WorldWideScience

Sample records for assisted molecular beam

  1. Growth of MoO3 films by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, Eric I.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2002-07-22

    The growth of MoO₃ films on SrLaAlO₄(0 0 1), a substrate lattice-matched to b-MoO , by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy was characterized using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Xray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopies (AFM and STM).It was found that the flux of reactive oxygen species to the surface was not high enough to maintain the proper stoichiometry, even at the lowest measurable deposition rates. Therefore, the films were grown by depositing Mo in small increments and then allowing the Mo to oxidize. At 675 K, the films grew epitaxially but in a three-dimensional manner. XRD of films grown under these conditions revealed atetragonal structure that has not been previously observed in bulk MoO₃ samples.

  2. Si Incorporation in InP Nanowires Grown by Au-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Rigutti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the growth, structural characterization, and conductivity studies of Si-doped InP nanowires grown by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that Si doping reduces the mean diffusion length of adatoms on the lateral nanowire surface and consequently reduces the nanowire growth rate and promotes lateral growth. A resistivity as low as 5.1±0.3×10−5 Ω⋅cm is measured for highly doped nanowires. Two dopant incorporation mechanisms are discussed: incorporation via catalyst particle and direct incorporation on the nanowire sidewalls. The first mechanism is shown to be less efficient than the second one, resulting in inhomogeneous radial dopant distribution.

  3. Photoluminescence studies of ZnO nanorods grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Nam, Giwoong; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    Metal catalyst-free ZnO nanorods were grown on PS with buffer layers grown at 450 degrees C by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Room temperature and temperature-dependent photoluminescence were carried out to investigate the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods with the average diameter of 120 nm and length of 300 nm. Three emission peaks, free excition, neutral-donor exciton, and free electron-to-neutral acceptor, were observed at 10 K. Huang-Rhys factor S of the ZnO nanorods was 0.978, which is much higher than that of ZnO thin films. The values of Varshni's empirical equation fitting parameters were alpha = 4 x 10(-3) eV/K, beta = 4.1 x 10(4) K, and E9(0) = 3.388 eV and the activation energy was about 96 meV.

  4. Controlling crystal phases in GaAs nanowires grown by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheeraj, D L; Munshi, A M; Scheffler, M; van Helvoort, A T J; Weman, H; Fimland, B O

    2013-01-11

    Control of the crystal phases of GaAs nanowires (NWs) is essential to eliminate the formation of stacking faults which deteriorate the optical and electronic properties of the NWs. In addition, the ability to control the crystal phase of NWs provides an opportunity to engineer the band gap without changing the crystal material. We show that the crystal phase of GaAs NWs grown on GaAs(111)B substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using the Au-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism can be tuned between wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) by changing the V/III flux ratio. As an example we demonstrate the realization of WZ GaAs NWs with a ZB GaAs insert that has been grown without changing the substrate temperature.

  5. Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth of ZnSnN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldberg, Nathaniel; Aldous, James; Yao, Yuan; Tanveer, Imtiaz; Keen, Benjamin; Linhart, Wojciech; Veal, Tim; Song, Young-Wook; Reeves, Roger; Durbin, Steve

    2012-02-01

    The Zn-IV-nitrides are a promising series of ``earth abundant element'' semiconductors with a predicted band gap range of 0.6 eV to 5.4 eV, which, like the (Al,Ga,In)N family, spans the entire visible solar spectrum. Considering this alternative family has a number of advantages, including the avoidance of indium, the price of which has varied almost an order of magnitude over the past decade, and surface electron accumulation which is present in the In-rich alloys. Not all members of this family have yet been synthesized, in particular ZnSnN2, the most important member for PV with its predicted band gap of approximately 2 eV. We have successfully grown a series of these films using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using elemental Zn and Sn sources. In this report, we discuss the relationship between process parameters and microstructure, as well as stoichiometry as determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Additionally, we provide preliminary estimates for its bandgap energy based on photoluminescence and optical absorption.

  6. Comb-assisted cavity ring-down spectroscopy of a buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Luigi; Sarno, Valentina Di; Natale, Paolo De; Rosa, Maurizio De; Inguscio, Massimo; Mosca, Simona; Ricciardi, Iolanda; Calonico, Davide; Levi, Filippo; Maddaloni, Pasquale

    2016-06-22

    We demonstrate continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy of a partially hydrodynamic molecular beam emerging from a buffer-gas-cooling source. Specifically, the (ν1 + ν3) vibrational overtone band of acetylene (C2H2) around 1.5 μm is accessed using a narrow-linewidth diode laser stabilized against a GPS-disciplined rubidium clock via an optical frequency comb synthesizer. As an example, the absolute frequency of the R(1) component is measured with a fractional accuracy of ∼1 × 10(-9). Our approach represents the first step towards the extension of more sophisticated cavity-enhanced interrogation schemes, including saturated absorption cavity ring-down or two-photon excitation, to buffer-gas-cooled molecular beams.

  7. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSkimming, Brian M., E-mail: mcskimming@engineering.ucsb.edu; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Chaix, Catherine [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Périer, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  8. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on semipolar GaN (2021) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicka, M.; Grzanka, S.; Skierbiszewski, C. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Cheze, C. [TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Turski, H.; Muziol, G.; Krysko, M.; Grzanka, E.; Sochacki, T. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Hauswald, C.; Brandt, O. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Siekacz, M. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Kucharski, R. [Ammono S.A., Czerwonego Krzyza 2/31, 00-377 Warsaw (Poland); Remmele, T.; Albrecht, M. [Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth, Max-Born Strasse 2, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2013-03-18

    Multi-quantum well (MQW) structures and light emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The In incorporation efficiency was found to be significantly lower for the semipolar plane as compared to the polar one. The semipolar MQWs exhibit a smooth surface morphology, abrupt interfaces, and a high photoluminescence intensity. The electroluminescence of semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) LEDs fabricated in the same growth run peaks at 387 and 462 nm, respectively. Semipolar LEDs with additional (Al,Ga)N cladding layers exhibit a higher optical output power but simultaneously a higher turn-on voltage.

  9. Growth of Gold-assisted Gallium Arsenide Nanowires on Silicon Substrates via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon M. delos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide nanowires were grown on silicon (100 substrates by what is called the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS growth mechanism using a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE system. Good quality nanowires with surface density of approximately 108 nanowires per square centimeter were produced by utilizing gold nanoparticles, with density of 1011 nanoparticles per square centimeter, as catalysts for nanowire growth. X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the nanowires are epitaxially grown on the silicon substrates, are oriented along the [111] direction and have cubic zincblende structure.

  10. Photoelectron photoion molecular beam spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevor, D.J.

    1980-12-01

    The use of supersonic molecular beams in photoionization mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy to assist in the understanding of photoexcitation in the vacuum ultraviolet is described. Rotational relaxation and condensation due to supersonic expansion were shown to offer new possibilities for molecular photoionization studies. Molecular beam photoionization mass spectroscopy has been extended above 21 eV photon energy by the use of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) facilities. Design considerations are discussed that have advanced the state-of-the-art in high resolution vuv photoelectron spectroscopy. To extend gas-phase studies to 160 eV photon energy, a windowless vuv-xuv beam line design is proposed.

  11. Room temperature Ultraviolet B emission from InAlGaN films synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W., E-mail: wei.kong@duke.edu; Jiao, W. Y.; Kim, T. H.; Brown, A. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Roberts, A. T. [Charles Bowden Laboratory, Army Aviation and Missile RD& E Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Fournelle, J. [Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Losurdo, M. [CNR-NANOTEC, Istituto di Nanotecnologia, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy); Everitt, H. O. [Charles Bowden Laboratory, Army Aviation and Missile RD& E Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Thin films of the wide bandgap quaternary semiconductor In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−x−y)}N with low In (x = 0.01–0.05) and high Al composition (y = 0.40–0.49) were synthesized on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution X-ray diffraction was used to correlate the strain accommodation of the films to composition. Room temperature ultraviolet B (280 nm–320 nm) photoluminescence intensity increased with increasing In composition, while the Stokes shift remained relatively constant. The data suggest a competition between radiative and non-radiative recombination occurs for carriers, respectively, localized at centers produced by In incorporation and at dislocations produced by strain relaxation.

  12. Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown by Oxygen-plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhongqing; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Marina, Olga A.; Wang, Chong M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2008-03-11

    We have used oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE) to grow highly oriented Ce1-xSmxO2-δ films on single crystal c-Al2O3. The samarium concentration, x, was varied in the range 1-33 atom%. It was observed that dominant (111) orientation in Ce1-xSmxO2-δ films can be maintained up to about 10 samarium atom% concentration. Films higher than 10 atom% Sm concentration started to show polycrystalline features. The highest conductivity of 0.04 S.cm-1, at 600 0C, was observed for films with ~ 5 atom% Sm concentration. A loss of orientation, triggering an enhanced grain boundary scattering, appears to be responsible for the decrease in conductivity at higher dopant concentrations.

  13. GaN Schottky diodes with single-crystal aluminum barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, H. Y.; Yang, W. C.; Lee, P. Y.; Lin, C. W.; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, K. C.; Cheng, K. Y.; Hsu, C.-H.

    2016-08-01

    GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with single-crystal Al barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are fabricated. Examined using in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffractions, ex-situ high-resolution x-ray diffractions, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, it is determined that epitaxial Al grows with its [111] axis coincident with the [0001] axis of the GaN substrate without rotation. In fabricated SBDs, a 0.2 V barrier height enhancement and 2 orders of magnitude reduction in leakage current are observed in single crystal Al/GaN SBDs compared to conventional thermal deposited Al/GaN SBDs. The strain induced piezoelectric field is determined to be the major source of the observed device performance enhancements.

  14. Direct growth of graphene on in situ epitaxial hexagonal boron nitride flakes by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhongguang; Zheng, Renjing; Khanaki, Alireza; Zuo, Zheng; Liu, Jianlin, E-mail: jianlin@ece.ucr.edu [Quantum Structures Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-11-23

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single-crystal domains were grown on cobalt (Co) substrates at a substrate temperature of 850–900 °C using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Three-point star shape h-BN domains were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and confirmed by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The h-BN on Co template was used for in situ growth of multilayer graphene, leading to an h-BN/graphene heterostructure. Carbon atoms preferentially nucleate on Co substrate and edges of h-BN and then grow laterally to form continuous graphene. Further introduction of carbon atoms results in layer-by-layer growth of graphene on graphene and lateral growth of graphene on h-BN until it may cover entire h-BN flakes.

  15. Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of homoepitaxial GaN grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tong-Ho; Choi, Soojeong; Wu, Pae; Brown, April [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM UdR Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Moto, Akihiro [Innovation Core SEI, Inc., 3235 Kifer Road, Santa Clara, CA 95051 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaN template substrates (GaN on sapphire) is investigated with in-situ multi-channel spectroscopic ellipsometry. Growth is performed under various Ga/N flux ratios at growth temperatures in the range 710-780 C. The thermal roughening of the GaN template caused by decomposition of the surface is investigated through the temporal variation of the GaN pseudodielectric function over the temperature range of 650 C to 850 C. The structural, morphological, and optical properties are also discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Ge doping of β-Ga2O3 films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Elaheh; Koksaldi, Onur S.; Kaun, Stephen W.; Oshima, Yuichi; Short, Dane B.; Mishra, Umesh K.; Speck, James S.

    2017-04-01

    The Ge doping of β-Ga2O3(010) films was investigated using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy as the growth method. The dependences of the amount of Ge incorporated on the substrate temperature, Ge-cell temperature, and growth regime were studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The electron concentration and mobility were investigated using Van der Pauw Hall patterns. Hall measurement confirmed that Ge acts as an n-dopant in β-Ga2O3(010) films. These results were compared with similar films doped by Sn. The Hall data showed an improved electron mobility for the same electron concentration when Ge is used instead of Sn as the dopant.

  17. Epitaxial Properties of Co-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Qiang; DENG Jiang-Xia; LIU Guo-Lei; CHEN Yan-Xue; YAN Shi-Shen

    2007-01-01

    High quality Co-doped ZnO thin films are grown on single crystalline Al2O3(0001) and ZnO(0001) substrates by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy at a relatively lower substrate temperature of 450 ℃. The epitaxial conditions are examined with in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex-situ high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The epitaxial thin films are single crystal at film thickness smaller than 500nm and nominal concentration of Co dopant up to 20%. It is indicated that the Co cation is incorporated into the ZnO matrix as Co2+ substituting Zn2+ ions. Atomic force microscopy shows smooth surfaces with rms roughness of 1.9nm. Room-temperature magnetization measurements reveal that the Co-doped ZnO thin films are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures TC above room temperature.

  18. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  19. Effect of growth temperature on defects in epitaxial GaN film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kushvaha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of growth temperature on defect states of GaN epitaxial layers grown on 3.5 μm thick GaN epi-layer on sapphire (0001 substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The GaN samples grown at three different substrate temperatures at 730, 740 and 750 °C were characterized using atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy images of these samples show the presence of small surface and large hexagonal pits on the GaN film surfaces. The surface defect density of high temperature grown sample is smaller (4.0 × 108 cm−2 at 750 °C than that of the low temperature grown sample (1.1 × 109 cm−2 at 730 °C. A correlation between growth temperature and concentration of deep centre defect states from photoluminescence spectra is also presented. The GaN film grown at 750 °C exhibits the lowest defect concentration which confirms that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and affects the optical properties of the GaN epitaxial films.

  20. InN nanorods prepared with CrN nanoislands by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sheng-Joue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the influence of CrN nanoisland inserted on growth of baseball-bat InN nanorods by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under In-rich conditions. By inserting CrN nanoislands between AlN nucleation layer and the Si (111 substrate, it was found that we could reduce strain form Si by inserting CrN nanoisland, FWHM of the x-ray rocking curve measured from InN nanorods from 3,299 reduced to 2,115 arcsec. It is due to the larger strain from lattice miss-match of the film-like InN structure; however, the strain from lattice miss-match was obvious reduced owing to CrN nanoisland inserted. The TEM images confirmed the CrN structures and In droplets dissociation from InN, by these results, we can speculate the growth mechanism of baseball-bat-like InN nanorods.

  1. Hybrid ZnO/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Adolph

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate crack-free ZnO/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs grown by hybrid plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using the same growth chamber for continuous growth of both ZnO and GaN without exposure to air. This is the first time these ZnO/GaN DBRs have been demonstrated. The Bragg reflectors consisted up to 20 periods as shown with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The maximum achieved reflectance was 77% with a 32 nm wide stopband centered at 500 nm. Growth along both (0001 and (000 1 ̄ directions was investigated. Low-temperature growth as well as two-step low/high-temperature deposition was carried out where the latter method improved the DBR reflectance. Samples grown along the (0001 direction yielded a better surface morphology as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Reciprocal space maps showed that ZnO(000 1 ̄ /GaN reflectors are relaxed whereas the ZnO(0001/GaN DBRs are strained. The ability to n-type dope ZnO and GaN makes the ZnO(0001/GaN DBRs interesting for various optoelectronic cavity structures.

  2. Growth map for Ga-assisted growth of GaAs nanowires on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiman, Faebian; Küpers, Hanno; Somaschini, Claudio; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2016-03-04

    For the Ga-assisted growth of GaAs nanowires on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy, growth temperature, As flux, and Ga flux have been systematically varied across the entire window of growth conditions that result in the formation of nanowires. A range of GaAs structures was observed, progressing from pure Ga droplets under negligible As flux through horizontal nanowires, tilted nanowires, vertical nanowires, and nanowires without droplets to crystallites as the As flux was increased. Quantitative analysis of the resulting sample morphology was performed in terms of nanowire number and volume density, number yield and volume yield of vertical nanowires, diameter, length, as well as the number and volume density of parasitic growth. The result is a growth map that comprehensively describes all nanowire and parasitic growth morphologies and hence enables growth of nanowire samples in a predictive manner. Further analysis indicates the combination of global Ga flux and growth temperature determines the total density of all objects, whereas the global As/Ga flux ratio independently determines the resultant sample morphology. Several dependencies observed here imply that all objects present on the substrate surface, i.e. both nanowires and parasitic structures, originate from Ga droplets.

  3. Effect of growth temperature on defects in epitaxial GaN film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushvaha, S. S., E-mail: kushvahas@nplindia.org; Pal, P.; Shukla, A. K.; Joshi, Amish G.; Gupta, Govind; Kumar, M.; Singh, S.; Gupta, Bipin K.; Haranath, D. [CSIR- National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, India 110012 (India)

    2014-02-15

    We report the effect of growth temperature on defect states of GaN epitaxial layers grown on 3.5 μm thick GaN epi-layer on sapphire (0001) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The GaN samples grown at three different substrate temperatures at 730, 740 and 750 °C were characterized using atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy images of these samples show the presence of small surface and large hexagonal pits on the GaN film surfaces. The surface defect density of high temperature grown sample is smaller (4.0 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} at 750 °C) than that of the low temperature grown sample (1.1 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} at 730 °C). A correlation between growth temperature and concentration of deep centre defect states from photoluminescence spectra is also presented. The GaN film grown at 750 °C exhibits the lowest defect concentration which confirms that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and affects the optical properties of the GaN epitaxial films.

  4. Effects of AIN nucleation layer thickness on crystal quality of AIN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Fan; Hao Zhi-Biao; Hu Jian-Nan; Zhang Chen; Luo Yi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the effects of thickness of AIN nucleation layer grown at high temperature on AIN epi-layer crystalline quality are investigated.Crack-free AIN samples with various nucleation thicknesses are grown on sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.The AIN crystalline quality is analysed by transmission electron microscope and x-ray diffraction(XRD)rocking curves in both(002)and(102)planes.The surface profiles of nucleation layer with different thicknesses after in-situ annealing are also analysed by atomic force microscope.A critical nucleation thickness for realising high quality AIN films is found.When the nucleation thickness is above a certain value,the(102)XRD full width at half maximum(FWHM)of AIN bulk increases with nucleation thickness increasing,whereas the(002)XRD FWHM shows an opposite trend.These phenomena can be attributed to the characteristics of nucleation islands and the evolution of crystal grains during AIN main layer growth.

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pamplin, Brian R

    1980-01-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxy introduces the reader to the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the generation of III-V and IV-VI compounds and alloys and describes the semiconductor and integrated optics reasons for using the technique. Topics covered include semiconductor superlattices by MBE; design considerations for MBE systems; periodic doping structure in gallium arsenide (GaAs); nonstoichiometry and carrier concentration control in MBE of compound semiconductors; and MBE techniques for IV-VI optoelectronic devices. The use of MBE to fabricate integrated optical devices and to study semicond

  6. Analysis of Mg content of Zn1-xMgxO film grown on sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fengping; JIAN Shuisheng; K. Ogata; K. Koike; S. Sasa; M. Inoue; M. Yano

    2004-01-01

    The Mg content of Zn1-xMgxO film grown on A-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)and electronic probe microanalysis (EPMA). A theoretical model for analyzing the difference in the Mg content between Zn-rich and Zn-deficient conditions in the growth process is established, and the mathematical relation between Mg content and the temperature of the Mg cell is formulated under Zn-rich condition. The formula derived is proven to be correct by experiments.

  7. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs nanowires and their sustainability for optoelectronic applications. Comparing Au- and self-assisted growth methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Steffen

    2011-09-28

    In this work the synthesis of GaAs nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is investigated. A comparison between Au- and self-assisted VLS growth is at the centre of this thesis. While the Au-assisted method is established as a versatile tool for nanowire growth, the recently developed self-assisted variation results from the exchange of Au by Ga droplets and thus eliminates any possibility of Au incorporation. By both methods, we achieve nanowires with epitaxial alignment to the Si(111) substrates. Caused by differences during nanowire nucleation, a parasitic planar layer grows between the nanowires by the Au-assisted method, but can be avoided by the self-assisted method. Au-assisted nanowires grow predominantly in the metastable wurtzite crystal structure, while their self-assisted counterparts have the zincblende structure. All GaAs nanowires are fully relaxed and the strain arising from the lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si of 4.1 % is accommodated by misfit dislocations at the interface. Self-assisted GaAs nanowires are generally found to have vertical and non-polar side facets, while tilted and polar nanofacets were described for Au-assisted GaAs nanowires. We employ VLS nucleation theory to understand the effect of the droplet material on the lateral facets. Optoelectronic applications require long minority carrier lifetimes at room temperature. We fabricate GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell nanowires and analyse them by transient photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results are 2.5 ns for the self-assisted nanowires as well as 9 ps for the Au-assisted nanowires. By temperature-dependent PL measurements we find a characteristic activation energy of 77 meV that is present only in the Au-assisted nanowires. We conclude that most likely Au is incorporated from the droplets into the GaAs nanowires and acts as a deep, non-radiative recombination centre.

  8. Molecular-beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M. F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HC1 (FEMALE) NAC1 + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2(2)P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3(2)P/sub 3/2) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  9. Molecular-beam scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  10. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on Optical Properties of GaInNAs/GaAs Single Quantum Well Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) on the optical properties of GaInNAs/GaAs Single Quantum Well (SQW) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Ion removal magnets were applied to reduce the ion damage during the growth process and the optical properties of GaInNAs/GaAs SQW are remarkably improved.RTA was carried out at 650℃ and its effect was studied by the comparising the roomtemperature PhotoLuminescence (PL) spectra for the non ion-removed (grown without magnets) sample with for the ion-removed (grown with magnets) one. The more significant improvement of PL characteristics for non ion-removed GaInNAs/GaAs SQW after annealing (compared with those for ion-removed) indicates that the nonradiative centers removed by RTA at 650℃ are mainly originated from ion damage. After annealing the PL blue shift for non ionremoved GaInNAs/GaAs SQW is much larger than those for InGaAs/GaAs and ion-removed GaInNAs/GaAs SQW. It is found that the larger PL blue shift of GaInNAs/GaAs SQW is due to the defect-assisted In-Ga interdiffusion rather than defect-assisted N-As interdiffusion.

  11. A combined molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo calculation to study sputter erosion and beam assisted deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, G

    2002-01-01

    To extend the time scale in molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of sputtering and ion assisted deposition we have coupled our MD calculations to a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) calculation. In this way we have studied surface erosion of Cu(1 0 0) under 200-600 eV Cu ion bombardment and growth of Cu on Cu(1 0 0) for deposition at thermal energies up to energies of 100 eV per atom. Target temperatures were varied from 100 to 400 K. The coupling of the MD calculation to a KMC calculation allows us to extend our calculations from a few ps, a time scale typical for MD, to times of up to seconds until the next Cu particle will impinge/be deposited on the crystal surface of about 100 nm sup 2 in size. The latter value of 1 s is quite realistic for a typical experimental sputter erosion or deposition experiment. In such a calculation thermal diffusion processes at the surface and annealing of the surface after energetic ion bombardment can be taken into account. To achieve homo-epitaxial growth of a film the results cle...

  12. Self-assembled flower-like nanostructures of InN and GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahesh Kumar; T N Bhat; M K Rajpalke; B Roul; P Misra; L M Kukreja; Neeraj Sinha; A T Kalghatgi; S B Krupanidhi

    2010-06-01

    Nanosized hexagonal InN flower-like structures were fabricated by droplet epitaxy on GaN/Si(111) and GaN flower-like nanostructure fabricated directly on Si(111) substrate using radio frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the crystallinity and morphology of the nanostructures. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) were used to investigate the chemical compositions and optical properties of nano-flowers, respectively. Activation energy of free exciton transitions in GaN nano-flowers was derived to be ∼ 28.5 meV from the temperature dependent PL studies. The formation process of nanoflowers is investigated and a qualitative mechanism is proposed.

  13. Formation behavior of Be{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O alloys grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingming; Zhu, Yuan; Su, Longxing; Zhang, Quanlin; Chen, Anqi; Ji, Xu; Xiang, Rong; Gui, Xuchun; Wu, Tianzhun [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Pan, Bicai [Department of Physics and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Tang, Zikang [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-05-20

    We report the phase formation behavior of Be{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O alloys grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We find the alloy with low- and high-Be contents could be obtained by alloying BeO into ZnO films. X-ray diffraction measurements shows the c lattice constant value shrinks, and room temperature absorption shows the energy band-gap widens after Be incorporated. However, the alloy with intermediate Be composition are unstable and segregated into low- and high-Be contents BeZnO alloys. We demonstrate the phase segregation of Be{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O alloys with intermediate Be composition resulted from large internal strain induced by large lattice mismatch between BeO and ZnO.

  14. Effects of Ga ion irradiation on growth of GaN on SiN substrates by electron cyclotron resonance-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, J. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan) and Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan) and CREST-JST, Kawaguchi Center Building, 4-1-8, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)]. E-mail: yanagisawa@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Fukuyama, T. [Department of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya, Asahi-ku, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan); Shiraishi, Y. [Department of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya, Asahi-ku, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan); Yodo, T. [Department of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya, Asahi-ku, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan); Akasaka, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    The possibility of forming GaN layers on Ga-implanted SiN surfaces was investigated using electron cyclotron resonance-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is found that the GaN layer initially formed on the SiN surface by Ga implantation at room temperature was amorphous-like, but become to polycrystalline after annealing at 650 deg. C for 3 min in vacuum. After the MBE growth of GaN, a grain structure of h-GaN was observed on the Ga-implanted SiN surface. The crystallinity of the GaN grown was, however, decreased upon increasing the Ga ion fluence on the SiN surface, which might be due, at least partly, to the formation of Ga clusters by the excess Ga implanted. The present results indicate the possibility of forming patterned GaN layers on SiN by selective Ga implantation on the SiN substrate, using a focused ion beam.

  15. Ultraviolet Photodissociation of Molecular Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-15

    Continue on reerse side if neceesry and identify by block number) Photodissociation , excimer laser, nitrocompounds, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide ...4 ULTRAVIOLET PHOTODISSOCIATION OF MOLECULAR BEAMS. * TYPE OF REPORT (TECHNICAL, FINAL, ETC.) FINAL REPOT OR PERIOD 0/01/77 - 9/30/80 AUTHOR (S... Photodissociation of Final report for period 10/01/77 - 9/30/80 Molecular Beams 6. PERFORMIN, CRG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) R

  16. Effects of growth temperature on high-quality In0.2Ga0.8N layers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dongyan; Zheng Xinhe; Li Xuefei; Wu Yuanyuan; Wang Jianfeng; Yang Hui

    2012-01-01

    High-quality In0.2Ga0.8N epilayers were grown on a GaN template at temperatures of 520 and 580 ℃ via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.The X-ray rocking curve full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of (10.2)reflections is 936 arcsec for the 50-nm-thick InGaN layers at the lower temperature.When the growth temperature increases to 580 ℃,the FWHM of (00.2) reflections for these samples is very narrow and keeps similar,while significant improvement of(10.2) reflections with an FWHM value of 612 arcsec has been observed.This improved quality in InGaN layers grown at 580 ℃ is also reflected by the much larger size of the crystalline column from the AFM results,stronger emission intensity as well as a decreased FWHM of room temperature PL from 136 to 93.9 meV.

  17. On the optical and microstrain analysis of graded InGaN/GaN MQWs based on plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, c-plane stepped- and graded- InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are grown using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) by in situ surface stoichiometry monitoring (i-SSM). Such a technique considerably reduces the strain build-up due to indium clustering within and across graded-MQWs; especially for QW closer to the top which results in mitigation of the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE). This is validated by a reduced power dependent photoluminescence blueshift of 10 meV in graded-MQWs as compared to a blueshift of 17 meV for stepped-MQWs. We further analyze microstrain within the MQWs, using Raman spectroscopy and geometrical phase analysis (GPA) on high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF)-scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images of stepped- and graded-MQWs, highlighting the reduction of ~1% strain in graded-MQWs over stepped-MQWs. Our analysis provides direct evidence of the advantage of graded-MQWs for the commercially viable c-plane light-emitting and laser diodes. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  18. Large-area growth of multi-layer hexagonal boron nitride on polished cobalt foils by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongguang; Tian, Hao; Khanaki, Alireza; Zheng, Renjing; Suja, Mohammad; Liu, Jianlin

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), which has a similar honeycomb lattice structure to graphene, is promising as a dielectric material for a wide variety of potential applications based on 2D materials. Synthesis of high-quality, large-size and single-crystalline h-BN domains is of vital importance for fundamental research as well as practical applications. In this work, we report the growth of h-BN films on mechanically polished cobalt (Co) foils using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Under appropriate growth conditions, the coverage of h-BN layers can be readily controlled by growth time. A large-area, multi-layer h-BN film with a thickness of 5~6 nm is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the size of h-BN single domains is 20~100 μm. Dielectric property of as-grown h-BN film is evaluated by characterization of Co(foil)/h-BN/Co(contact) capacitor devices. Breakdown electric field is in the range of 3.0~3.3 MV/cm, which indicates that the epitaxial h-BN film has good insulating characteristics. In addition, the effect of substrate morphology on h-BN growth is discussed regarding different domain density, lateral size, and thickness of the h-BN films grown on unpolished and polished Co foils. PMID:28230178

  19. Effects of RF plasma parameters on the growth of InGaN/GaN heterostructures using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Shim Kyu Ha; Kim, K H; Hong, S U; Cho, K I; Lee, H G; Kim, J

    1999-01-01

    The effects of rf plasma power on the structural/optical properties of GaN-based nitride epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated. Atomic force microscopy and high-resolution x-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the sharp interface of In sub 0 sub . sub 2 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 8 N/GaN heterostructures could be obtained by suppressing the surface roughening at high rf power. photoluminescence data suggest that the formation of damaged subsurface due to energetic particles was alleviated in the InGaN growth in comparison with the GaN growth. In our experimental set-up, the rf power of 400 W appeared to properly suppress the 3D island formation without causing defects at the subsurface of In sub 0 sub . sub 2 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 8 N. The phenomena associated with the indium incorporation could be explained by an inequality with two kinetic processes of the surface diffusion and the plasma stimulated desorption.

  20. Schottky barrier height of Ni to β-(AlxGa1‑x)2O3 with different compositions grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Elaheh; Oshima, Yuichi; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S.

    2017-03-01

    Coherent β-(AlxGa1‑x)2O3 films (x = 0, 0.038, 0.084, 0.164) were grown successfully on a Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 (010) substrate using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution x-ray diffraction were used to verify the alloy composition and high quality of the films. Schottky diodes were then fabricated using Ni as the Schottky metal. Capacitance–voltage measurements revealed a very low (current–voltage (I–V) measurements performed at temperatures varying from 300 K to 500 K on the Schottky diodes. These measurements revealed that the apparent Schottky barrier height could have similar values for different compositions of β-(AlxGa1‑x)2O3. We believe this is attributed to the lateral fluctuation in the alloy’s composition. This results in a lateral variation in the barrier height. Therefore, the average Schottky barrier height extracted from I–V measurements could be similar for β-(AlxGa1‑x)2O3 films with different compositions.

  1. Indium incorporation in semipolar (20 2 ̅ 1) and nonpolar (10 1 ̅ 0) InGaN grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, M.; Feduniewicz-Żmuda, A.; Kryśko, M.; Turski, H.; Muziol, G.; Siekacz, M.; Wolny, P.; Skierbiszewski, C.

    2017-02-01

    Semipolar (20 2 ̅ 1) , nonpolar m-plane (10 1 ̅ 0) and polar c-plane (0001) GaN and InGaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The surface of semipolar and nonpolar GaN grown under Ga-rich conditions is very smooth. The indium incorporation efficiency in InGaN layers grown under In-rich growth conditions is studied on three surface orientations (i) as a function of temperature from 570 to 650 °C and (ii) for varied active nitrogen flux from 0.41 to 2.03 μm/h. The In content follows the relation (10 1 ̅ 0) experiments. Indium composition in InGaN layers can be increased (i) by the decrease of the growth temperature and (ii) increase of the applied nitrogen flux for all studied surface orientations. Additionally, surface morphology of semipolar, nonpolar and c-polar InGaN layers grown at 650, 640 and 620 °C is compared. No increase in surface roughness for semipolar and nonpolar InGaN was observed in contrast to c-plane counterparts.

  2. Nitridation effects of Si(1 1 1) substrate surface on InN nanorods grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shan [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tan, Jin, E-mail: jintan_cug@163.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Bin; Song, Hao; Wu, Zhengbo; Chen, Xin [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Graphical abstract: The morphology evolution of InN nanorods in samples (g)–(i). The alignment of InN nanorods is improved and the deviation angle distribution narrows down with increase in nitriding time. It suggests that extending the nitriding time can enhance the vertical orientation of InN nanorods. - Highlights: • InN nanorods were grown on surface nitrided Si(1 1 1) substrate using PAMBE system. • Nitridation of substrate surface has a strong effect on morphology of InN nanorods. • InN nanorods cannot be formed with 1 min nitridation of Si(1 1 1) substrate. • Increasing nitriding time will increase optimum growth temperature of InN nanorods. • Increasing nitriding time can enhance vertical orientation of InN nanorods. - Abstract: The InN nanorods were grown on Si(1 1 1) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) system, with a substrate nitridation process. The effect of nitriding time of Si(1 1 1) substrate on morphology, orientation and growth temperature of InN nanorods was characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The deviation angle of InN nanorods was measured to evaluate the alignment of arrays. The results showed that InN nanorods could not be formed with 1 min nitridation of Si(1 1 1) substrate, but they could be obtained again when the nitriding time was increased to more than 10 min. In order to get aligned InN nanorods, the growth temperature needed to increase with longer nitriding time. The vertical orientation of InN nanorods could be enhanced with increase in nitriding time. The influence of the substrate nitridation on the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of InN nanorods has been investigated.

  3. Stress evolution of GaN/AlN heterostructure grown on 6H-SiC substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress evolution of GaN/AlN heterostructure grown on 6H-SiC substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE has been studied. AlN nucleation layer and GaN layer were grown as a function of III/V ratio. GaN/AlN structure is found to form buried cracks when AlN is grown in the intermediate growth regime(III/V∼1and GaN is grown under N-rich growth regime (III/V<1. The III/V ratio determines the growth mode of the layers that influences the lattice mismatch at the GaN/AlN interface. The lattice mismatch induced interfacial stress at the GaN/AlN interface relaxes by the formation of buried cracks in the structure. Additionally, the stress also relaxes by misorienting the AlN resulting in two misorientations with different tilts. Crack-free layers were obtained when AlN and GaN were grown in the N-rich growth regime (III/V<1 and metal rich growth regime (III/V≥1, respectively. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT heterostructure was demonstrated on 2-inch SiC that showed good two dimensional electron gas (2DEG properties with a sheet resistance of 480 Ω/sq, mobility of 1280 cm2/V.s and sheet carrier density of 1×1013 cm−2.

  4. Bandgap measurements and the peculiar splitting of E2H phonon modes of InxAl1-xN nanowires grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao

    2016-07-26

    The dislocation free Inx Al 1-xN nanowires (NWs) are grown on Si(111) by nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy in the temperature regime of 490 °C–610 °C yielding In composition ranges over 0.50 ≤ x ≤ 0.17. We study the optical properties of these NWs by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopies since they possesses minimal strain with reduced defects comparative to the planar films. The optical bandgap measurements of Inx Al 1-xN NWs are demonstrated by SE where the absorption edges of the NW samples are evaluated irrespective of substrate transparency. A systematic Stoke shift of 0.04–0.27 eV with increasing x was observed when comparing the micro-photoluminescence spectra with the Tauc plot derived from SE. The micro-Raman spectra in the NWs with x = 0.5 showed two-mode behavior for A1(LO) phonons and single mode behavior for E2 H phonons. As for x = 0.17, i.e., high Al content, we observed a peculiar E2 H phonon mode splitting. Further, we observe composition dependent frequency shifts. The 77 to 600 K micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements show that both AlN- and InN-like modes of A1(LO) and E2 H phonons in Inx Al 1-xN NWs are redshifted with increasing temperature, similar to that of the binary III group nitride semiconductors. These studies of the optical properties of the technologically important Inx Al 1-xN nanowires will path the way towards lasers and light-emitting diodes in the wavelength of the ultra-violet and visible range.

  5. Bandgap tuning in GaAs1‑xSbx axial nanowires grown by Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Estiak; Ojha, S. K.; Kasanaboina, P. K.; Reynolds, C. L., Jr.; Liu, Y.; Iyer, S.

    2017-03-01

    In this work we present a comprehensive study on the effects of Sb incorporation on the composition modulation, structural and optical properties of self-assisted axial GaAs1‑xSbx nanowires of 2–6 μm in length grown on (111) Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The Sb composition in the GaAs1‑xSbx axial nanowire (NW) was varied from 2.8–16 at.%, as determined from energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Lower Sb composition leads to thinner nanowires and inhomogeneous Sb composition distribution radially with a depleted Sb surface region inducing weak type-II optical emission, the presence of an additional peak at higher Bragg angle in the x-ray diffraction spectra and an electric-field-induced strong Raman LO mode. Higher Sb composition of 16 at.% leads to a more uniform Sb compositional distribution radially leading to type-I optical transitions exhibiting the lowest PL peak energy occurring at 1.13 eV. In addition, the high quality of these nanowires exhibiting pure zinc blende crystal structure, largely free of any planar defects, is borne out by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction patterns. The shift and broadening of the Raman LO and TO modes reveal evidence of increased Sb incorporation in the nanowires. Significant improvement in optical characteristics was achieved by the incorporation of a Al0.2Ga0.8As passivating shell. The results are very promising and reveal the potential to further red shift the optical emission wavelength by fine tuning of the fluxes during growth.

  6. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Karthik V. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  7. Growth optimisation of the GaN layers and GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions on bulk GaN substrates using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skierbiszewski, C.; Siekacz, M.; Feduniewicz, A.; Pastuszka, B.; Grzegory, I.; Leszczynski, M.; Porowski, S. [High Pressure Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Wasilewski, Z. [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Influence of growth conditions in plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on quality of GaN layers and GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions is studied. The growth diagram for step-flow growth mode and different nitrogen flux is presented. The low defect density of bulk GaN substrates together with very low impurity background concentrations resulted in high electron mobility for GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions: 109,000 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 1.5 K, and 2500 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 295 K. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Photoionization studies with molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y.

    1976-09-01

    A molecular beam photoionization apparatus which combines the advantages of both the molecular beam method with photoionization mass spectrometry has been designed and constructed for carrying out some unique photoionization experiments. Rotational cooling during the supersonic expansion has resulted in high resolution photoionization efficiency curves for NO, ICl, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/I. The analysis of these spectra has yielded ionization potentials for these molecules to an accuracy of +- 3 MeV. Detailed autoionization structures were also resolved. This allows the investigation of the selection rules for autoionization, and the identification of the Rydberg series which converge to the excited states of the molecular ions. The degree of relaxation for thermally populated excited states has been examined using NO and ICl as examples. As a result of adiabatic cooling, a small percentage of dimers is also formed during the expansion. The photoionization efficiency curves for (NO)/sub 2/, ArICl, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ have been obtained near the thresholds. Using the known dissociation energies of the (NO)/sub 2/, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ van der Waals molecules, the corresponding dissociation energies for NO-NO/sup +/, Ar/sub 2//sup +/, Kr/sub 2//sup +/, and Xe/sub 2//sup +/ have been determined. The ionization mechanisms for this class of molecules are examined and discussed.

  9. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakaroun, M. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France); Antony, R. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)], E-mail: remi.antony@unilim.fr; Taillepierre, P.; Moliton, A. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances.

  10. Growth and characterization of lattice-matched InAlN/GaN Bragg reflectors grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gacevic, Z.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dpt. de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Luna, E.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    We demonstrate six to ten period lattice-matched In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors with peak reflectivity centred around 400 nm, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Thanks to the well-tuned ternary alloy composition crack-free layers have been obtained as confirmed by both optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, cross-sectional analysis by high resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals highly periodic structure with abrupt interfaces. When the number of DBRs periods increased from six to ten, peak reflectivity increased from 45% to 60%. This increase was found to be in reasonable agreement with theoretical simulations. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation dynamics; and surfaces.

  12. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation & dynamics; and surfaces.

  13. High-Temperature Characteristics of GaInNAs/GaAs Single-Quantum-Well Lasers Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhong; LI Lian-He; DU Yun; LIN Yao-Wang; WU Rong-Han

    2001-01-01

    GaInNAs/GaAs single-quantum-well (SQW) lasers have been grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. N is introduced by a home-made dc-active plasma source. Incorporation of N into InGaAs decreases the bandgap significantly. The highest N concentration of 2.6% in a GalnNAs/GaAs QW is obtained, corresponding to the photoluminescence (PL) peak wavelength of 1.57μm at 10 K. The PL peak intensity decreases rapidly and the PL full width at half maximum increases with the increasing N concentrations. Rapid thermal annealing at 850°C could significantly improve the crystal quality of the QWs. An optimum annealing time of 5s at 850°C was obtained. The GaInNAs/GaAs SQW laser emitting at 1.2μm exhibits a high characteristic temperature of 115 K in the temperature range of 20° C- 75° C.

  14. Accurate determination of optical bandgap and lattice parameters of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O epitaxial films (0{<=}x{<=}0.3) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laumer, Bernhard [Walter Schottky Institut and Physics Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Schuster, Fabian; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institut and Physics Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bergmaier, Andreas; Dollinger, Guenther [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Eickhoff, Martin [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2013-06-21

    Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O epitaxial films with Mg concentrations 0{<=}x{<=}0.3 were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire substrates. Precise determination of the Mg concentration x was performed by elastic recoil detection analysis. The bandgap energy was extracted from absorption measurements with high accuracy taking electron-hole interaction and exciton-phonon complexes into account. From these results a linear relationship between bandgap energy and Mg concentration is established for x{<=}0.3. Due to alloy disorder, the increase of the photoluminescence emission energy with Mg concentration is less pronounced. An analysis of the lattice parameters reveals that the epitaxial films grow biaxially strained on a-plane sapphire.

  15. Mechanically assisted laser forming of thin beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Zygmunt; Widłaszewski, Jacek; Kurp, Piotr; Mulczyk, Krystian

    2016-12-01

    Laser-assisted forming techniques have been developed in recent years to aid plastic working of materials, which are difficult in processing at normal temperatures due to a high brittleness, effects of high work-hardening or a high spring-back phenomenon. This paper reports initial experimental investigations and numerical simulations of a mechanically-assisted laser forming process. The research is aimed at facilitating plastic shaping of thin-walled parts made of high temperature resistant alloys. Stainless steel plate, 1 mm thick, 20 mm wide, was mounted in the cantilever arrangement and a gravitational load was applied to its free end. A CO2 laser beam with rectangular cross-section traversed along the plate, towards the fixed edge. Laser spot covered the whole width of the plate. Experiments and simulations using the finite element method were performed for different values of mechanical load and with constant laser processing parameters. Experimentally validated numerical model allowed analysis of plastic deformation mechanism under the hybrid thermo-mechanical processing. The revealed mechanism of deformation consists in intense material plastic flow near the laser heated surface. This behavior results mainly from the tension state close to the heated surface and the decrease of material yield stress at elevated temperature. Stress state near the side edges of the processed plate favored more intense plastic deformation and the involved residual stress in this region.

  16. Submicron FETs Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    C NISMIMOTO N0001-77-C-0655 UNCLASSIFIED NLIiiII/mlum.. varian SUBMICRON FETs USING MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY 00 ANNUAL REPORT NO. 2 (August 1978...Ohmic Contacts to Highly Doped n-type GaAs Layers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) for Field-Effect Trans- istors," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 951 (1979...36 ’A, References (Cont.) 8. D. M. Collins, "The Use of SnTe as the Source of Donor Impurities in GaAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy ," Appl. Phys

  17. Cold and Slow Molecular Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hsin-I; Wright, Matthew J; Patterson, Dave; Doyle, John M

    2011-01-01

    Employing a two-stage cryogenic buffer gas cell, we produce a cold, hydrodynamically extracted beam of calcium monohydride molecules with a near effusive velocity distribution. Beam dynamics, thermalization and slowing are studied using laser spectroscopy. The key to this hybrid, effusive-like beam source is a "slowing cell" placed immediately after a hydrodynamic, cryogenic source [Patterson et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2007, 126, 154307]. The resulting CaH beams are created in two regimes. One modestly boosted beam has a forward velocity of vf = 65 m/s, a narrow velocity spread, and a flux of 10^9 molecules per pulse. The other has the slowest forward velocity of vf = 40 m/s, a longitudinal temperature of 3.6 K, and a flux of 5x10^8 molecules per pulse.

  18. Silicon Holder For Molecular-Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E.; Grunthaner, Paula J.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    Simple assembly of silicon wafers holds silicon-based charge-coupled device (CCD) during postprocessing in which silicon deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy. Attains temperatures similar to CCD, so hotspots suppressed. Coefficients of thermal expansion of holder and CCD equal, so thermal stresses caused by differential thermal expansion and contraction do not develop. Holder readily fabricated, by standard silicon processing techniques, to accommodate various CCD geometries. Silicon does not contaminate CCD or molecular-beam-epitaxy vacuum chamber.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W

    2015-01-01

    This volume describes the development of molecular beam epitaxy from its origins in the 1960s through to the present day. It begins with a short historical account of other methods of crystal growth, both bulk and epitaxial, to set the subject in context, emphasising the wide range of semiconductor materials employed. This is followed by an introduction to molecular beams and their use in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the development of the microwave MASER.

  20. Molecular-beam spectroscopy of interhalogen molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrow, S.A.

    1983-08-01

    A molecular-beam electric-resonance spectrometer employing a supersonic nozzle source has been used to obtain hyperfine spectra of /sup 79/Br/sup 35/Cl. Analyses of these spectra and of microwave spectra published by other authors have yielded new values for the electric dipole moment and for the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in this molecule. The new constants are significantly different from the currently accepted values. Van der Waals clusters containing chlorine monofluoride have been studied under various expansion conditions by the molecular-beam electric-deflection method. The structural possibilities indicated by the results are discussed, and cluster geometries are proposed.

  1. Effects of AlN buffer layers on the structural and the optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Heechang; Lee, Seungjoo; Kumar, Sunil; Kang, Taewon [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhyun; Kim, Taewhan [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    GaN epilayers on AlN buffer layers with various thicknesses were grown on sapphire substrates by using plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. The GaN epilayer with an AlN buffer layer was much smaller than the GaN epilayer without an AlN buffer layer. The crystal quality of the GaN active layer was improved by utilizing an AlN layer, which acted as a nucleation layer. The reduced defect density promoted GaN coalition. The double-crystal rocking curves and the photoluminescence spectra showed that the GaN epilayer grown on a 4-nm AlN buffer layer had the best quality among the several kinds of samples. The photoluminescence intensity of the GaN epilayer which is related to the density of the crystal defects was lower when an AlN buffer layer was used the thin AlN nucleation layer protected against stain propagation. These results indicate that GaN epilayers grown on AIN buffer layers hold promise for applications in short-wavelength optoelectronic devices.

  2. Growth of c-plane ZnO on γ-LiAlO{sub 2} (1 0 0) substrate with a GaN buffer layer by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, T. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science/Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002 (China); Lu, C.-Y.J. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science/Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Schuber, R. [Institute of Applied Physics/DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, DE-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Chang, L., E-mail: lwchang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science/Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Schaadt, D.M. [Institute of Applied Physics/DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, DE-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Energy Research and Phyiscal Technologies, Clausthal Technical University, Am Stollen 19B, D-38640 Goslar (Germany); Chou, M.M.C.; Ploog, K.H. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science/Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, C.-M. [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • ZnO epilayers were grown on LiAlO{sub 2} (1 0 0) substrate with a GaN buffer layer by MBE. • A high Zn/O flux ratio is beneficial for reducing the density of screw dislocations. • Reciprocal space maps demonstrate that the misfit strain in ZnO has been relaxed. • No interfacial layer is formed at ZnO/GaN interface using a Zn pre-exposure strategy. - Abstract: C-plane ZnO epilayers were grown on LiAlO{sub 2} (1 0 0) substrate with a GaN buffer layer by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Both the X-ray rocking curves and the transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that the ZnO epilayers exhibit a lower threading dislocation density (∼1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}) as compared to those grown on LiAlO{sub 2} substrate without the buffer layer. A high Zn/O flux ratio is beneficial for reducing the density of screw-type dislocations. Reciprocal space maps demonstrate that the misfit strain has been relaxed. No interfacial layer is formed at the ZnO/GaN interface by using a Zn pre-exposure strategy. The ZnO epilayers exhibit a strong near band edge emission at 3.28 eV at room temperature with a negligible green band emission.

  3. Tuning the effective band gap and finding the optimal growth condition of InN thin films on GaN/sapphire substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kankat; Rathore, Jaswant Singh; Laha, Apurba

    2017-01-01

    InN thin films are grown on GaN/sapphire substrates with varying the nitrogen plasma power in plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) system. In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen plasma power on the different properties of the InN films, several characterization viz. x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence measurement, infra-red spectroscopy and Hall measurement were performed. Two interesting phenomena observed from the measurements are described in this paper. Firstly, it is found from both the photoluminescence and infrared spectroscopy that only by varying the nitrogen plasma power (thus the III/V ratio), one can fine tune the optical absorption edge, i.e., the effective band gap of InN from ∼0.72 eV to ∼ 0.77 eV. Secondly, it is inferred that the film grown with stoichiometric condition (III/V ∼ 1) exhibits the best structural and electrical properties.

  4. Zeeman-Sisyphus Deceleration of Molecular Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Noah; Tarbutt, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold molecules are useful for testing fundamental physics and studying strongly-interacting quantum systems. One production method is via direct laser cooling in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). In this endeavor, one major challenge is to produce molecules below the MOT capture velocity. Established molecular beam deceleration techniques are poorly suited because they decelerate only a small fraction of a typical molecular pulse. Direct laser cooling is a natural choice, but is also problematic due to transverse heating and the associated molecule loss. I will present a new technique that we are developing, which we call Zeeman-Sisyphus deceleration and which shows great promise for preparing molecular beams for MOT loading. This technique decelerates molecules using a linear array of permanent magnets, along with lasers that periodically optically pump molecules between weak and strong-field seeking quantum states. Being time-independent, this method is well-suited for temporally extended molecular beams. Simultaneous deceleration and transverse guiding makes this approach attractive as an alternative to direct laser cooling. I will present our development of the Zeeman-Sisyphus decelerator and its application to a molecular MOT of CaF and an ultracold fountain of YbF.

  5. A Study of GaAsSb Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Near IR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    NWs. Chen et al. [24] reported an InSb NW- based IR photodetector grown by Au catalyst-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Recently, GaSb NWs were...these, Be is the commonly used p-type dopant in molecular beam epitaxy as it has a high diffusion coefficient4 and less memory effects5. Additionally...flux. Be is the commonly used p-type dopant in molecular beam epitaxy as it has a high diffusion coefficient [1] and less memory effects [2

  6. Influences of residual oxygen impurities, cubic indium oxide grains and indium oxy-nitride alloy grains in hexagonal InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yodo, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kouyama, T. [Department of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Asahi-ku, Ohmiya, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan); Harada, Y. [Applied Physics, Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1, Asahi-ku, Ohmiya, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan)

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the influences of residual oxygen (O) impurities, cubic indium oxide ({beta}-In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) grains and indium oxy-nitride (InON) alloy grains in 200 nm-thick hexagonal ({alpha})-InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Although {beta}-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains with wide band-gap energy were formed in In film by N{sub 2} annealing, they were not easily formed in N{sub 2}-annealed InN films. Even if they were not detected in N{sub 2}-annealed InN films, the as-grown films still contained residual O impurities with concentrations of less than 0.5% ([O]{<=}0.5%). Although [O]{proportional_to}1% could be estimated by investigating In{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains formed in N{sub 2}-annealed InN films, [O]{<=}0.5% could not be measured by it. However, we found that they can be qualitatively measured by investigating In{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains formed by H{sub 2} annealing with higher reactivity with InN and O{sub 2}, using X-ray diffraction and PL spectroscopy. In this paper, we discuss the formation mechanism of InON alloy grains in InN films. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Morphology Evolution of (331)A High-Index Surfaces During Atomic Hydrogen Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)%原子氢辅助分子束外延GaAs(331)A表面形貌演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛智红; 任正伟; 贺振宏

    2008-01-01

    Step like morphology of (331)A high-index surfaces during atomic hydrogen assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth has been investigated. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements show that in conventional MBE, the step heights and terrace widths of GaAs layers increase monotonically with increasing substrate temperatures. The terrace widths and step densities increase with increasing the GaAs layer thickness and then saturates. And, in atomic hydrogen assisted MBE, the terrace width reduces and density increases when depositing the same amount of GaAs. It attributes this to the reduced surface migration length of Ga adatoms with atomic hydrogen. Laterally ordered InAs self-aligned nano-wires were grown on GaAs (331)A surfaces and its optical polarization properties were revealed by photoluminescence measurements.%研究了GaAs高指数面(331)A在原子氢辅助下分子束外延形貌的演化.原子力显微镜测试表明:在常规分子束外延情况下,GaAs外延层台阶的厚度和台面的宽度随衬底温度的升高而增加,增加外延层厚度会导致台阶的密度和台面的宽度增加然后饱和.而在原子氢辅助分子束外延情况下,当GaAs淀积量相同时GaAs外延层台阶的密度增大宽度减小.认为这是由于原子氢的作用导致Ga原子迁移长度的减小.在GaAs(331)A台阶基底上生长出InAs自组织纳米线,用光荧光测试研究了其光学各项异性特征.

