WorldWideScience

Sample records for assisted laser desorption

  1. Quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Mark W.; Roder, Heinrich; Hunsucker, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the essential characteristics of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS), especially as they relate to its applications in quantitative analysis. Approaches to quantification by MALDI-TOF MS are presented and published applications are critically reviewed.

  2. Silicon nitride nanoparticles for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry is limited to analyses of higher molecular weight compounds due to high background noise generated by the matrix in the lower mass region. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry is an alternative solution to this problem. Nanoparticles, structured silicon surfaces and carbon allotropes are commonly used as SALDI surfaces. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate the application of silicon nitride nanoparticles as a suitable medium for laser desorption/ionization of small drug molecules.

  3. Two-laser infrared and ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark W; Kim, Jae-Kuk; Murray, Kermit K

    2003-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was performed using two pulsed lasers with wavelengths in the IR and UV regions. A 10.6 micro m pulsed CO(2) laser was used to irradiate a MALDI target, followed after an adjustable delay by a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser. The sample consisted of a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix and bovine insulin guest molecule. The pulse energy for both of the lasers was adjusted so that the ion of interest, either the matrix or guest ion, was not produced by either of the lasers alone. The delay time for maximum ion yield occurs at 1 micro s for matrix and guest ions and the signal decayed to zero in approximately 400 micro s. A mechanism is presented for enhanced UV MALDI ion yield following the IR laser pulse based on transient heating. PMID:12898657

  4. Laser desorption and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of 29-kDa Au:SR cluster compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaff, T Gregory

    2004-11-01

    Positive and negative ions generated by laser-based ionization methods from three gold:thiolate cluster compounds are mass analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The three compounds have similar inorganic core masses ( approximately 29 kDa, approximately 145 Au atoms) but different n-alkanethiolate ligands associated with each cluster compound (Au:SR, R = butane, hexane, dodecane). Irradiation of neat films (laser desorption/ionization) and films generated by dilution of the cluster compounds in an organic acid matrix (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) with a nitrogen laser (337 nm) produced distinct ion abundances that are relevant to different structural aspects of the cluster compound. Laser desorption/ionization of neat Au:SR compound films produces ions consistent with the inorganic core mass (i.e., devoid of original hydrocarbon content). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization produces either ions with m/z values consistent with the core mass of the cluster compounds or ions with m/z values consistent with the approximate molecular weight of the cluster compounds, depending on ionization conditions. The ion abundances, and ionization conditions under which they are detected, provide insight into desorption/ionization processes for these unique cluster compounds as well as other analytes typically studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. PMID:15516109

  5. Electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct ambient analysis of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiea, Jentaie; Huang, Min-Zon; Hsu, Hsiu-Jung; Lee, Chi-Yang; Yuan, Cheng-Hui; Beech, Iwona; Sunner, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A new method of electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization (ELDI) mass spectrometry, which combines laser desorption with post-ionization by electrospray, was applied to rapid analysis of solid materials under ambient conditions. Analytes were desorbed from solid metallic and insulating substrata using a pulsed nitrogen laser. Post-ionization produced high-quality mass spectra characteristic of electrospray, including protein multiple charging. For the first time, mass spectra of intact proteins were obtained using laser desorption without adding a matrix. Bovine cytochrome c and an illicit drug containing methaqualone were chosen in this study to demonstrate the applicability of ELDI to the analysis of proteins and synthetic organic compounds. PMID:16299699

  6. Miniaturizing sample spots for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Tingting; Gross, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The trend of miniaturization in bioanalytical chemistry is shifting from technical development to practical application. In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), progress in miniaturizing sample spots has been driven by the needs to increase sensitivity and speed, to interface with other analytical microtechnologies, and to develop miniaturized instrumentation.

  7. Identification of Bacteria Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedney, Mollie G.; Strunk, Kevin B.; Giaquinto, Lisa M.; Wagner, Jennifer A.; Pollack, Sidney; Patton, Walter A.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS or simply MALDI) has become ubiquitous in the identification and analysis of biomacromolecules. As a technique that allows for the molecular weight determination of otherwise nonvolatile molecules, MALDI has had a profound impact in the molecular…

  8. On the Primary Ionization Mechanism(s) in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Molin; Roberta Seraglia; Zbigniew Czarnocki; Maurin, Jan K; Franciszek A. Pluciński; Pietro Traldi

    2012-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the first step of ionization occurring in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, leading to protonated and deprotonated matrix (Ma) molecules ([Ma + H]+ and [Ma − H]− ions). It is based on observation that in solid state, for carboxyl-containing MALDI matrices, the molecules form strong hydrogen bonds and their carboxylic groups can act as both donors and acceptors. This behavior leads to stable dimeric structures. The laser irradiation leads to the cleavage ...

  9. Matrix-assisted laser desorption fourier transform mass spectrometry for biological compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettich, R.; Buchanan, M.

    1990-01-01

    The recent development of matrix-assisted UV laser desorption (LD) mass spectrometry has made possible the ionization and detection of extremely large molecules (with molecular weights exceeding 100,000 Daltons). This technique has generated enormous interest in the biological community for the direct examination of large peptides and oligonucleotides. Although this matrix-assisted ionization method has been developed and used almost exclusively with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers, research is currently in progress to demonstrate this technique with trapped ion mass spectrometers, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTMS). The potential capabilities of FTMS for wide mass range, high resolution measurement, and ion trapping experiments suggest that this instrumental technique should be useful for the detailed structural characterization of large ions generated by the matrix-assisted technique. We have recently demonstrated that matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption can be successfully used with FTMS for the ionization of small peptides. The objective of this report is to summarize the application and current limitations of matrix-assisted laser desorption FTMS for the characterization of peptides and oligonucleotides at the isomeric level. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Unusual Fragmentation of Peptide and Protein in Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuo Takayama

    2001-01-01

    Unusual amine - bond fragmentation on the peptide/protein backbone has been reported using matrix - assisted laser desorption/ionization time - of- flight mass spectrometry (MALDI - TOFMS)The amine - bond cleavage occurred without metastable decay, while the peptide - bond cleavage occurred with metastable decay of peptide ions in a drift region of TOF mass analyzer. It was presumed that the amine - bond cleavage occurred as a non - ergodic process independent of the ionization under MALDI conditions.

  11. Dermatophyte Identification Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Theel, Elitza S.; Hall, Leslie; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Wengenack, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) for the identification of dermatophytes from clinical cultures was compared to that of dermatophyte identification using 28S rRNA gene sequencing. The MALDI Biotyper library (MBL; version 3.0) was used alone and in combination with a supplemented library containing an additional 20 dermatophyte spectra (S-MBL). Acquired spectra were interpreted using both the ma...

  12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of immobilized duplex DNA probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, K; Fu, D.; Kötter, S; Cotter, R J; Cantor, C R; Köster, H

    1995-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry was used to analyze short DNA duplex probes with one strand immobilized on solid supports (straptavidin-coated magnetic beads or controlled pore glass beads). Only the non-immobilized strand could be detected. Partial denaturation was found when the duplex probes were mixed with 3-hydroxypicolinic acid, ammonium citrate matrix. The strategy has several applications, such as fast DNA sequence analysis an...

  13. Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: powerful analytical tools in recombinant protein chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Svensson, B; Roepstorff, P

    1996-01-01

    Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy is...

  14. The Need for Speed in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has emerged as a powerful analytical tool enabling the direct molecular mapping of many types of tissue. Specifically, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization (MALDI) represents one of the most broadly applicable IMS technologies. In recent years, advances in solid state laser technology, mass spectrometry instrumentation, computer technology, and experimental methodology have produced IMS systems capable of unprecedented data acquisition speeds (>50 pixels/second). In applications of this technology, throughput is an important consideration when designing an IMS experiment. As IMS becomes more widely adopted, continual improvements in experimental setups will be important to address biologically and clinically relevant time scales.

  15. Direct protein detection from biological media through electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Hsu, Hsiu-Jung; Lee, Jen-Yih; Jeng, Jingyueh; Shiea, Jentaie

    2006-05-01

    We report here using a novel technology-electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization (ELDI)/mass spectrometry-for the rapid and sensitive detection of the major proteins that exist in dried biological fluids (e.g., blood, tears, saliva, serum), bacterial cultures, and tissues (e.g., porcine liver and heart) under ambient conditions. This technique required essentially no sample pretreatment. The proteins in the samples were desorbed using a pulsed nitrogen laser without the assistance of an organic matrix. The desorbed protein molecules were then post-ionized through their fusion into the charged solvent droplets produced from the electrospray of an acidic methanol solution; electrospray ionization (ESI) proceeded from the newly formed droplets to generate the ESI-like protein ions. This new ionization approach combines some of the features of electrospray ionization with those of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), that is, sampling of a solid surface with spatial resolution, generating ESI-like mass spectra of the desorbed proteins, and operating under ambient conditions. PMID:16674100

  16. Competing ion decomposition channels in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guanghong; Marginean, Ioan; Ye, Louise; Vertes, Akos

    2008-06-12

    We gauged the internal energy transfer for two dissociative ion decomposition channels in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) using the benzyltriphenylphosphonium (BTP) thermometer ion [PhCH 2PPh 3] (+). Common MALDI matrixes [alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (sinapinic acid, SA), and 2,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHB)] were studied with nitrogen laser (4 ns pulse length) and mode-locked 3 x omega Nd:YAG laser (22 ps pulse length) excitation. Despite the higher fluence required to initiate fragmentation, BTP ions indicated lower internal energy transfer with the picosecond laser in all three matrixes. These differences can be rationalized in terms of phase explosion induced by the nanosecond laser vs a stress-confinement-driven desorption mechanism for the picosecond laser. For the two ion production channels of the BTP thermometer ion, breaking a single bond can result in the formation of benzyl/tropylium ions, F1, or triphenylphosphine ions, F2. In SA and DHB, as well as in CHCA at low fluence levels, the efficiency of these channels (expressed by the branching ratio I F1/ I F2) is moderately in favor of producing tropylium ions, 1 < I F1/ I F2 < 6. As the laser fluence is increased, for CHCA, there is a dramatic shift in favor of the tropylium ion production, with I F1/ I F2 approximately 30 for the nanosecond and the picosecond laser, respectively. This change is correlated with the sudden increase in the BTP internal energies in CHCA in the same laser fluence range. The large changes observed in internal energy deposition for CHCA with laser fluence can account for its ability to induce fragmentation in peptides more readily than SA and DHB. PMID:18489138

  17. Cosmetic Analysis Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Catharino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new “omic” platform—Cosmetomics—that proves to be extremely simple and effective in terms of sample preparation and readiness for data acquisition/interpretation is presented. This novel approach employing Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI for cosmetic analysis has proven to readily identify and quantify compounds of interest. It also allows full control of all the production phases, as well as of the final product, by integration of both analytical and statistical data. This work has focused on products of daily use, namely nail polish, lipsticks and eyeliners of multiple brands sold in the worldwide market.

  18. Electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization and tandem mass spectrometry of peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ivory X; Shiea, Jentaie; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Loo, Joseph A

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed an electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization (ELDI) source which utilizes a nitrogen laser pulse to desorb intact molecules from matrix-containing sample solution droplets, followed by electrospray ionization (ESI) post-ionization. The ELDI source is coupled to a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and allows sampling under ambient conditions. Preliminary data showed that ELDI produces ESI-like multiply charged peptides and proteins up to 29 kDa carbonic anhydrase and 66 kDa bovine albumin from single-protein solutions, as well as from complex digest mixtures. The generated multiply charged polypeptides enable efficient tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS)-based peptide sequencing. ELDI-MS/MS of protein digests and small intact proteins was performed both by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) and by nozzle-skimmer dissociation (NSD). ELDI-MS/MS may be a useful tool for protein sequencing analysis and top-down proteomics study, and may complement matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-based measurements. PMID:17639579

  19. 337 nm matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of single aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Murray, K K

    1999-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectra were obtained from single particles injected directly into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Aerosol particles were generated at atmospheric pressure using a piezoelectric single-particle generator or a pneumatic nebulizer and introduced into the mass spectrometer through a series of narrow-bore tubes. Particles were detected by light scattering that was used to trigger a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser and the ions produced by laser desorption were mass separated in a two-stage reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. MALDI mass spectra of single particles containing bradykinin, angiotensin II, gramicidin S, vitamin B(12) or gramicidin D were obtained at mass resolutions greater than 400 FWHM. For the piezoelectric particle generator, the efficiency of particle delivery was estimated to be approximately 0.02%, and 50 pmol of sample were consumed for each mass spectrum. For the pneumatic nebulizer, mass spectra could be obtained from single particles containing less than 100 amol of analyte, although the sample consumption for a typical mass spectrum was over 400 pmol. PMID:10491586

  20. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using ordered silicon nanopillar arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhmoud, Hashim Z; Guinan, Taryn M; Elnathan, Roey; Kobus, Hilton; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-11-21

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is ideally suited for the high-throughput analysis of small molecules in bodily fluids (e.g. saliva, urine, and blood plasma). A key application for this technique is the testing of drug consumption in the context of workplace, roadside, athlete sports and anti-addictive drug compliance. Here, we show that vertically-aligned ordered silicon nanopillar (SiNP) arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography followed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) are suitable substrates for the SALDI-MS detection of methadone and small peptides. Porosity, length and diameter are fabrication parameters that we have explored here in order to optimize analytical performance. We demonstrate the quantitative analysis of methadone in MilliQ water down to 32 ng mL(-1). Finally, the capability of SiNP arrays to facilitate the detection of methadone in clinical samples is also demonstrated. PMID:25268849

  1. What do Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectra Reveal about Ionization Mechanisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papantonakis, Michael R.(VISITORS); Kim, Jun S.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Hess, Wayne P.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Haglund, Richard F.(Vanderbilt University)

    2002-06-01

    We describe the results of experiments designed to test several of the most widely discussed mechanistic models for matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization. By comparing ion mass spectra from the same matrix-analyte systems across various wavelengths from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and pulse durations from nanosecond to femtosecond, we have evaluated the plausibility of such ion-formation mechanisms as multiphoton ionization, excited state ionization, and photothermal ionization. We conclude that some of these models are not plausible for the matrix-analyte systems we studied. However, the fundamental principles of the laser-materials interaction also suggest that inspection of the mass spectra alone can only serve to exclude certain mechanisms, not to establish which of several competing mechanisms is actually occurring. This is particularly true with respect to variations in pulse duration and wavelength.

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption of biological molecules in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D.M.; Goeringer, D.E.; McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD), which has been proven to be an effective ionization technique for biological molecules, has been implemented on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). In the instrumental configuration used for this work both the sample probe and the laser beam are brought through holes in the ring electrode, thereby enabling MALD-generated ions to expand directly into the ion trap cavity. This approach for directly introducing MALD-generated ions compliments the capabilities of the ITMS to obtain low detection limits and to perform tandem mass spectrometric analysis. For example, detection limits in the single-unit femtomole regime have been achieved for small polypeptides such as leucine enkephalin, bradykinin, and neuromedin U-8. Furthermore, structural information has been acquired via multiple stages of mass spectrometry. One limitation that currently exists is an unanticipated drop in sensitivity and resolution as the mass/charge ratio for ions exceeds 3000. 42 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Detection of Biosignatures by Geomatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (GALDI) Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill R. Scott; Beizhan Yan; Daphne L. Stoner; J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman

    2007-04-01

    Identification of mineral-associated biosignatures is of significance for retrieving biochemical information from geological records here on Earth and detecting signs of life on other planets, such as Mars. The importance of the geomatrix for identifying amino acids (e.g., histidine, threonine, and cysteine) and small proteins (e.g., gramicidin S) was investigated by laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The investigated geomatrices include analogues of Fe-bearing minerals such as hematite and Na-bearing evaporites (e.g., halite). Samples were prepared by two methods: 1) application of analyte to the geomatrix surface and 2) production of homogenous analyte:geomatrix mixtures. Comparison of the two sample preparation methods revealed that the mixing method produces a better signal/noise ratio than surface application for the analyses of amino acids. The composition of the geomatrix has a profound influence on the detection of biomolecules. Peaks corresponding to the cation-attached biomolecular ions were observed for the Na-bearing evaporite analogue. No detectable peaks for the biomolecular ion species were observed when the biomolecules were associated with Fe-bearing minerals. Instead, only minor peaks were observed that may correspond to ions from fragments of the biomolecules. Depending on the underlying mineral composition, geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization shows promise for directly identifying biosignatures associated with minerals.

  4. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization mass spectrometry of proteins using a free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most promising techniques for spectral fingerprinting large molecules, such as proteins, oligonucleotides and carbohydrates. In the usual implementation of this technique, the analyte molecule is dissolved in an aromatic liquid matrix material which resonantly absorbs ultraviolet laser light. Resonant absorption by π-π* transitions volatilizes the matrix and initiates subsequent charge transfer to the analyte molecules, which are detected by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Recent MALDI-MS studies with Er:YAG (2.94 μm) and CO24 (9.4-10.6 μm) lasers suggest that them is significant unexplored potential for mass spectrometry of macromolecules, including oligonucleotide, in the mid-infrared. Preliminary experiments show that it is possible to capitalize on the rich rovibronic absorption spectrum of virtually all organics to initiate resonant desorption in matrix material over the entire range of pH values. However, the mechanism of charge transfer is particularly problematic for infrared MALDI because of the low photon energy. In this paper, we report the results of MALI-MS studies on small proteins using the Vanderbilt FEL and several matrix materials. Proteins with masses up to roughly 6,000 amu were detected with high resolution in a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By varying the pulse duration using a broadband Pockels cell, we have been able to compare the results of relatively long (5 μs) and short (0.1 μs) irradiation on the desorption and ionization processes. Compared to uv-MALDI spectra of identical analytes obtained with a nitrogen laser (337 nm) in the same time-of-flight spectrometer, the infrared results appear to show that the desorption and ionization process goes on over a somewhat longer time scale

  5. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and electrospray ionization combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Staneke, Paul O.; Nibbering, Nico M. M.

    1997-01-01

    During recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) are successfully employed to analyze biomolecules and polymers. In combination with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, high mass resolution and mass measurement accuracy can be achieved to enable the determination of molecular weights and structural characterization of biochemical compounds larger than 10 kDa.

  6. Pigments and proteins in green bacterial chlorosomes studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, S; Sönksen, C P; Frigaard, N U;

    2000-01-01

    We have used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for mass determination of pigments and proteins in chlorosomes, the light-harvesting organelles from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. By applying a small volume (1...

  7. Calibration of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight peptide mass fingerprinting spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Højrup, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes a number of aspects important for calibration of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectra prior to peptide mass fingerprinting searches. Both multipoint internal calibration and mass defect-based calibration is illustrated. The chapter describes how...

  8. Spatially resolved protein hydrogen exchange measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization in-source decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Bache, Nicolai; Nedertoft, Morten M;

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool for measuring protein hydrogen exchange and thereby reveal the structural dynamics of proteins in solution. Here we describe the successful application of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry approach based on in...

  9. Development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for plant metabolite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis presents efforts to improve the methodology of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a method for analysis of metabolites from plant tissue samples. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the technique of MALDI-MSI, and the sixth and final chapter provides a brief summary and an outlook on future work.

  10. A novel sample preparation method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang; Zhen Wen Zhao; Lei Xiong; Bin Xin; Wei Hua Hu; Shao Xiang Xiong

    2007-01-01

    A novel sample preparation method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for polystyrene was reported.Compared to the conventional dried-droplet method, the efficiency of ionization and signal intensity of mass spectra were improved.The mechanism was also analyzed.

  11. Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of clinical yeast isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenvinge, Flemming S; Dzajic, Esad; Knudsen, Elisa;

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and fast yeast identification is important when treating patients with invasive fungal disease as susceptibility to antifungal agents is highly species related. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) provides a powerful tool with a clear potential...

  12. Serum protein profiling by miniaturized solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bunkenborg, Jakob;

    2005-01-01

    Serum profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) holds promise as a clinical tool for early diagnosis of cancer and other human diseases. Sample preparation is key to achieving reproducible and well-resolved signals in MALDI-MS; a prerequisite for...

  13. Two-photon ionization thresholds of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Knochenmuss, R

    2001-01-01

    Direct two-photon ionization of the matrix has been considered a likely primary ionization mechanism in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. This mechanism requires that the vertical ionization threshold of matrix materials be below twice the laser photon energy. Because dimers and larger aggregates may be numerous in the early stages of the MALDI plume expansion, their ionization thresholds are important as well. We have used two-color two-photon ionization to determine the ionization thresholds of jet cooled clusters of an important matrix, 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHB), and mixed clusters with the thermal decomposition product of DHB, hydroquinone. The thresholds of the clusters were reduced by only a few tenths of an eV compared to the monomers, to an apparent limit of 7.82 eV for pure DHB clusters. None of the investigated clusters can be directly ionized by two nitrogen laser photons (7.36 eV), and the ionization efficiency at the thresholds is low. PMID:11507754

  14. Peptides Quantification by Liquid Chromatography with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization and Selected Reaction Monitoring Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lesur, Antoine; Varesio, Emmanuel; Domon, Bruno; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel analytical platform for peptides quantitative assays in biological matrices based on microscale liquid chromatography fractionation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The MALDI source was equipped with a high frequency Nd:YAG laser (1000 Hz) and mounted on a triple quadrupole / linear ion trap mass spectrometer (MALDI-QqQLIT). Compared to conventional LC-ESI-SRM/MS, the separated an...

  15. Quantum dots assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Aisha; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-01

    A quantum dots (QDs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (QDA-LDI-MS) strategy was proposed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a series of carbohydrates. The adsorption of carbohydrates on the modified surface of different QDs as the matrices depended mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonding, which led to higher MS intensity than those with conventional organic matrix. The effects of QDs concentration and sample preparation method were explored for improving the selective ionization process and the detection sensitivity. The proposed approach offered a new dimension to the application of QDs as matrices for MALDI-MS research of carbohydrates. It could be used for quantitative measurement of glucose concentration in human serum with good performance. The QDs served as a matrix showed the advantages of low background, higher sensitivity, convenient sample preparation and excellent stability under vacuum. The QDs assisted LDI-MS approach has promising application to the analysis of carbohydrates in complex biological samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27041659

  16. Study of ionization process of matrix molecules in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Proton transfer and adduction reaction of matrix in MALDI were studied. ► Hydroxyl group forming intramolecular hydrogen bond was related to the ionization. ► Intramolecular proton transfer in the electronic excited state was the initial step. ► Non-volatile analytes stabilized protonated matrix in the ground state. ► A possible mechanism, “analyte support mechanism”, has been proposed. - Abstract: Proton transfer and adduction reaction of matrix molecules in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization were studied. By using 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), and their related compounds in which the position of a hydroxyl group is different, it was clarified that a hydroxyl group forming an intramolecular hydrogen bond is related to the ionization of matrix molecules. Intramolecular proton transfer in the electronic excited state of the matrix and subsequent proton adduction from a surrounding solvent to the charge-separated matrix are the initial steps for the ionization of matrix molecules. Nanosecond pump–probe NIR–UV mass spectrometry confirmed that the existence of analyte molecules having large dipole moment in their structures is necessary for the stabilization of [matrix + H]+ in the electronic ground state

  17. Properties of matrix-assisted laser desorption. Measurements with a time-to-digital converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, W; Mao, Y; Mayer, F; Standing, K G

    1991-03-01

    Some properties of matrix-assisted laser desorption have been studied using single-ion-counting methods and a time-to-digital converter. The methods allow examination of the process for irradiances near the reported threshold for observation with a transient recorder. All measurements were made using bovine insulin as a test compound. We present direct evidence that an irradiance threshold near 10(6) W cm-2 exists for ion production, and that the process is a collective effect, either involving a large number of molecular ions (approximately 10(4) in a successful event or none at all. Above the threshold, the yield is found to scale with a high power (4th to 6th) of the irradiance. Measurements of initial velocity distributions indicate an axial velocity spread corresponding to approximately 50 eV and a radial velocity spread corresponding to approximately 2.4 eV. Thus the ejection or extraction mechanism appears to be strongly asymmetric. PMID:1804409

  18. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging: plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baosheng; Zhang, Jialing; Chang, Cuilan; Li, Liping; Li, Min; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Tang, Fei; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2014-05-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been widely used in many research areas for the advantages of providing informative molecular distribution with high specificity. Among the recent progress, ambient MSI has attracted increasing interests owing to its characteristics of ambient, in situ, and nonpretreatment analysis. Here, we are presenting the ambient MSI for traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and authentication of work of art and documents using plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PALDI-MS). Compared with current ambient MSI methods, an excellent average resolution of 60 μm × 60 μm pixel size was achieved using this system. The feasibility of PALDI-based MSI was confirmed by seal imaging, and its authentication applications were demonstrated by imaging of printed Chinese characters. Imaging of the Radix Scutellariae slice showed that the two active components, baicalein and wogonin, mainly were distributed in the epidermis of the root, which proposed an approach for distinguishing TCMs' origins and the distribution of active components of TCMs and exploring the environmental effects of plant growth. PALDI-MS imaging provides a strong complement for the MSI strategy with the enhanced spatial resolution, which is promising in many research fields, such as artwork identification, TCMs' and botanic research, pharmaceutical applications, etc. PMID:24670045

  19. Bioaerosol detection by aerosol TOF-mass spectrometry: Application of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Stowers, M.A.; Kientz, Ch.E.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Scarlett, B.

    2000-01-01

    In previous publications the use of an aerosol time of flight mass spectrometer was reported for the on-line measurements of aerosols (Weiss 1997, Kievit 1995). The apparatus is capable of measuring the size as well as the chemical composition, by the use of Laser Desorption/Ionisation (LDI), of an

  20. Application of nanodiamonds in human body fluid analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglei Kong

    2008-01-01

    Direct mass spectrometric analysis of complex biological samples is very important and challenging. In this paper, nanodiamonds have been successfully used in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of human serum and urine. As a practical tool and platform, it can be widely used in the field of humoral proteomics, and it plays a very promising role in clinical diagnosis, including identification of novel disease-associated biomarkers.

  1. Overview literature on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI MS): basics and its applications in characterizing polymeric materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Jagtap; A H Ambre

    2005-10-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI MS) is a technique which allows the measurement of molecular mass > 200,000 Daltons by ionization and vapourization without degradation. This technique is useful for the mass analysis of synthetic polymers, which have very low volatility. The basic principles of and its applications for polymer characterization have been discussed in this paper. In addition, the possibilities of combining MALDI MS with chromatographic and other analytical techniques have also been discussed.

  2. Detergent enhancement of on-tissue protein analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mainini, Veronica; Angel, Peggi M; Magni, Fulvio; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is a molecular technology that allows simultaneous investigation of the content and spatial distribution of molecules within tissue. In this work, we examine different classes of detergents, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the nonionic detergents Triton X-100, Tween 20 and Tween 80, and the zwitterionic 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) for use in MALDI IMS of analytes...

  3. Exploring the Potential of Cryodetectors for the Detection of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Produced Ions:Application to Profiling and Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Chaurand; Gertraud Hayn; Urs Matter; Richard M. Caprioli

    2004-01-01

    @@ OVERVIEW Evaluation of the potential of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI TOFMS) equipped with a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) cryodetector for the detection of high molecular weight proteins.

  4. A novel covalent coating of capillaries for capillary electrophoresis coupled to matrix assisted laser desorption ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers the advantage of flexibility and method development. It excels in the area of separation of ions, chiral, polar, and biological compounds (especially proteins and peptides). Masking the active sites on the inner surface of a bare fused-silica capillary wall is often necessary for CE separations of basic compounds, proteins and peptides. The use of capillary surface coatings is an approach to prevent adsorption phenomena and improve the repeatability of these analytes. In this work, new capillary coatings consisting of (I) derivatized polystyrene nanoparticles (PS) and (II) derivatized fullerenes, were investigated for the analysis of peptides and protein digest by CE. The coated capillaries showed excellent run-to-run and batch-to-batch reproducibility (RSD of migration time ≤ 0.5 % for run to run and ≤ 9.5 % for batch-to-batch experiments). Furthermore, the capillaries offer high stability from pH 2.0 up to pH 10.0. The actual potential of the coated capillaries was tested by combining CE with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) for analysing complex samples, such as peptides, whereas the overall performance of the CE-MALDI-TOF-MS system was investigated by analysing a five protein digest mixture. Subsequently, the peak list (peptide mass fingerprint) generated from the mass spectra of each fraction was entered into the Swiss Prot database in order to search for matching tryptic fragments using the Mascot software. The sequence coverage of analysed proteins was between 36-68%. The established technology benefits from the synergism of high separation efficiency and the structure selective identification via MS. (author)

  5. Gold nanoparticles assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and applications: from simple molecules to intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2016-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (GALDI-MS) provided new horizons and offered many functions for various applications. This review summarized AuNPs applications for analytical, biotechnology and proteomics. AuNPs efficiently absorbed the laser radiation and transferred the energy to the analyte for the desorption/ionization process. The unique features of AuNPs such as large surface area and high absorption coefficient lead not only to high resolution, low interference and low limit of detection, but also offered selective detection for certain species. AuNPs provided an excellent surface for the analysis of several species such as small molecules, biomarkers, proteins and cells (pathogenic bacteria or cancer cells). AuNPs played many roles such as surface for LDI-MS, probe and stationary phase for separation or preconcentration. AuNPs modified various surface chemistry was applied for a wide range of different wavelength. AuNPs severed as a source of Au(+) ions that were suitable for analyte cationisation. Characterization of Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) by mass spectrometry, pros and cons were also highlighted. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the analysis by Gold Nanoparticles Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (GALDI-MS). PMID:26973236

  6. Pigments and proteins in green bacterial chlorosomes studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, S; Sönksen, C P; Frigaard, N-U;

    2000-01-01

    proportional to peak areas obtained from HPLC analysis of the same sample. The same result was also obtained when whole cells of Chl. tepidum were applied to the target, indicating that MALDI-MS can provide a rapid method for obtaining a semiquantitative determination or finger-print of the bacteriochlorophyll......We have used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for mass determination of pigments and proteins in chlorosomes, the light-harvesting organelles from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. By applying a small volume (1...

