spectral imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in COS-7 cells: folding kinetics and chromophore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Lior; Rothmann, Chana; Hanania, Judith; Malik, Zvi

    2000-12-01

    Spectrally resolved imaging of Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in living COS-7 kidney cells distinguished the subcellular localization and demarcated the processes of protein folding and chromophore formation. COS-7 kidney cells were transfected by a plasmid pEGFP-N1 plasmid followed by incubation for 15 hours for gen expression. At different intervals the cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy and analyzed by a spectral imaging system. After 7 hours, GFP was detected in the cytoplasm, concentrated in a localized form. Spectra of the initial GFP evinced several components that belong both tot he typical fluorescent signal as well as to unspecific fingerprints. At 10 and 15 hours, GFP was seen spread in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus, and the specific spectra of the GFP were dominant at the later time. The typical GFP spectral fingerprint is the result of protein folding and chromophore formation following internal oxidation reactions. This folding and chromophore formation process, up to final conformation, was detected by spectral imaging as localized in the nucleus rather than in the cytosol. Thus, the method of fluorescence microscopy combined with multiplex spectral imaging demonstrates distinct biochemical pathways leading to GFP conformation.

  18. Symmetric Key Structural Residues in Symmetric Proteins with Beta-Trefoil Fold

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jianhui; Li, Mingfeng; Huang, Yanzhao; Xiao, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To understand how symmetric structures of many proteins are formed from asymmetric sequences, the proteins with two repeated beta-trefoil domains in Plant Cytotoxin B-chain family and all presently known beta-trefoil proteins are analyzed by structure-based multi-sequence alignments. The results show that all these proteins have similar key structural residues that are distributed symmetrically in their structures. These symmetric key structural residues are further analyzed in terms of inter...

  19. Water and molecular chaperones act as weak links of protein folding networks: energy landscape and punctuated equilibrium changes point towards a game theory of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, István A; Szalay, Máté S; Csermely, Peter

    2005-04-25

    Water molecules and molecular chaperones efficiently help the protein folding process. Here we describe their action in the context of the energy and topological networks of proteins. In energy terms water and chaperones were suggested to decrease the activation energy between various local energy minima smoothing the energy landscape, rescuing misfolded proteins from conformational traps and stabilizing their native structure. In kinetic terms water and chaperones may make the punctuated equilibrium of conformational changes less punctuated and help protein relaxation. Finally, water and chaperones may help the convergence of multiple energy landscapes during protein-macromolecule interactions. We also discuss the possibility of the introduction of protein games to narrow the multitude of the energy landscapes when a protein binds to another macromolecule. Both water and chaperones provide a diffuse set of rapidly fluctuating weak links (low affinity and low probability interactions), which allow the generalization of all these statements to a multitude of networks. PMID:15848154

  20. Scale-free behaviour of amino acid pair interactions in folded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen B.; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Mortensen, Rasmus J.;

    2012-01-01

    The protein structure is a cumulative result of interactions between amino acid residues interacting with each other through space and/or chemical bonds. Despite the large number of high resolution protein structures, the ‘‘protein structure code’’ has not been fully identified. Our manuscript...... presents a novel approach to protein structure analysis in order to identify rules for spatial packing of amino acid pairs in proteins. We have investigated 8706 high resolution non-redundant protein chains and quantified amino acid pair interactions in terms of solvent accessibility, spatial and sequence...... are in buried a-helices or b-strands, in a spatial distance of 3.8–4.3A° and in a sequence distance .4 residues. We speculate that the scale free organization of the amino acid pair interactions in the 8D protein structure combined with the clear dominance of pairs of Ala, Ile, Leu and Val is...

  1. Translational diffusion of hydration water correlates with functional motions in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fichou, Yann; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Wuttke, Joachim; Tobias, Douglas J.; Weik, Martin; Gallat, Francois-Xavier,; Wood, Kathleen; Gabel, Frank; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Heyden, Matthias; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Orecchini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Hydration ​water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between ​water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration ​water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300 K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human pr...

  2. Automatic recognition of hydrophobic clusters and their correlation with protein folding units.

    OpenAIRE

    Zehfus, M. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described to objectively identify hydrophobic clusters in proteins of known structure. Clusters are found by examining a protein for compact groupings of side chains. Compact clusters contain seven or more residues, have an average of 65% hydrophobic residues, and usually occur in protein interiors. Although smaller clusters contain only side-chain moieties, larger clusters enclose significant portions of the peptide backbone in regular secondary structure. These clusters agree we...

  3. Techniques for the Analysis of Cysteine Sulfhydryls and Oxidative Protein Folding

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Chad R.; Sherma, Nisha D.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Modification of cysteine thiols dramatically affects protein function and stability. Hence, the abilities to quantify specific protein sulfhydryl groups within complex biological samples and map disulfide bond structures are crucial to gaining greater insights into how proteins operate in human health and disease. Recent Advances: Many different molecular probes are now commercially available to label and track cysteine residues at great sensitivity. Coupled with mass spectromet...

  4. Folding and unfolding mechanism of highly stable full-consensus ankyrin repeat proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzel, S K; Settanni, G.; Kenig, M; Binz, H K; Plückthun, A

    2008-01-01

    Full-consensus designed ankyrin repeat proteins were designed with one to six identical repeats flanked by capping repeats. These proteins express well in Escherichia coli as soluble monomers. Compared to our previously described designed ankyrin repeat protein library, randomized positions have now been fixed according to sequence statistics and structural considerations. Their stability increases with length and is even higher than that of library members, and those with more than three int...

  5. Rise-time of FRET-acceptor fluorescence tracks protein folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Westphal, A.H.; Van Mierlo, C.P.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Borst, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Uniform labeling of proteins with fluorescent donor and acceptor dyes with an equimolar ratio is paramount for accurate determination of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiencies. In practice, however, the labeled protein population contains donor-labeled molecules that have no correspon

  6. Long range correlations and folding angle in polymers with applications to {\\alpha}-helical proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Niemi, Antti J

    2013-01-01

    The conformational complexity of linear polymers far exceeds that of point-like atoms and molecules. Polymers can bend, twist, even become knotted. Thus they may also display a much richer phase structure than point particles. But it is not very easy to characterize the phase of a polymer. Essentially, the only attribute is the radius of gyration. The way how it changes when the degree of polymerization becomes different, and how it evolves when the ambient temperature and solvent properties change, discloses the phase of the polymer. Moreover, in any finite length chain there are corrections to scaling, that complicate the detailed analysis of the phase structure. Here we introduce a quantity that we call the folding angle, a novel tool to identify and scrutinize the phases of polymers. We argue for a mean-field relationship between its values and those of the scaling exponent in the radius of gyration. But unlike in the case of the radius of gyration, the value of the folding angle can be evaluated from a s...

  7. TDP-43 Proteinopathies: A New Player in Neurodegenerative Diseases with Defective Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Lahut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proteome is the sum of all proteins inside a cell, and proteostasis (protein homeostasis is the stable condition of the proteome. Proteostasis is essential for the cellular and organismal health. Stress, aging and the chronic expression of misfolded proteins challenge the proteostasis machinery and the vitality of the cell. There is increasing evidence that the accumulation of damaged proteins not only has direct consequences on the efficiency and fidelity of cellular processes but, when not corrected, that they initiate a cascade of dysfunction, which in humans is associated with a plethora of diseases of protein conformation, referred to as proteinopathies. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD, Huntington’s Disease (HD, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, cancer and diabetes, whose frequencies have drastically increased in countries with aging populations, are all consequences of misfolded proteins. This paper focuses on TDP-43, which excelled as a key protein in neurodegenerative processes because of its association with different diseases, especially with ALS and Frontotemporal Lobar Dementia (FTLD, the two best studied examples of TDP-43 proteinopathies.

  8. Trigger factor: a soluble protein that folds pro-OmpA into a membrane-assembly-competent form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pro-OmpA that is synthesized in vitro can assemble into bacterial inner membrane vesicles in the presence of ATP and NADH. The authors have purified pro-OmpA to determine which additional soluble proteins are necessary for its membrane assembly. [35S]Pro-OmpA was bound to Sepharose-linked antibody to OmpA, then eluted with 8 M urea and chromatographed on an anion-exchange resin in 8 M urea. This pro-OmpA is purified 2000-fold and is radiochemically pure. After dialysis, it is soluble but incompetent for membrane assembly. Addition of an Escherichia coli cytoplasmic fraction (S100) to the assembly reaction does not allow translocation. However, when S100 is added to pro-OmpA prior to dialysis, full assembly competence is restored, suggesting that a soluble factor, termed trigger factor, triggers the folding of pro-OmpA into an assembly-competent form as the urea is removed. They noted that, prior to the last purification step, the immunoaffinity-purified pro-OmpA was partially competent for membrane assembly without addition of trigger factor. To test whether trigger factor had bound to the antibody column by means of its association with pro-OmpA, the crude pro-OmpA was acid-denatured prior to immunoadsorption. In this experiment, the trigger factor did not bind to the anti-OmpA column, and S100 was required for renaturation of this [35S]pro-OmpA. As suggested by this experiment, the crude [35S]pro-OmpA was in complex with other proteins. Sedimentation velocity studies showed that the trigger factor has an apparent molecular weight of ≅ 60,000. They propose that it is required for translocation-competent folding of pro-OmpA and other precursor proteins

  9. Small antibody-like proteins with prescribed ligand specificities derived from the lipocalin fold

    OpenAIRE

    Beste, Gerald; Schmidt, Frank S.; Stibora, Thomas; Skerra, Arne

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that the ligand pocket of a lipocalin from Pieris brassicae, the bilin-binding protein (BBP), can be reshaped by combinatorial protein design such that it recognizes fluorescein, an established immunological hapten. For this purpose 16 residues at the center of the binding site, which is formed by four loops on top of an eight-stranded β-barrel, were subjected to random mutagenesis. Fluorescein-binding BBP variants were then selected from the mutant library by bacterial phage d...