  8. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan, E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Bresnahan, Rich C. [Veeco Instruments, St. Paul, Minnesota 55127 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N{sub 2} while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N{sub 2} and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 10{sup 16} to 3.8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1–2 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be

  9. Perspective: Oxide molecular-beam epitaxy rocks!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell G. Schlom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE is the “gold standard” synthesis technique for preparing semiconductor heterostructures with high purity, high mobility, and exquisite control of layer thickness at the atomic-layer level. Its use for the growth of multicomponent oxides got off to a rocky start 30 yr ago, but in the ensuing decades, it has become the definitive method for the preparation of oxide heterostructures too, particularly when it is desired to explore their intrinsic properties. Examples illustrating the unparalleled achievements of oxide MBE are given; these motivate its expanding use for exploring the potentially revolutionary states of matter possessed by oxide systems.

  10. Perspective: Oxide molecular-beam epitaxy rocks!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlom, Darrell G., E-mail: schlom@cornell.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA and Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) is the “gold standard” synthesis technique for preparing semiconductor heterostructures with high purity, high mobility, and exquisite control of layer thickness at the atomic-layer level. Its use for the growth of multicomponent oxides got off to a rocky start 30 yr ago, but in the ensuing decades, it has become the definitive method for the preparation of oxide heterostructures too, particularly when it is desired to explore their intrinsic properties. Examples illustrating the unparalleled achievements of oxide MBE are given; these motivate its expanding use for exploring the potentially revolutionary states of matter possessed by oxide systems.

  11. Silicon/Germanium Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is a well-established method to grow low-dimensional structures for research applications. MBE has given many contributions to the rapid expanding research-area of nano-technology and will probably continuing doing so. The MBE equipment, dedicated for Silicon/Germanium (Si/Ge) systems, at Karlstads University (Kau) has been studied and started for the first time. In the work of starting the system, all the built in interlocks has been surveyed and connected, and t...

  12. Electron beam assisted field evaporation of insulating nanowires/tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, N. P., E-mail: nicholas.blanchard@univ-lyon1.fr; Niguès, A.; Choueib, M.; Perisanu, S.; Ayari, A.; Poncharal, P.; Purcell, S. T.; Siria, A.; Vincent, P. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate field evaporation of insulating materials, specifically BN nanotubes and undoped Si nanowires, assisted by a convergent electron beam. Electron irradiation leads to positive charging at the nano-object's apex and to an important increase of the local electric field thus inducing field evaporation. Experiments performed both in a transmission electron microscope and in a scanning electron microscope are presented. This technique permits the selective evaporation of individual nanowires in complex materials. Electron assisted field evaporation could be an interesting alternative or complementary to laser induced field desorption used in atom probe tomography of insulating materials.

  13. Hemocompatibility of DLC coatings synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam-assisted diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have beenused for growing the human platelet, fibrinogen, and albumin in the control environment in order to assess their hemocompatibility. The hard carbon films were prepared on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at room temperature using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). Raman spectroscopic analysis proved that the carbon films on PMMA are diamond-like with a higher fraction of sp\\+3 bonds in the structure of mixed sp\\+2+sp\\+3 bonding. The blood protein adsorption tests showed that DLC coatings can adsorb more albumin and are slightly more fibrinogen than the PMMA chosen as a control sample. The platelets adhered on DLC coatings were reduced significantly in number. These results indicate good hemocompatibility of DLC coatings.

  14. NAOMI: nanoparticle assisted optical molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Dirk J.; van Velthoven, Mirjam E. J.; de Bruin, Martijn; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Verbraak, Frank D.; Graf, Christina; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2006-02-01

    Our first steps towards nanoparticle assisted, optical molecular imaging (NAOMI) using OCT as the imaging modality are presented. We derive an expression to estimate the sensitivity of this technique. We propose to use nanoparticles based on biodegradable polymers, loaded with suitable dyes as contrast agent, and outline a method for establishing their desired optical properties prior to synthesis. This report presents preliminary results of our investigation on the use of nanoshells to serve as contrast agents We injected nanoshells with specific contrast features in the 800 nm wavelength region in excised porcine eyes. The nanoshells showed up as bright reflecting structures in the OCT images, which confirm their potential as contrast agents.

  15. NAOMI: nanoparticle-assisted optical molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Dirk J.; de Bruin, Martijn; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Verbraak, Frank D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2007-02-01

    We present our first steps towards nanoparticle assisted, optical molecular imaging (NAOMI) using biodegradable nanoparticles. Our focus is on using optical coherence tomography(OCT) as the imaging modality. We propose to use nanoparticles based on biodegradable polymers, loaded with carefully selected dyes as contrast agent, and outline a method for establishing their desired optical properties prior to synthesis. Moreover, we perform a qualitative pilot study using these biodegradable nanoparticles, measuring their optical properties which are found to be in line with theoretical predictions.

  16. Electron-beam-assisted Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Of Insulating Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, E T

    2000-01-01

    Insulating materials are widely used in electronic devices. Bulk insulators and insulating films pose unique challenges for high resolution study since most commonly used charged particle surface analysis techniques are incompatible with insulating surfaces and materials. A, method of performing scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on insulating surfaces has been investigated. The method is referred to as electron-beam assisted scanning tunneling microscopy (e-BASTM). It is proposed that by coupling the STM and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as one integrated device, that insulating materials may be studied, obtaining both high spatial resolution, and topographic and electronic resolution. The premise of the technique is based on two physical consequences of the interaction of an energetic electron beam (PE) with a material. First, when an electron beam is incident upon a material, low level material electrons are excited into conduction band states. For insulators, with very high secondary electron yi...

  17. Origin of Spontaneous Core-Shell AIGaAs Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Shtrom, I. V.; Reznik, R. R.;

    2016-01-01

    Based on the high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies, we unravel the origin of spontaneous core shell AlGaAs nanowires grown by gold-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Our AlGaAs nanowires have a cylindrical core...

  18. Infrared Rugates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rugates are optical structures that have a sinusoidal index of refraction (harmonic gradient-index field). As their discrete high/ low index filter counterparts, they can be used as narrow rejection band filters. However, since rugates do not have abrupt interfaces, they tend to have a smaller absorption, hence deliver a higher in band reflectivity. The absence of sharp interfaces makes rugates even more desirable for high-energy narrow band reflectors. In this application, the lack of a sharp interface at the maximum internal standing wave electric field results in higher breakdown strengths. Our method involves fabricating rugates, with molecular beam epitaxy, on GaAs wafers as an Al(x)Ga(1-x)As single-crystal film.

  19. Merged-Beams for Slow Molecular Collision Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Qi; Herschbach, Dudley

    2012-01-01

    Molecular collisions can be studied at very low relative kinetic energies, in the milliKelvin range, by merging codirectional beams with much higher translational energies, extending even to the kiloKelvin range, provided that the beam speeds can be closely matched. This technique provides far more intensity and wider chemical scope than methods that require slowing both collision partners. Previously, at far higher energies, merged beams have been widely used with ions and/or neutrals formed by charge transfer. Here we assess for neutral, thermal molecular beams the range and resolution of collision energy that now appears attainable, determined chiefly by velocity spreads within the merged beams. Our treatment deals both with velocity distributions familiar for molecular beams formed by effusion or supersonic expansion, and an unorthodox variant produced by a rotating supersonic source capable of scanning the lab beam velocity over a wide range.

  20. Determination of Kinetic Parameters of Molecular Beam Epitaxy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-17

    A kinetic growth model for molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was discussed. Furthermore, high energy electron diffraction (HEED) was used as a surface...characterization method to provide evidence for this model. GaAs was used as an example to study the growth rate of molecular beam epitaxy . The relation

  1. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation.

  2. Properties of Ga1-xMnxN Epilayers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, S.; Bellet, E.; Biquard, X.; Bougerol, C.; Cibert, J.; Ferrand, D.; Giraud, R.; Halley, D.; Kulatov, E.; Kuroda, S.; Mariette, H.; Titov, A.

    2005-06-01

    Wurtzite (Ga,Mn)N epilayers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Mn incorporation strongly depends on growth conditions. Infrared optical absorption shows absorption bands related to neutral Mn acceptor A0 at 1.412 eV and 1.43 eV. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopyat the band gap edge, in agreement with magnetization data, exhibits temperature and magnetic field dependence revealing paramagnetic properties of Mn-doped GaN.

  3. Supersonic molecular beam experiments on surface chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Michio

    2014-10-01

    The interaction of a molecule and a surface is important in various fields, and in particular in complex systems like biomaterials and their related chemistry. However, the detailed understanding of the elementary steps in the surface chemistry, for example, stereodynamics, is still insufficient even for simple model systems. In this Personal Account, I review our recent studies of chemical reactions on single-crystalline Cu and Si surfaces induced by hyperthermal oxygen molecular beams and by oriented molecular beams, respectively. Studies of oxide formation on Cu induced by hyperthermal molecular beams demonstrate a significant role of the translational energy of the incident molecules. The use of hyperthermal molecular beams enables us to open up new chemical reaction paths specific for the hyperthermal energy region, and to develop new methods for the fabrication of thin films. On the other hand, oriented molecular beams also demonstrate the possibility of understanding surface chemical reactions in detail by varying the orientation of the incident molecules. The steric effects found on Si surfaces hint at new ways of material fabrication on Si surfaces. Controlling the initial conditions of incoming molecules is a powerful tool for finely monitoring the elementary step of the surface chemical reactions and creating new materials on surfaces.

  4. Reactive Collisions in Crossed Molecular Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, D. R.

    1962-02-01

    The distribution of velocity vectors of reaction products is discussed with emphasis on the restrictions imposed by the conservation laws. The recoil velocity that carries the products away from the center of mass shows how the energy of reaction is divided between internal excitation and translation. Similarly, the angular distributions, as viewed from the center of mass, reflect the partitioning of the total angular momentum between angular momenta of individual molecules and orbital angular momentum associated with their relative motion. Crossed-beam studies of several reactions of the type M + RI yields R + MI are described, where M = K, Rb, Cs, and R = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 3}H{sub 5}, etc. The results show that most of the energy of reaction goes into internal excitation of the products and that the angular distribution is quite anisotropic, with most of the MI recoiling backward (and R forward) with respect to the incoming K beam. (auth)

  5. Intense Atomic and Molecular Beams via Neon Buffer Gas Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, David; Doyle, John M

    2008-01-01

    We realize a continuous guided beam of cold deuterated ammonia with a flux of 3e11 ND3 molecules/s and a continuous free-space beam of cold potassium with a flux of 1e16 K atoms/s. A novel feature of the buffer gas source used to produce these beams is cold neon, which, due to intermediate Knudsen number beam dynamics, produces a forward velocity and low-energy tail that is comparable to much colder helium-based sources. We expect this source to be trivially generalizable to a very wide range of atomic and molecular species with significant vapor pressure below 1000 K. This source has properties that make it a good starting point for laser cooling of molecules or atoms, cold collision studies, trapping, or nonlinear optics in buffer-gas-cooled atomic or molecular gases.

  6. Molecular characterization of microbial mutations induced by ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan); Accelerator Applications Research Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)], E-mail: ichida@riken.jp; Matsuyama, Tomoki [Cellular Biochemistry Laboratory, Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi [Accelerator Operation Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hayashi, Yoriko [Accelerator Applications Research Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukunishi, Nobuhisa [Accelerator Operation Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Abe, Tomoko [Accelerator Applications Research Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Koba, Takato [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    A positive selection system for gene disruption using a sucrose-sensitive transgenic rhizobium was established and used for the molecular characterization of mutations induced by ion beam irradiations. Single nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions were found to occur in the sucrose sensitivity gene, sacB, when the reporter line was irradiated with highly accelerated carbon and iron ion beams. In all of the insertion lines, fragments of essentially the same sequence and of approximately 1188 bp in size were identified in the sacB regions. In the deletion lines, iron ions showed a tendency to induce larger deletions than carbon ions, suggesting that higher LET beams cause larger deletions. We found also that ion beams, particularly 'heavier' ion beams, can produce single gene disruptions and may present an effective alternative to transgenic approaches.

  7. Kinetics of self-induced nucleation and optical properties of GaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on amorphous Al{sub x}O{sub y}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobanska, M., E-mail: sobanska@ifpan.edu.pl; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Klosek, K.; Tchutchulashvili, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Korona, K. P. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-11-14

    Nucleation kinetics of GaN nanowires (NWs) by molecular beam epitaxy on amorphous Al{sub x}O{sub y} buffers deposited at low temperature by atomic layer deposition is analyzed. We found that the growth processes on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} are very similar to those observed on standard Si(111) substrates, although the presence of the buffer significantly enhances nucleation rate of GaN NWs, which we attribute to a microstructure of the buffer. The nucleation rate was studied vs. the growth temperature in the range of 720–790 °C, which allowed determination of nucleation energy of the NWs on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} equal to 6 eV. This value is smaller than 10.2 eV we found under the same conditions on nitridized Si(111) substrates. Optical properties of GaN NWs on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} are analyzed as a function of the growth temperature and compared with those on Si(111) substrates. A significant increase of photoluminescence intensity and much longer PL decay times, close to those on silicon substrates, are found for NWs grown at the highest temperature proving their high quality. The samples grown at high temperature have very narrow PL lines. This allowed observation that positions of donor-bound exciton PL line in the NWs grown on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} are regularly lower than in samples grown directly on silicon suggesting that oxygen, instead of silicon, is the dominant donor. Moreover, PL spectra suggest that total concentration of donors in GaN NWs grown on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} is lower than in those grown under similar conditions on bare Si. This shows that the a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} buffer efficiently acts as a barrier preventing uptake of silicon from the substrate to GaN.

  8. Tribological Properties of DLC Film Prepared by C + Ion Beam-assisted Deposition (IBAD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    C + ion beam-assisted deposition was utilized to prepare deposit diamond-like carbon (DLC) film.With the help of a series of experiments such as Raman spectroscopy, FT- IR spectroscopy, AFM and nanoindentation, the DLC film has been recognized as hydrogenated DLC film and its tribological properties have been evaluated.The ball-on-disc testing results show that the hardness and the tribological properties of the DLC film produced by C + ion beam-assisted deposition are improved significandy.DLC film produced by C+ ion beam-assisted deposition is positive to have a prosperous tribological application in the near future.

  9. An Introduction to the Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recently a new fuelling method with supersonic molecular beam injection (MBI) has been developed and used in the tokamaks experiments successfully. It is economical to develop and maintain. The advantages of supersonic MBI compared with the conventional of gas-puffing method are as follows: deep deposition of fuel, better fuelling efficiency, reduced recycling and pure plasma. Particle and energy confinement can be improved and density limit extended. This review described the Laval nozzle molecular beam and a simple collective model for the injection of a supersonic MBI into the tokamak plasma.

  10. InAs nanowire growth modes on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, M. T.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    InAs nanowires (NWs) were grown on silicon substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy using five different growth modes: (1) Au-assisted growth, (2) positioned (patterned) Au-assisted growth, (3) Au-free growth, (4) positioned Au-assisted growth using a patterned oxide mask, and (5) Au-free selective-area epitaxy (SAE) using a patterned oxide mask. Optimal growth conditions (temperature, V/III flux ratio) were identified for each growth mode for control of NW morphology and vertical NW yield. The highest yield (72%) was achieved with the SAE method at a growth temperature of 440 °C and a V/III flux ratio of 4. Growth mechanisms are discussed for each of the growth modes.

  11. Laser radiation pressure slowing of a molecular beam

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, J F; Norrgard, E B; DeMille, D

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial interest in producing samples of ultracold molecules for possible applications in quantum computation, quantum simulation of condensed matter systems, precision measurements, controlled chemistry, and high precision spectroscopy. A crucial step to obtaining large samples of ultracold, trapped molecules is developing a means to bridge the gap between typical molecular source velocities (~150-600 m/s) and velocities for which trap loading or confinement is possible (~5-20 m/s). Here we show deceleration of a beam of neutral strontium monofluoride (SrF) molecules using radiative force. Under certain conditions, the deceleration results in a substantial flux of molecules with velocities <50 m/s. The observed slowing, from ~140 m/s, corresponds to scattering ~10000 photons. We also observe longitudinal velocity compression under different conditions. Combined with molecular laser cooling techniques, this lays the groundwork to create slow and cold molecular beams suitable for trap loading.

  12. First Demonstration of Laser-Assisted Charge Exchange for Microsecond Duration H- Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Sarah; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Kay, Martin; Aleksandrov, Alexander; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Gorlov, Timofey; Liu, Yun; Plum, Michael; Shishlo, Andrei; Johnson, David

    2017-02-01

    This Letter reports on the first demonstration of laser-assisted H- charge exchange for microsecond duration H- beam pulses. Laser-assisted charge exchange injection is a breakthrough technology that overcomes long-standing limitations associated with the traditional method of producing high intensity, time structured beams of protons in accelerators via the use of carbon foils for charge exchange injection. The central theme of this experiment is the demonstration of novel techniques that reduce the laser power requirement to allow high efficiency stripping of microsecond duration beams with commercial laser technology.

  13. Molecular beam epitaxy growth and optical properties of single crystal Zn3N2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Tiedje, T.; Alimohammadi, H.; Bahrami-Yekta, V.; Masnadi-Shirazi, M.; Wang, Cong

    2016-10-01

    Single crystal Zn3N2 films with (100) orientation have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on MgO and A-plane sapphire substrates with in situ optical reflectance monitoring of the growth. The optical bandgap was found to be 1.25-1.28 eV and an electron Hall mobility as high as 395 cm2 V-1 s-1 was measured. The films were n-type with carrier concentrations in the 1018-1019 cm-3 range.

  14. Molecular beam brightening by shock-wave suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Yair; Akerman, Nitzan; Shagam, Yuval; Luski, Alon; Karpov, Michael; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic beams are a prevalent source of cold molecules utilized in the study of chemical reactions, atom interferometry, gas-surface interactions, precision spectroscopy, molecular cooling and more. The triumph of this method emanates from the high densities produced in relation to other methods, however beam density remains fundamentally limited by interference with shock waves reflected from collimating surfaces. Here we show experimentally that this shock interaction can be reduced or even eliminated by cryo-cooling the interacting surface. An increase in beam density of nearly an order of magnitude was measured at the lowest surface temperature, with no further fundamental limitation reached. Visualization of the shock waves by plasma discharge and reproduction with direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations both indicate that the suppression of the shock structure is partially caused by lowering the momentum flux of reflected particles, and significantly enhanced by the adsorption of particles to the ...

  15. Growth and structure of epitaxial Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhongqing [Nanjing Normal Univ. (China); Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V.N.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shutthanandan, V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Chong M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marina, Olga A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saraf, Laxmikant V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seal, Sudipta [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2008-01-30

    The epitaxial growth of Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 films on sapphire (0001) substrate by oxygen-plasma-assisted MBE has been characterized using RHEED, XPS, XRD, AFM, HRTEM and RBS in order to determine their structure and compositions. The composition of the films was determined to be Ce: Sm: O of 0.8:0.2:1.9 by RBS. The film/substrate epitaxial relationship can be written as CeO2 (111)// α-Al2O3 (0001) and CeO2 [110]// α-Al2O3 . The Ce has only 4+ oxidation state in the films and Sm is fully oxidized in the films with formal oxidation of 3+. CeO2 (111) face is preferred orientation and the thin films are cubic phases.

  16. Topological Insulator Film Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will review recent progress in the growth of topological insulator (TI) thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The materials we focus on are the V2-VI3 family of TIs. These materials are ideally bulk insulating with surface states housing Dirac excitations which are spin-momentum locked. These surface states are interesting for fundamental physics studies (such as the search for Majorana fermions) as well as applications in spintronics and other fields. However, the m...

  17. Pulsed rotating supersonic source used with merged molecular beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, L; Krasovitskiy, V; Rathnayaka, K D D; Lyuksyutov, I F; Herschbach, D R

    2012-01-01

    We describe a pulsed rotating supersonic beam source, evolved from an ancestral device [M. Gupta and D. Herschbach, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1626 (2001)]. The beam emerges from a nozzle near the tip of a hollow rotor which can be spun at high-speed to shift the molecular velocity distribution downward or upward over a wide range. Here we consider mostly the slowing mode. Introducing a pulsed gas inlet system, cryocooling, and a shutter gate eliminated the main handicap of the original device, in which continuous gas flow imposed high background pressure. The new version provides intense pulses, of duration 0.1-0.6 ms (depending on rotor speed) and containing ~10^12 molecules at lab speeds as low as 35 m/s and ~ 10^15 molecules at 400 m/s. Beams of any molecule available as a gas can be slowed (or speeded); e.g., we have produced slow and fast beams of rare gases, O2, Cl2, NO2, NH3, and SF6. For collision experiments, the ability to scan the beam speed by merely adjusting the rotor is especially advantageous when...

  18. Ion assistance effects on electron beam deposited MgF sub 2 films

    CERN Document Server

    Alvisi, M; Della Patria, A; Di Giulio, M; Masetti, E; Perrone, M R; Protopapa, M L; Tepore, A

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of MgF sub 2 have been deposited by the ion-assisted electron-beam evaporation technique in order to find out the ion beam parameters leading to films of high laser damage threshold whose optical properties are stable under uncontrolled atmosphere conditions. It has been found that the ion-assisted electron-beam evaporation technique allows getting films with optical properties (refraction index and extinction coefficient) of high environmental stability by properly choosing the ion-source voltage and current. But, the laser damage fluence at 308 nm was quite dependent on the assisting ion beam parameters. Larger laser damage fluences have been found for the films deposited by using assisting ion beams delivered at lower anode voltage and current values. It has also been found that the films deposited without ion assistance were characterized by the highest laser damage fluence (5.9 J/cm sup 2) and the lowest environmental stability. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the irradiated areas...

  19. Applying CLIPS to control of molecular beam epitaxy processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeau, Arthur A.; Bensaoula, Abdelhak; Jamison, Keith D.; Horton, Charles; Ignatiev, Alex; Glover, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A key element of U.S. industrial competitiveness in the 1990's will be the exploitation of advanced technologies which involve low-volume, high-profit manufacturing. The demands of such manufacture limit participation to a few major entities in the U.S. and elsewhere, and offset the lower manufacturing costs of other countries which have, for example, captured much of the consumer electronics market. One such technology is thin-film epitaxy, a technology which encompasses several techniques such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE), and Vapor-Phase Epitaxy (VPE). Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is a technology for creating a variety of electronic and electro-optical materials. Compared to standard microelectronic production techniques (including gaseous diffusion, ion implantation, and chemical vapor deposition), MBE is much more exact, though much slower. Although newer than the standard technologies, MBE is the technology of choice for fabrication of ultraprecise materials for cutting-edge microelectronic devices and for research into the properties of new materials.

  20. A prototype of a beam steering assistant tool for accelerator operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Bickley; P. Chevtsov

    2006-10-24

    The CEBAF accelerator provides nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab with high quality electron beams. Three experimental end stations can simultaneously receive the beams with different energies and intensities. For each operational mode, the accelerator setup procedures are complicated and require very careful checking of beam spot sizes and positions on multiple beam viewers. To simplify these procedures and make them reproducible, a beam steering assistant GUI tool has been created. The tool is implemented as a multi-window control screen. The screen has an interactive graphical object window, which is an overlay on top of a digitized live video image from a beam viewer. It allows a user to easily create and edit any graphical objects consisting of text, ellipses, and lines, right above the live beam viewer image and then save them in a file that is called a beam steering template. The template can show, for example, the area within which the beam must always be on the viewer. Later, this template can be loaded in the interactive graphical object window to help accelerator operators steer the beam to the specified area on the viewer.

  1. Emission control of InGaN nanocolumns grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, S; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Jahn, U.; Trampert, A

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This work studies the effect of the growth temperature on the morphology and emission characteristics of self-assembled InGaN nanocolumns grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Morphology changes are assessed by scanning electron microscopy, while emission is measured by photoluminescence. Within the growth temperature range of 750 to 650°C, an increase in In incorporation for decreasing temperature is observed. This effect allows tailoring the InGaN nanocolu...

  2. Experimental demonstration of a controllable electrostatic molecular beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lianzhong; Liang, Yan; Gu, Zhenxing; Hou, Shunyong; Li, Shengqiang; Xia, Yong; Yin, Jianping

    2011-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a controllable electrostatic beam splitter for guided ND3 molecules with a single Y-shaped charged wire and a homogeneous bias field generated by a charged metallic parallel-plate capacitor. We study the dependences of the splitting ratio R of the guided ND3 beam and its relative guiding efficiency η on the voltage difference between two output arms of the splitter. The influences of the molecular velocity v and the cutting position L on the splitting ratio R are investigated as well, and the guiding and splitting dynamic processes of cold molecules are simulated. Our study shows that the splitting ratio R of our splitter can be conveniently adjusted from 10% to 90% by changing ΔU from -6  kV to +6  kV, and the simulated results are consistent with our experimental ones.

  3. Chemical reactions on solid surfaces using molecular beam techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. L.

    1980-07-01

    Thermal energy molecular beams have been used to study chemical interactions with metal surfaces. Chemisorption of simple molecules such as H2, O2, CH4, C2Hx and CO was investigated on single and polycrystalline surfaces of Pt, Ni, Co, and Ag. Kinetic parameters and reaction mechanisms were determined for model catalytic reactions including CO and C2Hx oxidation and methanation from H2/CO mixtures. Chemical reactions of NOx with CO and D2 on Pt(111) and other surfaces have been surveyed and the kinetics of NO and O2 chemisorption have been measured. The theory of adsorption/desorption kinetics is reviewed and certain deficiencies identified.

  4. Note: A helical velocity selector for continuous molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewc, Carola; Collier, James D; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2010-10-01

    We report on a modern realization of the classic helical velocity selector for gas phase particle beams. The device operates stably under high vacuum conditions at rotational frequencies limited only by commercial dc motor capabilities. Tuning the rotational frequency allows selective scanning over a broad velocity band. The width of the selected velocity distributions at full-width-half-maximum is as narrow as a few percent of the selected mean velocity and independent of the rotational speed of the selector. The selector generates low vibrational noise amplitudes comparable to mechanically damped state-of-the-art turbo-molecular pumps and is therefore compatible with vibration sensitive experiments like molecule interferometry.

  5. Gravity Assist and Scattering off AGB Stars off Molecular Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Abdelhadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of stellar orbits by galactic molecular clouds is studied in hope of explaining isotopic peculiarities of presolar grains from Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB stars. Silicon isotopic anomalies found in the mainstream Silicon Carbide (SiC grains are observed to have heavy isotopes enriched. To explain the isotopic heaviness I propose that AGB stars that formed in the interior region of the galaxy, with metallicity higher than solar, change their orbits during close encounters with molecular clouds. The AGB stars give up their SiC grains in winds deposited in the solar neighborhood prior to the birth of the Sun. I model the dynamics by superposing on a standard axisymmetric galactic potential the discrete potentials of thousands of molecular clouds moving in constant circular orbits. Gravity assist occurs when a star scattered into a crossing orbit by one cloud experiences forward scattering from a second cloud.

  6. Biaxially textured Ag films by grazing ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Daniel F., E-mail: foerster@ph2.uni-koeln.d [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Bleikamp, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2010-11-01

    The effect of grazing incidence 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion irradiation on the early stage of Ag thin film growth on amorphous Si was investigated. The double effect of axial and surface channeling resulted in grains oriented along the <110> axis in-plane, while the (111) out-of-plane texture was maintained. A slight average tilt of the (111) out-of-plane texture axis towards the ion beam direction is proposed to result from the difference between terrace and step edge sputtering yield. The observed tilt is consistent with a minimum erosion orientation of the surface profile.

  7. Hyperthermal molecular beam source using a non-diaphragm-type small shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuta; Osuka, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a hyperthermal molecular beam source employing a non-diaphragm-type small shock tube for gas-surface interaction studies. Unlike conventional shock-heated beam sources, the capability of repetitive beam generation without the need for replacing a diaphragm makes our beam source suitable for scattering experiments, which require signal accumulation for a large number of beam pulses. The short duration of shock heating alleviates the usual temperature limit due to the nozzle material, enabling the generation of a molecular beam with higher translational energy or that containing dissociated species. The shock-heated beam is substantially free from surface-contaminating impurities that are pronounced in arc-heated beams. We characterize the properties of nitrogen and oxygen molecular beams using the time-of-flight method. When both the timing of beam extraction and the supply quantity of nitrogen gas are appropriately regulated, our beam source can generate a nitrogen molecular beam with translational energy of approximately 1 eV, which corresponds to the typical activation energy of surface reactions. Furthermore, our beam source can generate an oxygen molecular beam containing dissociated oxygen atoms, which can be a useful probe for surface oxidation. The dissociation fraction along with the translational energy can be adjusted through the supply quantity of oxygen gas.

  8. Ion-beam assisted laser fabrication of sensing plasmonic nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Vitrik, Oleg; Kulchin, Yuri; Milichko, Valentin; Makarov, Sergey; Kudryashov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Simple high-performance two-stage hybrid technique was developed for fabrication of different plasmonic nanostructures, including nanorods, nanorings, as well as more complex structures on glass substrates. In this technique a thin noble metal film on a dielectric substrate is irradiated by a tightly focused single nanosecond laser pulse and then the modified region is slowly polished by an accelerated argon ion (Ar+) beam. As a result, each nanosecond laser pulse locally modifies the initial metal film through initiation of fast melting and subsequent hydrodynamic processes, while the following Ar+-ion polishing removes the rest of the film, revealing the hidden topography features and fabricating separate plasmonic structures on the glass substrate. We demonstrate that the shape and lateral size of the resulting functional plasmonic nanostructures depends on the laser pulse energy and metal film thickness, while subsequent Ar+-ion polishing enables to vary height of the resulting nanostructures. The plasmon...

  9. Ion Beam Assisted Deposition Of Optical Thin Films - Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, J. J.; Al-Jumaily, G. A.; Wilson, S. R.; McNeil, J. R.

    1985-11-01

    We have examined the properties of dielectric (Ti02, Si02, -Al203, Ta205 and Hf02) films deposited using ion-assisted deposition (IAD). The films were characterized using an angularly resolved scatterometer, spectrophotometer and Raman spectroscopy. A reduction in optical scatter, especially that due to low spatial frequencies, is observed for films deposited with simultaneous ion bombardment. Higher values of refractive index are obtained for films deposited using IAD. Raman spectra indicate a crystalline phase change in TiO2 films is induced by bombardment of samples with 02 ions during deposition. Other experimental data and the effects of the induced phase transition on the optical properties of TiO2 will be discussed.

  10. Bessel beams in tunable acoustic gradient index lenses and optical trap assisted nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Euan

    2009-12-01

    Bessel beams are laser beams whose shape gives them nondiffracting and self-healing properties. They find use in applications requiring a narrow laser beam with a high depth of field. The first part of this thesis presents the study of a new adaptive optical element capable of generating rapidly tunable Bessel beams: the tunable acoustic gradient index (TAG) lens. This device uses piezoelectrically-generated acoustic waves to modulate a fluid's density and refractive index, leading to electrically controllable lensing behavior. Both modeling and experiment are used to explain the observed multiscale Bessel beams. Because the TAG lens operates at frequencies of hundreds of kilohertz, the effective Bessel beam cone angle continuously varies at timescales on the order of microseconds or smaller-orders of magnitude faster than other existing technologies. In addition, the TAG lens may be driven with a Fourier superposition of multiple frequencies, which could enable the generation of arbitrary patterns. The second part of this thesis presents the application of Bessel beams in a new probe-based direct-write optical nanolithography method called optical trap assisted nanolithography (OTAN). When compared to alternative techniques, OTAN makes probe placement and parallelization easier. The method uses Bessel beam optical tweezers to trap dielectric microspheres in close proximity to a surface. These microspheres are then illuminated with pulses from a second laser beam, whose fluence is enhanced directly below the microsphere by focusing and near-field effects to a level great enough to modify the substrate. This technique is used to produce 100 nm features, which are less than lambda/3, and whose sizes agree well with finite-difference time-domain models of the experiment. A demonstration is given of how the technique can be parallelized by trapping multiple microspheres with multiple beams and exposing all spheres in unison with a single pulsed beam. Finally, modeling

  11. Deceleration of a continuous-wave(CW)molecular beam with a single quasi-CW semi-Gaussian laser beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Ya-Ling; Xia Yong; Yin Jian-Ping

    2008-01-01

    We propose a promising scheme to decelerate a CW molecular beam by using a red-detuned quasi-cw semi-Gaussian laser beam(SGB).We study the dynamical process of the deceleration for a CW deuterated ammonia(ND3)molecular beam by Monte-Carlo simulation method.Our study shows that we can obtain a ND3 molecular beam with a relative average kinetic energy loss of about 10% and a relative output molecular number of more than 90% by using a single quasi-cw SGB with a power of 1.5kW and a maximum optical well depth of 7.33mK.

  12. Ion-beam assisted laser fabrication of sensing plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Gurbatov, Stanislav; Vitrik, Oleg; Kulchin, Yuri; Milichko, Valentin; Makarov, Sergey; Kudryashov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Simple high-performance, two-stage hybrid technique was developed for fabrication of different plasmonic nanostructures, including nanorods, nanorings, as well as more complex structures on glass substrates. In this technique, a thin noble-metal film on a dielectric substrate is irradiated by a single tightly focused nanosecond laser pulse and then the modified region is slowly polished by an accelerated argon ion (Ar+) beam. As a result, each nanosecond laser pulse locally modifies the initial metal film through initiation of fast melting and subsequent hydrodynamic processes, while the following Ar+-ion polishing removes the rest of the film, revealing the hidden topography features and fabricating separate plasmonic structures on the glass substrate. We demonstrate that the shape and lateral size of the resulting functional plasmonic nanostructures depend on the laser pulse energy and metal film thickness, while subsequent Ar+-ion polishing enables to vary height of the resulting nanostructures. Plasmonic properties of the fabricated nanostructures were characterized by dark-field micro-spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence measurements performed on single nanofeatures, as well as by supporting numerical calculations of the related electromagnetic near-fields and Purcell factors. The developed simple two-stage technique represents a new step towards direct large-scale laser-induced fabrication of highly ordered arrays of complex plasmonic nanostructures.

  13. Effects of shutter transients in molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozu, Shin-Ichiro; Mozume, Teruo; Kuwatsuka, Haruhiko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2012-11-12

    : We have studied the effects of shutter transients (STs) in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Two series of samples were grown by MBE and evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements. The effects of STs were evaluated by growth rate (GR) analysis using a combination of growth time (GT) and thickness evaluated by XRD and XRR measurements. We revealed two opposite effects of STs: (1) overshoot of GR and (2) increase in GR with GT and subsequent saturation. Each effect was consistent with the previous studies; however, the previous studies showed no relationships between these two effects. By considering closing time of the shutter, the two opposite effects were well understood.

  14. Graphitic carbon grown on fluorides by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerng, Sahng-Kyoon; Lee, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong Seung; Chun, Seung-Hyun

    2013-01-03

    We study the growth mechanism of carbon molecules supplied by molecular beam epitaxy on fluoride substrates (MgF2, CaF2, and BaF2). All the carbon layers form graphitic carbon with different crystallinities depending on the cation. Especially, the growth on MgF2 results in the formation of nanocrystalline graphite (NCG). Such dependence on the cation is a new observation and calls for further systematic studies with other series of substrates. At the same growth temperature, the NCG on MgF2 has larger clusters than those on oxides. This is contrary to the general expectation because the bond strength of the carbon-fluorine bond is larger than that of the carbon-oxygen bond. Our results show that the growth of graphitic carbon does not simply depend on the chemical bonding between the carbon and the anion in the substrate.

  15. InPBi single crystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Gu, Y; Zhou, H F; Zhang, L Y; Kang, C Z; Wu, M J; Pan, W W; Lu, P F; Gong, Q; Wang, S M

    2014-06-26

    InPBi was predicted to be the most robust infrared optoelectronic material but also the most difficult to synthesize within In-VBi (V = P, As and Sb) 25 years ago. We report the first successful growth of InPBi single crystals with Bi concentration far beyond the doping level by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The InPBi thin films reveal excellent surface, structural and optical qualities making it a promising new III-V compound family member for heterostructures. The Bi concentration is found to be 2.4 ± 0.4% with 94 ± 5% Bi atoms at substitutional sites. Optical absorption indicates a band gap of 1.23 eV at room temperature while photoluminescence shows unexpectedly strong and broad light emission at 1.4-2.7 μm which can't be explained by the existing theory.

  16. Photoluminescence of ingaas/inp grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmand Jean Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescence (PL measurements due to temperature and excitation power were carried out in as function of sample containing a In0,53Ga0,47. As layer, grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on an InP substrate. The origins of the several luminescence processes observed at low temperature were determined by studying their different behaviors with increasing temperature and excitation power and by comparing the results with the data found in the literature. The following transitions have been identified: one transition involving localized excitons and two transitions involving acceptor impurities. A review of the main works published in the literature related to the optical transitions observed at low temperature in InGaAs/InP is also presented.

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy for high-efficiency nitride optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, J.; Kauer, M.; Windle, J.; Hooper, S.E.; Bousquet, V.; Zellweger, C.; Barnes, J.M. [Sharp Laboratories of Europe, Edmund Halley Road, Oxford Science Park, Oxford OX4 4GB (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    We review the significant progress made in the development of nitride laser diodes by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We report on our recent result of room temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN quantum well laser diodes grown by MBE. Ridge waveguide lasers fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates have a continuous-wave threshold current of 125 mA, corresponding to a threshold current density of 5.7 kA cm{sup -2}. The lasers have a threshold voltage of 8.6 V and a lifetime of several minutes. We outline the further technical challenges associated with demonstrating lifetimes of several thousand hours and present an assessment of the potential of MBE as a growth method for commercial quality nitride optoelectronic devices. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Nitrides optoelectronic devices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauer, M.; Bousquet, V.; Hooper, S.E.; Barnes, J.M.; Windle, J.; Tan, W.S.; Heffernan, J. [Sharp Laboratories of Europe, Edmund Halley Road, Oxford Science Park, Oxford OX4 4GB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    We report on the characteristics of our recent room temperature continuous-wave InGaN quantum well laser diodes grown by by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Uncoated ridge waveguide lasers fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates have a continuous-wave (cw) threshold current of 110 mA, corresponding to a threshold current density of 5.5 kA cm{sup -2}. We report on our steps taken to reduce threshold voltage to 7 V. Lasers with uncoated facets have a maximum cw output power of 14 mW and a cw characteristic temperature T{sub 0} of 123 K. Cw laser lifetime vs. power dissipation data is presented, with a maximum lifetime of 2.6 hours for the best laser. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baseman, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactions of O(/sup 3/P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O(/sup 1/D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O(/sup 3/P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively.

  20. Laser and optical system for laser assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping at SNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Menshov, A.; Webster, A.; Gorlov, T.; Aleksandrov, A.; Cousineau, S.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a high-efficiency laser assisted hydrogen ion (H-) beam stripping was successfully carried out in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The experiment was not only an important step toward foil-less H- stripping for charge exchange injection, it also set up a first example of using megawatt ultraviolet (UV) laser source in an operational high power proton accelerator facility. This paper reports in detail the design, installation, and commissioning result of a macro-pulsed multi-megawatt UV laser system and laser beam transport line for the laser stripping experiment.

  1. Gas source molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Duncan W.

    1992-11-01

    Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) has long been recognized as a promising radiation hard optoelectronic material. AlGaN has a wide direct band gap and therefore has potential applications in the fabrication of short wave-length devices, e.g., detectors and light-emitting diodes in the visible to ultraviolet region. Additionally, its piezoelectric properties and high acoustic velocities make it attractive for acoustic devices. The technical objective in Phase 1 was to determine if low temperature sources based on covalently bonded Group 3-nitrogen compounds could be used to prepare AlGaN films by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The program required to investigate low temperature AlGaN source materials was separated into two parts: (1) the synthesis, purification, and pyrolysis of gallium-nitrogen adducts and aluminum-nitrogen adducts; and (2) the growth of GaN by chemical beam epitaxy. We clearly demonstrated under CBE conditions GaN(x)C(y) films could be grown using compounds with pre-existing Ga-N bonds whereas no films were formed using trimethylgallium. Dimethylgallium amide was shown to produce dramatically lower carbon content films in the presence of ammonia than did trimethylgallium in the presence of ammonia.

  2. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Tunnel Barriers Grown on Graphite by High Temperature Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Jin; Summerfield, Alex; Davies, Andrew; Cheng, Tin S.; Smith, Emily F.; Mellor, Christopher J.; Khlobystov, Andrei N.; Foxon, C. Thomas; Eaves, Laurence; Beton, Peter H.; Novikov, Sergei V.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate direct epitaxial growth of high-quality hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) layers on graphite using high-temperature plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Atomic force microscopy reveals mono- and few-layer island growth, while conducting atomic force microscopy shows that the grown hBN has a resistance which increases exponentially with the number of layers, and has electrical properties comparable to exfoliated hBN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements on hBN confirm the formation of sp2-bonded hBN and a band gap of 5.9 ± 0.1 eV with no chemical intermixing with graphite. We also observe hexagonal moiré patterns with a period of 15 nm, consistent with the alignment of the hBN lattice and the graphite substrate. PMID:27681943

  3. GaAs Core/SrTiO3 Shell Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, X; Becdelievre, J; Meunier, B; Benali, A; Saint-Girons, G; Bachelet, R; Regreny, P; Botella, C; Grenet, G; Blanchard, N P; Jaurand, X; Silly, M G; Sirotti, F; Chauvin, N; Gendry, M; Penuelas, J

    2016-04-13

    We have studied the growth of a SrTiO3 shell on self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. To control the growth of the SrTiO3 shell, the GaAs nanowires were protected using an arsenic capping/decapping procedure in order to prevent uncontrolled oxidation and/or contamination of the nanowire facets. Reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to determine the structural, chemical, and morphological properties of the heterostructured nanowires. Using adapted oxide growth conditions, it is shown that most of the perovskite structure SrTiO3 shell appears to be oriented with respect to the GaAs lattice. These results are promising for achieving one-dimensional epitaxial semiconductor core/functional oxide shell nanostructures.

  4. Effects of hydrogen during molecular beam epitaxy of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Y.; Feenstra, R.M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    We study the effect of introducing hydrogen gas through the RF plasma source during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of GaN(0001). The well-known smooth-to-rough transition that occurs for this surface as a function of decreasing Ga flux in the absence of H is found to persist even with H present. But, the critical Ga flux for this transition is increased by the presence of H, and for sufficiently high H pressure a new 2 x 2 surface structure that is believed to be H-terminated is observed. Under Ga-rich conditions, the presence of hydrogen is found to induce step bunching on the surface, from which we argue that H selectively bonds to surface step and/or kink sites. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Self-organized dots of GaN:Mn grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, S.; Marcet, S. [CEA-CNRS Group ' ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' ' , Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble I and CEA/DRFMC/SP2M, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Halley, D.; Ferrand, D.; Mariette, H. [CEA-CNRS Group ' ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' ' , Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble I and CEA/DRFMC/SP2M, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Cibert, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Yamamoto, S.; Sakai, T.; Ohshima, T.; Itoh, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Self-organized dots of Mn-doped GaN were grown on AlN by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth was performed in the nitrogen-rich growth regime with the addition of small amount of Mn flux. The in-situ surface observation using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and the ex-situ examination using atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed that the dot formation was observed only in the case where the amount of Mn flux was small. The estimate of Mn composition using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) experiment showed that the Mn composition in the dots layer was much higher than in thick (Ga,Mn)N layers grown with the same amount of Mn flux. The maximum Mn composition for the high-density dot formation was about x=0.01. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Composition control of quinary GaInNAsSb alloy grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Naoya; Ahsan, Nazmul; Okada, Yoshitaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Islam, Muhammad Monirul [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    In order to precisely control the composition of quinary GaInNAsSb alloy, we investigated the incorporation behavior of constituent atoms during atomic hydrogen-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth. The nitrogen (N) composition, in comparison of GaNAs and GaNAsSb, increased by the supply of antimony (Sb). However, addition of indium (In) decreases the N composition during Sb mediated growth of GaInNAsSb, which enables obtaining the same N composition when an adequate In composition is chosen. It was revealed that Sb incorporation was increased when (i) In composition decreased, (ii) Sb flux increased, (iii) growth temperature decreased, and (iv) growth rate increased. These results are thought to be related to the effect of competitive role among strain, coverage, desorption, and segregation. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Ion beam assisted deposition of organic molecules: a physical way to realize OLED structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliton, André; Antony, Rémi; Troadec, David; Ratier, Bernard

    2000-05-01

    We demonstrate how the quantum efficiency of an organic light-emitting diode can be improved by a physical way based on the ion beam assisted deposition: the recombination current can be increased by an enhancement of the minority carrier injection while the total current can be decreased by generation of electron traps which reduced the majority current. The quantum efficiency of fluorescence can be also improved by a layer densification with a limitation of the nonradiative centers. As a result, the quantum efficiency of the structure ITO/Helium assisted Alq3/unassisted Alq3/Ca/Al is improved (by around a factor 10) in relation with a virgin structure.

  8. Hardness and stress of amorphous carbon film deposited by glow discharge and ion beam assisting deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, F C

    2000-01-01

    The hardness and stress of amorphous carbon films prepared by glow discharge and by ion beam assisting deposition are investigated. Relatively hard and almost stress free amorphous carbon films were deposited by the glow discharge technique. On the other hand, by using the ion beam assisting deposition, hard films were also obtained with a stress of the same order of those found in tetrahedral amorphous carbon films. A structural analysis indicates that all films are composed of a sp sup 2 -rich network. These results contradict the currently accepted concept that both stress and hardness are only related to the concentration of sp sup 3 sites. Furthermore, the same results also indicate that the sp sup 2 sites may also contribute to the hardness of the films.

  9. Photoionization mass spectrometric studies of selected compounds in a molecular beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, W.M.

    1979-03-01

    Photoionization efficiency curves have been measured at moderate to high resolution for several species produced in supersonic molecular beams of acetone, acetone-d/sub 6/ and CS/sub 2/. The molecular beam photoionization mass spectrometer which has been assembled for this work is described. The performance of this instrument has been characterized by a number of experiments and calculations.

  10. Stress in ion-beam assisted silicon dioxide and tantalum pentoxide thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Sirotkina, N

    2003-01-01

    Ta sub 2 O sub 5 and SiO sub 2 thin films, deposited at room temperature by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) and dual ion-beam sputtering (DIBS), and SiO sub 2 films, deposited by reactive e-beam evaporation and ion-assisted deposition, were studied. The energy (150-600 eV) and ion-to-atom arrival ratio (0.27-2.0) of assisting argon and oxygen ions were varied. Influence of deposition conditions (deposition system geometry, nature and amount of gas in the chamber, substrate cleaning and ion-assistance parameters) on films properties (stress, composition, refractive index n sub 5 sub 0 sub 0 sub n sub m and extinction coefficient k sub 5 sub 0 sub 0 sub n sub m) was investigated. A scanning method, based on substrate curvature measurements by laser reflection and stress calculation using the Stoney equation, was employed. RBS showed that stoichiometric Ta sub 2 O sub 5 films contain impurities of Ar, Fe and Mo. Stoichiometric SiO sub 2 films also contain Ta impurity. Argon content increases with ion bombardment and, ...

  11. Characterisation of molecular thin films grown by organic molecular beam deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, S M

    2000-01-01

    This work concerns the growth and characterisation of molecular thin films in an ultra high vacuum regime by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD). Films of three different molecular materials are grown, namely free base phthalocyanine (H sub 2 Pc), perylene 3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and aluminium tris-8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq sub 3). The relationship between the growth parameters such as film thickness, growth rate, and substrate temperature during and after growth, and the structural, optical and morphological properties of the film are investigated. These investigations are carried out using various ex-situ techniques. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electronic absorption spectroscopy are used to probe the bulk film characteristics, whilst Nomarski microscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to study the surface morphology. Three different levels of influence of the growth parameters on the film properties are observed. In the case of H sub 2 Pc, two crystal phases are fo...

  12. Observation of strong leakage reduction in crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandale, W. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL), Universite Paris Sud Orsay, Orsay (France); INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Arduini, G.; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Metral, E. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mirarchi, D. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rossi, R. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Baricordi, S. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); and others

    2015-09-02

    In ideal two-stage collimation systems, the secondary collimator–absorber should have its length sufficient to exclude practically the exit of halo particles with large impact parameters. In the UA9 experiments on the crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam a 60 cm long tungsten bar is used as a secondary collimator–absorber which is insufficient for the full absorption of the halo protons. Multi-turn simulation studies of the collimation allowed to select the position for the beam loss monitor downstream the collimation area where the contribution of particles deflected by the crystal in channeling regime but emerging from the secondary collimator–absorber is considerably reduced. This allowed observation of a strong leakage reduction of halo protons from the SPS beam collimation area, thereby approaching the case with an ideal absorber.

  13. Observation of strong leakage reduction in crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Scandale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In ideal two-stage collimation systems, the secondary collimator–absorber should have its length sufficient to exclude practically the exit of halo particles with large impact parameters. In the UA9 experiments on the crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam a 60 cm long tungsten bar is used as a secondary collimator–absorber which is insufficient for the full absorption of the halo protons. Multi-turn simulation studies of the collimation allowed to select the position for the beam loss monitor downstream the collimation area where the contribution of particles deflected by the crystal in channeling regime but emerging from the secondary collimator–absorber is considerably reduced. This allowed observation of a strong leakage reduction of halo protons from the SPS beam collimation area, thereby approaching the case with an ideal absorber.

  14. Observation of strong leakage reduction in crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, R.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Claps, G.; Dabagov, S.; Hampai, D.; Murtas, F.; Cavoto, G.; Iacoangeli, F.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A. G.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Durum, A. A.; Maisheev, V. A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu. E.; Yanovich, A. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Lapina, L. P.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.

    2015-09-01

    In ideal two-stage collimation systems, the secondary collimator-absorber should have its length sufficient to exclude practically the exit of halo particles with large impact parameters. In the UA9 experiments on the crystal assisted collimation of the SPS beam a 60 cm long tungsten bar is used as a secondary collimator-absorber which is insufficient for the full absorption of the halo protons. Multi-turn simulation studies of the collimation allowed to select the position for the beam loss monitor downstream the collimation area where the contribution of particles deflected by the crystal in channeling regime but emerging from the secondary collimator-absorber is considerably reduced. This allowed observation of a strong leakage reduction of halo protons from the SPS beam collimation area, thereby approaching the case with an ideal absorber.

  15. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Srn+1TinO3n+1 (Sr5Ti4O13) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO2 layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO2 layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO3 perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  16. Topological Insulator Film Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa P. Ginley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will review recent progress in the growth of topological insulator (TI thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. The materials we focus on are the V2-VI3 family of TIs. These materials are ideally bulk insulating with surface states housing Dirac excitations which are spin-momentum locked. These surface states are interesting for fundamental physics studies (such as the search for Majorana fermions as well as applications in spintronics and other fields. However, the majority of TI films and bulk crystals exhibit significant bulk conductivity, which obscures these states. In addition, many TI films have a high defect density. This review will discuss progress in reducing the bulk conductivity while increasing the crystal quality. We will describe in detail how growth parameters, substrate choice, and growth technique influence the resulting TI film properties for binary and ternary TIs. We then give an overview of progress in the growth of TI heterostructures. We close by discussing the bright future for TI film growth by MBE.

  17. Emission control of InGaN nanocolumns grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lefebvre, P. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Universite Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jahn, U.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoeperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-09-26

    This work studies the effect of the growth temperature on the morphology and emission characteristics of self-assembled InGaN nanocolumns grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Morphology changes are assessed by scanning electron microscopy, while emission is measured by photoluminescence. Within the growth temperature range of 750 to 650 deg. C, an increase in In incorporation for decreasing temperature is observed. This effect allows tailoring the InGaN nanocolumns emission line shape by using temperature gradients during growth. Depending on the gradient rate, span, and sign, broad emission line shapes are obtained, covering the yellow to green range, even yielding white emission.