  7. Laser mass spectrometry of biological molecular ions produced by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, W. J.; Kosmidis, C.; Ledingham, K. W. D.; Scott, C. T. J.; Singhal, R. P.

    1996-10-01

    A tandem reflectron laser mass spectrometer is used for investigations of the photo fragmentation of molecular ions. The observed fragmentation patterns for 2,5-dihydrobenzoic acid and its fragments ions are analysed. PTH-trytophan and PTH-valine ions, generated by MALDI, are photodissociated and their fragmentation pattern is discussed.

  8. Benefits of 2.94 micron infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization for analysis of labile molecules by Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budnik, BA; Jensen, Kenneth Bendix; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.;

    2000-01-01

    A 2.94 microm Er:YAG laser was used together with a commercial Fourier transform mass spectrometer to study labile biomolecules. The combination has shown superior performance over conventional 337 nm ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI) Fourier transform mass...

  9. Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization of Low Molecular Organic Substances on Oxidized Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmigol, I. V.; Alekseev, S. A.; Lavrynenko, O. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Barbier, D.; Pokrovskiy, V. A.

    Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectra of methylene blue (MB+Cl-) were studied using p+-type oxidized monofunctional porous silicon (PS-OX mono ) free layers. Reduction/protonation processes of methylene blue (MB) dye were investigated. It was shown that SiH x terminal sites on oxidized surface of porous silicon (PS-OX) are not the rate-determining factor for the reduction/protonation in DIOS. Tunneling of electron through the dielectric layer of nanostructures on silicon surface under effect of local electrostatic and electromagnetic fields is considered to be the most significant factor of adsorbate-adsorbent electron exchange and further laser-induced ion formation.

  10. Solvent Separating Secondary Metabolites Directly from Biosynthetic Tissue for Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive metabolites are often heterogeneously expressed in tissues both spatially and over time. Therefore, traditional solvent extraction methods benefit from an understanding of the in situ sites of biosynthesis and storage to deal with heterogeneity and maximize yield. Recently, surface-assisted mass spectrometry (MS methods namely nanostructure-assisted laser desorption ionisation (NALDI and desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS surfaces have been developed to enable the direct detection of low molecular weight metabolites. Since direct tissue NALDI-MS or DIOS-MS produce complex spectra due to the wide variety of other metabolites and fragments present in the low mass range, we report here the use of “on surface” solvent separation directly from mollusc tissue onto nanostructured surfaces for MS analysis, as a mechanism for simplifying data annotation and detecting possible artefacts from compound delocalization during the preparative steps. Water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane selectively extracted a range of choline esters, brominated indoles and lipids from Dicathais orbita hypobranchial tissue imprints. These compounds could be quantified on the nanostructured surfaces by comparison to standard curves generated from the pure compounds. Surface-assisted MS could have broad utility for detecting a broad range of secondary metabolites in complex marine tissue samples.

  11. Ion-to-Neutral Ratios and Thermal Proton Transfer in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I.-Chung; Chu, Kuan Yu; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Wu, Shang-Yun; Dyakov, Yuri A.; Chen, Jien-Lian; Gray-Weale, Angus; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2015-07-01

    The ion-to-neutral ratios of four commonly used solid matrices, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), sinapinic acid (SA), and ferulic acid (FA) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm are reported. Ions are measured using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with a time-sliced ion imaging detector. Neutrals are measured using a rotatable quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion-to-neutral ratios of CHCA are three orders of magnitude larger than those of the other matrices at the same laser fluence. The ion-to-neutral ratios predicted using the thermal proton transfer model are similar to the experimental measurements, indicating that thermal proton transfer reactions play a major role in generating ions in ultraviolet-MALDI.

  12. Detecting Biosignatures Associated with Minerals by Geomatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transorm Mass Spectromety (GALDI-FTMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Doc Richardson; J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman; Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott

    2008-07-01

    The ability to detect carbon signatures that can be linked to complex, possibly biogenic, organic molecules is imperative in research into the origin and distribution of life in our solar system particularly when used in conjunction with inorganic, mineralogical, and isotopic signatures that provide strong evidence for geochemical influences of living organisms on their environment. Ideally, the method used to detect these signatures must (i) accurately and automatically translate the organic and other information into usable forms, (ii) precisely distinguish such information from alternative compositions, (iii) operate with high spatial resolution coupled with precise location abilities, and (iv) require little to no sample preparation because of the potential for contamination. Geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in conjunction with a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) has been used to determine the presence of bio/organic molecules (BOM) associated with different minerals and mineraloids including oxide, sulfate, carbonate, chloride, and silicate minerals. BOM is defined as an organic structure that can be produced by living organisms or derived from another organic compound made by living organisms (i.e., degradation product). GALDI requires no sample preparation because the mineral matrix assists desorption. Ultimately, however, the detectability of BOM is controlled by the desorption efficiency, ionization efficiency, and the specific experimental conditions. Results from experiments with combinations of known BOM and mineral standards indicated that the detectability of BOM increased with decreasing concentration, contrary to most analytical procedures. Results suggest that BOM when combined with certain minerals is more easily detected than when combined with other minerals. Such conclusions can guide selection of appropriate samples for sample return missions.

  13. Enhanced capabilities for imaging gangliosides in murine brain with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to ion mobility separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrášková, Karolina; Claude, Emmanuelle; Jones, Emrys A; Towers, Mark; Ellis, Shane R; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-07-15

    The increased interest in lipidomics calls for improved yet simplified methods of lipid analysis. Over the past two decades, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been established as a powerful technique for the analysis of molecular distribution of a variety of compounds across tissue surfaces. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI is widely used to study the spatial distribution of common lipids. However, a thorough sample preparation and necessity of vacuum for efficient ionization might hamper its use for high-throughput lipid analysis. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is a relatively young MS technique. In DESI, ionization of molecules occurs under ambient conditions, which alleviates sample preparation. Moreover, DESI does not require the application of an external matrix, making the detection of low mass species more feasible due to the lack of chemical matrix background. However, irrespective of the ionization method, the final information obtained during an MSI experiment is very complex and its analysis becomes challenging. It was shown that coupling MSI to ion mobility separation (IMS) simplifies imaging data interpretation. Here we employed DESI and MALDI MSI for a lipidomic analysis of the murine brain using the same IMS-enabled instrument. We report for the first time on the DESI IMS-MSI of multiply sialylated ganglioside species, as well as their acetylated versions, which we detected directly from the murine brain tissue. We show that poly-sialylated gangliosides can be imaged as multiply charged ions using DESI, while they are clearly separated from the rest of the lipid classes based on their charge state using ion mobility. This represents a major improvement in MSI of intact fragile lipid species. We additionally show that complementary lipid information is reached under particular conditions when DESI is compared to MALDI MSI. PMID:26922843

  14. Phosphopeptide detection and sequencing by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Keiryn L; Stensballe, Allan; Podtelejnikov, Alexandre V;

    2002-01-01

    localization of one, three or four phosphorylated amino acid residues in phosphopeptides up to 3.1 kDa. Tandem mass spectra of two different phosphotyrosine peptides permitted amino acid sequence determination and localization of one and three phosphorylation sites, respectively. The phosphotyrosine immonium...... ion at m/z 216.04 was observed in these MALDI low-energy CID tandem mass spectra. Elimination of phosphate groups was evident from the triphosphorylated peptide but not from the monophosphorylated species. The main fragmentation pathway for the synthetic phosphothreonine-containing peptide and for......A prototype matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) tandem mass spectrometer was used to sequence a series of phosphotyrosine-, phosphothreonine- and phosphoserine-containing peptides. The high mass resolution and mass accuracy of the instrument allowed the...

  15. 5-Methoxysalicylic Acid Matrix for Ganglioside Analysis with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkun; Cha, Sangwon

    2015-03-01

    In this note, we report that high quality ganglioside profiles with minimal loss of sialic acid residues can be obtained in the positive ion mode by using a 5-methoxysalicylic acid (MSA) matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). Our results showed that MSA produced much less sialic acid losses from gangliosides than DHB, although MSA and DHB are differ only by their functional groups at their 5-positions (-OH for DHB and -OCH3 for MSA). Furthermore, our data also demonstrated that addition of an alkali metal additive was effective for simplifying ganglioside profiles, but not necessary for stabilizing glycosidic bonds of gangliosides if MSA was used as a matrix. This suggests that MALDI MS with MSA has a potential to gain additional benefits from the positive-ion mode analyses without losing performance in ganglioside profiling.

  16. Affinity labeling coupled with matrix assistant laser desorption tandem time of flight mass spectrometry for quantitative proteomies research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qingfang; ZHANG Yangjun; CAI Yun; QIAN Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    A relative quantitative method for differential proteomics by cleavable isotope-coded atTmity tag (cICAT)and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was estab-lished. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method were evaluated by bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest as having a relative standard deviation of less than 30% and good reproducibility. The dynamic range was als0 evaluated by analyzing two mixtures of several standard proteins with dif-ferent concentration. The experimental results showed that in the dynamic range of 1:30, the quantitation error of the method was less than 30%. Although the quantitation error becomes very large when used beyond this range, it does not affect the derivation of information on the differential proteins. All the work provides an alternative method for differential proteomics analysis in biological samples from different origins.

  17. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young-Jin; Chapman, Kent D

    2016-02-01

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. It is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding to metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation. PMID:26613199

  18. Analysis and Quantitation of Glycated Hemoglobin by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattan, Stephen J.; Parker, Kenneth C.; Vestal, Marvin L.; Yang, Jane Y.; Herold, David A.; Duncan, Mark W.

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of glycated hemoglobin is widely used for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of patient samples is used to demonstrate a method for quantitation of total glycation on the β-subunit of hemoglobin. The approach is accurate and calibrated with commercially available reference materials. Measurements were linear (R2 > 0.99) across the clinically relevant range of 4% to 20% glycation with coefficients of variation of ≤ 2.5%. Additional and independent measurements of glycation of the α-subunit of hemoglobin are used to validate β-subunit glycation measurements and distinguish hemoglobin variants. Results obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were compared with those obtained in a clinical laboratory using validated HPLC methodology. MALDI-TOF MS sample preparation was minimal and analysis times were rapid making the method an attractive alternative to methodologies currently in practice.

  19. Aerosol matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. Effects of analyte concentration and matrix-to-analyte ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeson, M.D.; Murray, K.K.; Russell, D.H. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    We have recently developed an aerosol-liquid introduction interface for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. In this study, we examine the effect of matrix-to-analyte ratio and analyte concentration on analyte ion yield. These studies were performed using bradykinin, gramicidin S, bovine insulin, and myoglobin as analytes and {alpha}-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and 4-nitroaniline as matrices. The optimum matrix-to-analyte molar ratio for aerosol MALDI was determined to be 10-100:1, which is lower than that typically used for conventional surface MALDI (100-10 000:1). The ion yield was found to be a nonlinear function of analyte concentration. Possible explanations for these observations are discussed. 43 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Structural characterization of phospholipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, J A; White, F M; Seldomridge, S; Marshall, A G

    1995-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provides for structural analysis of the principal biological phospholipids: glycerophosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, -serine, and -inositol. Both positive and negative molecular or quasimolecular ions are generated in high abundance. Isolated molecular ions may be collisionally activated in the source side of a dual trap mass analyzer, yielding fragments serving to identify the polar head group (positive ion mode) and fatty acid side chains (negative ion mode). Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation following collisionally activated dissociation refocuses productions close to the solenoid axis; subsequent transfer of product ions to the analyzer ion trap allows for high-resolution mass analysis. Cyro-cooling of the sample probe with liquid nitrogen greatly reduces matrix adduction encountered in the negative ion mode. PMID:8633761

  1. Differentiation of Raoultella ornithinolytica/planticola and Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Eefje de; Jong, A.S. de; Smidts-van den Berg, N.; Rentenaar, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ninety-nine clinical isolates previously identified as Klebsiella oxytoca were evaluated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Eight isolates were identified as Raoultella spp., being 5 Raoultella spp. and 3 K. oxytoca, by 16S rRNA sequenc

  2. THE USE OF MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has long been established as a tool by which microorganisms can be characterized and identified. EPA is investigating the potential of using this technology as a way to rapidly identify Aeromonas species fo...

  3. Identification of Fatty Acids, Phospholipids, and Their Oxidation Products Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Christopher W.; Mang, Stephen A.; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) have found increasing application in the analysis of biological samples. Using these techniques to solve problems in analytical chemistry should be an essential component of the training of undergraduate chemists. We…

  4. Analysis of Phospholipid Mixtures from Biological Tissues by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibisch, Mandy; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jurgen; Sub, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used to investigate the phospholipid (PL) compositions of tissues and body fluids, often without previous separation of the total mixture into the individual PL classes. Therefore, the questions of whether all PL classes are detectable…

  5. Identification of pathogenic microorganisms directly from positive blood vials by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Tvede, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a promising and fast method for identifying fungi and bacteria directly from positive blood cultures. Various pre-treatment methods for MALDI-TOF MS identification have been reported for this purpose. In...

  6. Rapid Identification of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry ▿

    OpenAIRE

    McTaggart, Lisa R.; Lei, Eric; Richardson, Susan E.; Hoang, Linda; Fothergill, Annette; Zhang, Sean X.

    2011-01-01

    Compared to DNA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) correctly identified 100% of Cryptococcus species, distinguishing the notable pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. Identification was greatly enhanced by supplementing a commercial spectral library with additional entries to account for subspecies variability.

  7. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry identification of large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgård Jensen, Christian; Dam-Nielsen, Casper; Arpi, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G can be adequately identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Previous studies show varying...

  8. Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, H.A.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena;

    2001-01-01

    developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L...

  9. Reproducibility of serum protein profiling by systematic assessment using solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Christensen, René Depont; Madsen, Jonna S;

    2008-01-01

    Protein profiling of human serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is potentially a new diagnostic tool for early detection of human diseases, including cancer. Sample preparation is a key issue in MALDI MS and the analysis of complex samples such as serum...

  10. Identification of Wheat Varieties Using Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry and an Artificial Neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Helle Aagaard; Kesmir, Can; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;

    1999-01-01

    A novel tool for variety identification of wheat (Triticum aestivum L,) has been developed: an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to classify the gliadin fraction analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). The robustness of this...

  11. Quantitation of peptides and proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using (18)O-labeled internal standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, O A; Kozmin, Y P; Titov, M I;

    2000-01-01

    A method for quantitating proteins and peptides in the low picomole and sub-picomole range has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with internal (18)O-labeled standards. A simple procedure is proposed to produce such internal standards for...

  12. Possible evidence of amide bond formation between sinapinic acid and lysine-containing bacterial proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously reported the apparent formation of matrix adducts of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (sinapinic acid or SA) via covalent attachment to disulfide bond-containing proteins (HdeA, HdeB and YbgS) from bacterial cell lysates ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALD...

  13. Determining estrogens using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with silver nanoparticles as the matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tai-Chia; Chang, Lin-Chau; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2008-09-01

    We describe the application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as matrices for the determination of three estrogens using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). Because Ag NPs have extremely high absorption coefficients (1.2 x 10(8) M(-1) cm(-1)) at 337 nm, they are effective SALDI matrices when using a nitrogen laser. Three tested estrogens--estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3)--adsorb weakly onto the surfaces of the Ag NPs, through van der Waals forces. After centrifugation, the concentrated analytes adsorbed on the Ag NPs were subjected directly to SALDI-MS analyses, with the limits of detection for E1, E2, and E3 being 2.23, 0.23, and 2.11 microM, respectively. The shot-to-shot and batch-to-batch variations for the three analytes were less than 9% and 13%, respectively. We validated the practicality of this present approach through the quantitation of E2 in human urine. Using this approach, we determined the concentration of E2 in a sample of a pregnant woman's urine to be 0.16+/-0.05 microM (n=10). PMID:18640850

  14. Steroid hormones analysis with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using catechin-modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2011-10-30

    This paper describes the application of catechin-modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) as matrices to analyze four steroid hormones by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The catechin-modified TiO(2) NPs have high absorbance at 337 nm and are effective SALDI matrices when using a nitrogen laser. Four test steroid hormones-cortisone, hydrocortisone, progesterone, and testosterone-were directly analyzed by SALDI-MS. The limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for cortisone, hydrocortisone, progesterone, and testosterone were 1.62, 0.70, 0.66, and 0.23 μM, respectively. This approach provides good quantitative linearity for the four analytes (R(2)>0.986) with good reproducibility (the shot-to-shot and batch-to-batch variations for the four analytes were less than 10% and 15%, respectively). We validated the practicality of this approach-considering its advantages in sensitivity, repeatability, rapidity, and simplicity-through the analysis of testosterone in a urine sample. PMID:22063559

  15. Design and performance of a matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer utilizing a pulsed nitrogen laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design considerations and experimental performance of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are reported for performing matrix-assisted laser desorption studies. A simple pulsed gas-discharge nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) is successfully used in contrast to the more widely used frequency-quadrupled (266 nm) or frequency-tripled (355 nm) Nd:YAG solid-state laser. Optical considerations in utilizing the pulsed nitrogen laser are discussed and a simple optical arrangement is described which allows for suitable imaging of the poor spatial beam profile of the pulsed nitrogen laser. Laser spot sizes of 150x450 μm are obtainable. As with the frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser, sinapic acid is found to be the most useful matrix for producing protonated molecular species from proteins. Appropriate laser power levels are determined, as matrix/sample levels. Adequate response for most small to medium molecular weight proteins is obtained for less than 1 pmol of sample. A simple einsel lens incorporated into the ion source does not appear to provide any significant focusing on the laser-desorbed ions; however, a constant d.c. voltage applied to beam stirring plates enhances the ion signal significantly. Selective, pulsed deflection of the low-mass ions produced from the matrix is also utilized to prevent excessive saturation of the microchannel plate ion detector. High source potentials are found to provide improved resolution and sensitivity in comparison with lower source potentials combined with post-acceleration at the detector. Representative mass spectra of several proteins and peptides are presented. Increased formation of photoinduced adduct ions are observed in comparison with that reported for matrix-assisted laser desorption experiments utilizing a Nd:YAG laser and significant amounts of dimer and trimer ions are produced. Significantly more peak broadening than would normally be expected is observed above 20000 u. This may be due to the post-acceleration design of

  16. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry applied to virus identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Rodighiero, Isabella; Buttrini, Mirko; Gorrini, Chiara; Motta, Federica; Germini, Diego; Medici, Maria-Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Virus detection and/or identification traditionally rely on methods based on cell culture, electron microscopy and antigen or nucleic acid detection. These techniques are good, but often expensive and/or time-consuming; furthermore, they not always lead to virus identification at the species and/or type level. In this study, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was tested as an innovative tool to identify human polioviruses and to identify specific viral protein biomarkers in infected cells. The results revealed MALDI-TOF MS to be an effective and inexpensive tool for the identification of the three poliovirus serotypes. The method was firstly applied to Sabin reference strains, and then to isolates from different clinical samples, highlighting its value as a time-saving, sensitive and specific technique when compared to the gold standard neutralization assay and casting new light on its possible application to virus detection and/or identification. PMID:25354905

  17. Inflation-Fixation Method for Lipidomic Mapping of Lung Biopsies by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Claire L; Jones, Jace W; Farese, Ann M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Kane, Maureen A

    2016-05-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of deaths worldwide and major contributors of morbidity and global disease burden. To appropriately investigate lung disease, the respiratory airways must be fixed in their physiological orientation and should be inflated prior to investigations. We present an inflation-fixation method that enables lipidomic investigations of whole lung samples and resected biopsy specimens by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Formalin-inflation enables sample preparation to parallel standard clinical and surgical procedures, in addition to greatly reducing the complexity of analysis, by decreasing the number of analytes in the MALDI plume and reducing adduct formation in the resulting mass spectra. The reduced complexity increased sensitivity and enabled high-resolution imaging acquisitions without any loss in analyte detection at 10 and 20 μm scans. We present a detailed study of over 100 lipid ions detected in positive and negative ion modes covering the conducting and respiratory airways and parts of the peripheral nervous tissue running through the lungs. By defining the resolution required for clear definition of the alveolar space and thus the respiratory airways we have provided a guideline for MSI investigations of respiratory diseases involving the airways, including the interstitium. This study has provided a detailed map of lipid species and their localization within larger mammalian lung samples, for the first time, thus categorizing the lipidome for future MALDI-MSI studies of pulmonary diseases. PMID:27028398

  18. Determination of agrochemical compounds in soya plants by imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Alexander K; Clench, Malcolm R; Crosland, Susan; Sharples, Kate R

    2005-01-01

    Detection and imaging of the herbicide mesotrione (2-(4-mesyl-2-nitrobenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione) and the fungicide azoxystrobin (methyl (E)-2-{2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yloxy]phenyl}-3-methoxyacrylate), on the surface of the soya leaf, and the detection and imaging of azoxystrobin inside the stem of the soya plant, have been achieved using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In leaf analysis experiments, the two pesticides were deposited onto the surface of individual soya leaves on growing plants. The soya leaves were removed and prepared for direct and indirect (following blotting onto matrix-coated cellulose membranes) imaging analysis at different periods after initial pesticide application. In stem analysis experiments, azoxystrobin was added to the nutrient solution of a soya plant growing in a hydroponics system. The plant was left for 48 h, and then horizontal and vertical stem sections were prepared for direct imaging analysis. The images obtained demonstrate the applicability of MALDI imaging to the detection and imaging of small organic compounds in plant tissue and further extend the analytical repertoire of the versatile MALDI technique. PMID:16106343

  19. Metal-assisted polyatomic SIMS and laser desorption/ionization for enhanced small molecule imaging of bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Sage J B; Comi, Troy J; Ko, Kyungwon; Li, Bin; Baig, Nameera F; Morales-Soto, Nydia; Shrout, Joshua D; Bohn, Paul W; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has become an important analytical tool for many sectors of science and medicine. As the application of MSI expands into new areas of inquiry, existing methodologies must be adapted and improved to meet emerging challenges. Particularly salient is the need for small molecule imaging methods that are compatible with complex multicomponent systems, a challenge that is amplified by the effects of analyte migration and matrix interference. With a focus on microbial biofilms from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the relative advantages of two established microprobe-based MSI techniques-polyatomic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser desorption/ionization-are compared, with emphasis on exploring the effect of surface metallization on small molecule imaging. A combination of qualitative image comparison and multivariate statistical analysis demonstrates that sputtering microbial biofilms with a 2.5 nm layer of gold selectively enhances C60-SIMS ionization for several molecular classes including rhamnolipids and 2-alkyl-quinolones. Metallization also leads to the reduction of in-source fragmentation and subsequent ionization of media-specific background polymers, which improves spectral purity and image quality. These findings show that the influence of metallization upon ionization is strongly dependent on both the surface architecture and the analyte class, and further demonstrate that metal-assisted C60-SIMS is a viable method for small molecule imaging of intact molecular ions in complex biological systems. PMID:26945568

  20. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry method for selectively producing either singly or multiply charged molecular ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D; Herath, Thushani N; McEwen, Charles N

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is noted for its ability to produce primarily singly charged ions. This is an attribute when using direct ionization for complex mixtures such as protein digests or synthetic polymers. However, the ability to produce multiply charged ions, as with electrospray ionization (ESI), has advantages such as extending the mass range on mass spectrometers with limited mass-to-charge (m/z) range and enhancing fragmentation for structural characterization. We designed and fabricated a novel field free transmission geometry atmopsheric pressure (AP) MALDI source mounted to a high-mass resolution Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. We report the ability to produce at will either singly charged ions or highly charged ions using a MALDI process by simply changing the matrix or the matrix preparation conditions. Mass spectra with multiply charged ions very similar to those obtained with ESI of proteins such as cytochrome c and ubiquitin are obtained with low femtomole amounts applied to the MALDI target plate and for peptides such as angiotensin I and II with application of attomole amounts. Single scan acquisitions produce sufficient ion current even from proteins. PMID:19904915

  1. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2015-07-16

    Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils. PMID:26073811

  2. Characterization of radiation-induced damage to nucleic acid constituents by matrix-assisted laser desorption FTMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that can result in strand breaks as well as base and sugar modifications, and may lead to mutations and ultimately, cell death. It is necessary to determine both the identities and abundances of the radiation-induced products in order to probe the nature of DNA damage in these cases. Previous research in this area has focused on the use of GC-MS techniques for the separation and identification of radiation products. However, because these biomolecules are polar, non-volatile species, it is necessary to derivatize these compounds prior to analysis. This sample preparation step may distort the sample by creating compounds that were not generated by the radiation event. In order to circumvent this problem, matrix-assisted laser desorption FTMS is being developed for the direct examination of products generated by x-ray irradiation of aqueous nucelotide solutions. No hydrolysis or derivatization is necessary in this case, and products ranging from nucleic bases to small oligonucleotides can be simultaneously examined. The ion manipulation and accurate mass measurement of FTMS should provide detailed structural information for picomole quantities of these products. In particular, collisional dissociation experiments will used to probe compound structures in an effort to differentiate isomers

  3. Principles of hydrogen radical mediated peptide/protein fragmentation during matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Daiki

    2016-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) is a very easy way to obtain large sequence tags and, thereby, reliable identification of peptides and proteins. Recently discovered new matrices have enhanced the MALDI-ISD yield and opened new research avenues. The use of reducing and oxidizing matrices for MALDI-ISD of peptides and proteins favors the production of fragmentation pathways involving "hydrogen-abundant" and "hydrogen-deficient" radical precursors, respectively. Since an oxidizing matrix provides information on peptide/protein sequences complementary to that obtained with a reducing matrix, MALDI-ISD employing both reducing and oxidizing matrices is a potentially useful strategy for de novo peptide sequencing. Moreover, a pseudo-MS(3) method provides sequence information about N- and C-terminus extremities in proteins and allows N- and C-terminal side fragments to be discriminated within the complex MALDI-ISD mass spectrum. The combination of high mass resolution of a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) analyzer and the software suitable for MALDI-ISD facilitates the interpretation of MALDI-ISD mass spectra. A deeper understanding of the MALDI-ISD process is necessary to fully exploit this method. Thus, this review focuses first on the mechanisms underlying MALDI-ISD processes, followed by a discussion of MALDI-ISD applications in the field of proteomics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 35:535-556, 2016. PMID:25286767

  4. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. PMID:27041307

  5. Serum biomarker profiling by solid-phase extraction with particle-embedded micro tips and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Navare, Arti; Zhou, Manshui; McDonald, John; Noriega, Fernando G.; Sullards, M. Cameron; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main challenges in high-throughput serum profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is the development of proteome fractionation approaches that allow the acquisition of reproducible profiles with a maximum number of spectral features and minimum interferences from biological matrices. This study evaluates a new class of solid-phase extraction (SPE) pipette tips embedded with different chromatographic media for fractiona...

  6. Direct determination of naturally occurring biologically active compound–serum albumin conjugate by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, H.; Xuan, L.J.; S. Morimoto; Shoyama, Y.; Isobe, R.; Nojima, K.

    2001-01-01

    Opium alkaloids were conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to give individual antigen conjugates which were analyzed using BSA as an internal standard by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. It became clear that 9 molecules of thebaine were conjugated in a thebaine–BSA conjugate. Codeine and morphine contents in individual conjugates were determined to be 12 and 6 molecules, respectively. Using a relative molecular mass of BSA, 11.5 molecules of forskoli...

  7. Microbial Typing by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: Do We Need Guidance for Data Interpretation?

    OpenAIRE

    Spinali, Sébastien; Belkum, Alex van; Goering, Richard V.; Girard, Victoria; Welker, Martin; Van Nuenen, Marc; Pincus, David H.; Arsac, Maud; Durand, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in clinical microbiology has revolutionized species identification of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. However, beyond straightforward identification, the method has also been suggested to have the potential for subspecies-level or even type-level epidemiological analyses. This minireview explores MALDI-TOF MS-based typing, which has already been performed on many clinically relevant spe...

  8. Direct Analysis and Identification of Pathogenic Lichtheimia Species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Analyzer-Mediated Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schrödl, Wieland; Heydel, Tilo; Schwartze, Volker U.; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Große-Herrenthey, Anke; Walther, Grit; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Olias, Philipp; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; de Hoog, G Sybren; Voigt , Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Zygomycetes of the order Mucorales can cause life-threatening infections in humans. These mucormycoses are emerging and associated with a rapid tissue destruction and high mortality. The resistance of Mucorales to antimycotic substances varies between and within clinically important genera such as Mucor, Rhizopus, and Lichtheimia. Thus, an accurate diagnosis before onset of antimycotic therapy is recommended. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)–time of flight (TOF) mass spectr...