  10. Expression of factor H binding protein in meningococcal strains can vary at least 15-fold and is genetically determined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Spinsanti, Marco; De Angelis, Gabriella; Tomei, Sara; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Scarselli, Maria; Rigat, Fabio; Messuti, Nicola; Biolchi, Alessia; Muzzi, Alessandro; Anderloni, Giulia; Brunelli, Brunella; Cartocci, Elena; Buricchi, Francesca; Tani, Chiara; Stella, Maria; Moschioni, Monica; Del Tordello, Elena; Colaprico, Annalisa; Savino, Silvana; Giuliani, Marzia M; Delany, Isabel; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Costantino, Paolo; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Masignani, Vega

    2016-03-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a lipoprotein of Neisseria meningitidis important for the survival of the bacterium in human blood and a component of two recently licensed vaccines against serogroup B meningococcus (MenB). Based on 866 different amino acid sequences this protein is divided into three variants or two families. Quantification of the protein is done by immunoassays such as ELISA or FACS that are susceptible to the sequence variation and expression level of the protein. Here, selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used for the absolute quantification of fHbp in a large panel of strains representative of the population diversity of MenB. The analysis revealed that the level of fHbp expression can vary at least 15-fold and that variant 1 strains express significantly more protein than variant 2 or variant 3 strains. The susceptibility to complement-mediated killing correlated with the amount of protein expressed by the different meningococcal strains and this could be predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the promoter region. Finally, the absolute quantification allowed the calculation of the number of fHbp molecules per cell and to propose a mechanistic model of the engagement of C1q, the recognition component of the complement cascade. PMID:26888286

  11. Insight into a molecular interaction force supporting peptide backbones and its implication to protein loops and folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi-Shi; Chen, Dong; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Huang, Ri-Bo; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Although not being classified as the most fundamental protein structural elements like α-helices and β-strands, the loop segment may play considerable roles for protein stability, flexibility, and dynamic activity. Meanwhile, the protein loop is also quite elusive; i.e. its interactions with the other parts of protein as well as its own shape-maintaining forces have still remained as a puzzle or at least not quite clear yet. Here, we report a molecular force, the so-called polar hydrogen-π interaction (Hp-π), which may play an important role in supporting the backbones of protein loops. By conducting the potential energy surface scanning calculations on the quasi π-plane of peptide bond unit, we have observed the following intriguing phenomena: (1) when the polar hydrogen atom of a peptide unit is perpendicularly pointing to the π-plane of other peptide bond units, a remarkable Hp-π interaction occurs; (2) the interaction is distance and orientation dependent, acting in a broad space, and belonging to the 'point-to-plane' one. The molecular force reported here may provide useful interaction concepts and insights into better understanding the loop's unique stability and flexibility feature, as well as the driving force of the protein global folding. PMID:25375237

  12. ORION: a web server for protein fold recognition and structure prediction using evolutionary hybrid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouzam, Yassine; Postic, Guillaume; Guerin, Pierre-Edouard; de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Gelly, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Protein structure prediction based on comparative modeling is the most efficient way to produce structural models when it can be performed. ORION is a dedicated webserver based on a new strategy that performs this task. The identification by ORION of suitable templates is performed using an original profile-profile approach that combines sequence and structure evolution information. Structure evolution information is encoded into profiles using structural features, such as solvent accessibility and local conformation —with Protein Blocks—, which give an accurate description of the local protein structure. ORION has recently been improved, increasing by 5% the quality of its results. The ORION web server accepts a single protein sequence as input and searches homologous protein structures within minutes. Various databases such as PDB, SCOP and HOMSTRAD can be mined to find an appropriate structural template. For the modeling step, a protein 3D structure can be directly obtained from the selected template by MODELLER and displayed with global and local quality model estimation measures. The sequence and the predicted structure of 4 examples from the CAMEO server and a recent CASP11 target from the ‘Hard’ category (T0818-D1) are shown as pertinent examples. Our web server is accessible at http://www.dsimb.inserm.fr/ORION/. PMID:27319297

  13. Small antibody-like proteins with prescribed ligand specificities derived from the lipocalin fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Gerald; Schmidt, Frank S.; Stibora, Thomas; Skerra, Arne

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that the ligand pocket of a lipocalin from Pieris brassicae, the bilin-binding protein (BBP), can be reshaped by combinatorial protein design such that it recognizes fluorescein, an established immunological hapten. For this purpose 16 residues at the center of the binding site, which is formed by four loops on top of an eight-stranded β-barrel, were subjected to random mutagenesis. Fluorescein-binding BBP variants were then selected from the mutant library by bacterial phage display. Three variants were identified that complex fluorescein with high affinity, exhibiting dissociation constants as low as 35.2 nM. Notably, one of these variants effects almost complete quenching of the ligand fluorescence, similarly as an anti-fluorescein antibody. Detailed ligand-binding studies and site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated (i) that the molecular recognition of fluorescein is specific and (ii) that charged residues at the center of the pocket are responsible for tight complex formation. Sequence comparison of the BBP variants directed against fluorescein with the wild-type protein and with further variants that were selected against several other ligands revealed that all of the randomized amino acid positions are variable. Hence, a lipocalin can be used for generating molecular pockets with a diversity of shapes. We term this class of engineered proteins “anticalins.” Their one-domain scaffold makes them a promising alternative to antibodies to create a stable receptor protein for a ligand of choice. PMID:10051566

  14. Defining the Nature of Thermal Intermediate in 3 State Folding Proteins: Apoflavodoxin, a Study Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fandiño, Rebeca; Bernadó, Pau; Ayuso-Tejedor, Sara; Sancho, Javier; Orozco, Modesto

    2012-01-01

    The early stages of the thermal unfolding of apoflavodoxin have been determined by using atomistic multi microsecond-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations complemented with a variety of experimental techniques. Results strongly suggest that the intermediate is reached very early in the thermal unfolding process and that it has the properties of an “activated” form of the native state, where thermal fluctuations in the loops break loop-loop contacts. The unrestrained loops gain then kinetic energy corrupting short secondary structure elements without corrupting the core of the protein. The MD-derived ensembles agree with experimental observables and draw a picture of the intermediate state inconsistent with a well-defined structure and characteristic of a typical partially disordered protein. Our results allow us to speculate that proteins with a well packed core connected by long loops might behave as partially disordered proteins under native conditions, or alternatively behave as three state folders. Small details in the sequence, easily tunable by evolution, can yield to one or the other type of proteins. PMID:22927805

  15. Exploring fold space preferences of new-born and ancient protein superfamilies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Edwards

    Full Text Available The evolution of proteins is one of the fundamental processes that has delivered the diversity and complexity of life we see around ourselves today. While we tend to define protein evolution in terms of sequence level mutations, insertions and deletions, it is hard to translate these processes to a more complete picture incorporating a polypeptide's structure and function. By considering how protein structures change over time we can gain an entirely new appreciation of their long-term evolutionary dynamics. In this work we seek to identify how populations of proteins at different stages of evolution explore their possible structure space. We use an annotation of superfamily age to this space and explore the relationship between these ages and a diverse set of properties pertaining to a superfamily's sequence, structure and function. We note several marked differences between the populations of newly evolved and ancient structures, such as in their length distributions, secondary structure content and tertiary packing arrangements. In particular, many of these differences suggest a less elaborate structure for newly evolved superfamilies when compared with their ancient counterparts. We show that the structural preferences we report are not a residual effect of a more fundamental relationship with function. Furthermore, we demonstrate the robustness of our results, using significant variation in the algorithm used to estimate the ages. We present these age estimates as a useful tool to analyse protein populations. In particularly, we apply this in a comparison of domains containing greek key or jelly roll motifs.

  16. Potential applications of stress solutes from extremophiles in protein folding diseases and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Carla D; Borges, Nuno; Bagyan, Irina; Bilstein, Andreas; Santos, Helena

    2016-05-01

    Protein misfolding, aggregation and deposition in the brain, in the form of amyloid, are implicated in the etiology of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases. Drugs available on the market reduce the symptoms, but they are not a cure. Therefore, it is urgent to identify promising targets and develop effective drugs. Preservation of protein native conformation and/or inhibition of protein aggregation seem pertinent targets for drug development. Several studies have shown that organic solutes, produced by extremophilic microorganisms in response to osmotic and/or heat stress, prevent denaturation and aggregation of model proteins. Among these stress solutes, mannosylglycerate, mannosylglyceramide, di-myo-inositol phosphate, diglycerol phosphate and ectoine are effective in preventing amyloid formation by Alzheimer's Aβ peptide and/or α-synuclein in vitro. Moreover, mannosylglycerate is a potent inhibitor of Aβ and α-synuclein aggregation in living cells, and mannosylglyceramide and ectoine inhibit aggregation and reduce prion peptide-induced toxicity in human cells. This review focuses on the efficacy of stress solutes from hyper/thermophiles and ectoines to prevent amyloid formation in vitro and in vivo and their potential application in drug development against protein misfolding diseases. Current and envisaged applications of these extremolytes in neurodegenerative diseases and healthcare will also be addressed. PMID:27071404

  17. Heuristic-based tabu search algorithm for folding two-dimensional AB off-lattice model proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingfa; Sun, Yuanyuan; Li, Gang; Song, Beibei; Huang, Weibo

    2013-12-01

    The protein structure prediction problem is a classical NP hard problem in bioinformatics. The lack of an effective global optimization method is the key obstacle in solving this problem. As one of the global optimization algorithms, tabu search (TS) algorithm has been successfully applied in many optimization problems. We define the new neighborhood conformation, tabu object and acceptance criteria of current conformation based on the original TS algorithm and put forward an improved TS algorithm. By integrating the heuristic initialization mechanism, the heuristic conformation updating mechanism, and the gradient method into the improved TS algorithm, a heuristic-based tabu search (HTS) algorithm is presented for predicting the two-dimensional (2D) protein folding structure in AB off-lattice model which consists of hydrophobic (A) and hydrophilic (B) monomers. The tabu search minimization leads to the basins of local minima, near which a local search mechanism is then proposed to further search for lower-energy conformations. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, experiments are performed on four Fibonacci sequences and two real protein sequences. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has found the lowest-energy conformations so far for three shorter Fibonacci sequences and renewed the results for the longest one, as well as two real protein sequences, demonstrating that the HTS algorithm is quite promising in finding the ground states for AB off-lattice model proteins. PMID:24077543

  18. Unraveling a phosphorylation event in a folded protein by NMR spectroscopy: phosphorylation of the Pin1 WW domain by PKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet-Nocca, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.smet@univ-lille1.fr; Launay, Helene; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy; Landrieu, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.landrieu@univ-lille1.fr [Universite de Lille-Nord de France, Institut Federatif de Recherches 147, CNRS UMR 8576 (France)

    2013-04-15

    The Pin1 protein plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the hyperphosphorylated neuronal Tau protein in Alzheimer's disease and is by itself regulated by phosphorylation. We have used Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to both identify the PKA phosphorylation site in the Pin1 WW domain and investigate the functional consequences of this phosphorylation. Detection and identification of phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues in a globular protein, while mostly occurring in solvent-exposed flexible loops, does not lead to chemical shift changes as obvious as in disordered proteins and hence does not necessarily shift the resonances outside the spectrum of the folded protein. Other complications were encountered to characterize the extent of the phosphorylation, as part of the {sup 1}H,{sup 15}N amide resonances around the phosphorylation site are specifically broadened in the unphosphorylated state. Despite these obstacles, NMR spectroscopy was an efficient tool to confirm phosphorylation on S16 of the WW domain and to quantify the level of phosphorylation. Based on this analytical characterization, we show that WW phosphorylation on S16 abolishes its binding capacity to a phosphorylated Tau peptide. A reduced conformational heterogeneity and flexibility of the phospho-binding loop upon S16 phosphorylation could account for part of the decreased affinity for its phosphorylated partner. Additionally, a structural model of the phospho-WW obtained by molecular dynamics simulation and energy minimization suggests that the phosphate moiety of phospho-S16 could compete with the phospho-substrate.