  18. Microanalyses of the hydroxyl—poly—calcium sodium phosphate coatings produced by ion beam assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZhong-Yang; WANGChang-Xing; 等

    2002-01-01

    Thin calcium phosphate catings on titanium alloy substrates were prepared by Ar+ ion beam assisted deposition(IBAD) from hydroxyl-poly-calcium sodium phosphate(HPPA) target.The coatings were analyzed by XRD,FTIR,XPS,These analyses revealed that the as-deposited films were amorphous or no apparent crystallinity.No distinct absorption band of the hydroxyl group was observed in FTIR spectra of the coatings but new absorption bands were presented for CO3-2,The calcium to phosphorous ratio of these catings in different IBAD conditions varied from 0.46 to 3.36.

  19. Microanalyses of the hydroxyl-poly-calcium sodium phosphate coatings produced by ion beam assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Thin calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy substrates wereprepared by Ar+ ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) from hydroxyl-poly-calciumsodium phosphate (HPPA) target. The coatings were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, XPS.These analyses revealed that the as-deposited films were amorphous or no apparentcrystallinity. No distinct absorption band of the hydroxyl group was observed in FTIRspectra of the coatings but new absorption bands were presented for CO3-2. Thecalcium to phosphorous ratio of these coatings in different IBAD conditions variedfrom 0.46 to 3.36.

  20. Metallic impurities in gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugo, S.A.; Krueger, J.; Kisielowski, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Transition metals are often encountered in trace amounts in semiconductors. They have been extensively studied in most elemental and compound systems, since they form deep donor and/or acceptor levels which usually degrade the electronic and optical material properties. Only very little is known about transition metals in recent III-V semiconducting materials, such as GaN, AlN and InN. These few studies have been done exclusively on Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) or Hybrid Vapor Phase Epitaxy HVPE-grown GaN. Preliminary x-ray fluorescence studies at the Advanced Light Source, beamline 10.3.1, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have revealed that GaN materials grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) have Fe, Ni and Cr as the dominant transition metal contaminants. This finding is commensurate with the extremely high concentrations of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen (up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}) measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Preliminary work using the mapping capabilities of the x-ray fluorescence microprobe revealed the metal impurities were inhomogeneously distributed over the film. Future work of this collaboration will be to find a correlation between the existence of transition metals in MBE films, as revealed by x-ray fluorescence, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra taken in the infrared region. Also, the authors will make use of the 1 {mu}m spatial resolution of x-ray microprobe to locate the contaminants in relation to structural defects in the GaN films. Because of the large strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the GaN films and the substrates, the films grow in a columnar order with high densities of grain boundaries and dislocations. These structural defects offer preferential sites for metal precipitation or agglomeration which could degrade the optical properties of this material more so than if the impurities were left dissolved in the GaN.

  1. Manipulation and analysis of atomic and molecular beams using transmission gratings and Fresnel zone plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisenti, R.E.

    2000-06-01

    In this thesis experimental results on the diffraction of rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) and molecular (D{sub 2}) beams by a 100 nm period transmission grating and on the focusing of a helium atom beam through a Fresnel zone plate have been reported. (orig.)

  2. Methods for assisting recovery of damaged brain and spinal cord using arrays of X-Ray microplanar beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; McDonald, III, John W.

    2007-12-04

    A method of assisting recovery of an injury site of brain or spinal cord injury includes providing a therapeutic dose of X-ray radiation to the injury site through an array of parallel microplanar beams. The dose at least temporarily removes regeneration inhibitors from the irradiated regions. Substantially unirradiated cells surviving between the microplanar beams migrate to the in-beam irradiated portion and assist in recovery. The dose may be administered in dose fractions over several sessions, separated in time, using angle-variable intersecting microbeam arrays (AVIMA). Additional doses may be administered by varying the orientation of the microplanar beams. The method may be enhanced by injecting stem cells into the injury site.

  3. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN dots on nitrided sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Dengel, Radu-Gabriel; Stebounova, LarissaV.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2007-04-20

    A series of self-assembled InN dots are grown by radio frequency (RF) plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) directly on nitrided sapphire. Initial nitridation of the sapphire substrates at 900 C results in the formation of a rough AlN surface layer, which acts as a very thin buffer layer and facilitates the nucleation of the InN dots according to the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode, with a wetting layer of {approx}0.9 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that well-confined InN nanoislands with the greatest height/width at half-height ratio of 0.64 can be grown at 460 C. Lower substrate temperatures result in a reduced aspect ratio due to a lower diffusion rate of the In adatoms, whereas the thermal decomposition of InN truncates the growth at T>500 C. The densities of separated dots vary between 1.0 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} and 2.5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} depending on the growth time. Optical response of the InN dots under laser excitation is studied with apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, although no photoluminescence is observed from these samples. In view of the desirable implementation of InN nanostructures into photonic devices, the results indicate that nitrided sapphire is a suitable substrate for growing self-assembled InN nanodots.

  4. Graphitic platform for self-catalysed InAs nanowires growth by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qian D; Anyebe, Ezekiel A; Sanchez, Ana M; Rajpalke, Mohana K; Veal, Tim D; Zhukov, Alexander; Robinson, Benjamin J; Anderson, Frazer; Kolosov, Oleg; Fal'ko, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    We report the self-catalysed growth of InAs nanowires (NWs) on graphite thin films using molecular beam epitaxy via a droplet-assisted technique. Through optimising metal droplets, we obtained vertically aligned InAs NWs with highly uniform diameter along their entire length. In comparison with conventional InAs NWs grown on Si (111), the graphite surface led to significant effects on the NWs geometry grown on it, i.e. larger diameter, shorter length with lower number density, which were ascribed to the absence of dangling bonds on the graphite surface. The axial growth rate of the NWs has a strong dependence on growth time, which increases quickly in the beginning then slows down after the NWs reach a length of approximately 0.8 μm. This is attributed to the combined axial growth contributions from the surface impingement and sidewall impingement together with the desorption of adatoms during the diffusion. The growth of InAs NWs on graphite was proposed following a vapour-solid mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the NW has a mixture of pure zinc-blende and wurtzite insertions.

  5. The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-23

    The hetero-epitaxial growth of the n-type semiconducting oxides β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2} on c- and r-plane sapphire was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth-rate and desorbing flux from the substrate were measured in-situ under various oxygen to metal ratios by laser reflectometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. These measurements clarified the role of volatile sub-oxide formation (Ga{sub 2}O, In{sub 2}O, and SnO) during growth, the sub-oxide stoichiometry, and the efficiency of oxide formation for the three oxides. As a result, the formation of the sub-oxides decreased the growth-rate under metal-rich growth conditions and resulted in etching of the oxide film by supplying only metal flux. The flux ratio for the exclusive formation of the sub-oxide (e.g., the p-type semiconductor SnO) was determined, and the efficiency of oxide formation was found to be the highest for SnO{sub 2}, somewhat lower for In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and the lowest for Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Our findings can be generalized to further oxides that possess related sub-oxides.

  6. An aberration-corrected STEM study of structural defects in epitaxial GaN thin films grown by ion beam assisted MBE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitz, David; Lotnyk, Andriy; Gerlach, Jürgen W; Lenzner, Jörg; Grundmann, Marius; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Ion-beam assisted molecular-beam epitaxy was used for direct growth of epitaxial GaN thin films on super-polished 6H-SiC(0001) substrates. The GaN films with different film thicknesses were studied using reflection high energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence and primarily aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. Special attention was devoted to the microstructural characterization of GaN thin films and the GaN-SiC interface on the atomic scale. The results show a variety of defect types in the GaN thin films and at the GaN-SiC interface. A high crystalline quality of the produced hexagonal GaN thin films was demonstrated. The gained results are discussed.

  7. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)703149; Kröll, Thorsten

    SOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10^11 ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computanional techniques have been used.

  8. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, Christoph

    2015-06-15

    ISOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10{sup 11} ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computational techniques have been used.

  9. Optimization of Energy Scope for Titanium Nitride Films Grown by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; MA Zhong-Quan; WANG Ye; WANG De-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The deposited energy during film growth with ion bombardment, correlated to the atomic displacement on the surface monolayer and the underlying bulk, has been calculated by a simplified ion-solid interaction model under binary collision approximation. The separated damage energies caused by Ar ion, different for the surface and the bulk, have been determined under the standard collision cross section and a well-defined surface and bulk atom displacement threshold energy of titanium nitride (TiN). The optimum energy scope shows that the incident energy of Ar+ around 110eV for TiN (111) and 80eV for TiN (200) effectively enhances the mobility of adatom on surface but excludes the damage in underlying bulk. The theoretical prediction and the experimental result are in good agreement in low energy ion beam-assisted deposition.

  10. Electron beam assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticle in chitosan stabilizer: Preparation, stability and inhibition of building fungi studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannoo, Kanokwan; Teerapatsakul, Churapa; Punyanut, Adisak; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chitosan (CS) stabilizer were successfully synthesized using electron beam irradiation. The effects of irradiation dose, molecular weight (MW) of CS stabilizer, concentration of AgNO3 precursor and addition of tert-butanol on AgNPs production were studied. The stability of the AgNPs under different temperatures and storage times were also investigated. The AgNPs formation in CS was observed using UV-vis, FT-IR and XRD. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the obtained AgNPs was around 418 nm. The CS stabilizer and its MW, AgNO3 precursor and irradiation doses are important parameters for the synthesis of AgNPs. The optimum addition of 20% v/v tert-butanol could assist the formation of AgNPs. The AgNPs in CS stabilizer were stable over a period of one year when the samples were kept at 5 °C. The AgNPs observed from TEM images were spherical with an average particle size in the range of 5-20 nm depending on the irradiation doses. The AgNPs in CS solution effectively inhibited the growth of several fungi, i.e., Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger, which commonly found on the building surface.

  11. Tilting of carbon encapsulated metallic nanocolumns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite films by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Muecklich, Arndt; Zschornak, Matthias; Wintz, Sebastian; Gemming, Sibylle; Abrasonis, Gintautas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Oates, Thomas W. H. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaft, ISAS e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Luis Endrino, Jose [Surfaces and Coatings Department, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Baehtz, Carsten; Shalimov, Artem [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Rossendorf Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2012-07-30

    The influence of assisting low-energy ({approx}50-100 eV) ion irradiation effects on the morphology of C:Ni ({approx}15 at. %) nanocomposite films during ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is investigated. It is shown that IBAD promotes the columnar growth of carbon encapsulated metallic nanoparticles. The momentum transfer from assisting ions results in tilting of the columns in relation to the growing film surface. Complex secondary structures are obtained, in which a significant part of the columns grows under local epitaxy via the junction of sequentially deposited thin film fractions. The influence of such anisotropic film morphology on the optical properties is highlighted.

  12. Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, Helen, E-mail: helen.chadwick@epfl.ch; Hundt, P. Morten; Reijzen, Maarten E. van; Yoder, Bruce L.; Beck, Rainer D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Moléculaire, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-01-21

    Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.

  13. A non-diaphragm type small shock tube for application to a molecular beam source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuta; Osuka, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2013-07-01

    A non-diaphragm type small shock tube was developed for application to a molecular beam source, which can generate beams in the energy range from 1 to several electron volts and beams containing dissociated species such as atomic oxygen. Since repetitive high-frequency operation is indispensable for rapid signal acquisition in beam scattering experiments, the dimensions of the shock tube were miniaturized to reduce the evacuation time between shots. The designed shock tube is 2-4 mm in diameter and can operate at 0.5 Hz. Moreover, a high shock Mach number at the tube end is required for high-energy molecular beam generation. To reduce the shock attenuation caused by the wall boundary layer, which becomes significant in small-diameter tubes, we developed a high-speed response valve employing the current-loop mechanism. The response time of this mechanism is about 100 μs, which is shorter than the rupture time of conventional diaphragms. We show that the current-loop valve generates shock waves with shorter formation distances (about 200-300 mm) than those of conventional shock tubes. In addition, the converging geometry efficiently accelerates shock wave in the small-diameter tubes. The optimal geometry of the shock tube yields shock Mach number around 7, which indicates that the translation energy of molecular beams can exceed 1 eV even in the presence of the real gas effect.

  14. Condensed-Phase Mass Fraction in a Supersonic Molecular Beam Containing Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Eldon L.; Toennies, J. Peter

    2008-12-01

    For a supersonic molecular beam containing clusters, a relatively general and simple conservation-of-energy procedure for deducing from time-of-flight measurements the fraction of the beam in the condensed phase is developed. The procedure is applied to measurements for 4He beams formed by expansions which approach the two-phase region either near the critical point or to the liquid side of the critical point. The deduced values of the mass fraction are correlated using a scaling parameter which was used previously for correlating mean values of cluster sizes formed via fragmentation in free-jet expansions of liquid 4He.

  15. STATUS REPORT ON DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-SPEED HIGH-INTENSITY MOLECULAR BEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, Eldon L.

    1963-07-15

    Status of a high-speed high-intensity molecular beam under development is described. Bases for designs of the several components are presented. Using an arc-heated source and a hypersonic jet, molecular energies exceeding 1 ev and beam intensities of the order of 10/sup 16/ molecules/ cm/sup 2/ sec are anticipated. A two-disk beam chopper and speed selector provides a means for analyzing the speed distribution in the generated beam, for chopping the beam into bursts of nearly monoenergetic molecules suitable for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique, and for modulating the beam in order to facilitate detection. A through-flow ionization detector possesses the versatility required for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique. A sorption pump and a turbo pump serve as central components of alternative pumping systems for the collimating chamber. Using the arc-heated source, the converging nozzle, the conduction-radiation-cooled skimmer, the turbo pump (turning at 3400 rpm), the chopperselector (acting only as a chopper), and the detector, an arc-heated beam is generated and detected. (auth)

  16. High-Energy Molecular Beam Source Using a Non-Diaphragm Type Small Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuta; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2010-11-01

    The molecular beam technique is one of the powerful tools to analyze gas-surface interactions. In order to generate high-energy molecular beam in a range of 1 - 5 eV, which corresponds to the typical activation energy of surface reactions, we are developing a beam source using a non-diaphragm type shock tube, which can operate at a repetition rate high enough for efficient data acquisition. We made the volume of a tube much smaller than that of conventional ones so that the evacuation time between each shot becomes as short as possible. Our measurement of shock Mach numbers showed that even small diameter (2 or 4 mm) tubes, in which the wall boundary layer has a large influence on the propagation of shock waves, could generate molecular beam with the translational energy of more than 1 eV. This is because the reduction of shock formation distance by rapid opening of the valve, which separates a high pressure room from a low pressure room, weakened the effect of viscous damping on the accelerating shock wave. In addition, the convergent shock tubes of which diameters linearly decrease from 4 to 2 mm exhibited higher Mach numbers than straight ones. This indicates that the application of the convergent tube with the optimized geometry would be promising for generating high-energy molecular beam.

  17. Photoluminescence Characterization of Boron-doped Si Layers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng; LAI Hong-kai; CHEN Song-yan

    2005-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the boron-doped Si layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy using HBO2 as the doping source. The influence of boron doping concentration on the dislocation-related photoluminescence spectra of molecular beam epitaxy Si layers annealed at 900 ℃ was studied with different doping concentrations and growth temperature. The broad photoluminescence band(from 0.75 eV to 0.90 eV) including D1 and D2 bands was associated with high boron doping concentration in the samples, while D3 and D4 bands might be related to oxygen precipitates.

  18. Molecular Beam Studies of Hot Atom Chemical Reactions: Reactive Scattering of Energetic Deuterium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H{sub 2} -> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} -> C{sub 2}HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible.

  19. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth, Characterization, and Devices of Modulated Semiconductor Structures’

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-28

    on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Key Words: Molecular Beam Epitaxv, X-ray diffraction, RHEED, GeSn , AlGaSb, Surface Structure iLb...equipment so far has been used in the study of metastable GeSn alloys grown on InP and GaSb substrates, and in analysis of the (Al, Ga)Sb material system...Homma, "Molecular beam epitaxial 6 growth of metastable GeSn alloys", Sept. 13-15, 1989, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. Also to be

  20. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Gu, Man [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Guilford College, Greensboro, North Carolina 27410 (United States)

    2013-01-14

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  1. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comes, Ryan; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Liu, Hongxue; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  2. Electron beam source molecular beam epitaxial growth of analog graded Al(x)Ga(1-x)As ballistic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Roger J.; Levi, Anthony F. J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the growth of graded band-gap Al(x)Ga(1-x)As alloys by molecular beam epitaxy which is based upon electron beam evaporation of the group III elements. The metal fluxes are measured and feedback controlled using a modulated ion gauge sensor. The system is computer controlled which allows precise programming of the Ga and Al evaporation rates. The large dynamic response of the metal sources enables growth of variable band-gap III-V alloys with arbitrary composition profiles. This new technique is demonstrated by synthesis of analog graded Al(x)Ga(1-x)As unipolar ballistic electron transistors.

  3. Improved control over spontaneously formed GaN nanowires in molecular beam epitaxy using a two-step growth process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, J K; Corfdir, P; Geelhaar, L; Riechert, H; Brandt, O; Fernández-Garrido, S

    2015-11-06

    We investigate the influence of modified growth conditions during the spontaneous formation of GaN nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We find that a two-step growth approach, where the substrate temperature is increased during the nucleation stage, is an efficient method to gain control over the area coverage, average diameter, and coalescence degree of GaN NW ensembles. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the growth conditions employed during the incubation time that precedes nanowire nucleation do not influence the properties of the final nanowire ensemble. Therefore, when growing GaN NWs at elevated temperatures or with low Ga/N ratios, the total growth time can be reduced significantly by using more favorable growth conditions for nanowire nucleation during the incubation time.

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys with high bismuth content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, S.V.; Kent, A.J.; Foxon, C.T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Yu, K.M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Levander, A.X.; Tseng, A.; Dubon, O.D.; Wu, J. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dos Reis, R. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Denlinger, J. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Luckert, F.; Edwards, P.R.; Martin, R.W. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    We have analysed bismuth incorporation into GaN layers using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) at extremely low growth temperatures of less than {proportional_to}100 C under both Ga-rich and N-rich growth conditions. The formation of amorphous GaN{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys is promoted by growth under Ga-rich conditions. The amorphous matrix has a short-range order resembling random crystalline GaN{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys. We have observed the formation of small crystalline clusters embedded into amorphous GaN{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys. Despite the fact that the films are pseudo-amorphous we observe a well defined optical absorption edges that rapidly shift to very low energy of {proportional_to}1 eV. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. High quality InAlN single layers lattice-matched to GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gacevic, Z.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E. [ISOM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rebled, J. M.; Peiro, F. [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Estrade, S. [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); TEM-MAT, CCiT-UB, Sole i Sabaris 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-07-18

    We report on properties of high quality {approx}60 nm thick InAlN layers nearly in-plane lattice-matched to GaN, grown on c-plane GaN-on-sapphire templates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Excellent crystalline quality and low surface roughness are confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. High annular dark field observations reveal a periodic in-plane indium content variation (8 nm period), whereas optical measurements evidence certain residual absorption below the band-gap. The indium fluctuation is estimated to be {+-} 1.2% around the nominal 17% indium content via plasmon energy oscillations assessed by electron energy loss spectroscopy with sub-nanometric spatial resolution.

  6. The influence of Laval nozzle throat size on supersonic molecular beam injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinkui He; Xianfu Feng; Mingmin Zhong; Fujun Gou; Shuiquan Deng; Yong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, finite element analysis (FEA) has been used to investigate the effects of different Laval nozzle throat sizes on supersonic molecular beam. The simulations indicate the Mach numbers of the molecular stream peak at different positions along the center axis of the beam, which correspond to local minimums of the molecular densities. With the increase of the throat diam-eter, the first peak of the Mach number increases first and then decreases, while that of the molecular number density increases gradually. Moreover, both first peaks shift pro-gressively away from the throat. At the last part, we discuss the possible applications of our FEA approach to solve some crucial problems met in modern transportations.

  7. Radii broadening due to molecular collision in focused ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuro, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    Point exposures of poly(methyl methacrylate) resist are carried out with focused ion beams of Si++ and Au++ from a liquid AuSi ion source in order to obtain a current density distribution in the probe. All the distributions are composed of a main Gaussian distribution and a long tail dependent on r-3.3 (r means radial distance). The magnitude of this tail increases with the increase in ambient pressure of the ion-drifting space. When the probe is steered at the corner of deflection field, two types of clear ghost patterns appear: (1) circular patterns and (2) lines trailing from the main spot toward the deflection center. It is revealed that they are produced by exposures to ions or energetic neutrals generated with charge transfer collision of the primary ions with residual gas molecules. It is shown that the long tail in the current density distribution is also due to scattering with the residual gas molecules.

  8. Collision dynamics of methyl radicals and highly vibrationally excited molecules using crossed molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P.M.Y.

    1991-10-01

    The vibrational to translational (V{yields}T) energy transfer in collisions between large highly vibrationally excited polyatomics and rare gases was investigated by time-of-flight techniques. Two different methods, UV excitation followed by intemal conversion and infrared multiphoton excitation (IRMPE), were used to form vibrationally excited molecular beams of hexafluorobenzene and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively. The product translational energy was found to be independent of the vibrational excitation. These results indicate that the probability distribution function for V{yields}T energy transfer is peaked at zero. The collisional relaxation of large polyatomic molecules with rare gases most likely occurs through a rotationally mediated process. Photodissociation of nitrobenzene in a molecular beam was studied at 266 nm. Two primary dissociation channels were identified including simple bond rupture to produce nitrogen dioxide and phenyl radical and isomerization to form nitric oxide and phenoxy radical. The time-of-flight spectra indicate that simple bond rupture and isomerization occurs via two different mechanisms. Secondary dissociation of the phenoxy radicals to carbon monoxide and cyclopentadienyl radicals was observed as well as secondary photodissociation of phenyl radical to give H atom and benzyne. A supersonic methyl radical beam source is developed. The beam source configuration and conditions were optimized for CH{sub 3} production from the thermal decomposition of azomethane. Elastic scattering of methyl radical and neon was used to differentiate between the methyl radicals and the residual azomethane in the molecular beam.

  9. Ion beams application to modification of surface layer of solids with particular regard to IBAD method - ion beam assisted deposition realized in the INP; Zastosowanie wiazek jonowych do modyfikowania warstwy wierzchniej cial stalych, ze szczegolnym uwzglednieniem metody IBAD - Ion Beam Assisted Deposition, realizowanej w IFJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drwiega, M.; Lipinska, E.

    1992-12-31

    The different trends in ion engineering such as: dynamic ion mixing, ionized cluster beam deposition and ion beam assisted deposition are described. Some examples of properties of surface coatings are given and their applications are presented. The future of ion engineering is described. 48 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs.

  10. Relationship Between Differential Interference Angle and Parameter of Experiment in Molecular Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-Qing; LI Jian; MA Feng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Collisional quantum interference (CQI) was observed in the intramolecular rotational energy transfer in the experiment of the static cell, and the integral interference angles were measured. To observe more precise information, the experiment in the molecular beam should be taken, from which the relationship between the differential interference angle and the scattering angle can be obtained. In this paper, the theoretical model of CQI is described in an atom-diatom system in the condition of the molecular beam, based on the first-Born approximation of time-dependent perturbation theory, taking into accounts the long-range interaction potential. The method of observing and measuring correctly the differential interference angle is presented. The changing tendency of the differential interference angle with the impact parameter and relative velocity is discussed. The changing tendencies of the differential interference angle with the parameter of experiment in the molecular beam, including the impact parameter and the velocity are discussed. This theoretical model is important to understand or perform the experiment in the molecular beam.

  11. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Topological Insulators Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Qikun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We summarize our recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM study of topological insulator thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE, which includes the observation of electron standing waves on topological insulator surface and the Landau quantization of topological surface states. The work has provided valuable information to the understanding of intriguing properties of topological insulators, as predicted by theory.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of InSb1−xBix thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Wang, Shumin; Saha Roy, Ivy;

    2013-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy growth for InSb1−xBix thin films on (100) GaAs substrates is reported. Successful Bi incorporation for 2% is achieved, and up to 70% of the incorporated Bi atoms are at substitutional sites. The effects of growth parameters on Bi incorporation and surface morphology...

  13. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of InSb1-xBix thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuxin Song; Shumin Wang; Saha Roy, Ivy;

    2013-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy growth for InSb1-xBix thin films on (100) GaAs substrates is reported. Successful Bi incorporation for 2% is achieved, and up to 70% of the incorporated Bi atoms are at substitutional sites. The effects of growth parameters on Bi incorporation and surface morphology...

  14. The properties of low energy neutral particles in a neutral beam source: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-hoon, E-mail: physh@kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Suk Jae [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Choong-Seock [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, Mercer Street, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Application of a hyperthermal neutral beam source is one of the candidate methods of reducing plasma induced damage problems. The neutral beam is generated by vertical collisions between energetic ions and a reflector composed of metal. However, it is difficult to measure the neutral angle and energy distribution experimentally. We simulate the hyperthermal neutral beam (HNB) generation using a molecular dynamics algorithm. In order to obtain a low energy neutral beam, ions with various energies are vertically projected onto the reflector surface. A rough surface structure that has been experimentally measured is used for a realistic simulation. The energy distributions are obtained and the ratio of energy of reflected neutral particles agrees with experimental data.

  15. Structural and magnetic studies of thin Fe57 films formed by ion beam assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyadov, N. M.; Bazarov, V. V.; Vagizov, F. G.; Vakhitov, I. R.; Dulov, E. N.; Kashapov, R. N.; Noskov, A. I.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Shustov, V. A.; Faizrakhmanov, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Thin Fe57 films with the thickness of 120 nm have been prepared on glass substrates by using the ion-beam-assisted deposition technique. X-ray diffraction, electron microdiffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies have shown that as-deposited films are in a stressful nanostructured state containing the nanoscaled inclusions of α-phase iron with the size of ∼10 nm. Room temperature in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization measurements confirmed the presence of the magnetic α-phase in the iron film and indicated the strong effect of residual stresses on magnetic properties of the film as well. Subsequent thermal annealing of iron films in vacuum at the temperature of 450 °C stimulates the growth of α-phase Fe crystallites with the size of up to 20 nm. However, electron microdiffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopic data have shown the partial oxidation and carbonization of the iron film during annealing. The stress disappeared after annealing of the film. The magnetic behaviour of the annealed samples was characterized by the magnetic hysteresis loop with the coercive field of ∼10 mT and the saturation magnetization decreased slightly in comparison with the α-phase Fe magnetization due to small oxidation of the film.

  16. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J., E-mail: manish.butte@stanford.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished.

  17. [Development of computer assisted learning program using cone beam projection for head radiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazeko, Kazuma; Kajiwara, Hironori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kuwayama, Jun; Karube, Shuhei; Araki, Misao; Hashimoto, Takeyuki; Shinohara, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We present a computer assisted learning (CAL) program to simulate head radiography. The program provides cone beam projections of a target volume, simulating three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) of a head phantom. The generated image is 512 x 512 x 512 pixels with each pixel 0.6 mm on a side. The imaging geometry, such as X-ray tube orientation and phantom orientation, can be varied. The graphical user interface (GUI) of the CAL program allows the study of the effects of varying the imaging geometry; each simulated projection image is shown quickly in an adjoining window. Simulated images with an assigned geometry were compared with the image obtained using the standard geometry in clinical use. The accuracy of the simulated image was verified through comparison with the image acquired using radiography of the head phantom, subsequently processed with a computed radiography system (CR image). Based on correlation coefficient analysis and visual assessment, it was concluded that the CAL program can satisfactorily simulate the CR image. Therefore, it should be useful for the training of head radiography.

  18. Surface optical phonons in GaAs nanowires grown by Ga-assisted chemical beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Núñez, C., E-mail: carlos.garcia@uam.es; Braña, A. F.; Pau, J. L.; Ghita, D.; García, B. J. [Grupo de Electrónica y Semiconductores, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Shen, G.; Wilbert, D. S.; Kim, S. M.; Kung, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Surface optical (SO) phonons were studied by Raman spectroscopy in GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown by Ga-assisted chemical beam epitaxy on oxidized Si(111) substrates. NW diameters and lengths ranging between 40 and 65 nm and between 0.3 and 1.3 μm, respectively, were observed under different growth conditions. The analysis of the Raman peak shape associated to either longitudinal or surface optical modes gave important information about the crystal quality of grown NWs. Phonon confinement model was used to calculate the density of defects as a function of the NW diameter resulting in values between 0.02 and 0.03 defects/nm, indicating the high uniformity obtained on NWs cross section size during growth. SO mode shows frequency downshifting as NW diameter decreases, this shift being sensitive to NW sidewall oxidation. The wavevector necessary to activate SO phonon was used to estimate the NW facet roughness responsible for SO shift.

  19. Molecular Beam Optical Zeeman Spectroscopy of Vanadium Monoxide, VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung; Zhang, Ruohan; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Like almost all astronomical studies, exoplanet investigations are observational endeavors that rely primarily on remote spectroscopic sensing to infer the physical properties of planets. Most exoplanet related information is inferred from to temporal variation of luminosity of the parent star. An effective method of monitoring this variation is via Magnetic Doppler Imaging (MDI), which uses optical polarimetry of paramagnetic molecules or atoms. One promising paramagnetic stellar absorption is the near infrared spectrum of VO. With this in mind, we have begun a project to record and analyze the field-free and Zeeman spectrum of the band. A cold (approx. 20 K) beam of VO was probed with a single frequency laser and detected using laser induced fluorescence. The determined spectral parameters will be discussed and compared to those extracted from the analysis of a hot spectrum. Supported by the National Science Foundation under the Grant No. CHE-1265885. O. Kochukhov, N. Rusomarov, J. A. Valenti, H. C. Stempels, F. Snik, M. Rodenhuis, N. Piskunov, V. Makaganiuk, C. U. Keller and C. M. Johns-Krull, Astron. Astrophys. 574 (Pt. 2), A79/71-A79/12 (2015). S. V. Berdyugina, Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 437 (Solar Polarization 6), 219-235 (2011). S. V. Berdyugina, P. A. Braun, D. M. Fluri and S. K. Solanki, Astron. Astrophys. 444 (3), 947-960 (2005). A. S. C. Cheung, P. G. Hajigeorgiou, G. Huang, S. Z. Huang and A. J. Merer, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 163 (2), 443-458 (1994)

  20. Electron collisions and internal excitation in stored molecular ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhr, H.

    2006-07-26

    In storage ring experiments the role, which the initial internal excitation of a molecular ion can play in electron collisions, and the effect of these collisions on the internal excitation are investigated. Dissociative recombination (DR) and inelastic and super-elastic collisions are studied in the system of He{sup +}{sub 2}. The DR rate coefficient at low energies depends strongly on the initial vibrational excitation in this system. Therefore changes in the DR rate coefficient are a very sensitive probe for changes in the vibrational excitation in He{sup +}{sub 2}, which is used to investigate the effects of collisions with electrons and residual gas species. The low-energy DR of HD{sup +} is rich with resonances from the indirect DR process, when certain initial rotational levels in the molecular ion are coupled to levels in neutral Rydberg states lying below the ion state. Using new procedures for high-resolution electron-ion collision spectroscopy developed here, these resonances in the DR cross section can be measured with high energy sensitivity. This allows a detailed comparison with results of a MQDT calculation in an effort to assign some or all of the resonances to certain intermediate Rydberg levels. (orig.)

  1. Developer molecular size dependence of pattern formation of polymer type electron beam resists with various molecular weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tomohiro; Asada, Hironori; Kishimura, Yukiko; Ochiai, Shunsuke; Hoshino, Ryoichi; Kawata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity and the resolution are affected by not only the nature of the resist such as a chemical structure and a molecular weight but also the developing process such as a developer molecular size. Exposure characteristics of positive-tone polymer resists having various molecular weights (Mw's) ranging from 60 k to 500 k are investigated using different ester solvents as a developer. The line-and-space (L/S) patterns are exposed by the electron beam writing system with an acceleration voltage of 50 kV and the samples are developed by amyl acetate, hexyl acetate and heptyl acetate. The pattern shape becomes better and the surface of the resist also becomes smoother with increasing developer molecular size, though the exposure dose required for the formation of the L/S pattern increases. The dose margin of pattern formation is also wider in all the resists having the different molecular weights. The dissolution in the unexposed portions of the 60k-Mw resist for heptyl acetate is reduced significantly compared with those for amyl acetate and hexyl acetate. The improvement of the pattern shape and the increasing of dose margin are remarkable in the low molecular weight resist. The 3σ of line width roughness tends to be smaller in the higher molecular weight resist and with the larger molecular size developer. Exposure experiment of the 35 nm pitch pattern using the 500k-Mw resist developed at the room temperature is presented.

  2. Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by Ion beam assisted deposition technique

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Lijian; Liang Erjun; Gao Jinsong; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Santos, M. P. dos

    2009-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited onto acrylics (PMMA) substrates by ion beam assisted deposition technique at different oxygen flows. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmittance, FTIR, ellipometry and Hall effect measurements. The optical constants of the deposited films have been calculated by fitting the ellipsometric spectra. The effects of the oxygen flow on the properties of the ...

  3. Fast atom diffraction inside a molecular beam epitaxy chamber, a rich combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiossac, M.; Atkinson, P.; Zugarramurdi, A.; Eddrief, M.; Finocchi, F.; Etgens, V. H.; Momeni, A.; Khemliche, H.; Borisov, A. G.; Roncin, P.

    2017-01-01

    Two aspects of the contribution of grazing incidence fast atom diffraction (GIFAD) to molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are reviewed here: the ability of GIFAD to provide in-situ a precise description of the atomic-scale surface topology, and its ability to follow larger-scale changes in surface roughness during layer-by-layer growth. Recent experimental and theoretical results obtained for the He atom beam incident along the highly corrugated [ 1 1 bar 0 ] direction of the β2(2 × 4) reconstructed GaAs(001) surface are summarized. We also discuss the measurements and calculations for the beam incidence along the weakly corrugated [010] direction where a periodicity twice smaller than expected is observed. The combination of the experiment, quantum scattering matrix calculations, and semiclassical analysis allows structural characteristics of the surface to be revealed. For the in situ measurements of GIFAD during molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs on GaAs surface we analyze the change in elastic and inelastic contributions in the scattered beam, and the variation of the diffraction pattern in polar angle scattering. This analysis outlines the robustness, the simplicity and the richness of the GIFAD as a technique to monitor the layer-by-layer epitaxial growth.

  4. Cluster beam steering onto silicon surfaces studied by molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzone, A M

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the impact conditions on cluster deposition in silicon and is motivated by recent results obtained using a variable incidence angle during deposition of metallic clusters and atoms. Therefore deposition of silicon clusters with a kinetic energy in the range from 0.5 to 10 eV/atom directed at normal and grazing incidence onto crystalline silicon has been studied using a molecular dynamics simulation method. The influence of other relevant parameters, such as the interatomic forces and the cluster size and shape, has also been investigated. This study shows that the physics of deposition is almost entirely dictated by the nature of the interatomic forces. When using potentials with the four-fold coordination typical of bulk a clear dependence on the size N is observed and the spreading index eta decreases with the increase of N for all incidence conditions. The cluster binding strength is perceptibly increased when using a potential accounting for the c...

  5. Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of MoS2 and Other Low-Friction Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the ion beam. Immersed in the beam is a heated tungsten filament which emits electrons to neutralize the positive charge of the beam. The sources...inadequate, indicating a temperature far below actual, and was replaced by a fine-gauge thermocouple inserted into a bronze shoe riding in contact with the...filaments lasted only about an hour when the source was operated at high power due to erosion of the tungsten wire. New filaments draw about 6 A at high beam

  6. Selective area growth of heterostructure bipolar transistors by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, R. A.; Feygenson, A.; Ritter, D.; Wang, Y. L.; Temkin, H.; Yadvish, R. D.; Panish, M. B.

    1992-08-01

    Heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) have been grown by selective area epitaxy (SAE) using metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE). dc characteristics, comparable to those for devices grown on unprocessed substrates, were obtained after removal of the edge growth. Data is also presented for devices in which the emitter mesas were regrown by SAE into openings which had been previously defined by photolithography on a structure containing only the collector and base layers. In both cases we use an in situ cleaning process consisting of an Ar ion beam sputtering and Cl2 etching. This step results in significantly improved junction quality.

  7. Phonon-assisted and magnetic field induced Kondo tunneling in single molecular devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, K [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kiselev, M N [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    We consider the Kondo tunneling induced by multiphonon emission/absorption processes in magnetic molecular complexes with low-energy singlet-triplet spin gap and show that the number of assisting phonons may be changed by varying the Zeeman splitting of excited triplet state. As a result, the structure of multiphonon Kondo resonances may be scanned by means of magnetic field tuning.

  8. Growth of thin films of low molecular weight proteins by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matei, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Constantinescu, C.;

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of lysozyme and myoglobin grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from a water ice matrix have been investigated. The deposition rate of these two low molecular weight proteins (lysozyme: 14307 amu and myoglobin: 17083 amu) exhibits a maximum of about 1–2 ng/cm2 per...

  9. Molecular Beam Optical Study of Gold Sulfide and Gold Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruohan; Yu, Yuanqin; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Gold-sulfur and gold-oxygen bonds are key components to numerous established and emerging technologies that have applications as far ranging as medical imaging, catalysis, electronics, and material science. A major theoretical challenge for describing this bonding is correctly accounting for the large relativistic and electron correlation effects. Such effects are best studied in diatomic, AuX, molecules. Recently, the observed AuS electronic state energy ordering was measured and compared to a simple molecular orbital diagram prediction. Here we more thoroughly investigate the nature of the electronic states of both AuS and AuO from the analysis of high-resolution (FWHM\\cong35MHz) optical Zeeman spectroscopy of the (0,0){B}2Σ--{X}2Π3/2 bands. The determined fine and hyperfine parameters for the {B}2Σ- state of AuO differ from those extracted from the analysis of a hot, Doppler-limited, spectrum. It is demonstrated that the nature of the {B}2Σ- states of AuO and AuS are radically different. The magnetic tuning of AuO and AuS indicates that the {B}2Σ- states are heavily contaminated. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.1265885. D. L. Kokkin, R. Zhang, T. C. Steimle, I. A. Wyse, B. W. Pearlman and T. D. Varberg, J. Phys. Chem. A., 119(48), 4412, 2015. L. C. O'Brien, B. A. Borchert, A. Farquhar, S. Shaji, J. J. O'Brien and R. W. Field, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 252(2), 136, 2008

  10. Interaction of a supersonic NO beam with static and resonant RF fields: Simple theoretical model to account for molecular interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, A. González; Caceres, J. O.; Morato, M.

    2006-09-01

    In previous experimental works from this laboratory two unexpected phenomena were reported: (i) a depletion of ca. 40% in the total intensity of a pulsed He seeded NO beam when these molecules passed a homogeneous and a resonant oscillating RF electric field and (ii) a beam splitting of ca. 0.5° when the transverse beam profile is measured, under the same experimental conditions. In this work a model based on molecular beam interferences is introduced which satisfactorily accounts for these two observations. It is shown how the experimental set-up a simple device used as C-field in early molecular beam electric resonance experiments, can be employed as molecular interferometer to investigate matter-wave interferences in beams of polar molecules.

  11. Molecular beam epitaxy of free-standing bulk wurtzite AlxGa1-xN layers using a highly efficient RF plasma source

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments with group III nitrides suggest AlxGa1-xN based LEDs can be new alternative commer-cially viable deep ultra-violet light sources. Due to a sig-nificant difference in the lattice parameters of GaN and AlN, AlxGa1-xN substrates would be preferable to either GaN or AlN for ultraviolet device applications. We have studied the growth of free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN bulk crystals by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) using a novel RF plasma source. Thick wurtz-i...

  12. Radiation-Force Assisted Targeting Facilitates Ultrasonic Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Zhao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic molecular imaging employs contrast agents, such as microbubbles, nanoparticles, or liposomes, coated with ligands specific for receptors expressed on cells at sites of angiogenesis, inflammation, or thrombus. Concentration of these highly echogenic contrast agents at a target site enhances the ultrasound signal received from that site, promoting ultrasonic detection and analysis of disease states. In this article, we show that acoustic radiation force can be used to displace targeted contrast agents to a vessel wall, greatly increasing the number of agents binding to available surface receptors. We provide a theoretical evaluation of the magnitude of acoustic radiation force and show that it is possible to displace micron-sized agents physiologically relevant distances. Following this, we show in a series of experiments that acoustic radiation force can enhance the binding of targeted agents: The number of biotinylated microbubbles adherent to a synthetic vessel coated with avidin increases as much as 20-fold when acoustic radiation force is applied; the adhesion of contrast agents targeted to αvβ3 expressed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells increases 27-fold within a mimetic vessel when radiation force is applied; and finally, the image signal-to-noise ratio in a phantom vessel increases up to 25 dB using a combination of radiation force and a targeted contrast agent, over use of a targeted contrast agent alone.

  13. Principles and design of a Zeeman-Sisyphus decelerator for molecular beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fitch, N J

    2016-01-01

    We explore a technique for decelerating molecules using a static magnetic field and optical pumping. Molecules travel through a spatially varying magnetic field and are repeatedly pumped into a weak-field seeking state as they move towards each strong field region, and into a strong-field seeking state as they move towards weak field. The method is time-independent and so is suitable for decelerating both pulsed and continuous molecular beams. By using guiding magnets at each weak field region, the beam can be simultaneously guided and decelerated. By tapering the magnetic field strength in the strong field regions, and exploiting the Doppler shift, the velocity distribution can be compressed during deceleration. We develop the principles of this deceleration technique, provide a realistic design, use numerical simulations to evaluate its performance for a beam of CaF, and compare this performance to other deceleration methods.

  14. Experimental Study on Electrostatic Guiding of Supersonic D2O Molecular Beam with Two Charged Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ya-Ling; XIA Yong; Chen Hai-Bo; YIN Jian-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the guiding of a supersonic heavy-water(D2O)molecular beam using a hollow electrostatic field generated by the combination of two parallel charged-wires and two grounded metal-plates,and report some new and preliminary experimental results.In the experiment,we detect the guiding signals by using the method of time-of-flight mass spectrum and study the dependence of the relative transmission of the beam guide on the guiding voltage.Our study shows that the relative transmission of the beam guide is increased linearly with increasing guiding voltage Vguid,and the number of the guided D2O molecules is at least increased by 89.4%when the guiding voltage is +20.0kV.Finally,some potential applications of our guiding scheme in the molecule optics are briefly discussed.

  15. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.

    2010-01-01

    Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular...... markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture...... identified, e.g. better knowledge about gene pool of breeding material, more efficient introgression of new resistance genes from wild relatives and testing pyramided genes. There were also common concerns among breeders aiming at breeding for organic and/or conventional agriculture, such as the increasing...

  16. Super-distant molecular hybridization of plant seeds by ion beam-mediated gene cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The N beam-mediated distant molecular hybridization between Ginkgo biloba I and watermelon was studied. The results showed that the ester gene of Ginkgo biloba L was successfully expressed in two varieties of watermelon. 3-16 and SR2-14-2, in both of which the ester quantities were measured as 17.0756 μg/g and 45.9998 μg/g respectively. Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves of the watennelon expressing ester gene was increased twofold as compared to that of the control, showing that ion beam could mediate distant and/or super-distant donor gene expression in the cells of a receptor. Furthermore, the molecular nechanism of distant hybridization was analyzed.

  17. Organic molecular beam deposition system and initial studies of organic layer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasson, M [Applied Semiconductor Physics, Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Ilver, L [Department of Experimental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Kanski, J [Department of Experimental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Andersson, T G [Applied Semiconductor Physics, Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-09-01

    This work describes an organic molecular beam deposition system with substrate entry/exit chamber, buffer chamber and with the possibility to transfer substrate from a III-V molecular beam deposition system. Flux calibrations of organic molecules and the initial growth of organic layers are described. For this purpose, the molecules 3,4,9,10 perylene tetra carboxylic dianhydride and copper phtalocyanine were used. Layers were grown on oxidized and hydrogen passivated Si(100), Indium tin oxide and glass respectively. The growth was investigated with atomic force microscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. An investigation with x-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy on the effect of atmospheric exposure is also included, showing little effect of surface pollution when the samples were handled carefully. The initial formation (monolayers) of copper phtalocyanine thin films was studied by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy.

  18. Molecular Beam Studies of Volatile Liquids and Fuel Surrogates Using Liquid Microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Molecular Beam Studies of Volatile Liquids and Fuel Surrogates Using Liquid Microjets Gilbert Nathanson, Department of Chemistry University of...alter the dynamics of evaporation from the commercial jet fuel Jet A. These results are outlined below. Exploring Fuels in Vacuum using Liquid ...hydrocarbon liquids inside a vacuum chamber. These jets, narrower than a human hair, are typically 10 – 40 µm in diameter. Their small surface area and

  19. Pure electron-electron dephasing in percolative aluminum ultrathin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Wei; Wu, Yue-Han; Chang, Li; Liang, Chi-Te; Lin, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully grown ultrathin continuous aluminum film by molecular beam epitaxy. This percolative aluminum film is single crystalline and strain free as characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The weak anti-localization effect is observed in the temperature range of 1.4 to 10 K with this sample, and it reveals that, for the first time, the dephasing is purely caused by electron-electron inelastic scattering in aluminum.

  20. Mn2Au: body-centered-tetragonal bimetallic antiferromagnets grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han-Chun; Liao, Zhi-Min; Sofin, R G Sumesh; Feng, Gen; Ma, Xiu-Mei; Shick, Alexander B; Mryasov, Oleg N; Shvets, Igor V

    2012-12-11

    Mn(2)Au, a layered bimetal, is successfully grown using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The experiments and theoretical calculations presented suggest that Mn(2)Au film is antiferromagnetic with a very low critical temperature. The antiferromagnetic nature is demonstrated by measuring the exchange-bias effect of Mn(2)Au/Fe bilayers. This study establishes a primary basis for further research of this new antiferromagnet in spin-electronic device applications.

  1. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and structural characterization of ZnS on (001) GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, R. G., II; Huang, P. C.; Stock, S. R.; Summers, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of surface nucleation processes on the quality of ZnS layers grown on (001) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Reflection high energy electron diffraction indicated that nucleation at high temperatures produced more planar surfaces than nucleation at low temperatures, but the crystalline quality as assessed by X-ray double crystal diffractometry is relatively independent of nucleation temperature. A critical factor in layer quality was the initial roughness of the GaAs surfaces.

  2. Beam-assisted large elongation of in situ formed Li2O nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, He; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Jianbo; Huang, Jian Yu

    2012-07-01

    As an important component of the solid electrolyte interface in lithium ion batteries and an effective blanket breeding material in fusion reactor, the mechanical property of Li2O is of great interest but is not well understood. Here we show that the polycrystalline Li2O nanowires were formed in situ by touching and pulling lithium hydroxide under electron beam (e-beam) illumination. The Li2O nanowires sustained an enhanced elongation (from 80% to 176%) under low dose e-beam irradiation near room temperature as compared with that (from 51% to 57%) without e-beam irradiation. The extremely high deformability could be understood by the fast Li2O diffusion under e-beam irradiation and tensile stress condition. The large elongation without e-beam irradiation implies that nano-structured Li2O is ductile near room temperature.

  3. Morphology and optical properties of InN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Calle, F.; Calleja, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    This work reports on the morphology and photoluminescence (PL) properties of wurtzite InN layers grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) on AlN-buffered Si(111) substrates. The layer morphology can be controlled by the effective indium to nitrogen molecular flux ratio, from N-rich conditions that lead to columnar InN layers, to stoichiometric conditions leading to coalesced InN layers. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) rocking curves around the InN (002) reflection yield a minimum value of 682 arcsec full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a coalesced InN layer. PL intensity from columnar InN samples is two orders of magnitude stronger than that corresponding to coalesced material, pointing to a much higher crystalline quality of the former. PL spectra in columnar InN layers reveal an emission at 0.75 eV (16 K) that follows the typical band-gap temperature dependence and shows a linear trend with the excitation power, suggesting a band-edge recombination that yields an estimate of the energy gap for InN around 0.72 eV at room temperature. No other emissions are observed at higher energies. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. A novel gas-vacuum interface for environmental molecular beam studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Sofia M.; Kong, Xiangrui; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Thomson, Erik S.; Pettersson, Jan B. C.

    2017-03-01

    Molecular beam techniques are commonly used to obtain detailed information about reaction dynamics and kinetics of gas-surface interactions. These experiments are traditionally performed in vacuum and the dynamic state of surfaces under ambient conditions is thereby excluded from detailed studies. Herein we describe the development and demonstration of a new vacuum-gas interface that increases the accessible pressure range in environmental molecular beam (EMB) experiments. The interface consists of a grating close to a macroscopically flat surface, which allows for experiments at pressures above 1 Pa including angularly resolved measurements of the emitted flux. The technique is successfully demonstrated using key molecular beam experiments including elastic helium and inelastic water scattering from graphite, helium and light scattering from condensed adlayers, and water interactions with a liquid 1-butanol surface. The method is concluded to extend the pressure range and flexibility in EMB studies with implications for investigations of high pressure interface phenomena in diverse fields including catalysis, nanotechnology, environmental science, and life science. Potential further improvements of the technique are discussed.

  5. Thermometry of Guided Molecular Beams from a Cryogenic Buffer-Gas Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Zeppenfeld, M; Chervenkov, S; Rempe, G

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive characterization of cold molecular beams from a cryogenic buffer-gas cell, providing an insight into the physics of buffer-gas cooling. Cold molecular beams are extracted from a cryogenic cell by electrostatic guiding, which is also used to measure their velocity distribution. Molecules' rotational-state distribution is probed via radio-frequency resonant depletion spectroscopy. With the help of complete trajectory simulations, yielding the guiding efficiency for all of the thermally populated states, we are able to determine both the rotational and the translational temperature of the molecules at the output of the buffer-gas cell. This thermometry method is demonstrated for various regimes of buffer-gas cooling and beam formation as well as for molecular species of different sizes, $\\rm{CH_3F}$ and $\\rm{CF_3CCH}$. Comparison between the rotational and translational temperatures provides evidence of faster rotational thermalization for the $\\rm{CH_3F-He}$ system in the limit of low...

  6. Electron ionization LC-MS with supersonic molecular beams--the new concept, benefits and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Boaz; Alon, Tal; Tsizin, Svetlana; Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2015-11-01

    A new type of electron ionization LC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (EI-LC-MS with SMB) is described. This system and its operational methods are based on pneumatic spray formation of the LC liquid flow in a heated spray vaporization chamber, full sample thermal vaporization and subsequent electron ionization of vibrationally cold molecules in supersonic molecular beams. The vaporized sample compounds are transferred into a supersonic nozzle via a flow restrictor capillary. Consequently, while the pneumatic spray is formed and vaporized at above atmospheric pressure the supersonic nozzle backing pressure is about 0.15 Bar for the formation of supersonic molecular beams with vibrationally cold sample molecules without cluster formation with the solvent vapor. The sample compounds are ionized in a fly-though EI ion source as vibrationally cold molecules in the SMB, resulting in 'Cold EI' (EI of vibrationally cold molecules) mass spectra that exhibit the standard EI fragments combined with enhanced molecular ions. We evaluated the EI-LC-MS with SMB system and demonstrated its effectiveness in NIST library sample identification which is complemented with the availability of enhanced molecular ions. The EI-LC-MS with SMB system is characterized by linear response of five orders of magnitude and uniform compound independent response including for non-polar compounds. This feature improves sample quantitation that can be approximated without compound specific calibration. Cold EI, like EI, is free from ion suppression and/or enhancement effects (that plague ESI and/or APCI) which facilitate faster LC separation because full separation is not essential. The absence of ion suppression effects enables the exploration of fast flow injection MS-MS as an alternative to lengthy LC-MS analysis. These features are demonstrated in a few examples, and the analysis of the main ingredients of Cannabis on a few Cannabis flower extracts is demonstrated. Finally, the advantages of

  7. Molecular beam epitaxy and properties of GaAsBi/GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy: effect of thermal annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhloufi, Hajer; Boonpeng, Poonyasiri; Mazzucato, Simone; Nicolai, Julien; Arnoult, Alexandre; Hungria, Teresa; Lacoste, Guy; Gatel, Christophe; Ponchet, Anne; Carrère, Hélène; Marie, Xavier; Fontaine, Chantal

    2014-03-17

    We have grown GaAsBi quantum wells by molecular beam epitaxy. We have studied the properties of a 7% Bi GaAsBi quantum well and their variation with thermal annealing. High-resolution X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to get some insight into its structural properties. Stationary and time-resolved photoluminescence shows that the quantum well emission, peaking at 1.23 μm at room temperature, can be improved by a rapid annealing at 650°C, while the use of a higher annealing temperature leads to emission degradation and blue-shifting due to the activation of non-radiative centers and bismuth diffusion from the quantum well.