  9. Influence of Culture Media on Detection of Carbapenem Hydrolysis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana Carolina; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy; Cordeiro-Moura, Jhonatha Rodrigo; Rockstroh, Anna Carolina; Machado, Antonia Maria Oliveira; Gales, Ana Cristina

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of distinct bacterial growth media on detection of carbapenemase hydrolysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. False-negative results were observed for OXA-25-, OXA-26-, and OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates grown on MacConkey agar medium. The other culture media showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting carbapenemase. PMID:27076665

  10. Proteomic analysis of domestic pig pancreas during development using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Ji Ye; Kim, Il Yong; Oh, Sae Jin; Hwang, Hye Sook; Yi, Sun Shin; Kim, Yo Na; Shin, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Seong, Je Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Pig pancreas may be a therapeutic resource for human diabetic patients. However, this potential is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the molecular events of pig pancreas development. In this study, the embryonic day 60, neonate and 6-month protein profiles of pig pancreas were ascertained at using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Twenty four proteins were differentially expressed during pig pancreas developm...

  11. High-Throughput Identification of Bacteria and Yeast by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in Conventional Medical Microbiology Laboratories ▿

    OpenAIRE

    van Veen, S. Q.; Claas, E.C.J.; Kuijper, Ed J

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. First, we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (Vitek-II, API, and biochemical tests). Dis...

  12. Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry To Detect Carbapenem Resistance within 1 to 2.5 Hours▿

    OpenAIRE

    Burckhardt, Irene; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the percentage of carbapenem-resistant bacteria has increased at an alarming pace and become a major threat for patient survival. Carbapenemase-induced carbapenem resistance can be confirmed through the detection of carbapenem degradation using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This method works for strains carrying NDM-1, VIM-1, VIM-2, KPC-2, and different IMP enzymes.

  13. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to differentiate between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amity L; Alelew, Aqilah; Iwen, Peter C

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis in conjunction with the direct formic acid (FA) sample processing method was evaluated for the ability to differentiate the closely related species of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. The results showed that MALDI-TOF-MS, using the direct FA method, was reliable to differentiate between these species. PMID:26971641

  14. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tissue profiling of secretoneurin in the nucleus accumbens shell from cocaine-sensitized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Uys, Joachim D.; Grey, Angus C.; Wiggins, Armina; Schwacke, John H.; Schey, Kevin L.; Peter W Kalivas

    2010-01-01

    Proteins in the nucleus accumbens mediate many cocaine-induced behaviors. In an effort to measure changes in nucleus accumbens protein expression as potential biomarkers for addiction, coronal tissue sections were obtained from rats that developed behavioral sensitization after daily administration of cocaine, or from daily saline-treated controls. The tissue sections were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) profiling and tissue imaging. For...

  15. Preliminary study for rapid determination of phycotoxins in microalgae whole cells using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Paz, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive methods for identification of several phycotoxins produced by microalgae species such as Yessotoxins (YTXs) for Protoceratium reticulatum, Okadaic acid (OA) and Pectenotoxins (PTXs) for Prorocentrum spp. and Dinophysis spp., Palytoxins (PLTXs) for Ostreopsis spp., Ciguatoxins (CTXs) for Gambierdiscus spp. or Domoic acid (DA) for Pseudo-nitzschia spp. are of great importance to shellfish and fish industry. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ioniz...

  16. Peptides quantification by liquid chromatography with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and selected reaction monitoring detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesur, Antoine; Varesio, Emmanuel; Domon, Bruno; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2012-10-01

    We present a novel analytical platform for peptides quantitative assays in biological matrices based on microscale liquid chromatography fractionation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The MALDI source was equipped with a high frequency Nd:YAG laser (1000 Hz) and mounted on a triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer (MALDI-QqQ(LIT)). Compared to conventional LC-ESI-SRM/MS, the separated analytes are "time-frozen" onto the MALDI plate in fractions, and navigation through the LC chromatogram makes it possible to perform SRM experiments as well as enhanced product ion spectra acquisition for confirmatory analyses without time constraints. The LC spots were analyzed using different rastering speeds ranging from 0.25 to 4 mm/sec with the shortest analysis time of 425 ms/spot. Since the LC runs can be multiplexed and do not need a comprehensive investigation, the present platform offers a valuable alternative to LC-ESI-SRM/MS for high throughput proteomic analyses. In addition, the derivatization of the N-terminal α-amino group by sulfonation was found to be key for the fragmentation of singly charged peptides under low collision energy regime. Under such conditions, y-ion series were observed in the MS/MS spectra, and thus the design of SRM experiments was greatly simplified. The quantitative performance of the platform was compared to that of LC-ESI-SRM/MS by spiking yeast tryptic peptides in human plasma digests. Both platforms exhibited similar sensitivities, accuracy (within ±20%) and precision (under 20%) in the relative quantification mode. As a proof of principle, the relative and absolute quantification of proteins associated with glycolysis, glyoxylate and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles over a growth time course of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose media was successfully performed using isotopic dilution. PMID:22897511

  17. System and method of infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in polyacrylamide gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jr., Richard F.; Ermer, David R.; Baltz-Knorr, Michelle Lee

    2004-11-30

    A system and method for desorption and ionization of analytes in an ablation medium. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of preparing a sample having analytes in a medium including at least one component, freezing the sample at a sufficiently low temperature so that at least part of the sample has a phase transition, and irradiating the frozen sample with short-pulse radiation to cause medium ablation and desorption and ionization of the analytes. The method further includes the steps of selecting a resonant vibrational mode of at least one component of the medium and selecting an energy source tuned to emit radiation substantially at the wavelength of the selected resonant vibrational mode. The medium is an electrophoresis medium having polyacrylamide. In one embodiment, the energy source is a laser, where the laser can be a free electron laser tunable to generate short-pulse radiation. Alternatively, the laser can be a solid state laser tunable to generate short-pulse radiation. The laser can emit light at various ranges of wavelength.

  18. Using Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Detect ss- and ds-Oligodeoxynucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Huang, Ming-Feng; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-06-01

    We applied surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with HgTe nanostructures as the matrix for the detection of single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ss-ODNs and ds-ODNs). The concentrations of surfactant and additives (metal ions, an amine) and the pH and ionic strength of the sample matrix played significantly different roles in the detection of ss- and ds-ODNs with various sequences. In the presence of Brij 76 (1.5 %), Hg2+ (7.5 μM), and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 5.0, this SALDI-MS approach allowed the simultaneous detection of T15, T20, T33, and T40, with limits of detection at the femtomole-to-picomole level and sample-to-sample intensity variation <23 %. In the presence of Ag+ (1 μM) and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 7.0, this technique allowed the detection of randomly sequenced ss- and ds-ODNs at concentrations down to the femtomole level. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the detection of ss-ODNs (up to 50-mer) and ds-ODNs (up to 30 base pairs) through the combination of SALDI-MS with HgTe nanostructures as matrices. We demonstrated the practicality of this approach through analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism that determines the fate of the valine residue in the β-globin of sickle cell megaloblasts.

  19. Rapid identification of siderophores by combined thin-layer chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayen, Heiko; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2005-01-01

    The investigation of a combined thin-layer chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC/MALDI-MS) method for the analysis of siderophores from microbial samples is described. The investigated siderophores were enterobactin, ferrioxamine B, ferrichrome, ferrirhodin, rhodotorulic acid and coprogen. Solid-phase extraction was employed to recover the siderophores from the microbial samples. After visualization of the spots via spraying with ferric chloride or chrome azurol sulfonate assay solution, the MALDI matrix was applied to the gel surface. Several TLC/MALDI experimental parameters were optimized, such as type and concentration of MALDI matrix, as well as the type and composition of solvent to facilitate analyte transport from the inside of the TLC gel to the surface. The impact of these parameters on sensitivity, precision and ion formation of the various siderophores was studied. The detection limits for the investigated siderophores were in the range 1-4 pmol. These values were about 4-24 times higher than the detection limits obtained directly from stainless steel MALDI targets. The differences were most likely due to incomplete transport of the 'trapped' analyte molecules from the deeper layers of the TLC gel to the surface and into the matrix layer. In addition, chromatographic band broadening spread the analyte further in TLC as compared with the steel plates, resulting in less analyte per surface area. The identification of the siderophores was aided by concurrently applying a Ga(III) nitrate solution to the TLC plate during the visualization step. The resulting formation of Ga(III) complexes lead to distinctive (69)Ga/(71)Ga isotope patterns in the mass spectra. The versatility of the TLC/MALDI-MS assay was demonstrated by using it to analyze siderophores in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa sample. An iron-binding compound was identified in the sample, namely pyochelin (2-(2-o-hydroxyphenyl-2-thiazolin-4-yl)-3

  20. Development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric method for rapid process-monitoring of phthalocyanine compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Ting, E-mail: ytchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Wang, Fu-Shing [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhendong [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Li Liang, E-mail: liang.li@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Ling, Yong-Chien, E-mail: ycling@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MALDI TOFMS is developed as a rapid means of monitoring the process of phthalocyanine derivatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All-trans retinoic acid is used as matrix to reduce ion fragmentation and background formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples from the reaction process are taken for direct analysis by MALDI TOFMS without any cleanup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is demonstrated for monitoring the synthesis of brominated Ni- and Cu-phthalocyanine. - Abstract: Phthalocyanines (PCs), an important class of chemicals widely used in many industrial sectors, are macrocyclic compounds possessing a heteroaromatic {pi}-electron system with optical properties influenced by chemical structures and impurities or by-products introduced during the synthesis process. Analytical tools allowing for rapid monitoring of the synthesis processes are of significance for the development of new PCs with improved performance in many application areas. In this work, we report a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) method for rapid and convenient monitoring of PC synthesis reactions. For this class of compounds, intact molecular ions could be detected by MALDI using retinoic acid as matrix. It was shown that relative quantification results of two PC compounds could be generated by MALDI MS. This method was applied to monitor the bromination reactions of nickel- and copper-containing PCs. It was demonstrated that, compared to the traditional UV-visible method, the MALDI MS method offers the advantage of higher sensitivity while providing chemical species and relative quantification information on the reactants and products, which are crucial to process monitoring.

  1. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology. PMID:26999436

  2. Self-aliquoting microarray plates for accurate quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Martin; Fagerer, Stephan R; Köhling, Rudolf; Küster, Simon K; Steinhoff, Robert; Badertscher, Martin; Wahl, Fabian; Dittrich, Petra S; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zenobi, Renato

    2013-10-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a fast analysis tool employed for the detection of a broad range of analytes. However, MALDI-MS has a reputation of not being suitable for quantitative analysis. Inhomogeneous analyte/matrix co-crystallization, spot-to-spot inhomogeneity, as well as a typically low number of replicates are the main contributing factors. Here, we present a novel MALDI sample target for quantitative MALDI-MS applications, which addresses the limitations mentioned above. The platform is based on the recently developed microarray for mass spectrometry (MAMS) technology and contains parallel lanes of hydrophilic reservoirs. Samples are not pipetted manually but deposited by dragging one or several sample droplets with a metal sliding device along these lanes. Sample is rapidly and automatically aliquoted into the sample spots due to the interplay of hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions. With a few microliters of sample, it is possible to aliquot up to 40 replicates within seconds, each aliquot containing just 10 nL. The analyte droplet dries immediately and homogeneously, and consumption of the whole spot during MALDI-MS analysis is typically accomplished within few seconds. We evaluated these sample targets with respect to their suitability for use with different samples and matrices. Furthermore, we tested their application for generating calibration curves of standard peptides with α-cyano-4-hdydroxycinnamic acid as a matrix. For angiotensin II and [Glu(1)]-fibrinopeptide B we achieved coefficients of determination (r(2)) greater than 0.99 without the use of internal standards. PMID:24003910

  3. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils

  4. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  5. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Chelsea L; Wright, Patience M; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26864792

  6. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-02-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  7. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China); Yao, Zhong-Ping, E-mail: zhongping.yao@polyu.edu.hk [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils.

  8. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mayer-Scholl

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology.

  9. Antimicrobial activities and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of Bacillus isolates from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabel, Christian T; Vater, Joachim; Wilde, Christopher; Franke, Peter; Hofemeister, Jürgen; Adler, Barbara; Bringmann, Gerhard; Hacker, Jörg; Hentschel, Ute

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria that are resistant to the strong antimicrobial metabolites characteristic of Aplysina aerophoba. For this purpose, bacterial isolation was performed on agar plates to which sponge tissue extract had been added. Following screening for antifungal and antimicrobial activities, 5 strains were chosen for more detailed analyses. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing revealed that all isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus, specifically B. subtilis and B. pumilus. Using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization mass spectrometry typing of whole cells and antimicrobial bioassays against selected reference strains, the bioactive metabolites were identified as lipopeptides. PMID:14730425

  10. A technique for obtaining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of poorly soluble and insoluble aromatic polyamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Anthony P; Nonidez, William K

    2004-04-01

    Wet grinding methods for obtaining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of poorly soluble and insoluble low molecular mass oligomers (Nomex and Kevlar are described. Optimum conditions for sample preparation are given along with a detailed analysis of the spectra obtained. Two matrix materials were employed in this analysis, 1,8-dihydroxyanthrone (dithranol) and 3-aminoquinoline with potassium trifluoroacetate used as the cationizing agent. The spectra obtained in this study are sensitive to the matrix, molar mixing ratios of matrix/polymer/cationizing agent, and the sample preparation method. PMID:15053662

  11. Structure Determination of β-Glucans from Ganoderma lucidum with Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization (MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Yang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel method that uses matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry to analyze molecular weight and sequencing of glucan in Ganoderma lucidum is presented. Thus, β-glucan, which was isolated from fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, was measured in a direct and fast way using MALDI mass spectrometry. In addition, tandem mass spectrometry of permethylated glucans of G. lucidum, dextran, curdlan and maltohexaose were also pursued and different fragment patterns were obtained. The G. lucidum glucan structure was determined and this method for linkage analysis of permethylated glucan has been proven feasible.

  12. In situ liquid-liquid extraction as a sample preparation method for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS analysis of polypeptide mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellström, Sven; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2003-01-01

    A novel liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure was investigated for preparation of peptide and protein samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). LLE using ethyl acetate as the water-immiscible organic solvent enabled segregation of hydrophobic and...... matrix to the organic solvent enhanced the efficiency of the LLE-MALDI MS method for analysis of hydrophobic peptides and proteins. LLE-MALDI MS enabled the detection of the hydrophobic membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin as a component in a simple protein mixture. Peptide mixtures containing...

  13. Identification of Arcanobacterium pluranimalium by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and, as novel target, by sequencing pluranimaliumlysin encoding gene pla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbutskaya, A; Sammra, O; Nagib, S; Hijazin, M; Alber, J; Lämmler, C; Foster, G; Erhard, M; Wragg, P N; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E

    2014-01-31

    In the present study 13 Arcanobacterium pluranimalium strains isolated from various animal origin could successfully be identified phenotypically by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and genotypically by sequencing 16S rDNA and the pluranimaliumlysin encoding gene pla. The detection of mass spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the novel genotypic approach using gene pla might help to identify A. pluranimalium in future and might elucidate the role this species plays in infections of animals. PMID:24345409

  14. Comparison of the Microflex LT and Vitek MS Systems for Routine Identification of Bacteria by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Martiny, Delphine; Busson, Laurent; Wybo, Ingrid; El Haj, Rachid Ait; Dediste, Anne; Vandenberg, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the performance of three matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry systems: Microflex LT (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany), Vitek MS RUO (Axima Assurance-Saramis database; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and Vitek MS IVD (bioMérieux). A total of 1,129 isolates, including 1,003 routine isolates, 73 anaerobes, and 53 bacterial enteropathogens, were tested on the Microflex LT and Axima Assurance devices. The spectra were analyzed usin...

  15. Semiconductor Nanomaterials-Based Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI Mass Spectrometric Approaches to Proteome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Kailasa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs or nanoparticles (NPs exhibit very unusual physico-chemcial and optical properties. This review article introduces the applications of semiconductor nanomaterials (NMs in fluorescence spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS for biomolecule analysis. Due to their unique physico-chemical and optical properties, semiconductors NMs have created many new platforms for investigating biomolecular structures and information in modern biology. These semiconductor NMs served as effective fluorescent probes for sensing proteins and cells and acted as affinity or concentrating probes for enriching peptides, proteins and bacteria proteins prior to MALDI-MS analysis.

  16. Component-resolved diagnostic of cow’s milk allergy by immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis – matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Gasilova, Natalia; Girault, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) of cow’s milk allergy has been performed using immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (IACE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). First, total IgE quantification in the blood serum of a milk allergic patient by IACE-UV technique was developed using magnetic beads (MBs) coated with anti-human IgE antibodies (Abs) to perform the general allergy diagnosis. Then, the immunocomplex of anti-human IgE Abs with th...

  17. Species identification of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria: a comparison of two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Holm, Anette; Knudsen, Elisa;

    2011-01-01

    We compared two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems (Shimadzu/SARAMIS and Bruker) on a collection of consecutive clinically important anaerobic bacteria (n = 290). The Bruker system had more correct identifications to the species level...... (67.2% versus 49.0%), but also more incorrect identifications (7.9% versus 1.4%). The system databases need to be optimized to increase identification levels. However, MALDI-TOF MS in its present version seems to be a fast and inexpensive method for identification of most clinically important...... anaerobic bacteria....

  18. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Belén; Ruiz-Serrano, María Jesús; Marín, Mercedes; López Roa, Paula; Rodríguez-Créixems, Marta; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) isolates was evaluated in this study. Overall, 125 NTM isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and GenoType CM/AS. Identification by 16S rRNA/hsp65 sequencing was considered the gold standard. Agreements between MALDI-TOF and GenoType CM/AS with the reference method were, respectively, 94.4% and 84.0%. In 17 cases (13.6%), results provided by Gen...

  19. Using electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to characterize organic compounds separated on thin-layer chromatography plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yao; Huang, Min-Zong; Chang, Hui-Chiu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2007-11-15

    Electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization (ELDI), an ionization method that combines laser desorption and electrospray ionization (ESI), can be used under ambient conditions to characterize organic compounds (including FD&C dyes, amines, extracts of a drug tablet) separated in the central track on a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate coated with either reversed-phase C18 particles or normal-phase silica gel. After drying, the TLC plate was placed on an acrylic sample holder set in front of the sampling skimmer of an ion trap mass analyzer. The chemicals at the center of the TLC plate were analyzed by pushing the sample holder into the path of a laser beam with a syringe pump. The molecules in the sample spot were desorbed by continuously irradiating the surface of the TLC plate with a pulsed nitrogen laser. Then, the desorbed sample molecules entered an ESI plume where they were ionized through the reactions with the charged species (including protons, hydronium ions and their cluster ions, solvent ions, and charged droplets) generated by electrospraying a methanol/water solution. MS/MS analyses were also performed to further characterize the analytes. The detection limit of TLC/ELDI/MS is approximately 10(-6) M. This was evaluated by using FD&C red dye as the standard. A linear relationship was found for the calibration curve with the concentration of FD&C red dye ranged from 10(-3) to 10(-6) M. PMID:17929897

  20. Facile synthesis of gold@graphitized mesoporous silica nanocomposite and its surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization for time-of-flight mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guiju; Liu, Shengju; Peng, Jiaxi; Lv, Wenping; Wu, Ren'an

    2015-01-28

    In this work, a novel core-shell structured gold@graphitized mesoporous silica nanocomposite (Au@GMSN) was synthesized by in situ graphitization of template within the mesochannels of mesoporous silica shell on gold core and demonstrated to be promising nanomaterials for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (SALDI-TOF MS). The integration of the graphitized mesoporous silica with the gold nanoparticles endowed Au@GMSN with large surface areas of graphitic structure, good dispersibility, and strong ultraviolet (UV) absorption. Au@GMSN exerted the synergistic effect on the efficient detection of small-molecular-weight analytes including amino acids, neutral saccharides, peptides, and traditional Chinese medicine. The Au@GMSN-assisted laser desorption/ionization exhibited the following superiorities: high ionization efficiency, low fragmentation interference, favorable salt tolerance, and good reproducibility. Moreover, because of the large hydrophobic inner surface area of the graphitized mesoporous silica shell, the Au@GMSN demonstrated its promising capacity in the pre-enrichment of aromatic analytes prior to SALDI-TOF MS, which favored rapid and sensitive detection. PMID:25552293

  1. Exploring Biosignatures Associated with Thenardite by Geomatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (GALDI-FTICR-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Timothy R. McJunkin; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2008-10-01

    Geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in conjunction with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) has been employed to determine how effectively bio/organic molecules associated with the mineral thenardite (Na2SO4) can be detected. GALDI is based on the ability of the mineral host to assist desorption and ionization of bio/organic molecules without additional sample preparation. When glycine was mixed with thenardite, glycine was deprotonated to produce C2H4NO-2 at m/z 74.025. The combination of stearic acid with thenardite produced a complex cluster ion at m/z 390.258 in the negative mode, which was assigned a composition ofC18H39O7Na-. Anatural sample of thenardite from Searles Lake in California also produced a peak at m/z 390.260. The bio/organic signatures in both the laboratory-based and natural samples were heterogeneously dispersed as revealed by chemical imaging. The detection limits for the stearic acid and thenardite combination were estimated to be 3 parts per trillion or~7 zeptomoles (10-21) per laser spot. Attempts to improve the signal-to-noise ratio by co-adding FTICR-MS data predetermined to contain the biosignatures of interest revealed problems due to a lack of phase coherence between data sets.

  2. Fatal Nocardia farcinica Bacteremia Diagnosed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treated with Corticosteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Amedeo; Guercini, Francesco; Cardaccia, Angela; Furbetta, Leone; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Bistoni, Francesco; Mencacci, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia farcinica is a Gram-positive weakly acid-fast filamentous saprophytic bacterium, an uncommon cause of human infections, acquired usually through the respiratory tract, often life-threatening, and associated with different clinical presentations. Predisposing conditions for N. farcinica infections include hematologic malignancies, treatment with corticosteroids, and any other condition of immunosuppression. Clinical and microbiological diagnoses of N. farcinica infections are troublesome, and the isolation and identification of the etiologic agent are difficult and time-consuming processes. We describe a case of fatal disseminated infection in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome, treated with corticosteroids, in which N. farcinica has been isolated from blood culture and identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. The patient died after 18 days of hospitalization in spite of triple antimicrobial therapy. Nocardia farcinica infection should be suspected in patients with history of malignancy, under corticosteroid therapy, suffering from subacute pulmonary infection,and who do not respond to conventional antimicrobial therapy. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry can be a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of nocardiosis. PMID:23690786

  3. Fatal Nocardia farcinica Bacteremia Diagnosed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treated with Corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia farcinica is a Gram-positive weakly acid-fast filamentous saprophytic bacterium, an uncommon cause of human infections, acquired usually through the respiratory tract, often life-threatening, and associated with different clinical presentations. Predisposing conditions for N. farcinica infections include hematologic malignancies, treatment with corticosteroids, and any other condition of immunosuppression. Clinical and microbiological diagnoses of N. farcinica infections are troublesome, and the isolation and identification of the etiologic agent are difficult and time-consuming processes. We describe a case of fatal disseminated infection in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome, treated with corticosteroids, in which N. farcinica has been isolated from blood culture and identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. The patient died after 18 days of hospitalization in spite of triple antimicrobial therapy. Nocardia farcinica infection should be suspected in patients with history of malignancy, under corticosteroid therapy, suffering from subacute pulmonary infection,and who do not respondto conventional antimicrobial therapy. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry can be a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of nocardiosis.

  4. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging of complete rat sections using a triple quadrupole linear ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel; Stoeckli, Markus

    2009-03-01

    The fast imaging of complete rat sections by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization on a triple quadrupole linear ion trap is demonstrated. After administration of the pharmaceutical compound (MW=467.4 u) at 0.5 mg/kg the parent drug could be identified in full scan mode and in the enhanced product ion spectrum mode. Furthermore, the precursor ion mode could also be used to monitor the presence of the parent drug in the tissue section. In the selected reaction monitoring mode, using a laser frequency of 1000 Hz and a rastering speed of about 18 mm/s, a targeted representative image of drug distribution in a rat section could be obtained in less than 15 min. PMID:19206086

  5. Analysis of Antiretrovirals in Single Hair Strands for Evaluation of Drug Adherence with Infrared-Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elias P; Thompson, Corbin G; Bokhart, Mark T; Prince, Heather M A; Sykes, Craig; Muddiman, David C; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2016-01-19

    Adherence to a drug regimen can be a strong predictor of health outcomes, and validated measures of adherence are necessary at all stages of therapy from drug development to prescription. Many of the existing metrics of drug adherence (e.g., self-report, pill counts, blood monitoring) have limitations, and analysis of hair strands has recently emerged as an objective alternative. Traditional methods of hair analysis based on LC-MS/MS (segmenting strands at ≥1 cm length) are not capable of preserving a temporal record of drug intake at higher resolution than approximately 1 month. Here, we evaluated the detectability of HIV antiretrovirals (ARVs) in hair from a range of drug classes using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with 100 μm resolution. Infrared laser desorption of hair strands was shown to penetrate into the strand cortex, allowing direct measurement by MSI without analyte extraction. Using optimized desorption conditions, a linear correlation between IR-MALDESI ion abundance and LC-MS/MS response was observed for six common ARVs with estimated limits of detection less than or equal to 1.6 ng/mg hair. The distribution of efavirenz (EFV) was then monitored in a series of hair strands collected from HIV infected, virologically suppressed patients. Because of the role hair melanin plays in accumulation of basic drugs (like most ARVs), an MSI method to quantify the melanin biomarker pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) was evaluated as a means of normalizing drug response between patients to develop broadly applicable adherence criteria. PMID:26688545

  6. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detection and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past few years, we developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was successfully used to detect DNA fragments with the size larger than 3000 base pairs. It was also successfully used to sequence DNA with both enzymatic and chemical degradation methods to produce DNA ladders. We also developed MALDI with fragmentation for direct DNA sequencing for short DNA probes. Since laser desorption mass spectrometry for DNA detection has the advantages of fast speed and no need of labeling, it has a great potential for molecular diagnosis for disease and person identification by DNA fingerprinting. We applied laser desorption mass spectrometry to succeed in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and several other nerve degenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. We also succeeded in demonstrating DNA typing for forensic applications

  7. Small-scale, high-throughput method for plant N-glycan preparation for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kouki

    2011-06-15

    A simple, small-scale, and high-throughput method for preparation of plant N-glycans for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is described. This method entailed the extraction of soluble proteins, pepsin digestion, release of N-glycans by glycopeptidase A, and a three-step chromatographic purification process using cation exchange, anion exchange, and graphitized carbon. Homemade minicolumns using commercially available filter unit devices were used for N-glycan purification steps. All purification steps were designed to be easy. Using this method, N-glycans from 10-mg leaf samples of different plant species and only 2 μg of pure horseradish peroxidase were successfully purified. PMID:21320463

  8. Identification of Wheat Varieties Using Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry and an Artificial Neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Helle Aagaard; Kesmir, Can; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib

    1999-01-01

    A novel tool for variety identification of wheat (Triticum aestivum L,) has been developed: an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to classify the gliadin fraction analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). The robustness of this...... novel method with respect to various experimental parameters has been tested, The results can be summarised: (i) With this approach 97% of the wheat varieties can be classified correctly with a corresponding correlation coefficient of 1.0, (ii) The method is fast since the time of extracting gliadins...... from flour can be reduced to 20 min without significant decrease in overall performance, (iii) The storage of flour or extracts under standard conditions does not influence the classification ability (i.e. the generalisation ability) of the method, and (iv) The classification obtained is not influenced...

  9. Multicenter Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Study for Identification of Clinically Relevant Nocardia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Sara J; Drake, Steven K; Andrasko, Jennifer L; Henderson, Christina M; Kamboj, Kamal; Antonara, Stella; Mijares, Lilia; Conville, Patricia; Frank, Karen M; Harrington, Susan M; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Zelazny, Adrian M

    2016-05-01

    This multicenter study analyzed Nocardia spp., including extraction, spectral acquisition, Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification, and score interpretation, using three Nocardia libraries, the Bruker, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and The Ohio State University (OSU) libraries, and compared the results obtained by each center. A standardized study protocol, 150 Nocardia isolates, and NIH and OSU Nocardia MALDI-TOF MS libraries were distributed to three centers. Following standardized culture, extraction, and MALDI-TOF MS analysis, isolates were identified using score cutoffs of ≥2.0 for species/species complex-level identification and ≥1.8 for genus-level identification. Isolates yielding a score of clinical microbiology laboratories to utilize MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of clinically relevant Nocardia spp. and to implement MALDI-TOF MS libraries developed by single laboratories across institutions. PMID:26912758

  10. Classification of wheat varieties: Use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for varieties that can not be classified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and an artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Susanne; Nesic, Ljiljana; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing a gliadin extract by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI- TOF-MS) combined with an artificial neural network (ANN) is a suitable method for identification of wheat varieties. However, the ANN can not distinguish between all different wheat...

  11. Localization of an O-glycosylated site in the recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 produced in yeast and correction of the amino acid sequence using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of peptide mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Søgaard, M; Svensson, B;

    1994-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) of peptide mixtures was used to characterize recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1, produced in yeast. Three peptide mixtures were generated by cleavage with CNBr, digestion with endoproteinase Lys-C and Asp-N, respectively, and...

  12. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Gram-Positive, Catalase-Negative Cocci Not Belonging to the Streptococcus or Enterococcus Genus and Benefits of Database Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Dargis, Rimtas; Hammer, Monja;

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry with a Bruker Daltonics microflex LT system was applied to 90 well-characterized catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci not belonging to the streptococci or enterococci. Biotyper version 2.0.43.1 software was...