  19. Unraveling a phosphorylation event in a folded protein by NMR spectroscopy: phosphorylation of the Pin1 WW domain by PKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pin1 protein plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the hyperphosphorylated neuronal Tau protein in Alzheimer’s disease and is by itself regulated by phosphorylation. We have used Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to both identify the PKA phosphorylation site in the Pin1 WW domain and investigate the functional consequences of this phosphorylation. Detection and identification of phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues in a globular protein, while mostly occurring in solvent-exposed flexible loops, does not lead to chemical shift changes as obvious as in disordered proteins and hence does not necessarily shift the resonances outside the spectrum of the folded protein. Other complications were encountered to characterize the extent of the phosphorylation, as part of the 1H,15N amide resonances around the phosphorylation site are specifically broadened in the unphosphorylated state. Despite these obstacles, NMR spectroscopy was an efficient tool to confirm phosphorylation on S16 of the WW domain and to quantify the level of phosphorylation. Based on this analytical characterization, we show that WW phosphorylation on S16 abolishes its binding capacity to a phosphorylated Tau peptide. A reduced conformational heterogeneity and flexibility of the phospho-binding loop upon S16 phosphorylation could account for part of the decreased affinity for its phosphorylated partner. Additionally, a structural model of the phospho-WW obtained by molecular dynamics simulation and energy minimization suggests that the phosphate moiety of phospho-S16 could compete with the phospho-substrate.

  20. Mitochondrial ADCK3 employs an atypical protein kinase-like fold to enable coenzyme Q biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefely, Jonathan A.; Reidenbach, Andrew G.; Ulbrich, Arne; Oruganty, Krishnadev; Floyd, Brendan J.; Jochem, Adam; Saunders, Jaclyn M.; Johnson, Isabel E.; Minogue, Catherine E.; Wrobel, Russell L.; Barber, Grant E.; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Kannan, Natarajan; Coon, Joshua J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Pagliarini, David J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ancient UbiB protein kinase-like family is involved in isoprenoid lipid biosynthesis and is implicated in human diseases, but demonstration of UbiB kinase activity has remained elusive for unknown reasons. Here, we quantitatively define UbiB-specific sequence motifs and reveal their positions within the crystal structure of a UbiB protein, ADCK3. We find that multiple UbiB-specific features are poised to inhibit protein kinase activity, including an N-terminal domain that occupies the typical substrate binding pocket and a unique A-rich loop that limits ATP binding by establishing an unusual selectivity for ADP. A single alanine-to-glycine mutation of this loop flips this coenzyme selectivity and enables autophosphorylation, but inhibits coenzyme Q biosynthesis in vivo, demonstrating functional relevance for this unique feature. Our work provides mechanistic insight into UbiB enzyme activity and establishes a molecular foundation for further investigation of how UbiB family proteins affect diseases and diverse biological pathways. PMID:25498144

  1. Calcium-Driven Folding of RTX Domain β-Rolls Ratchets Translocation of RTX Proteins through Type I Secretion Ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumba, Ladislav; Masin, Jiri; Macek, Pavel; Wald, Tomas; Motlova, Lucia; Bibova, Ilona; Klimova, Nela; Bednarova, Lucie; Veverka, Vaclav; Kachala, Michael; Svergun, Dmitri I; Barinka, Cyril; Sebo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Calcium-binding RTX proteins are equipped with C-terminal secretion signals and translocate from the Ca(2+)-depleted cytosol of Gram-negative bacteria directly into the Ca(2+)-rich external milieu, passing through the "channel-tunnel" ducts of type I secretion systems (T1SSs). Using Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin, we solved the structure of an essential C-terminal assembly that caps the RTX domains of RTX family leukotoxins. This is shown to scaffold directional Ca(2+)-dependent folding of the carboxy-proximal RTX repeat blocks into β-rolls. The resulting intramolecular Brownian ratchets then prevent backsliding of translocating RTX proteins in the T1SS conduits and thereby accelerate excretion of very large RTX leukotoxins from bacterial cells by a vectorial "push-ratchet" mechanism. Successive Ca(2+)-dependent and cosecretional acquisition of a functional RTX toxin structure in the course of T1SS-mediated translocation, through RTX domain folding from the C-terminal cap toward the N terminus, sets a paradigm that opens for design of virulence inhibitors of major pathogens. PMID:27058787

  2. In-silico folding of a three helix protein and characterization of its free-energy landscape in an all-atom forcefield

    CERN Document Server

    Herges, T

    2003-01-01

    We report the reproducible first-principles folding of the 40 amino acid, three-helix headpiece of the HIV accessory protein in a recently developed all-atom free-energy forcefield. Six of twenty simulations using an adapted basin-hopping method converged to better than 3 \\AA backbone RMS deviation to the experimental structure. Using over 60,000 low-energy conformations of this protein, we constructed a decoy tree that completely characterizes its folding funnel.

  3. Molecular dynamics of folding of secondary structures in Go-type models of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Trinh Xuan; Cieplak, Marek

    1999-01-01

    We consider six different secondary structures of proteins and construct two types of Go-type off-lattice models: with the steric constraints and without. The basic aminoacid-aminoacid potential is Lennard Jones for the native contacts and a soft repulsion for the non-native contacts. The interactions are chosen to make the target secondary structure be the native state of the system. We provide a thorough equilibrium and kinetic characterization of the sequences through the molecular dynamic...

  4. Nitazoxanide Inhibits Pilus Biogenesis by Interfering with Folding of the Usher Protein in the Outer Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahales, Peter; Hoffman, Paul S; Thanassi, David G

    2016-04-01

    Many bacterial pathogens assemble surface fibers termed pili or fimbriae that facilitate attachment to host cells and colonization of host tissues. The chaperone/usher (CU) pathway is a conserved secretion system that is responsible for the assembly of virulence-associated pili by many different Gram-negative bacteria. Pilus biogenesis by the CU pathway requires a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and an integral outer membrane (OM) assembly and secretion platform termed the usher. Nitazoxanide (NTZ), an antiparasitic drug, was previously shown to inhibit the function of aggregative adherence fimbriae and type 1 pili assembled by the CU pathway in enteroaggregativeEscherichia coli, an important causative agent of diarrhea. We show here that NTZ also inhibits the function of type 1 and P pili from uropathogenicE. coli(UPEC). UPEC is the primary causative agent of urinary tract infections, and type 1 and P pili mediate colonization of the bladder and kidneys, respectively. By analysis of the different stages of the CU pilus biogenesis pathway, we show that treatment of bacteria with NTZ causes a reduction in the number of usher molecules in the OM, resulting in a loss of pilus assembly on the bacterial surface. In addition, we determine that NTZ specifically prevents proper folding of the usher β-barrel domain in the OM. Our findings demonstrate that NTZ is a pilicide with a novel mechanism of action and activity against diverse CU pathways. This suggests that further development of the NTZ scaffold may lead to new antivirulence agents that target the usher to prevent pilus assembly. PMID:26824945

  5. Flexible segments modulate co-folding of dUTPase and nucleocapsid proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Németh-Pongrácz, V.; Barabás, O.; Fuxreiter, M.; Simon, I.; Pichová, Iva; Rumlová, Michaela; Zábranská, Helena; Svergun, D.; Petoukhov, M.; Harmat, V.; Klement, E.; Hunyadi-Gulyás, E.; Medzihradszky, K. F.; Kónya, E.; Vértessy, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2007), s. 495-505. ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant ostatní: 6th Framework Programme(XE) LSHC-CT-2005-012127 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : dUTPase * Mason-Pfizer monkey virus * structure * fusion protein NC-dUTPase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.954, year: 2007

  6. Probing Protein Folding Kinetics with High-resolution, Stabilized Optical Tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wesley; Halvorsen, Ken

    2009-03-01

    Single-molecule techniques provide a powerful means of exploring molecular transitions such as the unfolding and refolding of a protein. However, the quantification of bi-directional transitions and near-equilibrium phenomena poses unique challenges, and is often limited by the detection resolution and long-term stability of the instrument. We have developed unique optical tweezers methods that address these problems, including an interference-based method for high-resolution 3D bead tracking (˜1 nm laterally, ˜0.3 nm vertically, at > 100 Hz), and a continuous autofocus system that stabilizes the trap height to within 1-2 nm longterm [1,2]. We have used our instruments to quantify the force-dependent unfolding and refolding kinetics of single protein domains (e.g. spectrin in collaboration with E. Evans). These single-molecule studies are presented, together with the accompanying probabilistic analysis that we have developed. References: 1. W.P. Wong, V. Heinrich, E. Evans, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 790, P5.1-P5.10 (2004). 2. V. Heinrich, W.P. Wong, K. Halvorsen, E. Evans, Langmuir, 24, 1194-1203 (2008).

  7. Hydrophobic photolabeling as a new method for structural characterization of molten globule and related protein folding intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, P. R.; Lala, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in attempts to unravel the protein folding mechanism have indicated the need to identify the folding intermediates. Despite their transient nature, in a number of cases it has been possible to detect and characterize some of the equilibrium intermediates, for example, the molten globule (MG) state. The key features of the MG state are retention of substantial secondary structure of the native state, considerable loss of tertiary structure leading to increased hydrophobic exposure, and a compact structure. NMR, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopies have been most useful in characterizing such intermediates. We report here a new method for structural characterization of the MG state that involves probing the exposed hydrophobic sites with a hydrophobic photoactivable reagent--2[3H]diazofluorene. This carbene-based reagent binds to hydrophobic sites, and on photolysis covalently attaches itself to the neighboring amino acid side chains. The reagent photolabels alpha-lactalbumin as a function of pH (3-7.4), the labeling at neutral pH being negligible and maximal at pH 3. Chemical and proteolytic fragmentation of the photolabeled protein followed by peptide sequencing permitted identification of the labeled residues. The results obtained indicate that the sequence corresponding to B (23-34) and C (86-98) helix of the native structure are extensively labeled. The small beta-domain (40-50) is poorly labeled, Val42 being the only residue that is significantly labeled. Our data, like NMR data, indicate that in the MG state of alpha-lactalbumin, the alpha-domain has a greater degree of persistent structure than the beta-domain. However, unlike the NMR method, the photolabeling method is not limited by the size of the protein and can provide information on several new residues, for example, Leu115. The current method using DAF thus allows identification of stable and hydrophobic exposed regions in folding intermediates as the reagent binds and on

  8. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: Comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient

  9. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: Comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro, E-mail: kinoshit@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2015-04-14

    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient

  10. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: Comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient

  11. Protein self-assembly and lipid binding in the folding of the potassium channel KcsA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Francisco N; Renart, M Lourdes; Poveda, José A; de Kruijff, Ben; Killian, J Antoinette; González-Ros, José M