  8. Structural and composition investigations at delayered locations of low k integrated circuit device by gas-assisted focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dandan, E-mail: dandan.wang@globalfoundries.com; Kee Tan, Pik; Yamin Huang, Maggie; Lam, Jeffrey; Mai, Zhihong [Technology Development Department, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte. Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D, Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore)

    2014-05-15

    The authors report a new delayering technique – gas-assisted focused ion beam (FIB) method and its effects on the top layer materials of integrated circuit (IC) device. It demonstrates a highly efficient failure analysis with investigations on the precise location. After removing the dielectric layers under the bombardment of an ion beam, the chemical composition of the top layer was altered with the reduced oxygen content. Further energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that the oxygen reduction lead to appreciable silicon suboxide formation. Our findings with structural and composition alteration of dielectric layer after FIB delayering open up a new insight avenue for the failure analysis in IC devices.

  9. Corrosion properties of aluminium coatings deposited on sintered NdFeB by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shoudong; Yang, Hengxiu; Li, Jinlong; Huang, Feng; Song, Zhenlun

    2011-04-01

    Pure Al coatings were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering to protect sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of Ar+ ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) on the structure and the corrosion behaviour of Al coatings were investigated. The Al coating prepared by DC magnetron sputtering with IBAD (IBAD-Al-coating) had fewer voids than the coating without IBAD (Al-coating). The corrosion behaviour of the Al-coated NdFeB specimens was investigated by potentiodynamic polarisation, a neutral salt spray (NSS) test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The pitting corrosion of the Al coatings always began at the voids of the grain boundaries. Bombardment by the Ar+ ion-beams effectively improved the corrosion resistance of the IBAD-Al-coating.

  10. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-10-28

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  11. Free vibration analysis of microtubules based on the molecular mechanics and continuum beam theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Chengyuan

    2016-10-01

    A molecular structural mechanics (MSM) method has been implemented to investigate the free vibration of microtubules (MTs). The emphasis is placed on the effects of the configuration and the imperfect boundaries of MTs. It is shown that the influence of protofilament number on the fundamental frequency is strong, while the effect of helix-start number is almost negligible. The fundamental frequency is also found to decrease as the number of the blocked filaments at boundaries decreases. Subsequently, the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is employed to reveal the physics behind the simulation results. Fitting the Euler-Bernoulli beam into the MSM data leads to an explicit formula for the fundamental frequency of MTs with various configurations and identifies a possible correlation between the imperfect boundary conditions and the length-dependent bending stiffness of MTs reported in experiments.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of tungsten layers embedded in single crystal gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbison, J.P.; Hwang, D.M.; Levkoff, J.; Derkits G.E. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    We have been able to fabricate structures which consist of a thin (approx.10 nm) polycrystalline W film embedded in surrounding single crystalline GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using an electron beam evaporation source to deposit W metal in an ultrahigh vacuum MBE growth chamber. The entire deposition sequence can take place at elevated temperature (625--700 /sup 0/C) due to the nonreactive nature of W with respect to GaAs. Reflective high-energy diffraction and transmission electron microscopy indicate that the single crystal GaAs overgrowth proceeds by seeding from the GaAs layer beneath the W through spontaneously occurring perforations in the W layer.

  13. A bright, cold, velocity-controlled molecular beam by frequency-chirped laser slowing

    CERN Document Server

    Truppe, S; Hambach, M; Fitch, N; Wall, T E; Hinds, E A; Sauer, B E; Tarbutt, M R

    2016-01-01

    Using frequency-chirped radiation pressure slowing we precisely control the velocity of a pulsed CaF molecular beam down to a few m/s, compressing its velocity spread by a factor of 10 while retaining its high brightness. When the final velocity is 15 m/s the flux, measured 1.3 m from the source, is $8 \\times 10^5$ molecules per cm$^2$ per shot in a single rovibrational state. The beam is suitable for loading a magneto-optical trap of molecules. Our method, when combined with transverse laser cooling, can improve the precision of spectroscopic measurements that test fundamental physics. We compare the frequency-chirped slowing method with slowing using frequency-broadened light.

  14. Study of electrical properties of single GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozharov, A. M.; Komissarenko, F. E.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Bolshakov, A. D.; Moiseev, E. I.; Mukhin, M. S.; Cirlin, G. E.; Mukhin, I. S.

    2016-08-01

    Electrical properties of single GaN nanowires grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy with N-plasma source were studied. Ohmic contacts connected to single n-type GaN wires were produced by the combination of electron beam lithography, metal vacuum evaporation and rapid thermal annealing technique. The optimal annealing temperature to produce ohmic contacts implemented in the form of Ti/Al/Ti/Au stack has been determined. By means of 2-terminal measurement wiring diagram the conductivity of single NW has been obtained for NWs with different growth parameters. The method of MESFET measurement circuit layout of single GaN nanowires (NWs) has been developed. In accordance with performed numerical calculation, free carriers' concentration and mobility of single NWs could be independently estimated using MESFET structure.

  15. Crossed molecular beam studies of unimolecular reaction dynamics. [Angular and velocity distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    The study of seven radical-molecule reactions using the crossed molecular beam technique with supersonic nozzle beams is reported. Product angular and velocity distributions were obtained and compared with statistical calculations in order to identify dynamical features of the reactions. In the reaction of chlorine and fluorine atoms with vinyl bromide, the product energy distributions are found to deviate from predictions of the statistical model. A similar effect is observed in the reaction of chlorine atoms with 1, 2 and 3-bromopropene. The reaction of oxygen atoms with ICl and CF/sub 3/I has been used to obtain an improved value of the IO bond energy, 55.0 +- 2.0 kcal mol/sup -1/. In all reactions studied, the product energy and angular distributions are found to be coupled, and this is attributed to a kinematic effect of the conservation of angular momentum.

  16. Short-range interactions within molecular complexes formed in supersonic beams: structural effects and chiral discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini; Satta; Guidoni; Piccirillo; Speranza

    2000-03-17

    One- and two-color, mass-selected R2PI spectra of the S13-pentanol, were recorded after a supersonic molecular beam expansion. Spectral analysis, coupled with theoretical calculations, indicate that several hydrogen-bonded [R.solv] conformers are present in the beam. The R2PI excitation spectra of [R.solv] are characterized by significant shifts of their band origin relative to that of bare R. The extent and direction of these spectral shifts depend on the structure and configuration of solv and are attributed to different short-range interactions in the ground and excited [R.solv] complexes. Measurement of the binding energies of [R.solv] in their neutral and ionic states points to a subtle balance between attractive (electrostatic and dispersive) and repulsive (steric) forces, which control the spectral features of the complexes and allow enantiomeric discrimination of chiral solv molecules.

  17. Selective-area growth of GaN nanowires on SiO2-masked Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, J. E.; Lymperakis, L.; Eftychis, S.; Adikimenakis, A.; Doundoulakis, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Olziersky, A.; Dimitrakis, P.; Ioannou-Sougleridis, V.; Normand, P.; Koukoula, T.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Konstantinidis, G.; Georgakilas, A.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze a method to selectively grow straight, vertical gallium nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at sites specified by a silicon oxide mask, which is thermally grown on silicon (111) substrates and patterned by electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching. The investigated method requires only one single molecular beam epitaxy MBE growth process, i.e., the SiO2 mask is formed on silicon instead of on a previously grown GaN or AlN buffer layer. We present a systematic and analytical study involving various mask patterns, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, as well as numerical simulations, to evaluate how the dimensions (window diameter and spacing) of the mask affect the distribution of the nanowires, their morphology, and alignment, as well as their photonic properties. Capabilities and limitations for this method of selective-area growth of nanowires have been identified. A window diameter less than 50 nm and a window spacing larger than 500 nm can provide single nanowire nucleation in nearly all mask windows. The results are consistent with a Ga diffusion length on the silicon dioxide surface in the order of approximately 1 μm.

  18. Three-dimensional ordering of cold ion beams in a storage ring: A molecular-dynamics simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuri, Yosuke, E-mail: yuri.yosuke@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 Japan (Japan)

    2015-06-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) ordering of a charged-particle beams circulating in a storage ring is systematically studied with a molecular-dynamics simulation code. An ion beam can exhibit a 3D ordered configuration at ultralow temperature as a result of powerful 3D laser cooling. Various unique characteristics of the ordered beams, different from those of crystalline beams, are revealed in detail, such as the single-particle motion in the transverse and longitudinal directions, and the dependence of the tune depression and the Coulomb coupling constant on the operating points.

  19. A modified time-of-flight method for precise determination of high speed ratios in molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador Palau, A.; Eder, S. D., E-mail: sabrina.eder@uib.no; Kaltenbacher, T.; Samelin, B.; Holst, B. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Bracco, G. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); CNR-IMEM, Department of Physics, University of Genova, V. Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Time-of-flight (TOF) is a standard experimental technique for determining, among others, the speed ratio S (velocity spread) of a molecular beam. The speed ratio is a measure for the monochromaticity of the beam and an accurate determination of S is crucial for various applications, for example, for characterising chromatic aberrations in focussing experiments related to helium microscopy or for precise measurements of surface phonons and surface structures in molecular beam scattering experiments. For both of these applications, it is desirable to have as high a speed ratio as possible. Molecular beam TOF measurements are typically performed by chopping the beam using a rotating chopper with one or more slit openings. The TOF spectra are evaluated using a standard deconvolution method. However, for higher speed ratios, this method is very sensitive to errors related to the determination of the slit width and the beam diameter. The exact sensitivity depends on the beam diameter, the number of slits, the chopper radius, and the chopper rotation frequency. We present a modified method suitable for the evaluation of TOF measurements of high speed ratio beams. The modified method is based on a systematic variation of the chopper convolution parameters so that a set of independent measurements that can be fitted with an appropriate function are obtained. We show that with this modified method, it is possible to reduce the error by typically one order of magnitude compared to the standard method.

  20. Durable Silver Mirror Coating Via Ion Assisted, Electron Beam Evaporation For Large Aperture Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I research, Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) demonstrated a durable silver mirror coating based an ion assisted, thermal evaporation process. The recipe...

  1. Fabrication of single TiO2 nanotube devices with Pt interconnections using electron- and ion-beam-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mingun; Cha, Dongkyu; Huang, Jie; Ha, Min-Woo; Kim, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    Device fabrication using nanostructured materials, such as nanotubes, requires appropriate metal interconnections between nanotubes and electrical probing pads. Here, electron-beam-assisted deposition (EBAD) and ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) techniques for fabrication of Pt interconnections for single TiO2 nanotube devices are investigated. IBAD conditions were optimized to reduce the leakage current as a result of Pt spreading. The resistivity of the IBAD-Pt was about three orders of magnitude less than that of the EBAD-Pt, due to low carbon concentration and Ga doping, as indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The total resistances of single TiO2 nanotube devices with EBAD- or IBAD-Pt interconnections were 3.82 × 1010 and 4.76 × 108 Ω, respectively. When the resistivity of a single nanotube is low, the high series resistance of EBAD-Pt cannot be ignored. IBAD is a suitable method for nanotechnology applications, such as photocatalysis and biosensors.

  2. AMORPHIZATION IN Nb-M (M=Fe, Co, Ni) BINARY METAL SYSTEMS INDUCED BY ION BEAM ASSISTED DEPOSITION (IBAD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Pan; F. Zeng; B. Zhao

    2002-01-01

    Ion beam assisted deposition technique (IBAD) was utilized to systematically studyamorphization in binary metal systems of Nb-magnetic element, i.e., Nb-M (M=Fe,Co or Ni). The glass forming range terned as Nb fraction of Nb-Fe system was about34at.% to 56at.%, that of Nb-Co system was about 32at.% to 72at.% and that of Nb-Ni about 20at.% to 80at.%. Similar percolation patterns were found in amorphousalloy films. The fractal dimensions of the percolation patterns approach to 2, whichindicates 2-D layer growth for amorphous phases. It is regarded that the assistedAr+ ion beam duringthe deposition process plays important role for the 2-D layergrowth. Some metastable crystalline phases were obtained in these three systems byIBAD, e.g., bcc supersaturated solid solutions in Nb-Fe and Nb-Co systems, fcc andhcp phases in Nb-Co and Nb-Ni systems. The formation and competing between theamorphous and the metastable crystalline phases were determined by both the phases'thermodynamic states in binary metal systems and kinetics during IBAD process.

  3. Molecular beam mass spectrometry with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid

    2012-01-01

    Tunable soft ionization coupled to mass spectroscopy is a powerful method to investigate isolated molecules, complexes and clusters and their spectroscopy and dynamics.[1-4] Fundamental studies of photoionization processes of biomolecules provide information about electronic structure of these systems. Furthermore determinations of ionization energies and other properties of biomolecules in the gas phase are not trivial, and these experiments provide a platform to generate these data. We have developed a thermal vaporization technique coupled with supersonic molecular beams that provides a gentle way to transport these species into the gas phase. Judicious combination of source gas and temperature allows for formation of dimers and higher clusters of the DNA bases. The focus of this particular work is on the effects of non-covalent interactions, i.e., hydrogen bonding, stacking, and electrostatic interactions, on the ionization energies and proton transfer of individual biomolecules, their complexes and upon micro-hydration by water.[1, 5-9] We have performed experimental and theoretical characterization of the photoionization dynamics of gas-phase uracil and 1,3-methyluracil dimers using molecular beams coupled with synchrotron radiation at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline[10] located at the Advanced Light Source and the experimental details are visualized here. This allowed us to observe the proton transfer in 1,3-dimethyluracil dimers, a system with pi stacking geometry and with no hydrogen bonds[1]. Molecular beams provide a very convenient and efficient way to isolate the sample of interest from environmental perturbations which in return allows accurate comparison with electronic structure calculations[11, 12]. By tuning the photon energy from the synchrotron, a photoionization efficiency (PIE) curve can be plotted which informs us about the cationic electronic states. These values can then be compared to theoretical models and calculations and in turn, explain

  4. Growth of CrTe thin films by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasan, M.G. [Data Storage Institute, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Hou, X.J. [Data Storage Institute, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Teo, K.L. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail: eleteokl@nus.edu.sg; Jalil, M.B.A. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Liew, T. [Data Storage Institute, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chong, T.C. [Data Storage Institute, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2006-05-18

    We report the growth of Cr{sub 1-{delta}}Te films on (100) GaAs substrates using ZnTe buffer layers by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxial technique. RHEED patterns indicate a clear structural change during the initial stages of deposition. Temperature-dependent magnetization results reveal that different NiAs-related phases of Cr{sub 1-{delta}}Te can be obtained at different substrate temperatures. By varying the film thickness, a metastable zinc blende structure of CrTe could be obtained at lower substrate temperature.

  5. Epitaxial growth and new phase of single crystal Dy by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kai-Yueh; Homma, Hitoshi; Schuller, I.K.

    1987-09-01

    We have grown two novel epitaxial phases of dysprosium (Dy) on vanadium (V) by molecular beam epitaxy technique. Surface and bulk structures are studied by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and x-ray diffraction techniques. The new hcp phases are approx.4% expanded uniformly in-plane (0001), and approx.9% and approx.4% expanded out of plane along the c-axes for non-interrupted and interrupted deposition case, respectively. We also observed (2 x 2), (3 x 3), and (4 x 4) Dy surface reconstruction patterns and a series of transitions as the Dy film thickness increases. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Epitaxial film growth and metastable phases of single crystal Dy by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K.; Homma, H.; Schuller, I.K.

    1988-04-15

    We have grown two novel epitaxial phases of dysprosium (Dy) on vanadium (V) by the molecular beam epitaxy technique. Surface structures are studied by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and bulk structures are studied by x-ray diffraction after removal from the growth chamber. The new hcp phases are approx.4% expanded uniformly in the (0001) plane and approx.9% and approx.4% expanded out of plane, along the c axes, for noninterrupted and interrupted deposition cases, respectively. We also observed (2 x 2), (3 x 3), and (4 x 4) Dy surface reconstruction patterns and a series of structural changes as the Dy film thickness increases.

  7. A portable molecular beam epitaxy system for in situ x-ray investigations at synchrotron beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskyy, T; Schroth, P; Grigoriev, D; Minkevich, A A; Hu, D Z; Schaadt, D M; Baumbach, T

    2012-10-01

    A portable synchrotron molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system is designed and applied for in situ investigations. The growth chamber is equipped with all the standard MBE components such as effusion cells with shutters, main shutter, cooling shroud, manipulator, reflection high energy electron diffraction setup, and pressure gauges. The characteristic feature of the system is the beryllium windows which are used for in situ x-ray measurements. An UHV sample transfer case allows in vacuo transfer of samples prepared elsewhere. We describe the system design and demonstrate its performance by investigating the annealing process of buried InGaAs self-organized quantum dots.

  8. Crystallographic dependence of photocatalytic activity of WO3 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Varga, Tamas; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Chongmin; Chambers, Scott A; Du, Yingge

    2015-06-21

    We investigated the impact of crystallographic orientation on the photocatalytic activity of single crystalline WO3 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB). A clear effect is observed, with (111) being the most reactive surface, followed by (110) and (001). Photoreactivity is directly correlated with the surface free energy determined by density functional theory calculations. The RhB photodegradation mechanism is found to involve hydroxyl radicals in solution formed from photo-generated holes and differs from previous studies performed on nanoparticles and composites.

  9. Existence and regularity of weak solutions to a model for coarsening in molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the occurrence of a zero of the surface diffusion current and the requirement of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect, Siegert et al \\cite{Siegert94} formulate a model of Langevin type that describes the growth of pyramidlike structures on a surface under conditions of molecular beam epitaxy, and that the slope of these pyramids is selected by the crystalline symmetries of the growing film. In this article, the existence and uniqueness of weak solution to an initial boundary value problem for this model is proved, in the case that the noise is neglected. The regularity of the weak solution to models, with/without slope selection, is also investigated.

  10. Investigation of InN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilalta-Clemente, A.; Mutta, G.R.; Chauvat, M.P.; Morales, M.; Doualan, J.L.; Ruterana, P. [CIMAP UMR 6252 CNRS-ENSICAEN-CEA-UCBN, Caen (France); Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Calle, F. [ISOM y Department de Ingenieria Electronica, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria (Spain); Valcheva, E.; Kirilov, K. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University (Bulgaria)

    2010-05-15

    An investigation of InN layers grown on GaN templates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and photoluminescence (PL). A good correlation is noticed between their crystalline quality and optical properties. The best samples exhibit a PL emission between 0.6 and 0.7 eV. The surface structure was quite different from one sample to the other, pointing out to a critical role of the growth conditions, which probably need to be tightly optimized for a good reproducibility. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Growth of layered superconductor β-PdBi2 films using molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, N. V.; Matetskiy, A. V.; Tupkalo, A. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    Bulk β-PdBi2 layered material exhibits advanced properties and is supposed to be probable topological superconductor. We present a method based on molecular beam epitaxy that allows us to grow β-PdBi2 films from a single β-PdBi2 triple layer up to the dozens of triple layers, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. The grown films demonstrate structural, electronic and superconducting properties similar to those of bulk β-PdBi2 crystals. Ability to grow the β-PdBi2 films of desired thickness opens the promising possibilities to explore fascinating properties of this advanced material.

  12. Note: A versatile mass spectrometer chamber for molecular beam and temperature programmed desorption experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James P.; Galloway, Ewan C.; King, Martin O.; Kerherve, Gwilherm; Watts, John F.

    2016-08-01

    A dual purpose mass spectrometer chamber capable of performing molecular beam scattering (MBS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is detailed. Two simple features of this design allow it to perform these techniques. First, the diameter of entrance aperture to the mass spectrometer can be varied to maximize signal for TPD or to maximize angular resolution for MBS. Second, the mass spectrometer chamber can be radially translated so that it can be positioned close to the sample to maximize signal or far from the sample to maximize angular resolution. The performance of this system is described and compares well with systems designed for only one of these techniques.

  13. In situ photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular-beam-epitaxy grown surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Oshima, M; Okabayashi, J; Ono, K

    2003-01-01

    Two in situ high-resolution synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SRPES) systems combined with a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) chamber for III-V compound semiconductors and a laser MBE chamber for strongly correlated oxide films, respectively, have been designed and fabricated to analyze intrinsic and surface/interface electronic structures of these unique materials. The importance of the in situ SRPES has been demonstrated by the results of 1) Si surface nanostructures, 2) GaAs surfaces/interfaces and nanostructures, 3) MnAs magnetic nanostructures, and 4) strongly-correlated La sub 1 sub - sub x Sr sub x MnO sub 3 surfaces/interfaces and superstructures.

  14. Perspective: Extremely fine tuning of doping enabled by combinatorial molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Božović, I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Chemical doping provides an effective method to control the electric properties of complex oxides. However, the state-of-art accuracy in controlling doping is limited to about 1%. This hampers elucidation of the precise doping dependences of physical properties and phenomena of interest, such as quantum phase transitions. Using the combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy, we improve the accuracy in tuning the doping level by two orders of magnitude. We illustrate this novel method by two examples: a systematic investigation of the doping dependence of interface superconductivity, and a study of the competing ground states in the vicinity of the insulator-to-superconductor transition.

  15. Diffusion of Pt in molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotte, J.; Salonen, R.; Ahlgren, T.; Räisänen, J.; Rauhala, E.; Uusimaa, P.

    1998-05-01

    Diffusion of platinum in zinc selenide has been studied by the use of the 4He and 12C ion backscattering techniques. The samples were thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100) epitaxial layers followed by evaporation of platinum and annealing in the temperature range 500-800 °C. The diffusion coefficients were determined by the fitting of a concentration independent solution of the diffusion equation to the experimental depth profiles. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the diffusion process were found to be 1.7 eV and 6.4×10-6 cm2/s, respectively.

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy of three dimensional topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xin; 郭欣

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) Bi_2 Se_3 thin films on different substrates is presented. The substrates experimented include InP(111)A, GaAs(111)A, InP(001) and GaAs(001). Multiple characterization techniques are employed to investigate the film’s structural, morphological and electrical properties. To facilitate growth of high quality epitaxial Bi_2 Se_3, thermal treatment of the substrate surfaceturnsout to be crucial for b...

  17. Perspective: Extremely fine tuning of doping enabled by combinatorial molecular-beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical doping provides an effective method to control the electric properties of complex oxides. However, the state-of-art accuracy in controlling doping is limited to about 1%. This hampers elucidation of the precise doping dependences of physical properties and phenomena of interest, such as quantum phase transitions. Using the combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy, we improve the accuracy in tuning the doping level by two orders of magnitude. We illustrate this novel method by two examples: a systematic investigation of the doping dependence of interface superconductivity, and a study of the competing ground states in the vicinity of the insulator-to-superconductor transition.

  18. Near-bandgap optical properties of pseudomorphic GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard; Wang, Wei; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the compositional dependence of the near-bandgap dielectric function and the E0 critical point in pseudomorphic Ge1-xSnx alloys grown on Ge (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The complex dielectric functions were obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 0.5 to 4.5 eV at room temperature. Analogous to the E1 and E1+Δ1 transitions, a model consisting of the compositional dependence of relaxed alloys along with the strain contribution predicted by the deformation potential theory fully accounts for the observed compositional dependence in pseudomorphic alloys.

  19. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  20. Silicon sheet with molecular beam epitaxy for high efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the new technique of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) are applied to the growth of high efficiency silicon solar cells. Because MBE can provide well controlled doping profiles of any desired arbitrary design, including doping profiles of such complexity as built-in surface fields or tandem junction cells, it would appear to be the ideal method for development of high efficiency solar cells. It was proposed that UCLA grow and characterize silicon films and p-n junctions of MBE to determine whether the high crystal quality needed for solar cells could be achieved.

  1. Site-controlled Ag nanocrystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy-Towards plasmonic integration technology

    OpenAIRE

    Urbańczyk, Adam; NöTZEL, R

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate site-controlled growth of epitaxial Ag nanocrystals on patterned GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy with high degree of long-range uniformity. The alignment is based on lithographically defined holes in which position controlled InAs quantum dots are grown. The Ag nanocrystals self-align preferentially on top of the InAs quantum dots. No such ordering is observed in the absence of InAs quantum dots, proving that the ordering is strain-driven. The presented technique faci...

  2. Effects of growth temperature on nonpolar a-plane InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Krupanidhi, S.B. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore-560013 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Centre of Excellence in Information and Communication Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur-342011 (India); Sinha, Neeraj [Office of Principal Scientific Advisor, Government of India, New Delhi 110011 (India); Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106 (India); Jali, V.M. [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Nonpolar a-plane InN films were grown on r-plane sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with GaN underlayer. Effect of growth temperature on structural, morphological, and optical properties has been studied. The growth of nonpolar a-plane (1 1 -2 0) orientation was confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction study. The film grown at 500 C shows better crystallinity with the rocking curve FWHM 0.67 and 0.85 along [0 0 0 1] and [1 -1 0 0] directions, respectively. Scanning electron micrograph shows formation of Indium droplets at higher growth temperature. Room tem-perature absorption spectra show growth temperature dependent band gap variation from 0.74-0.81 eV, consistent with the expected Burstein-Moss effect. The rectifying behaviour of the I-V curve indicates the existence of Schottky barrier at the InN and GaN interface. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Tailoring of polar and nonpolar ZnO planes on MgO (001) substrates through molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Liao, Xia-Xia; Zhang, Yufeng; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Jia-Ou; Muhemmed, Emin; Qian, Hai-Jie; Ibrahim, Kurash; Chen, Xiaohang; Zhan, Huahan; Kang, Junyong

    2012-03-09

    Polar and nonpolar ZnO thin films were deposited on MgO (001) substrates under different deposition parameters using oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The orientations of ZnO thin films were investigated by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The film roughness measured by atomic force microscopy evolved as a function of substrate temperature and was correlated with the grain sizes determined by XRD. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed to study the conduction band structures of the ZnO films. The fine structures of the XAS spectra, which were consistent with the results of density functional theory calculation, indicated that the polar and nonpolar ZnO films had different electronic structures. Our work suggests that it is possible to vary ZnO film structures from polar to nonpolar using the MBE growth technique and hence tailoring the electronic structures of the ZnO films.PACS: 81; 81.05.Dz; 81.15.Hi.

  4. Impact of growth parameters on the morphology and microstructure of epitaxial GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.Y. [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu Tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Chen, P.P., E-mail: ppchen@mail.sitp.ac.cn [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu Tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Liao, Z.M. [Materials Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Shi, S.X.; Sun, Y.; Li, T.X.; Zhang, Y.H. [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu Tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Center for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Lu, W. [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu Tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Defect-free wurtzite GaAs nanowires were obtained by MBE at low growth temperature. •Some GaAs nanowires grown at low temperature show the morphology of two shoulders. •High growth temperature favors the formation of nanowires with uniform diameter. •Low V/III flux ratio causes many kinked GaAs nanowires. •A phase separation of the catalyst is observed under very Ga-rich condition. -- Abstract: The effect of the growth temperature and V/III flux ratio on the morphology and microstructure of GaAs nanowires grown on GaAs (1 1 1){sub B} substrates by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with solid As{sub 4} source was investigated. It has been found that a low growth temperature of 400 °C can result in defect-free wurtzite structured nanowire with syringe-like morphology, while nanowires with more homogeneous diameter can be obtained at high temperatures (500 °C and 550 °C) with many stacking faults. It was also found that, at a low V/III flux ratio, GaAs nanowires had a shrinking neck section, while a high V/III flux ratio may result in disappearance of the shrinking necking section. For the Ga very rich condition, a phase separation of the catalysts can be observed, leaving a small Au–Ga droplet covered by the outer pure Ga droplet.

  5. Plasma and Beam Production Experiments with HYBRIS, aMicrowave-assisted H- Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, R. AUTHOR-Kwan, S.; Hahto, S.; Regis, M.; Wallig, J.

    2006-09-13

    A two-stage ion source concept had been presented a few years ago, consisting of a proven H- ion source and a 2.45-GHz Electron Cyclotron-Resonance (ECR) type ion source, here used as a plasma cathode. This paper describes the experimental development path pursued at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, from the early concept to a working unit that produces plasma in both stages and creates a negative particle beam. Without cesiation applied to the second stage, the H{sup -} fraction of this beam is very low, yielding 75 micro-amperes of extracted ion beam current at best. The apparent limitations of this approach and envisaged improvements are discussed.

  6. Electron beam pumped III-V nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hock Min

    The design and fabrication by molecular beam epitaxy of a prototype vertical cavity laser based on the III-V nitrides were investigated in this work. The bottom mirror of the laser consists of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) based on quarterwave AlN (or AlxGa1-xN) and GaN layers. Such DBRs were designed for maximum reflectivity in the spectral region from 390--600 nm. The epitaxial growth of these two binaries on each other revealed that while AlN grows on GaN in a two-dimensional mode (Frank-van der Merwe mode), GaN grows on AlN in a three-dimensional mode (Stranski-Krastanov mode). In spite of that, DBRs with peak reflectance up to 99% and bandwidths of 45nm were fabricated. The measured reflectance spectra were compared with simulations using the transmission matrix method. The mechanical stability of these DBR structures due to non-uniform distribution of strain arising from lattice or thermal mismatch of the various components were also addressed. The active region of the laser consists of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs). The existence of up to the third order diffraction peaks in the x-ray diffraction spectra suggests that the interfaces between InGaN and GaN are sharp with little interdiffusion at the growth temperature. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectra were analyzed to determine the optical quality of the MQWs. The best MQWs were shown to have a single emission peak at 397nm with full width half maximum (FWHM) of 11nm. Cathodoluminescence studies showed that there are spatially localized areas of intense light emission. The complete device was formed on (0001) sapphire substrates using the previously described DBRs as bottom mirrors and the MQWs as the active region. The top mirror of the device consists of metallic silver. The device was pumped by an electron beam from the top mirror side and the light output was collected from the sapphire side. Measurements at 100K showed narrowing of the linewidth with increasing pump

  7. Measuring the Density of a Molecular Cluster Injector via Visible Emission from an Electron Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. M.; Stotler, D. P.

    2010-06-28

    A method to measure the density distribution of a dense hydrogen gas jet is pre- sented. A Mach 5.5 nozzle is cooled to 80K to form a flow capable of molecular cluster formation. A 250V, 10mA electron beam collides with the jet and produces Hα emission that is viewed by a fast camera. The high density of the jet, several 1016cm-3, results in substantial electron depletion, which attenuates the Hα emission. The attenuated emission measurement, combined with a simplified electron-molecule collision model, allows us to determine the molecular density profile via a simple iterative calculation.

  8. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Foley, Andrew; Alam, Khan; Wang, Kangkang; Liu, Yinghao; Chen, Tianjiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur R

    2014-04-01

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without

  9. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Foley, Andrew; Alam, Khan; Wang, Kangkang; Liu, Yinghao; Chen, Tianjiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur R., E-mail: smitha2@ohio.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without

  10. An ultra-compact, high-throughput molecular beam epitaxy growth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A. A.; Hesjedal, T. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Braun, W., E-mail: w.braun@fkf.mpg.de, E-mail: fischer@createc.de; Rembold, S.; Fischer, A., E-mail: w.braun@fkf.mpg.de, E-mail: fischer@createc.de [CreaTec Fischer and Co. GmbH, Industriestr. 9, 74391 Erligheim (Germany); Gassler, G. [Dr. Gassler Electron Devices GmbH, List Str. 4, 89079 Ulm (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    We present a miniaturized molecular beam epitaxy (miniMBE) system with an outer diameter of 206 mm, optimized for flexible and high-throughput operation. The three-chamber system, used here for oxide growth, consists of a sample loading chamber, a storage chamber, and a growth chamber. The growth chamber is equipped with eight identical effusion cell ports with linear shutters, one larger port for either a multi-pocket electron beam evaporator or an oxygen plasma source, an integrated cryoshroud, retractable beam-flux monitor or quartz-crystal microbalance, reflection high energy electron diffraction, substrate manipulator, main shutter, and quadrupole mass spectrometer. The system can be combined with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) end stations on synchrotron and neutron beamlines, or equivalently with other complex surface analysis systems, including low-temperature scanning probe microscopy systems. Substrate handling is compatible with most UHV surface characterization systems, as the miniMBE can accommodate standard surface science sample holders. We introduce the design of the system, and its specific capabilities and operational parameters, and we demonstrate the epitaxial thin film growth of magnetoelectric Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on c-plane sapphire and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} on MgO (001)

  11. An ultra-compact, high-throughput molecular beam epitaxy growth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A A; Braun, W; Gassler, G; Rembold, S; Fischer, A; Hesjedal, T

    2015-04-01

    We present a miniaturized molecular beam epitaxy (miniMBE) system with an outer diameter of 206 mm, optimized for flexible and high-throughput operation. The three-chamber system, used here for oxide growth, consists of a sample loading chamber, a storage chamber, and a growth chamber. The growth chamber is equipped with eight identical effusion cell ports with linear shutters, one larger port for either a multi-pocket electron beam evaporator or an oxygen plasma source, an integrated cryoshroud, retractable beam-flux monitor or quartz-crystal microbalance, reflection high energy electron diffraction, substrate manipulator, main shutter, and quadrupole mass spectrometer. The system can be combined with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) end stations on synchrotron and neutron beamlines, or equivalently with other complex surface analysis systems, including low-temperature scanning probe microscopy systems. Substrate handling is compatible with most UHV surface characterization systems, as the miniMBE can accommodate standard surface science sample holders. We introduce the design of the system, and its specific capabilities and operational parameters, and we demonstrate the epitaxial thin film growth of magnetoelectric Cr2O3 on c-plane sapphire and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 on MgO (001).

  12. Gold nanoshells with gain-assisted silica core for ultra-sensitive bio-molecular sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yifei; Guo, Zhongyi; Zhang, Anjun; Zhang, Jingran; Wang, Benyang; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-08-01

    A novel bio-molecular nanostructured sensor composed of Au spherical nanoshell and gain-assisted silica-core has been proposed and investigated theoretically, which shows a superior performance compared to the existing structured sensor. Using quasi-static approximation calculation, it is found that the scattering efficiency and the quality factor of SPR can be enhanced greatly by introducing proper amount of gain. The simulated results demonstrate that our designed Au spherical nanoshell and gain-assisted silica-core can obtain as high as 166.7 nm/RIU for the sensitivity of refractive index, and the sensors' figure of merit is enhanced 2000 times nearly compared to that of g=0, which indicates that the designed spherical core-shell sensors have the powerful ability to detect a subtle change in the concentration of its background medium.

  13. High quality YBCO superconductive thin films fabricated by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Fan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Hirata,K.,Yamamoto,K.,Iijinma,J.et al.,Tunneling measurements on superconductor/insulator/superconductor junctions using single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1990,56(7):683-685.[2]Kingston,J.J.,Wellstood,F.C.,Lerch,P.et al.,Multilayer YBa2Cu3Ox-SrTiO3-YBa2Cu3Ox films for insulating crossovers,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1990,56(2):189-191.[3]Grundler,D.,Krumme,J.P.,David,B.et al.,YBa2Cu3O7 ramp-type junctions and superconducting quantum interference devices with an ultra thin barrier of NdGaO3,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1994,65(14):1841-1843.[4]Yang Guozhen,Lu Huibin,Chen Zhenghao et al.,Laser molecular beam epitaxy system and its key technologies,Science in China (in Chinese),Ser.A,1998,28(3):260-265.[5]Wang Ning,Lu Huibin,Chen,W.Z.et al.,Morphology and microstructure of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices grown on SrTiO3 by laser molecular-beam epitaxy,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1999,75(22):3464-3466.[6]Chen Li-Chyng,Particulates generated by pulsed laser ablation,in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films (eds.Chrisey,D.B.,Hulber,G.K.),New York:John Wiley & Sons,Inc.,1994,167-198.[7]Wang,H.S.,Dietsche,W.,Eissler,D.et al.,Molecular beam epitaxial growth and structure properties of DyBa2Cu3O7-y,J.Crys.Growth,1993,126:565-577.[8]Kita,R.,Hase,T.,Itti,R.et al.,Synthesis of CuO films using mass-separated,low-energy O+ ion beams,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1992,60(21):2684-2685.[9]Lu Huibin,Zhou Yueliang,Yang Guozhen et al.,Active gas source for thin film preparation,Chinese Patent (in Chinese),1996,No.ZL 96219046.2.[10]Wang Jing,Chen Fan,Zhao Tong et al.,Fabrication of high stable DC-SQUIDS with L-MBE YBCO thin films,Chinese Journal of Low Temperature Physics (in Chinese),1999,21(1):13-16.

  14. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong, E-mail: hhong@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tung, I. C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  15. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Tung, I. C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; Chang, S. -H. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Bhattacharya, A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Freeland, J. W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Hong, Hawoong [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2016-01-01

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  16. Investigation of the silicon ion density during molecular beam epitaxy growth

    CERN Document Server

    Eifler, G; Ashurov, K; Morozov, S

    2002-01-01

    Ions impinging on a surface during molecular beam epitaxy influence the growth and the properties of the growing layer, for example, suppression of dopant segregation and the generation of crystal defects. The silicon electron gun in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) equipment is used as a source for silicon ions. To use the effect of ion bombardment the mechanism of generation and distribution of ions was investigated. A monitoring system was developed and attached at the substrate position in the MBE growth chamber to measure the ion and electron densities towards the substrate. A negative voltage was applied to the substrate to modify the ion energy and density. Furthermore the current caused by charge carriers impinging on the substrate was measured and compared with the results of the monitoring system. The electron and ion densities were measured by varying the emission current of the e-gun achieving silicon growth rates between 0.07 and 0.45 nm/s and by changing the voltage applied to the substrate betw...

  17. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Tung, I C; Chang, S-H; Bhattacharya, A; Fong, D D; Freeland, J W; Hong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  18. High-efficiency AlGaInP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, J.; Sun, Y.; Jung, D.; Martin, D.; Masuda, T.; Lee, M. L.

    2016-10-01

    AlGaInP is an ideal material for ultra-high efficiency, lattice-matched multi-junction solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) because it can be grown lattice-matched to GaAs with a wide 1.9-2.2 eV bandgap. Despite this potential, AlGaInP grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has yet to be fully explored, with the initial 2.0 eV devices suffering from poor performance due to low minority carrier diffusion lengths in both the emitter and base regions of the solar cell. In this work, we show that implementing an AlGaInP graded layer to introduce a drift field near the front surface of the device enabled greatly improved internal quantum efficiency (IQE) across all wavelengths. In addition, optimizing growth conditions and post-growth annealing improved the long-wavelength IQE and the open-circuit voltage of the cells, corresponding to a 3× increase in diffusion length in the base. Taken together, this work demonstrates greatly improved IQE, attaining peak values of 95%, combined with an uncoated AM1.5G efficiency of 10.9%, double that of previously reported MBE-grown devices.

  19. Raman investigation of GaP–Si interfaces grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondi, A.; Cornet, C.; Boyer, S.; Nguyen Thanh, T.; Létoublon, A.; Pedesseau, L.; Durand, O. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR CNRS 6082, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, F-35708 Rennes (France); Moreac, A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR-CNRS n°6251, Université Rennes1, Campus de Beaulieu — 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Ponchet, A. [CEMES, UPR CNRS 8011, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Le Corre, A. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR CNRS 6082, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, F-35708 Rennes (France); Even, J., E-mail: jacky.even@insa.rennes.fr [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR CNRS 6082, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, F-35708 Rennes (France)

    2013-08-31

    Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the residual strain in thin GaP layers deposited on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Different growth conditions were used to obtain a clean GaP–Si interface, including migration enhanced epitaxy. The strain induced Raman shifts of the longitudinal and the transverse optical GaP lattice modes were analyzed. The effects of crystalline defects are discussed, supported by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray scattering studies. Finally, Raman Spectroscopy reveals the presence of disorder (or surface)-activated optical phonons. This result is discussed in the light of surface morphology analyses. - Highlights: ► GaP thin layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. ► Strain-induced Raman shifts of the optical GaP modes are analyzed. ► Simulation of optical GaP modes by density functional perturbation theory. ► Comparison with X-ray diffraction and electron and scanning probe microscopy data.

  20. Methods for assisting recovery of damaged brain and spinal cord and treating various diseases using arrays of x-ray microplanar beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); Anchel, David J. (Rocky Point, NY); Gaudette, Glenn (Holden, MA); Romanelli, Pantaleo (Monteroduni, IT); Hainfeld, James (Shoreham, NY)

    2010-06-29

    A method of assisting recovery of an injury site of the central nervous system (CNS) or treating a disease includes providing a therapeutic dose of X-ray radiation to a target volume through an array of parallel microplanar beams. The dose to treat CNS injury temporarily removes regeneration inhibitors from the irradiated site. Substantially unirradiated cells surviving between beams migrate to the in-beam portion and assist recovery. The dose may be staggered in fractions over sessions using angle-variable intersecting microbeam arrays (AVIMA). Additional doses are administered by varying the orientation of the beams. The method is enhanced by injecting stem cells into the injury site. One array or the AVIMA method is applied to ablate selected cells in a target volume associated with disease for palliative or curative effect. Atrial fibrillation is treated by irradiating the atrial wall to destroy myocardial cells while continuously rotating the subject.

  1. Investigation of the silicon ion density during molecular beam epitaxy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, G.; Kasper, E.; Ashurov, Kh.; Morozov, S.

    2002-05-01

    Ions impinging on a surface during molecular beam epitaxy influence the growth and the properties of the growing layer, for example, suppression of dopant segregation and the generation of crystal defects. The silicon electron gun in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) equipment is used as a source for silicon ions. To use the effect of ion bombardment the mechanism of generation and distribution of ions was investigated. A monitoring system was developed and attached at the substrate position in the MBE growth chamber to measure the ion and electron densities towards the substrate. A negative voltage was applied to the substrate to modify the ion energy and density. Furthermore the current caused by charge carriers impinging on the substrate was measured and compared with the results of the monitoring system. The electron and ion densities were measured by varying the emission current of the e-gun achieving silicon growth rates between 0.07 and 0.45 nm/s and by changing the voltage applied to the substrate between 0 to -1000 V. The dependencies of ion and electron densities were shown and discussed within the framework of a simple model. The charged carrier densities measured with the monitoring system enable to separate the ion part of the substrate current and show its correlation to the generation rate. Comparing the ion density on the whole substrate and in the center gives a hint to the ion beam focusing effect. The maximum ion and electron current densities obtained were 0.40 and 0.61 μA/cm2, respectively.

  2. Reactions of Laser Ablated Metal Plasma with Molecular Alcohol Beams: Dependence of the Produced Cluster Ion Species on the Beam Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Dong-Mei; LI Hai-Yang; ZHANG Shu-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The gas phase reactions of metal plasma with alcohol clusters were studied by time of flight mass spectrometry(TOFMS) using laser ablation-molecular beam (LAMB) method. The significant dependence of the product cluster ions on the molecular beam conditions was observed. When the plasma acted on the low density parts of the pulsed molecular beam, the metal-alcohol complexes M+An (M=Cu, Al, Mg, Ni and A=C2H5OH, CH3OH) were the dominant products, and the sizes of product ion clusters were smaller. While the plasma acted on the high density part of the beam, however, the main products turned to be protonated alcohol clusters H+An and, as the reactions of plasma with methanol were concerned, the protonated water-methanol complexes H3O+(CH3OH)n with a larger size(n≤ 12 for ethanol and n≤24 for methanol). Similarly, as the pressure of the carrier helium gas was varied from1 × 105 to 5 × 105 Pa, the main products were changed from M+An to H+An and the sizes of the clusters also increased. The changes in the product clusters were attributed to the different formation mechanism of the output ions,that is, the M+An ions came from the reaction of metal ion with alcohol clusters, while H+An mainly from collisional reaction of electron with alcohol clusters.

  3. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of chaperonin-assisted rhodanese folding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ren; Jian Gao; Ji Xu; Wei Ge; Jinghai Li

    2009-01-01

    Chaperonins are known to facilitate the productive folding of numerous misfolded proteins, Despite their established importance, the mechanism of chaperonin-assisted protein folding remains unknown. In the present article, all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed for the first time on rhodanese folding in a series of cavity-size and cavity-charge chaperonin mutants. A compromise between stability and flexibility of chaperonin structure during the substrate folding has been observed and the key factors affecting this dynamic process are discussed.

  4. Single palladium nanowire growth in place assisted by dielectrophoresis and focused ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferrara, Vera; Alfano, Brigida; Massera, Ettore; Di Francia, Girolamo

    2009-05-01

    Here we report, for the first time, on the combined use of Focused Ion Beam and Dielectrophoresis techniques for the fabrication of a nanodevice whose operating mechanism relies on a single palladium nanowire. Focused Ion Beam is used to deposit, without photolithographic masks, platinum microelectrodes on a silicon/silicon nitride substrate. Dielectrophoresis is employed for assembling the palladium nanowire, starting from a saturated palladium particles solution, and precisely positioning it between the nanocontacts. The nanodevice works as a hydrogen sensor, confirming the reliability of technology. Its electrical response has been recorded, at room temperature, in a dynamic environment, where different hydrogen concentrations, from 0.1% to 4% in dry air, have been introduced. Its sensitivity, towards 0.1% to 1% gas concentrations in dry air, has been calculated, too.

  5. Development of a Silicon Carbide Molecular Beam Nozzle for Simulation Planetary Flybys and Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, E. L.; Earle, G. D.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    From commercial origins as a molybdenum molecular beam nozzle, a ceramic nozzle of silicon carbide (SiC) was developed for space environment simulation. The nozzle is mechanically stable under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. A heated, continuous, supersonically-expanded hydrogen beam with a 1% argon seed produced an argon beam component of nearly 4 km/s, with an argon flux exceeding 1x1014 /cm2.s. This nozzle was part of a molecular beam machine used in the Atmospheric Experiments Branch at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to characterize the performance of the University of Texas at Dallas Ram Wind Sensor (RWS) aboard the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) launched in the Spring of 2008.

  6. CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF Cu-Nb AND Ni-Nb AMORPHOUS FILMS PREPARED BY ION BEAM ASSISTED DEPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Zhao; F. Zeng; D.M. Li; F. Pan

    2003-01-01

    The Cu25Nb75 and Ni45Nb55 amorphous films with about 500nm thickness were prepared by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). Potentiodynamic polarization measurement was adopted to investigate the corrosion resistance of samples and the tests were carried out respectively in 1mol/L H2SO4 and NaOH aquatic solution. The corrosion performance of the amorphous films was compared with that of multilayered and pure Nb films. Experimental results indicated that the corrosion resistance of amorphous films was better than that of the corresponding multilayers and pure Nb films for both Ni-Nb system with negative heat of formation and Cu-Nb system with positive heat of formation.

  7. Microstructure and photoluminescence of Er-doped SiOx films synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Shu-Qing; Tan Na; Zhang Qing-Yu

    2005-01-01

    Er-doped Sio_ films were synthesized at 500℃ by ion beam assisted deposition technique and annealed at 800 and 1100℃ for 2h in the air atomosphere. The analysis by using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed that the ratio of Si to O decreased from 3 in the as-deposited films to about 1 in the annealed films. The investigation by using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction inducated that annealing induces a microstructure change from amorphous to crystlline. The grain sizes in the films were about 10 and 40nm when annealed at 800 and 1100℃, respectively. The films annealed at temperatures of 800 and 1100℃ exhibited a sharp photoluminescence (PL) at 1.533μm from the Er centres when pumped by 980nm laser. The influence of microstructure and grain size on the PL from Er-doped Sio_ films has been studies and discussed.

  8. InGaAsP-based uni-travelling carrier photodiode structure grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrella, Michele; Rouvalis, Efthymios; Liu, Chin-Pang; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2012-08-13

    We report the first InGaAsP-based uni-travelling carrier photodiode structure grown by Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy; the material contains layers of InGaAsP as thick as 300 nm and a 120 nm thick InGaAs absorber. Large area vertically illuminated test devices have been fabricated and characterised; the devices exhibited 0.1 A/W responsivity at 1550 nm, 12.5 GHz -3 dB bandwidth and -5.8 dBm output power at 10 GHz for a photocurrent of 4.8 mA. The use of Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy enables the major issue associated with the unintentional diffusion of zinc in Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy to be overcome and gives the benefit of the superior control provided by MBE growth techniques without the costs and the risks of handling toxic gases of Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

  9. Patterned growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN grating by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongjin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report here the epitaxial growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN gratings by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Various GaN gratings are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on GaN-on-silicon substrate by fast atom beam etching. Silicon substrate beneath GaN grating region is removed from the backside to form freestanding GaN gratings, and the patterned growth is subsequently performed on the prepared GaN template by MBE. The selective growth takes place with the assistance of nanoscale GaN gratings and depends on the grating period P and the grating width W. Importantly, coalescences between two side facets are realized to generate epitaxial gratings with triangular section. Thin epitaxial gratings produce the promising photoluminescence performance. This work provides a feasible way for further GaN-based integrated optics devices by a combination of GaN micromachining and epitaxial growth on a GaN-on-silicon substrate. PACS 81.05.Ea; 81.65.Cf; 81.15.Hi.

  10. Fast, high temperature and thermolabile GC--MS in supersonic molecular beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Shai; Amirav, Aviv

    1994-05-01

    This work describes and evaluates the coupling of a fast gas chromatograph (GC) based on a short column and high carrier gas flow rate to a supersonic molecular beam mass spectrometer (MS). A 50 cm long megabore column serves for fast GC separation and connects the injector to the supersonic nozzle source. Sampling is achieved with a conventional syringe based splitless sample injection. The injector contains no septum and is open to the atmosphere. The linear velocity of the carrier gas is controlled by a by-pass (make-up) gas flow introduced after the column and prior to the supersonic nozzle. The supersonic expansion serves as a jet separator and the skimmed supersonic molecular beam (SMB) is highly enriched with the heavier organic molecules. The supersonic molecular beam constituents are ionized either by electron impact (EI) or hyperthermal surface ionization (HSI) and mass analyzed. A 1 s fast GC--MS of four aromatic molecules in methanol is demonstrated and some fundamental aspects of fast GC--MS with time limit constraints are outlined. The flow control (programming) of the speed of analysis is shown and the analysis of thermolabile and relatively non-volatile molecules is demonstrated and discussed. The tail-free, fast GC--MS of several mixtures is shown and peak tailing of caffeine is compared with that of conventional GC--MS. The improvement of the peak shapes with the SMB--MS is analyzed with the respect to the elimination of thermal vacuum chamber background. The extrapolated minimum detected amount was about 400 ag of anthracence-d10, with an elution time which was shorter than 2s. Repetitive injections could be performed within less than 10 s. The fast GC--MS in SMB seems to be ideal for fast target compound analysis even in real world, complex mixtures. The few seconds GC--MS separation and quantification of lead (as tetraethyllead) in gasoline, caffeine in coffee, and codeine in a drug is demonstrated. Controlled HSI selectivity is demonstrated in

  11. Investigation of electrochemical etch differences in AlGaAs heterostructures using Cl{sub 2} ion beam assisted etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglin, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.r.anglin@gmail.com; Goodhue, William D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, 244 Wood St., Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 and Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Ave., Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Swint, Reuel B.; Porter, Jeanne [Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, 244 Wood St., Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    A deeply etched, anisotropic 45° and 90° mirror technology is developed for Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As heterostructures using a Cl{sub 2} ion beam assisted etching system. When etching vertically, using a conductive low-erosion Ni mask, electrochemical etch differences between layers with various Al mole fractions caused nonuniform sidewall profiles not seen in semi-insulating GaAs test samples. These variations, based on alloy composition, were found to be negligible when etching at a 45°. A Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Ni etch mask is designed in order to electrically isolate charge buildup caused by the incoming Ar{sup +} ion beam to the Ni layer, preventing conduction to the underlying epitaxial layers. This modification produced smoothly etched facets, up to 8 μm in depth, enabling fabrication of substrate–surface-emitting slab-coupled optical waveguide lasers and other optoelectronic devices.