  13. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and nano-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric characterization of 1-cyano-2-substituted-benz[f]isoindole derivatives of peptides for fluorescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnemayr, K; Brückner, A; Körner, R;

    1999-01-01

    and emission wavelengths of 420 and 490 nm, respectively. After removal of unreacted compounds, the peptide conjugates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight and nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry. They readily form both [M...

  14. Structure determination of two conotoxins from Conus textile by a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and biochemical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalume, D E; Stenflo, J; Czerwiec, E;

    2000-01-01

    Two highly modified conotoxins from the mollusc Conus textile, epsilon-TxIX and Gla(1)-TxVI, were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and electrospray mass spectrometry and also by electrospray ionization tandem and triple mass spectrometry in combination with enzymatic...

  15. Bacteriophage cell lysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli for top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxin 1 & 2 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-light mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Analysis of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) often relies upon sample preparation methods that result in cell lysis, e.g. bead-beating. However, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can undergo bacteriophage...

  16. Top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxin 2 subtypes from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Tandem Time of Flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have analyzed 26 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains for Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) production using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and top-down proteomic analysis. STEC strains were induced to ...

  17. Carbon Dots and 9AA as a Binary Matrix for the Detection of Small Molecules by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongli; Gao, Dan; Bai, Hangrui; Liu, Hongxia; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-07-01

    Application of matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) to analyze small molecules have some limitations, due to the inhomogeneous analyte/matrix co-crystallization and interference of matrix-related peaks in low m/z region. In this work, carbon dots (CDs) were for the first time applied as a binary matrix with 9-Aminoacridine (9AA) in MALDI MS for small molecules analysis. By 9AA/CDs assisted desorption/ionization (D/I) process, a wide range of small molecules, including nucleosides, amino acids, oligosaccharides, peptides, and anticancer drugs with a higher sensitivity were demonstrated in the positive ion mode. A detection limit down to 5 fmol was achieved for cytidine. 9AA/CDs matrix also exhibited excellent reproducibility compared with 9AA matrix. Moreover, by exploring the ionization mechanism of the matrix, the influence factors might be attributed to the four parts: (1) the strong UV absorption of 9AA/CDs due to their π-conjugated network; (2) the carboxyl groups modified on the CDs surface act as protonation sites for proton transfer in positive ion mode; (3) the thin layer crystal of 9AA/CDs could reach a high surface temperature more easily and lower transfer energy for LDI MS; (4) CDs could serve as a matrix additive to suppress 9AA ionization. Furthermore, this matrix was allowed for the analysis of glucose as well as nucleosides in human urine, and the level of cytidine was quantified with a linear range of 0.05-5 mM (R2 > 0.99). Therefore, the 9AA/CDs matrix was proven to be an effective MALDI matrix for the analysis of small molecules with improved sensitivity and reproducibility. This work provides an alternative solution for small molecules detection that can be further used in complex samples analysis.

  18. Carbon Dots and 9AA as a Binary Matrix for the Detection of Small Molecules by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongli; Gao, Dan; Bai, Hangrui; Liu, Hongxia; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-07-01

    Application of matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) to analyze small molecules have some limitations, due to the inhomogeneous analyte/matrix co-crystallization and interference of matrix-related peaks in low m/z region. In this work, carbon dots (CDs) were for the first time applied as a binary matrix with 9-Aminoacridine (9AA) in MALDI MS for small molecules analysis. By 9AA/CDs assisted desorption/ionization (D/I) process, a wide range of small molecules, including nucleosides, amino acids, oligosaccharides, peptides, and anticancer drugs with a higher sensitivity were demonstrated in the positive ion mode. A detection limit down to 5 fmol was achieved for cytidine. 9AA/CDs matrix also exhibited excellent reproducibility compared with 9AA matrix. Moreover, by exploring the ionization mechanism of the matrix, the influence factors might be attributed to the four parts: (1) the strong UV absorption of 9AA/CDs due to their π-conjugated network; (2) the carboxyl groups modified on the CDs surface act as protonation sites for proton transfer in positive ion mode; (3) the thin layer crystal of 9AA/CDs could reach a high surface temperature more easily and lower transfer energy for LDI MS; (4) CDs could serve as a matrix additive to suppress 9AA ionization. Furthermore, this matrix was allowed for the analysis of glucose as well as nucleosides in human urine, and the level of cytidine was quantified with a linear range of 0.05-5 mM (R(2) > 0.99). Therefore, the 9AA/CDs matrix was proven to be an effective MALDI matrix for the analysis of small molecules with improved sensitivity and reproducibility. This work provides an alternative solution for small molecules detection that can be further used in complex samples analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27075876

  19. Carbon Dots and 9AA as a Binary Matrix for the Detection of Small Molecules by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongli; Gao, Dan; Bai, Hangrui; Liu, Hongxia; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2016-04-01

    Application of matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) to analyze small molecules have some limitations, due to the inhomogeneous analyte/matrix co-crystallization and interference of matrix-related peaks in low m/z region. In this work, carbon dots (CDs) were for the first time applied as a binary matrix with 9-Aminoacridine (9AA) in MALDI MS for small molecules analysis. By 9AA/CDs assisted desorption/ionization (D/I) process, a wide range of small molecules, including nucleosides, amino acids, oligosaccharides, peptides, and anticancer drugs with a higher sensitivity were demonstrated in the positive ion mode. A detection limit down to 5 fmol was achieved for cytidine. 9AA/CDs matrix also exhibited excellent reproducibility compared with 9AA matrix. Moreover, by exploring the ionization mechanism of the matrix, the influence factors might be attributed to the four parts: (1) the strong UV absorption of 9AA/CDs due to their π-conjugated network; (2) the carboxyl groups modified on the CDs surface act as protonation sites for proton transfer in positive ion mode; (3) the thin layer crystal of 9AA/CDs could reach a high surface temperature more easily and lower transfer energy for LDI MS; (4) CDs could serve as a matrix additive to suppress 9AA ionization. Furthermore, this matrix was allowed for the analysis of glucose as well as nucleosides in human urine, and the level of cytidine was quantified with a linear range of 0.05-5 mM (R2 > 0.99). Therefore, the 9AA/CDs matrix was proven to be an effective MALDI matrix for the analysis of small molecules with improved sensitivity and reproducibility. This work provides an alternative solution for small molecules detection that can be further used in complex samples analysis.

  20. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tissue profiling of secretoneurin in the nucleus accumbens shell from cocaine-sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Joachim D; Grey, Angus C; Wiggins, Armina; Schwacke, John H; Schey, Kevin L; Kalivas, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    Proteins in the nucleus accumbens mediate many cocaine-induced behaviors. In an effort to measure changes in nucleus accumbens protein expression as potential biomarkers for addiction, coronal tissue sections were obtained from rats that developed behavioral sensitization after daily administration of cocaine, or from daily saline-treated controls. The tissue sections were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) profiling and tissue imaging. For profiling experiments, brain sections were manually spotted with matrix over the nucleus accumbens, a brain region known to regulate cocaine sensitization. Summed mass spectra (10,000 laser shots, grid) were acquired and spectra were aligned to reference peaks. Using bioinformatics tools, eight spectral features were found to be altered by cocaine treatment. Based on additional sequencing experiments with MALDI tandem MS and database searches of measured masses, secretoneurin (m/z 3653) was identified as having an increased expression. In addition, the distribution of m/z 3653 in the nucleus accumbens was determined by MALDI tissue imaging, and the increased expression of its precursor protein, secretogranin II, was verified by immunoblotting. PMID:19918966

  1. Efficiency of Gas-Phase Ion Formation in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization with 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid as Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numbers of matrix- and analyte-derived ions and their sum in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) of a peptide were measured using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) as matrix. As for MALDI with α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid as matrix, the sum was independent of the peptide concentration in the solid sample, or was the same as that of pure DHB. This suggested that the matrix ion was the primary ion and that the peptide ion was generated by matrix-to-peptide proton transfer. Experimental ionization efficiencies of 10-5-10-4 for peptides and 10-8-10-7 for matrices are far smaller than 10.3-10.1 for peptides and 10-5-10-3 for matrices speculated by Hillenkamp and Karas. Number of gas-phase ions generated by MALDI was unaffected by laser wavelength or pulse energy. This suggests that the main role of photo-absorption in MALDI is not in generating ions via a multi-photon process but in ablating materials in a solid sample to the gas phase

  2. A method to detect metal–drug complexes and their interactions with pathogenic bacteria via graphene nanosheet assist laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Probe transition metals-complexes based on noncovalent functionalized graphene for MALDI-MS. ► Study interaction of transition metals complexes with pathogenic bacteria. ► Propose a new biosensor for two pathogenic bacteria. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to probe the interactions between transition metals of Fe(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) with a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), flufenamic acid (FF) using graphene as a matrix for Graphene assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (GALDI-MS). Metal–drug complexation was confirmed via UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, pH meter, and change in solution conductivity. The optimal molar ratios for these complexation interactions are stoichiometry 1:2 in both Cu(II) and Fe(II) complexes, and 1:3 in Fe(III) complexes at physiological pH (7.4). Metal complexation of the drug could enhance fluorescence for 20 fold which is due to the charge transfer reaction or increase rigidity of the drug. The main interaction between graphene and flufenamic acid is the Π–Π interaction which allows us to probe the metal–drug complexation. The GALDI-MS could sensitively detect the drug at m/z 281.0 Da (protonated molecule) with detection limit 2.5 pmol (1.0 μM) and complexation at m/z 661.0, 654.0 and 933.0 Da corresponding to [Cu(II)(FF)2(H2O)2 + H]+, [Fe(II)(FF)2(H2O)2 + H]+ and [Fe(III) (FF)3(H2O)2 + H]+, respectively (with limit of detection (LOD) 2.0 pmol (10.0 μM). Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) spectra show change in the protein profile of intact pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus). The change in the ionization ability (mainly proton affinity) of pathogenic bacteria may be due to the interactions between the bacteria with the drug (or its complexes). Shielding carboxylic group by metals and increase the hydrophilicity could enhance the biocompatibility of complexes toward the pathogenic

  3. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  4. N-Alkylpyridinium isotope quaternization for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometric analysis of cholesterol and fatty alcohols in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope-coded reagents have been developed for labeling of amino acids, phenols and fatty acids, but not for alcohols. In this work, a simple reaction based on direct N-alkylpyridinium isotope quaternization (NAPIQ) was developed for mild derivatization of cholesterol and fatty alcohols. Different from the conventional quaternary reagents with cations on themselves, two simple and charge-neutral reagents: pyridine and d5-pyridine directly attached N-cationic tag onto the target compounds in the presence of trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride (Tf2O) without tedious sample preparation. The derivatization completed in 5 min and achieved charge labeling of the target compounds, which significantly improved the detection limits of analytes by 103-folds in further analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS). The use of commercially available d0/d5-pyridine pairs facilitated isotope-coded chemical derivatization and avoided the use of isotope-labeled internal standards; the excess pyridine did not affect the signals of analytes. Utility of the NAPIQ method was examined in the identification of cholesterol and fatty alcohols in small amount of human hair sample (0/d5 pairs, especially when isotope-labeled internal standards are unavailable.

  5. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Based Microbial Identifications: Challenges and Scopes for Microbial Ecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Praveen; Prakash, Om; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based biotyping is an emerging technique for high-throughput and rapid microbial identification. Due to its relatively higher accuracy, comprehensive database of clinically important microorganisms and low-cost compared to other microbial identification methods, MALDI-TOF MS has started replacing existing practices prevalent in clinical diagnosis. However, applicability of MALDI-TOF MS in the area of microbial ecology research is still limited mainly due to the lack of data on non-clinical microorganisms. Intense research activities on cultivation of microbial diversity by conventional as well as by innovative and high-throughput methods has substantially increased the number of microbial species known today. This important area of research is in urgent need of rapid and reliable method(s) for characterization and de-replication of microorganisms from various ecosystems. MALDI-TOF MS based characterization, in our opinion, appears to be the most suitable technique for such studies. Reliability of MALDI-TOF MS based identification method depends mainly on accuracy and width of reference databases, which need continuous expansion and improvement. In this review, we propose a common strategy to generate MALDI-TOF MS spectral database and advocated its sharing, and also discuss the role of MALDI-TOF MS based high-throughput microbial identification in microbial ecology studies. PMID:27625644

  6. Direct Analysis of hCGβcf Glycosylation in Normal and Aberrant Pregnancy by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray K. Iles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG in clinical chemistry laboratories by specific immunoassay is well established. However, changes in glycosylation are not as easily assayed and yet alterations in hCG glycosylation is associated with abnormal pregnancy. hCGβ-core fragment (hCGβcf was isolated from the urine of women, pregnant with normal, molar and hyperemesis gravidarum pregnancies. Each sample was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS analysis following dithiothreitol (DTT reduction and fingerprint spectra of peptide hCGβ 6–40 were analyzed. Samples were variably glycosylated, where most structures were small, core and largely mono-antennary. Larger single bi-antennary and mixtures of larger mono-antennary and bi-antennary moieties were also observed in some samples. Larger glycoforms were more abundant in the abnormal pregnancies and tri-antennary carbohydrate moieties were only observed in the samples from molar and hyperemesis gravidarum pregnancies. Given that such spectral profiling differences may be characteristic, development of small sample preparation for mass spectral analysis of hCG may lead to a simpler and faster approach to glycostructural analysis and potentially a novel clinical diagnostic test.

  7. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Direct in-situ Analysis of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid and accurate identification of biological agents is a critical step in the case of bio-terror and biological warfare attacks. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of microorganisms. In this study, we describe a method for the rapid and accurate discrimination of Bacillus anthracis spores using MALDI-TOF MS. Our direct in-situ analysis of MALDI-TOF MS does not involve subsequent high-resolution mass analyses and sample preparation steps. This method allowed the detection of species-specific biomarkers from each Bacillus spores. Especially, B. anthracis spores had specific biomarker peaks at 2503, 3089, 3376, 6684, 6698, 6753, and 6840 m/z. Cluster and PCA analyses of the mass spectra of Bacillus spores revealed distinctively separated clusters and within-groups similarity. Therefore, we believe that this method is effective in the real-time identification of biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis as well as other microorganisms in the field

  8. Detection of bacteria from biological mixtures using immunomagnetic separation combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, A.J.; Basile, F.; Furlong, E.; Voorhees, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid method for identifying specific bacteria from complex biological mixtures using immunomagnetic separation coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been developed. The technique employs commercially available magnetic beads coated with polycolonal antibodies raised against specific bacteria and whole cell analysis by MALDI-MS. A suspension of a bacterial mixture is mixed with the immunomagnetic beads specific for the target microorganism. After a short incubation period (20 mins) the bacteria captured by the beads are washed, resuspended in deionized H2O and directly applied onto a MALDI probe. Liquid suspensions containing bacterial mixtures can be screened within 1 h total analysis time. Positive tests result in the production of a fingerprint mass spectrum primarily consisting of protein biomarkers characteristic of the targeted microorganism. Using this procedure, Salmonella choleraesuis was isolated and detected from standard bacterial mixtures and spiked samples of river water, human urine, and chicken blood. Copyright ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Rapid identification and typing of Yersinia pestis and other Yersinia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drancourt Michel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. Results When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2 and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11 were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. Conclusion These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates.

  10. Nanomanipulation-Coupled Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization-Direct Organelle Mass Spectrometry: A Technique for the Detailed Analysis of Single Organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Mandy S.; Sturtevant, Drew; Chapman, Kent D.; Verbeck, Guido F.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel technique combining precise organelle microextraction with deposition and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for a rapid, minimally invasive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of single organelles from living cells. A dual-positioner nanomanipulator workstation was utilized for both extraction of organelle content and precise co-deposition of analyte and matrix solution for MALDI-direct organelle mass spectrometry (DOMS) analysis. Here, the triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of single lipid droplets from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were acquired and results validated with nanoelectrospray ionization (NSI) MS. The results demonstrate the utility of the MALDI-DOMS technique as it enabled longer mass analysis time, higher ionization efficiency, MS imaging of the co-deposited spot, and subsequent MS/MS capabilities of localized lipid content in comparison to NSI-DOMS. This method provides selective organellar resolution, which complements current biochemical analyses and prompts for subsequent subcellular studies to be performed where limited samples and analyte volume are of concern.

  11. Individual variability in Tityus serrulatus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) venom elicited by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Marco Almeida, Flavia; de Lima, Maria Elena; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie France; Bougis, Pierre E

    2003-01-01

    Venom variability in specimens of Tityus serrulatus scorpion was assessed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) analyses. An expanded time lag venom extraction protocol was carried out using ten scorpions to study individual variations that might occur due to different rates in protein expression and/or processing. The first extraction of venom was made from the animals after 20 days of starvation, which allowed the venom gland to be filled up. The second extraction event was carried out 24 hours after the first one. The third was 8 days after the first extraction. By means of MALDI-TOF analyses, important variations were observed in venoms of a single specimen extracted at different times, especially in latter extraction events. These variations are most probably related to dynamics in cell gland production. Since T. serrulatus is a parthenogenetic species, sexual variations are naturally excluded and we did not expect intra-specific variations, which was confirmed. Knowledge of individual venom variability is extremely important to avoid misunderstandings in the use of venom proteomic analysis as a taxonomic tool. PMID:12590389

  12. Method development aspects for the quantitation of pharmaceutical compounds in human plasma with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization source in the multiple reaction monitoring mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Peter; Grivet, Chantal; Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    The present work investigates various method development aspects for the quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in human plasma using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MALDI-MRM). Talinolol was selected as a model analyte. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and protein precipitation were evaluated regarding sensitivity and throughput for the MALDI-MRM technique and its applicability without and with chromatographic separation. Compared to classical electrospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) method development, with MALDI-MRM the tuning of the analyte in single MS mode is more challenging due to interfering matrix background ions. An approach is proposed using background subtraction. With LLE and using a 200 microL human plasma aliquot acceptable precision and accuracy could be obtained in the range of 1 to 1000 ng/mL without any LC separation. Approximately 3 s were required for one analysis. A full calibration curve and its quality control samples (20 samples) can be analyzed within 1 min. Combining LC with the MALDI analysis allowed improving the linearity down to 50 pg/mL, while reducing the throughput potential only by two-fold. Matrix effects are still a significant issue with MALDI but can be monitored in a similar way to that used for LC/ESI-MS analysis. PMID:17295425

  13. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ye Ru; CHEN Qian; CUI Sheng Hui; LI Feng Qin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) approach to identify Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and differentiate methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Methods A total of 100 S. aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens and farm workers were collected and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. And data obtained were interpreted with biotyper software. Results Ninety-two strains were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as S. aureus at a level of secure genus and probable species, and 4 strains were identified at probable genus after their cultivation, spectral collection and data preprocessing. One strain was identified as S. aureus with lower score. It was revealed that identification of S. aureus by MALDI-TOF-MS was highly correlated with typing by biochemical and serological methods with an accuracy as high as 97%. The biotyper cluster analysis showed that 100 isolates were divided into 2 types at the distance level of 400. Higher peak intensity in the mass of both 3784 Da and 5700 Da was observed in MRSA, whereas that was absent from MSSA. Conclusion MALDI-TOF-MS is considered as a simple, rapid and highly reproducible technique with high-throughput and accuracy for the identification of S. aureus and it can reliably differentiate MRSA from MSSA.

  14. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Based Microbial Identifications: Challenges and Scopes for Microbial Ecologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Praveen; Prakash, Om; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based biotyping is an emerging technique for high-throughput and rapid microbial identification. Due to its relatively higher accuracy, comprehensive database of clinically important microorganisms and low-cost compared to other microbial identification methods, MALDI-TOF MS has started replacing existing practices prevalent in clinical diagnosis. However, applicability of MALDI-TOF MS in the area of microbial ecology research is still limited mainly due to the lack of data on non-clinical microorganisms. Intense research activities on cultivation of microbial diversity by conventional as well as by innovative and high-throughput methods has substantially increased the number of microbial species known today. This important area of research is in urgent need of rapid and reliable method(s) for characterization and de-replication of microorganisms from various ecosystems. MALDI-TOF MS based characterization, in our opinion, appears to be the most suitable technique for such studies. Reliability of MALDI-TOF MS based identification method depends mainly on accuracy and width of reference databases, which need continuous expansion and improvement. In this review, we propose a common strategy to generate MALDI-TOF MS spectral database and advocated its sharing, and also discuss the role of MALDI-TOF MS based high-throughput microbial identification in microbial ecology studies.

  15. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Can Precisely Discriminate the Lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and Species of Listeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Takahashi, Hajime; Tamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The genetic lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of the genus Listeria are correlated with pathogenesis in humans. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a prevailing tool for rapid and reliable microbial identification, the precise discrimination of Listeria species and lineages remains a crucial issue in clinical settings and for food safety. In this study, we constructed an accurate and reliable MS database to discriminate the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the species of Listeria (L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. grayi, and L. rocourtiae) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) proteotyping method, which relies on both genetic information (genomics) and observed MS peaks in MALDI-TOF MS (proteomics). The specific set of eight biomarkers (ribosomal proteins L24, L6, L18, L15, S11, S9, L31 type B, and S16) yielded characteristic MS patterns for the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the different species of Listeria, and led to the construction of a MS database that was successful in discriminating between these organisms in MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting analysis followed by advanced proteotyping software Strain Solution analysis. We also confirmed the constructed database on the proteotyping software Strain Solution by using 23 Listeria strains collected from natural sources. PMID:27442502

  16. Quantification of Saccharides in Honey Samples Through Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using HgTe Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Wei; Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2014-07-01

    Quantification of monosaccharides and disaccharides in five honey samples through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using HgTe nanostructures as the matrix and sucralose as an internal standard has been demonstrated. Under optimal conditions (1× HgTe nanostructure, 0.2 mM ammonium citrate at pH 9.0), the SALDI-MS approach allows detection of fructose and maltose at the concentrations down to 15 and 10 μM, respectively. Without conducting tedious sample pretreatment and separation, the SALDI-MS approach allows determination of the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in honey samples within 30 min, with reproducibility (relative standard deviation <15%). Unlike only sodium adducts of standard saccharides detected, sodium adducts and potassium adducts with differential amounts have been found among various samples, showing different amounts of sodium and potassium ions in the honey samples. The SALDI-MS data reveal that the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in various honey samples are dependent on their nectar sources. In addition to the abundant amounts of monosaccharides and disaccharides, oligosaccharides in m/z range of 650 - 2700 are only detected in pomelo honey. Having advantages of simplicity, rapidity, and reproducibility, this SALDI-MS holds great potential for the analysis of honey samples.

  17. Investigation of colloidal graphite as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry of low molecular weight analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alexander D; Conway, Ulric; Arthur, Christopher J; Gates, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of low molecular weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry is problematic due to the interference and suppression of analyte ionisation by the matrices typically employed - which are themselves low molecular weight compounds. The application of colloidal graphite is demonstrated here as an easy to use matrix that can promote the ionisation of a wide range of analytes including low molecular weight organic compounds, complex natural products and inorganic complexes. Analyte ionisation with colloidal graphite is compared with traditional organic matrices along with various other sources of graphite (e.g. graphite rods and charcoal pencils). Factors such as ease of application, spectra reproducibility, spot longevity, spot-to-spot reproducibility and spot homogeneity (through single spot imaging) are explored. For some analytes, considerable matrix suppression effects are observed resulting in spectra completely devoid of matrix ions. We also report the observation of radical molecular ions [M(-●) ] in the negative ion mode, particularly with some aromatic analytes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27434807

  18. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for molecular analysis of organic compounds in medicines, tea, and coffee

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Renqi

    2013-01-01

    Natural occurring organic compounds from food, natural organic matter, as well as metabolic products have received intense attention in current chemical and biological studies. Examination of unknown compounds in complex sample matrices is hampered by the limited choices for data readout and molecular elucidation. Herein, we report a generic method of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the rapid characterization of ingredients in pharmaceutical compounds, tea, and coffee. The analytes were first fractionated using a cationic HILIC column prior to MALDI-MS analyses. It was found that the retention times of a compound arising from different samples were consistent under the same conditions. Accordingly, molecules can be readily characterized by both the mass and chromatographic retention time. The retention behaviors of acidic and basic compounds on the cationic HILIC column were found to be significantly influenced by the pH of mobile phases, whereas neutral compounds depicted a constant retention time at different pH. The general HILIC-MALDI-MS method is feasible for fast screening of naturally occurring organic compounds. A series of homologs can be determined if they have the same retention behavior. Their structural features can be elucidated by considering their mass differences and hydrophilic properties as determined by HILIC chromatogram. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Peptidylation for the determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng; Cen, Si-Ying; He, Huan; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-05-23

    Determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been a great challenge in the analytical research field. Here we developed a universal peptide-based derivatization (peptidylation) strategy for the sensitive analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds by MALDI-TOF-MS. Upon peptidylation, the molecular weights of target analytes increase, thus avoiding serious matrix ion interference in the low-molecular-weight region in MALDI-TOF-MS. Since peptides typically exhibit good signal response during MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, peptidylation endows high detection sensitivities of low-molecular-weight analytes. As a proof-of-concept, we analyzed low-molecular-weight compounds of aldehydes and thiols by the developed peptidylation strategy. Our results showed that aldehydes and thiols can be readily determined upon peptidylation, thus realizing the sensitive and efficient determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by MALDI-TOF-MS. Moreover, target analytes also can be unambiguously detected in biological samples using the peptidylation strategy. The established peptidylation strategy is a universal strategy and can be extended to the sensitive analysis of various low-molecular-weight compounds by MALDI-TOF-MS, which may be potentially used in areas such as metabolomics. PMID:27109889

  20. Interactions between sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles and peptides during matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) of proteolytic digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rama; Green-Church, Kari B; Limbach, Patrick A

    2005-09-01

    Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is routinely used as a denaturing agent for proteins, its presence is highly detrimental on the analysis of peptides and proteins by mass spectrometry. It has been found, however, that when SDS is present in concentrations near to or above its critical micelle concentration (CMC), improvements in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis of peptide mixtures or hydrophobic proteins are obtained. To elucidate possible explanations for such improvements, here we have undertaken a study examining the effect of SDS micelles on peptide mixtures. Fluorescently labeled peptides were used as probes to determine whether hydrophobic or hydrophilic peptides interact exclusively with SDS micelles. In addition, four globular proteins were digested with trypsin and then various amounts of SDS were added before MALDI mass spectrometry. To examine the role of mixture complexity on the mass spectral results, the tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin was also fractionated according to hydrophobicity before SDS treatment. Results from these experiments suggest that micelle-peptide interactions increase peptide-matrix cocrystallization irrespective of analyte hydrophobicity. As these studies were performed using the dried-droplet method of sample spotting, the presence of micelles is also hypothesized to reduce Marangoni effects during the crystallization process. PMID:16006141

  1. Enzyme-Coupled Nanoparticles-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Searching for Low-Mass Inhibitors of Enzymes in Complex Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-04-01

    In this report, enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) were shown to be an effective affinity-based tool for finding specific interactions between enzymatic targets and the low-mass molecules in complex mixtures using classic MALDI-TOF apparatus. EMPs used in this work act as nonorganic matrix enabling ionization of small molecules without any interference in the low-mass range (enzyme-coupled nanoparticles-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, ENALDI MS) and simultaneously carry the superficial specific binding sites to capture inhibitors present in a studied mixture. We evaluated ENALDI approach in two complementary variations: `ion fading' (IF-ENALDI), based on superficial adsorption of inhibitors and `ion hunting' (IH-ENALDI), based on selective pre-concentration of inhibitors. IF-ENALDI was applied for two sets of enzyme-inhibitor pairs: tyrosinase-glabridin and trypsin-leupeptin and for the real plant sample: Sparrmannia discolor leaf and stem methanol extract. The efficacy of IH-ENALDI was shown for the pair of trypsin-leupeptin. Both ENALDI approaches pose an alternative for bioassay-guided fractionation, the common method for finding inhibitors in the complex mixtures.

  2. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Can Precisely Discriminate the Lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and Species of Listeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Takahashi, Hajime; Tamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The genetic lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of the genus Listeria are correlated with pathogenesis in humans. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a prevailing tool for rapid and reliable microbial identification, the precise discrimination of Listeria species and lineages remains a crucial issue in clinical settings and for food safety. In this study, we constructed an accurate and reliable MS database to discriminate the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the species of Listeria (L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. grayi, and L. rocourtiae) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) proteotyping method, which relies on both genetic information (genomics) and observed MS peaks in MALDI-TOF MS (proteomics). The specific set of eight biomarkers (ribosomal proteins L24, L6, L18, L15, S11, S9, L31 type B, and S16) yielded characteristic MS patterns for the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the different species of Listeria, and led to the construction of a MS database that was successful in discriminating between these organisms in MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting analysis followed by advanced proteotyping software Strain Solution analysis. We also confirmed the constructed database on the proteotyping software Strain Solution by using 23 Listeria strains collected from natural sources. PMID:27442502

  3. Preliminary study for rapid determination of phycotoxins in microalgae whole cells using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José Mariano

    2011-12-15

    Rapid and sensitive methods for identification of several phycotoxins produced by microalgae species such as yessotoxins (YTXs) for Protoceratium reticulatum, okadaic acid (OA) and pectenotoxins (PTXs) for Prorocentrum spp. and Dinophysis spp., Palytoxins (PLTXs) for Ostreopsis spp., ciguatoxins (CTXs) for Gambierdiscus spp. or domoic acid (DA) for Pseudo-nitzschia spp. are of great importance to the shellfish and fish industry. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) was used to detect several phycotoxins in whole cells of some microalgae which are known as toxin producers. To achieve an appropriate MALDI matrix and a sample preparation method, several matrices and solvent mixtures were tested. The most appropriate matrix system for toxin detection was obtained with 10 µg μL(-1) of DHB in 0.1% TFA/ACN (3:7, v/v) by mixing the intact cells with the matrix solution directly on the MALDI target (dried-droplet technique). Toxin detection by this procedure is much faster than current procedures based on solvent extraction and chromatographic separation. This method allowed the rapid detection of main phycotoxins in some dinoflagellate cells of genus Ostreopsis, Prorocentrum, Protoceratium, Gambierdiscus, Dinophysis and diatoms from Pseudo-nitzschia genus. PMID:22095512

  4. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based VITEK MS System for the Identification of Acinetobacter Species from Blood Cultures: Comparison with VITEK 2 and MicroScan Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Yeob; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2014-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter species are the leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI), but their correct identification is challenging. We evaluated the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based VITEK MS (bioMérieux, France), and two automated systems, VITEK 2 (bioMérieux) and MicroScan (Siemens, USA) for identification of Acinetobacter BSI isolates. Methods A total of 187 BSI isolates recovered at a university hospital in Korea between ...