    2008-02-19

    Moderate concentrations of the alcohol 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) cause the coupled unfolding and dissociation into subunits of the homotetrameric potassium channel KcsA, in a process that is partially irreversible when the protein is solubilized in plain dodecyl beta-d-maltoside (DDM) micelles [Barrera et al. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 14344-52]. Here we report that the transition from the folded tetramer to the unfolded monomer becomes completely reversible when KcsA is solubilized in mixed micelles composed of the detergent DDM and the lipids DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) and DOPG (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)]). This result suggests that lipids may act as effectors in the tetramerization of KcsA. The observed reversibility allowed the determination of the standard free energy of the folding reaction of KcsA: DeltaG = 30.5 +/- 3.1 kcal x mol-1. We also observed that, prior to the unfolding of the tetramer, the presence of lower TFE concentrations causes the disassembly of supramolecular clusters of KcsA into the individual tetrameric molecules. Within the limits of experimental resolution, this is also a reversible process, but unlike the tetramer to monomer transition from above, the level of clustering is not influenced by the presence of solubilized lipids. These observations suggest a distinct role of the lipids in the different in vitro assembly steps (folding/tetramerization and clustering) of KcsA. PMID:18205389

  12. Dislocation, fold and striae of corneal flap with laser assisted in situ keratomileusis after ocular trauma: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Yanzhi; Liu Xin; Zhong Ming; Zhao Chunyan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report the occurrence, management and outcome of late-onset traumatic dehiscence and islocation of laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps. Treatment and Results: One patient occurred ate-onset LASIK corneal flap dislocation after ocular trauma 7days after surgery. The flap was lifted, stretched, and epositioned after irrigation and scraping of the stromal bed and the underside of the flap. A bandage contact lens as placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. The dislocated corneal flap was successfully repositioned in the case. The dislocated flap was repositioned 7 days after the trauma, and the patient recovered his uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 10/20, 20/20 day 1 and day 20 after the procedure, of 20/20 20 days later and had a well-positioned flap with a clear interface. Diffuse lamellar keratitis developed in the patients hat resolved with the use of topical corticosteroids. Conclusion: Laser in situ keratomileusis corneal flaps are ulnerable to traumatic dehiscence and dislocation, which should be pay more attention to it for us.

  13. IQGAP Proteins Reveal an Atypical Phosphoinositide (aPI) Binding Domain with a Pseudo C2 Domain Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Miles J.; Gray, Alexander; Schenning, Martijn; Agacan, Mark; Tempel, Wolfram; Tong, Yufeng; Nedyalkova, Lyudmila; Park, Hee-Won; Leslie, Nicholas R.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Downes, C. Peter; Batty, Ian H. (Toronto); (Dundee)

    2012-10-16

    Class I phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinases act through effector proteins whose 3-PI selectivity is mediated by a limited repertoire of structurally defined, lipid recognition domains. We describe here the lipid preferences and crystal structure of a new class of PI binding modules exemplified by select IQGAPs (IQ motif containing GTPase-activating proteins) known to coordinate cellular signaling events and cytoskeletal dynamics. This module is defined by a C-terminal 105-107 amino acid region of which IQGAP1 and -2, but not IQGAP3, binds preferentially to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdInsP3). The binding affinity for PtdInsP3, together with other, secondary target-recognition characteristics, are comparable with those of the pleckstrin homology domain of cytohesin-3 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1), an established PtdInsP3 effector protein. Importantly, the IQGAP1 C-terminal domain and the cytohesin-3 pleckstrin homology domain, each tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein, were both re-localized from the cytosol to the cell periphery following the activation of PI 3-kinase in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, consistent with their common, selective recognition of endogenous 3-PI(s). The crystal structure of the C-terminal IQGAP2 PI binding module reveals unexpected topological similarity to an integral fold of C2 domains, including a putative basic binding pocket. We propose that this module integrates select IQGAP proteins with PI 3-kinase signaling and constitutes a novel, atypical phosphoinositide binding domain that may represent the first of a larger group, each perhaps structurally unique but collectively dissimilar from the known PI recognition modules.

  14. Protein Folding and Aggregation into Amyloid: The Interference by Natural Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Stefani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid aggregation is a hallmark of several degenerative diseases affecting the brain or peripheral tissues, whose intermediates (oligomers, protofibrils and final mature fibrils display different toxicity. Consequently, compounds counteracting amyloid aggregation have been investigated for their ability (i to stabilize toxic amyloid precursors; (ii to prevent the growth of toxic oligomers or speed that of fibrils; (iii to inhibit fibril growth and deposition; (iv to disassemble preformed fibrils; and (v to favor amyloid clearance. Natural phenols, a wide panel of plant molecules, are one of the most actively investigated categories of potential amyloid inhibitors. They are considered responsible for the beneficial effects of several traditional diets being present in green tea, extra virgin olive oil, red wine, spices, berries and aromatic herbs. Accordingly, it has been proposed that some natural phenols could be exploited to prevent and to treat amyloid diseases, and recent studies have provided significant information on their ability to inhibit peptide/protein aggregation in various ways and to stimulate cell defenses, leading to identify shared or specific mechanisms. In the first part of this review, we will overview the significance and mechanisms of amyloid aggregation and aggregate toxicity; then, we will summarize the recent achievements on protection against amyloid diseases by many natural phenols.

  15. Strain-Dependent Effect of Macroautophagy on Abnormally Folded Prion Protein Degradation in Infected Neuronal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ishibashi

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by the accumulation of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc in the central nervous system. With the aim of elucidating the mechanism underlying the accumulation and degradation of PrPSc, we investigated the role of autophagy in its degradation, using cultured cells stably infected with distinct prion strains. The effects of pharmacological compounds that inhibit or stimulate the cellular signal transduction pathways that mediate autophagy during PrPSc degradation were evaluated. The accumulation of PrPSc in cells persistently infected with the prion strain Fukuoka-1 (FK, derived from a patient with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, was significantly increased in cultures treated with the macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA but substantially reduced in those treated with the macroautophagy inducer rapamycin. The decrease in FK-derived PrPSc levels was mediated, at least in part, by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/MEK signalling pathway. By contrast, neither rapamycin nor 3MA had any apparently effect on PrPSc from either the 22L or the Chandler strain, indicating that the degradation of PrPSc in host cells might be strain-dependent.

  16. Proteomic screening of glucose-responsive and glucose non-reponsive MIN-6 beta cells reveals differential expression of protein involved in protein folding, secretion and oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, P.; O´Driscoll, L.; O´Sullivan, F.;

    2006-01-01

    The glucose-sensitive insulin-secretion (GSIS) phenotype is relatively unstable in long-term culture of beta cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate relative changes in the proteome between glucose-responsive (low passage) and glucose non-responsive (high passage) murine MIN-6...... pancreatic beta cells. The 2D-DIGE and subsequent DeCyder analysis detected 3351 protein spots in the pH range of 4-7. Comparing MIN-6(H) to MIN-6(L) and using a threshold of 1.2-fold, the number of proteins with a decrease in expression level was 152 (4.5%), similar was 3140 (93.7%) and increased 59 (1...... protein 29 (ERp29); 78-kDa glucose-related protein, (GRP78); 94-kDa glucose-related protein (GRP94); protein disulphide isomerase; carbonyl reductase 3; peroxidoxin 4 and superoxide dismutase 1. These results suggest that non-GSIS MIN-6 cells do not have the same ability/capacity of glucose-responsive MIN...

  17. Impact of P-Site tRNA and antibiotics on ribosome mediated protein folding: studies using the Escherichia coli ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surojit Mondal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ribosome, which acts as a platform for mRNA encoded polypeptide synthesis, is also capable of assisting in folding of polypeptide chains. The peptidyl transferase center (PTC that catalyzes peptide bond formation resides in the domain V of the 23S rRNA of the bacterial ribosome. Proper positioning of the 3' -CCA ends of the A- and P-site tRNAs via specific interactions with the nucleotides of the PTC are crucial for peptidyl transferase activity. This RNA domain is also the center for ribosomal chaperoning activity. The unfolded polypeptide chains interact with the specific nucleotides of the PTC and are released in a folding competent form. In vitro transcribed RNA corresponding to this domain (bDV RNA also displays chaperoning activity. RESULTS: The present study explores the effects of tRNAs, antibiotics that are A- and P-site PTC substrate analogs (puromycin and blasticidin and macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin and josamycin on the chaperoning ability of the E. coli ribosome and bDV RNA. Our studies using mRNA programmed ribosomes show that a tRNA positioned at the P-site effectively inhibits the ribosome's chaperoning function. We also show that the antibiotic blasticidin (that mimics the interaction between 3'-CCA end of P/P-site tRNA with the PTC is more effective in inhibiting ribosome and bDV RNA chaperoning ability than either puromycin or the macrolide antibiotics. Mutational studies of the bDV RNA could identify the nucleotides U2585 and G2252 (both of which interact with P-site tRNA to be important for its chaperoning ability. CONCLUSION: Both protein synthesis and their proper folding are crucial for maintenance of a functional cellular proteome. The PTC of the ribosome is attributed with both these abilities. The silencing of the chaperoning ability of the ribosome in the presence of P-site bound tRNA might be a way to segregate these two important functions.

  18. Comparative analysis of the folding dynamics and kinetics of an engineered knotted protein and its variants derived from HP0242 of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain thread itself spontaneously to attain a knotted conformation has been a major challenge in the field of protein folding. HP0242 is a homodimeric protein from Helicobacter pylori with intertwined helices to form a unique pseudo-knotted folding topology. A tandem HP0242 repeat has been constructed to become the first engineered trefoil-knotted protein. Its small size renders it a model system for computational analyses to examine its folding and knotting pathways. Here we report a multi-parametric study on the folding stability and kinetics of a library of HP0242 variants, including the trefoil-knotted tandem HP0242 repeat, using far-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Equilibrium chemical denaturation of HP0242 variants shows the presence of highly populated dimeric and structurally heterogeneous folding intermediates. Such equilibrium folding intermediates retain significant amount of helical structures except those at the N- and C-terminal regions in the native structure. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements of HP0242 variants show that spontaneous refolding into knotted structures can be achieved within seconds, which is several orders of magnitude faster than previously observed for other knotted proteins. Nevertheless, the complex chevron plots indicate that HP0242 variants are prone to misfold into kinetic traps, leading to severely rolled-over refolding arms. The experimental observations are in general agreement with the previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Based on our results, kinetic folding pathways are proposed to qualitatively describe the complex folding processes of HP0242 variants. (paper)

  19. Comparative analysis of the folding dynamics and kinetics of an engineered knotted protein and its variants derived from HP0242 of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Wei; Liu, Yu-Nan; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Jackson, Sophie E.; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain thread itself spontaneously to attain a knotted conformation has been a major challenge in the field of protein folding. HP0242 is a homodimeric protein from Helicobacter pylori with intertwined helices to form a unique pseudo-knotted folding topology. A tandem HP0242 repeat has been constructed to become the first engineered trefoil-knotted protein. Its small size renders it a model system for computational analyses to examine its folding and knotting pathways. Here we report a multi-parametric study on the folding stability and kinetics of a library of HP0242 variants, including the trefoil-knotted tandem HP0242 repeat, using far-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Equilibrium chemical denaturation of HP0242 variants shows the presence of highly populated dimeric and structurally heterogeneous folding intermediates. Such equilibrium folding intermediates retain significant amount of helical structures except those at the N- and C-terminal regions in the native structure. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements of HP0242 variants show that spontaneous refolding into knotted structures can be achieved within seconds, which is several orders of magnitude faster than previously observed for other knotted proteins. Nevertheless, the complex chevron plots indicate that HP0242 variants are prone to misfold into kinetic traps, leading to severely rolled-over refolding arms. The experimental observations are in general agreement with the previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Based on our results, kinetic folding pathways are proposed to qualitatively describe the complex folding processes of HP0242 variants.