  12. Self-excitation of microwave oscillations in plasma-assisted slow-wave oscillators by an electron beam with a movable focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Yu P; Nusinovich, G S; Shkvarunets, A G; Carmel, Y

    2004-10-01

    Plasma-assisted slow-wave oscillators (pasotrons) operate without external magnetic fields, which makes these devices quite compact and lightweight. Beam focusing in pasotrons is provided by ions, which appear in the device due to the impact ionization of a neutral gas by beam electrons. Typically, the ionization time is on the order of the rise time of the beam current. This means that, during the rise of the current, beam focusing by ions becomes stronger. Correspondingly, a beam of electrons, which was initially diverging radially due to the self-electric field, starts to be focused by ions, and this focus moves towards the gun as the ion density increases. This feature makes the self-excitation of electromagnetic (em) oscillations in pasotrons quite different from practically all other microwave sources where em oscillations are excited by a stationary electron beam. The process of self-excitation of em oscillations has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that in pasotrons, during the beam current rise the amount of current entering the interaction space and the beam coupling to the em field vary. As a result, the self-excitation can proceed faster than in conventional microwave sources with similar operating parameters such as the operating frequency, cavity quality-factor and the beam current and voltage.

  13. High Performance Photocathodes based on Molecular Beam Epitaxy Deposition for Next Generation Photo Detectors and Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Junqi; Wagner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The development of high-performance photocathodes is a key challenge for future accelerator and particle physics applications. In this paper photocathode growth through molecular beam epitaxy is introduced as a promising technique to obtain robust, highly efficient alkali-antimonide based photocathodes. Recent research shows that the quantum efficiency of photocathodes can be significantly enhanced through control of the photocathode crystallinity. Molecular beam epitaxy allows for cost-effective growth of large-area photocathodes with excellent control of the stoichiometry and crystallinity, making photocathodes with peak quantum efficiencies exceeding 35% routine.

  14. Crystalline magnetic carbon nanoparticle assisted photothermal delivery into cells using CW near-infrared laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling; Koymen, Ali R.; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2014-05-01

    Efficient and targeted delivery of impermeable exogenous material such as small molecules, proteins, and plasmids into cells in culture as well as in vivo is of great importance for drug, vaccine and gene delivery for different therapeutic strategies. Though advent of optoporation by ultrafast laser microbeam has allowed spatial targeting in cells, the requirement of high peak power to create holes on the cell membrane is not practical and also challenging in vivo. Here, we report development and use of uniquely non-reactive crystalline magnetic carbon nanoparticles (CMCNPs) for photothermal delivery (PTD) of impermeable dyes and plasmids encoding light-sensitive proteins into cells using low power continuous wave near-infrared (NIR) laser beam. Further, we utilized the magnetic nature of these CMCNPs to localize them in desired region by external magnetic field, thus minimizing the required number of nanoparticles. We discovered that irradiation of the CMCNPs near the desired cell(s) with NIR laser beam leads to temperature rise that not only stretch the cell-membrane to ease delivery, it also creates fluid flow to allow mobilization of exogenous substances to the delivery. Due to significant absorption properties of the CMCNPs in the NIR therapeutic window, PTD under in vivo condition is highly possible.

  15. Molecular beam study of dissociative sticking of methane on Ni(100)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmblad, Peter Mikal; Wambach, Jørg; Chorkendorff, Ib

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed molecular beam study of the dissociative sticking of methane incident on clean Ni(100). It is demonstrated that the sticking coefficient depends strongly on the translational energy of the molecule. It is also observed that an increase in the vibrational energy...... of the methane leads to a dramatic enhancement of the sticking, emphasizing that the initial vibrational state is of crucial importance. These results are consistent with a mechanism of direct activated dissociative chemisorption where the dynamics is dominated by a barrier in the potential energy surface mainly......(Ei), considering only the vibrational C–H stretch modes of methane as relevant for the sticking, gives a good description of the data. These sticking curves enables a calculation of the thermal sticking coefficient which is found to be in excellent agreement with bulb experiments directly probing this. ©1995...

  16. Reduction in the crystal defect density of Zn Se layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez L, M.; Perez C, A.; Luyo A, J.; Melendez L, M.; Tamura, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del instituto politecnico Nacional, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mendez G, V.H.; Vidal, M.A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We present a study of the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) grown of Zn Se layers on Ga-As and Si substrates. For the growth on GaAs substrates we investigated the effects of introducing buffer layers of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} As and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} As with x = 0.01. Moreover, an analysis by secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed that the use of AlGaAs buffer layers effectively suppress the Ga segregation onto the Zn Se layers surface. On the other hand, for the growth of Zn Se on Si substrates, we achieved a significant improvement in the crystal quality of Zn Se by irradiating the Si substrates with plasma of nitrogen prior to the growth. (Author)

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy of cubic III-nitrides on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    As, D.J.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy has successfully been used to grow crystalline layers of group III-nitrides (GaN, AlN and InN) with cubic (zinc-blende) structure on GaAs substrates. In this article, we discuss these efforts that, despite inherent difficulties due to the metastability of the c-III nitrides, led to substantial improvements of the structural, electrical and optical quality of these wide gap semiconductors. We review experimental work concerned with the epitaxy of c-GaN and the control of the growth process in-situ, the important issue of p- and n-type doping of c-GaN and investigations of the structural and optical properties of c-InGaN and c-AlGaN. (orig.)

  18. Fabrication of atomically smooth SrRuO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    High-quality SrRuO3 (SRO) thin films and SrTiO3/SRO bilayer were grown epitaxially on SrTiO3 (STO)(001) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The results of in situ observation of reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ X-ray diffraction θ -2θ scan indicate that the SRO thin films have good crystallinity. The measurements of atomic force microscopy and scan tunneling microscopy reveal that the surface of the SRO thin film is atomically smooth. The resistivity of the SRO thin film is 300 μΩ·cm at room temperature. Furthermore, the transmission electron microscopy study shows that the interfaces of STO/SRO and SRO/STO are very clear and no interfacial reaction layer was observed. The experimental results show that the SRO thin film is an excellent electrode material for devices based on perovskite oxide materials.

  19. Synthesis of atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride films on nickel foils by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhaie, S.; Wofford, J. M.; Schumann, T.; Jahn, U.; Ramsteiner, M.; Hanke, M.; Lopes, J. M. J., E-mail: lopes@pdi-berlin.de; Riechert, H. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-25

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a layered two-dimensional material with properties that make it promising as a dielectric in various applications. We report the growth of h-BN films on Ni foils from elemental B and N using molecular beam epitaxy. The presence of crystalline h-BN over the entire substrate is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy is used to examine the morphology and continuity of the synthesized films. A scanning electron microscopy study of films obtained using shorter depositions offers insight into the nucleation and growth behavior of h-BN on the Ni substrate. The morphology of h-BN was found to evolve from dendritic, star-shaped islands to larger, smooth triangular ones with increasing growth temperature.

  20. Effects of substrate orientation on the growth of InSb nanostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. Y.; Torfi, A.; Pei, C.; Wang, W. I.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the effects of substrate orientation on InSb quantum structure growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are presented. Motivated by the observation that (411) evolves naturally as a stable facet during MBE crystal growth, comparison studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the crystal orientation of the underlying GaSb substrate on the growth of InSb by MBE. By depositing InSb on a number of different substrate orientations, namely: (100), (311), (411), and (511), a higher nanostructure density was observed on the (411) surface compared with the other orientations. This result suggests that the (411) orientation presents a superior surface in MBE growth to develop a super-flat GaSb buffer surface, naturally favorable for nanostructure growth.

  1. Interfaces in InAs/GaSb Superlattices Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jie; SUN Wei-Guo; PENG Zhen-Yu; ZHOU Zhi-Qiang; XU Ying-Qiang; NIU Zhi-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Short period InAs(4ML)/GaSb(SML) superlattices (SLs) with InSb- and mixed-like (or Ga1-xInxAs1-ySby-like) interfaces (IFs) are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on (001) GaSh substrates at optimized growth temperature. Raman scattering reveals that two kinds of IFs can be formed by controlling shutter sequences. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrate that SLs with mixed-like IFs are more sensitive to growth temperature than that with InSb-like IFs. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of SLs with mixed-like IFs show a stronger intensity and narrower line width than with InSb-like IFs. It is concluded that InAs/GaSb SLs with mixed-like IFs have better crystalline and optical properties.

  2. Photoluminescence properties of MgxZn1-xO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. Y.; Huang, Y. S.; Hu, S. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Tiong, K. K.; Chang, C. C.; Chou, W. C.; Shen, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    The optical properties of MgxZn1-xO films with x=0.03, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.11 grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been studied by temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement. It is presented that the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the 12 K PL spectrum of MgZnO films increases with increasing Mg concentration and would deviate significantly from the simulation curve of Schubert model with higher Mg contents. The abnormal broader PL FWHM is inferred from larger compositional fluctuation by incorporating higher Mg contents, which results in larger effect of excitonic localization to induce more significant S-shaped behavior of the PL peak energy with temperature dependence. Additionally, the degree of localization increases as the linear proportion of the PL FWHM, indicating that the excitonic behavior in MgZnO films belong to the strong localization effect.

  3. Real-time reflectance-difference spectroscopy of GaAs molecular beam epitaxy homoepitaxial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lastras-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on real time-resolved Reflectance-difference (RD spectroscopy of GaAs(001 grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with a time-resolution of 500 ms per spectrum within the 2.3–4.0 eV photon energy range. Through the analysis of transient RD spectra we demonstrated that RD line shapes are comprised of two components with different physical origins and determined their evolution during growth. Such components were ascribed to the subsurface strain induced by surface reconstruction and to surface stoichiometry. Results reported in this paper render RD spectroscopy as a powerful tool for the study of fundamental processes during the epitaxial growth of zincblende semiconductors.

  4. High quality YBCO superconductive thin films fabricated by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High quality YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) superconductive thin films have been fabricated on the SrTiO3(100) substrate using laser molecular beam epitaxy (laser-MBE).The active oxygen source was used,which made the necessary ambient oxygen pressure be 2-3 orders lower than that in pulsed laser deposition (PLD).Tc0 is 85-87 K,and Jc~1.0×106 A/cm2.Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that no obvious particulates can be observed and the root mean square roughness is 7.8 nm.High stability DC superconducting quantum interference devices (DC-SQUID) was fabricated using this YBCO thin film.

  5. Investigation of Localized States in GaAsSb Epilayers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Wei, Zhipeng; Zhao, Fenghuan; Yang, Yahui; Chen, Rui; Fang, Xuan; Tang, Jilong; Fang, Dan; Wang, Dengkui; Li, Ruixue; Ge, Xiaotian; Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-07-06

    We report the carrier dynamics in GaAsSb ternary alloy grown by molecular beam epitaxy through comprehensive spectroscopic characterization over a wide temperature range. A detailed analysis of the experimental data reveals a complex carrier relaxation process involving both localized and delocalized states. At low temperature, the localized degree shows linear relationship with the increase of Sb component. The existence of localized states is also confirmed by the temperature dependence of peak position and band width of the emission. At temperature higher than 60 K, emissions related to localized states are quenched while the band to band transition dominates the whole spectrum. This study indicates that the localized states are related to the Sb component in the GaAsSb alloy, while it leads to the poor crystal quality of the material, and the application of GaAsSb alloy would be limited by this deterioration.

  6. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Meng; Zhao, Yuning; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Guowang; Verma, Jai; Fay, Patrick [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Nomoto, Kazuki; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang; Protasenko, Vladimir; Song, Bo; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep, E-mail: djena@cornell.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Departments of ECE and MSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Bader, Samuel [Departments of ECE and MSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current <3 nA/cm{sup 2} is obtained with reverse bias voltage up to −20 V. With a 400 nm thick n-drift region, an on-resistance of 0.23 mΩ cm{sup 2} is achieved, with a breakdown voltage corresponding to a peak electric field of ∼3.1 MV/cm in GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  7. Molecular beam epitaxy growth and magnetic properties of Cr-Co-Ga Heusler alloy films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuwei Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have re-investigated growth and magnetic properties of Cr2CoGa films using molecular beam epitaxy technique. Phase separation and precipitate formation were observed experimentally again in agreement with observation of multiple phases separation in sputtered Cr2CoGa films by M. Meinert et al. However, significant phase separation could be suppressed by proper control of growth conditions. We showed that Cr2CoGa Heusler phase, rather than Co2CrGa phase, constitutes the majority of the sample grown on GaAs(001 at 450 oC. The measured small spin moment of Cr2CoGa is in agreement with predicted HM-FCF nature; however, its Curie temperature is not as high as expected from the theoretical prediction probably due to the off-stoichiometry of Cr2CoGa and the existence of the disorders and phase separation.

  8. Towards precise defect control in layered oxide structures by using oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Baiutti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the atomic-layer-by-layer oxide molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-oxide MBE which has been recently installed in the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research and we report on its present status, providing some examples that demonstrate its successful application in the synthesis of different layered oxides, with particular reference to superconducting La2CuO4 and insulator-to-metal La2−xSrxNiO4. We briefly review the ALL-oxide MBE technique and its unique capabilities in the deposition of atomically smooth single-crystal thin films of various complex oxides, artificial compounds and heterostructures, introducing our goal of pursuing a deep investigation of such systems with particular emphasis on structural defects, with the aim of tailoring their functional properties by precise defects control.

  9. Thin film phase diagram of iron nitrides grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölden, D.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L.

    2017-01-01

    A low-temperature thin film phase diagram of the iron nitride system is established for the case of thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and nitrided by a nitrogen radical source. A fine-tuning of the nitridation conditions allows for growth of α ‧ -Fe8Nx with increasing c / a -ratio and magnetic anisotropy with increasing x until almost phase pure α ‧ -Fe8N1 thin films are obtained. A further increase of nitrogen content below the phase decomposition temperature of α ‧ -Fe8N (180 °C) leads to a mixture of several phases that is also affected by the choice of substrate material and symmetry. At higher temperatures (350 °C), phase pure γ ‧ -Fe4N is the most stable phase.

  10. Cleaning chemistry of InSb(100) molecular beam epitaxy substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Lewis, B. F.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    InSb has been used as a substrate for molecular beam epitaxy. For good epitaxial growth, a substrate surface which is smooth and clean on an atomic scale is required. Chemical cleaning procedures provide an oxide film to passivate the surface. This film is then desorbed by in situ heating. The material forming the film should, therefore, have a high vapor pressure at some temperature less than the substrate melting temperature. A chloride film appears to satisfy the latter requirement. The present investigation is, therefore, concerned with the formation of a chloride film rather than an oxide film. Carbon contamination has been found to cause problems in chemical cleaning procedures. The level of carbon contamination found in the case of chloride film formation, is therefore compared with the corresponding level observed in procedures using oxide films. It appears that a chloride film grown in connection with a short exposure time to a Cl2 plasma is preferable to other passivation films studied.

  11. Molecular-Beam Epitaxially Grown MgB2 Thin Films and Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Laloë

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of its superconducting properties in 2001, magnesium diboride has generated terrific scientific and engineering research interest around the world. With a of 39 K and two superconducting gaps, MgB2 has great promise from the fundamental point of view, as well as immediate applications. Several techniques for thin film deposition and heterojunction formation have been established, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Here, we will present a brief overview of research based on MgB2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy coevaporation of Mg and B. The films are smooth and highly crystalline, and the technique allows for virtually any heterostructure to be formed, including all-MgB2 tunnel junctions. Such devices have been characterized, with both quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling reported. MgB2 remains a material of great potential for a multitude of further characterization and exploration research projects and applications.

  12. Synthesis of long group IV semiconductor nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patriarche Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the growth of Si and Ge nanowires (NWs on a Si(111 surface by molecular beam epitaxy. While Si NWs grow perpendicular to the surface, two types of growth axes are found for the Ge NWs. Structural studies of both types of NWs performed with electron microscopies reveal a marked difference between the roughnesses of their respective sidewalls. As the investigation of their length dependence on their diameter indicates that the growth of the NWs predominantly proceeds through the diffusion of adatoms from the substrate up along the sidewalls, difference in the sidewall roughness qualitatively explains the length variation measured between both types of NWs. The formation of atomically flat {111} sidewalls on the <110>-oriented Ge NWs accounts for a larger diffusion length.

  13. HfSe2 thin films: 2D transition metal dichalcogenides grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ruoyu; Barton, Adam T; Zhu, Hui; Azcatl, Angelica; Pena, Luis F; Wang, Jian; Peng, Xin; Lu, Ning; Cheng, Lanxia; Addou, Rafik; McDonnell, Stephen; Colombo, Luigi; Hsu, Julia W P; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J; Wallace, Robert M; Hinkle, Christopher L

    2015-01-27

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of HfSe2 thin films using molecular beam epitaxy. The relaxed growth criteria have allowed us to demonstrate layered, crystalline growth without misfit dislocations on other 2D substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and MoS2. The HfSe2 thin films exhibit an atomically sharp interface with the substrates used, followed by flat, 2D layers with octahedral (1T) coordination. The resulting HfSe2 is slightly n-type with an indirect band gap of ∼ 1.1 eV and a measured energy band alignment significantly different from recent DFT calculations. These results demonstrate the feasibility and significant potential of fabricating 2D material based heterostructures with tunable band alignments for a variety of nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  14. Raman measurements of substrate temperature in a molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, T; Nazari, M; Eridisoorya, M; Myers, T M; Holtz, M

    2015-01-01

    A method is described for directly measuring the temperature of a substrate in a molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth system. The approach relies on the establishment of the temperature dependence of Raman-active phonons of the substrate material using independently known calibration points across the range of interest. An unknown temperature in this range is then determined based on the Raman peak position with the substrate in situ the MBE chamber. The apparatus relies on conventional optics and Raman components. Shifting and broadening of the Raman spectrum are described based on the effects of thermal expansion and anharmonic decay. The choice of reference temperature is discussed. The method is qualified by examining the substrate temperature dependence, relative to that of a standard thermocouple, during a commonly used ramp procedure. Both temperature difference and time lag are obtained.

  15. Towards precise defect control in layered oxide structures by using oxide molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiutti, Federico; Christiani, Georg; Logvenov, Gennady

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the atomic-layer-by-layer oxide molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-oxide MBE) which has been recently installed in the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research and we report on its present status, providing some examples that demonstrate its successful application in the synthesis of different layered oxides, with particular reference to superconducting La2CuO4 and insulator-to-metal La2- x Sr x NiO4. We briefly review the ALL-oxide MBE technique and its unique capabilities in the deposition of atomically smooth single-crystal thin films of various complex oxides, artificial compounds and heterostructures, introducing our goal of pursuing a deep investigation of such systems with particular emphasis on structural defects, with the aim of tailoring their functional properties by precise defects control.

  16. AlN Nanowall Structures Grown on Si (111) Substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yosuke; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    AlN nanowall structures were grown on Si (111) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy at substrate temperature of 700 °C with N/Al flux ratios ranging from 50 to 660. A few types of other AlN nanostructures were also grown under the nitrogen-rich conditions. The AlN nanowalls were ranged typically 60-120 nm in width and from 190 to 470 nm in length by changing N/Al flux ratio. The AlN nanowall structures grown along the c-plane consisted of AlN (0002) crystal with full-width at half maximum of the rocking curve about 5000 arcsec.

  17. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiVO4 by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoughton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase epitaxial films of the monoclinic polymorph of BiVO4 were synthesized by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy under adsorption-controlled conditions. The BiVO4 films were grown on (001 yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ substrates. Four-circle x-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM, and Raman spectroscopy confirm the epitaxial growth of monoclinic BiVO4 with an atomically abrupt interface and orientation relationship (001BiVO4 ∥ (001YSZ with [100]BiVO4 ∥ [100]YSZ. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that the films have a direct band gap of 2.5 ± 0.1 eV.

  18. Structural and optical characterizations of InPBi thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Haifei; Li, Yaoyao; Cao, Chunfang; Zhang, Liyao; Zhang, Yonggang; Gong, Qian; Wang, Shumin

    2014-01-13

    InPBi thin films have been grown on InP by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. A maximum Bi composition of 2.4% is determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. X-ray diffraction measurements show good structural quality for Bi composition up to 1.4% and a partially relaxed structure for higher Bi contents. The bandgap was measured by optical absorption, and the bandgap reduction caused by the Bi incorporation was estimated to be about 56 meV/Bi%. Strong and broad photoluminescence signals were observed at room temperature for samples with xBi < 2.4%. The PL peak position varies from 1.4 to 1.9 μm, far below the measured InPBi bandgap.

  19. Growth of Inclined GaAs Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Theory and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchernycheva M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The growth of inclined GaAs nanowires (NWs during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE on the rotating substrates is studied. The growth model provides explicitly the NW length as a function of radius, supersaturations, diffusion lengths and the tilt angle. Growth experiments are carried out on the GaAs(211A and GaAs(111B substrates. It is found that 20° inclined NWs are two times longer in average, which is explained by a larger impingement rate on their sidewalls. We find that the effective diffusion length at 550°C amounts to 12 nm for the surface adatoms and is more than 5,000 nm for the sidewall adatoms. Supersaturations of surface and sidewall adatoms are also estimated. The obtained results show the importance of sidewall adatoms in the MBE growth of NWs, neglected in a number of earlier studies.

  20. Raman measurements of substrate temperature in a molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, T.; Nazari, M.; Eridisoorya, M.; Myers, T. M.; Holtz, M., E-mail: Mark.Holtz@txstate.edu [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A method is described for directly measuring the temperature of a substrate in a molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth system. The approach relies on the establishment of the temperature dependence of Raman-active phonons of the substrate material using independently known calibration points across the range of interest. An unknown temperature in this range is then determined based on the Raman peak position with the substrate in situ the MBE chamber. The apparatus relies on conventional optics and Raman components. Shifting and broadening of the Raman spectrum are described based on the effects of thermal expansion and anharmonic decay. The choice of reference temperature is discussed. The method is qualified by examining the substrate temperature dependence, relative to that of a standard thermocouple, during a commonly used ramp procedure. Both temperature difference and time lag are obtained.

  1. Growth of Inclined GaAs Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Theory and Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Dubrovskii, V G; Sibirev, N V; Cirlin, G E; Sartel, C; Tchernycheva, M; Harmand, J C; Glas, F

    2010-07-24

    The growth of inclined GaAs nanowires (NWs) during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on the rotating substrates is studied. The growth model provides explicitly the NW length as a function of radius, supersaturations, diffusion lengths and the tilt angle. Growth experiments are carried out on the GaAs(211)A and GaAs(111)B substrates. It is found that 20° inclined NWs are two times longer in average, which is explained by a larger impingement rate on their sidewalls. We find that the effective diffusion length at 550°C amounts to 12 nm for the surface adatoms and is more than 5,000 nm for the sidewall adatoms. Supersaturations of surface and sidewall adatoms are also estimated. The obtained results show the importance of sidewall adatoms in the MBE growth of NWs, neglected in a number of earlier studies.

  2. High-mobility BaSnO3 grown by oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-mobility perovskite BaSnO3 films are of significant interest as new wide bandgap semiconductors for power electronics, transparent conductors, and as high mobility channels for epitaxial integration with functional perovskites. Despite promising results for single crystals, high-mobility BaSnO3 films have been challenging to grow. Here, we demonstrate a modified oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE approach, which supplies pre-oxidized SnOx. This technique addresses issues in the MBE of ternary stannates related to volatile SnO formation and enables growth of epitaxial, stoichiometric BaSnO3. We demonstrate room temperature electron mobilities of 150 cm2 V−1 s−1 in films grown on PrScO3. The results open up a wide range of opportunities for future electronic devices.

  3. High-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} grown by oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Santosh; Schumann, Timo; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Jack Y.; Cain, Tyler A.; Stemmer, Susanne, E-mail: stemmer@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility perovskite BaSnO{sub 3} films are of significant interest as new wide bandgap semiconductors for power electronics, transparent conductors, and as high mobility channels for epitaxial integration with functional perovskites. Despite promising results for single crystals, high-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} films have been challenging to grow. Here, we demonstrate a modified oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach, which supplies pre-oxidized SnO{sub x}. This technique addresses issues in the MBE of ternary stannates related to volatile SnO formation and enables growth of epitaxial, stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}. We demonstrate room temperature electron mobilities of 150 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} in films grown on PrScO{sub 3}. The results open up a wide range of opportunities for future electronic devices.

  4. ZnS:N and ZnS:N,Ag grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichino, K.; Kotani, A.; Tanaka, H.; Kawai, T. [Department of Information and Electronics, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    The N-doping conditions have been investigated in the growth of ZnS:N by molecular beam epitaxy using RF plasma of N{sub 2} gas. As a result, high growth temperatures are found to be suitable for the effective incorporation and the activation of N acceptors. The capacitance versus voltage data of the ZnS:N layers grown at around 350 C exhibit p-type behavior, while the undoped layers show an n-type characteristic due to residual donors. ZnS:N,Ag epitaxial layers were also grown to investigate the effect of Ag-co-doping. It is shown that the p-type behavior of the N-doped layers is enhanced by the Ag-co-doping. This suggests the formation of Ag-related complex centers compensating residual donors (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Deep levels in Ga-doped ZnSe grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, S.; Pierret, R. F.; Qiu, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Gunshor, R. L.; Kolodziejski, L. A.

    1989-10-01

    Results of a deep-level transient spectroscopy study of Ga-doped ZnSe thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are presented. Two prominent deep levels were observed in all the samples investigated. The concentration of the trap detected at 0.34 eV below the conduction-band edge was essentially independent of the doping concentration and is attributed to native defects arising from Se vacancies in the ZnSe films. The second level with an activation energy of 0.26 eV shows a very strong doping dependence and is tentatively identified as arising from dopant-site (gallium-on-zinc-site) defects complexed with selenium vacancies. Preliminary results also indicate that planar doping of ZnSe significantly reduces the concentration of the Ga-vacancy complex.

  6. Performance and degradation characteristics of blue-violet laser diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, W.S.; Kauer, M.; Hooper, S.E.; Smeeton, T.M.; Bousquet, V.; Rossetti, M.; Heffernan, J. [Sharp Laboratories of Europe Ltd., Edmund Halley Road, Oxford Science Park, Oxford, OX4 4GB (United Kingdom); Xiu, H.; Humphreys, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This paper reports the state of the art performance for blue-violet laser diodes (LD) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Improvements in device design and growth have resulted in a threshold current density of 3.6 kA/cm{sup 2}, which translates into improved cw lifetime of up to 42 hours. Reducing the internal loss resulted in a high cw slope efficiency of 1.08 W/A and a maximum cw output power of 145 mW. To obtain a better understanding of the LD failure mechanism, degraded LDs were analysed using surface mapping techniques such as photoluminescence and electroluminescence on a micrometric scale, which allows the identification of failure regions. These measurements revealed increased nonradiative recombination in localized regions and increased current injection non-uniformities as possible mechanisms for LD performance degradation after aging. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Concentration transient analysis of antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, L. C.; Greene, J. E.; Ni, W.-X.; Hansson, G. V.; Sundgren, J.-E.

    1991-01-01

    Antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was investigated at temperatures T(sub s) = 515 - 800 C using concentration transient analysis (CTA). The dopant surface coverage Theta, bulk fraction gamma, and incorporation probability sigma during MBE were determined from secondary-ion mass spectrometry depth profiles of modulation-doped films. Programmed T(sub s) changes during growth were used to trap the surface-segregated dopant overlayer, producing concentration spikes whose integrated area corresponds to Theta. Thermal antimony doping by coevaporation was found to result in segregation strongly dependent on T(sub s) with Theta(sub Sb) values up to 0.9 monolayers (ML): in films doped with Sb(+) ions accelerated by 100 V, Theta(sub Sb) was less than or equal to 4 x 10(exp -3) ML. Surface segregation of coevaporated antimony was kinematically limited for the film growth conditions in these experiments.

  8. Growth of CuInSe2 by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindle, S. P.; Clark, A. H.; Rezaie-Serej, S.; Falconer, E.; McNeily, J.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    1980-10-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy was used to grow CuInSe2 layers on CdS (001B) and other substrates. Epitaxial growth is obtained at a substrate temperature of 300 C. The ratio of the arrival rates of copper to indium is the key parameter governing layer stoichiometry. To produce low-resistivity p-type layers, the Cu/In arrival rate ratio must be slightly higher than that used to grow nominally stoichiometric layers. This suggests that a different defect is controlling electrical properties, rather than the copper vacancy complex which dominates bulk material. CuInSe2/CdS heterojunctions were fabricated which show a maximum solar conversion efficiency of about 5%.

  9. Formation of GeSn alloy on Si(100) by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talochkin, A. B., E-mail: tal@isp.nsc.ru [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentyev Avenue 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Mashanov, V. I. [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentyev Avenue 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-29

    GeSn alloys grown on Si(100) by the low-temperature (100 °C) molecular beam epitaxy are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the effect of Sn as a surfactant modifies substantially the low-temperature growth mechanism of Ge on Si. Instead of the formation of small Ge islands surrounded by amorphous Ge, in the presence of Sn, the growth of pure Ge islands appears via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, and a partially relaxed Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloy layer with the high Sn-fraction up to 40 at. % is formed in the area between them. It is shown that the observed growth mode induced by high surface mobility of Sn and the large strain of the pseudomorphic state of Ge to Si ensures the minimum elastic-strain energy of the structure.

  10. Ge/GeSn heterostructures grown on Si (100) by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadofyev, Yu. G., E-mail: sadofyev@hotmail.com; Martovitsky, V. P.; Bazalevsky, M. A.; Klekovkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Averyanov, D. V.; Vasil’evskii, I. S. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    The growth of GeSn layers by molecular-beam epitaxy on Si (100) wafers coated with a germanium buffer layer is investigated. The properties of the fabricated structures are controlled by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic-force microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Rutherford backscattering, and Raman scattering. It is shown that GeSn layers with thicknesses up to 0.5 μm and Sn molar fractions up to 0.073 manifest no sign of plastic relaxation upon epitaxy. The lattice constant of the GeSn layers within the growth plane is precisely the same as that of Ge. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the conversion of metastable elastically strained GeSn layers into a plastically relaxed state is examined. Ge/GeSn quantum wells with Sn molar fraction up to 0.11 are obtained.

  11. Infrared electroluminescence from GeSn heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Jay Prakash; Bhargava, Nupur; Kim, Sangcheol; Kolodzey, James [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Adam, Thomas [Nanofab, University of Albany, SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2013-06-24

    Infrared electroluminescence was observed from GeSn/Ge p-n heterojunction diodes with 8% Sn, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The GeSn layers were boron doped, compressively strained, and pseudomorphic on Ge substrates. Spectral measurements indicated an emission peak at 0.57 eV, about 50 meV wide, increasing in intensity with applied pulsed current, and with reducing device temperatures. The total integrated emitted power from a single edge facet was 54 {mu}W at an applied peak current of 100 mA at 100 K. These results suggest that GeSn-based materials maybe useful for practical light emitting diodes operating in the infrared wavelength range near 2 {mu}m.

  12. Infrared photoresponse of GeSn/n-Ge heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangcheol; Bhargava, Nupur; Gupta, Jay; Coppinger, Matthew; Kolodzey, James

    2014-05-05

    Heterojunction devices of Ge(1-x)Sn(x) / n-Ge were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the mid-infrared (IR) photocurrent response was measured. With increasing Sn composition from 4% to 12%, the photocurrent spectra became red-shifted, suggesting that the bandgap of Ge(1-x)Sn(x) alloys was lowered compared to pure Ge. At a temperature of 100 K, the wavelengths of peak photocurrent were shifted from 1.42 µm for pure Ge (0% Sn) to 2.0 µm for 12% Sn. The bias dependence of the device response showed that the optimum reverse bias was > 0.5 volts for saturated photocurrent. The responsivity of the Ge(1-x)Sn(x) devices was estimated to be 0.17 A/W for 4% Sn. These results suggest that Ge(1-x)Sn(x) photodetectors may have practical applications in the near/mid IR wavelength regime.

  13. Lattice constant and substitutional composition of GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, Nupur; Coppinger, Matthew; Prakash Gupta, Jay; Kolodzey, James [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Wielunski, Leszek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2013-07-22

    Single crystal epitaxial Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys with atomic fractions of tin up to x = 0.145 were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy on Ge (001) substrates. The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys formed high quality, coherent, strained layers at growth temperatures below 250 °C, as shown by high resolution X-ray diffraction. The amount of Sn that was on lattice sites, as determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling, was found to be above 90% substitutional in all alloys. The degree of strain and the dependence of the effective unstrained bulk lattice constant of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys versus the composition of Sn have been determined.

  14. Intense terahertz emission from molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs/GaSb(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadia, Cyril P.; Laganapan, Aleena Maria; Agatha Tumanguil, Mae; Estacio, Elmer; Somintac, Armando; Salvador, Arnel [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Que, Christopher T. [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 1004 (Philippines); Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Intense terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave emission was observed in undoped GaAs thin films deposited on (100) n-GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. GaAs/n-GaSb heterostructures were found to be viable THz sources having signal amplitude 75% that of bulk p-InAs. The GaAs films were grown by interruption method during the growth initiation and using various metamorphic buffer layers. Reciprocal space maps revealed that the GaAs epilayers are tensile relaxed. Defects at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb interface were confirmed by scanning electron microscope images. Band calculations were performed to infer the depletion region and electric field at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb and the air-GaAs interfaces. However, the resulting band calculations were found to be insufficient to explain the THz emission. The enhanced THz emission is currently attributed to a piezoelectric field induced by incoherent strain and defects.

  15. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  16. Effect of Nitridation on the Regrowth Interface of AlGaN/GaN Structures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on GaN Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yuen-Yee; Huang, Wei-Ching; Trinh, Hai-Dang; Yang, Tsung-Hsi; Chang, Jet-Rung; Chen, Micheal; Chang, Edward Yi

    2012-08-01

    AlGaN/GaN structures were regrown on GaN templates using plasma- assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Prior to the regrowth, nitridation was performed using nitrogen plasma in the MBE chamber for different durations (0 min to 30 min). Direct-current measurements on high-electron-mobility transistor devices showed that good pinch-off characteristics and good interdevice isolation were achieved for samples prepared with a 30-min nitridation process. Current-voltage measurements on Schottky barrier diodes also revealed that, for samples prepared without nitridation, the reverse-bias gate leakage current was approximately two orders of magnitudes larger than that of samples prepared with a 30-min nitridation process. The improvement in the electrical properties is a result of contaminant removal at the regrowth interface which may be induced by the etching effect of nitridation.

  17. Alloy formation during molecular beam epitaxy growth of Si-doped InAs nanowires on GaAs[111]B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydok, Anton; Rieger, Torsten; Biermanns, Andreas; Saqib, Muhammad; Grap, Thomas; Lepsa, Mihail Ion; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-08-01

    Vertically aligned InAs nanowires (NWs) doped with Si were grown self-assisted by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs[111]B substrates covered with a thin SiO x layer. Using out-of-plane X-ray diffraction, the influence of Si supply on the growth process and nanostructure formation was studied. It was found that the number of parasitic crystallites grown between the NWs increases with increasing Si flux. In addition, the formation of a Ga0.2In0.8As alloy was observed if the growth was performed on samples covered by a defective oxide layer. This alloy formation is observed within the crystallites and not within the nanowires. The Ga concentration is determined from the lattice mismatch of the crystallites relative to the InAs nanowires. No alloy formation is found for samples with faultless oxide layers.

  18. Defect-free zinc-blende structured InAs nanowires realized by in situ two V/III ratio growth in molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2015-08-07

    In this study, we devised a two-V/III-ratio procedure to control the Au-assisted growth of defect-free InAs nanowires in molecular beam epitaxy. The demonstrated two V/III ratio procedure consists of a first high V/III ratio growth step to prepare the nanowire foundation on the substrate surface, followed by a low V/III ratio step to induce the nanowire growth. By manipulating the V/III ratios in different steps, we have achieved the controlled growth of pure defect-free zinc-blende structured InAs nanowires on the GaAs {1̄1̄1̄} substrates. This study provides an approach to control not only the crystal structure of semiconductor nanowires, but also their structural qualities.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires and fabrication of InAs nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Torsten; Luysberg, Martina; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lepsa, Mihail Ion

    2012-11-14

    We present results about the growth of GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires (NWs) using molecular beam epitaxy. The core is grown via the Ga droplet-assisted growth mechanism. For a homogeneous growth of the InAs shell, the As(4) flux and substrate temperature are critical. The shell growth starts with InAs islands along the NW core, which increase in time and merge giving finally a continuous and smooth layer. At the top of the NWs, a small part of the core is free of InAs indicating a crystal phase selective growth. This allows a precise measurement of the shell thickness and the fabrication of InAs nanotubes by selective etching. The strain relaxation in the shell occurs mainly via the formation of misfit dislocations and saturates at ~80%. Additionally, other types of defects are observed, namely stacking faults transferred from the core or formed in the shell, and threading dislocations.

  20. Interfacial structure of molecular beam epitaxial grown cubic-GaN films on GaAs(001) probed by x-ray gazing-angle specular reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    We report on a study of interfacial structure of GaN films grown on GaAs(001) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using x-ray grazing-angle specular reflection.We show that interfacial layers with electron densities differing from those of GaN and GaAs were formed upon deposition of GaN.It is also found that the interfacial structure of our systems depends strongly on the course of the initial layer deposition.The phase purity of the GaN films was examined by x-ray reciprocal space mapping.A simple kinetic growth model suggested by our results has been presented.

  1. Laser assisted modification and chemical metallization of electron-beam deposited ceria thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumov, E., E-mail: emodk@clf.bas.bg [Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses ' Acad. Jordan Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgy Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Starbov, N.; Starbova, K. [Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses ' Acad. Jordan Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgy Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Perea, A.; Solis, J. [Instituto de Optica ' Daza de Valdes' , CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Excimer laser processing is applied for tailoring the surface morphology and phase composition of CeO{sub 2} ceramic thin films. E-beam evaporation technique is used to deposit samples on stainless steel and silicate glass substrates. The films are then irradiated with ArF* excimer laser pulses under different exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscopy, optical spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry and EDS microanalysis are used to characterize the non-irradiated and laser-processed films. Upon UV laser exposure there is large increase of the surface roughness that is accompanied by photo-darkening and ceria reduction. It is shown that the laser induced changes in the CeO{sub 2} films facilitate the deposition of metal nano-aggregates in a commercial copper electroless plating bath. The significance of laser modification as a novel approach for the production of CeO{sub 2} based thin film catalysts is discussed.

  2. High-speed laser-assisted cutting of strong transparent materials using picosecond Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, M. K.; Jedrkiewicz, O.; Sabonis, V.; Mikutis, M.; Recchia, S.; Aprea, A.; Bollani, M.; Trapani, P. Di

    2015-08-01

    We report single-pass cutting of strong transparent glass materials of 700 μm thickness with a speed up to 270 mm/s using single-shot nanostructuring technique exploiting picosecond, zero-order Bessel beams at laser wavelength of 1030 nm. Particularly, we present results of a systematic study of cutting of tempered glass which has high resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks due to the inhomogeneous material properties along its thickness, and homogeneous glass that identify a unique focusing geometry and a finite pitch dependency, for which cutting with high quality and high reproducibility can be achieved. These results represent a significant advancement in the field of high-speed cutting of technologically important transparent materials.

  3. Focused-ion-beam-assisted fabrication of polymer rolled-up microtubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchnikov, V.; Stamm, M.; Akhmadaliev, Ch; Bischoff, L.; Schmidt, B.

    2006-08-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) has been applied to the fabrication of polymer microtubes via the rolling-up technique from poly(4-vinyl pyridine)/polystyrene bilayer films deposited on the top of a sacrificial aluminum layer covering a silicon wafer. The bending forces in the film arise due to different swelling of the bilayer components in acidic water and lead to rolling of the film. The dimensions and position of the rolled-up tubes can be controlled by FIB milling (sputtering) of geometrically well-adjusted openings in the polymer films. This technique can be applied to the structuring of scrolled films formed from different materials without the use of lithographically patterned photoresists. The geometrical patterning of the tube interior can also be done by FIB irradiation.

  4. Realization of Cu-Doped p-Type ZnO Thin Films by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suja, Mohammad; Bashar, Sunayna B; Morshed, Muhammad M; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-04-29

    Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films, and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54 × 10(18) cm(-3), a low resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm, and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films, and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, Raman, and absorption spectroscopies are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO.

  5. Clinical and molecular analyses of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: Comparison between spontaneous conception and assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Jair; Romanelli, Valeria; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Fernández, García-Moya; Segovia, Mabel; Perandones, Claudia; Pérez Jurado, Luis A; Esteller, Manel; Fraga, Mario; Arias, Pedro; Gordo, Gema; Dapía, Irene; Mena, Rocío; Palomares, María; Pérez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Nevado, Julián; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Martinez-Glez, Víctor; Vallespín, Elena; Monk, David; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by an excessive prenatal and postnatal growth, macrosomia, macroglossia, and hemihyperplasia. The molecular basis of this syndrome is complex and heterogeneous, involving genes located at 11p15.5. BWS is correlated with assisted reproductive techniques. BWS in individuals born following assisted reproductive techniques has been found to occur four to nine times higher compared to children with to BWS born after spontaneous conception. Here, we report a series of 187 patients with to BWS born either after assisted reproductive techniques or conceived naturally. Eighty-eight percent of BWS patients born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR in comparison with 49% for patients with BWS conceived naturally. None of the patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had hypermethylation of H19/IGF2:IG-DMR, neither CDKN1 C mutations nor patUPD11. We did not find differences in the frequency of multi-locus imprinting disturbances between groups. Patients with BWS born via assisted reproductive techniques had an increased frequency of advanced bone age, congenital heart disease, and decreased frequency of earlobe anomalies but these differences may be explained by the different molecular background compared to those with BWS and spontaneous fertilization. We conclude there is a correlation of the molecular etiology of BWS with the type of conception. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Growth of SrVO{sub 3} thin films by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Craig; Brahlek, Matthew; Engel-Herbert, Roman, E-mail: rue2@psu.edu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Moyer, Jarrett A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Alipour, Hamideh M.; Grimley, Everett D.; LeBeau, James M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The authors report the growth of stoichiometric SrVO{sub 3} thin films on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (001) substrates using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy. This growth approach employs a conventional effusion cell to supply elemental A-site Sr and the metalorganic precursor vanadium oxytriisopropoxide (VTIP) to supply vanadium. Oxygen is supplied in its molecular form through a gas inlet. An optimal VTIP:Sr flux ratio has been identified using reflection high-energy electron-diffraction, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, demonstrating stoichiometric SrVO{sub 3} films with atomically flat surface morphology. Away from the optimal VTIP:Sr flux, characteristic changes in the crystalline structure and surface morphology of the films were found, enabling identification of the type of nonstoichiometry. For optimal VTIP:Sr flux ratios, high quality SrVO{sub 3} thin films were obtained with smallest deviation of the lattice parameter from the ideal value and with atomically smooth surfaces, indicative of the good cation stoichiometry achieved by this growth technique.

  7. A cryogenic buffer gas cooled beam of BaH for molecular laser cooling and ultracold fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Geoffrey; Tarallo, Marco G.; Soerensen, Fabian; Zelevinsky, Tanya

    2015-05-01

    Laser cooled and trapped molecules promise many possibilities to explore a variety of fields such as many-body physics, quantum collisions and dissociation, and precision measurement. We report on an experiment for cooling and trapping barium monohydride (BaH) diatomic molecules. We present a cryogenic buffer gas cooling apparatus for producing a 4 K beam of BaH, and describe the laser cooling schemes necessary to load a molecular magneto-optical trap from that beam. Current progress includes identification of the cooling transitions in the BaH B2 Σ molecules and construction of the molecular beam. The large mass ratio of constituent atoms in BaH makes this system attractive for future studies of ultracold fragmentation, potentially resulting in samples of ultracold hydrogen atoms.

  8. X-rays diffraction on a new chromium oxide single-crystal thin film prepared by molecular beam epitaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, X. S.; Hak, S.; Hibma, T.; Rogojanu, O. C.; Struth, B.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium oxide films were prepared on MgO substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The crystalline structure of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) with conventional as well as synchrotron X-ray sources. The theta-2 theta spectra showed that the film was a new chromium oxide epitaxia

  9. Twisted intramolecular charge transfer states : rotationally resolved fluorescence excitation spectra of 4,4 '-dimethylaminobenzonitrile in a molecular beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolaev, A.E.; Myszkiewicz, G.; Berden, G.; Meerts, W.L.; Pfanstiel, J.F.; Pratt, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation at high resolution of seven vibronic bands that appear within similar to200 cm(-1) of the electronic origin in the S-1-S-0 fluorescence excitation spectrum of 4,4(')-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) in a molecular beam. Surprisingly, each band is found to be split into two

  10. Decreased bacterial growth on titanium nanoscale topographies created by ion beam assisted evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzoff, Michelle; Burns, Jason E; Aslani, Arash; Tobin, Eric J; Nguyen, Congtin; De La Torre, Nicholas; Golshan, Negar H; Ziemer, Katherine S; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Titanium is one of the most widely used materials for orthopedic implants, yet it has exhibited significant complications in the short and long term, largely resulting from poor cell–material interactions. Among these many modes of failure, bacterial infection at the site of implantation has become a greater concern with the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Nanostructured surfaces have been found to prevent bacterial colonization on many surfaces, including nanotextured titanium. In many cases, specific nanoscale roughness values and resulting surface energies have been considered to be “bactericidal”; here, we explore the use of ion beam evaporation as a novel technique to create nanoscale topographical features that can reduce bacterial density. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between the roughness and titanium nanofeature shapes and sizes, in which smaller, more regularly spaced nanofeatures (specifically 40–50 nm tall peaks spaced ~0.25 μm apart) were found to have more effect than surfaces with high roughness values alone. PMID:28223804

  11. Gas-assisted electron-beam-induced nanopatterning of high-quality titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanova, A. V.; Costanzi, B. N.; Aristov, A. I.; Rikers, Y. G. M.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Kabashin, A. V.; Dahlberg, E. Dan; Belova, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition of titanium oxide nanopatterns is described. The precursor is titanium tetra-isopropoxide, delivered to the deposition point through a needle and mixed with oxygen at the same point via a flow through a separate needle. The depositions are free of residual carbon and have an EDX determined stoichiometry of TiO2.2. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal an amorphous structure of the fabricated titanium oxide. Ellipsometric characterization of the deposited material reveals a refractive index of 2.2-2.4 RIU in the spectral range of 500-1700 nm and a very low extinction coefficient (lower than 10-6 in the range of 400-1700 nm), which is consistent with high quality titanium oxide. The electrical resistivity of the titanium oxide patterned with this new process is in the range of 10-40 GΩ cm and the measured breakdown field is in the range of 10-70 V μm-1. The fabricated nanopatterns are important for a variety of applications, including field-effect transistors, memory devices, MEMS, waveguide structures, bio- and chemical sensors.

  12. Decreased bacterial growth on titanium nanoscale topographies created by ion beam assisted evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolzoff M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Stolzoff,1 Jason E Burns,2 Arash Aslani,2 Eric J Tobin,2 Congtin Nguyen,1 Nicholas De La Torre,3 Negar H Golshan,3 Katherine S Ziemer,3 Thomas J Webster1,3,4 1Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, 2N2 Biomedical, Bedford, MA, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 4Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, University of King Abdulaziz, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Titanium is one of the most widely used materials for orthopedic implants, yet it has exhibited significant complications in the short and long term, largely resulting from poor cell–material interactions. Among these many modes of failure, bacterial infection at the site of implantation has become a greater concern with the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Nanostructured surfaces have been found to prevent bacterial colonization on many surfaces, including nanotextured titanium. In many cases, specific nanoscale roughness values and resulting surface energies have been considered to be “bactericidal”; here, we explore the use of ion beam evaporation as a novel technique to create nanoscale topographical features that can reduce bacterial density. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between the roughness and titanium nanofeature shapes and sizes, in which smaller, more regularly spaced nanofeatures (specifically 40–50 nm tall peaks spaced ~0.25 µm apart were found to have more effect than surfaces with high roughness values alone. Keywords: titanium, nanostructures, bacteria, bone ingrowth, surface roughness, IBAD 

  13. Copper ion implanted aluminum nitride dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) prepared by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A., E-mail: attaullah77@yahoo.com [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); DMME, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Science (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Jamil [DMME, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Science (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Ishaq [Experimental Physics Lab, National Center for Physics (NCP), Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar [DMME, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Science (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, Arshad [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rasheed, Muhammad Asim [DMME, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Science (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • AlN:Cu dilute magnetic semiconductors were successfully prepared by molecular beam epitaxy followed by Cu{sup +} implantation. • Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed after annealing the samples at appropriate temperature. • XRD and Raman spectrometry excluded the possibility of formation of any secondary phases. • By doping intrinsically nonmagnetic dopants (Cu), it has been proved experimentally that their precipitates do not contribute to ferromagnetism. • The reason for ferromagnetism in Cu-doped AlN as observed was explained on the basis of p–d hybridization mechanism (Wu et al.). - Abstract: Diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) AlN:Cu films were fabricated by implanting Cu{sup +} ions into AlN thin films at various ion fluxes. AlN films were deposited on c-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy followed by Cu{sup +} ion implantation. The structural and magnetic characterization of the samples was performed through Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS/C), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and SQUID. Incorporation of copper into the AlN lattice was confirmed by RBS, while XRD revealed that no new phase was formed as a result of ion implantation. RBS also indicated formation of defects as a result of implantation process and the depth and degree of damage increased with an increase in ion fluence. Raman spectra showed only E{sub 2} (high) and A{sub 1} (LO) modes of wurtzite AlN crystal structure and confirmed that no secondary phases were formed. It was found that both Raman modes shift with Cu{sup +} fluences, indicating that Cu ion may go to interstitial or substitutional sites resulting in distortion or damage of lattice. Although as implanted samples showed no magnetization, annealing of the samples resulted in appearance of room temperature ferromagnetism. The saturation magnetization increased with both the annealing temperature as well as with ion

  14. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams. Proceedings of workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory, August 20-21, 1979. [Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmell, D.S. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The Workshop on Physics with Fast Molecular-Ion Beams was held in the Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory on August 20 and 21, 1979. The meeting brought together representatives from several groups studying the interactions of fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams with matter. By keeping the Workshop program sharply focussed on current work related to the interactions of fast molecular ions, it was made possible for the participants to engage in vigorous and detailed discussions concerning such specialized topics as molecular-ion dissociation and transmission, wake effects, ionic charge states, cluster stopping powers, beam-foil spectroscopy, electron-emissions studies with molecular-ion beams, and molecular-ion structure determinations.

  15. Approaching Defect-free Amorphous Silicon Nitride by Plasma-assisted Atomic Beam Deposition for High Performance Gate Dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shu-Ju; Wang, Chiang-Lun; Lee, Hung-Chun; Lin, Chun-Yeh; Chen, Jhih-Wei; Shiu, Hong-Wei; Chang, Lo-Yueh; Hsueh, Han-Ting; Chen, Hung-Ying; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tu, Li-Wei; Teng, Hsisheng; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hao; Wu, Chung-Lin

    2016-06-01

    In the past few decades, gate insulators with a high dielectric constant (high-k dielectric) enabling a physically thick but dielectrically thin insulating layer, have been used to replace traditional SiOx insulator and to ensure continuous downscaling of Si-based transistor technology. However, due to the non-silicon derivative natures of the high-k metal oxides, transport properties in these dielectrics are still limited by various structural defects on the hetero-interfaces and inside the dielectrics. Here, we show that another insulating silicon compound, amorphous silicon nitride (a-Si3N4), is a promising candidate of effective electrical insulator for use as a high-k dielectric. We have examined a-Si3N4 deposited using the plasma-assisted atomic beam deposition (PA-ABD) technique in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment and demonstrated the absence of defect-related luminescence; it was also found that the electronic structure across the a-Si3N4/Si heterojunction approaches the intrinsic limit, which exhibits large band gap energy and valence band offset. We demonstrate that charge transport properties in the metal/a-Si3N4/Si (MNS) structures approach defect-free limits with a large breakdown field and a low leakage current. Using PA-ABD, our results suggest a general strategy to markedly improve the performance of gate dielectric using a nearly defect-free insulator.

  16. Gaussian Schell Source as Model for Slit-Collimated Atomic and Molecular Beams

    CERN Document Server

    McMorran, Ben

    2008-01-01

    We show how to make a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam. Then we compare the intensity profile, the transverse coherence width and the divergence angle of a GSM beam with those same properties of a beam that is collimated with two hard-edged slits. This work offers an intuitive way to understand various interferometer designs, and we compare our results with data.