  5. Abattoirs as Non-Hospital Source of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producers: Confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test and Characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ikegbunam, Moses Nkechukwu; Anagu, Linda Onyeka; Ifeanyi R Iroha; Ejikeugwu, Chika Ebiye; Esimone, Charles Okey

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms in abattoirs, a non-hospital community was investigated. The presence of ESBL-producing phenotypes was confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Out of the 99 isolates screened for ESBL, 28 (28.3%) were confirmed positive. The positive isolates were characterised by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of flight Mass Spectrometry. 50% of the isolates were Pseudomonas spp., the ...

  6. Capillary isoelectric focusing of probiotic bacteria from cow's milk in tapered fused silica capillary with off-line matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Karásek, Pavel; Šalplachta, Jiří; Růžička, F.; Vykydalová, Marie; Kubesová, Anna; Dráb, V.; Roth, Michal; Šlais, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 788, JUL (2013), s. 193-199. ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry * lactic acid bacteria Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  7. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants in Whole Cells and Culture Filtrates of Bacillus subtilis C-1 Isolated from Petroleum Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Vater, Joachim; Kablitz, Bärbel; Wilde, Christopher; Franke, Peter; Mehta, Neena; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2002-01-01

    An innovative method was developed for rapid sensitive detection and efficient structural characterization of lipopeptide biosurfactants by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry by using whole microbial cells and crude culture filtrates as targets in combination with surface tension measurements. This was done for a bacterial strain that was isolated from petroleum sludge and efficiently produces biosurfactants. This organism was identified b...

  8. Quantum theory of laser-stimulated desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, M. S.; George, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    A quantum theory of laser-stimulated desorption (LSDE) is presented and critically analyzed. It is shown how LSDE depends on laser-pulse characteristics and surface-lattice dynamics. Predictions of the theory for a Debye model of the lattice dynamics are compared to recent experimental results.

  9. Oral brush biopsy analysis by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry profiling--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmerbach, Torsten W; Maurer, Katja; Janke, Sebastian; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Eschrich, Klaus; Bertolini, Julia; Hofmann, Herbert; Rupf, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) often present as advanced tumours requiring aggressive local and regional therapy and result in significant functional impairment. The objective is to develop pre-symptomatic screening detection of OSCC by a brush biopsy method which is less invasive than the conventional biopsy for histology. Given the molecular heterogeneity of oral cancer, it is unlikely that even a panel of tumour markers would provide accurate diagnosis. Therefore, approaches such as the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption/ionisation-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) allow several biomarkers or peptide profile patterns to be simultaneously assessed. Brush biopsies from 27 patients with histology-proven OSCCs plus 40 biopsies from 10 healthy controls were collected. MALDI-TOF-MS profiling was performed and additional statistical analysis of the data was used to classify the disease status according to the biological behaviour of the lesion. For classification a support vector machine algorithm was trained using spectra of brush biopsy samples to distinguish healthy control patients from patients with histology-proven OSCC. MALDI-TOF-MS was able to distinguish between healthy patients and OSCC patients with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 93%. In summary, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with sophisticated bioinformatic methods can distinguish OSCC patients from non-cancer controls with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Further improvement and validation of this approach is necessary to determine its feasibility to assist the pre-symptomatic detection of head and neck cancer screening in routine daily practice. PMID:21354855

  10. Humic acids as both matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Xu, Jing; Yin, Jia; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-19

    In the present study, humic acids (HAs) were applied as both a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and an adsorbent of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) for the first time. As natural macromolecule compounds, HAs are inherently highly functionalized and contain laser energy absorbing-transferring aromatic structures. This special molecular structure made HAs a good candidate for use as a MALDI matrix in small molecule analysis. At the same time, due to its good adsorption ability, HAs was prepared as MSPE adsorbent via a simple co-mixing method, in which the commercially available HAs were directly mixed with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a mortar and grinded evenly and completely. In this process, MNPs were physically wrapped and adhered to tiny HAs leading to the formation of magnetic HAs (MHAs). To verify the bi-function of the MHAs, Rhodamine B (RdB) was chosen as model compound. Our results show that the combination of MHAs-based MSPE and MALDI-TOF-MS can provide a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of RdB in chili oil. The whole analytical procedure could be completed within 30 min for simultaneous determination of more than 20 samples, and the limit of quantitation for RdB was found to be 0.02 μg/g. The recoveries in chili oil were in the range 73.8-81.5% with the RSDs less than 21.3% (intraday) and 20.3% (interday). The proposed strategy has potential applications for high-throughput analysis of small molecules in complex samples. PMID:26343436

  11. 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene/9-aminoacridine: A new binary matrix for lipid fingerprinting of intact bacteria by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •New binary matrix for less ionizable lipid analysis with no interfering peaks. •Combined MALDI and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. •Fast lipid fingerprint on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by MALDI MS. •Mapping of phospholipids by XPS imaging. •Very fast membrane lipid extraction procedure. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of a novel binary matrix composed of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN; proton sponge) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) for the direct lipid analysis of whole bacterial cells by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is demonstrated. Deprotonated analyte signals nearly free of matrix-related ions were observed in negative ion mode. The effect of the most important factors (laser energy, pulse voltage, DMAN/9AA ratio, analyte/matrix ratio) was investigated using a Box–Behnken response surface design followed by multi-response optimization in order to simultaneously maximize signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and resolution. The chemical surface composition of single or mixed matrices was explored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, XPS imaging was used to map the spatial distribution of a model phospholipid in single or binary matrices. The DMAN/9AA binary matrix was then successfully applied to the analysis of intact Gram positive (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) or Gram negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms. About fifty major membrane components (free fatty acids, mono-, di- and tri-glycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids and cardiolipins) were quickly and easily detected over a mass range spanning from ca. 200 to ca. 1600 m/z. Moreover, mass spectra with improved S/N ratio (compared to single matrices), reduced chemical noise and no formation of matrix-clusters were invariably obtained demonstrating the potential of this binary matrix to improve sensitivity

  12. Ultra-fast quantitation of saquinavir in human plasma by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and selected reaction monitoring mode detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michel; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2008-09-01

    We present herein an ultra-fast quantitative assay for the quantitation of saquinavir in human plasma, without prior chromatographic separation, with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization using the selected reaction monitoring quantitation mode (MALDI-SRM/MS). The method was found to be linear from 5 to 10,000 ng/ml using pentadeuterated saquinavir (SQV-d5) as an internal standard, and from 5 to 1000 ng/ml using reserpine as internal standard (IS). Accuracy and precision were in the range of 101-108%, 3.9-11% with SQV-d5 and in the range 93-108%, 3.5-15% with reserpine. Plasma samples (250 microl) were extracted with a mixture of ethyl acetate/hexane. MALDI spotting of the extract was automated using electrodeposition and the dried droplet method using alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) as matrix. A 96 spots MALDI plate was prepared within 20 min in a fully unattended manner. Each sample was spotted four times and quantitation was based on the average of their analyte/IS area ratio. Samples were analyzed on a triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QqQ(LIT)) equipped with a high repetition laser source (1000 Hz). The analysis time of one sample was approximately 6 s, therefore 96 samples could be analyzed in less than 10 min. With liquid-liquid extraction sample preparation no significant matrix effects were observed. Moreover, the assay showed sufficient selectivity for samples to be analyzed at the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) in the presence of other antiretroviral drugs, without prior chromatographic steps. In parallel, to assess the selectivity of the assay with real samples, a liquid chromatography (LC)-SRM/MS method was developed and a cross validation with clinical samples was successfully performed. PMID:18657486

  13. Sinapinic acid-directed synthesis of gold nanoclusters and their application to quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Heng; Yu, Cheng-Ju; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Core etching of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into smaller-sized clusters is a classic method for fabricating gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). The top down-based synthesis of AuNCs includes two steps: (i) reducing the Au3+ precursor solution to generate AuNPs in the presence of protecting ligands and (ii) core etching of the formed AuNPs into the AuNCs via ligand exchange. For the first time, this paper describes a one-step approach for preparing AuNCs using a top down approach. The sinapinic acid (SA)-induced formation of the AuNCs involved a three-step reaction process. First, large AuNPs (>200 nm) were quickly formed after mixing SA and the Au3+ precursor solution. Second, excess SA molecules self-assembled on the NP surface, and large AuNPs were etched to small AuNPs via electrostatic repulsion between the neighboring SA molecules. Finally, SA-induced core etching of the AuNPs resulted in the formation of the AuNCs within 70 min. Furthermore, we showed that the presence of the AuNCs in SA was capable of suppressing crystal growth and eliminating the coffee-ring effect. Thus, proteins can be successfully quantified using the SA-AuNCs as matrices for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared with using SA as matrices, the SA-AuNCs offered substantial advantages for improving shot-to-shot reproducibility and enhancing the ionization efficiency of proteins.Core etching of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into smaller-sized clusters is a classic method for fabricating gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). The top down-based synthesis of AuNCs includes two steps: (i) reducing the Au3+ precursor solution to generate AuNPs in the presence of protecting ligands and (ii) core etching of the formed AuNPs into the AuNCs via ligand exchange. For the first time, this paper describes a one-step approach for preparing AuNCs using a top down approach. The sinapinic acid (SA)-induced formation of the AuNCs involved a three-step reaction process. First, large

  14. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using the VITEK MS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S S; Sercia, L; Branda, J A; Burnham, C-A D; Bythrow, M; Ferraro, M J; Garner, O B; Ginocchio, C C; Jennemann, R; Lewinski, M A; Manji, R; Mochon, A B; Rychert, J A; Westblade, L F; Procop, G W

    2013-12-01

    This multicenter study evaluated the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry identifications from the VITEK MS system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) for Enterobacteriaceae typically encountered in the clinical laboratory. Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n = 965) representing 17 genera and 40 species were analyzed on the VITEK MS system (database v2.0), in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Colony growth (≤72 h) was applied directly to the target slide. Matrix solution (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) was added and allowed to dry before mass spectrometry analysis. On the basis of the confidence level, the VITEK MS system provided a species, genus only, or no identification for each isolate. The accuracy of the mass spectrometric identification was compared to 16S rRNA gene sequencing performed at MIDI Labs (Newark, DE). Supplemental phenotypic testing was performed at bioMérieux when necessary. The VITEK MS result agreed with the reference method identification for 96.7% of the 965 isolates tested, with 83.8% correct to the species level and 12.8% limited to a genus-level identification. There was no identification for 1.7% of the isolates. The VITEK MS system misidentified 7 isolates (0.7 %) as different genera. Three Pantoea agglomerans isolates were misidentified as Enterobacter spp. and single isolates of Enterobacter cancerogenus, Escherichia hermannii, Hafnia alvei, and Raoultella ornithinolytica were misidentified as Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Obesumbacterium proteus, and Enterobacter aerogenes, respectively. Eight isolates (0.8 %) were misidentified as a different species in the correct genus. The VITEK MS system provides reliable mass spectrometric identifications for Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:23818163

  15. Direct identification of bacteria in positive blood culture bottles by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

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    Bernard La Scola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With long delays observed between sampling and availability of results, the usefulness of blood cultures in the context of emergency infectious diseases has recently been questioned. Among methods that allow quicker bacterial identification from growing colonies, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was demonstrated to accurately identify bacteria routinely isolated in a clinical biology laboratory. In order to speed up the identification process, in the present work we attempted bacterial identification directly from blood culture bottles detected positive by the automate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prospectively analysed routine MALDI-TOF identification of bacteria detected in blood culture by two different protocols involving successive centrifugations and then lysis by trifluoroacetic acid or formic acid. Of the 562 blood culture broths detected as positive by the automate and containing one bacterial species, 370 (66% were correctly identified. Changing the protocol from trifluoroacetic acid to formic acid improved identification of Staphylococci, and overall correct identification increased from 59% to 76%. Lack of identification was observed mostly with viridans streptococci, and only one false positive was observed. In the 22 positive blood culture broths that contained two or more different species, only one of the species was identified in 18 samples, no species were identified in two samples and false species identifications were obtained in two cases. The positive predictive value of bacterial identification using this procedure was 99.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MALDI-TOF MS is an efficient method for direct routine identification of bacterial isolates in blood culture, with the exception of polymicrobial samples and viridans streptococci. It may replace routine identification performed on colonies, provided improvement for the specificity of blood culture

  16. Comparison of Vitek Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Versus Conventional Methods in Candida Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeli, Sema Aşkın; Dündar, Devrim; Tamer, Gülden Sönmez

    2016-02-01

    Candida species are generally identified by conventional methods such as germ tube or morphological appearance on corn meal agar, biochemical methods using API kits and molecular biological methods. Alternative to these methods, rapid and accurate identification methods of microorganisms called matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDİ-TOF MS) has recently been described. In this study, Candida identification results by API Candida kit, API 20C AUX kit and identifications on corn meal agar (CMA) are compared with the results obtained on Vitek-MS. All results were confirmed by sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. Totally, 97 Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, CMA, API and Vitek-MS. Vitek-MS results were compatible with 74.2 % of API 20C AUX and 81.4 % of CMA results. The difference between the results of API Candida and API 20C AUX was detected. The ratio of discrepancy between Vitek-MS and API 20C AUX was 25.8 %. Candida species mostly identified as C. famata or C. tropicalis by and not compatible with API kits were identified as C. albicans by Vitek-MS. Sixteen Candida species having discrepant results with Vitek-MS, API or CMA were randomly chosen, and ITS sequence analysis was performed. The results of sequencing were compatible 56.2 % with API 20C AUX, 50 % with CMA and 93.7 % with Vitek-MS. When compared with conventional identification methods, MS results are more reliable and rapid for Candida identification. MS system may be used as routine identification method in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:26400863

  17. Localization of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng with different age by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hangrui; Wang, Shujuan; Liu, Jianjun; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-07-15

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. (P. ginseng) is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines, with ginsenosides as its main bioactive components. Because different ginsenosides have varied pharmacological effects, extraction and separation of ginsenosides are usually required for the investigation of pharmacological effects of different ginsenosides. However, the contents of ginsenosides vary with the ages and tissues of P. ginseng root. In this research, an efficient method to explore the distribution of ginsenosides and differentiate P. ginseng roots with different ages was developed based on matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-TOF-MSI). After a simple sample preparation, there were 18 peaks corresponding to 31 ginsenosides with distinct localization in the mass range of m/z 700-1400 identified by MALDI-TOF-MSI and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. All the three types of ginsenosides were successfully detected and visualized in images, which could be correlated with anatomical features. The P. ginseng at the ages of 2, 4 and 6 could be differentiated finely through the principal component analysis of data collected from the cork based on the ion images but not data from the whole tissue. The experimental result implies that the established method for the direct analysis of metabolites in plant tissues has high potential for the rapid identification of metabolites and analysis of their localizations in medicinal herbs. Furthermore, this technique also provides valuable information for the component-specific extraction and pharmacological research of herbs. PMID:26520809

  18. Coumarins as new matrices for matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric analysis of hydrophobic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coumarins were used as new MALDI matrices. • Coumarins were used for MALDI-FT ICR MS detection of hydrophobic compounds. • DCA had improvement in detection sensitivity, stability, selectivity and reproducibility. • DCA was applied to sterols detection in yeast cells. - Abstract: Hydrophobic compounds with hydroxyl, aldehyde or ketone groups are generally difficult to detect using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), because these compounds have low proton affinity and are poorly ionized by MALDI. Herein, coumarins have been used as new matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of a variety of hydrophobic compounds with low ionization efficiency, including steroids, coenzyme Q10, a cyclic lipopeptide and cholesterol oleate. Five coumarins, including coumarin, umbelliferone, esculetin, 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCA) and 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DCA), were compared with the conventional matrices of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). Coumarins with hydroxyl or carboxylic acid groups enabled detection. Taking DCA as an example, this matrix proved to be superior to DHB or CHCA in detection sensitivity, stability, spot-to-spot and sample-to-sample reproducibility, and accuracy. DCA increased the stability of the target compounds and decreased the loss of water. The [M + Na]+ peaks were observed for all target compounds by adding NaCl as an additive, and the [M − H2O + H]+ and [M + H]+ peaks decreased. DCA was selected for the identification of sterols in yeast cells, and thirteen sterols were detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) mass spectrometry. This work demonstrates the potential of DCA as a new matrix for detection of hydrophobic molecules by MALDI-MS and provides an alternative tool for screening sterols in antifungal research

  19. Sinapinic acid-directed synthesis of gold nanoclusters and their application to quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Heng; Yu, Cheng-Ju; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Core etching of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into smaller-sized clusters is a classic method for fabricating gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). The top down-based synthesis of AuNCs includes two steps: (i) reducing the Au(3+) precursor solution to generate AuNPs in the presence of protecting ligands and (ii) core etching of the formed AuNPs into the AuNCs via ligand exchange. For the first time, this paper describes a one-step approach for preparing AuNCs using a top down approach. The sinapinic acid (SA)-induced formation of the AuNCs involved a three-step reaction process. First, large AuNPs (>200 nm) were quickly formed after mixing SA and the Au(3+) precursor solution. Second, excess SA molecules self-assembled on the NP surface, and large AuNPs were etched to small AuNPs via electrostatic repulsion between the neighboring SA molecules. Finally, SA-induced core etching of the AuNPs resulted in the formation of the AuNCs within 70 min. Furthermore, we showed that the presence of the AuNCs in SA was capable of suppressing crystal growth and eliminating the coffee-ring effect. Thus, proteins can be successfully quantified using the SA-AuNCs as matrices for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared with using SA as matrices, the SA-AuNCs offered substantial advantages for improving shot-to-shot reproducibility and enhancing the ionization efficiency of proteins. PMID:24288017

  20. A study of reproducibility of guanidination-dimethylation labeling and liquid chromatography matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for relative proteome quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of dimethylation after guanidination (2MEGA) isotope labeling with microbore liquid chromatography (LC)-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) MS and MS/MS [C. Ji, N. Guo, L. Li, J. Proteome Res. 4 (2005) 2099] has been reported as a promising strategy for abundance ratio-dependent quantitative proteome analysis. A critical step in using this integrated strategy is to set up the abundance ratio threshold of peptide pairs, above which the peptide pairs are used for quantifying and identifying the protein that is considered to be differentially expressed between two different samples. The threshold is determined by technical variation (i.e., the overall abundance ratio variation caused by the experimental process including sample workup, MS analysis and data processing) as well as biological variation (i.e., the abundance ratio variation caused by the biological process including cell growth), which can be defined and assessed by a coefficient of variation (CV). We have designed experiments and measured three different levels of variations, starting with the same membrane protein preparation, the same batch of cells and three batches of cells from the same cell line grown under the same conditions, respectively. It is shown that technical variation from the experimental processes involved in 2MEGA labeling LC-MALDI MS has a CV of <15%. In addition, the measured biological variation from cell growth was much smaller than the measured technical variation. From the studies of the occurrence rate of outliers in the distribution of the abundance ratio data within a comparative dataset of peptide pairs, it is concluded that, to compare the proteome changes between two sets of cultured cells without the use of replicate experiments, a relative abundance ratio of greater than 2X or less than 0.5X (X is the average abundance ratio of the dataset) on peptide pairs can be used as a stringent threshold to quantify and identify differentially

  1. Discrimination of freshwater fish species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization- Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Lauceri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discriminate three freshwater fish species (the shad Alosa agone Scopoli 1786, the whitefish Coregonus macrophthalmus Nüsslin1882 and the roach Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus 1758 by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization- Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS using both muscle and liver tissues. The technology enables to analyze tissues after a simple single-step extraction procedure without any further purification. The molecular profile of muscle tissues showed the most intense peaks at m/z range of 11,354.0 (±2.0 SD Da, 3508.5 (±1.5 SD Da and 8567.2 (±1.1 SD Da for the shad, the whitefish and the roach respectively. The molecular profiles of liver tissues exhibit most of the highest peak intensities in the range between 2000 and 6000 m/z values. The roach shows the clearest pattern with high intensities detected at mass ranges between 3000 and 3550 Da with maxima at m/z 3035.2 (±0.2 Da and 3468.7 (±0.3 Da. The shad shows a shared high peak at m/z 3429.0 (±0.3 Da. The whitefish shows a group of major peaks in the m/z range of 3000-3700 Da with the highest being at 3635 (±0.3 Da. The overall signal pattern generated is highly specific for each species and, according to cluster analyses based on the total number of peaks, we could discriminate the three species.

  2. The use of Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in the identification of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatuna, Onur; Celebi, Bekir; Can, Simge; Akyar, Isin; Kilic, Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the cause of the zoonotic disease tularemia and is classified among highly pathogenic bacteria (HPB) due to its low infection dose and potential for airborne transmission. In the case of HBP, there is a pressing need for rapid, accurate and reliable identification. Phenotypic identification of Francisella species is inappropriate for clinical microbiology laboratories because it is time-consuming, hazardous and subject to variable interpretation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was recently evaluated as a useful tool for the rapid identification of a variety of microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of Francisella tularensis and differentiation of its subspecies. Using national collection of Francisella isolates from the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory (Public Health Institute of Turkey, Ankara), a total of 75 clinical isolates were investigated by species and subspecies-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and MALDI-TOF MS. All isolates were originally identified as F. tularensis subsp. holarctica due to RD1 subspecies-specific PCR result. For all isolates MALDI-TOF MS provided results in concordance with subspecies-specific PCR analysis. Although PCR-based methods are effective in identifying Francisella species, they are labor-intensive and take longer periods of time to obtain the results when compared with MALDI-TOF MS. MALDI-TOF MS appeared to be a rapid, reliable and cost-effective identification technique for Francisella spp. Shorter analysis time and low cost make this an appealing new option in microbiology laboratories. PMID:26773181

  3. The use of Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in the identification of Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Karatuna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is the cause of the zoonotic disease tularemia and is classified among highly pathogenic bacteria (HPB due to its low infection dose and potential for airborne transmission. In the case of HBP, there is a pressing need for rapid, accurate and reliable identification. Phenotypic identification of Francisella species is inappropriate for clinical microbiology laboratories because it is time-consuming, hazardous and subject to variable interpretation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS was recently evaluated as a useful tool for the rapid identification of a variety of microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of Francisella tularensis and differentiation of its subspecies. Using national collection of Francisella isolates from the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory (Public Health Institute of Turkey, Ankara, a total of 75 clinical isolates were investigated by species and subspecies-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR test and MALDI-TOF MS. All isolates were originally identified as F. tularensis subsp. holarctica due to RD1 subspecies-specific PCR result. For all isolates MALDI-TOF MS provided results in concordance with subspecies-specific PCR analysis. Although PCR-based methods are effective in identifying Francisella species, they are labor-intensive and take longer periods of time to obtain the results when compared with MALDI-TOF MS. MALDI-TOF MS appeared to be a rapid, reliable and cost-effective identification technique for Francisella spp. Shorter analysis time and low cost make this an appealing new option in microbiology laboratories.

  4. Identification of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Isolates by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Viktor; Resman, Fredrik; Kostrzewa, Markus; Nilson, Bo; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2015-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is, in contrast to non-type b H. influenzae, associated with severe invasive disease, such as meningitis and epiglottitis, in small children. To date, accurate H. influenzae capsule typing requires PCR, a time-consuming and cumbersome method. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) provides rapid bacterial diagnostics and is increasingly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Here, MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated as a novel approach to separate Hib from other H. influenzae. PCR-verified Hib and non-Hib reference isolates were selected based on genetic and spectral characteristics. Mass spectra of reference isolates were acquired and used to generate different classification algorithms for Hib/non-Hib differentiation using both ClinProTools and the MALDI Biotyper software. A test series of mass spectra from 33 Hib and 77 non-Hib isolates, all characterized by PCR, was used to evaluate the algorithms. Several algorithms yielded good results, but the two best were a ClinProTools model based on 22 separating peaks and subtyping main spectra (MSPs) using MALDI Biotyper. The ClinProTools model had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99%, and the results were 98% reproducible using a different MALDI-TOF MS instrument. The Biotyper subtyping MSPs had a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 100%, and 93% reproducibility. Our results suggest that it is possible to use MALDI-TOF MS to differentiate Hib from other H. influenzae. This is a promising method for rapidly identifying Hib in unvaccinated populations and for the screening and surveillance of Hib carriage in vaccinated populations. PMID:25926500

  5. Imaging Mass Spectrometry by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization and Stress-Strain Measurements in Iontophoresis Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

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    Paolo Vinciguerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare biomechanical effect, riboflavin penetration and distribution in transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking with iontophoresis (I-CXL, with standard cross linking (S-CXL and current transepithelial protocol (TE-CXL. Materials and Methods. The study was divided into two different sections, considering, respectively, rabbit and human cadaver corneas. In both sections corneas were divided according to imbibition protocols and irradiation power. Imaging mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-IMS and stress-strain measurements were used. Forty-eight rabbit and twelve human cadaver corneas were evaluated. Results. MALDI-IMS showed a deep riboflavin penetration throughout the corneal layers with I-CXL, with a roughly lower concentration in the deepest layers when compared to S-CXL, whereas with TE-CXL penetration was considerably less. In rabbits, there was a significant increase (by 71.9% and P=0.05 in corneal rigidity after I-CXL, when compared to controls. In humans, corneal rigidity increase was not significantly different among the subgroups. Conclusions. In rabbits, I-CXL induced a significant increase in corneal stiffness as well as better riboflavin penetration when compared to controls and TE-CXL but not to S-CXL. Stress-strain in human corneas did not show significant differences among techniques, possibly because of the small sample size of groups. In conclusion, I-CXL could be a valid alternative to S-CXL for riboflavin delivery in CXL, preserving the epithelium.

  6. Rapid detection of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kempf

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains is critical and will benefit patient care by optimizing antibiotic therapies and preventing outbreaks. Herein we describe the development and successful application of a mass spectrometry profile generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF that utilized the imipenem antibiotic for the detection of carbapenem resistance in a large series of A. baumannii clinical isolates from France and Algeria. A total of 106 A. baumannii strains including 63 well-characterized carbapenemase-producing and 43 non-carbapenemase-producing strains, as well as 43 control strains (7 carbapenem-resistant and 36 carbapenem-sensitive strains were studied. After an incubation of bacteria with imipenem for up to 4 h, the mixture was centrifuged and the supernatant analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The presence and absence of peaks representing imipenem and its natural metabolite was analyzed. The result was interpreted as positive for carbapenemase production if the specific peak for imipenem at 300.0 m/z disappeared during the incubation time and if the peak of the natural metabolite at 254.0 m/z increased as measured by the area under the curves leading to a ratio between the peak for imipenem and its metabolite being <0.5. This assay, which was applied to the large series of A. baumannii clinical isolates, showed a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 100.0%. Our study is the first to demonstrate that this quick and simple assay can be used as a routine tool as a point-of-care method for the identification of A. baumannii carbapenemase-producers in an effort to prevent outbreaks and the spread of uncontrollable superbugs.