  20. Reconfiguration dynamics in folded and intrinsically disordered protein with internal friction: Effect of solvent quality and denaturant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Nairhita; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2016-05-01

    We consider a flexible chain with internal friction in a harmonic confinement and extend it to include the effects of solvent quality at the mean field level by introducing a Flory type exponent ν. The strength of the harmonic confinement (kc) accounts for the denaturant concentration and connects to the internal friction of the chain (ξint) through an ansatz. Our calculated reconfiguration times falling in the range of 5-50 ns are found out to be within 10%-15% of the experimentally measured reconfiguration times of the folded cold shock protein and the intrinsically disordered protein prothymosin α. In addition, our calculations show that the reconfiguration time scales with the chain length N as ∼Nα, where α depends weakly on the internal friction but has rather stronger dependence on the solvent quality. In the absence of any internal friction, α = 2 ν + 1 and it goes down in the presence of internal friction, but chain reconfiguration slows down in general. On the contrary, in a poorer solvent chain reconfiguration and looping become faster even though the internal friction is higher in the collapsed state.

  1. The Escherichia coli membrane protein insertase YidC assists in the biogenesis of Penicillin Binding Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sousa Borges, Anabela; de Keyzer, Jeanine; Driessen, Arnold J M; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins need to be properly inserted and folded in the membrane in order to perform a range of activities that are essential for the survival of bacteria. The Sec translocon and the YidC insertase are responsible for the insertion of the majority of proteins into the cytoplasmic membrane.

  2. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Excretory-Secretory Protein 2 Adopts a Netrin-Like Fold and Defines a Novel Family of Nematode Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Kucera; L Harrison; M Cappello; Y Modis

    2011-12-31

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure of AceES-2 determined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution shows that it adopts a netrin-like fold similar to that found in tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMPs) and in complement factors C3 and C5. However, recombinant AceES-2 does not significantly inhibit the 10 most abundant human matrix metalloproteases or complement-mediated cell lysis. The presence of a highly acidic surface on AceES-2 suggests that it may function as a cytokine decoy receptor. Several small nematode proteins that have been annotated as TIMPs or netrin-domain-containing proteins display sequence homology in structurally important regions of AceES-2's netrin-likefold. Together, our results suggest that AceES-2 defines a novel family of nematode netrin-like proteins, which may function to modulate the host immune response to hookworm and other parasites.

  3. Using the Computer Game "FoldIt" to Entice Students to Explore External Representations of Protein Structure in a Biochemistry Course for Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach to teaching novice Biochemistry students visual literacy skills and understanding of some aspects of protein structure using the internet resource FoldIt and a worksheet based on selected Introductory Puzzles from this computer game. In responding to a questionnaire, students indicated that they (94%)…

  4. Self-Assembling Nano-Architectures Created from a Protein Nano-Building Block Using an Intermolecularly Folded Dimeric de Novo Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Yanase, Keiichi; Sato, Takaaki; Unzai, Satoru; Hecht, Michael H; Arai, Ryoichi

    2015-09-01

    The design of novel proteins that self-assemble into supramolecular complexes is an important step in the development of synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Recently, we described the three-dimensional structure of WA20, a de novo protein that forms an intermolecularly folded dimeric 4-helix bundle (PDB code 3VJF ). To harness the unusual intertwined structure of WA20 for the self-assembly of supramolecular nanostructures, we created a protein nanobuilding block (PN-Block), called WA20-foldon, by fusing the dimeric structure of WA20 to the trimeric foldon domain of fibritin from bacteriophage T4. The WA20-foldon fusion protein was expressed in the soluble fraction in Escherichia coli, purified, and shown to form several homooligomeric forms. The stable oligomeric forms were further purified and characterized by a range of biophysical techniques. Size exclusion chromatography, multiangle light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses indicate that the small (S form), middle (M form), and large (L form) forms of the WA20-foldon oligomers exist as hexamer (6-mer), dodecamer (12-mer), and octadecamer (18-mer), respectively. These findings suggest that the oligomers in multiples of 6-mer are stably formed by fusing the interdigitated dimer of WA20 with the trimer of foldon domain. Pair-distance distribution functions obtained from the Fourier inversion of the SAXS data suggest that the S and M forms have barrel- and tetrahedron-like shapes, respectively. These results demonstrate that the de novo WA20-foldon is an effective building block for the creation of self-assembling artificial nanoarchitectures. PMID:26120734

  5. Protein Fold Recognition by Functional Domain Composition%基于功能域组分的蛋白质折叠类型识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫金丽; 陈治伟; 徐海松; 李晓琴

    2011-01-01

    蛋白质空间结构研究是分子生物学、细胞生物学、生物化学以及药物设计等领域的重要课题.折叠类型反映了蛋白质核心结构的拓扑模式,对折叠类型的识别是蛋白质序列与结构关系研究的重要内容.选取LIFCA数据库中样本量较大的53种折叠类型,应用功能域组分方法进行折叠识别.将Astral 1.65中序列一致性小于95%的样本作为检验集,全库检验结果中平均敏感性为96.42%,特异性为99.91%,马修相关系数(MCC)为 0.91,各项统计结果表明:功能域组分方法可以很好地应用在蛋白质折叠识别中,LIFCA相对简单的分类规则可以很好地集中蛋白质的人部分功能特性,反映了结构与功能的对应关系.%Research of protein 3D structures plays a key role in molecular biology, cell biology, biomedicine, and drug design. The protein fold type reflects the topological pattern of the structure's core. Fold recognition is an important method in protein sequence-structure research. On the 53 fold types which have more than 10 samples in LIFCA were selected. The functional domain composition is introduced to predict the fold types of a protein or a domain. After testing 9 211 proteins with less than 95% sequence identity from the Astral 1.65 database, the average sensitivity, specificity and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of the 53 fold types were found to be 96.42%, 99.91% and 0.91, respectively. The result indicates that using the functional domain compositon to represent a protein is very promising for protein fold recognition. And though based on simple classification rules,LIFCA can concentrate the functional features of proteins, reflecting the corresponding relation between structure and function.

  6. High-resolution protein structure determination starting with a global fold calculated from exact solutions to the RDC equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianyang; Boyles, Jeffrey; Tripathy, Chittaranjan; Wang, Lincong; Yan, Anthony; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2009-11-01

    We present a novel structure determination approach that exploits the global orientational restraints from RDCs to resolve ambiguous NOE assignments. Unlike traditional approaches that bootstrap the initial fold from ambiguous NOE assignments, we start by using RDCs to compute accurate secondary structure element (SSE) backbones at the beginning of structure calculation. Our structure determination package, called RDC-PANDA: (RDC-based SSE PAcking with NOEs for Structure Determination and NOE Assignment), consists of three modules: (1) RDC-EXACT: ; (2) PACKER: ; and (3) HANA: (HAusdorff-based NOE Assignment). RDC-EXACT: computes the global optimal solution of backbone dihedral angles for each secondary structure element by exactly solving a system of quartic RDC equations derived by Wang and Donald (Proceedings of the IEEE computational systems bioinformatics conference (CSB), Stanford, CA, 2004a; J Biomol NMR 29(3):223-242, 2004b), and systematically searching over the roots, each of which is a backbone dihedral varphi- or psi-angle consistent with the RDC data. Using a small number of unambiguous inter-SSE NOEs extracted using only chemical shift information, PACKER: performs a systematic search for the core structure, including all SSE backbone conformations. HANA: uses a Hausdorff-based scoring function to measure the similarity between the experimental spectra and the back-computed NOE pattern for each side-chain from a statistically-diverse rotamer library, and drives the selection of optimal position-specific rotamers for filtering ambiguous NOE assignments. Finally, a local minimization approach is used to compute the loops and refine side-chain conformations by fixing the core structure as a rigid body while allowing movement of loops and side-chains. RDC-PANDA: was applied to NMR data for the FF Domain 2 of human transcription elongation factor CA150 (RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain interacting protein), human ubiquitin, the ubiquitin-binding zinc

  7. The Unstructured N-terminal Region of Arabidopsis Group 4 Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Proteins Is Required for Folding and for Chaperone-like Activity under Water Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Velazquez, Cesar L; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Reyes, José Luis; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2016-05-13

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a conserved group of proteins widely distributed in the plant kingdom that participate in the tolerance to water deficit of different plant species. In silico analyses indicate that most LEA proteins are structurally disordered. The structural plasticity of these proteins opens the question of whether water deficit modulates their conformation and whether these possible changes are related to their function. In this work, we characterized the secondary structure of Arabidopsis group 4 LEA proteins. We found that they are disordered in aqueous solution, with high intrinsic potential to fold into α-helix. We demonstrate that complete dehydration is not required for these proteins to sample ordered structures because milder water deficit and macromolecular crowding induce high α-helix levels in vitro, suggesting that prevalent conditions under water deficit modulate their conformation. We also show that the N-terminal region, conserved across all group 4 LEA proteins, is necessary and sufficient for conformational transitions and that their protective function is confined to this region, suggesting that folding into α-helix is required for chaperone-like activity under water limitation. We propose that these proteins can exist as different conformers, favoring functional diversity, a moonlighting property arising from their structural dynamics. PMID:27006402

  8. Tissue engineered skin substitutes created by laser-assisted bioprinting form skin-like structures in the dorsal skin fold chamber in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Michael

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering plays an important role in the production of skin equivalents for the therapy of chronic and especially burn wounds. Actually, there exists no (cellularized skin equivalent which might be able to satisfactorily mimic native skin. Here, we utilized a laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP technique to create a fully cellularized skin substitute. The unique feature of LaBP is the possibility to position different cell types in an exact three-dimensional (3D spatial pattern. For the creation of the skin substitutes, we positioned fibroblasts and keratinocytes on top of a stabilizing matrix (Matriderm®. These skin constructs were subsequently tested in vivo, employing the dorsal skin fold chamber in nude mice. The transplants were placed into full-thickness skin wounds and were fully connected to the surrounding tissue when explanted after 11 days. The printed keratinocytes formed a multi-layered epidermis with beginning differentiation and stratum corneum. Proliferation of the keratinocytes was mainly detected in the suprabasal layers. In vitro controls, which were cultivated at the air-liquid-interface, also exhibited proliferative cells, but they were rather located in the whole epidermis. E-cadherin as a hint for adherens junctions and therefore tissue formation could be found in the epidermis in vivo as well as in vitro. In both conditions, the printed fibroblasts partly stayed on top of the underlying Matriderm® where they produced collagen, while part of them migrated into the Matriderm®. In the mice, some blood vessels could be found to grow from the wound bed and the wound edges in direction of the printed cells. In conclusion, we could show the successful 3D printing of a cell construct via LaBP and the subsequent tissue formation in vivo. These findings represent the prerequisite for the creation of a complex tissue like skin, consisting of different cell types in an intricate 3D pattern.