  17. Growth of (110) GaAs/GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parechanian, L. T.; Weber, E. R.; Hierl, T. L.

    1985-04-01

    The simultaneous molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of (100) and (110) GaAs/GaAs intentionally doped with Si(-1E16/cu cm) was studied as a function of substrate temperature, arsenic overpressure, and epitaxial growth rate. The films were analyzed by scanning electron and optical microscopy, liquid helium photoluminescence (PL), and electronic characterization. For the (110) epitaxial layers, an increase in morphological defect density and degradation of PL signal was observed with a lowering of the substrate temperature from 570 C. Capacitance-voltage (CV) and Hall effect measurements yield room temperature donor concentrations for the (100) films of n-7E15/ cu cm while the (110) layers exhibit electron concentrations of n-2E17/cu cm. Hall measuremtns at 77k on the (100) films show the expected mobility enhancement of Si donors, whereas the (110) epi layers become insulating or greatly compensated. This behavior suggests that room temperature conduction in the (110) films is due to a deeper donor partially compensated by an acceptor level whose concentration is of the smae order of magnitude as that of any electrically active Si. Temperature dependent Hall effect indicates that the activation energy of the deeper donor level lies -145 meV from the conduction band.

  18. Magnetotransport in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, S., E-mail: stephane.andrieu@univ-lorraine.fr; Bonell, F.; Hauet, T.; Montaigne, F. [Institut Jean Lamour, Nancy University/CNRS, Bd des Aiguillettes, BP239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Calmels, L.; Snoeck, E. [CEMES, CNRS and Toulouse University, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Lefevre, P.; Bertran, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL-CNRS, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2014-05-07

    The strong impact of molecular beam epitaxy growth and Synchrotron Radiation characterization tools in the understanding of fundamental issues in nanomagnetism and spintronics is illustrated through the example of fully epitaxial MgO-based Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJs). If ab initio calculations predict very high tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in such devices, some discrepancy between theory and experiments still exists. The influence of imperfections in real systems has thus to be considered like surface contaminations, structural defects, unexpected electronic states, etc. The influence of possible oxygen contamination at the Fe/MgO(001) interface is thus studied, and is shown to be not so detrimental to TMR as predicted by ab initio calculations. On the contrary, the decrease of dislocations density in the MgO barrier of MTJs using Fe{sub 1−x}V{sub x} electrodes is shown to significantly increase TMR. Finally, unexpected transport properties in Fe{sub 1−X}Co{sub x}/MgO/Fe{sub 1−X}Co{sub x} (001) are presented. With the help of spin and symmetry resolved photoemission and ab initio calculation, the TMR decrease for Co content higher than 25% is shown to come from the existence of an interface state and the shift of the empty Δ1 minority spin state towards the Fermi level.

  19. Growth of very large InN microcrystals by molecular beam epitaxy using epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, J., E-mail: kamimura@pdi-berlin.de [Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Kishino, K.; Kikuchi, A. [Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Sophia Nanotechnology Research Center, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)

    2015-02-28

    Very thick InN (∼40 μm) was grown by molecular beam epitaxy using the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique. In some regions, the ELO of InN was observed as expected, indicating an important step toward fabricating quasi-bulk InN substrates. Interestingly, most parts of the sample consist of large flat-topped microcrystals and well-faceted microstructures. This is likely due to local growth condition variations during ELO, which is supported by an experiment where ELO of InN was performed on a substrate with various stripe mask patterns. TEM characterization of a flat top InN microcrystal revealed few stacking faults and only related threading dislocations. Defect-free small faceted microcrystals were also observed. The thick InN crystals show a narrow photoluminescence spectrum with a peak at 0.679 eV and linewidth of 16.8 meV at 4 K.

  20. The gas density measurement of one long distance supersonic molecular beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Han, J. F.; Chen, Z. Y.; Bai, L. X.; Zhou, J. X.

    2016-12-01

    The gas density of the supersonic molecular beam (SMB) is a crucial parameter for the fueling or diagnostic process in the tokamak experiments. Using the microphone, one improved method of gas density measurement is proposed, which can greatly improve the measurement capacity by about 3 orders of magnitude by studying the pulsed signal characteristic of the microphone when it is pushed by the SMB. The gas density of the SMB is measured within the axial range of 20-2000 mm, and the axial central density at 2000 mm is about 100 times less than that at 20 mm. It is also found that the radial density distribution follows the Gaussian function in both free expansion (where the SMB can expand freely without any influence from the vacuum chamber) and restricted expansion (where the expansion of the SMB is restricted inside the flight tube of the vacuum system). And the axial central density decreases with the axial distance, which follows the inverse square law in the free expansion, but it deviates from this law in the restricted expansion.

  1. Multiferroic fluoride BaCoF4 Thin Films Grown Via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Pavel; Johnson, Trent; García-Castro, Camilo; Kc, Amit; Schrecongost, Dustin; Cen, Cheng; Romero, Aldo; Lederman, David

    Multiferroic materials exhibit exciting physics related to the simultaneous presence of multiple long-range orders, in many cases consisting of antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferroelectric (FE) orderings. In order to provide a new, promising route for fluoride-based multiferroic material engineering, we grew multiferroic fluoride BaCoF4 in thin film form on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The films grow with the orthorhombic b-axis out-of-plane and with three in-plane structural twin domains along the polar c-axis directions. The FE ordering in thin films was verified by FE remanent hysteresis loops measurements at T = 14 K and by room temperature piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). An AF behavior was found below Neel temperature TN ~ 80 K, which is in agreement with the bulk properties. At lower temperatures two additional magnetic phase transitions at 19 K and 41 K were found. First-principles calculations demonstrated that the growth strain applied to the bulk BaCoF4 indeed favors two canted spin orders, along the b- and a-axes, respectively, in addition to the main AF spin order along the c-axis. Supported by FAME (Contract 2013-MA-2382), WV Research Challenge Grant (HEPC.dsr.12.29), and DMREF-NSF 1434897.

  2. Temperature stabilized effusion cell evaporation source for thin film deposition and molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, H. F.; Brodie, D. E.

    2000-05-01

    A simple effusion cell evaporation source for thin film deposition and molecular-beam epitaxy is described. The source consists of a crucible with a thermocouple temperature sensor heated by a resistive crucible heater. Radiation heat transfer from the crucible to the thermocouple produces a consistent and reproducible thermocouple temperature for a given crucible temperature, without direct contact between the thermocouple and the crucible. The thermocouple temperature is somewhat less than the actual crucible temperature because of heat flow from the thermocouple junction along the thermocouple lead wires. In a typical case, the thermocouple temperature is 1007 °C while the crucible is at 1083 °C. The crucible temperature stability is estimated from the measured sensitivity of the evaporation rate of indium to temperature, and the observed variations in the evaporation rate for a fixed thermocouple temperature. The crucible temperature peak-to-peak variation over a one hour period is 1.2 °C. Machined molybdenum crucibles were used in the indium and copper sources for depositing CuInSe2 thin films for solar cells.

  3. Impact of extended defects on recombination in CdTe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine N.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Swartz, Craig H.; Dippo, Pat; Edirisooriya, Madhavie; Ogedengbe, Olanrewaju S.; Sohal, Sandeep; Hancock, Bobby L.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth G.; Jayathilaka, Pathiraja A. R. D.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Myers, Thomas H.

    2016-08-01

    Heterostructures with CdTe and CdTe1-xSex (x ˜ 0.01) absorbers between two wider-band-gap Cd1-xMgxTe barriers (x ˜ 0.25-0.3) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to study carrier generation and recombination in bulk materials with passivated interfaces. Using a combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and low-temperature PL emission spectroscopy, two extended defect types were identified and the impact of these defects on charge-carrier recombination was analyzed. The dominant defects identified by confocal PL were dislocations in samples grown on (211)B CdTe substrates and crystallographic twinning-related defects in samples on (100)-oriented InSb substrates. Low-temperature PL shows that twin-related defects have a zero-phonon energy of 1.460 eV and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.50, while dislocation-dominated samples have a 1.473-eV zero-phonon energy and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.22. The charge carrier diffusion length near both types of defects is ˜6 μm, suggesting that recombination is limited by diffusion dynamics. For heterostructures with a low concentration of extended defects, the bulk lifetime was determined to be 2.2 μs with an interface recombination velocity of 160 cm/s and an estimated radiative lifetime of 91 μs.

  4. Polarized infrared reflectance study of free standing cubic GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.C., E-mail: saicheonglee86@yahoo.com [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ng, S.S.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, N. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Novikov, S.V.; Foxon, C.T.; Kent, A.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Optical properties of free standing cubic gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy system are investigated by a polarized infrared (IR) reflectance technique. A strong reststrahlen band, which reveals the bulk-like optical phonon frequencies, is observed. Meanwhile, continuous oscillation fringes, which indicate the sample consists of two homogeneous layers with different dielectric constants, are observed in the non-reststrahlen region. By obtaining the first derivative of polarized IR reflectance spectra measured at higher angles of incidence, extra phonon resonances are identified at the edges of the reststrahlen band. The observations are verified with the theoretical results simulated based on a multi-oscillator model. - Highlights: • First time experimental studies of IR optical phonons in bulk like, cubic GaN layer. • Detection of extra phonon modes of cubic GaN by polarized IR reflectance technique. • Revelation of IR multiphonon modes of cubic GaN by first derivative numerical method. • Observation of multiphonon modes requires very high angle of incidence. • Resonance splitting effect induced by third phonon mode is a qualitative indicator.

  5. Hybrid molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Abhinav, E-mail: praka019@umn.edu; Dewey, John; Yun, Hwanhui; Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Jalan, Bharat, E-mail: bjalan@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Owing to its high room-temperature electron mobility and wide bandgap, BaSnO{sub 3} has recently become of significant interest for potential room-temperature oxide electronics. A hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach for the growth of high-quality BaSnO{sub 3} films is developed in this work. This approach employs hexamethylditin as a chemical precursor for tin, an effusion cell for barium, and a radio frequency plasma source for oxygen. BaSnO{sub 3} films were thus grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) and LaAlO{sub 3} (001) substrates. Growth conditions for stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3} were identified. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations, characteristic of a layer-by-layer growth mode were observed. A critical thickness of ∼1 nm for strain relaxation was determined for films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} using in situ RHEED. Scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed the cube-on-cube epitaxy and composition. The importance of precursor chemistry is discussed in the context of the MBE growth of BaSnO{sub 3}.

  6. Thermal Stability of Annealed Germanium-Tin Alloys Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nupur; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Faleev, Nikolai; Wielunski, Leszek; Kolodzey, James

    2017-01-01

    The thermal stability of undoped and boron-doped germanium tin (Ge1-x Sn x ) alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy with varying composition and layer thickness was investigated. The alloys were annealed in forming gas at various temperatures up to 800°C for 1 min using rapid thermal processing, and were characterized using high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It was found that the Ge1-x Sn x alloys were stable to well above the growth temperature, but the stability decreased with increasing thickness, Sn content, and doping. Ge1-x Sn x alloys with low Sn composition (x ˜ 0.025) were stable up to 700°C, and for a given Sn composition, the undoped alloys were more thermally stable than the doped alloys. As the thickness of the Ge0.975Sn0.025 alloys increased to about 950 nm, the temperature of thermal stability dropped to 500°C. As the Sn composition of the 90 nm-Ge1-x Sn x alloys increased up to x = 0.08, the temperature of thermal stability dropped to 300°C. At higher annealing temperatures, the Ge1-x Sn x alloy degraded with lower crystal quality, and a gradient in the Sn composition appeared, which may be due to Sn diffusion or segregation.

  7. Growth of GaN nanowall network on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Aihua; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2012-12-27

    GaN nanowall network was epitaxially grown on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. GaN nanowalls overlap and interlace with one another, together with large numbers of holes, forming a continuous porous GaN nanowall network. The width of the GaN nanowall can be controlled, ranging from 30 to 200 nm by adjusting the N/Ga ratio. Characterization results of a transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction show that the GaN nanowall is well oriented along the C axis. Strong band edge emission centered at 363 nm is observed in the spectrum of room temperature photoluminescence, indicating that the GaN nanowall network is of high quality. The sheet resistance of the Si-doped GaN nanowall network along the lateral direction was 58 Ω/. The conductive porous nanowall network can be useful for integrated gas sensors due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and electrical conductivity along the lateral direction by combining with Si micromachining.

  8. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of High Crystalline Quality LiNbO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Shank, Joshua C.; Goorsky, Mark S.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2016-12-01

    Lithium niobate is a multi-functional material with wide reaching applications in acoustics, optics, and electronics. Commercial applications for lithium niobate require high crystalline quality currently limited to bulk and ion sliced material. Thin film lithium niobate is an attractive option for a variety of integrated devices, but the research effort has been stagnant due to poor material quality. Both lattice matched and mismatched lithium niobate are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and studied to understand the role of substrate and temperature on nucleation conditions and material quality. Growth on sapphire produces partially coalesced columnar grains with atomically flat plateaus and no twin planes. A symmetric rocking curve shows a narrow linewidth with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 8.6 arcsec (0.0024°), which is comparable to the 5.8 arcsec rocking curve FWHM of the substrate, while the film asymmetric rocking curve is 510 arcsec FWHM. These values indicate that the individual grains are relatively free of long-range disorder detectable by x-ray diffraction with minimal measurable tilt and twist and represents the highest structural quality epitaxial material grown on lattice mismatched sapphire without twin planes. Lithium niobate is also grown on lithium tantalate producing high quality coalesced material without twin planes and with a symmetric rocking curve of 193 arcsec, which is nearly equal to the substrate rocking curve of 194 arcsec. The surface morphology of lithium niobate on lithium tantalate is shown to be atomically flat by atomic force microscopy.

  9. Formation of Ga droplets on patterned GaAs (100) by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yu; Hirono, Yusuke; Koukourinkova, Sabina D; Sui, Mao; Song, Sangmin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon; Salamo, Gregory J

    2012-10-03

    In this paper, the formation of Ga droplets on photo-lithographically patterned GaAs (100) and the control of the size and density of Ga droplets by droplet epitaxy using molecular beam epitaxy are demonstrated. In extension of our previous result from the journal Physical Status Solidi A, volume 209 in 2012, the sharp contrast of the size and density of Ga droplets is clearly observed by high-resolution scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Also, additional monolayer (ML) coverage is added to strength the result. The density of droplets is an order of magnitude higher on the trench area (etched area), while the size of droplets is much larger on the strip top area (un-etched area). A systematic variation of ML coverage results in an establishment of the control of size and density of Ga droplets. The cross-sectional line profile analysis and root mean square roughness analysis show that the trench area (etched area) is approximately six times rougher. The atomic surface roughness is suggested to be the main cause of the sharp contrast of the size and density of Ga droplets and is discussed in terms of surface diffusion.

  10. Dynamic layer rearrangement during growth of layered oxide films by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Luo, G; Tung, I C; Chang, S H; Luo, Z; Malshe, M; Gadre, M; Bhattacharya, A; Nakhmanson, S M; Eastman, J A; Hong, H; Jellinek, J; Morgan, D; Fong, D D; Freeland, J W

    2014-09-01

    The A(n+1)B(n)O(3n+1) Ruddlesden-Popper homologous series offers a wide variety of functionalities including dielectric, ferroelectric, magnetic and catalytic properties. Unfortunately, the synthesis of such layered oxides has been a major challenge owing to the occurrence of growth defects that result in poor materials behaviour in the higher-order members. To understand the fundamental physics of layered oxide growth, we have developed an oxide molecular beam epitaxy system with in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering capability. We present results demonstrating that layered oxide films can dynamically rearrange during growth, leading to structures that are highly unexpected on the basis of the intended layer sequencing. Theoretical calculations indicate that rearrangement can occur in many layered oxide systems and suggest a general approach that may be essential for the construction of metastable Ruddlesden-Popper phases. We demonstrate the utility of the new-found growth strategy by performing the first atomically controlled synthesis of single-crystalline La3Ni2O7.

  11. Molecular beam epitaxy growth and magnetic properties of Cr-Co-Ga Heusler alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Wuwei, E-mail: wfeng@cugb.edu.cn; Wang, Weihua [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Chenglong [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Van Quang, Nguyen; Cho, Sunglae, E-mail: slcho@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Dung, Dang Duc [Department of General Physics, School of Engineering Physics, Ha Noi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2015-11-15

    We have re-investigated growth and magnetic properties of Cr{sub 2}CoGa films using molecular beam epitaxy technique. Phase separation and precipitate formation were observed experimentally again in agreement with observation of multiple phases separation in sputtered Cr{sub 2}CoGa films by M. Meinert et al. However, significant phase separation could be suppressed by proper control of growth conditions. We showed that Cr{sub 2}CoGa Heusler phase, rather than Co{sub 2}CrGa phase, constitutes the majority of the sample grown on GaAs(001) at 450 {sup o}C. The measured small spin moment of Cr{sub 2}CoGa is in agreement with predicted HM-FCF nature; however, its Curie temperature is not as high as expected from the theoretical prediction probably due to the off-stoichiometry of Cr{sub 2}CoGa and the existence of the disorders and phase separation.

  12. Strain-Engineered Graphene Grown on Hexagonal Boron Nitride by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Alex; Davies, Andrew; Cheng, Tin S; Korolkov, Vladimir V; Cho, YongJin; Mellor, Christopher J; Foxon, C Thomas; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Eaves, Laurence; Novikov, Sergei V; Beton, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    Graphene grown by high temperature molecular beam epitaxy on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) forms continuous domains with dimensions of order 20 μm, and exhibits moiré patterns with large periodicities, up to ~30 nm, indicating that the layers are highly strained. Topological defects in the moiré patterns are observed and attributed to the relaxation of graphene islands which nucleate at different sites and subsequently coalesce. In addition, cracks are formed leading to strain relaxation, highly anisotropic strain fields, and abrupt boundaries between regions with different moiré periods. These cracks can also be formed by modification of the layers with a local probe resulting in the contraction and physical displacement of graphene layers. The Raman spectra of regions with a large moiré period reveal split and shifted G and 2D peaks confirming the presence of strain. Our work demonstrates a new approach to the growth of epitaxial graphene and a means of generating and modifying strain in graphene.

  13. Mapping growth windows in quaternary perovskite oxide systems by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahlek, Matthew; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hai-Tian; Lapano, Jason; Dedon, Liv R.; Martin, Lane W.; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Requisite to growing stoichiometric perovskite thin films of the solid-solution A'1-xAxBO3 by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy is understanding how the growth conditions interpolate between the end members A'BO3 and ABO3, which can be grown in a self-regulated fashion, but under different conditions. Using the example of La1-xSrxVO3, the two-dimensional growth parameter space that is spanned by the flux of the metal-organic precursor vanadium oxytriisopropoxide and composition, x, was mapped out. The evolution of the adsorption-controlled growth window was obtained using a combination of X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, reflection high-energy electron-diffraction (RHEED), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric growth conditions can be mapped out quickly with a single calibration sample using RHEED. Once stoichiometric conditions have been identified, the out-of-plane lattice parameter can be utilized to precisely determine the composition x. This strategy enables the identification of growth conditions that allow the deposition of stoichiometric perovskite oxide films with random A-site cation mixing, which is relevant to a large number of perovskite materials with interesting properties, e.g., high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance, that emerge in solid solution A'1-xAxBO3.

  14. Effects of magnesium contents in ZnMgO ternary alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Sheng-Yao, E-mail: shenghu2729@yahoo.com [Department of Digital Technology Design, Tungfang Design Institute, Hunei, Kaohsiung 82941, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Weng, Yu-Hsiang [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • ZnMgO alloys with different Mg contents have been produced by MBE. • Optical and structural properties have been measured and investigated. • Stress is tensile and is increased as the increasing of Mg contents. • The asymmetric behavior of the Raman mode was influenced due to the Mg contents. - Abstract: Ternary alloys of ZnMgO samples with different magnesium contents have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on the sapphire substrates. Room temperature photoluminescence energy of ZnMgO shifted as high as 3.677 eV by increasing Mg contents corresponding to the higher Urbach average localization energy which indicates more randomness in the alloys with higher Mg contents. XRD results are also verified that the c-axis length decreases as the increasing Mg contents linking to the increased tensile stress produced by the Mg atoms. Raman spectra analyzed by the spatial correlation model to describe that the linewidth Γ is decreased but the correlation length L is increased as the increasing of Mg contents.

  15. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of germanium junctions for multi-junction solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, T.; Faucher, J.; Lee, M. L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth and device characteristics of Ge solar cells. Integrating a Ge bottom cell beneath a lattice-matched triple junction stack grown by MBE could enable ultra-high efficiencies without metamorphic growth or wafer bonding. However, a diffused junction cannot be readily formed in Ge by MBE due to the low sticking coefficient of group-V molecules on Ge surfaces. We therefore realized Ge junctions by growth of homo-epitaxial n-Ge on p-Ge wafers within a standard III-V MBE system. We then fabricated Ge solar cells, finding growth temperature and post-growth annealing to be key factors for achieving high efficiency. Open-circuit voltage and fill factor values of ~0.175 V and ~0.59 without a window layer were obtained, both of which are comparable to diffused Ge junctions formed by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. We also demonstrate growth of high-quality, single-domain GaAs on the Ge junction, as needed for subsequent growth of III-V subcells, and that the surface passivation afforded by the GaAs layer slightly improves the Ge cell performance.

  16. Numerical approximations for the molecular beam epitaxial growth model based on the invariant energy quadratization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jia; Wang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    The Molecular Beam Epitaxial model is derived from the variation of a free energy, that consists of either a fourth order Ginzburg-Landau double well potential or a nonlinear logarithmic potential in terms of the gradient of a height function. One challenge in solving the MBE model numerically is how to develop proper temporal discretization for the nonlinear terms in order to preserve energy stability at the time-discrete level. In this paper, we resolve this issue by developing a first and second order time-stepping scheme based on the "Invariant Energy Quadratization" (IEQ) method. The novelty is that all nonlinear terms are treated semi-explicitly, and the resulted semi-discrete equations form a linear system at each time step. Moreover, the linear operator is symmetric positive definite and thus can be solved efficiently. We then prove that all proposed schemes are unconditionally energy stable. The semi-discrete schemes are further discretized in space using finite difference methods and implemented on GPUs for high-performance computing. Various 2D and 3D numerical examples are presented to demonstrate stability and accuracy of the proposed schemes.

  17. Impact of extended defects on recombination in CdTe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine N. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Kuciauskas, Darius [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Swartz, Craig H. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA; Dippo, Pat [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Edirisooriya, Madhavie [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA; Ogedengbe, Olanrewaju S. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA; Sohal, Sandeep [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA; Hancock, Bobby L. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA; LeBlanc, Elizabeth G. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA; Jayathilaka, Pathiraja A. R. D. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA; Barnes, Teresa M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Myers, Thomas H. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA

    2016-08-29

    Heterostructures with CdTe and CdTe 1-xSex (x ~ 0.01) absorbers between two wider-band-gap Cd1-xMgxTe barriers (x ~ 0.25-0.3) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to study carrier generation and recombination in bulk materials with passivated interfaces. Using a combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and low-temperature PL emission spectroscopy, two extended defect types were identified and the impact of these defects on charge-carrier recombination was analyzed. The dominant defects identified by confocal PL were dislocations in samples grown on (211)B CdTe substrates and crystallographic twinning-related defects in samples on (100)-oriented InSb substrates. Low-temperature PL shows that twin-related defects have a zero-phonon energy of 1.460 eV and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.50, while dislocation-dominated samples have a 1.473-eV zero-phonon energy and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.22. The charge carrier diffusion length near both types of defects is ~6 um, suggesting that recombination is limited by diffusion dynamics. For heterostructures with a low concentration of extended defects, the bulk lifetime was determined to be 2.2 us with an interface recombination velocity of 160 cm/s and an estimated radiative lifetime of 91 us.

  18. InGaN violet laser diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, J.; Kauer, M.; Hooper, S.E.; Bousquet, V.; Johnson, K. [Sharp Laboratories of Europe Ltd, Edmund Halley Road, Oxford Science Park, Oxford, OX4 4GB (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    We report on the first InGaN quantum well laser diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Devices were grown by gas-source MBE using ammonia as a source of nitrogen and elemental group III sources. The devices were grown on commercially available GaN template substrates. The lasers consist of a separate confinement heterostructure including an active region consisting of three In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N quantum wells with a nominal thickness of 2 nm. P-type doping of GaN and AlGaN cladding regions was obtained without the use of post-growth thermal annealing. The lasers were fabricated into a ridge-stripe geometry with ridge width of 5 {mu}m and length of 500-1500 {mu}m. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) dry-etching was used to fabricate the laser facets. Under pulsed current injection conditions, the lasers exhibit a room temperature threshold current density of 22 kA cm{sup -2} emitting at 400 nm. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Radical-source molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO-based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadofiev, Sergey

    2009-10-27

    This work focuses on the development of the novel growth approaches for the fabrication of Group II-oxide materials in the form of epitaxial films and heterostructures. It is shown that molecular-beam epitaxial growth far from thermal equilibrium allows one to overcome the standard solubility limit and to alloy ZnO with MgO or CdO in strict wurtzite phase up to mole fractions of several 10 %. In this way, a band-gap range from 2.2 to 4.4 eV can be covered. A clear layer-by-layer growth mode controlled by oscillations in reflection high-energy electron diffraction makes it possible to fabricate atomically smooth heterointerfaces and well-defined quantum well structures exhibiting prominent band-gap related light emission in the whole composition range. On appropriately designed structures, laser action from the ultraviolet down to green wavelengths and up to room temperature is achieved. The properties and potential of the ''state-of-the-art'' materials are discussed in relation to the advantages for their applications in various optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  20. Formation of Ge-Sn nanodots on Si(100 surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ing-Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The surface morphology of Ge0.96Sn0.04/Si(100 heterostructures grown at temperatures from 250 to 450°C by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning tunnel microscopy (STM ex situ has been studied. The statistical data for the density of Ge0.96Sn0.04 nanodots (ND depending on their lateral size have been obtained. Maximum density of ND (6 × 1011 cm-2 with the average lateral size of 7 nm can be obtained at 250°C. Relying on the reflection of high energy electron diffraction, AFM, and STM, it is concluded that molecular beam growth of Ge1-xSnx heterostructures with the small concentrations of Sn in the range of substrate temperatures from 250 to 450°C follows the Stranski-Krastanow mechanism. Based on the technique of recording diffractometry of high energy electrons during the process of epitaxy, the wetting layer thickness of Ge0.96Sn0.04 films is found to depend on the temperature of the substrate.

  1. Molecular beam epitaxy grown GeSn p-i-n photodetectors integrated on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, J., E-mail: werner@iht.uni-stuttgart.de; Oehme, M.; Schirmer, A.; Kasper, E.; Schulze, J.

    2012-02-01

    GeSn p-i-n photodetectors with a low Sn mole fraction made by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates show higher optical responsivities for wavelength {lambda} > 1400 nm compared with p-i-n photodetectors made from pure Ge. The Sn incorporation in Ge is done by a low temperature growth step in order to minimize Sn segregation. The Sn incorporation and the alloy content are investigated by {mu}-Raman spectroscopy and calibrated Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The photodetectors are manufactured with sharp doping transitions and are realized as double mesa structures with diameters from 1.5 {mu}m up to 80 {mu}m. The optical measurements are carried out with a broadband super continuum laser from {lambda} = 1200 nm up to {lambda} = 1700 nm. At a wavelength of {lambda} = 1550 nm the optical responsivity of these vertical GeSn diodes is 0.1 A/W. In comparison with a pure Ge detector of the same geometrical dimensions the optical responsivity is increased by factor of three as a result of Sn caused band gap reduction.

  2. Molecular-beam sampling study of extinguishment of methane-air flames by dry chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, E.L.; Ni, W.F.; Seeger, C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NaHCO/sub 3/, KHCO/sub 3/, NH/sub 4/H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ and KCl powders for the inhibition of a methane/oxygen diffusion flame is studied through measurement of composition and temperature profiles, using a molecular beam mass spectrometer sampling system. In order to obtain significant inhibition without extinguishing the flame, a powder feeding rate of 2 mg/liter of gas was used for KCl and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and of 3 mg/liter of gas for the remaining powders. CH/sub 4/, O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured by the mass spectrometer, while temperature was measured by the time-of-flight technique. For the powder feeding rates used, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was the least and KCl and NH/sub 2/H/sub 4/PO/sub 2/ the most effective in reducing temperature. In reaction-inhibition effectiveness, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was again lowest while KCl was superior to all others. Because the KCl concentration was only 2/3 that of NH/sub 4/H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, it is recommended as the most effective temperature reducer and reaction inhibitor.

  3. Water accommodation on ice and organic surfaces: insights from environmental molecular beam experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangrui; Thomson, Erik S; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Johansson, Sofia M; Pettersson, Jan B C

    2014-11-26

    Water uptake on aerosol and cloud particles in the atmosphere modifies their chemistry and microphysics with important implications for climate on Earth. Here, we apply an environmental molecular beam (EMB) method to characterize water accommodation on ice and organic surfaces. The adsorption of surface-active compounds including short-chain alcohols, nitric acid, and acetic acid significantly affects accommodation of D2O on ice. n-Hexanol and n-butanol adlayers reduce water uptake by facilitating rapid desorption and function as inefficient barriers for accommodation as well as desorption of water, while the effect of adsorbed methanol is small. Water accommodation is close to unity on nitric-acid- and acetic-acid-covered ice, and accommodation is significantly more efficient than that on the bare ice surface. Water uptake is inefficient on solid alcohols and acetic acid but strongly enhanced on liquid phases including a quasi-liquid layer on solid n-butanol. The EMB method provides unique information on accommodation and rapid kinetics on volatile surfaces, and these studies suggest that adsorbed organic and acidic compounds need to be taken into account when describing water at environmental interfaces.

  4. Carbon doping in molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs from a heated graphite filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, R. J.; Nottenberg, R. N.; Schubert, E. F.; Walker, J. F.; Ryan, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon doping of GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been obtained for the first time by use of a heated graphite filament. Controlled carbon acceptor concentrations over the range of 10 to the 17th-10 to the 20th/cu cm were achieved by resistively heating a graphite filament with a direct current power supply. Capacitance-voltage, p/n junction and secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements indicate that there is negligible diffusion of carbon during growth and with postgrowth rapid thermal annealing. Carbon was used for p-type doping in the base of Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors. Current gains greater than 100 and near-ideal emitter heterojunctions were obtained in transistors with a carbon base doping of 1 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm. These preliminary results indicate that carbon doping from a solid graphite source may be an attractive substitute for beryllium, which is known to have a relatively high diffusion coefficient in GaAs.

  5. Growth of uniform CaGe2 films by alternating layer molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsong; Katoch, Jyoti; Ahmed, Adam S.; Pinchuk, Igor V.; Young, Justin R.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelz, Jonathan; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2017-02-01

    Layered Zintl phase van der Waals (vdW) materials are of interest due to their strong spin-orbit coupling and potential for high mobility. Here, we report the successful growth of large area CaGe2 films, as a model of layered Zintl phase materials, on atomically flat Ge(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using an alternating layer growth (ALG) protocol. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of the Ge buffer layer and CaGe2 indicate high quality two dimensional surfaces, which is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing atomically flat and uniform CaGe2 films. The appearance of Laue oscillations in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Kiessig fringes in the X-ray reflectivity (XRR), which are absent in co-deposited CaGe2, confirms the uniformity of the CaGe2 film and the smoothness of the interface. These results demonstrate a novel method of deposition of CaGe2 that could be also applied to other layered Zintl phase vdW materials. Also, the high quality of the CaGe2 film is promising for the exploration of novel properties of germanane.

  6. Thin film growth of CaFe2As2 by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Nakamura, I.; Mori, Y.; Harada, S.; Ujihara, T.; Ikuta, H.

    2016-01-01

    Film growth of CaFe2As2 was realized by molecular beam epitaxy on six different substrates that have a wide variation in the lattice mismatch to the target compound. By carefully adjusting the Ca-to-Fe flux ratio, we obtained single-phase thin films for most of the substrates. Interestingly, an expansion of the CaFe2As2 lattice to the out-of-plane direction was observed for all films, even when an opposite strain was expected. A detailed microstructure observation of the thin film grown on MgO by transmission electron microscope revealed that it consists of cube-on-cube and 45°-rotated domains. The latter domains were compressively strained in plane, which caused a stretching along the c-axis direction. Because the domains were well connected across the boundary with no appreciable discontinuity, we think that the out-of-plane expansion in the 45°-rotated domains exerted a tensile stress on the other domains, resulting in the unexpectedly large c-axis lattice parameter, despite the apparently opposite lattice mismatch.

  7. Graphene films grown on sapphire substrates via solid source molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jun; Kang Chao-Yang; Li Li-Min; Liu Zhong-Liang; Yan Wen-Sheng; Wei Shi-Qiang; Xu Peng-Shou

    2012-01-01

    A method for growing graphene on a sapphire substrate by depositing an SiC buffer layer and then annealing at high temperature in solid source molecular beam epitaxy(SSMBE)equipment was presented.The structural and electronic properties of the samples were characterized by reflection high energy diffraction(RHEED),X-ray diffractionφ scans,Raman spectroscopy,and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure(NEXAFS)spectroscopy.The results of the RHEED and φ scan,as well as the Raman spectra,showed that an epitaxial hexagonal α-SiC layer was grown on the sapphire substrate.The results of the Raman and NEXAFS spectra revealed that the graphene films with the AB Bernal stacking structure were formed on the sapphire substrate after annealing.The layer number of the graphene was between four and five,and the thickness of the unreacted SiC layer was about 1-1.5 mm.

  8. Cavity-induced phase stability to decelerate a fast molecular beam via feedback-controlled time-varying optical pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Lan, Zhihao

    2014-01-01

    We have identified a novel phase stability mechanism from the intracavity field-induced self-organization of a fast-moving molecular beam into travelling molecular packets in the bad cavity regime, which is then used to decelerate the molecular packets by feedback-controlled time-varying laser pumps to the cavity. We first applied the linear stability analysis to derive an expression for this self-organization in the adiabatic limit and show that the self-organization of the beam leads to the formation of travelling molecular packets, which in turn function as a dynamic Bragg grating, thus modulating periodically the intracavity field by superradiant scattering of the pump photons. The modulation encodes the position information of the molecular packets into the output of the intracavity field instantaneously. We then applied time-varying laser pumps that are automatically switched by the output of the intracavity field to slow down the molecular packets via a feedback mechanism and found that most of the mol...

  9. Foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) by molecular-beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hyok; Pan, Dong; Li, Lixia; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    Epitaxial high-quality InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires are of great interest due to their distinct advantages in fundamental research as well as applications in semiconductor electronic and quantum devices. Currently, nearly all the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is assisted with foreign catalysts such as Au, and work on foreign-catalyst-free growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires is lacking. Here we report on the growth of InAs/InSb axial heterostructure nanowires on Si (111) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy without using any foreign catalysts. The Sb/In beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio is found to have important influence on the heterostructure nanowire morphology, and InSb nanowires can be epitaxially grown on InAs nanowire stems with a hexagonal prism and nanosheet-like shapes when the Sb/In BEP ratio varies from 10 to 20. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the InAs nanowire stems have a mixture of zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) crystal structures, while InSb nanowire parts have a pure ZB crystal structure free of stacking faults. Composition analysis of axial heterostructure nanowires provides clear evidence that the InSb nanowires are epitaxially grown on InAs nanowires in an In self-assisted vapor-liquid-solid manner. This study paves a new route for growing narrow-gap semiconductor heterostructures with strong spin-orbit interaction for the study of topological states, and the growth manner presented here is expected to be used to grow other In-based axial heterostructure nanowires.

  10. Self-corrected sensors based on atomic absorption spectroscopy for atom flux measurements in molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Y., E-mail: yingge.du@pnnl.gov, E-mail: scott.chambers@pnnl.gov; Liyu, A. V. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Droubay, T. C.; Chambers, S. A., E-mail: yingge.du@pnnl.gov, E-mail: scott.chambers@pnnl.gov [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Li, G. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    A high sensitivity atom flux sensor based on atomic absorption spectroscopy has been designed and implemented to control electron beam evaporators and effusion cells in a molecular beam epitaxy system. Using a high-resolution spectrometer and a two-dimensional charge coupled device detector in a double-beam configuration, we employ either a non-resonant line or a resonant line with low cross section from the same hollow cathode lamp as the reference for nearly perfect background correction and baseline drift removal. This setup also significantly shortens the warm-up time needed compared to other sensor technologies and drastically reduces the noise coming from the surrounding environment. In addition, the high-resolution spectrometer allows the most sensitive resonant line to be isolated and used to provide excellent signal-to-noise ratio.

  11. Self-corrected Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy For Atom Flux Measurements In Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yingge; Droubay, Timothy C.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Li, Guosheng; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-04-24

    A high sensitivity atom flux sensor based on atomic absorption spectroscopy has been designed and implemented to control electron beam evaporators and effusion cells in a molecular beam epitaxy system. Using a high-resolution spectrometer and a two-dimensional charge coupled device (CCD) detector in a double-beam configuration, we employ a non-resonant line or a resonant line with lower absorbance from the same hollow cathode lamp as the reference for nearly perfect background correction and baseline drift removal. This setup also significantly shortens the warm-up time needed compared to other sensor technologies and drastically reduces the noise coming from the surrounding environment. In addition, the high-resolution spectrometer allows the most sensitive resonant line to be isolated and used to provide excellent signal-to-noise ratio.

  12. Self-corrected sensors based on atomic absorption spectroscopy for atom flux measurements in molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y.; Droubay, T. C.; Liyu, A. V.; Li, G.; Chambers, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    A high sensitivity atom flux sensor based on atomic absorption spectroscopy has been designed and implemented to control electron beam evaporators and effusion cells in a molecular beam epitaxy system. Using a high-resolution spectrometer and a two-dimensional charge coupled device detector in a double-beam configuration, we employ either a non-resonant line or a resonant line with low cross section from the same hollow cathode lamp as the reference for nearly perfect background correction and baseline drift removal. This setup also significantly shortens the warm-up time needed compared to other sensor technologies and drastically reduces the noise coming from the surrounding environment. In addition, the high-resolution spectrometer allows the most sensitive resonant line to be isolated and used to provide excellent signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. Generation of CW cold CH3CN molecular beam by a bent electostatic quadrupole guiding: Monte-Carlo study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min YUN; Yang LIU; Lian-zhong DENG; Qi ZHOU; Jian-ping YIN

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of continuous-wave (CW) cold mo-lecular beam, methyl cyanide (CH3 CN) beam, is generated by a bent electrostatic quadrupole guiding. The Stark shift of rotational energy levels of CH,3CN molecule and its popula-tion distribution are calculated, and the dynamic processes of electrostatic guiding and energy filtering of CH3CN molecules from a gas source with room temperature (300 K) are simu-lated by Monte Carlo Method. The study showed that the lon-gitudinal and transversal temperatures of output cold CH,3CN beam could be about -2 K and-420 mK, and the corre-sponding guiding efficiency was about 10'-5 as the guiding voltage was 3 kV. Furthermore, the temperature of the guided molecules and its guiding efficiency can be controlled by ad-justing the guiding voltages applied on electrodes.

  14. The very slow expansion of an ultracold plasma formed in a seeded supersonic molecular beam of NO

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, J P; Grant, E R

    2008-01-01

    The double-resonant laser excitation of nitric oxide, cooled to 1 K in a seeded supersonic molecular beam, yields a gas of $\\approx10^{12}$ molecules cm$^{-3}$ in a single selected Ryberg state. This population evolves to produce prompt free electrons and a durable cold plasma of electrons and intact NO$^{+}$ ions. This plasma travels with the molecular beam through a field free region to encounter a grid. The atomic weight of the expansion gas controls the beam velocity and hence the flight time from the interaction region to the grid. Monitoring electron production as the plasma traverses this grid measures its longitudinal width as a function of flight time. Comparing these widths to the width of the laser beam that defines the initial size of the illuminated volume allows us to gauge the rate of expansion of the plasma. We find that the plasma created from the evolution of a Rydberg gas of NO expands at a small but measurable rate, and that this rate of expansion accords with the Vlasov equations for an i...

  15. High electron mobility of modulation doped GaAs after growing InP by solid source molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Yong-chun; PI Biao; LIN Yao-wang; XING Xiao-dong; YAO Jiang-hong; WANG Zhan-guo; XU Jing-jun

    2005-01-01

    Modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs structures were grown on GaAs(100) substrate by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE) system. The factors which influence the electron mobility were investigated. After growing InP based materials, growth conditions were deteriorated, but by an appropriate method and using reasonaand growth conditions have been studied and optimized via Hall measurements. For a typical sample, 2.0 K electron served.

  16. Anisotropy of superconductivity of as-grown MgB$_2$ thin films by molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Y.; Udsuka, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Superconducting thin films of magnesium diboride (MgB$_2$) were prepared on MgO (001) substrate by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method with the co-evaporation conditions of low deposition rate in ultra-high vacuum. The structural and physical properties of the films were studied by RHEED, XRD, XPS, resistivity and magnetization measurements.All films demonstrated superconductivity without use of any post-annealing process.The highest {\\it T}$_{c,onset}$ determined by resistivity measurement...

  17. Impact of N-plasma and Ga-irradiation on MoS2 layer in molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2017-01-03

    Recent interest in two-dimensional materials has resulted in ultra-thin devices based on the transfer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) onto other TMDs or III-nitride materials. In this investigation, we realized p-type monolayer (ML) MoS2, and intrinsic GaN/p-type MoS2 heterojunction by the GaN overgrowth on ML-MoS2/c-sapphire using the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A systematic nitrogen plasma (N∗2N2*) and gallium (Ga) irradiation studies are employed to understand the individual effect on the doping levels of ML-MoS2, which is evaluated by micro-Raman and high-resolution X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) measurements. With both methods, p-type doping was attained and was verified by softening and strengthening of characteristics phonon modes E12gE2g1 and A1gA1g from Raman spectroscopy. With adequate N∗2N2*-irradiation (3 min), respective shift of 1.79 cm−1 for A1gA1g and 1.11 cm−1 for E12gE2g1 are obtained while short term Ga-irradiated (30 s) exhibits the shift of 1.51 cm−1 for A1gA1g and 0.93 cm−1 for E12gE2g1. Moreover, in HRXPS valence band spectra analysis, the position of valence band maximum measured with respect to the Fermi level is determined to evaluate the type of doping levels in ML-MoS2. The observed values of valance band maximum are reduced to 0.5, and 0.2 eV from the intrinsic value of ≈1.0 eV for N∗2N2*- and Ga-irradiated MoS2 layers, which confirms the p-type doping of ML-MoS2. Further p-type doping is verified by Hall effect measurements. Thus, by GaN overgrowth, we attained the building block of intrinsic GaN/p-type MoS2 heterojunction. Through this work, we have provided the platform for the realization of dissimilar heterostructure via monolithic approach.

  18. Protective Sliding Carbon-Based Nanolayers Prepared by Argon or Nitrogen Ion-Beam Assisted Deposition on Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlcak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and the surface properties of samples coated by carbon-based nanolayer were investigated in an effort to increase the surface hardness and reduce the coefficient of friction of the Ti6Al4V alloy. Protective carbon-based nanolayers were fabricated by argon or nitrogen ion-beam assisted deposition at ion energy of 700 eV on Ti6Al4V substrates. The Raman spectra indicated that nanolayers had a diamond-like carbon character with sp2 rich bonds. The TiC and TiN compounds formed in the surface area were detected by X-ray diffraction. Nanoscratch tests showed increased adhesion of a carbon-based nanolayer deposited with ion assistance in comparison with a carbon nanolayer deposited without ion assistance. The results showed that argon ion assistance leads to greater nanohardness than a sample coated by a carbon-based nanolayer with nitrogen ion assistance. A more than twofold increase in nanohardness and a more than fivefold decrease in the coefficient of friction were obtained for samples coated by a carbon-based nanolayer with ion assistance, in comparison with the reference sample.

  19. An organelle-exclusion envelope assists mitosis and underlies distinct molecular crowding in the spindle region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Nina; Pawar, Nisha; Weiss, Matthias; Maiato, Helder

    2015-08-31

    The mitotic spindle is a microtubular assembly required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Additionally, a spindle matrix has long been proposed to assist this process, but its nature has remained elusive. By combining live-cell imaging with laser microsurgery, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we uncovered a microtubule-independent mechanism that underlies the accumulation of molecules in the spindle region. This mechanism relies on a membranous system surrounding the mitotic spindle that defines an organelle-exclusion zone that is conserved in human cells. Supported by mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that organelle exclusion by a membrane system causes spatio-temporal differences in molecular crowding states that are sufficient to drive accumulation of mitotic regulators, such as Mad2 and Megator/Tpr, as well as soluble tubulin, in the spindle region. This membranous "spindle envelope" confined spindle assembly, and its mechanical disruption compromised faithful chromosome segregation. Thus, cytoplasmic compartmentalization persists during early mitosis to promote spindle assembly and function.

  20. Molecular changes after left ventricular assist device support for heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Emma J

    2013-08-30

    Heart failure is associated with remodeling that consists of adverse cellular, structural, and functional changes in the myocardium. Until recently, this was thought to be unidirectional, progressive, and irreversible. However, irreversibility has been shown to be incorrect because complete or partial reversal can occur that can be marked after myocardial unloading with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Patients with chronic advanced heart failure can show near-normalization of nearly all structural abnormalities of the myocardium or reverse remodeling after LVAD support. However, reverse remodeling does not always equate with clinical recovery. The molecular changes occurring after LVAD support are reviewed, both those demonstrated with LVAD unloading alone in patients bridged to transplantation and those occurring in the myocardium of patients who have recovered enough myocardial function to have the device removed. Reverse remodeling may be attributable to a reversal of the pathological mechanisms that occur in remodeling or the generation of new pathways. A reduction in cell size occurs after LVAD unloading, which does not necessarily correlate with improved cardiac function. However, some of the changes in both the cardiac myocyte and the matrix after LVAD support are specific to myocardial recovery. In the myocyte, increases in the cytoskeletal proteins and improvements in the Ca²⁺ handling pathway seem to be specifically associated with myocardial recovery. Changes in the matrix are complex, but excessive scarring appears to limit the ability for recovery, and the degree of fibrosis in the myocardium at the time of implantation may predict the ability to recover.

  1. Clinical, Molecular and Genetic Changes in Response to a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Fermin, David R.; Birks, Emma J.; Barton, Paul J.R.; Slaughter, Mark; Eckman, Peter; Baba, Hideo A.; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias Jeremias; Miller, Leslie W.

    2012-01-01

    The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) in treating patients with end stage heart failure has increased significantly in recent years, both as a bridge to transplant and as destination therapy in those who are ineligible for cardiac transplantation. This increase is based largely on the results of several recently completed clinical trials with the new second generation continuous flow devices that showed significant improvement in survival, functional capacity, and quality of life. Additional information on the use of the first generation and second generation LVADs has come from a recently released report spanning the years 2006–2009, from The Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support (INTERMACS), a National Heart Lung and Blood Institute sponsored collaboration between the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) and the scientific community (1). This paper provides a review of the latest clinical trials and data from the INTERMACS registry with tight integration of the landmark molecular, cellular and genomic research that accompanies the reverse remodeling of the human heart in response to the LVAD and functional recovery that has been reported in a subset of these patients. PMID:21292124

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymers with assistant recognition polymer chains for bovine serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new protein molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared with grafting polyvinyl alcohol as assistant recognition polymer chains (ARPCs). The ARPCs and acrylamide monomers were interpenetrated and then polymerized on the surface of macroporous acrylate adsorbent spheres. The template BSA was removed by treatment with 2.00 mol L-1 potassium chloride (KCl) solution and the adsorbed proteins were detected with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). 0.150, 0.500, and 2.00 mol L-1 KCl solutions were used as eluent to wash the adsorbed proteins. The SDS-PAGE results show that proteins washed out with 2.00 mol L-1KCl solution were from nonspecific adsorption of macroporous acrylate adsorbent spheres, and proteins washed out with 0.500 mol L-1KC1 solution were specific proteins imprinted by MIP resins. MIP resins with ARPCs had better recognition to the target proteins than that without ARPCs. The adsorption capacity of MIP resins immobilized ARPCs to the template BSA was about 80-100 μg g-1 when it was used for the adsorption of proteins mixture, and the specific adsorption of the target protein was obviously increased.

  3. Mechanical Properties and Thermal Stability of TiN/Ta Multilayer Film Deposited by Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Shang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiN/Ta multilayer film with a modulation period of 5.6 nm and modulation ratio of 1 : 1 was produced by ion beam assisted deposition. Microstructure of the as-deposited TiN/Ta multilayer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy and mechanical properties were investigated. Residual stress in the TiN/Ta multilayer film was about 72% of that of a TiN monolayer film with equivalent thickness deposited under the same conditions. Partial residual stress was released in the Ta sublayers during deposition, which led to the decrease of the residual stress of the TiN/Ta multilayer film. Nanohardness (H of the TiN/Ta multilayer film was 24 GPa, 14% higher than that of the TiN monolayer film. It is suggested that the increase of the nanohardness is due to the introduction of the Ta layers which restrained the growth of TiN crystal and led to the decrease of the grain size. A significant increase (3.5 times of the H3/E2 (E elastic modulus value indicated that the TiN/Ta multilayer film has higher elasticity than the TiN monolayer film. The Lc (critical load in nano-scratch test value of the TiN monolayer film was 45 mN, which was far lower than that of the TiN/Ta multilayer film (around 75 mN. Results of the indentation test showed a higher fracture toughness of the TiN/Ta multilayer film than that of the TiN monolayer film. Results of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA indicate that the TiN/Ta multilayer film has better thermal stability than the TiN monolayer film.

  4. Comparison of Cherenkov excited fluorescence and phosphorescence molecular sensing from tissue with external beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huiyun; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gunn, Jason R; Esipova, Tatiana V; Vinogradov, Sergei; Gladstone, David J; Jarvis, Lesley A; Pogue, Brian W

    2016-05-21

    Ionizing radiation delivered by a medical linear accelerator (LINAC) generates Cherenkov emission within the treated tissue. A fraction of this light, in the 600-900 nm wavelength region, propagates through centimeters of tissue and can be used to excite optical probes in vivo, enabling molecular sensing of tissue analytes. The success of isolating the emission signal from this Cherenkov excitation background is dependent on key factors such as: (i) the Stokes shift of the probe spectra; (ii) the excited state lifetime; (iii) the probe concentration; (iv) the depth below the tissue surface; and (v) the radiation dose used. Previous studies have exclusively focused on imaging phosphorescent dyes, rather than fluorescent dyes. However there are only a few biologically important phosphorescent dyes and yet in comparison there are thousands of biologically relevant fluorescent dyes. So in this study the focus was a study of efficacy of Cherenkov-excited luminescence using fluorescent commercial near-infrared probes, IRDye 680RD, IRDye 700DX, and IRDye 800CW, and comparing them to the well characterized phosphorescent probe Oxyphor PtG4, an oxygen sensitive dye. Each probe was excited by Cherenkov light from a 6 MV external radiation beam, and measured in continuous wave or time-gated modes. The detection was performed by spectrally resolving the luminescence signals, and measuring them with spectrometer-based separation on an ICCD detector. The results demonstrate that IRDye 700DX and PtG4 allowed for the maximal signal to noise ratio. In the case of the phosphorescent probe, PtG4, with emission decays on the microsecond (μs) time scale, time-gated acquisition was possible, and it allowed for higher efficacy in terms of the probe concentration and detection depth. Phantoms containing the probe at 5 mm depth could be detected at concentrations down to the nanoMolar range, and at depths into the tissue simulating phantom near 3 cm. In vivo studies showed that 5

  5. Combustion of butanol isomers - A detailed molecular beam mass spectrometry investigation of their flame chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osswald, Patrick; Gueldenberg, Hanna; Kohse-Hoeinghaus, Katharina [Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University (Germany); Yang, Bin [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yuan, Tao; Qi, Fei [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2011-01-15

    The combustion chemistry of the four butanol isomers, 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol was studied in flat, premixed, laminar low-pressure (40 mbar) flames of the respective alcohols. Fuel-rich ({phi} = 1.7) butanol-oxygen-(25%)argon flames were investigated using different molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques. Quantitative mole fraction profiles are reported as a function of burner distance. In total, 57 chemical compounds, including radical and isomeric species, have been unambiguously assigned and detected quantitatively in each flame using a combination of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization (PI) and electron ionization (EI) MBMS. Synchrotron-based PI-MBMS allowed to separate isomeric combustion intermediates according to their different ionization thresholds. Complementary measurements in the same flames with a high mass-resolution EI-MBMS system provided the exact elementary composition of the involved species. Resulting mole fraction profiles from both instruments are generally in good quantitative agreement. In these flames of the four butanol isomers, temperature, measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of seeded nitric oxide, and major species profiles are strikingly similar, indicating seemingly analog global combustion behavior. However, significant variations in the intermediate species pool are observed between the fuels and discussed with respect to fuel-specific destruction pathways. As a consequence, different, fuel-specific pollutant emissions may be expected, by both their chemical nature and concentrations. The results reported here are the first of their kind from premixed isomeric butanol flames and are thought to be valuable for improving existing kinetic combustion models. (author)

  6. Isotype InGaN/GaN heterobarrier diodes by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fireman, Micha N.; Browne, David A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    The design of isotype InGaN/GaN heterobarrier diode structures grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy is presented. On the (0001) Ga-polar plane, a structure consisting of a surface n{sup +} GaN contact layer, followed by a thin InGaN layer, followed by a thick unintentionally doped (UID) GaN layer, and atop a buried n{sup +} GaN contact layer induces a large conduction band barrier via a depleted UID GaN layer. Suppression of reverse and subthreshold current in such isotype barrier devices under applied bias depends on the quality of this composite layer polarization. Sample series were grown under fixed InGaN growth conditions that varied either the UID GaN NH{sub 3} flow rate or the UID GaN thickness, and under fixed UID GaN growth conditions that varied InGaN growth conditions. Decreases in subthreshold current and reverse bias current were measured for thicker UID GaN layers and increasing InGaN growth rates. Temperature-dependent analysis indicated that although extracted barrier heights were lower than those predicted by 1D Schrödinger Poisson simulations (0.9 eV–1.4 eV for In compositions from 10% to 15%), optimized growth conditions increased the extracted barrier height from ∼11% to nearly 85% of the simulated values. Potential subthreshold mechanisms are discussed, along with those growth factors which might affect their prevalence.