  7. Detection of ricin in complex samples by immunocapture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Elodie; Fenaille, François; Tabet, Jean-Claude; Lamourette, Patricia; Hilaire, Didier; Becher, François; Ezan, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Ricin, the toxin component of Ricinus communis is considered as a potential chemical weapon. Several complementary techniques are required to confirm its presence in environmental samples. Here, we report a method combining immunocapture and analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the accurate detection of different species of R. communis. Liquid environmental samples were applied to magnetic particles coated with a monoclonal antibody directed against the B-chain of the toxin. After acidic elution, tryptic peptides of the A- and B-chains were obtained by accelerated digestion with trypsin in the presence of acetonitrile. Of the 20 peptides observed by MALDI-TOF MS, three were chosen for detection ( m/ z 1013.6, m/ z 1310.6 and m/ z 1728.9, which correspond to peptides 161-LEQLAGNLR-169, 150-YTFAFGGNYDR-160, and 233-SAPDPSVITLENSWGR-248, respectively). Their selection was based on several parameters such as detection sensitivity, specificity toward ricin forms and absence of isotopic overlap with unrelated peptides. To increase assay reproducibility, stable isotope-labeled peptides were incorporated during the sample preparation phase. The final assay has a limit of detection estimated at approximately 50 ng/mL ( approximately 0.8 nM) of ricin in buffer. No interference was observed when the assay was applied to ricin-spiked milk samples. In addition, several varieties of R. communis or from different geographical origins were also shown to be detectable. The present assay provides a new tool with a total analytical time of approximately 5 h, which is particularly relevant in the context of a bioterrorist incident. PMID:18651759

  8. Coumarins as new matrices for matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric analysis of hydrophobic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hang, E-mail: hangwang@sjtu.edu.cn [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China); Dai, Bona [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Bin [Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Pathogenesis and Intervention of Hubei Province, College of Medicine, Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi, Hubei 435003 (China); Lu, Han [Department of Anesthesiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), 197, Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2015-07-02

    Highlights: • Coumarins were used as new MALDI matrices. • Coumarins were used for MALDI-FT ICR MS detection of hydrophobic compounds. • DCA had improvement in detection sensitivity, stability, selectivity and reproducibility. • DCA was applied to sterols detection in yeast cells. - Abstract: Hydrophobic compounds with hydroxyl, aldehyde or ketone groups are generally difficult to detect using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), because these compounds have low proton affinity and are poorly ionized by MALDI. Herein, coumarins have been used as new matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of a variety of hydrophobic compounds with low ionization efficiency, including steroids, coenzyme Q10, a cyclic lipopeptide and cholesterol oleate. Five coumarins, including coumarin, umbelliferone, esculetin, 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCA) and 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DCA), were compared with the conventional matrices of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). Coumarins with hydroxyl or carboxylic acid groups enabled detection. Taking DCA as an example, this matrix proved to be superior to DHB or CHCA in detection sensitivity, stability, spot-to-spot and sample-to-sample reproducibility, and accuracy. DCA increased the stability of the target compounds and decreased the loss of water. The [M + Na]{sup +} peaks were observed for all target compounds by adding NaCl as an additive, and the [M − H{sub 2}O + H]{sup +} and [M + H]{sup +} peaks decreased. DCA was selected for the identification of sterols in yeast cells, and thirteen sterols were detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) mass spectrometry. This work demonstrates the potential of DCA as a new matrix for detection of hydrophobic molecules by MALDI-MS and provides an alternative tool for screening sterols in antifungal research.

  9. Component-resolved diagnostic of cow's milk allergy by immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis-matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasilova, Natalia; Girault, Hubert H

    2014-07-01

    Component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) of cow's milk allergy has been performed using immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (IACE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). First, total IgE quantification in the blood serum of a milk allergic patient by the IACE-UV technique was developed using magnetic beads (MBs) coated with antihuman IgE antibodies (Abs) to perform the general allergy diagnosis. Then, the immunocomplex of antihuman IgE Abs with the patient IgE Abs, obtained during the total IgE analysis, was chemically cross-linked on the MBs surface. Prepared immunosupport was used for the binding of individual milk allergens to identify the proteins triggering the allergy by IACE with UV and MALDI MS detection. Then, allergy CRD was also performed directly with milk fractions. Bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, and α-casein (S1 and S2 forms, as was revealed by MALDI MS) were found to bind with the extracted IgE Abs, indicating that the chosen patient is allergic to these proteins. The results were confirmed by performing classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of total and specific IgE Abs. The present IACE-UV/MALDI MS method required only 2 μL of blood serum and allowed the performance of the total IgE quantification and CRD of the food allergy not only with the purified allergen molecules but also directly with the food extract. Such an approach opens the possibility for direct identification of allergens molecular mass and structure, discovery of unusual allergens, which could be useful for precise personalized allergy diagnostic, allergens epitope mapping, and cross-reactivity studies. PMID:24915289

  10. Analysis of neutral oligosaccharides for structural characterization by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Noriyuki; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Tanaka, Koichi; Nishimura, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We have acquired multi-stage mass spectra (MSn) of four branched N-glycans derived from human serum IgG by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF-MS) in order to demonstrate high sensitivity structural analysis. [M+H]+ and [M+Na]+ ions were detected in the positive mode. The detection limit of [M+Na]+ in MS/MS and MS3 measurements for structural analysis was found to be 100 fmol, better than that for [M+H]+. The [M+H]+ ions subsequently fragmented to produce predominantly a Y series of fragments, whereas [M+Na]+ ions fragmented to give a complex mixture of B and Y ions together with some cross-ring fragments. Three features of MALDI-QIT-CID fragmentation of [M+Na]+ were cleared by the analysis of MS/MS, MS3 and MS4 spectra: (1) the fragment ions resulting from the breaking of a bond are more easily generated than that from multi-bond dissociation; (2) the trimannosyl-chitobiose core is either hardly dissociated, easily ionized or it is easy to break a bond between N-acetylglucosamine and mannose; (3) the fragmentation by loss of only galactose from the non-reducing terminus is not observed. We could determine the existence ratios of candidates for each fragment ion in the MS/MS spectrum of [M+Na]+ by considering these features. These results indicate that MSn analysis of [M+Na]+ ions is more useful for the analysis of complicated oligosaccharide structures than MS/MS analysis of [M+H]+, owing to the higher sensitivity and enhanced structural information. Furthermore, two kinds of glycans, with differing branch structures, could be distinguished by comparing the relative fragment ion abundances in the MS3 spectrum of [M+Na]+. These analyses demonstrate that the MSn technology incorporated in MALDI-QIT-TOF-MS can facilitate the elucidation of structure of complex branched oligosaccharides. PMID:15712371

  11. Direct analysis and identification of pathogenic Lichtheimia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analyzer-mediated mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödl, Wieland; Heydel, Tilo; Schwartze, Volker U; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Grosse-Herrenthey, Anke; Walther, Grit; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Olias, Philipp; Jacobsen, Ilse D; de Hoog, G Sybren; Voigt, Kerstin

    2012-02-01

    Zygomycetes of the order Mucorales can cause life-threatening infections in humans. These mucormycoses are emerging and associated with a rapid tissue destruction and high mortality. The resistance of Mucorales to antimycotic substances varies between and within clinically important genera such as Mucor, Rhizopus, and Lichtheimia. Thus, an accurate diagnosis before onset of antimycotic therapy is recommended. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a potentially powerful tool to rapidly identify infectious agents on the species level. We investigated the potential of MALDI-TOF MS to differentiate Lichtheimia species, one of the most important agents of mucormycoses. Using the Bruker Daltonics FlexAnalysis (version 3.0) software package, a spectral database library with m/z ratios of 2,000 to 20,000 Da was created for 19 type and reference strains of clinically relevant Zygomycetes of the order Mucorales (12 species in 7 genera). The database was tested for accuracy by use of 34 clinical and environmental isolates of Lichtheimia comprising a total of five species. Our data demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to clearly discriminate Lichtheimia species from other pathogenic species of the Mucorales. Furthermore, the method is suitable to discriminate species within the genus. The reliability and robustness of the MALDI-TOF-based identification are evidenced by high score values (above 2.3) for the designation to a certain species and by moderate score values (below 2.0) for the discrimination between clinically relevant (Lichtheimia corymbifera, L. ramosa, and L. ornata) and irrelevant (L. hyalospora and L. sphaerocystis) species. In total, all 34 strains were unequivocally identified by MALDI-TOF MS with score values of >1.8 down to the generic level, 32 out of 34 of the Lichtheimia isolates (except CNM-CM 5399 and FSU 10566) were identified accurately with score values of >2 (probable species

  12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--time of flight mass spectrometry: an emerging tool for the rapid identification of mosquito vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Yssouf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of mosquito vectors is typically based on morphological characteristics using morphological keys of determination, which requires entomological expertise and training. The use of protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, which is increasingly being used for the routine identification of bacteria, has recently emerged for arthropod identification. METHODS: To investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF-MS as a mosquito identification tool, we tested protein extracts made from mosquito legs to create a database of reference spectra. The database included a total of 129 laboratory-reared and field-caught mosquito specimens consisting of 20 species, including 4 Aedes spp., 9 Anopheles spp., 4 Culex spp., Lutzia tigripes, Orthopodomyia reunionensis and Mansonia uniformis. For the validation study, blind tests were performed with 76 specimens consisting of 1 to 4 individuals per species. A cluster analysis was carried out using the MALDI-Biotyper and some spectra from all mosquito species tested. RESULTS: Biomarker mass sets containing 22 and 43 masses have been detected from 100 specimens of the Anopheles, Aedes and Culex species. By carrying out 3 blind tests, we achieved the identification of mosquito vectors at the species level, including the differentiation of An. gambiae complex, which is possible using MALDI-TOF-MS with 1.8 as the cut-off identification score. A cluster analysis performed with all available mosquito species showed that MALDI-Biotyper can distinguish between specimens at the subspecies level, as demonstrated for An gambiae M and S, but this method cannot yet be considered a reliable tool for the phylogenetic study of mosquito species. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that even without any specific expertise, MALDI-TOF-MS profiling of mosquito leg protein extracts can be used for the rapid identification of mosquito vectors. Therefore

  13. Rapid and reliable species identification of wild mushrooms by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Ryota; Yamada, Sayumi; Tu, Zhihao; Sugawara, Akiko; Suzuki, Kousuke; Hoshiba, Toshihiro; Eisaka, Sadao; Yamaguchi, Akihiro

    2016-08-31

    Mushrooms are a favourite natural food in many countries. However, some wild species cause food poisoning, sometimes lethal, due to misidentification caused by confusing fruiting bodies similar to those of edible species. The morphological inspection of mycelia, spores and fruiting bodies have been traditionally used for the identification of mushrooms. More recently, DNA sequencing analysis has been successfully applied to mushrooms and to many other species. This study focuses on a simpler and more rapid methodology for the identification of wild mushrooms via protein profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A preliminary study using 6 commercially available cultivated mushrooms suggested that a more reproducible spectrum was obtained from a portion of the cap than from the stem of a fruiting body by the extraction of proteins with a formic acid-acetonitrile mixture (1 + 1). We used 157 wild mushroom-fruiting bodies collected in the centre of Hokkaido from June to November 2014. Sequencing analysis of a portion of the ribosomal RNA gene provided 134 identifications of mushrooms by genus or species, however 23 samples containing 10 unknown species that had lower concordance rate of the nucleotide sequences in a BLAST search (less than 97%) and 13 samples that had unidentifiable poor or mixed sequencing signals remained unknown. MALDI-TOF MS analysis yielded a reproducible spectrum (frequency of matching score ≥ 2.0 was ≥6 spectra from 12 spectra measurements) for 114 of 157 samples. Profiling scores that matched each other within the database gave correct species identification (with scores of ≥2.0) for 110 samples (96%). An in-house prepared database was constructed from 106 independent species, except for overlapping identifications. We used 48 wild mushrooms that were collected in autumn 2015 to validate the in-house database. As a result, 21 mushrooms were identified at the species level with

  14. Teaching Microbial Identification with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and Bioinformatics Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfa Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first observation of “animalcules” under a microscope, and the subsequent discovery of microorganisms of myriad size, shape, pigmentation and motility modes, classification in aid of microbial identification is key to understanding inter-relationships between diverse microbes. Combining universal applicability with robustness, 16S rRNA sequencing is the gold standard for microbial typing; however, recent developments in clinical diagnostics have called attention to a shift towards PCR-independent instrumentation and methods given PCR’s requirement for expensive and complex sample preparation. Using ribosomal proteins as biomarkers for evolutionary relatedness, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS - originally developed for the soft ionization of proteins and peptides in proteomics studies - has been successfully applied to identifying bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses to the species, and, on occasions, sub-species level. Though experimentally proven and increasingly adopted in the clinic, the relatively low-cost (on a per sample basis and rapid MALDI-TOF MS microbial identification technique, along with its theoretical principles and methodology, is a conspicuous absentee in contemporary microbiology curricula. Motivated by a desire to close the curriculum gap, this article describes a discovery-based activity for teaching microbial identification - using MALDI-TOF MS in combination with open-source genomics and proteomics search tools – while providing tips on mass spectra interpretation and activity implementation for lowering the barrier for classroom adoption. Infused with inquiry-based learning concepts guiding students in identifying microbes from environmental water samples with unknown species diversity, the activity spurs students’ learning by igniting their spirit of inquiry, which leads to better mastery of concepts; a significant departure from

  15. MoS2/Ag nanohybrid: A novel matrix with synergistic effect for small molecule drugs analysis by negative-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaju; Deng, Guoqing; Liu, Xiaohui; Sun, Liang; Li, Hui; Cheng, Quan; Xi, Kai; Xu, Danke

    2016-09-21

    This paper reports a facile synthesis of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets/silver nanoparticles (MoS2/Ag) hybrid and its use as an effective matrix in negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The nanohybrid exerts a strong synergistic effect, leading to high performance detection of small molecule analytes including amino acids, peptides, fatty acids and drugs. The enhancement of laser desorption/ionization (LDI) efficiency is largely attributed to the high surface roughness and large surface area for analyte adsorption, better dispersibility, increased thermal conductivity and enhanced UV energy absorption as compared to pure MoS2. Moreover, both Ag nanoparticles and the edge of the MoS2 layers function as deprotonation sites for proton capture, facilitating the charging process in negative ion mode and promoting formation of negative ions. As a result, the MoS2/Ag nanohybrid proves to be a highly attractive matrix in MALDI-TOF MS, with desired features such as high desorption/ionization efficiency, low fragmentation interference, high salt tolerance, and no sweet-spots for mass signal. These characteristic properties allowed for simultaneous analysis of eight different drugs and quantification of acetylsalicylic acid in the spiked human serum. This work demonstrates for the first time the fabrication and application of a novel MoS2/Ag hybrid, and provides a new platform for use in the rapid and high throughput analysis of small molecules by mass spectrometry. PMID:27590549

  16. Membrane-assisted capillary isoelectric focusing coupling with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform mass spectrometry for neuropeptide analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zichuan; Wang, Junhua; Hui, Limei; Li, Lingjun

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report a highly efficient and reliable membrane-assisted capillary isoelectric focusing (MA-CIEF) system being coupled with MALDI-FTMS for the analysis of complex neuropeptide mixtures. The new interface consists of two membrane-coated joints made near each end of the capillary for applying high voltage, while the capillary ends were placed in the two reservoirs which were filled with anolyte (acid) and catholyte (base) to provide pH difference. Optimizations of CIEF conditions and ...

  17. Determination of saccharides in fruit juices by capillary electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídková, Jitka; Chmelík, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2001), s. 417-421. ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA MZe EP9410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : fruit juices * adulteration * matrix-assisted laser deasorption Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.685, year: 2001

  18. Membrane-assisted capillary isoelectric focusing coupling with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform mass spectrometry for neuropeptide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zichuan; Wang, Junhua; Hui, Limei; Li, Lingjun

    2011-08-01

    Herein we report a highly efficient and reliable membrane-assisted capillary isoelectric focusing (MA-CIEF) system being coupled with MALDI-FTMS for the analysis of complex neuropeptide mixtures. The new interface consists of two membrane-coated joints made near each end of the capillary for applying high voltage, while the capillary ends were placed in the two reservoirs which were filled with anolyte (acid) and catholyte (base) to provide pH difference. Optimizations of CIEF conditions and comparison with conventional CIEF were carried out by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic peptides. It was shown that the MA-CIEF could provide more efficient, reliable and faster separation with improved sequence coverage when coupled to MALDI-FTMS. Analyses of orcokinin family neuropeptides from crabs Cancer borealis and Callinectes sapidus brain extracts have been conducted using the established MA-CIEF/MALDI-FTMS platform. Increased number of neuropeptides was observed with significantly enhanced MS signal in comparison with direct analysis by MALDI-FTMS. The results highlighted the potential of MA-CIEF as an efficient fractionation tool for coupling to MALDI MS for neuropeptide analysis. PMID:21696746

  19. How Suitable is Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight for Metabolite Imaging from Clinical Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples in Comparison to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Achim; Balluff, Benjamin; Voss, Andreas; Langer, Rupert; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel

    2016-05-17

    In research and clinical settings, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are collected routinely and therefore this material constitutes a highly valuable source to gather insight in metabolic changes of diseases. Among mass spectrometry techniques to examine the molecular content of FFPE tissue, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is the most appropriate when morphological and histological features are to be related to metabolic information. Currently, high-resolution mass spectrometers are widely used for metabolomics studies. However, with regards to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI, no study has so far addressed the necessity of instrumental mass resolving power in terms of clinical diagnosis and prognosis using archived FFPE tissue. For this matter we performed for the first time a comprehensive comparison between a high mass resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer and a time-of-flight (TOF) instrument with lower mass resolving power. Spectra analysis revealed that about one-third of the detected peaks remained unresolved by MALDI-TOF, which led to a 3-5 times lower number of m/z features compared to FTICR measurements. Overlaid peak information and background noise in TOF images made a precise assignment of molecular attributes to morphological features more difficult and limited classification approaches. This clearly demonstrates the need for high-mass resolution capabilities for metabolite imaging. Nevertheless, MALDI-TOF allowed reproducing and verifying individual markers identified previously by MALDI-FTICR MSI. The systematic comparison gives rise to a synergistic combination of the different MSI platforms for high-throughput discovery and validation of biomarkers. PMID:27065343

  20. Substrate-Enhanced Micro Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerodyne Research, Inc. and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst will collaborate to develop laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric analysis of...

  1. CuFe2O4 magnetic nanocrystal clusters as a matrix for the analysis of small molecules by negative-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zian; Zheng, Jiangnan; Bian, Wei; Cai, Zongwei

    2015-08-01

    CuFe2O4 magnetic nanocrystal clusters (CuFe2O4 MNCs) were proposed as a new matrix for small molecule analysis by negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the first time. We demonstrated its advantages over conventional organic matrices in the detection of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, nucleobases, fatty acids, and steroid hormones. A systematic comparison of CuFe2O4 MNCs with different ionization modes revealed that MS spectra obtained for the CuFe2O4 MNC matrix in the negative ion mode was only featured by deprotonated ion peaks with a free matrix background, which was different from the complicated alkali metal adducts produced in the positive ion mode. The developed method was found relatively tolerant to salt contamination and exhibited good reproducibility. A detection limit down to the subpicomolar level was achieved when testosterone was analyzed. In addition, by comparison of the MS spectra obtained from bare Fe3O4 and MFe2O4 MNC (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) matrices, two main factors of MFe2O4 MNC matrices were revealed to play a vital role in assisting the negative ion desorption/ionization (D/I) process: doping transition metals into ferrite nanocrystals favoring laser absorption and energy transfer and a good match between the UV absorption of MFe2O4 MNCs and the excitation of nitrogen laser source facilitating LDI efficiency. This work creates a new branch of application for MFe2O4 MNCs and provides an alternative solution for small molecule analysis. PMID:26086699

  2. Colloidal Graphite-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization MS and MSn of Small Molecules. 2. Direct Profiling and MS Imaging of Small Metabolites from Fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Zhang; Sangwon Cha; Edward S. Yeung

    2007-09-01

    Due to a high background in the low-mass region, conventional MALDI is not as useful for detecting small molecules (molecular masses <500 Da) as it is for large ones. Also, spatial inhomogeneity that is inherent to crystalline matrixes can degrade resolution in imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). In this study, colloidal graphite was investigated as an alternative matrix for laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in IMS. We demonstrate its advantages over conventional MALDI in the detection of small molecules such as organic acids, flavonoids, and oligosaccharides. GALDI provides good sensitivity for such small molecules. The detection limit of fatty acids and flavonoids in the negative-ion mode are in the low-femtomole range. Molecules were detected directly and identified by comparing the MS and MS/MS spectra with those of standards. Various fruits were chosen to evaluate the practical utility of GALDI since many types of small molecules are present in them. Distribution of these small molecules in the fruit was investigated by using IMS and IMS/MS.

  3. A new matrix for analyzing low molecular mass compounds and its application for determination of carcinogenic areca alkaloids by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chia-Hsien; Lu, Chi-Yu

    2009-09-01

    Arecoline is the main alkaloid present in the areca nut (or betel nut) and it has central nervous system effects. Its pharmacological activities induce the constriction of the bronchial smooth muscles, and stimulation of the lacrimal and intestinal glands. Chewing areca nut is harmful to health because this habit may increase the risk of the development of oral cancer. In this study, a fast method was provided for the determination of areca alkaloids by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometer with a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer. Traditionally the MALDI-TOF method was not suitable for the analysis of small molecular weight (m/zplate. This new matrix was also used to test the MALDI imaging experiment. Application of this MALDI-TOF method for trace analysis of arecoline by this new matrix in human plasma at sub microM level proved workable. PMID:19699399

  4. Ease-of-use protocol for the rapid detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, C; Compri, M; Smirnova, V; Denicolò, A; Nardini, P; Tamburini, M V; Lombardo, D; Landini, M P; Ambretti, S

    2016-06-01

    An ease-of-use protocol for the identification of resistance against third-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood culture bottles was evaluated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A cefotaxime hydrolysis assay from chocolate agar subcultures using antibiotic discs and without inoculum standardization was developed for routine work flow, with minimal hands-on time. This assay showed good performance in distinguishing between cefotaxime-susceptible and cefotaxime-resistant strains, with excellent results for Escherichia coli (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 100%). However, cefotaxime resistance was not detected reliably in Enterobacteriaceae expressing AmpC genes or carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:27105753

  5. Amazonian vegetable oils and fats: fast typification and quality control via triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles from dry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Sérgio A; Cabral, Elaine C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Catharino, Rodrigo R

    2009-05-27

    Amazonian oils and fats display unique triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and, because of their economic importance as renewable raw materials and use by the cosmetic and food industries, are often subject to adulteration and forgery. Representative samples of these oils (andiroba, Brazil nut, buriti, and passion fruit) and fats (cupuaçu, murumuru, and ucuúba) were characterized without pre-separation or derivatization via dry (solvent-free) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Characteristic profiles of TAG were obtained for each oil and fat. Dry MALDI-TOF MS provides typification and direct and detailed information, via TAG profiles, of their variable combinations of fatty acids. A database from spectra could be developed and may be used for their fast and reliable typification, application screening, and quality control. PMID:19358529

  6. Adjustable fragmentation in laser desorption/ionization from laser-induced silicon microcolumn arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Vertes, Akos

    2006-08-15

    Laser-induced silicon microcolumn arrays (LISMA) were developed as matrix-free substrates for soft laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SLDI-MS). When low-resistivity silicon wafers were irradiated in air, sulfur hexafluoride, or water environment with multiple pulses from a 3 x omega mode-locked Nd:YAG laser, columnar structures were formed on the surface. The radii of curvature of the column tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 120 nm in water, to nitrogen laser, the microcolumn arrays obtained in water environment readily produced molecular ions for peptides and synthetic polymers at low laser fluence. These surfaces demonstrated the best ion yield among the three arrays. The threshold laser fluence and ion yield were comparable to those observed in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. Low-femtomole sensitivity and approximately 6000 Da mass range were achieved. At elevated laser fluence, efficient in-source decay was observed and extensive peptide sequence information was extracted from the resulting mass spectra. The versatility of LISMA was attributed to confinement effects due to the submicrometer morphology and to the surface, thermal, and optical properties of processed silicon. PMID:16906730

  7. Facile Synthesis of N-Doped Carbon Dots as a New Matrix for Detection of Hydroxy-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Negative-Ion Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjing; Li, Yong; Li, Ruijin; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-05-25

    N-doping carbon dots (N-CDs) were prepared by microwave-assisted pyrolysis of dl-malic acid and ethanolamine as precursors. The material served as an excellent matrix for the detection of the environmental pollutants hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in negative ion mode. The obtained N-CDs exhibited good UV absorption capacity and favorable solubility. The use of the N-CDs matrix exhibited low matrix background interference and was beneficial to improve the signal response due to the specific π-conjugated polyaromatic structure and the doping of nitrogen atoms. The developed method was found to have good reproducibility and sensitivity. The N-CDs as a new matrix also were employed for the detection of OH-PAHs in real PM2.5 samples. The mass concentrations of Σ-hydroxy-pyrene, Σ-dihydroxy-anthraquinone, and Σ-dihydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene on the collected PM2.5 samples ranged from 0.125 to 0.136 ng/m(3), 0.039 to 0.052 ng/m(3), and 0.053 to 0.072 ng/m(3), respectively. This work extends the application field of N-CDs and provides a good candidate of matrix for MALDI-TOF MS detection of environmental pollutants. PMID:27180617

  8. Evidence of genotypic diversity among Candida auris isolates by multilocus sequence typing, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and amplified fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A; Sharma, C; Singh, A; Kumar Singh, P; Kumar, A; Hagen, F; Govender, N P; Colombo, A L; Meis, J F; Chowdhary, A

    2016-03-01

    Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant nosocomial bloodstream pathogen that has been reported from Asian countries and South Africa. Herein, we studied the population structure and genetic relatedness among 104 global C. auris isolates from India, South Africa and Brazil using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). RPB1, RPB2 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and D1/D2 regions of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for MLST. Further, genetic variation and proteomic assessment was carried out using AFLP and MALDI-TOF MS, respectively. Both MLST and AFLP typing clearly demarcated two major clusters comprising Indian and Brazilian isolates. However, the South African isolates were randomly distributed, suggesting different genotypes. MALDI-TOF MS spectral profiling also revealed evidence of geographical clustering but did not correlate fully with the genotyping methods. Notably, overall the population structure of C. auris showed evidence of geographical clustering by all the three techniques analysed. Antifungal susceptibility testing by the CLSI microbroth dilution method revealed that fluconazole had limited activity against 87% of isolates (MIC90, 64 mg/L). Also, MIC90 of AMB was 4 mg/L. Candida auris is emerging as an important yeast pathogen globally and requires reproducible laboratory methods for identification and typing. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS as a typing method for this yeast is warranted. PMID:26548511

  9. Abattoirs as non-hospital source of extended spectrum beta lactamase producers: confirmed by the double disc synergy test and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Nkechukwu Ikegbunam

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL producing organisms in abattoirs, a non-hospital community was investigated. The presence of ESBL-producing phenotypes was confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST. Out of the 99 isolates screened for ESBL, 28 (28.3% were confirmed positive. The positive isolates were characterised by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of flight Mass Spectrometry. 50% of the isolates were Pseudomonas spp., the rest were different species of Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter. Pseudomonas monteilli and Pseudomonas putida were the most occurring in the intestine. The entire positive ESBL producers were subjected to plasmid curing to ascertain the location of the resistant marker. The result of the plasmid curing indicated that the resistant genes were chromosomally borne. The findings have therefore established the presence of ESBL producing organisms in the gut of animals from abattoirs and the table were the meat are sold, and its rate of occurrence is comparable to hospital ICUs. Abattoir communities could probably be a source of human infection with ESBL expressing pathogens and possible transfer to non-ESBL producers.