  9. Biomimetic folding particle chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The sequence of the amino acids in proteins dictates their folded 3-D structure. We have recently by simulations shown that this principle can be applied to flexible strings of isotropically interacting particles with at least one attractive patchy interaction, allowing the design of new materials and structures. Our goal is now to realize this directed self-folding on a colloidal size scale to study the folding in real time in real space. We discuss our use of polymer brushes, depletion interactions and liquid-interface scaffold chemistry to realize the goal. (author)

  10. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gang-Liang Huang; Xin-Ya Mei; Peng-George Wang

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, and the carbohydrates do not need to be purified.

  11. Implementation of a k/k0 method to identify long-range structure in transition states during conformational folding/unfolding of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Lovy; Kurinov, Igor; Ealick, Steven E.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary A previously-introduced kinetic-rate constant (k/k0) method, where k and k0 are the folding (unfolding) rate constants in the mutant and the wild-type forms, respectively, of a protein, has been applied to obtain qualitative information about structure in the transition state (TS) ensemble of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) which contains four native disulfide bonds. The method compares the folding (unfolding) kinetics of two versions of RNase A, with and without a covalent crosslink (in the form of a fifth disulfide bond); the method tests whether the crosslinked residues are associated in the folding (unfolding) transition state of the non-crosslinked version. To confirm that the fifth disulfide bond has not introduced a significant structural perturbation, we solved the crystal structure of the V43C-R85C mutant to 1.6 Å resolution. Our findings suggest that residues Val 43 and Arg 85 are not associated in the folding (unfolding) TS ensemble of RNase A, and also that Ala 4 and Val 118 may form non-native contacts in the folding (unfolding) TS ensemble. PMID:17937908

  12. Microwave-assisted Weak Acid Hydrolysis of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeong Seo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobin was hydrolyzed by microwave-assisted weak acid hydrolysis with 2% formic acid at 37 oC, 50 oC, and100 oC for 1 h. The most effective hydrolysis was observed at 100 oC. Hydrolysis products were investigated using matrixassistedlaser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Most cleavages predominantly occurred at the C-termini ofaspartyl residues. For comparison, weak acid hydrolysis was also performed in boiling water for 20, 40, 60, and 120 min. A 60-min weak acid hydrolysis in boiling water yielded similar results as a 60-min microwave-assisted weak acid hydrolysis at100 oC. These results strongly suggest that microwave irradiation has no notable enhancement effect on acid hydrolysis of proteinsand that temperature is the major factor that determines the effectiveness of weak acid hydrolysis.

  13. Analysis of N-linked glycosylation of hantaan virus glycoproteins and the role of oligosaccharide side chains in protein folding and intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaohong; Elliott, Richard M

    2004-05-01

    The membrane glycoproteins Gn and Gc of Hantaan virus (HTNV) (family Bunyaviridae) are modified by N-linked glycosylation. The glycoproteins contain six potential sites for the attachment of N-linked oligosaccharides, five sites on Gn and one on Gc. The properties of the N-linked oligosaccharide chains were analyzed by treatment with endoglycosidase H, peptide:N-glycosidase F, tunicamycin, and deoxynojirimycin and were confirmed to be completely of the high-mannose type. Ten glycoprotein gene mutants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis, including six single N glycosylation site mutants and four double-site mutants. We determined that four sites (N134, -235, -347, and -399) on Gn and the only site (N928) on Gc in their ectodomains are utilized, whereas the fifth site on Gn (N609), which faces the cytoplasm, is not glycosylated. The importance of individual N-oligosaccharide chains varied with respect to folding and intracellular transport. The oligosaccharide chain on residue N134 was found to be crucial for protein folding, whereas single mutations at the other glycosylation sites were better tolerated. Mutation at glycosylation sites N235 and N399 together resulted in Gn misfolding. The endoplasmic reticulum chaperones calnexin and calreticulin were found to be involved in HTNV glycoprotein folding. Our data demonstrate that N-linked glycosylation of HTNV glycoproteins plays important and differential roles in protein folding and intracellular trafficking. PMID:15113920

  14. A Method for Extracting the Free Energy Surface and Conformational Dynamics of Fast-Folding Proteins from Single Molecule Photon Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Muñoz, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy holds the promise of providing direct measurements of protein folding free energy landscapes and conformational motions. However, fulfilling this promise has been prevented by technical limitations, most notably, the difficulty in analyzing the small packets of photons per millisecond that are typically recorded from individual biomolecules. Such limitation impairs the ability to accurately determine conformational distributions and resolve sub-millis...

  15. Interrogating and predicting tolerated sequence diversity in protein folds: application to E. elaterium trypsin inhibitor-II cystine-knot miniprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Lahti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystine-knot miniproteins (knottins are promising molecular scaffolds for protein engineering applications. Members of the knottin family have multiple loops capable of displaying conformationally constrained polypeptides for molecular recognition. While previous studies have illustrated the potential of engineering knottins with modified loop sequences, a thorough exploration into the tolerated loop lengths and sequence space of a knottin scaffold has not been performed. In this work, we used the Ecballium elaterium trypsin inhibitor II (EETI as a model member of the knottin family and constructed libraries of EETI loop-substituted variants with diversity in both amino acid sequence and loop length. Using yeast surface display, we isolated properly folded EETI loop-substituted clones and applied sequence analysis tools to assess the tolerated diversity of both amino acid sequence and loop length. In addition, we used covariance analysis to study the relationships between individual positions in the substituted loops, based on the expectation that correlated amino acid substitutions will occur between interacting residue pairs. We then used the results of our sequence and covariance analyses to successfully predict loop sequences that facilitated proper folding of the knottin when substituted into EETI loop 3. The sequence trends we observed in properly folded EETI loop-substituted clones will be useful for guiding future protein engineering efforts with this knottin scaffold. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that the combination of directed evolution with sequence and covariance analyses can be a powerful tool for rational protein engineering.

  16. Barriers to protein folding: formation of buried polar interactions is a slow step in acquisition of structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldburger, C D; Jonsson, T; Sauer, R T

    1996-04-01

    In the MYL mutant of the Arc repressor dimer, sets of partially buried salt-bridge and hydrogen-bond interactions mediated by Arg-31, Glu-36, and Arg-40 in each subunit are replaced by hydrophobic interactions between Met-31, Tyr-36, and Leu-40. The MYL refolding/dimerization reaction differs from that of wild type in being 10- to 1250-fold faster, having an earlier transition state, and depending upon viscosity but not ionic strength. Formation of the wild-type salt bridges in a hydrophobic environment clearly imposes a kinetic barrier to folding, which can be lowered by high salt concentrations. The changes in the position of the transition state and viscosity dependence can be explained if denatured monomers interact to form a partially folded dimeric intermediate, which then continues folding to form the native dimer. The second step is postulated to be rate limiting for wild type. Replacing the salt bridge with hydrophobic interactions lowers this barrier for MYL. This makes the first kinetic barrier rate limiting for MYL refolding and creates a downhill free-energy landscape in which most molecules which reach the intermediate state continue to form native dimers. PMID:8610092

  17. Penicillin-binding protein folding is dependent on the PrsA peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Hanne-Leena; Marciniak, Bogumila C.; Dahncke, Kathleen; Pietiäinen, Milla; Courtin, Pascal; Vitikainen, Marika; Seppala, Raili; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Dörte; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Oscar P. Kuipers; Kontinen, Vesa Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The PrsA protein is a membrane-anchored peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase in Bacillus subtilis and most other gram-positive bacteria. It catalyzes the post-translocational folding of exported proteins and is essential for normal growth of B. subtilis. We studied the mechanism behind this indispensability. We could construct a viable prsA null mutant in the presence of a high concentration of magnesium. Various changes in cell morphology in the absence of PrsA suggested t...

  18. The carbohydrate at asparagine 386 on HIV-1 gp120 is not essential for protein folding and function but is involved in immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groot Fedde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, which mediates viral attachment to target cells, consists for ~50% of sugar, but the role of the individual sugar chains in various aspects of gp120 folding and function is poorly understood. Here we studied the role of the carbohydrate at position 386. We identified a virus variant that had lost the 386 glycan in an evolution study of a mutant virus lacking the disulfide bond at the base of the V4 domain. Results The 386 carbohydrate was not essential for folding of wt gp120. However, its removal improved folding of a gp120 variant lacking the 385–418 disulfide bond, suggesting that it plays an auxiliary role in protein folding in the presence of this disulfide bond. The 386 carbohydrate was not critical for gp120 binding to dendritic cells (DC and DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission to T cells. In accordance with previous reports, we found that N386 was involved in binding of the mannose-dependent neutralizing antibody 2G12. Interestingly, in the presence of specific substitutions elsewhere in gp120, removal of N386 did not result in abrogation of 2G12 binding, implying that the contribution of N386 is context dependent. Neutralization by soluble CD4 and the neutralizing CD4 binding site (CD4BS antibody b12 was significantly enhanced in the absence of the 386 sugar, indicating that this glycan protects the CD4BS against antibodies. Conclusion The carbohydrate at position 386 is not essential for protein folding and function, but is involved in the protection of the CD4BS from antibodies. Removal of this sugar in the context of trimeric Env immunogens may therefore improve the elicitation of neutralizing CD4BS antibodies.

  19. Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu,Y.; Wu, J.; Song, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells.