  7. Atom probe tomography characterisation of a laser diode structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Samantha E.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Smeeton, Tim M.; Hooper, Stewart E.; Heffernan, Jonathan [Sharp Laboratories of Europe Limited, Edmund Halley Road, Oxford Science Park, Oxford, OX4 4GB (United Kingdom); Saxey, David W.; Smith, George D. W. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to achieve three-dimensional characterization of a III-nitride laser diode (LD) structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Four APT data sets have been obtained, with fields of view up to 400 nm in depth and 120 nm in diameter. These data sets contain material from the InGaN quantum well (QW) active region, as well as the surrounding p- and n-doped waveguide and cladding layers, enabling comprehensive study of the structure and composition of the LD structure. Two regions of the same sample, with different average indium contents (18% and 16%) in the QW region, were studied. The APT data are shown to provide easy access to the p-type dopant levels, and the composition of a thin AlGaN barrier layer. Next, the distribution of indium within the InGaN QW was analyzed, to assess any possible inhomogeneity of the distribution of indium (''indium clustering''). No evidence for a statistically significant deviation from a random distribution was found, indicating that these MBE-grown InGaN QWs do not require indium clusters for carrier localization. However, the APT data show steps in the QW interfaces, leading to well-width fluctuations, which may act to localize carriers. Additionally, the unexpected presence of a small amount (x = 0.005) of indium in a layer grown intentionally as GaN was revealed. Finally, the same statistical method applied to the QW was used to show that the indium distribution within a thick InGaN waveguide layer in the n-doped region did not show any deviation from randomness.

  8. Minority carrier lifetime in iodine-doped molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madni, I.; Umana-Membreno, G. A.; Lei, W.; Gu, R.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-11-02

    The minority carrier lifetime in molecular beam epitaxy grown layers of iodine-doped Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te (x ∼ 0.3) on CdZnTe substrates has been studied. The samples demonstrated extrinsic donor behavior for carrier concentrations in the range from 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} without any post-growth annealing. At a temperature of 77 K, the electron mobility was found to vary from 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/V s to 7 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/V s and minority carrier lifetime from 1.6 μs to 790 ns, respectively, as the carrier concentration was increased from 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. The diffusion of iodine is much lower than that of indium and hence a better alternative in heterostructures such as nBn devices. The influence of carrier concentration and temperature on the minority carrier lifetime was studied in order to characterize the carrier recombination mechanisms. Measured lifetimes were also analyzed and compared with the theoretical models of the various recombination processes occurring in these materials, indicating that Auger-1 recombination was predominant at higher doping levels. An increase in deep-level generation-recombination centers was observed with increasing doping level, which suggests that the increase in deep-level trap density is associated with the incorporation of higher concentrations of iodine into the HgCdTe.

  9. Growth and structural characterization of III-V nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dheeraj, D.L.

    2010-10-15

    Heterostructured semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their potential in future nano-electronic and nano-photonic device applications. NWs are usually grown by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism using techniques such as metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, chemical beam epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Of all the available techniques, MBE is known to be the technique which yields highest purity materials. In this study, the growth of GaAs NWs, GaAsSb NWs, as well as GaAs/GaAsSb axial and GaAs/AlGaAs radial heterostructured NWs on GaAs(111)B substrates by MBE is demonstrated. The structural and optical properties of the NWs grown are characterized by electron microscopy techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence, respectively. Firstly, the optimum growth conditions to obtain rod shaped GaAs NWs on GaAs(111)B substrates by MBE is determined. It has been found that in-addition to the V/III ratio and substrate temperature, buffer growth conditions also play an important role on the orientation of the NWs. The effect of V/III ratio, substrate temperature, and the arsenic species (As{sub 2}/As{sub 4}) on the morphology of GaAs NWs has been determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of NWs revealed that GaAs in NW form exhibit wurtzite (WZ) crystal phase in contrast to zinc blende (ZB) phase adapted in its bulk form. Since WZ crystal phase is a metastable phase of GaAs, the WZ GaAs NWs often exhibit stacking faults. The stacking faults are known to be a detrimental problem, if not properly controlled. To gain more insight on the growth kinetics of GaAs NWs grown by MBE, several samples such as GaAs NWs grown for different time durations, and GaAs NWs with three GaAsSb inserts, where GaAsSb inserts acts as markers, have been grown. Interestingly, the growth rates of the GaAs segments and GaAsSb inserts were observed to vary

  10. Molecular Beam Epitaxy-Grown InGaN Nanowires and Nanomushrooms for Solid State Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Gasim, Anwar A.

    2012-05-01

    InGaN is a promising semiconductor for solid state lighting thanks to its bandgap which spans the entire visible regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. InGaN is grown heteroepitaxially due to the absence of a native substrate; however, this results in a strained film and a high dislocation density—two effects that have been associated with efficiency droop, which is the disastrous drop in efficiency of a light-emitting diode (LED) as the input current increases. Heteroepitaxially grown nanowires have recently attracted great interest due to their property of eliminating the detrimental effects of the lattice mismatch and the corollary efficiency droop. In this study, InGaN nanowires were grown on a low-cost Si (111) substrate via molecular beam epitaxy. Unique nanostructures, taking the form of mushrooms, have been observed in localized regions on the samples. These nanomushrooms consist of a nanowire body with a wide cap on top. Photoluminescence characterization revealed that the nanowires emit violet-blue, whilst the nanomushrooms emit a broad yellow-orange-red luminescence. The simultaneous emission from the nanowires and nanomushrooms forms white light. Structural characterization of a single nanomushroom via transmission electron microscopy revealed a simultaneous increase in indium and decrease in gallium at the interface between the body and the cap. Furthermore, the cap itself was found to be indium-rich, confirming it as the source of the longer wavelength yellow-orange-red luminescence. It is believed that the nanomushroom cap formed as a consequence of the saturation of growth on the c-plane of the nanowire. It is proposed that the formation of an indium droplet on the tip of the nanowire saturated growth on the c-plane, forcing the indium and gallium adatoms to incorporate on the sidewall m-planes instead, but only at the nanowire tip. This resulted in the formation of a mushroom-like cap on the tip. How and why the indium droplets formed is not

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of magnetoelectric oxide heterostructures deposited by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterbinsky, George Evan

    There is considerable interest in incorporating magnetic materials into electronic devices to achieve new functions such as nonvolatile memories. Electric field control of magnetism is of much interest for new low power electronic devices because it eliminates the need to apply magnetic fields. One approach to achieving electrical control of magnetism is to exploit magnetoelastic effects in composites of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials. Application of an electric field to the composite will induce a strain through the piezo-electric effect, and the strain will alter the magnetization of the ferromagnetic constituent through the magnetoelastic effect. In this work, we examine the relationships between growth, strain, and magnetic properties of epitaxial ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 (magnetite) and ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin film heterostructures. We find that altering the strain state of a magnetite layer deposited on a BaTiO3 substrate has a profound effect on its magnetization. Here, we demonstrate the interaction between strain and magnetization is mediated by magnetic anisotropy and the magnetic domains structure of the films. Epitaxial magnetite films were deposited on MgO, BaTiO3, and SrTiO3 substrates by molecular beam epitaxy between temperatures of 573 and 723 K. Examination of the morphologies of Fe3O 4 films indicates that island growth is favored. Films exhibit in-plane magnetic isotropy and reduced saturation magnetizations with respect to the bulk material, as demonstrated by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Magnetic hysteresis measurements suggest that these differences originate from antiphase boundary defects within the films. The strain in magnetite films deposited on BaTiO3 single crystal substrates was measured by x-ray diffraction. Measurements reveal a dependence of magnetization (M) on strain (epsilon) with discontinuities in magnetization versus temperature curves resulting from changes in the domain structure of the

  12. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on metamorphic (KAUST Repository

    Young, Erin C.

    2015-09-01

    © 2015. In this paper we demonstrate ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on metamorphic AlGaN buffers on freestanding GaN (202-1) substrates by ammonia assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Misfit and related threading dislocations were confined to the stress relaxed, compositionally graded buffer layers, and single quantum well devices emitting at 355, 310 and 274. nm were grown on top of the graded buffers. The devices showed excellent structural and electrical (I-. V) characteristics.

  13. Studies on electron-beam irradiation and plastic deformation of medical-grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, Krystyna, E-mail: krystyna.czaja@uni.opole.p [Opole University, Faculty of Chemistry, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland); SudoL, Marek [Opole University, Faculty of Chemistry, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    Separated and combined electron-beam irradiation and plastic deformation effects on the structures of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were studied. It was found that the concentration of carbonyl (ketones, esters and peresters), hydroxyl and vinyl groups increases with the growing dose of adsorbed electrons. It also tends to exhibit a slight increase in the melting point and crystallinity of the samples. A mechanical stress in the polymer was found to accelerate radiation-induced degradation. It was concluded that each of the factors studied (i.e. electron beam sterilization and plastic deformation) had a different impact on the polymer structure. The change in the sequence of action of these factors can dramatically influence the process of UHMWPE destruction. Some effects may be limited or enhanced by the action of other factors. Therefore, the resulting effects of destructive factors depend qualitatively and quantitatively on their intensity and order.

  14. The first results of divertor discharge and supersonic molecular beam injection on the HL-2A tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liang-Hua; Yuan Bau-Shan; Feng Bei-Bin; Chen Cheng-Yuan; Hong Wen-Yu; Li Ying-Liang

    2007-01-01

    HL-2A tokamak is the first tokamak with divertors in China. The plasma boundary and the position of the striking point on the target plates of the HL-2A closed divertor were simulated by the current filament code and they were in agreement with the diagnostic results in the divertor. Supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) system was first installed and tested on the HL-2A tokamak in 2004. In the present experiment low pressure SMBI fuelling on the HL-2A and during the period of SMB pulse injection into the HL-2A plasma the power density convected at the target plate surfaces was 0.4 times of that before or after the beam injection. It is a useful fuelling method for decreasing the heat load on the neutralizer plates of the divertor.

  15. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Mohd S; Yang, Yang; Ng, Tien K; Dursun, Ibrahim; Shi, Dong; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Priante, Davide; Bakr, Osman M; Ooi, Boon S

    2016-01-01

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  16. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-12-22

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  17. Application of Taguchi Method to the Optimization of a-C:H Coatings Deposited Using Ion Beam Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Kao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi design method is used to optimize the adhesion, hardness, and wear resistance properties of a-C:H coatings deposited on AISI M2 steel substrates using the ion beam assisted physical vapor deposition method. The adhesion strength of the coatings is evaluated by means of scratch tests, while the hardness is measured using a nanoindentation tester. Finally, the wear resistance is evaluated by performing cyclic ball-on-disc wear tests. The Taguchi experimental results show that the optimal deposition parameters are as follows: a substrate bias voltage of 90 V, an ion beam voltage of 1 kV, an acetylene flow rate of 21 sccm, and a working distance of 7 cm. Given these optimal processing conditions, the a-C:H coating has a critical load of 99.8 N, a hardness of 25.5 GPa, and a wear rate of 0.4 × 10−6 mm3/Nm.

  18. Simulation of crystalline beams in storage rings using molecular dynamics technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Katayama, T.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Syresin, E.; Trubnikov, G.; Tsutsui, H.

    2006-03-01

    Achieving very low temperatures in the beam rest frame can present new possibilities in accelerator physics. Increasing luminosity in the collider and in experiments with targets is a very important asset for investigating rare radioactive isotopes. The ordered state of circulating ion beams was observed at several storage rings: NAP-M [Budker, et al., in: Proceedings of the 4th All-Union Conference on Charged-Particle Accelerators [in Russian], vol. 2, Nauka, Moscow, 1975, p. 309; Budker et al., Part. Accel. 7 (1976) 197; Budker et al., At. Energ. 40 (1976) 49. E. Dementev, N. Dykansky, A. Medvedko et al., Prep. CERN/PS/AA 79-41, Geneva, 1979] (Novosibirsk), ESR [M. Steck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 3803] and SIS [Hasse and Steck, Ordered ion beams, in: Proceeding of EPAC '2000] (Darmstadt), CRYRING [Danared et al., Observation of ordered ion beams in CRYRING, in: Proceeding of PAC '2001] (Stockholm) and PALLAS [Schramm et al., in: J.L. Duggan (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on Appl. of Acc. in Research and Industry AIP Conference Proceedings, p. 576 (to be published)] (Munich). In this report, the simulation of 1D crystalline beams with BETACOOL code is presented. The sudden reduction of momentum spread in the ESR experiment is described with this code. Simulation shows good agreement with experimental results and also with the intrabeam scattering (IBS) theory [Martini, Intrabeam scattering in the ACOOL-AA machines, CERN PS/84-9 AA, Geneva, 1984]. The code was used to calculate characteristics of the ordered state of ion beams for the TARN-II [Katayama, TARN II project, in: Proceedings of the IUCF workshop on nuclear physics with stored cooled beams, Spencer, IN, USA, 1984].

  19. Growth of free-standing bulk wurtzite AlxGa1-xN layers by molecular beam epitaxy using a highly efficient RF plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Oliver, R. A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Foxon, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The recent development of group III nitrides allows researchers world-wide to consider AlGaN based light emitting diodes as a possible new alternative deep ultra-violet light source for surface decontamination and water purification. In this paper we will describe our recent results on plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) growth of free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN bulk crystals using the latest model of Riber's highly efficient nitrogen RF plasma source. We have achieved AlGaN growth rates up to 3 μm/h. Wurtzite AlxGa1-xN layers with thicknesses up to 100 μm were successfully grown by PA-MBE on 2-inch and 3-inch GaAs (111)B substrates. After growth the GaAs was subsequently removed using a chemical etch to achieve free-standing AlxGa1-xN wafers. Free-standing bulk AlxGa1-xN wafers with thicknesses in the range 30-100 μm may be used as substrates for further growth of AlxGa1-xN-based structures and devices. High Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-STEM) and Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED) were employed for detailed structural analysis of AlGaN/GaAs (111)B interface and allowed us to determine the N-polarity of AlGaN layers grown on GaAs (111)B substrates. The novel, high efficiency RF plasma source allowed us to achieve free-standing AlxGa1-xN layers in a single day's growth, making this a commercially viable process.

  20. Molecular beam mass spectrometer equipped with a catalytic wall reactor for in situ studies in high temperature catalysis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, R.; Ihmann, K.; Ihmann, J.; Jentoft, F. C.; Geske, M.; Taha, A.; Pelzer, K.; Schlögl, R.

    2006-05-01

    A newly developed apparatus combining a molecular beam mass spectrometer and a catalytic wall reactor is described. The setup has been developed for in situ studies of high temperature catalytic reactions (>1000°C), which involve besides surface reactions also gas phase reactions in their mechanism. The goal is to identify gas phase radicals by threshold ionization. A tubular reactor, made from the catalytic material, is positioned in a vacuum chamber. Expansion of the gas through a 100μm sampling orifice in the reactor wall into differentially pumped nozzle, skimmer, and collimator chambers leads to the formation of a molecular beam. A quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ion source designed for molecular beam inlet and threshold ionization measurements is used as the analyzer. The sampling time from nozzle to detector is estimated to be less than 10ms. A detection time resolution of up to 20ms can be reached. The temperature of the reactor is measured by pyrometry. Besides a detailed description of the setup components and the physical background of the method, this article presents measurements showing the performance of the apparatus. After deriving the shape and width of the energy spread of the ionizing electrons from measurements on N2 and He we estimated the detection limit in threshold ionization measurements using binary mixtures of CO in N2 to be in the range of several hundreds of ppm. Mass spectra and threshold ionization measurements recorded during catalytic partial oxidation of methane at 1250°C on a Pt catalyst are presented. The detection of CH3• radicals is successfully demonstrated.

  1. Molecular Assisted Breeding and Adaptability Analysis of Zhongyouza 11 with Super High Oil Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-line system of Shaan 2A cytoplasmic male sterility, a hybrid variety rapeseed, Zhongyouza 11, was developed by the combination of traditional methods and a molecular marker-assisted breeding technique. This hybrid variety had high grain yield, high oil content, wide adaptability, and good quality. The oil content of Zhongyouza 11 is steadily above 43% in the three ecological regions along the Yangtze River valley, which is the largest winter oilseed production area in China. The highest oil content of Zhongyouza 11 reached 46.68% in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River valley in 2003-2004, which was the highest among all lines involved in the national regional rapeseed variety trials. In the regional yield trials in Hubei Province, the average yield of Zhongyouza 11 reached 2 853 kg ha-1 (2002-2004), yielding more than the control variety Zhongshuang 6 by 11.34%. In the national trials, the yield of Zhongyouza 11 reached 2 405.7, 2 697.3, and 2 770.2 kg ha-1 in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, yielding more than the control varieties by 11.52, 12.9, and 14.92%, respectively, in 2003-2005. Both the high oil content and high grain yield contributed to the high oil yield of Zhongyouza 11. The oil yield of Zhongyouza 11 in the national trials reached 1083.3, 1210.2, and 1224.8 kg ha-1, yielding more than the controls by 29.42, 27.65, and 20.98%, respectively, in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley. The highest oil yield reached 1369.65 kg ha-1 in the middle reach of the Yangtze River valley(2003-2004), with an increase of 46.21% compared to the control. The experimental sites distributed widely along the Yangtze River valley, cover most of the Chinese winter rapeseed production areas. Among the 89 experimental location/years, the yield of Zhongyouza 11 surpassed the controls at 77 location/years in the trials, indicating its wide adaptability.Zhongyouza 11 was the only one that passed the

  2. Identification of Intermediates in Pyridine Pyrolysis with Molecular-beam Mass Spectrometry and Tunable Synchrotron VUV Photoionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Hong; Taichang Zhang; Lidong Zhang; Fei Qi

    2009-01-01

    The pyrolysis of pyridine (5.26% pyridine in argon) was performed with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry technique at the temperature range of 1255-1765 K at 267 Pa. About 20 products and intermediates, containing major species H2, HCN, C2H2, C5H3N, C4H2, and C3H3N, were identified by near-threshold measurements of photoionization mass spectra and their mole fractions vs.temperatures were estimated. The major reaction pathways are analyzed based on the experimental observations.

  3. Molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of thin Bi2Se3 films on Al2O3 (110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Phillip; Keenan, Cameron; Urazhdin, Sergei; Lederman, David

    2011-07-01

    The structural and electronic properties of thin Bi2Se3 films grown on Al2O3 (110) by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. The epitaxial films grow in the Frank-van der Merwe mode and are c-axis oriented. They exhibit the highest crystallinity, the lowest carrier concentration, and optimal stoichiometry at a substrate temperature of 200 °C determined by the balance between surface kinetics and desorption of Se. The crystallinity of the films improves with increasing Se/Bi flux ratio. Our results enable studies of thin topological insulator films on inert, non-conducting substrates that allow optical access to both film surfaces.

  4. Peculiarly strong room-temperature ferromagnetism from low Mn-doping in ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zuo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Strong room-temperature ferromagnetism is demonstrated in single crystalline Mn-doped ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Very low Mn doping concentration is investigated, and the measured magnetic moment is much larger than what is expected for an isolated ion based on Hund's rules. The ferromagnetic behavior evolves with Mn concentration. Both magnetic anisotropy and anomalous Hall effect confirm the intrinsic nature of ferromagnetism. While the Mn dopant plays a crucial role, another entity in the system is needed to explain the observed large magnetic moments.

  5. InAsP/InGaAsP Strained Microstructures Grown by Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-Qiao; CHEN Jian-Xin; ZHANG Yong-Gang; LI Ai-Zhen; K. Frbjdh; B. Stotz

    2000-01-01

    Device quality InAsP/InGaAsP strained multiquantum-well (MQW) structures are successfully grown by using gas source molecular beam epitaxy method. The grown MQW and InGaAsP quanternary alloy are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, room temperature photoluminescence measurements, confirming that optimum growth condition and high quality material have been obtained for device application. The grown laser structures are processed into ridge waveguide lasers. A threshold current as low as 16mA at 250C for 300μm long device has been obtained. Temperature-dependent light-current measurement shows a characteristic temperature of75K.

  6. Nucleation, Growth, and Bundling of GaN Nanowires in Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Disentangling the Origin of Nanowire Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganer, Vladimir M; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Dogan, Pinar; Sabelfeld, Karl K; Brandt, Oliver

    2016-06-08

    We investigate the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of spontaneously formed GaN nanowires in molecular beam epitaxy combining the statistical analysis of scanning electron micrographs with Monte Carlo growth models. We find that (i) the nanowire density is limited by the shadowing of the substrate from the impinging fluxes by already existing nanowires, (ii) shortly after the nucleation stage, nanowire radial growth becomes negligible, and (iii) coalescence is caused by bundling of nanowires. The latter phenomenon is driven by the gain of surface energy at the expense of the elastic energy of bending and becomes energetically favorable once the nanowires exceed a certain critical length.

  7. Influence of substrate orientation on the structural quality of GaAs nanowires in molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Shi, Sui-Xing; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin

    2015-01-26

    In this study, the effect of substrate orientation on the structural quality of Au-catalyzed epitaxial GaAs nanowires grown by a molecular beam epitaxy reactor has been investigated. It was found that the substrate orientations can be used to manipulate the nanowire catalyst composition and the catalyst surface energy and, therefore, to alter the structural quality of GaAs nanowires grown on different substrates. Defect-free wurtzite-structured GaAs nanowires grown on the GaAs (110) substrate have been achieved under our growth conditions.

  8. In-situ epitaxial growth of graphene/h-BN van der Waals heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zheng; Xu, Zhongguang; Zheng, Renjing; Khanaki, Alireza; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-10-07

    Van der Waals materials have received a great deal of attention for their exceptional layered structures and exotic properties, which can open up various device applications in nanoelectronics. However, in situ epitaxial growth of dissimilar van der Waals materials remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a solution for fabricating van der Waals heterostructures. Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures were synthesized on cobalt substrates by using molecular beam epitaxy. Various characterizations were carried out to evaluate the heterostructures. Wafer-scale heterostructures consisting of single-layer/bilayer graphene and multilayer h-BN were achieved. The mismatch angle between graphene and h-BN is below 1°.

  9. Growth window and effect of substrate symmetry in hybrid molecular beam epitaxy of a Mott insulating rare earth titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Zhang, Jack Y.; Raghavan, Santosh; Kajdos, Adam P.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106-5050 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    The conditions for the growth of stoichiometric GdTiO{sub 3} thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are investigated. It is shown that relatively high growth temperatures (>750 Degree-Sign C) are required to obtain an MBE growth window in which only the stoichiometric film grows for a range of cation flux ratios. This growth window narrows with increasing film thickness. It is also shown that single-domain films are obtained by the growth on a symmetry-matched substrate. The influence of lattice mismatch strain on the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the GdTiO{sub 3} thin film is investigated.

  10. Growth of GaSb1-xBix by molecular beam epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Wang, Shumin; Roy, Ivy Saha;

    2012-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy for GaSb1-xBix is investigated in this article. The growth window for incorporation of Bi in GaSb was found. Strategies of avoiding formation of Bi droplets and enhancing Bi incorporation were studied. The Bi incorporation was confirmed by SIMS and RBS measurements. The Bi...... concentration in the samples was found to increase with increasing growth temperature and Bi flux. The position of GaSb1-xBix layer peak in XRD rocking curves is found to be correlated to Bi composition. Surface and structural properties of the samples were also investigated. Samples grown on GaSb and Ga...

  11. Growth and characterization of GaAs layers on Si substrates by migration-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Liu, John K.; Radhakrishnan, Gouri; Katz, Joseph; Sakai, Shiro

    1988-01-01

    Migration-enhanced molecular beam epitaxial (MEMBE) growth and characterization of the GaAs layer on Si substrates (GaAs/Si) are reported. The MEMBE growth method is described, and material properties are compared with those of normal two-step MBE-grown or in situ annealed layers. Micrographs of cross-section view transmission electron microscopy and scanning surface electron microscopy of MEMBE-grown GaAs/Si showed dislocation densities of 10 to the 7th/sq cm. AlGaAs/GaAs double heterostructures have been successfully grown on MEMBE GaAs/Si by both metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and liquid phase epitaxy.

  12. Synthesis of as-grown superconducting MgB_2 thin films by molecular beam epitaxy in UHV conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Y.; Udsuka, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    As-grown superconducting MgB_2 thin films have been grown on SrTiO_3(001), MgO(001), and Al_2O_3(0001) substrates by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method with novel co-evaporation conditions of low deposition rate in ultra-high vacuum. The structural and physical properties of the films were studied by RHEED, XRD, electrical resistivity measurements, and SQUID magnetometer. The RHEED patterns indicate three-dimensional growth for MgB_2. The highest T_c determined by resistivity measurement w...

  13. Integration of carbon nanotubes with semiconductor technology: fabrication of hybrid devices by III–V molecular beam epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Lindelof, P. E.; Nygård, J.

    2006-01-01

    on incorporation of singlewall nanotubes in III–V semiconductor heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We demonstrate that singlewall carbon nanotubes can be overgrown using MBE; electrical contacts to the nanotubes are obtained by GaMnAs grown at 250 °C. The resulting devices can exhibit field......We review a number of essential issues regarding the integration of carbon nanotubes in semiconductor devices for electronics: material compatibility, electrical contacts, functionalities, circuit architectures and reliability. In the second part of the paper, we present our own recent results...

  14. Visible photoluminescence and room temperature ferromagnetism in high In-content InGaN:Yb nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasari, K.; Palai, R., E-mail: r.palai@upr.edu [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Wang, J.; Jadwisienczak, W. M. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979 (United States); Guinel, M. J.-F. [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Huhtinen, H. [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland); Mundle, R.; Pradhan, A. K. [Department of Engineering, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    We report the growth of high indium content InGaN:Yb nanorods grown on c-plane sapphire (0001) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns recorded during and after the growth revealed crystalline nature of the nanorods. The nanorods were examined using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The photoluminescence studies of the nanorods showed the visible emissions. The In composition was calculated from x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the photoluminescence spectroscopy. The In-concentration was obtained from photoluminescence using modified Vegard's law and found to be around 37% for InGaN and 38% for Yb (5 ± 1%)-doped InGaN with a bowing parameter b = 1.01 eV. The Yb-doped InGaN showed significant enhancement in photoluminescence properties compared to the undoped InGaN. The Yb-doped InGaN nanorods demonstrated the shifting of the photoluminescence band at room temperature, reducing luminescence amplitude temperature dependent fluctuation, and significant narrowing of excitonic emission band as compared to the undoped InGaN. The magnetic properties measured by superconducting quantum interference devices reveals room temperature ferromagnetism, which can be explained by the double exchange mechanism and magnetostriction.

  15. Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Banerjee, Animesh; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2010-09-08

    Catalyst-free growth of (In)GaN nanowires on (001) silicon substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is demonstrated. The nanowires with diameter ranging from 10 to 50 nm have a density of 1-2 x 10(11) cm(-2). P- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species, respectively. Structural characterization by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The peak emission wavelength of InGaN nanowires can be tuned from ultraviolet to red by varying the In composition in the alloy and "white" emission is obtained in nanowires where the In composition is varied continuously during growth. The internal quantum efficiency varies from 20-35%. Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes of 5.4 and 1.4 ns, respectively, are obtained from time-resolved photoluminescence measurements at room temperature for InGaN nanowires emitting at lambda = 490 nm. Green- and white-emitting planar LEDs have been fabricated and characterized. The electroluminescence from these devices exhibits negligible quantum confined Stark effect or band-tail filling effect.

  16. Morphological and microstructural stability of N-polar InAlN thin films grown on free-standing GaN substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Matthew T., E-mail: matthew.hardy.ctr@nrl.navy.mil; Storm, David F.; Downey, Brian P.; Katzer, D. Scott; Meyer, David J. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); McConkie, Thomas O.; Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Nepal, Neeraj [Sotera Defense Solutions, 2200 Defense Hwy Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The sensitivity of the surface morphology and microstructure of N-polar-oriented InAlN to variations in composition, temperature, and layer thickness for thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been investigated. Lateral compositional inhomogeneity is present in N-rich InAlN films grown at low temperature, and phase segregation is exacerbated with increasing InN fraction. A smooth, step-flow surface morphology and elimination of compositional inhomogeneity can be achieved at a growth temperature 50 °C above the onset of In evaporation (650 °C). A GaN/AlN/GaN/200-nm InAlN heterostructure had a sheet charge density of 1.7 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and no degradation in mobility (1760 cm{sup 2}/V s) relative to 15-nm-thick InAlN layers. Demonstration of thick-barrier high-electron-mobility transistors with good direct-current characteristics shows that device quality, thick InAlN layers can be successfully grown by PAMBE.

  17. Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): from ultraviolet to infrared emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S; Bengoechea-Encabo, A; Sánchez-García, M A; Kong, X; Trampert, A; Calleja, E

    2013-05-03

    Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns was performed on GaN-buffered Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Undoped and Si-doped GaN buffer layers were first grown on Si(111) substrates, showing photoluminescence excitonic emission without traces of other low energy contributions, in particular, the yellow band. The GaN buffer surface roughness (between 10 and 14 nm, the rms value in a 10 × 10 μm(2) area) was low enough to allow the fabrication of a thin (7 nm thick) well defined Ti nanohole mask, for the selective area growth. Ordered In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns emitting from the ultraviolet (3.2 eV) to the infrared (0.78 eV) were obtained. The morphology and the emission efficiency of the In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns emitting at a given wavelength could be substantially improved by tuning the In/Ga and total III/N ratios. An estimated internal quantum efficiency of 36% was derived from photoluminescence data for green emitting nanocolumns.

  18. Self-catalyzed ternary core-shell GaAsP nanowire arrays grown on patterned Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunyan; Wu, Jiang; Aagesen, Martin; Holm, Jeppe; Hatch, Sabina; Tang, Mingchu; Huo, Suguo; Liu, Huiyun

    2014-08-13

    The growth of self-catalyzed ternary core-shell GaAsP nanowire (NW) arrays on SiO2 patterned Si(111) substrates has been demonstrated by using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. A high-temperature deoxidization step up to ∼ 900 °C prior to NW growth was used to remove the native oxide and/or SiO2 residue from the patterned holes. To initiate the growth of GaAsP NW arrays, the Ga predeposition used for assisting the formation of Ga droplets in the patterned holes, was shown to be another essential step. The effects of the patterned-hole size on the NW morphology were also studied and explained using a simple growth model. A lattice-matched radial GaAsP core-shell NW structure has subsequently been developed with room-temperature photoluminescence emission around 740 nm. These results open up new perspectives for integrating position-controlled III-V NW photonic and electronic structures on a Si platform.

  19. Spontaneous core–shell elemental distribution in In-rich In(x)Ga1-xN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, M; Garro, N; Segura-Ruiz, J; Martinez-Criado, G; Cantarero, A; Mengistu, H T; García-Cristóbal, A; Murcia-Mascarós, S; Denker, C; Malindretos, J; Rizzi, A

    2014-02-21

    The elemental distribution of self-organized In-rich In(x)Ga1-xN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated using three different techniques with spatial resolution on the nanoscale. Two-dimensional images and elemental profiles of single nanowires obtained by x-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively, have revealed a radial gradient in the alloy composition of each individual nanowire. The spectral selectivity of resonant Raman scattering has been used to enhance the signal from very small volumes with different elemental composition within single nanowires. The combination of the three techniques has provided sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution to prove the spontaneous formation of a core–shell nanowire and to quantify the thicknesses and alloy compositions of the core and shell regions. A theoretical model based on continuum elastic theory has been used to estimate the strain fields present in such inhomogeneous nanowires. These results suggest new strategies for achieving high quality nonpolar heterostructures.

  20. Self-catalyzed growth of dilute nitride GaAs/GaAsSbN/GaAs core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasanaboina, Pavan Kumar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411 (United States); Ahmad, Estiak [Nanoengineering, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, NCA& T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27401 (United States); Li, Jia; Iyer, Shanthi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411 (United States); Nanoengineering, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, NCA& T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27401 (United States); Reynolds, C. Lewis; Liu, Yang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    Bandgap tuning up to 1.3 μm in GaAsSb based nanowires by incorporation of dilute amount of N is reported. Highly vertical GaAs/GaAsSbN/GaAs core-shell configured nanowires were grown for different N contents on Si (111) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed close lattice matching of GaAsSbN with GaAs. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) revealed red shift as well as broadening of the spectra attesting to N incorporation in the nanowires. Replication of the 4K PL spectra for several different single nanowires compared to the corresponding nanowire array suggests good compositional homogeneity amongst the nanowires. A large red shift of the Raman spectrum and associated symmetric line shape in these nanowires have been attributed to phonon localization at point defects. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the dominance of stacking faults and twins in these nanowires. The lower strain present in these dilute nitride nanowires, as opposed to GaAsSb nanowires having the same PL emission wavelength, and the observation of room temperature PL demonstrate the advantage of the dilute nitride system offers in the nanowire configuration, providing a pathway for realizing nanoscale optoelectronic devices in the telecommunication wavelength region.

  1. Optimization of nitrogen plasma source parameters by measurements of emitted light intensity for growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klosek, K.; Sobanska, M.; Tchutchulashvili, G.; Zytkiewicz, Z.R., E-mail: zytkie@ifpan.edu.pl; Teisseyre, H.; Klopotowski, L.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive analysis of operating parameters of Addon RF nitrogen plasma source was made in order to determine how a ratio of different active nitrogen species depends on operating parameters of the source such as supplied power and nitrogen flow. We show that output signal of the optical sensor that measures intensity of the light emitted by the plasma is a direct measure of the amount of active nitrogen available for growth. Results of optical emission spectroscopy and measurements of growth kinetics show that nitrogen excited metastable molecules are the species mainly contributing to the growth of GaN under Ga-rich conditions. A procedure is presented allowing to find an optimal conditions of the plasma cell for high-quality GaN growth. Under these conditions the nitrogen flux contains maximum amount of excited metastable molecules and minimal amount of ionic and atomic nitrogen species to minimize GaN lattice damage, even at high growth rates. - Highlights: ► Operating parameters of Addon radio-frequency nitrogen plasma source studied ► Their influence on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaN analyzed ► MBE growth rate of GaN well correlates with output of the plasma emission sensor. ► Optical emission spectroscopy measurements of the nitrogen plasma made ► Nitrogen excited molecules mainly contribute to plasma-assisted MBE growth of GaN.

  2. Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): from ultraviolet to infrared emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sánchez-García, M. A.; Kong, X.; Trampert, A.; Calleja, E.

    2013-05-01

    Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns was performed on GaN-buffered Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Undoped and Si-doped GaN buffer layers were first grown on Si(111) substrates, showing photoluminescence excitonic emission without traces of other low energy contributions, in particular, the yellow band. The GaN buffer surface roughness (between 10 and 14 nm, the rms value in a 10 × 10 μm2 area) was low enough to allow the fabrication of a thin (7 nm thick) well defined Ti nanohole mask, for the selective area growth. Ordered In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns emitting from the ultraviolet (3.2 eV) to the infrared (0.78 eV) were obtained. The morphology and the emission efficiency of the In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns emitting at a given wavelength could be substantially improved by tuning the In/Ga and total III/N ratios. An estimated internal quantum efficiency of 36% was derived from photoluminescence data for green emitting nanocolumns.

  3. Epitaxial growth of dilute nitride-arsenide compound semiconductors by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamcyk, Martin

    InyGa1-yAs 1-xNx containing a small amount of nitrogen (x narrow bandgap semiconductor alloy that has advantageous properties for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this thesis, we seek to improve the material quality of InGaAsN and GaAsN by studying how the epitaxial growth conditions affect both the structural and electronic properties of the alloy. We describe a novel RF plasma source based on a helical resonator design that was developed for the incorporation of nitrogen into GaAsN and InGaAsN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The plasma source is equipped with a baffle apparatus that decreases the ion content of the flux. We show how the structural and electronic properties of InGaAsN epilayers depend on the growth conditions. In situ light scattering measurements and atomic force microscopy show that a faceted surface morphology occurs when growth conditions increase adatom surface diffusion: slow growth rate, high substrate temperature and high V/III ratio. Large nitrogen concentrations also favour the faceted growth mode. The residual strain in relaxed InGaAsN films is found to be higher than in InGaAs epilayers having the same lattice mismatch. In situ substrate curvature measurements were used to monitor the strain state of the sample in real time during the growth. Ex situ transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements agree with the residual strain determined with the in situ monitor. These characterization results also indicate that threading dislocation glide is slower in InGaAsN than in InGaAs. Finally, we find that the electronic properties of InGaAsN are generally degraded with increasing nitrogen content. However, by choosing appropriate growth conditions, we demonstrate InGaAsN quantum wells with room temperature photoluminescence efficiencies that are comparable to InGaAs structures. These photoluminescence results may be related to the faceting transition that was observed during GaAsN growth. In

  4. Non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics of supersonic beam epitaxy of silicon carbide at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taioli, Simone; Garberoglio, Giovanni; Simonucci, Stefano; a Beccara, Silvio; Aversa, Lucrezia; Nardi, Marco; Verucchi, Roberto; Iannotta, Salvatore; Dapor, Maurizio; Alfè, Dario

    2013-01-28

    In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C(60) collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C(60) impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.

  5. Epitaxy of an Al-Droplet-Free AlN Layer with Step-Flow Features by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jian-Hai; WANG Xin-Qiang; CHEN Guang; LIU Shi-Tao; FENG Li; XU Fu-Jun; TANG Ning; SHEN Bo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate epitaxy of A1N layers on sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that an atomically Bat surface can be obtained under Al-rich conditions at growth temperature of 780°C. However, the growth window to obtain an Al-droplet-free surface is too narrow to be well-controlled. However, the growth window can be greatly broadened by increasing the growth temperature up to 950 "C, where an Al-droplet-free surface with a step-How feature is obtained due to the enhanced re-evaporization rate and migration ability of Al adatoms. The samples grown at the higher temperature also show a higher crystalline quality than those grown at lower temperatures.%@@ We investigate epitaxy of AlN layers on sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy.It is found that an atomically fiat surface can be obtained under Al-rich conditions at growth temperature of 780℃.However, the growth window to obtain an Al-droplet-free surface is too narrow to be well-controlled.However, the growth window can be greatly broadened by increasing the growth temperature up to 950℃, where an Al-droplet-free surface with a step-flow feature is obtained due to the enhanced re-evaporization rate and migration ability of Al adatoms.The samples grown at the higher temperature also show a higher crystalline quality than those grown at lower temperatures.

  6. Molecular beam studies of unimolecular and bimolecular chemical reaction dynamics using VUV synchrotron radiation as a product probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, David Andrew [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation describes the use of a new molecular beam apparatus designed to use tunable VUV synchrotron radiation for photoionization of the products from scattering experiments. The apparatus was built at the recently constructed Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a third generation 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source. The new apparatus is applied to investigations of the dynamics of unimolecular reactions, photodissociation experiments, and bimolecular reactions, crossed molecular beam experiments. The first chapter describes the new apparatus and the VUV radiation used for photoionization. This is followed by a number of examples of the many advantages provided by using VUV photoionization in comparison with the traditional technique of electron bombardment ionization. At the end of the chapter there is a discussion of the data analysis employed in these scattering experiments. The remaining four chapters are complete investigations of the dynamics of four chemical systems using the new apparatus and provide numerous additional examples of the advantages provided by VUV photoionizaiton of the products. Chapters 2-4 are photofragment translational spectroscopy studies of the photodissociation dynamics of dimethyl sulfoxide, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride following absorption at 193 mn. All of these systems have multiple dissociation channels and provide good examples of the ability of the new apparatus to unravel the complex UV photodissociation dynamics that can arise in small polyatomic molecules.

  7. Application of computer-assisted molecular modeling (CAMM) for immunoassay of low molecular weight food contaminants: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunoassay for low molecular weight food contaminants, such as pesticides, veterinary drugs, and mycotoxins is now a well-established technique which meets the demands for a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective analytical method. However, due to limited understanding of the fundamental aspects of i...

  8. MST (Molecular Serotyping Tool): a Program for Computer-Assisted Molecular Identification of Escherichia coli and Shigella O Antigens▿

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli and Shigella O antigens can be inferred using the rfb-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) molecular test. We present herein a dynamic programming algorithm-based software to compare the rfb-RFLP patterns of clinical isolates with those in a database containing the 171 previously published patterns corresponding to all known E. coli/Shigella O antigens.

  9. Historical Account And Branching To Rarefied Gas Dynamics Of Atomic and Molecular Beams : A Continuing And Fascinating Odyssey Commemorated By Nobel Prizes Awarded To 23 Laureates In Physics And Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campargue, Roger

    2005-05-01

    This Historical Account derived in part from D. R. Herschbach was presented as an opening lecture of the Molecular Beam Session organized at the 24th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics held in Bari, Italy, in July 2004. The emphasis is on the impressive results due to the molecular beam techniques in the last century. The first section summarizes the historical beam experiments performed by 14 Nobel Prize laureates having used the thermally effusive sources to establish the basic principles of Modern Physics. The second section is on the branching of Molecular Beams to Rarefied Gas Dynamics having permitted to investigate the physics of supersonic free jets and transform the molecular beam techniques. Finally, the last section relates the spectacular molecular beam experiments in helium free jet ultracooling, molecular spectroscopy, chemical reaction dynamics, clustering and modification of low density matter, and biomolecule mass spectrometry, rewarded by nine Nobel Prizes in Chemistry from 1986 to 2002.

  10. SAFT-assisted sound beam focusing using phased arrays (PA-SAFT) for non-destructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanekar, Paritosh; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.

    2015-04-01

    Focusing of sound has always been a subject of interest in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation. An integrated approach to sound beam focusing using phased array and synthetic aperture focusing technique (PA-SAFT) has been developed in the authors' laboratory. The approach involves SAFT processing on ultrasonic B-scan image collected by a linear array transducer using a divergent sound beam. The objective is to achieve sound beam focusing using fewer elements than the ones required using conventional phased array. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on aluminium blocks with artificial flaws and steel plate samples with embedded volumetric weld flaws, such as slag and clustered porosities. The results obtained by the PA-SAFT approach are found to be comparable to those obtained by conventional phased array and full matrix capture - total focusing method approaches.

  11. Breeding Rice Restorer Lines with High Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Using Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Qi-ming; WANG Shi-quan; ZHENG Ai-ping; ZHANG Hong-yu; LI Ping

    2006-01-01

    Two bacterial blight (BB) resistance genes, Xa21 and Xa4, from IRBB24 were introduced into hybrid rice restorer line Mianhui 725, which is highly susceptible to BB, by using hybridization and molecular marker-assisted selection technology. Four homologous restorer lines were obtained through testing the R target genes with molecular markers and analyzing parental genetic background. Inoculation of the four lines and their hybrids with the specific strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, P1, P6 and seven representative strains of Chinese pathotype, C Ⅰ -CⅦ, showed that all of the four lines and their hybrids were highly resistant and presented broad resistance-spectrum to BB. The hybrids of G46A / R207-2 displayed good agronomic characters and high yield potential, and R207-2 was named Shuhui 207.

  12. STUDY OF THE REACTION DYNAMICS OF Li + HF, HCl BY THE CROSSED MOLECULAR BEAMS METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Christopher H.; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Tiedemann, Peter W.; Valentini, James J.; Lee, Yuan T.

    1980-05-01

    The reactions of (I) Li + HF {yields} LiF + H and (II) Li + HCl {yields} LiCl + H have been studied by the crossed molecular beams method. Angular distributions [N({theta})] of product molecules have been measured at 4 collision energies (E{sub c}) ranging from about 2 to 9 kcal/mole and time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of product velocity distribution were made at approximately E{sub c} = 3 and 9 kcal/mole for both reactions (I) and (II). The combined N({theta}) and TOF results were used to generate contour maps of lithium-halide product flux in angle and recoil velocity in the center-of-mass (c.m.) frame. For reaction (I) at E{sub c} = 3 kcal/mole the c.m. angular distribution [T({theta})] shows evidence of complex formation with near forward-backward symmetry; slightly favored backward peaking is observed. The shape of this T({theta}) indicates there is significant parallel or antiparallel spatial orientation of initial and final orbital angular momentum {rvec L} and {rvec L}', even though with H departing L' must be rather small and {rvec L} = {rvec J}', where {rvec J}' is the final rotational angular momentum vector. It is deduced that coplanar reaction geometries are strongly favored. At E{sub c} = 8.7 kcal/mole the T({theta}) of reaction (I) becomes strongly forward peaked. The product translational energy distributions P(E{sub T}') at both these collision energies give an average E{sub T}' of ~55% of the total available energy; this appears consistent with a theoretically calculated late exit barrier to reaction. The T({theta}) at E{sub c} = 2.9 and 9.2 kcal/mole for reaction (II) are forward-sideways peaked. Most of the available energy (~70%) goes into recoil velocity at both E{sub c} for LiCl formation. This suggests a late energy release for this 11 kcal/mole exoergic reaction. Both reactions (I) and (II) show evidence of no more than a minor partitioning of energy into product vibrational excitation. Integral reactive cross sections ({sigma}{sub R

  13. Molecular depth profiling of organic photovoltaic heterojunction layers by ToF-SIMS: comparative evaluation of three sputtering beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhib, T; Poleunis, C; Wehbe, N; Michels, J J; Galagan, Y; Houssiau, L; Bertrand, P; Delcorte, A

    2013-11-21

    With the recent developments in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), it is now possible to obtain molecular depth profiles and 3D molecular images of organic thin films, i.e. SIMS depth profiles where the molecular information of the mass spectrum is retained through the sputtering of the sample. Several approaches have been proposed for "damageless" profiling, including the sputtering with SF5(+) and C60(+) clusters, low energy Cs(+) ions and, more recently, large noble gas clusters (Ar500-5000(+)). In this article, we evaluate the merits of these different approaches for the in depth analysis of organic photovoltaic heterojunctions involving poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the acceptor. It is demonstrated that the use of 30 keV C60(3+) and 500 eV Cs(+) (500 eV per atom) leads to strong artifacts for layers in which the fullerene derivative PCBM is involved, related to crosslinking and topography development. In comparison, the profiles obtained using 10 keV Ar1700(+) (∼6 eV per atom) do not indicate any sign of artifacts and reveal fine compositional details in the blends. However, increasing the energy of the Ar cluster beam beyond that value leads to irreversible damage and failure of the molecular depth profiling. The profile qualities, apparent interface widths and sputtering yields are analyzed in detail. On the grounds of these experiments and recent molecular dynamics simulations, the discussion addresses the issues of damage and crater formation induced by the sputtering and the analysis ions in such radiation-sensitive materials, and their effects on the profile quality and the depth resolution. Solutions are proposed to optimize the depth resolution using either large Ar clusters or low energy cesium projectiles for sputtering and/or analysis.

  14. Efficient upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Burkett, Allan; Blackwell, Ashley; Taylor, Keylantra; Walker, Vernell; Sarkisov, Sergey; Koplitz, Brent

    2014-09-01

    We report on fabrication and investigation of optical and morphological properties of highly efficient (a quantum yield of 1%) upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the new technique of double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE). Polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) host was evaporated on a silicon substrate using a 1064-nm pulsed laser beam using a target made of frozen (to the temperature of liquid nitrogen) solution of PMMA in chlorobenzene. Concurrently, the second 532-nm pulsed beam from the same laser was used to impregnate the polymer host with the inorganic nanoparticulate made of the rare earth upconversion compounds NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+, NaYF4: Yb3+, Ho3+, and NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+. The compounds were initially synthesized using the wet process, baked, and compressed in solid pellet targets. The proposed DB-MAPLE method has the advantage of making highly homogeneous nanocomposite films with precise control of the doping rate due to the optimized overlapping of the plumes produced by the ablation of the organic and inorganic target with the infrared and visible laser beams respectively. X-ray diffraction, electron and atomic force microscopy, and optical fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the inorganic nanoparticulate preserved its crystalline structure and upconversion properties (strong emission in green, red, and blue bands upon illumination with 980-nm laser diode) after being transferred from the target in the polymer nanocomposite film. The produced films can be used in applications varying from the efficiency enhancement of the photovoltaic cells, optical sensors and biomarkers to anti-counterfeit labels.

  15. Patterned growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN grating by molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yongjin; Hu Fangren; Hane Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We report here the epitaxial growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN gratings by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Various GaN gratings are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on GaN-on-silicon substrate by fast atom beam etching. Silicon substrate beneath GaN grating region is removed from the backside to form freestanding GaN gratings, and the patterned growth is subsequently performed on the prepared GaN template by MBE. The selective growth takes place wit...

  16. Electronic transport in fullerene C20 bridge assisted by molecular vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2005-08-01

    The effect of molecular vibrations on electronic transport is investigated with the smallest fullerene C20 bridge, utilizing the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function techniques combined with the tight-binding molecular-dynamics method. Large discontinuous steps appear in the differential conductance when the applied bias voltage matches particular vibrational energies. The magnitude of the step is found to vary considerably with the vibrational mode and to depend on the local electronic states besides the strength of electron-vibration coupling. On the basis of this finding, a novel way to control the molecular motion by adjusting the gate voltage is proposed.

  17. Febrifugine analogues as Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase inhibitors: binding energy analysis assisted by molecular docking, ADMET and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajan Kumar; Kumbhar, Bajarang Vasant; Srivastava, Shubham; Malik, Ruchi; Sundar, Shyam; Kunwar, Ambarish; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis affects people from 70 countries worldwide, mostly from Indian, African and south American continent. The increasing resistance to antimonial, miltefosine and frequent toxicity of amphotericin B drives an urgent need to develop an antileishmanial drug with excellent efficacy and safety profile. In this study we have docked series of febrifugine analogues (n = 8813) against trypanothione reductase in three sequential docking modes. Extra precision docking resulted into 108 ligands showing better docking score as compared to two reference ligand. Furthermore, 108 febrifugine analogues and reference inhibitor clomipramine were subjected to ADMET, QikProp and molecular mechanics, the generalized born model and solvent accessibility study to ensure the toxicity caused by compounds and binding-free energy, respectively. Two best ligands (FFG7 and FFG2) qualifying above screening parameters were further subjected to molecular dynamics simulation. Conducting these studies, here we confirmed that 6-chloro-3-[3-(3-hydroxy-2-piperidyl)-2-oxo-propyl]-7-(4-pyridyl) quinazolin-4-one can be potential drug candidate to fight against Leishmania donovani parasites.