  10. Top-down synthesized TiO2 nanowires as a solid matrix for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TiO2 nanowires were synthesized as a solid matrix for SALDI-TOF MS by hydrothermal process. • The optimal crystal structure of TiO2 nanowires for SALDI-TOF MS were analyzed. • The feasibility TiO2 nanowires for SALDI-TOF MS was demonstrated for the analysis of amino acids and peptides. - Abstract: Top-down synthesized TiO2 nanowires are presented as an ideal solid matrix to analyze small biomolecules at a m/z of less than 500. The TiO2 nanowires were synthesized as arrays using a modified hydrothermal process directly on the surface of a Ti plate. Finally, the feasibility of the TiO2 nanowires in the anatase phase as a solid matrix. The crystal and electronic structures of the top-down TiO2 nanowires were analyzed at each step of the hydrothermal process, and the optimal TiO2 nanowires were identified by checking their performance toward the ionization of analytes in surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Finally, the feasibility of the TiO2 nanowires in the anatase phase as a solid matrix for SALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was demonstrated using eight types of amino acids and peptides as model analytes

  11. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting for proteome analysis: identification efficiency after on-blot or in-gel digestion with and without desalting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, S; Jungblut, P R

    2001-03-10

    In theory, peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has the potential to identify all of the proteins detected by silver staining on gels. In practice, if the genome of the organism investigated is completely sequenced, using current techniques, all proteins stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue can be identified. This loss of identification sensitivity of ten to hundred-fold is caused by loss of peptides by surface contacts. Therefore, we performed digestion and transfer of peptides in the lower microl range and reduced the number of steps. The peptide mix obtained from in-gel or on-blot digestion was analyzed directly after digestion or after concentration on POROS R2 beads. Eight protein spots of a 2-DE gel from Mycobacterium bovis BCG were identified using these four preparation procedures for MALDI-MS. Overall, on-blot digestion was as effective as in-gel digestion. Whereas higher signal intensities resulted after concentration, hydrophilic peptides are better detected by direct measurement of the peptide mix without POROS R2 concentration. PMID:11270870

  12. Analyses of black fungi by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): species-level identification of clinical isolates of Exophiala dermatitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondori, Nahid; Erhard, Marcel; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Groenewald, Marizeth; Verkley, Gerard; Moore, Edward R B

    2015-01-01

    Conventional mycological identifications based on the recognition of morphological characteristics can be problematic. A relatively new methodology applicable for the identification of microorganisms is based on the exploitation of taxon- specific mass patterns recorded from abundant cell proteins directly from whole-cell preparations, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This study reports the application of MALDI-TOF MS for the differentiation and identifications of black yeasts, isolated from the respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial phenotypic and DNA sequence-based analyses identified these isolates to be Exophiala dermatitidis. The type strains of E. dermatitidis (CBS 207.35(T)) and other species of Exophiala were included in the MALDI-TOF MS analyses to establish the references for comparing the mass spectra of the clinical isolates of Exophiala. MALDI-TOF MS analyses exhibited extremely close relationships among the clinical isolates and with the spectra generated from the type strain of E. dermatitidis. The relationships observed between the E. dermatitidis strains from the MALDI-TOF MS profiling analyses were supported by DNA sequence-based analyses of the rRNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions. These data demonstrated the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS as a reliable, rapid and cost-effective method for the identification of isolates of E. dermatitidis and other clinically relevant fungi and yeasts that typically are difficult to identify by conventional methods. PMID:25790495

  13. Determination of Oligopeptide Diversity within a Natural Population of Microcystis spp. (Cyanobacteria) by Typing Single Colonies by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastner, Jutta; Erhard, Marcel; von Döhren, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Besides the most prominent peptide toxin, microcystin, the cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. have been shown to produce a large variety of other bioactive oligopeptides. We investigated for the first time the oligopeptide diversity within a natural Microcystis population by analyzing single colonies directly with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The results demonstrate a high diversity of known cyanobacterial peptides such as microcystins, anabaenopeptins, microginins, aeruginosins, and cyanopeptolins, but also many unknown substances in the Microcystis colonies. Oligopeptide patterns were mostly related to specific Microcystis taxa. Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kütz. colonies contained mainly microcystins, occasionally accompanied by aeruginosins. In contrast, microcystins were not detected in Microcystis ichthyoblabe Kütz.; instead, colonies of this species contained anabaenopeptins and/or microginins or unknown peptides. Within a third group, Microcystis wesenbergii (Kom.) Kom. in Kondr., chiefly a cyanopeptolin and an unknown peptide were found. Similar patterns, however, were also found in colonies which could not be identified to species level. The significance of oligopeptides as a chemotaxonomic tool within the genus Microcystis is discussed. It could be demonstrated that the typing of single colonies by MALDI-TOF MS may be a valuable tool for ecological studies of the genus Microcystis as well as in early warning of toxic cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:11679328

  14. Rapid Classification and Identification of Salmonellae at the Species and Subspecies Levels by Whole-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Ralf; Helmuth, Reiner; Erhard, Marcel; Malorny, Burkhard

    2008-01-01

    Variations in the mass spectral profiles of multiple housekeeping proteins of 126 strains representing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (subspecies I), S. enterica subsp. salamae (subspecies II), S. enterica subsp. arizonae (subspecies IIIa), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (subspecies IIIb), S. enterica subsp. houtenae (subspecies IV), and S. enterica subsp. indica (subspecies VI), and Salmonella bongori were analyzed to obtain a phylogenetic classification of salmonellae based on whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometric bacterial typing. Sinapinic acid produced highly informative spectra containing a large number of biomarkers and covering a wide molecular mass range (2,000 to 40,000 Da). Genus-, species-, and subspecies-identifying biomarker ions were assigned on the basis of available genome sequence data for Salmonella, and more than 200 biomarker peaks, which corresponded mainly to abundant and highly basic ribosomal or nucleic acid binding proteins, were selected. A detailed comparative analysis of the biomarker profiles of Salmonella strains revealed sequence variations corresponding to single or multiple amino acid changes in multiple housekeeping proteins. The resulting mass spectrometry-based bacterial classification was very comparable to the results of DNA sequence-based methods. A rapid protocol that allowed identification of Salmonella subspecies in minutes was established. PMID:18952875

  15. Characterization and quantitative amino acids analysis of analgesic peptides in cinobufacini injection by size exclusion chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Si, Nan; Bo, Gao; Hu, Hao; Yang, Jian; Bian, Baolin; Zhao, Hai Yu; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Cinobufacini injection that comes from the water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor skin is widely used for cancer treatment in China. Peptide is one of its major types of constituents, however the biological effects and content of this injection are little reported. In present study, the analgesic effect of peptides was determined and evaluated by in-vivo models. To characterize and quantitatively analyze these peptides, a reliable and efficient method combining size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with amino acid analysis was developed. The peptides presented as a series of analogs with similar molecular weights mostly ranging from 2 to 8 kDa. The amino acid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine both free and combined amino acids (FAA and CAA) in cinobufacini injection. This method achieved good linearity (R(2) , 0.9909-0.9999) and low limit of detection and quantification. FAA and CAA samples were efficiently analyzed by modified Phenomenex EZ: faast procedure. For the sample analysis, the method showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤ 10%). For most FAA and CAA the mean recoveries were >80% with RSD <10%. The GC-MS based method is useful for quality assurance of both FAA and CAA in cinobufacini injection. PMID:24924921

  16. Characterization of gallotannins from Astronium species by flow injection analysis- electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of- flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Viviane Cândida; Napolitano, Assunta; Eletto, Daniela; Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins; Pizza, Cosimo; Vilegas, Wagner

    2011-01-01

    The species Astronium urundeuva (Allemao) Engl. and Astronium graveolens Jacq., which are used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat allergies, inflammation, diarrhea and ulcers, were investigated for their composition. The aim of this study was to define a rapid and reliable analytical approach, based on the flow-injection analysis-electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS), to investigate the full range of hydrolyzable tannins present in the extracts of these Astronium species. The MALDI-ToF-MS analysis allowed us to ascertain the presence of hydrolysable tannins in both Astronium species as a series of gallotannins with degrees of polymerization of 7 to 13 galloyl units. Moreover, the analysis by FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS, as well as confirming this result and chemically defining gallotannins as galloylglucose compounds, highlighted the presence of further classes of hydrolysable tannins, such as hexahydrodiphenoyl esters of glucose and some gallic acid derivatives, providing information about their structure by a careful study of their fragmentation patterns. Finally, the evaluation of the number of positional isomers of gallotannins occurring in both Astronium species was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-IT-MS). This is the first mass spectrometric evidence relating to the existence of gallotannins in Astronium genus. PMID:22006629

  17. Simple fabrication of hydrophobic surface target for increased sensitivity and homogeneity in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of peptides, phosphopeptides, carbohydrates and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Chun; Liu, Yu-Ching; Lin, Shih-Yi; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2013-06-14

    To enhance sample signals and improve homogeneity in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis, a simple, rapid, and efficient sample preparation method was developed in this study. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was coated on a stainless steel MALDI plate, forming a transparent, hydrophobic surface that enhanced sample signals without producing observable background signals. Compared to the use of an unmodified commercial metal MALDI plate, peptide signals were enhanced by ~7.1-11.0-fold due to the reduced sample spot area of the PDMS-coated plate, and showed improved peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MS/MS peptide sequencing results. In the analysis of phosphopeptides and carbohydrates with a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix, the PDMS-coated plate showed improved sample homogeneity and signal enhancements of ~5.2-8.2-fold and ~2.8-3.2-fold, respectively. Improved sensitivity in the observation of more unique fragment ions by MS/MS analysis, to successfully distinguish isomeric carbohydrates, was also illustrated. In protein analysis with a sinapinic acid (SA) matrix, a ~3.4-fold signal enhancement was observed. The PDMS film coating was easily removed and refabricated to avoid sample carryover, and was applicable to diverse commercial MALDI plates. The PDMS-coated approach is a simple, practical, and attractive method for enhancing analyte signals and homogeneity. PMID:23726097

  18. 基质辅助激光解析质谱成像技术的样品制备及其应用%Sample preparation by matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry imaging technology and the application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹贵勉; 汤冬娥; 睢维国; 陈洁晶; 李丽萍; 侯玉文; 李欢; 李海燕; 戴勇

    2010-01-01

    基质辅助激光解析质谱成像技术(matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry imaging,MALDI-MSI)已成为目前蛋白质组学研究中的经典技术.在该技术的成功应用过程中,合适的样品制备方法起着首要和关键的作用.只有将合适的样品制备方法与专业的仪器分析方法结合起来,才能实现对多肽和蛋白质等生物大分子的准确鉴定.MALDI-MSI是一项新的并迅速成熟的技术领域,本文针对MALDI-MSI在多肽和蛋白质中的应用,以哺乳动物组织为例,对MALDI-MSI的成像原理、样品制备及该技术的应用进行介绍.

  19. Characterization of heat-labile toxin-subunit B from Escherichia coli by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sospedra, I; De Simone, C; Soriano, J M; Mañes, J; Ferranti, P; Ritieni, A

    2012-11-01

    The possibilities of characterizing the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were investigated. The B subunit from recombinant E. coli (expression in Pichia pastoris) can be detected by LC/ESI-MS expressed in P. pastoris and the charge envelope signals can be observed; LC/ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis allowed the acquisition of labile toxin subunit B (LTB) molecular weight and preliminary structural characterization of LTB toxin. MALDI-TOF analysis after reduction and alkylation of the protein evidenced the presence of one disulfide bond in the structure of the protein. Confirmatory analysis was carried out by detection of most of the tryptic fragments of the B subunit by MALDI-TOF-MS, obtaining total coverage of the protein sequence. Possible biovariations in the toxin can mostly be determined by sequencing, where an increase of molecular mass in the N-terminal side of the protein was identified. This modification may be due to an O-GlcNAc-1-phosphorylation. PMID:22921353

  20. On-column tryptic mapping of proteins using metal-ion-chelated magnetic silica microspheres by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yan, Bo; Xu, Xiuqing; Deng, Chunhui; Yang, Pengyuan; Shen, Xizhong; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2007-01-01

    Peptide mapping analysis, utilizing an easily replaceable and regenerable on-column enzymatic microreactor with metal-ion-chelated adsorption of enzyme on magnetic silica microspheres, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), was developed. Firstly, magnetic microspheres of small size and strong magnetism were prepared through solvothermal reaction. Thereafter, by introducing tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), magnetic silica (MS) microspheres were formed. Trypsin could then be immobilized onto the MS microspheres based on the Lewis acid-base interaction through the divalent cation chelators such as iminodiacetic acid (IDA), which was chemically bound to the microspheres through the introduction of glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO). The trypsin-immobilized MS microspheres were then locally packed into the capillary by the application of a strong magnetic field using a magnet. The performance of the method was exemplified with digestion of bovine serum albumin for 5 min at 50 degrees C and the result was comparable to the 12 h in-solution digestion. The ability of regeneration of the prepared on-column microreactor and good reproducibility of microreactor before and after regeneration were also demonstrated. PMID:17577873

  1. Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite based solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for lipidomic profiling of avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2014-12-10

    Phospholipids possess important physiological, structural and nutritional functions in biological systems. This study described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, employing graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2) nanocomposite as sorbent, for the selective isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the phosphoryl group in the phospholipid can interact with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be efficiently extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were enhanced while the noise was reduced. Some minor peaks became more obvious. In conclusion, the nanocomposite material of G/TiO2 was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid extract. PMID:25441892

  2. Microorganisms in cryopreserved semen and culture media used in the in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Dávila; Santos, Vanessa G; Braga, Patrícia A C; Ferreira, Christina R; Ballottin, Daniela; Tasic, Ljubica; Basso, Andréa C; Sanches, Bruno V; Pontes, José H F; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Garboggini, Fabiana Fantinatti; Eberlin, Marcos N; Tata, Alessandra

    2013-09-01

    Commercial cattle breeders produce their own herd offspring for the dairy and beef market using artificial insemination. The procedure involves sanitary risks associated with the collection and commercialization of the germplasm, and the in vitro production and transfer of the bovine embryos must be monitored by strict health surveillance. To avoid the spreading of infectious diseases, one must rely on using controlled and monitored germplasm, media, and reagents that are guaranteed free of pathogens. In this article, we investigated the use of a new mass spectrometric approach for fast and accurate identification of bacteria and fungi in bovine semen and in culture media employed in the embryo in vitro production process. The microorganisms isolated from samples obtained in a commercial bovine embryo IVP setting were identified in a few minutes by their conserved peptide/protein profile, obtained applying matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), matched against a commercial database. The successful microorganisms MS identification has been confirmed by DNA amplification and sequencing. Therefore, the MS technique seems to offer a powerful tool for rapid and accurate microorganism identification in semen and culture media samples. PMID:23756041

  3. Hydrogen retention in tungsten materials studied by Laser Induced Desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobinski, M.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Huber, A.; Reinhart, M.; Möller, S.; Sergienko, G.; Samm, U.; 't Hoen, M. H. J.; Manhard, A.; Schmid, K.; Textor Team

    2013-07-01

    Development of methods to characterise the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices without removal of wall tiles is important to support safety assessments for tritium retention and dust production and to understand plasma wall processes in general. Laser based techniques are presently under investigation to provide these requirements, among which Laser Induced Desorption Spectroscopy (LIDS) is proposed to measure the deuterium and tritium load of the plasma facing surfaces by thermal desorption and spectroscopic detection of the desorbed fuel in the edge of the fusion plasma. The method relies on its capability to desorb the hydrogen isotopes in a laser heated spot. The application of LID on bulk tungsten targets exposed to a wide range of deuterium fluxes, fluences and impact energies under different surface temperatures is investigated in this paper. The results are compared with Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and a diffusion model.

  4. The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in the identification of Francisella tularensis

    OpenAIRE

    Karatuna, Onur; Çelebi, Bekir; Can, Simge; Akyar, Işın; KILIÇ, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the cause of the zoonotic disease tularemia and is classified among highly pathogenic bacteria (HPB) due to its low infection dose and potential for airborne transmission. In the case of HBP, there is a pressing need for rapid, accurate and reliable identification. Phenotypic identification of Francisella species is inappropriate for clinical microbiology laboratories because it is time-consuming, hazardous and subject to variable interpretation. Matrix-assisted lase...

  5. The use of Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in the identification of Francisella tularensis

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Karatuna; Bekir Celebi; Simge Can; Isin Akyar; Selcuk Kilic

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the cause of the zoonotic disease tularemia and is classified among highly pathogenic bacteria (HPB) due to its low infection dose and potential for airborne transmission. In the case of HBP, there is a pressing need for rapid, accurate and reliable identification. Phenotypic identification of Francisella species is inappropriate for clinical microbiology laboratories because it is time-consuming, hazardous and subject to variable interpretation. Matrix-assisted lase...

  6. Fundamental studies of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, using time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eades, D.; Wruck, D.; Gregg, H.

    1996-11-11

    MALDI MS was developed as a way of getting molecular weight information on small quantities (picomole to femtomole levels) of high-mass, thermally labile macromolecules. While most other analytical MS ionization techniques cause fragmentation, decomposition, or multiple charging, MALDI efficiently places intact macromolecules into the gas phase with little fragmentation or rearrangement. This project had 3 objectives: establish the MALDI capability at LLNL, perform fundamental studies of analyte-matrix interactions, and apply the technique for biochemical research. A retired time-of-flight instrument was adapted for MALDI analyses, relevant parameters influencing the MALDI process were identified for further study (matrix molar absorptivity, sample crystal preparation), and collaborations were established with research groups in the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program at LLNL. In MALDI, the macromolecule of interest is mixed with a high-molar excess (1:100 to 1:10,000) of an organic matrix which readily absorbs energy at the wavelength corresponding to a UV laser. Upon laser irradiation, the matrix absorbs the majority of the energy, causing it to desorb from the surface and gently release the macromolecule into the gas phase with little or no fragmentation. Once in the gas phase, ion-molecule reactions between excited matrix and neutral macromolecules generated ionized analyte species which then can be focused into a MS for detection.

  7. A Silicon Nanomembrane Detector for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS of Large Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghoo Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a MALDI-TOF ion detector based on freestanding silicon nanomembrane technology. The detector is tested in a commercial MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer with equimolar mixtures of proteins. The operating principle of the nanomembrane detector is based on phonon-assisted field emission from these silicon nanomembranes, in which impinging ion packets excite electrons in the nanomembrane to higher energy states. Thereby the electrons can overcome the vacuum barrier and escape from the surface of the nanomembrane via field emission. Ion detection is demonstrated of apomyoglobin (16,952 Da, aldolase (39,212 Da, bovine serum albumin (66,430 Da, and their equimolar mixtures. In addition to the three intact ions, a large number of fragment ions are also revealed by the silicon nanomembrane detector, which are not observable with conventional detectors.

  8. Identification and comparative proteomic study of quail and duck egg white protein using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S; Qiu, N; Liu, Y; Zhao, H; Gao, D; Song, R; Ma, M

    2016-05-01

    A proteomic study of egg white proteins from 2 major poultry species, namely quail (Coturnix coturnix) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos), was performed with comparison to those of chicken (Gallus gallus) through 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS), 29 protein spots representing 10 different kinds of proteins as well as 17 protein spots designating 9 proteins were successfully identified in quail and duck egg white, respectively. This report suggested a closer relationship between quail and chicken egg white proteome patterns, whereas the duck egg white protein distribution on the 2-DE map was more distinct. In duck egg white, some well-known major proteins, such as ovomucoid, clusterin, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein precursor (ex-FABP), and prostaglandin D2 synthase (PG D2 synthase), were not detected, while two major protein spots identified as "deleted in malignant brain tumors 1" protein (DMBT1) and vitellogenin-2 were found specific to duck in the corresponding range on the 2-DE gel map. These interspecies diversities may be associated with the egg white protein functions in cell defense or regulating/supporting the embryonic development to adapt to the inhabiting environment or reproduction demand during long-term evolution. The findings of this work will give insight into the advantages involved in the application on egg white proteins from various egg sources, which may present novel beneficial properties in the food industry or related to human health. PMID:26957635

  9. On the interaction of peptides with calcium ions as studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry: Towards peptide fishing using metal ion baits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous report [J.W. de Beukelaar, J.W. Gratama, P.A. Sillevis Smitt, G.M. Verjans, J. Kraan, Th.M. Luider, P.C. Burgers, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 21 (2007) 1282] on the quality assessment of synthetic peptides used in protein-spanning peptide pools by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS) we noted that certain peptides showed remarkably intense signals for their calcium-containing analogues. Here we report on a detailed mass spectrometric study of the unimolecular chemistry of these calcium-containing peptides. By integration of the experimental findings with computational results derived from DFT and the CBS-QB3 model chemistry, we have traced the processes induced by Ca2+ attachment in the peptide ions. Key to our analysis is the observation that all of the studied calcium-bound peptides containing a threonine or serine residue show prominent losses of CH3CH=O (from threonine) and/or CH2=O (from serine) in both the positive and the negative ion mode. In the first step, Ca2+ attaches itself to a negatively charged in-chain carboxylate group. Next, electrophilic attack of the calcium ion on the -CH(R)OH group of threonine (R=CH3) or serine (R=H) releases the hydroxyl proton which can then move to a suitable acceptor site, viz. a peptide bond. This leads to the formation of a very stable ionic bidentate structure. Upon collisional activation (MS/MS), this bidentate opens up leading to the loss of the exposed acetaldehyde or formaldehyde molecule, to yield another bidentate structure. MS/MS spectra of selected peptides interacting with other metal ions have also been investigated and it is found that only divalent ions follow the Ca2+-induced transformations

  10. Determination of osteocalcin in meat and bone meal of bovine and porcine origin using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for determining the origin of meat and bone meal (MBM) by detecting species-specific osteocalcin (OC) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF) and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry (HR-Q/TOF MS). The analysis is based on the detection of typical species-specific OC and its tryptic peptide fragments which differ in mass due to differences in the amino-acid sequences between species. After dissolving the MBM samples in EDTA buffer, purification after ultrafiltration was performed using two methods: solid-phase extraction using Zip-Tip C18 or size exclusion coupled with reverse-phase chromatography. Fractions containing partially purified intact OC were analyzed using LC-Q/TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry. Species-specific OC was detected at the typical protonated and doubly protonated molecular ions. Furthermore, typical porcine- and bovine-derived tryptic fragments from MBM were detected after enzymatic digestion. In order to determine the underlying amino-acid sequences and to confirm the assignment to OC-derived peptides, MS/MS analysis was carried out. In conclusion, we were able to detect OC in bovine and porcine MBM with high sensitivity and the MS-based method described here by which total OC mass and marker peptides of digested OC are recorded can be used as an alternative approach to detect genus-specific differences in MBM and can be applied as a confirmatory method to mainly immunological osteocalcin screening methods.

  11. Determination of osteocalcin in meat and bone meal of bovine and porcine origin using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balizs, Gabor, E-mail: gabor.balizs@bfr.bund.de [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Thielallee 88-92, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Weise, Christoph [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Thielallee 63, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Rozycki, Christel; Opialla, Tobias; Sawada, Stefanie; Zagon, Jutta; Lampen, Alfonso [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Thielallee 88-92, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-05

    A method has been developed for determining the origin of meat and bone meal (MBM) by detecting species-specific osteocalcin (OC) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF) and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry (HR-Q/TOF MS). The analysis is based on the detection of typical species-specific OC and its tryptic peptide fragments which differ in mass due to differences in the amino-acid sequences between species. After dissolving the MBM samples in EDTA buffer, purification after ultrafiltration was performed using two methods: solid-phase extraction using Zip-Tip C{sub 18} or size exclusion coupled with reverse-phase chromatography. Fractions containing partially purified intact OC were analyzed using LC-Q/TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry. Species-specific OC was detected at the typical protonated and doubly protonated molecular ions. Furthermore, typical porcine- and bovine-derived tryptic fragments from MBM were detected after enzymatic digestion. In order to determine the underlying amino-acid sequences and to confirm the assignment to OC-derived peptides, MS/MS analysis was carried out. In conclusion, we were able to detect OC in bovine and porcine MBM with high sensitivity and the MS-based method described here by which total OC mass and marker peptides of digested OC are recorded can be used as an alternative approach to detect genus-specific differences in MBM and can be applied as a confirmatory method to mainly immunological osteocalcin screening methods.

  12. Off-line hyphenation of boronate affinity monolith-based extraction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for efficient analysis of glycoproteins/glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Zijun; Chen, Yang; Li, Hengye; Wu, Ronghu; Liu, Zhen

    2014-06-27

    Boronate affinity materials have attracted increasing attentions as sample enrichment platforms for glycoproteomic analysis in recent years. However, most of the boronate affinity materials that have already employed for proteomic analysis are suffering from apparent disadvantages, such as alkaline pH for binding, weak affinity, and relatively poor selectivity. Benzoboroxoles are a unique class of boronic acids which have showed excellent binding properties for the recognition of cis-diol-containing compounds. Recently, a 3-carboxy-benzoboroxole-functionalized monolithic column had been reported and it had exhibited the best selectivity and affinity as well as the lowest binding pH among all reported boronate affinity monolithic columns. In this study, an off-line hyphenation of this boronate affinity monolithic column-based extraction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed and the powerfulness of this hyphenated approach in the analysis of glycoproteins and glycopeptides in complex samples was investigated. The approach was first applied to the analysis of glycopeptides in the tryptic digest of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Totally 22 glycopeptides were identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best performance among all the boronic acid-functionalized materials. We further employed this approach to the analysis of intact proteins in human saliva. Totally 6 intact glycoproteins were successfully identified. As comparison, when the samples were analyzed without extraction, only a few glycopeptides were identified from the tryptic digest of HRP while no glycoproteins were found from the saliva samples. PMID:24928239

  13. Desorption and ionization processes in laser mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis results are reported from a study on the desorption- and ionization process initiated by infra-red laser irradiation (LDMS) or ion bombardment (SIMS) of thin organic sample layers. The study is especially focused on the formation of quasimolecular ions under these conditions. Results of these investigations can be used for a better optimization of the LDMS and SIMS techniques in organic mass spectrometry. First, an overview is given of laser desorption mass spectrometry. Next, the coupling of the laser energy into the organic sample layer is investigated. It is concluded that the laser energy is primarily absorbed by the substrate material and not by the organic overlayer. The formation of quasi-molecular ions, either in the gas phase or in the substrate surface is investigated. The final section reports kinetic energy distributions for ions sputtered from organic solids and liquids. (Auth.)

  14. Polymer-based metal nano-coated disposable target for matrix-assisted and matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugovsky, Stefan; Winkler, Wolfgang; Balika, Werner; Koranda, Manfred; Allmaier, Günter

    2016-07-15

    The ideal MALDI/LDI mass spectrometry sample target for an axial TOF instrument possesses a variety of properties. Primarily, it should be chemically inert to the sample, i.e. analyte, matrix and solvents, highly planar across the whole target, without any previous chemical contact and provide a uniform surface to facilitate reproducible measurements without artifacts from previous sample or matrix compounds. This can be hard to achieve with a metal target, which has to be extensively cleaned every time after use. Any cleaning step may leave residues behind, may change the surface properties due to the type of cleaning method used or even cause microscopic scratches over time hence altering matrix crystallization behavior. Alternatively, use of disposable targets avoids these problems. As each possesses the same surface they therefore have the potential to replace the conventional full metal targets so commonly employed. Furthermore, low cost single-use targets with high planarity promise an easier compliance with GLP guidelines as they alleviate the problem of low reproducibility due to inconsistent sample/matrix crystallization and changes to the target surface properties. In our tests, polymeric metal nano-coated targets were compared to a stainless steel reference. The polymeric metal nano-coated targets exhibited all the performance characteristics for a MALDI MS sample support, and even surpassed the - in our lab commonly used - reference in some aspects like limit of detection. The target exhibits all necessary features such as electrical conductivity, vacuum, laser and solvent compatibility. PMID:27038744

  15. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15 Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148 nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ≥ 0.004 Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5 pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157 nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds. PMID:25601688

  16. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled with quadrupole/orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein discovery, identification, and structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M A; Medzihradszky, K F; Lock, C M; Fisher, B; Settineri, T A; Burlingame, A L

    2001-04-15

    The design and operation of a novel UV-MALDI ionization source on a commercial QqoaTOF mass spectrometer (Applied Biosystem/MDS Sciex QSTAR Pulsar) is described. Samples are loaded on a 96-well target plate, the movement of which is under software control and can be readily automated. Unlike conventional high-energy MALDI-TOF, the ions are produced with low energies (5-10 eV) in a region of relatively low vacuum (8 mTorr). Thus, they are cooled by extensive low-energy collisions before selection in the quadrupole mass analyzer (Q1), potentially giving a quasi-continuous ion beam ideally suited to the oaTOF used for mass analysis of the fragment ions, although ion yields from individual laser shots may vary widely. Ion dissociation is induced by collisions with argon in an rf-only quadrupole cell, giving typical low-energy CID spectra for protonated peptide ions. Ions separated in the oaTOF are registered by a four-anode detector and time-to-digital converter and accumulated in "bins" that are 625 ps wide. Peak shapes depend upon the number of ion counts in adjacent bins. As expected, the accuracy of mass measurement is shown to be dependent upon the number of ions recorded for a particular peak. With internal calibration, mass accuracy better than 10 ppm is attainable for peaks that contain sufficient ions to give well-defined Gaussian profiles. By virtue of its high resolution, capability for accurate mass measurements, and sensitivity in the low-femotomole range, this instrument is ideally suited to protein identification for proteomic applications by generation of peptide tags, manual sequence interpretation, identification of modifications such as phosphorylation, and protein structural elucidation. Unlike the multiply charged ions typical of electrospray ionization, the singly charged MALDI-generated peptide ions show a linear dependence of optimal collision energy upon molecular mass, which is advantageous for automated operation. It is shown that the novel

  17. Electrode-assisted desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Abdil; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2010-10-01

    A new ion source has been developed for rapid, noncontact analysis of materials at ambient conditions. The method provides desorption of analytes under ambient conditions directly from different surfaces with little or no sample preparation. The new method, termed electrode-assisted desorption electrospray ionization (EADESI), is on the basis of the ionization of molecules on different surfaces by highly charged droplets produced on a sharp-edged high voltage tip, and ions produced are introduced into the mass spectrometer through a capillary. The EADESI technique can be applied to various samples including amino acids, peptides, proteins, drugs and human fluids such as urine and blood. EADESI is promising for routine analyses in different fields such as forensic, environmental and material sciences. EADESI interface can be fit to a conventional ion-trap mass spectrometer. It can be used for various types of samples with a broad mass range. EADESI can also provide real-time analysis which is very valuable for biomedical applications. PMID:20857387

  18. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12±1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3xω Nd:YAG laser in air, SF6 or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to ∼2 μm in SF6 gas and to ∼5 μm in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly (∼10x) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits

  19. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yong [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Luo Guanghong [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Diao Jiajie [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Chornoguz, Olesya [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Reeves, Mark [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Vertes, Akos [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12{+-}1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3x{omega} Nd:YAG laser in air, SF{sub 6} or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to {approx}2 {mu}m in SF{sub 6} gas and to {approx}5 {mu}m in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly ({approx}10x) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits.

  20. Robot Assisted Laser Osteotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Burgner, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    In the scope of this thesis world's first robot system was developed, which facilitates osteotomy using laser in arbitrary geometries with an overall accuracy below 0.5mm. Methods of computer and robot assisted surgery were reconsidered and composed to a workflow. Adequate calibration and registration methods are proposed. Further a methodology for transferring geometrically defined cutting trajectories into pulse sequences and optimized execution plans is developed.