  20. Classification Modeling and Recognition of Protein Fold Type%蛋白质折叠类型的分类建模与识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岳; 李晓琴; 徐海松; 乔辉

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of how protein amino acid sequences determine protein structure is a core issue in biology. The protein fold type reflects the topological pattern of the structure's core. Fold recognition is an important method in protein sequence-structure research. This article focuses on the 36 fold types that are not incorporated into the unified hidden Markov model (HMM) model but that account for 41.8% of α,β, and α/β protein's in the Astral 1.65 sequence database. The training set contains samples that have less than 25% sequence identity with each other. We applied the hierarchical clustering method according to root mean square deviation (RMSD) and fold subgroups were generated. A profile-HMM based on a multiple structural alignment algorithm (MUSTANG) structure alignment was then built for each subgroup. After testing 9505 proteins with less than 95% sequence identity from the Astral 1.65 database, the average sensitivity, specificity and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of the 36 fold types were found to be 90%, 99% and 0.95, respectively. These results show that classification modeling according to RMSD is able to achieve precise fold recognition while a unified HMM cannot be built because there are too many elements in the training set. We have developed a new method and novel ideas to enable profile-HMM protein fold recognition and have laid the foundation for further research.%蛋白质的氨基酸序列如何决定空间结构是当今生命科学研究中的核心问题之一.折叠类型反映了蛋白质核心结构的拓扑模式,折叠识别是蛋白质序列.结构研究的重要内容.我们以占Astral 1.65序列数据库中α,β和α/β三类蛋白质总量41.8%的36个无法独市建模的折叠类型为研究对象,选取其中序列一致性小于25%的样本作为训练集,以均方根偏差(RMSD)为指标分别进行系统聚类,生成若干折叠子类,并对各子类建立基于多结构比对算法(MUSTANG)结构比对的

  1. Implementation of a k/k(0) method to identify long-range structure in transition states during conformational folding/unfolding of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Lovy; Kurinov, Igor; Ealick, Steven E; Scheraga, Harold A

    2007-10-01

    A previously introduced kinetic-rate constant (k/k(0)) method, where k and k(0) are the folding (unfolding) rate constants in the mutant and the wild-type forms, respectively, of a protein, has been applied to obtain qualitative information about structure in the transition state ensemble (TSE) of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A), which contains four native disulfide bonds. The method compares the folding (unfolding) kinetics of RNase A, with and without a covalent crosslink and tests whether the crosslinked residues are associated in the folding (unfolding) transition state (TS) of the noncrosslinked version. To confirm that the fifth disulfide bond has not introduced a significant structural perturbation, we solved the crystal structure of the V43C-R85C mutant to 1.6 A resolution. Our findings suggest that residues Val43 and Arg85 are not associated, and that residues Ala4 and Val118 may form nonnative contacts, in the folding (unfolding) TSE of RNase A. PMID:17937908

  2. Wang-Landau density of states based study of the folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Priya; Sarkar, Subir K. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta [School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi - 110 067 (India)

    2014-07-07

    We present the results of a high-statistics equilibrium study of the folding/unfolding transition for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b) in water. The ECEPP/3 force field is used and the interaction with water is treated by a solvent-accessible surface area method. A Wang-Landau type simulation is used to calculate the density of states and the conditional probabilities for the various values of the radius of gyration and the number of native contacts at fixed values of energy—along with a systematic check on their convergence. All thermodynamic quantities of interest are calculated from this information. The folding-unfolding transition corresponds to a peak in the temperature dependence of the computed specific heat. This is corroborated further by the structural signatures of folding in the distributions for radius of gyration and the number of native contacts as a function of temperature. The potentials of mean force are also calculated for these variables, both separately and jointly. A local free energy minimum, in addition to the global minimum, is found in a temperature range substantially below the folding temperature. The free energy at this second minimum is approximately 5 k{sub B}T higher than the value at the global minimum.

  3. Wang-Landau density of states based study of the folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a high-statistics equilibrium study of the folding/unfolding transition for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b) in water. The ECEPP/3 force field is used and the interaction with water is treated by a solvent-accessible surface area method. A Wang-Landau type simulation is used to calculate the density of states and the conditional probabilities for the various values of the radius of gyration and the number of native contacts at fixed values of energy—along with a systematic check on their convergence. All thermodynamic quantities of interest are calculated from this information. The folding-unfolding transition corresponds to a peak in the temperature dependence of the computed specific heat. This is corroborated further by the structural signatures of folding in the distributions for radius of gyration and the number of native contacts as a function of temperature. The potentials of mean force are also calculated for these variables, both separately and jointly. A local free energy minimum, in addition to the global minimum, is found in a temperature range substantially below the folding temperature. The free energy at this second minimum is approximately 5 kBT higher than the value at the global minimum

  4. Simulation of the thermodynamics of folding and unfolding of the Trp-cage mini-protein TC5b using different combinations of force fields and solvation models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; John; ZengHui

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations based on AMBER force fields(ff96 and ff03) and generalized Born models(igb1 and igb5) have been carried out in order to study folding/unfolding of the Trp-cage mini-protein TC5b.The thermodynamic properties of TC5b were found to be sensitive to the specific version of the solvation model and force field employed.When the ff96/igb5 combination was used,the predicted melting temperature from unfolding simulations was in good agreement with the experimental value of 315 K,but the folding simulation did not converge.The most stable thermodynamic profile in both folding and unfolding simulations was obtained when the ff03/igb5 combination was employed,and the predicted melting temperature was about 345 K,showing over-stabilization of the protein.Simulations using the igb1 version in combination with ff96 or ff03 were difficult to converge within the simulation time limit(50 ns).

  5. Context-dependent protein folding of a virulence peptide in the bacterial and host environments: structure of an SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex from Yersinia reveals the bacterial state of a protein that adopts different folds in the host and pathogen environments. Yersinia pestis injects numerous bacterial proteins into host cells through an organic nanomachine called the type 3 secretion system. One such substrate is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which requires an interaction with a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively injected. Here, the first crystal structure of a SycH–YopH complex is reported, determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals the presence of (i) a nonglobular polypeptide in YopH, (ii) a so-called β-motif in YopH and (iii) a conserved hydrophobic patch in SycH that recognizes the β-motif. Biochemical studies establish that the β-motif is critical to the stability of this complex. Finally, since previous work has shown that the N-terminal portion of YopH adopts a globular fold that is functional in the host cell, aspects of how this polypeptide adopts radically different folds in the host and in the bacterial environments are analysed

  6. Growth of thin films of low molecular weight proteins by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matei, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Constantinescu, C.;

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of lysozyme and myoglobin grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from a water ice matrix have been investigated. The deposition rate of these two low molecular weight proteins (lysozyme: 14307 amu and myoglobin: 17083 amu) exhibits a maximum of about 1–2 ng/cm2 per...... pulse at a fluence of 1–2 J/cm2 and decreases slowly with increasing fluence. This rate is presumably determined by the matrix rather by the proteins. A significant fraction of the proteins are intact in the film as determined by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) spectrometry. The...... results for lysozyme demonstrate that the fragmentation rate of the proteins during the MAPLE process is not influenced by the pH of the water solution prior to freezing....

  7. Complex folding and misfolding effects of deer-specific amino acid substitutions in the β2-α2 loop of murine prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sonya; Döring, Kristina; Gierusz, Leszek A.; Iyer, Pooja; Lane, Fiona M.; Graham, James F.; Goldmann, Wilfred; Pinheiro, Teresa J. T.; Gill, Andrew C.

    2015-10-01

    The β2-α2 loop of PrPC is a key modulator of disease-associated prion protein misfolding. Amino acids that differentiate mouse (Ser169, Asn173) and deer (Asn169, Thr173) PrPC appear to confer dramatically different structural properties in this region and it has been suggested that amino acid sequences associated with structural rigidity of the loop also confer susceptibility to prion disease. Using mouse recombinant PrP, we show that mutating residue 173 from Asn to Thr alters protein stability and misfolding only subtly, whilst changing Ser to Asn at codon 169 causes instability in the protein, promotes oligomer formation and dramatically potentiates fibril formation. The doubly mutated protein exhibits more complex folding and misfolding behaviour than either single mutant, suggestive of differential effects of the β2-α2 loop sequence on both protein stability and on specific misfolding pathways. Molecular dynamics simulation of protein structure suggests a key role for the solvent accessibility of Tyr168 in promoting molecular interactions that may lead to prion protein misfolding. Thus, we conclude that ‘rigidity’ in the β2-α2 loop region of the normal conformer of PrP has less effect on misfolding than other sequence-related effects in this region.

  8. Barriers to protein folding: formation of buried polar interactions is a slow step in acquisition of structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Waldburger, C D; Jonsson, T.; Sauer, R T

    1996-01-01

    In the MYL mutant of the Arc repressor dimer, sets of partially buried salt-bridge and hydrogen-bond interactions mediated by Arg-31, Glu-36, and Arg-40 in each subunit are replaced by hydrophobic interactions between Met-31, Tyr-36, and Leu-40. The MYL refolding/dimerization reaction differs from that of wild type in being 10- to 1250-fold faster, having an earlier transition state, and depending upon viscosity but not ionic strength. Formation of the wild-type salt bridges in a hydrophobic ...

  9. Structural mapping of the ClpB ATPases of Plasmodium falciparum: Targeting protein folding and secretion for antimalarial drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhYoung, Andrew P; Koehl, Antoine; Cascio, Duilio; Egea, Pascal F

    2015-09-01

    Caseinolytic chaperones and proteases (Clp) belong to the AAA+ protein superfamily and are part of the protein quality control machinery in cells. The eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, has evolved an elaborate network of Clp proteins including two distinct ClpB ATPases. ClpB1 and ClpB2 are involved in different aspects of parasitic proteostasis. ClpB1 is present in the apicoplast, a parasite-specific and plastid-like organelle hosting various metabolic pathways necessary for parasite growth. ClpB2 localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane where it drives protein export as core subunit of a parasite-derived protein secretion complex, the Plasmodium Translocon of Exported proteins (PTEX); this process is central to parasite virulence and survival in the human host. The functional associations of these two chaperones with parasite-specific metabolism and protein secretion make them prime drug targets. ClpB proteins function as unfoldases and disaggregases and share a common architecture consisting of four domains-a variable N-terminal domain that binds different protein substrates, followed by two highly conserved catalytic ATPase domains, and a C-terminal domain. Here, we report and compare the first crystal structures of the N terminal domains of ClpB1 and ClpB2 from Plasmodium and analyze their molecular surfaces. Solution scattering analysis of the N domain of ClpB2 shows that the average solution conformation is similar to the crystalline structure. These structures represent the first step towards the characterization of these two malarial chaperones and the reconstitution of the entire PTEX to aid structure-based design of novel anti-malarial drugs. PMID:26130467

  10. NMR assignments, secondary structure, and global fold of calerythrin, an EF-hand calcium-binding protein from Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    OpenAIRE

    Aitio, H.; Annila, A; Heikkinen, S.; Thulin, E.; Drakenberg, T; Kilpeläinen, I.

    1999-01-01

    Calerythrin is a 20 kDa calcium-binding protein isolated from gram-positive bacterium Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Based on amino acid sequence homology, it has been suggested that calerythrin belongs to the family of invertebrate sarcoplasmic EF-hand calcium-binding proteins (SCPs), and therefore it is expected to function as a calcium buffer. NMR spectroscopy was used to obtain structural information on the protein in solution. Backbone and side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N assignments were obtai...