  18. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Heterostructures to Study Quantum Interference Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    MBE growth and regrowth of heterostructures for quantum interference transistors and a detailed study of the physical mechanisms and the limitations imposed by them in such devices. We have investigated in detail the suitability of the MBE regrowth process for such applications. Very encouraging progress has been made. The performance characteristics of dual-channel quantum interference devices grown in our laboratory and defined by e-beam lithography have been measured and reported. From this work it is clear that to achieve enhanced performance and to demonstrate a large

  19. Large array of single, site-controlled InAs quantum dots fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography and molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, A; Tommila, J; Strelow, C; Hakkarainen, T V; Tukiainen, A; Dumitrescu, M; Mews, A; Kipp, T; Guina, M

    2012-05-04

    We present the growth of single, site-controlled InAs quantum dots on GaAs templates using UV-nanoimprint lithography and molecular beam epitaxy. A large quantum dot array with a period of 1.5 µm was achieved. Single quantum dots were studied by steady-state and time-resolved micro-photoluminescence experiments. We obtained single exciton emission with a linewidth of 45 µeV. In time-resolved experiments, we observed decay times of about 670 ps. Our results underline the potential of nanoimprint lithography and molecular beam epitaxy to create large-scale, single quantum dot arrays.

  20. Continuous all-optical deceleration and single-photon cooling of molecular beams

    CERN Document Server

    Jayich, A M; Hummon, M T; Porto, J V; Campbell, W C

    2013-01-01

    Ultracold molecular gases are promising as an avenue to rich many-body physics, quantum chemistry, quantum information, and precision measurements. This richness, which flows from the complex internal structure of molecules, makes the creation of ultracold molecular gases using traditional methods (laser plus evaporative cooling) a challenge, in particular due to the spontaneous decay of molecules into dark states. We propose a way to circumvent this key bottleneck using an all-optical method for decelerating molecules using stimulated absorption and emission with a single ultrafast laser. We further describe single-photon cooling of the decelerating molecules that exploits their high dark state pumping rates, turning the principal obstacle to molecular laser cooling into an advantage. Cooling and deceleration may be applied simultaneously and continuously to load molecules into a trap. We discuss implementation details including multi-level numerical simulations of strontium monohydride (SrH). These techniqu...

  1. Clinical, Molecular and Genetic Changes in Response to a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Fermin, David R.; Birks, Emma J.; Barton, Paul J. R.; Slaughter, Mark; Eckman, Peter; Hideo A. Baba; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias Jeremias; Miller, Leslie W.

    2011-01-01

    The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) in treating patients with end stage heart failure has increased significantly in recent years, both as a bridge to transplant and as destination therapy in those who are ineligible for cardiac transplantation. This increase is based largely on the results of several recently completed clinical trials with the new second generation continuous flow devices that showed significant improvement in survival, functional capacity, and quality of life...

  2. Investigation of the mechanism of impurity assisted nanoripple formation on Si induced by low energy ion beam erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyiloth Vayalil, Sarathlal, E-mail: sarathlal.koyilothvayalil@desy.de [Photon Science, DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201313 (India); Roth, Stephan V. [Photon Science, DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2015-01-14

    A detailed mechanism of the nanoripple pattern formation on Si substrates generated by the simultaneous incorporation of pure Fe impurities at low energy (1 keV) ion beam erosion has been studied. To understand and clarify the mechanism of the pattern formation, a comparative analysis of the samples prepared for various ion fluence values using two complimentary methods for nanostructure analysis, atomic force microscopy, and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering has been done. We observed that phase separation of the metal silicide formed during the erosion does not precede the ripple formation. It rather concurrently develops along with the ripple structure. Our work is able to differentiate among various models existing in the literature and provides an insight into the mechanism of pattern formation under ion beam erosion with impurity incorporation.

  3. Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuqing; Pello, Josselin; Mejia, Alonso Millan; Shen, Longfei; Smalbrugge, Barry; Geluk, Erik Jan; Smit, Meint; van der Tol, Jos

    2014-03-15

    In this Letter, we present a method to prepare a mixed electron-beam resist composed of a positive resist (ZEP520A) and C60 fullerene. The addition of C60 to the ZEP resist changes the material properties under electron beam exposure significantly. An improvement in the thermal resistance of the mixed material has been demonstrated by fabricating multimode interference couplers and coupling regions of microring resonators. The fabrication of distributed Bragg reflector structures has shown improvement in terms of pattern definition accuracy with respect to the same structures fabricated with normal ZEP resist. Straight InP membrane waveguides with different lengths have been fabricated using this mixed resist. A decrease of the propagation loss from 6.6 to 3.3  dB/cm has been demonstrated.

  4. Detailed subsurface damage measurement and efficient damage-free fabrication of fused silica optics assisted by ion beam sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenlin; Dai, Yifan; Liu, Zongzheng; Xie, Xuhui; Nie, Xuqing; Xu, Mingjin

    2016-02-22

    Formation of subsurface damage has an inseparable relationship with microscopic material behaviors. In this work, our research results indicate that the formation process of subsurface damage often accompanies with the local densification effect of fused silica material, which seriously influences microscopic material properties. Interestingly, we find ion beam sputtering (IBS) is very sensitive to the local densification, and this microscopic phenomenon makes IBS as a promising technique for the detection of nanoscale subsurface damages. Additionally, to control the densification effect and subsurface damage during the fabrication of high-performance optical components, a combined polishing technology integrating chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) and ion beam figuring (IBF) is proposed. With this combined technology, fused silica without subsurface damage is obtained through the final experimental investigation, which demonstrates the feasibility of our proposed method.

  5. Effects of growth temperature and device structure on GaP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaisman, M.; Tomasulo, S.; Masuda, T.; Lang, J. R.; Faucher, J.; Lee, M. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) is an attractive candidate for wide-bandgap solar cell applications, possessing the largest bandgap of the III-arsenide/phosphides without aluminum. However, GaP cells to date have exhibited poor internal quantum efficiency (IQE), even for photons absorbed by direct transitions, motivating improvements in material quality and device structure. In this work, we investigated GaP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy over a range of substrate temperatures, employing a much thinner emitter than in prior work. Higher growth temperatures yielded the best solar cell characteristics, indicative of increased diffusion lengths. Furthermore, the inclusion of an AlGaP window layer improved both open-circuit voltage and short wavelength IQE.

  6. Correlation of nanochemistry and electrical properties in HfO2 films grown by metalorganic molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Tae-Hyoung; Ham, Moon-Ho; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2005-03-01

    We present the annealing effects on nanochemistry and electrical properties in HfO2 dielectrics grown by metalorganic molecular-beam epitaxy. After the postannealing treatment of HfO2 films in the temperature range of 600-800°C, the thicknesses and chemical states of the films were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By comparing the line shapes of core-level spectra for the samples with different annealing temperatures, the concentrations of SiO and Hf-silicate with high dielectric constant are found to be highest for HfO2 film annealed at 700°C. This result supports that the accumulation capacitance of the sample annealed at 700°C is not deteriorated in spite of a steep increase in interfacial layer thickness compared with that of the sample annealed at 600°C.

  7. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Z.; Zhao, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Bugnet, M.; Djavid, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, J.; Kong, X.; Ji, W.; Guo, H.; Liu, Z.; Botton, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the detailed molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire heterostructures on Si and their applications for deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers. The nanowires are formed under nitrogen-rich conditions without using any metal catalyst. Compared to conventional epilayers, Mg-dopant incorporation is significantly enhanced in nearly strain- and defect-free Al(Ga)N nanowire structures, leading to efficient p-type conduction. The resulting Al(Ga)N nanowire LEDs exhibit excellent performance, including a turn-on voltage of ∼5.5 V for an AlN nanowire LED operating at 207 nm. The design, fabrication, and performance of an electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the UV-B band is also presented.

  8. GaAs-based long-wavelength InAs bilayer quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yan; Li Mifeng; He Jifang; Yu Ying; Ni Haiqiao; Xu Yingqiang; Wang Juan; He Zhenhong; Niu Zhichuan

    2011-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy growth ofa bilayer stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot structure on a pure GaAs matrix has been systemically investigated.The influence of growth temperature and the InAs deposition of both layers on the optical properties and morphologies of the bilayer quantum dot (BQD) structures is discussed.By optimizing the growth parameters,InAs BQD emission at 1.436μm at room temperature with a narrower FWHM of 27 meV was demonstrated.The density of QDs in the second layer is around 9 × 109 to 1.4 × 1010 cm-2.The BQD structure provides a useful way to extend the emission wavelength of GaAs-based material for quantum functional devices.

  9. Structural properties of SrO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on LaAlO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, O.; Heydemann, V. D.; Fisher, P.; Skowronski, M.; Salvador, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    SrO films were grown on LaAlO3 substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of the RHEED pattern is discussed as a function of film thickness. 500Å thick SrO films were relaxed and exhibited RHEED patterns indicative of an atomically smooth surface having uniform terrace heights. Films had the epitaxial relationship (001)SrO‖(001)LaAlO3; [010]SrO‖[110]LaAlO3. This 45° in-plane rotation minimizes mismatch and leads to films of high crystalline quality, as verified by Kikuchi lines in the RHEED patterns and narrow rocking curves of the (002) XRD peak.

  10. Low-damping sub-10-nm thin films of lutetium iron garnet grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermain, C. L.; Paik, H.; Aradhya, S. V.; Buhrman, R. A.; Schlom, D. G.; Ralph, D. C.

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the structural and magnetic characteristics of (111)-oriented lutetium iron garnet (Lu3Fe5O12) films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, for films as thin as 2.8 nm. Thickness-dependent measurements of the in- and out-of-plane ferromagnetic resonance allow us to quantify the effects of two-magnon scattering, along with the surface anisotropy and the saturation magnetization. We achieve effective damping coefficients of 11.1 (9 )×10-4 for 5.3 nm films and 32 (3 )×10-4 for 2.8 nm films, among the lowest values reported to date for any insulating ferrimagnetic sample of comparable thickness.

  11. GaAs Based InAs/GaSb Superlattice Short Wavelength Infrared Detectors Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Bao; XU Ying-Qiang; ZHOU Zhi-Qiang; HAO Rui-Ting; WANG Guo-Wei; REN Zheng-Wei; NIU Zhi-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) short wavelength infrared photoconduction detectors are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(O01) semi-insulating substrates. An interracial misfit mode A1Sb quantum dot layer and a thick GaSb layer are grown as buffer layers. The detectors containing a 200-period 2 ML/8 ML InAs/GaSb SL active layer are fabricated with a pixel area of 800×800 μm2 without using passivation or antireflection coatings. Corresponding to the 50% cutoff wavelengths of 2.05 μm at 77K and 2.25 μ m at 300 K, the peak detectivities of the detectors are 4 × 109 cm·Hz1/2/W at 77K and 2 × 108 cm.Hz1/2/W at 30OK, respectively.

  12. Dielectric and Structural Properties of SrTiO_3 Thin Films Grown by Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric and Structural Properties of SrTiO_3 Thin Films Grown by Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy[1]Hao J H,Gao J,Wang Z,et al.Interface structure and phase of epitaxial SrTi O3(110)thin fil ms grown directly on silicon[J].Appl Phys Lett,2005,87:131908. [2]Hao J H,Gao J,Wang HK.SrTi O3(110)thin fil ms grown directly on different oriented silicon substrates[J].Appl Phys A,2005,81:1233. [3]Aki mov I A,Sirenko A A,Clark A M,et al.Electric-field-induced soft-mode hardening in SrTi O3fil ms[J].Phys Rev Lett...

  13. Electrical and Optical Studies of Defect Structure of HgCdTe Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątek, Z.; Ozga, P.; Izhnin, I. I.; Fitsych, E. I.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Mynbaev, K. D.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.; Bonchyk, A. Yu.; Savytsky, H. V.

    2016-07-01

    Electrical and optical studies of defect structure of HgCdTe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are performed. It is shown that the peculiarity of these films is the presence of neutral defects formed at the growth stage and inherent to the material grown by MBE. It is assumed that these neutral defects are the Te nanocomplexes. Under ion milling, they are activated by mercury interstitials and form the donor centers with the concentration of 1017 cm-3, which makes it possible to detect such defects by measurements of electrical parameters of the material. Under doping of HgCdTe with arsenic using high temperature cracking, the As2 dimers are present in the arsenic flow and block the neutral Te nanocomplexes to form donor As2Te3 complexes. The results of electrical studies are compared with the results of studies carried out by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of a three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetal Na{sub 3}Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi, E-mail: YiZhang@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Stanford Institute of Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Liu, Zhongkai; Shen, Zhi-Xun [Stanford Institute of Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Departments of Physics and Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zhou, Bo [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Departments of Physics and Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kim, Yeongkwan; Hussain, Zahid; Mo, Sung-Kwan, E-mail: SKMo@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chen, Yulin [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-21

    We report a molecular beam epitaxial growth of Na{sub 3}Bi single-crystal thin films on two different substrates—epitaxial bilayer graphene terminated 6H-SiC(0001) and Si(111). Using reflection high-energy electron diffraction, we found that the lattice orientation of the grown Na{sub 3}Bi thin film was rotated by 30° respect to the surface lattice orientations of these two substrates. An in-situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy clearly revealed the 3-dimensional Dirac-cone band structure in such thin films. Our approach of growing Na{sub 3}Bi thin film provides a potential route for further studying its intriguing electronic properties and for fabricating it into practical devices in future.

  15. Absorption and emission of (In,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siozade, L.; Disseix, P.; Vasson, A.; Leymarie, J. [CNRS, Aubiere (France). LASMEA; Damilano, B.; Grandjean, N.; Massies, J. [CNRS, Valbonne (France). CRHEA

    2001-01-01

    Thermally detected optical absorption (TDOA) and photoluminescence experiments are carried out on In{sub 0.16}Ga{sub 0.84}N/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (0001) sapphire substrates. A model proposed to adjust the TDOA line shape, allows to deduce the band-edge energies, the absorption coefficients and the broadening parameters of the (In,Ga)N MQWs for different thicknesses. The Fabry-Perot oscillations, which structure the TDOA spectra, are considered in this modelling to accurately account for the experimental data. The emission, which covers the whole visible spectrum at room temperature, is achieved by varying the thickness from 1.5 to 5 nm. A very large Stokes shift between the emission and absorption energies is deduced at low temperature, for the (In,Ga)N MQWs. (orig.)

  16. High Growth Rate Metal-Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy for the Fabrication of GaAs Space Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, A.; Newman, F.; Monier, C.; Street, S.; Dargan, P.; Levy, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work it is shown that high quality GaAs photovoltaic devices can be produced by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) with growth rates comparable to metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) through the subsitution of group III solid sources by metal-organic compounds. The influence the III/V flux-ratio and growth temperatures in maintaining a two dimensional layer by layer growth mode and achieving high growth rates with low residual background impurities is investigated. Finally subsequent to the study of the optimization of n- and p doping of such high growth rate epilayers, results from a preliminary attempt in the fabrication of GaAs photovoltaic devices such as tunnel diodes and solar cells using the proposed high growth rate approach are reported.

  17. Compositional variations in In(0.5)Ga(0.5)N nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherns, D; Webster, R F; Novikov, S V; Foxon, C T; Fischer, A M; Ponce, F A; Haigh, S J

    2014-05-30

    The composition of InxGa1 - xN nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy with nominal x = 0.5 has been mapped by electron microscopy using Z-contrast imaging and x-ray microanalysis. This shows a coherent and highly strained core-shell structure with a near-atomically sharp boundary between a Ga-rich shell (x ∼ 0.3) and an In-rich core (x ∼ 0.7), which itself has In- and Ga-rich platelets alternating along the growth axis. It is proposed that the shell and core regions are lateral and vertical growth sectors, with the core structure determined by spinodal decomposition.

  18. Strain relief and growth optimization of GaSb on GaP by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Ruterana, P; Chen, J; Desplanque, L; El Kazzi, S; Wallart, X

    2012-08-22

    In this paper, the impact of growth parameters on the strain relaxation of highly lattice mismatched (11.8%) GaSb grown on GaP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated. The surface morphology, misfit dislocation and strain relaxation of the GaSb islands are shown to be highly related to the initial surface treatment, growth rate and temperature. More specifically, Sb-rich surface treatment is shown to promote the formation of Lomer misfit dislocations. Analysis of the misfit dislocation and strain relaxation as functions of the growth temperature and rate led to an optimal growth window for a high quality GaSb epitaxial layer on (001) GaP. With this demonstrated optimized growth, a high mobility (25,500 cm(2) V (-1) s(-1) at room temperature) AlSb/InAs heterostructure on a semi-insulating (001) GaP substrate has been achieved.

  19. Misfit dislocation free InAs/GaSb core-shell nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, T; Grützmacher, D; Lepsa, M I

    2015-01-07

    In this report, we present the growth and structural analyses of broken gap InAs/GaSb core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy using an Au-free approach. Depending on the shell growth temperature, two distinct growth regimes for the GaSb shells are identified resulting in conformal or tapered shells. Morphological analyses reveal a dodecagonal nanowire cross-section after GaSb shell growth. Detailed transmission electron microscope investigations from different zone axes confirm that the small lattice mismatch of 0.6% allows the deposition of 40 nm thick GaSb shells free of misfit dislocations. Additionally, an abrupt interface from InAs to GaSb is found. These nanowires are suitable for future devices such as TFETs.

  20. Structural and Electrical Properties of MoTe2 and MoSe2 Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anupam; Movva, Hema C P; Satpati, Biswarup; Kim, Kyounghwan; Dey, Rik; Rai, Amritesh; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Guchhait, Samaresh; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2016-03-23

    We demonstrate the growth of thin films of molybdenum ditelluride and molybdenum diselenide on sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. In situ structural and chemical analyses reveal stoichiometric layered film growth with atomically smooth surface morphologies. Film growth along the (001) direction is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and the crystalline nature of growth in the 2H phase is evident from Raman spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy is used to confirm the layered film structure and hexagonal arrangement of surface atoms. Temperature-dependent electrical measurements show an insulating behavior that agrees well with a two-dimensional variable-range hopping model, suggesting that transport in these films is dominated by localized charge-carrier states.

  1. Long-wavelength PtSi infrared detectors fabricated by incorporating a p(+) doping spike grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Park, J. S.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Fathauer, R. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1993-01-01

    By incorporating a 1-nm-thick p(+) doping spike at the PtSi/Si interface, we have successfully demonstrated extended cutoff wavelengths of PtSi Schottky infrared detectors in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) regime for the first time. The extended cutoff wavelengths resulted from the combined effects of an increased electric field near the silicide/Si interface due to the p(+) doping spike and the Schottky image force. The p(+) doping spikes were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 450 C, using elemental boron as the dopant source, with doping concentrations ranging from 5 x 10 exp 19 to 2 x 10 exp 20/cu cm. Transmission electron microscopy indicated good crystalline quality of the doping spikes. The cutoff wavelengths were shown to increase with increasing doping concentrations of the p(+) spikes. Thermionic emission dark current characteristics were observed and photoresponses in the LWIR regime were demonstrated.

  2. High-performance K-band GaAs power field-effect transistors prepared by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, P.; Shih, H. D.

    1983-01-01

    The maturity of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique for preparing device quality GaAs material for microwave applications is demonstrated by the excellent performance characteristics of K-band GaAs power field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated on the MBE wafers. An output power of 710 mW with 4.5-dB gain and 17.7 percent power-added efficiency was achieved at 21 GHz with a 1.26-mm gate width pi-gate device. A similar device with a 0.56-mm gate width produced an output power of 320 mW with 5.0-dB gain and 26.6 percent power-added efficiency at 21 GHz. These are the best results yet reported to date for GaAs power FETs operated in the K-band frequency range.

  3. Heterostructures with CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots for single photon emitters grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Belyaev, K. G.; Rakhlin, M. V.; Toropov, A. A.; Mukhin, I. S.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of heterostructures with CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) with relatively low surface density, which could be used as single-photon emitters. The QDs were formed on the surface of a 3.1- to 4.5-monolayer-thick two-dimensional strained CdTe layer by depositing amorphous Te layer and its fast thermal desorption. Subsequent thermal annealing of the surface with QDs in the absence of external Te flux led to strong broadening and short-wavelength shift of the QD photoluminescence (PL) peak. Measurement of the micro-PL spectra of individual CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots in fabricated mesastructures with a diameter of 200—1000 nm allowed estimation of the QD surface density as 1010 cm-2.

  4. Cleaning chemistry of GaAs(100) and InSb(100) substrates for molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Lewis, B. F.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Ploog (1980) and Bachrach and Krusor (1981) have pointed out the importance of substrate preparation and surface cleaning for obtaining high quality films with the aid of molecular beam epitaxial growth techniques. In the present investigation, high resolution X-ray photoemission (XPS) is used to determine the oxide removal mechanism for GaAs(100) substrates which have undergone a standardized cleaning procedure. Other objectives of the investigation are related to a comparison of different cleaning procedures in order to minimize carbon contamination, the extension of these cleaning techniques to other III-V compound semiconductors such as InSb, and the evaluation of the sensitivity of the compositional results to electron-induced damage effects.

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy engineered III-V semiconductor structures for low-power optically addressed spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders G.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Device approaches are investigated for optically addressed SLMs based on molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) engineered III-V materials and structures. Strong photooptic effects can be achieved in periodically delta-doped multiple-quantum-well structures, but are still insufficient for high-contrast modulation with only single- or double-pass absorption through active layers of practical thickness. The asymmetric Fabry-Perot cavity approach is employed to permit extinction of light due to interference of light reflected from the front and back surfaces of the cavity. This approach is realized with an all-MBE-grown structure consisting of GaAs/AlAs quarter-wave stack reflector grown over the GaAs substrate as the high reflectance mirror and the GaAs surface as the low reflectance mirror. High-contrast modulation is achieved using a low-power InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser for the control signal.

  6. Formation of strained interfaces in AlSb/InAs multilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaï, J.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Gatel, C., E-mail: christophe.gatel@cemes.fr; Ponchet, A. [CEMES CNRS-UPR 8011, Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza, Toulouse (France); Teissier, R.; Baranov, A. N. [IES CNRS-UMR 5214, 34095 Montpellier (France); Magen, C. [Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza, Toulouse (France); Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA)—ARAID and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-07-21

    Structural and chemical properties of InAs/AlSb interfaces have been studied by transmission electron microscopy. InAs/AlSb multilayers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy with different growth sequences at interfaces. The out-of-plane strain, determined using high resolution microscopy and geometrical phase analysis, has been related to the chemical composition of the interfaces analyzed by high angle annular dark field imaging. Considering the local strain and chemistry, we estimated the interface composition and discussed the mechanisms of interface formation for the different growth sequences. In particular, we found that the formation of the tensile AlAs-type interface is spontaneously favored due to its high thermal stability compared to the InSb-type interface. We also showed that the interface composition could be tuned using an appropriate growth sequence.

  7. Epitaxial Growth of Si(111)/Er2O3(111) Structure on Si(111) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Run; TANG Min-Yan; ZHU Yan-Yan; WANG Lin-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The Si overlayers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on atomically smllth Er2O3(111) films prepared on Si(111) substrates. Single crystalline Si overlayers are achieved and are evident due to the spot-like reflective high energy electron diffraction(RHEED) patterns and x-ray diffraction patterns. The epitaxial relationship of the Si overlayer along the surface with respect to the orientation of EreO3 and the Si substrate is as follows:overgrown Si(111)//Er2O3(111)//Si(111).The rough surface of Si overlayers, as identified by both RHEED patterns and atomic force microscopy images, indicates a three-dimensional growth mode. The reason for this is based on the interfacial energy argument. Further growth of Er2O3 films on this rough Si overlayer leads to the polycrystalline nature of the topmost Er2O3 layer.

  8. Characteristics of AlN/GaN nanowire Bragg mirror grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Heo, Junseok

    2013-10-01

    GaN nanowires containing AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) heterostructures have been grown on (001) silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. A peak reflectance of 70% with normal incidence at 560 nm is derived from angle resolved reflectance measurements on the as-grown nanowire DBR array. The measured peak reflectance wavelength is significantly blue-shifted from the ideal calculated value. The discrepancy is explained by investigating the reflectance of the nanoscale DBRs with a finite difference time domain technique. Ensemble nanowire microcavities with In0.3Ga 0.7N nanowires clad by AlN/GaN DBRs have also been characterized. Room temperature emission from the microcavity exhibits considerable linewidth narrowing compared to that measured for unclad In0.3Ga0.7N nanowires. The resonant emission is characterized by a peak wavelength and linewidth of 575 nm and 39 nm, respectively. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  9. Effect of N2 microplasma treatment on initial growth of GaN by metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yohei; Kusakabe, Yasuhiro; Uchiyama, Shota; Maruyama, Takahiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya; Shimizu, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    N2 atmospheric microplasma was applied to improve the yields and reproducibility of the initial growth of GaN by metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE). The plasma treatment was found to be effective in cleaning the surface, and excellent flat growth was achieved even in the early stage of the growth. The effect of the air exposure after plasma treatment was also studied, and the yield of the growth was found to be largely decreased by the air exposure even after the treatment. Therefore, the oxidation of the substrate is one of main causes of the poor initial growth and the installation of the microplasma equipment in the MBE loading chamber is useful for suppressing the oxidation after the treatment. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement shows that the microplasma treatment is also effective for undoing the surface double steps through etching, which is helpful for a very smooth layer-by-layer growth in the early stage of growth.

  10. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  11. Low Microwave Surface Resistance in NdBa2Cu3O7-d Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We report the growth of NdBa2Cu3O7-d films on (100) MgO substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). Large area NdBa2Cu3O7-d films with homogeneous superconducting properties were grown by precise control of stoichiometry and the optimisation of growth parameters. The stoichiometric ratio of Nd:Ba:Cu close to 1:2:3 yields films with TC of 94 K and JC values above 3.5 MA/cm2 at 77 K on bare MgO substrate. The NdBa2Cu3O7-d films grown under optimised conditions had excellent in-plane texture and ...

  12. Growth of CdTe on Si(100) surface by ionized cluster beam technique: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Houshang; Zabihi, Zabiholah; Nayebi, Payman; Ehsani, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    II-VI semiconductor CdTe was grown on the Si(100) substrate surface by the ionized cluster beam (ICB) technique. In the ICB method, when vapors of solid materials such as CdTe were ejected through a nozzle of a heated crucible into a vacuum region, nanoclusters were created by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon. The clusters thus obtained were partially ionized by electron bombardment and then accelerated onto the silicon substrate at 473 K by high potentials. The cluster size was determined using a retarding field energy analyzer. The results of X-ray diffraction measurements indicate the cubic zinc blende (ZB) crystalline structure of the CdTe thin film on the silicon substrate. The CdTe thin film prepared by the ICB method had high crystalline quality. The microscopic processes involved in the ICB deposition technique, such as impact and coalescence processes, have been studied in detail by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.

  13. Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of BaTiO3 in Seven Thousands of Unit-Cell Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-Hong; YANG Guo-Zhen; HE Meng; ZHAO Kun; TIAN Huan-Fang; L(U) Hui-Bin; JIN Kui-Juan; CHEN Zheng-Hao; ZHOU Yue-Liang; LI Jian-Qi

    2005-01-01

    @@ BaTiO3 thin films in seven thousands of unit-cell layers have been successfully fabricated on SrTiO3 (001)substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The fine streak pattern and the undamping intensity oscillation of reflection high-energy electron diffraction indicate that the BaTiO3 film was layer-by-layer epitaxial growth. The measurements of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that surfaces of the BaTiO3thin film are atomically smooth. The measurements of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy,as well as selected-area electron diffraction revealthat the BaTiO3 thin film is a c-oriented epitaxial crystalline structure.

  14. Electrostatic deflection of a molecular beam of massive neutral particles: Fully field-oriented polar molecules within superfluid nanodroplets

    CERN Document Server

    Merthe, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Electric deflection measurements on liquid helium nanodroplets doped with individual polar molecules demonstrate that the cold superfluid matrix enables full orientation of the molecular dipole along the external field. This translates into a deflection force which is increased enormously by comparison with typical deflection experiments, and it becomes possible to measurably deflect neutral doped droplets with masses of tens to hundreds of thousands of Daltons. This approach permits preparation and study of continuous fluxes of fully oriented polar molecules and is broadly and generally applicable, including to complex and biological molecules. It is shown that the dipole moments of internally cryogenically cold molecules can be directly determined from a deflection measurement on the doped nanodroplet beam.

  15. Correlation between Defect Concentration and Carrier Lifetime of GaAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Liu, Tze-An; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2001-11-01

    A pump-probe study of GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures (LT-GaAs) is performed. Ultrashort carrier lifetimes of the as-grown LT-GaAs increase from Schokley-Read-Hall model. The decreasing trend in the amplitudes of continuous-wave and transient reflectivities (Δ R/R) as a function of the growth temperature for the LT-GaAs is explained as an induced absorption caused by dense arsenic antisite defects. The sign of the transient Δ R/R reversed for LT-GaAs grown at 200°C. This is tentatively attributed to the band gap renormalization effect.

  16. Upper critical field of as-grown MgB{sub 2} thin films by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Y. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Iwate Industrial Promotion Center, Iioka shinden 3-35-2, Morioka 020-0852 (Japan)]. E-mail: yharada@luck.ocn.ne.jp; Udsuka, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Takahashi, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nakanishi, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Yoshizawa, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2005-04-30

    Superconducting thin films of magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) were prepared on MgO(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy in the co-evaporation conditions of low deposition rate and ultra-high vacuum. A superconducting transition with the onset temperature of 31.2K was confirmed by both transport and magnetization measurements. The upper critical fields are obtained from measurement of the field dependence of the resistivity. It was estimated that the upper critical field at 0K was more than 15T. The upper critical field anisotropy ratio, H{sub C2,ab}(0)/H{sub C2,c}(0), was estimated to be 1.78 from the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram for as-grown MgB{sub 2} thin films.

  17. Synthesis of as-grown superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films by molecular beam epitaxy in UHV conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Y.; Uduka, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Yoshimoto, N.; Yoshizawa, M

    2004-10-01

    As-grown superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films have been grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1), MgO(0 0 1), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) substrates by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method with novel co-evaporation conditions of low deposition rate in ultra-high vacuum. The structural and physical properties of the films were studied by RHEED, XRD, electrical resistivity measurements, and SQUID magnetometer. The RHEED patterns indicate three-dimensional growth for MgB{sub 2}. The highest T{sub c} determined by resistivity measurement was about 36 K in these samples. And a clear Meissner effect below T{sub c} was observed using magnetic susceptibility measurement. We will discuss the influence of B buffer layer on the structural and physical properties.

  18. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and Spin Glass-like Behavior in Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Chromium Telluride Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anupam; Guchhait, Samaresh; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Rai, Amritesh; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2015-04-28

    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), vibrating sample magnetometry, and other physical property measurements are used to investigate the structure, morphology, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of (001)-oriented Cr2Te3 thin films grown on Al2O3(0001) and Si(111)-(7×7) surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy. Streaky RHEED patterns indicate flat smooth film growth on both substrates. STM studies show the hexagonal arrangements of surface atoms. Determination of the lattice parameter from the atomically resolved STM image is consistent with the bulk crystal structures. Magnetic measurements show the film is ferromagnetic, having a Curie temperature of about 180 K, and a spin glass-like behavior was observed below 35 K. Magnetotransport measurements show the metallic nature of the film with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy along the c-axis.

  19. Continuous all-optical deceleration and single-photon cooling of molecular beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayich, A. M.; Vutha, A. C.; Hummon, M. T.; Porto, J. V.; Campbell, W. C.

    2014-02-01

    Ultracold molecular gases are promising as an avenue to rich many-body physics, quantum chemistry, quantum information, and precision measurements. This richness, which flows from the complex internal structure of molecules, makes the creation of ultracold molecular gases using traditional methods (laser plus evaporative cooling) a challenge, in particular due to the spontaneous decay of molecules into dark states. We propose a way to circumvent this key bottleneck using an all-optical method for decelerating molecules using stimulated absorption and emission with a single ultrafast laser. We further describe single-photon cooling of the decelerating molecules that exploits their high dark state pumping rates, turning the principal obstacle to molecular laser cooling into an advantage. Cooling and deceleration may be applied simultaneously and continuously to load molecules into a trap. We discuss implementation details including multilevel numerical simulations of strontium monohydride. These techniques are applicable to a large number of molecular species and atoms with the only requirement being an electric dipole transition that can be accessed with an ultrafast laser.

  20. Position-controlled growth of GaN nanowires and nanotubes on diamond by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Fabian; Hetzl, Martin; Weiszer, Saskia; Garrido, Jose A; de la Mata, María; Magen, Cesar; Arbiol, Jordi; Stutzmann, Martin

    2015-03-11

    In this work the position-controlled growth of GaN nanowires (NWs) on diamond by means of molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. In terms of growth, diamond can be seen as a model substrate, providing information of systematic relevance also for other substrates. Thin Ti masks are structured by electron beam lithography which allows the fabrication of perfectly homogeneous GaN NW arrays with different diameters and distances. While the wurtzite NWs are found to be Ga-polar, N-polar nucleation leads to the formation of tripod structures with a zinc-blende core which can be efficiently suppressed above a substrate temperature of 870 °C. A variation of the III/V flux ratio reveals that both axial and radial growth rates are N-limited despite the globally N-rich growth conditions, which is explained by the different diffusion behavior of Ga and N atoms. Furthermore, it is shown that the hole arrangement has no effect on the selectivity but can be used to force a transition from nanowire to nanotube growth by employing a highly competitive growth regime.

  1. A combined crossed molecular beams and theoretical study of the reaction CN + C{sub 2}H{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balucani, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.balucani@unipg.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Leonori, Francesca; Petrucci, Raffaele [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wang, Xingan [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Casavecchia, Piergiorgio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Skouteris, Dimitrios [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Albernaz, Alessandra F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília (Brazil); Gargano, Ricardo [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília (Brazil); Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Quantum Theory Project, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • The CN + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} reaction was investigated in crossed beam experiments. • Electronic structure calculations of the potential energy surface were performed. • RRKM estimates qualitatively reproduce the experimental C{sub 2}H{sub 3}NC yield. - Abstract: The CN + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} reaction has been investigated experimentally, in crossed molecular beam (CMB) experiments at the collision energy of 33.4 kJ/mol, and theoretically, by electronic structure calculations of the relevant potential energy surface and Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) estimates of the product branching ratio. Differently from previous CMB experiments at lower collision energies, but similarly to a high energy study, we have some indication that a second reaction channel is open at this collision energy, the characteristics of which are consistent with the channel leading to CH{sub 2}CHNC + H. The RRKM estimates using M06L electronic structure calculations qualitatively support the experimental observation of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}NC formation at this and at the higher collision energy of 42.7 kJ/mol of previous experiments.

  2. Use of pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) to characterize forest soil carbon: method and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, K A; Evans, R J; Hoover, C M; Elam, C C; Davis, M F

    2002-01-01

    The components of soil organic matter (SOM) and their degradation dynamics in forest soils are difficult to study and thus poorly understood, due to time-consuming sample collection, preparation, and difficulty of analyzing and identifying major components. As a result, changes in soil organic matter chemical composition as a function of age, forest type, or disturbance have not been examined. We applied pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), which provides rapid characterization of SOM of whole soil samples. to the Tionesta soil samples described by Hoover, C.M., Magrini, K.A., Evans, R.J., 2002. Soil carbon content and character in an old growth forest in northwestern Pennsylvania: a case study introducing molecular beam mass spectrometry (PY-MBMS). Environmental Pollution 116 (Supp. 1), S269-S278. Our goals in this work were to: (1) develop and demonstrate an advanced, rapid analytical method for characterizing SOM components in whole soils, and (2) provide data-based models to predict soil carbon content and residence time from py-MBMS analysis. Using py-MBMS and pattern recognition techniques we were able to statistically distinguish among four Tionesta sites and show an increase in pyrolysis products of more highly decomposed plant materials at increasing sample depth. For example, all four sites showed increasing amounts of older carbon (phenolic and aromatic species) at deeper depths and higher amounts of more recent carbon (carbohydrates and lignin products) at shallower depths. These results indicate that this type of analysis could be used to rapidly characterize SOM for the purpose of developing a model, which could be used in monitoring the effect of forest management practices on carbon uptake and storage.

  3. Molecular-beam epitaxy growth and structural characterization of semiconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satapathy, D.K.

    2005-12-19

    The present work is devoted to the growth of the ferromagnetic metal MnAs on the semiconductor GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The MnAs thin films are deposited on GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Grazing incidence diffraction (GID) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) are used in situ to investigate the nucleation, evolution of strain, morphology and interfacial structure during the MBE growth. Four stages of the nucleation process during growth of MnAs on GaAs(001) are revealed by RHEED azimuthal scans. GID shows that further growth of MnAs films proceed via the formation of relaxed islands at a nominal thickness of 2.5 ML which increase in size and finally coalesce to form a continuous film. Early on, an ordered array of misfit dislocations forms at the interface releasing the misfit strain even before complete coalescence occurs. The fascinating complex nucleation process of MnAs on GaAs(0 0 1) contains elements of both Volmer-Weber and Stranski-Krastanov growth. A nonuniform strain amounting to 0.66%, along the [1 -1 0] direction and 0.54%, along the [1 1 0] direction is demonstrated from x-ray line profile analysis. A high correlation between the defects is found along the GaAs[1 1 0] direction. An extremely periodic array of misfit dislocations with a period of 4.95{+-}0.05 nm is formed at the interface along the [1 1 0] direction which releases the 7.5% of misfit. The inhomogeneous strain due to the periodic dislocations is confined at the interface within a layer of 1.6 nm thickness. The misfit along the [1 -1 0] direction is released by the formation of a coincidence site lattice. (orig.)

  4. Effects of calcium phosphate coating to SLA surface implants by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method on self-contained coronal defect healing in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heun-Joo; Song, Ji-Eun; Um, Yoo-Jung; Chae, Gyung Joon; Chung, Sung-Min; Lee, In-Seop; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of self-contained coronal defects on a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface implant, which had a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating applied by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We also evaluated the effect of heating the coating to different temperatures. The CaP-coated SLA implants exhibited a slightly larger bone healing capacity in the self-contained coronal defect than SLA implants, indicating that combining SLA surface implants and a CaP coating by the IBAD method had synergistic effects on bone healing. There was no difference in the healing capacity between 350 degrees C and 450 degrees C heat treatment of the coating layer.

  5. Effects of calcium phosphate coating to SLA surface implants by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method on self-contained coronal defect healing in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Heun-Joo; Song, Ji-Eun; Um, Yoo-Jung; Chae, Gyung Joon; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung-Min [Dentium Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: shchoi726@yuhs.a [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of self-contained coronal defects on a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface implant, which had a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating applied by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We also evaluated the effect of heating the coating to different temperatures. The CaP-coated SLA implants exhibited a slightly larger bone healing capacity in the self-contained coronal defect than SLA implants, indicating that combining SLA surface implants and a CaP coating by the IBAD method had synergistic effects on bone healing. There was no difference in the healing capacity between 350 deg. C and 450 deg. C heat treatment of the coating layer.

  6. Thickness Dependence of Optoelectrical Properties of Mo-Doped In2O3 Films Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrates by Ion-Beam-Assisted Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chiuan Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium molybdenum oxide (IMO films were deposited onto the polyethersulfone (PES substrates by ion-beam-assisted evaporation (IBAE deposition at low temperature in this study. The effects of film thickness on their optical and electrical properties were investigated. The results show that the deposited IMO films exhibit a preferred orientation of B(222. The electrical resistivity of the deposited film initially reduces then subsequently increases with film thickness. The IMO film with the lowest resistivity of 7.61 × 10−4 ohm-cm has been achieved when the film thickness is 120 nm. It exhibits a satisfactory surface roughness pv of 8.75 nm and an average visible transmittance of 78.7%.

  7. Air flow-assisted ionization imaging mass spectrometry method for easy whole-body molecular imaging under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jiuming; Chen, Yi; He, Jingjing; Gong, Tao; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Ruiping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Lv, Haining; Ma, Shuanggang; Fu, Zhaodi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Shishan; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body molecular imaging is able to directly map spatial distribution of molecules and monitor its biotransformation in intact biological tissue sections. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), a label-free molecular imaging method, can be used to image multiple molecules in a single measurement with high specificity. Herein, a novel easy-to-implement, whole-body IMS method was developed with air flow-assisted ionization in a desorption electrospray ionization mode. The developed IMS method can effectively image molecules in a large whole-body section in open air without sample pretreatment, such as chemical labeling, section division, or matrix deposition. Moreover, the signal levels were improved, and the spatial assignment errors were eliminated; thus, high-quality whole-body images were obtained. With this novel IMS method, in situ mapping analysis of molecules was performed in adult rat sections with picomolar sensitivity under ambient conditions, and the dynamic information of molecule distribution and its biotransformation was provided to uncover molecular events at the whole-animal level. A global view of the differential distribution of an anticancer agent and its metabolites was simultaneously acquired in whole-body rat and model mouse bearing neuroglioma along the administration time. The obtained drug distribution provided rich information for identifying the targeted organs and predicting possible tumor spectrum, pharmacological activity, and potential toxicity of drug candidates.

  8. Interaction of O2 with CH4, CF4, and CCl4 by Molecular Beam Scattering Experiments and Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, David; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Bartocci, Alessio; Nunzi, Francesca; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo; Pirani, Fernando

    2016-07-14

    Gas phase collisions of O2 by CH4, CF4, and CCl4 have been investigated with the molecular beam technique by measuring both the integral cross section value, Q, and its dependence on the collision velocity, v. The adopted experimental conditions have been appropriate to resolve the oscillating "glory" pattern, a quantum interference effect controlled by the features of the intermolecular interaction, for all the three case studies. The analysis of the Q(v) data, performed by adopting a suitable representation of the intermolecular potential function, provided the basic features of the anisotropic potential energy surfaces at intermediate and large separation distances and information on the relative role of the physically relevant types of contributions to the global interaction. The present work demonstrates that while O2-CH4 and O2-CF4 are basically bound through the balance between size (Pauli) repulsion and dispersion attraction, an appreaciable intermolecular bond stabilization by charge transfer is operative in O2-CCl4. Ab initio calculations of the strength of the interaction, coupled with detailed analysis of electronic charge displacement promoted by the formation of the dimer, fully rationalizes the experimental findings. This investigation indicates that the interactions of O2, when averaged over its relative orientations, are similar to that of a noble gas (Ng), specifically Ar. We also show that the binding energy in the basic configurations of the prototypical Ng-CF4,CCl4 systems [ Cappelletti , D. ; Chem. Eur. J. 2015 , 21 , 6234 - 6240 ] can be reconstructed by using the interactions in Ng-F and Ng-Cl systems, previously characterized by molecular beam scattering experiments of state-selected halogen atom beams. This information is fundamental to approach the modeling of the weak intermolecular halogen bond. On the basis of the electronic polarizability, this also confirms [ Aquilanti , V. ; Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2005 , 44 , 2356 - 2360 ] that O2

  9. Critical issues for homoepitaxial GaN growth by molecular beam epitaxy on hydride vapor-phase epitaxy-grown GaN substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, D. F.; Hardy, M. T.; Katzer, D. S.; Nepal, N.; Downey, B. P.; Meyer, D. J.; McConkie, Thomas O.; Zhou, Lin; Smith, David J.

    2016-12-01

    While the heteroepitaxial growth of gallium nitride-based materials and devices on substrates such as SiC, sapphire, and Si has been well-documented, the lack of a cost-effective source of bulk GaN crystals has hindered similar progress on homoepitaxy. Nevertheless, freestanding GaN wafers are becoming more widely available, and there is great interest in growing GaN films and devices on bulk GaN substrates, in order to take advantage of the greatly reduced density of threading dislocations, particularly for vertical devices. However, homoepitaxial GaN growth is far from a trivial task due to the reactivity and different chemical sensitivities of N-polar (000_1) and Ga-polar (0001) GaN surfaces, which can affect the microstructure and concentrations of impurities in homoepitaxial GaN layers. In order to achieve high quality, high purity homoepitaxial GaN, it is necessary to investigate the effect of the ex situ wet chemical clean, the use of in situ cleaning procedures, the sensitivity of the GaN surface to thermal decomposition, and the effect of growth temperature. We review the current understanding of these issues with a focus on homoepitaxial growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on c-plane surfaces of freestanding GaN substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), as HVPE-grown substrates are most widely available. We demonstrate methods for obtaining homoepitaxial GaN layers by plasma-assisted MBE in which no additional threading dislocations are generated from the regrowth interface and impurity concentrations are greatly reduced.

  10. The formation of hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nanodisk on GaN-nanowire observed in plasma source molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Tien Khee

    2014-03-08

    We report on the properties and growth kinetics of defect-free, photoluminescence (PL) efficient mushroom-like nanowires (MNWs) in the form of ~30nm thick hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nanodisk on GaN nanowires, coexisting with the conventional rod-like InGaN-on-GaN nanowires (RNWs) on (111)-silicon-substrate. When characterized using confocal microscopy (CFM) with 458nm laser excitation, while measuring spontaneous-emission at fixed detection wavelengths, the spatial intensity map evolved from having uniform pixelated emission, to having only an emission ring, and then a round emission spot. This corresponds to the PL emission with increasing indium composition; starting from emission mainly from the RNW, and then the 540 nm emission from one MNWs ensemble, followed by the 590 nm emission from a different MNW ensemble, respectively. These hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nano-disks ensembles were obtained during molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) growth. On the other hand, the regular rod-like InGaN-on-GaN nanowires (RNWs) were emitting at a shorter peak wavelength of 490 nm. While the formation of InGaN rod-like nanowire is well-understood, the formation of the hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nanodisk-on-GaN-nanowire requires further investigation. It was postulated to arise from the highly sensitive growth kinetics during plasma-assisted MBE of InGaN at low temperature, i.e. when the substrate temperature was reduced from 800 °C (GaN growth) to <600 °C (InGaN growth), during which sparsely populated metal-droplet formation prevails and further accumulated more indium adatoms due to a higher cohesive bond between metallic molecules. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  11. Kinetics versus thermodynamics of the metal incorporation in molecular beam epitaxy of (InxGa1−x2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Vogt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of the reaction kinetics and thermodynamics of the plasma-assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy of the ternary compound (InxGa1−x2O3 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. We measured the growth rate of the alloy in situ by laser reflectrometry as a function of growth temperature TG for different metal-to-oxygen flux ratios rMe, and nominal In concentrations xnom in the metal flux. We determined ex situ the In and Ga concentrations in the grown film by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The measured In concentration x shows a strong dependence on the growth parameters TG, rMe, and xnom whereas growth on different co-loaded substrates shows that in the macroscopic regime of ∼μm3 x does neither depend on the detailed layer crystallinity nor on crystal orientation. The data unveil that, in presence of In, Ga incorporation is kinetically limited by Ga2O desorption the same way as during Ga2O 3 growth. In contrast, In incorporation during ternary growth is thermodynamically suppressed by the presence of Ga due to stronger Ga–O bonds. Our experiments revealed that Ga adatoms decompose/etch the In–O bonds whereas In adatoms do not decompose/etch the Ga–O bonds. This result is supported by our thermochemical calculations. In addition we found that a low TG and/or excessively low rMe kinetically enables In incorporation into (InxGa1−x2O3. This study may help growing high-quality ternary compounds (InxGa1−x2O3 allowing band gap engineering over the range of 2.7–4.7 eV.

  12. Cluster Effects during High Pressure Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection into Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOLianghua; FENGBeibin; DONGJiafu; LIWenzhong; FENGZhen; HONGWenyu; LIBo

    2001-01-01

    When we speak of clusters, we have in mind entities which have neither the well-defined compositions, geometries, and strong bonds of conventional molecules northe boundary-independent properties of bulk matter. For example, an aggregate of a few atoms held together by Van der Waals forces constitutes a cluster. But clusters need not be weakly bound, several metal atoms bound together also constitute a cluster. Clusters need not be composed of a single kind of chemical entity, either atomic or molecular,

  13. Monolithic integration of a lithium niobate microresonator with a free-standing waveguide using femtosecond laser assisted ion beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwei; Xu, Yingxin; Wang, Min; Qiao, Lingling; Lin, Jintian; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated integrating a high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonator with a free-standing membrane waveguide. Our technique is based on femtosecond laser direct writing which produces the pre-structure, followed by focused ion beam milling which reduces the surface roughness of sidewall of the fabricated structure to nanometer scale. Efficient light coupling between the integrated waveguide and microdisk was achieved, and the quality factor of the microresonator was measured as high as 1.67 × 105. PMID:28358135

  14. Evaluation of opening pattern and bone neoformation at median palatal suture area in patients submitted to surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME through cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes SALGUEIRO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSurgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME is the treatment of choice to adult patients even with severe transversal maxillary discrepancies. However, the adequate retention period to achieve the bone remodeling, thus assuring treatment stability, is controversial.Objective To evaluate the opening pattern and bone neoformation process at the midpalatal suture in patients submitted to surgically assisted (SARME through cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods Fourteen patients were submitted to SARME through subtotal Le Fort I osteotomy. Both the opening pattern and the mean bone density at midpalatal suture area to evaluate bone formation were assessed pre- and post-operatively (15, 60 and 180 days through CBCT.Results Type I opening pattern (from anterior to posterior nasal spine occurred in 12 subjects while type II opening pattern (from anterior nasal spine to transverse palatine suture occurred in 2 individuals. The 180-day postoperative mean (PO 180 of bone density value was 49.9% of the preoperative mean (Pre value.Conclusions The opening pattern of midpalatal suture is more related to patients’ age (23.9 years in type I and 33.5 years in type II and surgical technique. It was not possible to observe complete bone formation at midpalatal suture area at the ending of the retention period studied (180 days.

  15. A short pulse (7 μs FWHM) and high repetition rate (dc-5kHz) cantilever piezovalve for pulsed atomic and molecular beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irimia, D.; Dobrikov, D.; Kortekaas, R.; Voet, H.; Ende, D.A. van den; Groen, W.A.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the design and operation of a novel piezovalve for the production of short pulsed atomic or molecular beams. The high speed valve operates on the principle of a cantilever piezo. The only moving part, besides the cantilever piezo itself, is a very small O-ring that forms t

  16. Structural and optical properties of self-catalytic GaAs:Mn nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gas, Katarzyna; Sadowski, Janusz; Kasama, Takeshi;

    2013-01-01

    Mn-doped GaAs nanowires were grown in the self-catalytic growth mode on the oxidized Si(100) surface by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and electron transport measurements...

  17. Cw and time-resolved spectroscopy in homoepitaxial GaN films and GaN-GaAlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    OpenAIRE

    Taliercio, Thierry; Gallart, Mathieu; Lefebvre, Pierre; Morel, Aurélien; Gil, Bernard; Allègre, Jacques; Grandjean, Nicolas; Massies, Jean; Grzegory, Izabella; Porowsky, Sylvester

    2001-01-01

    International audience; We have grown GaN films and GaN–AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) on homoepitaxial substrates, by molecular beam epitaxy using ammonia. Both the GaN film and the QW are found to have superior excitonic recombination properties which are extremely promising for the development of indium free ultra-violet lasers based on nitrides.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of ion-beam-amorphization of Si, Ge and GaAs

    CERN Document Server

    Nord, J D; Keinonen, J

    2002-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study ion-irradiation-induced amorphization in Si, Ge and GaAs using several different interatomic force models. We find that the coordination number is higher, and the average bond length longer, for the irradiated amorphous structures than for the molten ones in Si and Ge. For amorphous GaAs, we suggest that longer Ga-Ga bonds, also present in pure Ga, are produced during the irradiation. In Si the amorphization is found to proceed via growth of amorphous regions, and low energy recoils are found to induce athermal recrystallization during irradiation.

  19. Removal of Nitrogen Oxides in Diesel Engine Exhaust by Plasma Assisted Molecular Sieves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the studies conducted on removal of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel engine exhaust using electrical discharge plasma combined with adsorbing materials such as molecular sieves. This study is being reported for the first time. The exhaust is taken from a diesel engine of 6 kW under no load conditions. The characteristic behavior of a pulse energized dielectric barrier discharge reactor in the diesel exhaust treatment is reported. The NOx removal was not significant (36%) when the reactor without any packing was used. However, when the reactor was packed with molecular sieves (MS -3A, -4A & -13X), the NOx removal efficiency was increased to 78% particularly at a temperature of 200 o C. The studies were conducted at different temperatures and the results were discussed.

  20. Study on a Real-Time BEAM System for Diagnosis Assistance Based on a System on Chips Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Wei Chang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC design and physiological signal processing are integrated in this work. Moreover, a chip is built for real-time electroencephalography (EEG processing purposes and a Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM system, and a knowledge database is constructed to diagnose psychosis and body challenges in learning various behaviors and signals antithesis by a fuzzy inference engine. This work is completed with a medical support system developed for the mentally disabled or the elderly abled.