  11. Two-dimensional NMR and photo-CIDNP studies of the insulin monomer: Assignment of aromatic resonances with application to protein folding, structure, and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aromatic 1H NMR resonances of the insulin monomer are assigned at 500 MHz by comparative studies of chemically modified and genetically altered variants, including a mutant insulin (PheB25 → Leu) associated with diabetes mellitus. The two histidines, three phenylalanines, and four tyrosines are observed to be in distinct local environments; their assignment provides sensitive markers for studies of tertiary structure, protein dynamics, and protein folding. The environments of the tyrosine residues have also been investigated by photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) and analyzed in relation to packing constrains in the crystal structures of insulin. Dimerization involving specific B-chain interactions is observed with increasing protein concentration and is shown to depend on temperature, pH, and solvent composition. The differences between proinsulin and mini-proinsulin suggest a structural mechanism for the observation that the fully reduced B29-A1 analogue folds more efficiently than proinsulin to form the correct pattern of disulfide bonds. These results are discussed in relation to molecular mechanics calculations of insulin based on the available crystal structures

  12. Two-dimensional NMR and photo-CIDNP studies of the insulin monomer: Assignment of aromatic resonances with application to protein folding, structure, and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.A.; Shoelson, S.E. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA) Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA)); Nguyen, D.T.; O' Shea, E.; Karplus, M. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Khait, I.; Neuringer, L.J. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA)); Inouye, K. (Shionogi and Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Frank, B.H.; Beckage, M. (Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1989-12-12

    The aromatic {sup 1}H NMR resonances of the insulin monomer are assigned at 500 MHz by comparative studies of chemically modified and genetically altered variants, including a mutant insulin (PheB25 {yields} Leu) associated with diabetes mellitus. The two histidines, three phenylalanines, and four tyrosines are observed to be in distinct local environments; their assignment provides sensitive markers for studies of tertiary structure, protein dynamics, and protein folding. The environments of the tyrosine residues have also been investigated by photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) and analyzed in relation to packing constrains in the crystal structures of insulin. Dimerization involving specific B-chain interactions is observed with increasing protein concentration and is shown to depend on temperature, pH, and solvent composition. The differences between proinsulin and mini-proinsulin suggest a structural mechanism for the observation that the fully reduced B29-A1 analogue folds more efficiently than proinsulin to form the correct pattern of disulfide bonds. These results are discussed in relation to molecular mechanics calculations of insulin based on the available crystal structures.

  13. Towards plant protein refinery: Review on protein extraction using alkalo and potential enzymatic assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    The globally increasing protein demands require additional resources to those currently available. Furthermore, the optimal usage of protein fractions from both traditional and new protein resources, such as algae and leaves, is essential. Here, we present an overview on alkaline plant protein extra

  14. A novel human tectonin protein with multivalent beta-propeller folds interacts with ficolin and binds bacterial LPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hooi Ping Low

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the human genome database has been completed a decade ago, approximately 50% of the proteome remains hypothetical as their functions are unknown. The elucidation of the functions of these hypothetical proteins can lead to additional protein pathways and revelation of new cascades. However, many of these inferences are limited to proteins with substantial sequence similarity. Of particular interest here is the Tectonin domain-containing family of proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified hTectonin, a hypothetical protein in the human genome database, as a distant ortholog of the limulus galactose binding protein (GBP. Phylogenetic analysis revealed strong evolutionary conservation of hTectonin homologues from parasite to human. By computational analysis, we showed that both the hTectonin and GBP form beta-propeller structures with multiple Tectonin domains, each containing beta-sheets of 4 strands per beta-sheet. hTectonin is present in the human leukocyte cDNA library and immune-related cell lines. It interacts with M-ficolin, a known human complement protein whose ancient homolog, carcinolectin (CL5, is the functional protein partner of GBP during infection. Yeast 2-hybrid assay showed that only the Tectonin domains of hTectonin recognize the fibrinogen-like domain of the M-ficolin. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed real-time interaction between the Tectonin domains 6 & 11 and bacterial LPS, indicating that despite forming 2 beta-propellers with its different Tectonin domains, the hTectonin molecule could precisely employ domains 6 & 11 to recognise bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By virtue of a recent finding of another Tectonin protein, leukolectin, in the human leukocyte, and our structure-function analysis of the hypothetical hTectonin, we propose that Tectonin domains of proteins could play a vital role in innate immune defense, and that this function has been conserved over several

  15. Mechanism study of dual-frequency ultrasound assisted enzymolysis on rapeseed protein by immobilized Alcalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Meng, Tingting; Ma, Haile; Zhang, Yanyan; Li, Yunliang; Jin, Jian; Ye, Xiaofei

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of ultrasound field promoting enzymolysis efficiency is difficult to study, because the reaction system mixes with enzymes, proteins and hydrolysates. Immobilized enzyme is a good option that can be used to investigate the mechanism by separating enzymes out from the system after enzymolysis. The objective of this study was by using immobilized Alcalase to investigate the effects and mechanisms of the promotion of dual-frequency ultrasound (DFU) assisted-enzymolysis on rapeseed protein. Based on single factor experiments, response surface methodology model with three factors - hydrolysis time, power density and solid-liquid ratio at three levels was utilized to optimize the degree of hydrolysis (DH). Circular dichroism (CD) was used to analyze the secondary structure change of the protein, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface microstructure change of the enzyme. The results showed that with DFU assisted-enzymolysis, the DH increased by 74.38% at the optimal levels for power density 57W/L, solid-liquid ratio 5.3g/L and enzymolysis time 76min. After DFU assisted-enzymolysis, the yield of soluble solids content, including protein, peptides and total sugar in hydrolysate increased by 64.61%, 40.88% and 23.60%, respectively. CD analysis showed that after DFU assisted-enzymolysis, the number of α-helix and random coil decreased by 10.7% and 4.5%, β-chain increased by 2.4%. SEM showed that the degree of surface roughness of immobilized Alcalase increased. The above results indicated that the improvement of hydrolysis by DFU assisted-enzymolysis was achieved by enhancing the solid solubility, changing the molecular structure of protein and increased the surface area of immobilized enzyme. PMID:27150775

  16. Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Study of RNA-protein Folding Patterns in Human hnRNP A3 and Their Implications in Human Autoimmune Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.SüLEYMANO(G)LU

    2004-01-01

    In human cells, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) are represented by a group of polypeptides, with various molecular properties, comprizing the most abundant constituents of the cell nucleus. Autoantibodies to hnRNPs have been reported in patients suffering from different rheumatic dieseases since 1980s. Experimental evidence indicates that hnRNP complexes undergo substantial structural changes during mRNA formation and export. However, how this contributes to disease development still has to be elucidated. Here some preliminary physicochemical features of RNA-protein folding and stability patterns of newly characterized hnRNP A3 with further functional implications in development of systemic human autoimmune states are reported.

  17. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the protein Expansion: an ‘Expansion’ to the Smad MH2 fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion is a modular protein that is conserved in protostomes. The first structure of the N-terminal domain of Expansion has been determined at 1.6 Å resolution and the new Nα-MH2 domain was found to belong to the Smad/FHA superfamily of structures. Gene-expression changes observed in Drosophila embryos after inducing the transcription factor Tramtrack led to the identification of the protein Expansion. Expansion contains an N-terminal domain similar in sequence to the MH2 domain characteristic of Smad proteins, which are the central mediators of the effects of the TGF-β signalling pathway. Apart from Smads and Expansion, no other type of protein belonging to the known kingdoms of life contains MH2 domains. To compare the Expansion and Smad MH2 domains, the crystal structure of the Expansion domain was determined at 1.6 Å resolution, the first structure of a non-Smad MH2 domain to be characterized to date. The structure displays the main features of the canonical MH2 fold with two main differences: the addition of an α-helical region and the remodelling of a protein-interaction site that is conserved in the MH2 domain of Smads. Owing to these differences, to the new domain was referred to as Nα-MH2. Despite the presence of the Nα-MH2 domain, Expansion does not participate in TGF-β signalling; instead, it is required for other activities specific to the protostome phyla. Based on the structural similarities to the MH2 fold, it is proposed that the Nα-MH2 domain should be classified as a new member of the Smad/FHA superfamily

  18. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the protein Expansion: an ‘Expansion’ to the Smad MH2 fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beich-Frandsen, Mads; Aragón, Eric [Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llimargas, Marta [Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, IBMB–CSIC, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Benach, Jordi [ALBA Synchrotron, BP 1413, km 3.3, Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); Riera, Antoni [Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pous, Joan [Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Platform of Crystallography IBMB–CSIC, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Macias, Maria J., E-mail: maria.macias@irbbarcelona.org [Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    Expansion is a modular protein that is conserved in protostomes. The first structure of the N-terminal domain of Expansion has been determined at 1.6 Å resolution and the new Nα-MH2 domain was found to belong to the Smad/FHA superfamily of structures. Gene-expression changes observed in Drosophila embryos after inducing the transcription factor Tramtrack led to the identification of the protein Expansion. Expansion contains an N-terminal domain similar in sequence to the MH2 domain characteristic of Smad proteins, which are the central mediators of the effects of the TGF-β signalling pathway. Apart from Smads and Expansion, no other type of protein belonging to the known kingdoms of life contains MH2 domains. To compare the Expansion and Smad MH2 domains, the crystal structure of the Expansion domain was determined at 1.6 Å resolution, the first structure of a non-Smad MH2 domain to be characterized to date. The structure displays the main features of the canonical MH2 fold with two main differences: the addition of an α-helical region and the remodelling of a protein-interaction site that is conserved in the MH2 domain of Smads. Owing to these differences, to the new domain was referred to as Nα-MH2. Despite the presence of the Nα-MH2 domain, Expansion does not participate in TGF-β signalling; instead, it is required for other activities specific to the protostome phyla. Based on the structural similarities to the MH2 fold, it is proposed that the Nα-MH2 domain should be classified as a new member of the Smad/FHA superfamily.

  19. Direct protein detection from biological media through electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Hsu, Hsiu-Jung; Lee, Jen-Yih; Jeng, Jingyueh; Shiea, Jentaie

    2006-05-01

    We report here using a novel technology-electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization (ELDI)/mass spectrometry-for the rapid and sensitive detection of the major proteins that exist in dried biological fluids (e.g., blood, tears, saliva, serum), bacterial cultures, and tissues (e.g., porcine liver and heart) under ambient conditions. This technique required essentially no sample pretreatment. The proteins in the samples were desorbed using a pulsed nitrogen laser without the assistance of an organic matrix. The desorbed protein molecules were then post-ionized through their fusion into the charged solvent droplets produced from the electrospray of an acidic methanol solution; electrospray ionization (ESI) proceeded from the newly formed droplets to generate the ESI-like protein ions. This new ionization approach combines some of the features of electrospray ionization with those of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), that is, sampling of a solid surface with spatial resolution, generating ESI-like mass spectra of the desorbed proteins, and operating under ambient conditions. PMID:16674100

  20. Three-Dimensional Protein Fold Determination from Backbone Amide Pseudocontact Shifts Generated by Lanthanide Tags at Multiple Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Yagi, Hiromasa

    2013-06-01

    Site-specific attachment of paramagnetic lanthanide ions to a protein generates pseudocontact shifts (PCS) in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the protein that are easily measured as changes in chemical shifts. By labeling the protein with lanthanide tags at four different sites, PCSs are observed for most amide protons and accurate information is obtained about their coordinates in three-dimensional space. The approach is demonstrated with the chaperone ERp29, for which large differences have been reported between X-ray and NMR structures of the C-terminal domain, ERp29-C. The results unambiguously show that the structure of rat ERp29-C in solution is similar to the crystal structure of human ERp29-C. PCSs of backbone amides were the only structural restraints required. Because these can be measured for more dilute protein solutions than other NMR restraints, the approach greatly widens the range of proteins amenable to structural studies in solution. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.