  1. Cobalt coated substrate for matrix-free analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small molecule analysis is one of the most challenging issues in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. We have developed a cobalt coated substrate as a target for matrix-free analysis of small molecules in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Cobalt coating of 60-70 nm thickness has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. This target facilitates hundreds of samples to be spotted and analyzed without mixing any matrices, in a very short time. This can save a lot of time and money and can be a very practical approach for the analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  2. Ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as a novel matrix for rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of serum free fatty acids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yaping [Department of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dongdan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Wang, Yanmin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Heze Municipal Hospital, Shandong (China); Guo, Shuai; Guo, Yumei; Liu, Hui [Department of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dongdan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Li, Zhili, E-mail: lizhili@ibms.pumc.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dongdan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China)

    2013-09-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A novel MALDI matrix for the detection of serum free fatty acids is ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride. •Multiple point internal standard calibration curves were constructed for nine FFAs, respectively, with excellent correlation coefficients between 0.991 and 0.999. •The MALDI-MS approach was used to rapidly differentiate the patients with and without hyperglycemia and healthy controls. -- Abstract: The blood free fatty acids (FFAs), which provide energy to the cell and act as substrates in the synthesis of fats, lipoproteins, liposaccharides, and eicosanoids, involve in a number of important physiological processes. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS) with ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (ATNEDC) as a novel MALDI matrix in a negative ion mode was employed to directly quantify serum FFAs. Multiple point internal standard calibration curves between the concentration ratios of individual fatty acids to internal standard (IS, C{sub 17:0}) versus their corresponding intensity ratios were constructed for C{sub 14:0}, C{sub 16:1}, C{sub 16:0}, C{sub 18:0}, C{sub 18:1}, C{sub 18:2}, C{sub 18:3}, C{sub 20:4}, and C{sub 22:6}, respectively, in their mixture, with correlation coefficients between 0.991 and 0.999 and limits of detection (LODs) between 0.2 and 5.4 μM, along with the linear dynamic range of more than two orders of magnitude. The results indicate that the multiple point internal standard calibration could reduce the impact of ion suppression and improve quantification accuracy in the MALDI mode. The quantitative results of nine FFAs from 339 serum samples, including 161 healthy controls, 118 patients with hyperglycemia and 60 patients without hyperglycemia show that FFAs levels in hyperglycemic patient sera are significantly higher than those in healthy

  3. Recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have attracted great interest over past decades owing to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. In this article, we review recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS). Various types of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanodots, nanodiamond, nanofibers, nanohorns, and their derivative forms, are involved. The applications of these materials as new matrices or probes in matrix-assisted or surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI or SELDI MS) are discussed. Finally, we summarize current challenges and give our perspectives on the future of applications of carbon nanomaterials in LDI MS. Graphical Abstract Carbon nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamond, etc.) can be used as novel matrices or probes in MALDI or SELDI MS. PMID:26753968

  4. Laser desorption/vaporization/ionization techniques for matter-wave interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Testing the delocalization of individual massive objects is an exciting experimental challenge of modern quantum physics and substantial progress in matter-wave interferometry with complex particles has led to the establishment of quantum-assisted molecule metrology and advanced investigations at the boundary between the classical and quantum mechanical evolution of very massive objects. New interferometers have led to demonstrations of the quantum wave nature of organic molecules beyond 10 000 amu and even of clusters of molecules. One of the major challenges for future interference experiments with large particles is the production of a neutral and slow molecular beam. We aim at particles with a mass beyond 104 u that should travel with sufficient intensity, low internal temperature and low transverse velocity. Here we present a series of experiments characterizing different laser desorption sources for future quantum interference experiments, the Quantum LIMES (Laser Induced Molecule Evaporation Sources). We describe the matrix-free laser desorption and laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) with subsequent UV/VUV photoionization in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We present mass spectra and velocity distributions of large tailor-made perfluoroalkyl-functionalized molecules as well as more thermo labile biomolecules and we discuss the suitability of LIAD for matter wave interferometry. (author)

  5. Laser desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Fundamentals .Applications; Desorption laser et spectrometrie de masse par temps de vol. Aspects fondamentaux. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurand, P.

    1994-11-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a very powerful technique for the analysis of heavy molecular ions (100 000 u and more). The ejection in the gas phase and the ionization of these molecules is now possible through the MALDI technique (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization). This technique consists in mixing the heavy molecules to be analysed with a organic matrix which absorbs at the wavelength of the laser. The necessary irradiance are of the order of 10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 2}. In these conditions we have shown that the mass resolutions are optimum and that the relative mass accuracies are of the order of 10{sup -4}. We have also demonstrated that the emission angle of the molecular ions in MALDI depends on the incident angle of the laser light. During the desorption process, the molecular ions are emitted in the opposite direction of the incident laser light. This effect is particularly important for the design of the accelerating stage of the time-of-flight spectrometers. Problems relative to the detection of these heavy molecular ions have been studied in details between 0.5 10{sup 4} m/s and 10{sup 5} m/s. The velocity threshold of the electronic emission is lower than the value of 0.5 10{sup 4} m/s. The relation between the electronic emission and the projectile velocity is complex. Finally, examples on mass identification of C{sub 60} molecules and derivated C{sub 60} are presented. Desorption methods are compared. (author). 32 refs., 34 figs.

  6. Desorption Dynamics, Internal Energies and Imaging of Organic Molecules from Surfaces with Laser Desorption and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-04-05

    There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures, as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer, using laser desorption VUV postionization shows 5 mu m feature details while using a 30 mu m laser spot size and 7 ns duration. Applications of laser desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin and humic acids are briefly discussed.

  7. Identification of Bacillus spp. colonizing the nasal mucosa of healthy adults living in the suburban area using the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosikowska Urszula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus spp. can be regarded as a rare component of the nasal mucosa microflora. The aim of this study was to identify Bacillus spp. from the nasal mucosa of healthy adults living in the suburban area near Lublin using the matrix-assisted laser desorptionionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS system.

  8. Matrix-free Laser Desorption/Ionization on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated that relatively small peptides dropped and dried on vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays can be efficiently desorbed and ionized with 337 nm laser pulses. Since the vertically aligned CNTa can be easily fabricated in various patterns on substrate by well-established semiconductor fabrication technology and can be stored for a long time without decay of performance, it may be an excellent substrate for matrix-free LDI of various small molecules. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has established its position as one of the most useful ionization techniques in mass spectrometry and its contribution to the scientific communities related to mass spectrometry was appreciated with the 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry given to the first developer, Tanaka. It is really an effective and sensitive ion formation technique which commonly employs an organic acid as the matrix. The use of such organic acids as the matrices has provided the high efficiency of desorption and ionization of large molecules including peptides, proteins, synthetic polymers, etc. for the MALDI technique. Interestingly, the matrix, which made the MALDI technique practical, poses an intrinsic constraint to the analyses of relatively small molecules below 1000 Da because the low mass regions in MALDI mass spectra are dominated by the strong background signals of the matrix molecule, its dimer, and their clusters with solvent molecules. Several approaches have been tried to find the methods that give the high desorption/ionization efficiency of MALDI without using the organic matrices

  9. Target Plate Material Influence on Fullerene-C60 Laser Desorption/Ionization Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Guido P.; Günthardt, Barbara F.; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Systematic laser desorption/ionization (LDI) experiments of fullerene-C60 on a wide range of target plate materials were conducted to gain insight into the initial ion formation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The positive and negative ion signal intensities of precursor, fragment, and cluster ions were monitored, varying both the laser fluence (0-3.53 Jcm-2) and the ion extraction delay time (0-950 ns). The resulting species-specific ion signal intensities are an indication for the ionization mechanisms that contribute to LDI and the time frames in which they operate, providing insight in the (MA)LDI primary ionization. An increasing electrical resistivity of the target plate material increases the fullerene-C60 precursor and fragment anion signal intensity. Inconel 625 and Ti90/Al6/V4, both highly electrically resistive, provide the highest anion signal intensities, exceeding the cation signal intensity by a factor ~1.4 for the latter. We present a mechanism based on transient electrical field strength reduction to explain this trend. Fullerene-C60 cluster anion formation is negligible, which could be due to the high extraction potential. Cluster cations, however, are readily formed, although for high laser fluences, the preferred channel is formation of precursor and fragment cations. Ion signal intensity depends greatly on the choice of substrate material, and careful substrate selection could, therefore, allow for more sensitive (MA)LDI measurements.

  10. Synthesis of 4-vinylpyridine–divinylbenzene copolymer adsorbents for microwave-assisted desorption of benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Macroporous polymers with hydrophilic methylpyridinium groups were synthesized. ► Microwave-assisted desorption increased with the hydrophilicity of polymers. ► Adsorbed moisture allowed indirect heating of the polymers to a higher temperature. ► The enhanced desorption was due mainly to more adsorbed moisture on the polymers. - Abstract: Reports on the development of polymer adsorbents for microwave-assisted desorption of nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are rare. In this study, we synthesized macroporous polymeric adsorbents with hydrophilic methyl pyridinium units for microwave-assisted desorption of nonpolar VOCs. The benzene adsorption and desorption properties of the adsorbents were investigated under both dry and humid conditions. Under humid conditions, as the content of the hydrophilic methyl pyridinium units in the adsorbents increased from 0 to 20%, the adsorption capacity of benzene decreased from about 21 to 7 mg/g, while the desorption efficiency of benzene increased significantly from 48 to 87%. The maximum concentration of desorbate also increased significantly as the content of the hydrophilic units was increased under humid conditions. We attributed the enhanced desorption efficiency mainly to more adsorbed moisture, which indirectly allowed heating of the polymer adsorbents to higher temperatures upon irradiation with 600 W microwaves.

  11. Identification of Microalgae by Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Multiple Nanomatrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lung-Hsiang; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Shih, Chi-Yu; Hsiung, Tung-Ming; Chang, Jeng; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chiu, Tai-Chia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a simple method to identify microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using three different substrates: HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe nanostructures. The fragmentation/ionization processes of complex molecules in algae varied according to the heat absorption and transfer efficiency of the nanostructured matrices (NMs). Therefore, the mass spectra obtained for microalgae showed different patterns of m/z values for different NMs. The spectra contained both significant and nonsignificant peaks. Constructing a Venn diagram with the significant peaks obtained for algae when using HgSe, HgTe, and HgTeSe NMs in m/z ratio range 100-1000, a unique relationship among the three sets of values was obtained. This unique relationship of sets is different for each species of microalgae. Therefore, by observing the particular relationship of sets, we successfully identified different algae such as Isochrysis galbana, Emiliania huxleyi, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Nannochloris sp., Skeletonema cf. costatum, and Tetraselmis chui. This simple and cost-effective SALDI-MS analysis method coupled with multi-nanomaterials as substrates may be extended to identify other microalgae and microorganisms in real samples. Graphical Abstract Identification of microalgae by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry coupled with three different mercury-based nanosubstrates. PMID:26842733

  12. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of lipids using etched silver substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnapp, Andreas; Niehoff, Ann-Christin; Koch, Annika; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2016-07-15

    Silver-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry can be used for the analysis of small molecules. For example, adduct formation with silver cations enables the molecular analysis of long-chain hydrocarbons, which are difficult to ionize via conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). Here we used highly porous silver foils, produced by etching with nitric acid, as sample substrates for LDI mass spectrometry. As model system for the analysis of complex lipid mixtures, cuticular extracts of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and worker bees (Apis mellifera) were investigated. The mass spectra obtained by spotting extract onto the etched silver substrates demonstrate the sensitive detection of numerous lipid classes such as long-chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, fatty acyl alcohols, wax esters, and triacylglycerols. MS imaging of cuticular surfaces with a lateral resolution of a few tens of micrometers became possible after blotting, i.e., after transferring lipids by physical contact with the substrate. The examples of pheromone-producing male hindwings of the squinting bush brown butterfly (Bicyclus anynana) and a fingermark are shown. Because the substrates are also easy to produce, they provide a viable alternative to colloidal silver nanoparticles and other so far described silver substrates. PMID:26827933

  13. Nanostructured silicon surface modifications for as a selective matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C W; Lin, C H; Cheng, Y C; Chien, C C; Chang, C C; Chen, W Y

    2012-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry is an established soft ionization method that is widely applied to analyze biomolecules. The UV-absorbing organic matrix is essential for biomolecule ionization; however, it also creates matrix background interference, which results in problematic analyses of biomolecules of less than 700 Da. Therefore, this study investigates hydrophilic, hydrophobic cationic, anionic and immobilized metal ion surface chemical modifications to advance nanostructured silicon mass spectrometry performance (nSi-MS). This investigation provides information required for a possible novel mass spectroscopy that combines surface-enhanced and nanostructured silicon surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the selective detection of specific compounds of a mixture. PMID:22531330

  14. Coupling of Phosphate-Imprinted Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles-Based Selective Enrichment with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Highly Efficient Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Daojin; Bie, Zijun; He, Xinpei; Liu, Zhen

    2016-01-19

    Protein phosphorylation is a major post-translational modification and represents a ubiquitous mechanism for the cellular signaling of many different biological processes. Selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from the complex biological samples is a key step for the mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of protein phosphorylation. Herein, we present phosphate-imprinted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as an ideal sorbent for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides and an off-line combination with matrix-asisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for highly efficient analysis of protein phosphorylation. The phosphate-imprinted MSNs were prepared according to a newly reported strategy called dual-template docking oriented molecular imprinting (DTD-OMI). The prepared molecularly imprinted mesoporous material exhibited several significant merits, such as excellent selectivity toward phosphopeptides, tolerance to interference, fast binding equilibrium, and large binding capacity, which made the molecularly imprinted mesoporous material an ideal sorbent for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. Using β-casein as a representative phosphoprotein, highly efficient phosphorylation analysis by the off-line platform was verified. Phosphorylation analysis of a nonfat milk sample was also well demonstrated. Because of their highly desirable properties, the phosphate-imprinted MSNs could find more applications in the analysis of protein phosphorylation. PMID:26684413

  15. Investigation of thin ZnO layers in view of laser desorption-ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnikov, A. A.; Georgieva, V. B.; Alimpiev, S. S.; Borodkov, A. S.; Nikiforov, S. M.; Simanovsky, Ya O.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Angelov, O. I.

    2010-04-01

    Thin zinc oxide films (ZnO) were developed as a matrix-free platform for surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The ZnO films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering of ZnO ceramic targets in Ar atmospheres on monocrystalline silicon. The generation under UV (355 nm) laser irradiation of positive ions of atenolol, reserpine and gramicidin S from the ZnO layers deposited was studied. All analytes tested were detected as protonated molecules with no or very structure-specific fragmentation. The mass spectra obtained showed low levels of chemical background noise. All ZnO films studied exhibited high stability and good reproducibility. The detection limits for test analytes are in the 10 femtomol range.

  16. Nanostructured porous silicon by laser assisted electrochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Lu, C.; Hu, X. K.; Yang, Xiujuan; Loboda, A. V.; Lipson, R. H.

    2009-08-01

    Nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) was fabricated by combining electrochemical etching with 355 nm laser processing. pSi prepared in this way proves to be an excellent substrate for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectrometry (MS). Surfaces prepared by electrochemical etching and laser irradiation exhibit strong quantum confinement as evidenced by the observation of a red shift in the Si Raman band at ~520-500 cm-1. The height of the nanostructured columns produced by electrochemical etching and laser processing is on the order of microns compared with tens of nanometers obtained without laser irradiation. The threshold for laser desorption and ionization of 12 mJ/cm2 using the pSi substrates prepared in this work is lower than that obtained for conventional matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MS using a standard matrix compound such as [alpha]-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA; 30 mJ/cm2). Furthermore, the substrates prepared by etching and laser irradiation appear to resist laser damage better than those prepared by etching alone. These results enhance the capability of pSi for the detection of small molecular weight analytes by DIOS-MS.

  17. Laser desorption ionization and peptide sequencing on laser induced silicon microcolumn arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos; Chen, Yong

    2011-12-27

    The present invention provides a method of producing a laser-patterned silicon surface, especially silicon wafers for use in laser desorption ionization (LDI-MS) (including MALDI-MS and SELDI-MS), devices containing the same, and methods of testing samples employing the same. The surface is prepared by subjecting a silicon substrate to multiple laser shots from a high-power picosecond or femtosecond laser while in a processing environment, e.g., underwater, and generates a remarkable homogenous microcolumn array capable of providing an improved substrate for LDI-MS.

  18. 大气压基质辅助激光解析离子源高分辨飞行时间质谱仪的研制%The Study of Atmospheric Pressure Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization and High Mass Resolution Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粘慧青; 黄正旭; 郭长娟; 高伟; 周振

    2007-01-01

    本文介绍了实验室自制的大气压基质辅助激光解析离子源(Atmospheric Pressure Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization,AP-MALDI)高分辨飞行时间质谱仪(Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer,TOFMS)的原理、结构以及初步的实验结果.通过对多肽样品gramicidin S的分析,国内首次实现在自制AP-MALDI-TOFMS上得到生物大分子谱图.结果表明,AP-MALDI高分辨TOFMS可以实现大气压下大通量的大分子精确质量检测.仪器分辨率优于8000(Full Width at Half Maximum,FWHM),最低检测限可达25fmol.

  19. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  20. In-source photocatalytic reduction of disulfide bonds during laser desorption ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, L.; Bi, H.; Busnel, J M; B. Liu; Girault, H. H.

    2008-01-01

    A photosensitive plate based on sintered TiO2 nanoparticles has been developed to carry out in-source photo-induced reductions for cleavage of disulfide bridges using glucose as a hole scavenger during laser desorption ionization.

  1. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  2. Chemically modified carbon nanotubes as material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI) material in protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomarkers play a potential role in the early detection and diagnosis of a disease. Our aim is to derivatize carbon nanotubes for exploration of the differences in human body fluids e.g. serum, through matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) that can be related to disease and subsequently to be employed in the biomarker discovery process. This application we termed as the material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI). The versatility of this technology is meant to increase the amount of information from biological samples on the protein level, which will have a major impact to serve the cause of diagnostic markers. Serum peptides and proteins are immobilized on derivatized carbon nanotubes, which function as binding material. Protein-loaded suspension is placed on a stainless steel target or buckypaper on aluminum target for direct analysis with MALDI-MS. The elution method to wash the bound proteins from carbon nanotubes was employed to compare with the direct analysis procedure. Elution is carried out by MALDI matrix solution to get them out of the entangled nanotubes, which are difficult to desorb by laser due to the complex nanotube structures. The advantage of these optimized methods compared to the conventional screening methods is the improved sensitivity, selectivity and the short analysis time without prior albumin and immunoglobulin depletion. The comparison of similarly modified diamond and carbon nanotubes exhibit differences in their nature to bind the proteins out of serum due to the differences in their physical characteristics. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provided hint for the presence of tertiary amine peak at the crucial chemical step of iminodiacetic acid addition to acid chloride functionality on carbon nanotubes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was utilized to quantitatively measure the copper capacity of these derivatized carbon nanotubes which is a direct measure of capacity of

  3. Chemically modified carbon nanotubes as material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI) material in protein profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najam-ul-Haq, M. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rainer, M. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schwarzenauer, T. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huck, C.W. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: christian.w.huck@uibk.ac.at; Bonn, G.K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2006-03-02

    Biomarkers play a potential role in the early detection and diagnosis of a disease. Our aim is to derivatize carbon nanotubes for exploration of the differences in human body fluids e.g. serum, through matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) that can be related to disease and subsequently to be employed in the biomarker discovery process. This application we termed as the material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI). The versatility of this technology is meant to increase the amount of information from biological samples on the protein level, which will have a major impact to serve the cause of diagnostic markers. Serum peptides and proteins are immobilized on derivatized carbon nanotubes, which function as binding material. Protein-loaded suspension is placed on a stainless steel target or buckypaper on aluminum target for direct analysis with MALDI-MS. The elution method to wash the bound proteins from carbon nanotubes was employed to compare with the direct analysis procedure. Elution is carried out by MALDI matrix solution to get them out of the entangled nanotubes, which are difficult to desorb by laser due to the complex nanotube structures. The advantage of these optimized methods compared to the conventional screening methods is the improved sensitivity, selectivity and the short analysis time without prior albumin and immunoglobulin depletion. The comparison of similarly modified diamond and carbon nanotubes exhibit differences in their nature to bind the proteins out of serum due to the differences in their physical characteristics. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provided hint for the presence of tertiary amine peak at the crucial chemical step of iminodiacetic acid addition to acid chloride functionality on carbon nanotubes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was utilized to quantitatively measure the copper capacity of these derivatized carbon nanotubes which is a direct measure of capacity of

  4. Signal enhancement in electrospray laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry by using a black oxide-coated metal target and a relatively low laser fluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononikhin, Alexey; Huang, Min-Zong; Popov, Igor; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kukaev, Evgeny; Boldyrev, Alexey; Spasskiy, Alexander; Leypunskiy, Ilya; Shiea, Jentaie; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    The electrospray Laser desorption/ionization (ELDI) method is actively used for direct sample analysis and ambient mass spectrometry imaging. The optimizing of Laser desorption conditions is essential for this technology. In this work, we propose using a metal target with a black oxide (Fe3O4) coating to increase the signal in ELDI-MS for peptides and small proteins. The experiments were performed on an LTQ-FT mass spectrometer equipped with a home-made ELDI ion source. A cutter blade with black oxide coating was used as a target. A nitrogen laser was used with the following parameters: 337 nm, pulse duration 4ns, repetition rate 10 Hz, fluence to approximately 700 Jm(-2). More than a five times signal increase was observed for a substance P peptide when a coated and a non-coated metal target were compared. No ion signal was observed for proteins if the same fluence and the standard stainless steel target were used. With the assistance of the Fe3O4 coated metal target and a relatively low laser fluence < or =700 Jm(-2)), proteins such as insulin, ubiquitin and myoglobin were successfully ionized. It was demonstrated that the Fe3O4-coated metal target can be used efficiently to assist laser desorption and thus significantly increase the analyte signal in ELDI-MS. A relatively low laser fluence (< or = 700 Jm(-2)) was enough to desorb peptides and proteins (up to 17 kDal with the assistance of the Fe3O4-coated metal target under ambient conditions. PMID:24575623

  5. Laser-assisted fabrication of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Manna, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Laser assisted fabrication involves shaping of materials using laser as a source of heat. It can be achieved by removal of materials (laser assisted cutting, drilling, etc.), deformation (bending, extrusion), joining (welding, soldering) and addition of materials (surface cladding or direct laser cladding). This book on ´Laser assisted Fabrication’ is aimed at developing in-depth engineering concepts on various laser assisted macro and micro-fabrication techniques with the focus on application and a review of the engineering background of different micro/macro-fabrication techniques, thermal history of the treated zone and microstructural development and evolution of properties of the treated zone.

  6. Airborne laser-spark for ambient desorption/ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierstedt, Andreas; Riedel, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A novel direct sampling ionisation scheme for ambient mass spectrometry is presented. Desorption and ionisation are achieved by a quasi-continuous laser induced plasma in air. Since there are no solid or liquid electrodes involved the ion source does not suffer from chemical interferences or fatigue originating from erosive burning or from electrode consumption. The overall plasma maintains electro-neutrality, minimising charge effects and accompanying long term drift of the charged particles trajectories. In the airborne plasma approach the ambient air not only serves as the plasma medium but at the same time also slows down the nascent ions via collisional cooling. Ionisation of the analyte molecules does not occur in the plasma itself but is induced by interaction with nascent ionic fragments, electrons and/or far ultraviolet photons in the plasma vicinity. At each individual air-spark an audible shockwave is formed, providing new reactive species, which expands concentrically and, thus, prevents direct contact of the analyte with the hot region inside the plasma itself. As a consequence the interaction volume between plasma and analyte does not exceed the threshold temperature for thermal dissociation or fragmentation. Experimentally this indirect ionisation scheme is demonstrated to be widely unspecific to the chemical nature of the analyte and to hardly result in any fragmentation of the studied molecules. A vast ensemble of different test analytes including polar and non-polar hydrocarbons, sugars, low mass active ingredients of pharmaceuticals as well as natural biomolecules in food samples directly out of their complex matrices could be shown to yield easily accessible yet meaningful spectra. Since the plasma medium is humid air, the chemical reaction mechanism of the ionisation is likely to be similar to other ambient ionisation techniques. Wir stellen hier eine neue Ionisationsmethode für die Umgebungsionisation (ambient ionisation) vor. Sowohl die

  7. Site Specificity in Femtosecond Laser Desorption of Neutral H Atoms from Graphite(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigge, R.; Hoger, T.; Siemer, B.; Witte, H.; Silies, M.; Zacharias, H; Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond laser excitation and density functional theory reveal site and vibrational state specificity in neutral atomic hydrogen desorption from graphite induced by multiple electronic transitions. Multimodal velocity distributions witness the participation of ortho and para pair states of che...... chemisorbed hydrogen in the desorption process. Very slow velocities of 700 and 400  ms-1 for H and D atoms are associated with the desorption out of the highest vibrational state of a barrierless potential.......Femtosecond laser excitation and density functional theory reveal site and vibrational state specificity in neutral atomic hydrogen desorption from graphite induced by multiple electronic transitions. Multimodal velocity distributions witness the participation of ortho and para pair states of...

  8. Laser desorption fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, T; Dagan, S; Amirav, A

    1998-06-01

    A novel method for fast analysis is presented. It is based on laser desorption injection followed by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in supersonic molecular beams. The sample was placed in an open air or purged laser desorption compartment, held at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature conditions. Desorption was performed with a XeCl Excimer pulsed laser with pulse energy of typically 3 mJ on the surface. About 20 pulses at 50 Hz were applied for sample injection, resulting in about 0.4 s injection time and one or a few micrograms sample vapor or small particles. The laser desorbed sample was further thermally vaporized at a heated frit glass filter located at the fast GC inlet. Ultrafast GC separation and quantification was achieved with a 50-cm-long megabore column operated with a high carrier gas flow rate of up to 240 mL/min. The high carrier gas flow rate provided effective and efficient entrainment of the laser desorbed species in the sweeping gas. Following the fast GC separation, the sample was analyzed by mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams. Both electron ionization and hyperthermal surface ionization were employed for enhanced selectivity and sensitivity. Typical laser desorption analysis time was under 10 s. The laser desorption fast GC-MS was studied and demonstrated with the following sample/matrices combinations, all without sample preparation or extraction: (a) traces of dioctylphthalate plasticizer oil on stainless steel surface and the efficiency of its cleaning; (b) the detection of methylparathion and aldicarb pesticides on orange leaves; (c) water surface analysis for the presence of methylparathion pesticide; (d) caffeine analysis in regular and decaffeinated coffee powder; (e) paracetamol and codeine drug analysis in pain relieving drug tablets; (f) caffeine trace analysis in raw urine; (g) blood analysis for the presence of 1 ppm lidocaine drug. The features and advantages of the laser desorption fast GC

  9. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon

    2008-05-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  10. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  11. Laser-synchrotron studies of the dynamics of UV-photon-stimulated desorption in alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-synchrotron studies of neutral alkali emission from alkali halide crystals are yielding new insights into the dynamics of energy absorption, energy localization and bond-breaking in photon-stimulated desorption. The ground-state neutral desorption is triggered by the thermal diffusion of photon-induced electronic defects; however, the excited-state neutral alkalis are formed in a surface-specific process on an extremely short time scale. In addition, there is new evidence for a surface overlayer which retards substrate desorption, thus suggesting a new approach to the optical damage problem at ultraviolet wavelengths. 8 references

  12. Laser-synchrotron studies of the dynamics of UV-photon-stimulated desorption in alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-synchrotron studies of neutral alkali emission from alkali halide crystals are yielding new insights into the dynamics of energy absorption, energy localization and bond-breaking in photon-stimulated desorption. The ground-state neutral desorption is triggered by thermal diffusion of photon-induced electronic defects; however, the excited-state neutral alkalis are formed in a surface-specific process on an extremely short time scale. In addition, there is new evidence for a surface overlayer which retards substrate desorption, thus suggesting a new approach to the optical damage problem at ultraviolet wavelengths

  13. Ultraviolet-laser-induced desorption of atoms, ions, and molecules from lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of ultraviolet-laser-induced desorption of atoms, ions, and molecules from the surface of single-crystal, Y-cut lithium niobate at intensities below the plasma threshold. Particularly striking is the desorption of LiNbO3 molecules at intensities well below the threshold for the atomic and ion emission. Measurement of oxygen and niobium yields above and below the plasma threshold show changes in surface stoichiometry

  14. Ambient diode laser desorption dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry of nonvolatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Schilling, Michael; Ahlmann, Norman; Michels, Antje; Hayen, Heiko; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; García-Reyes, Juan F; Franzke, Joachim

    2013-03-19

    In this work, the combined use of desorption by a continuous wave near-infrared diode laser and ionization by a dielectric barrier discharge-based probe (laser desorption dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry (LD-DBDI-MS)) is presented as an ambient ionization method for the mass spectrometric detection of nonvolatile chemicals on surfaces. A separation of desorption and ionization processes could be verified. The use of the diode laser is motivated by its low cost, ease of use, and small size. To achieve an efficient desorption, the glass substrates are coated at the back side with a black point (target point, where the sample is deposited) in order to absorb the energy offered by the diode laser radiation. Subsequent ionization is accomplished by a helium plasmajet generated in the dielectric barrier discharge source. Examples on the application of this approach are shown in both positive and negative ionization modes. A wide variety of multiclass species with low vapor pressure were tested including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and explosives (reserpine, roxithromycin, propazine, prochloraz, spinosad, ampicillin, dicloxacillin, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, spinosad, cyclo-1,3,5,7-tetramethylene tetranitrate (HMX), and cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene trinitramine (RDX)). A comparative evaluation revealed that the use of the laser is advantageous, compared to just heating the substrate surface. PMID:23419061

  15. Exploring the Potential of Cryodetectors for the Detection of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Produced Ions: Application to Profiling and Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PierreChaurand; GertraudHayn; UrsMatter; RichardM.Caprioli

    2004-01-01

    OVERVIEW Evaluation of the potential of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI TOFMS) equipped with a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ)cryodetector for the detection of high molecular weight proteins.

  16. Laser desorption with corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry for direct surface detection of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, M; Malásková, M; Matejčík, S

    2014-10-21

    We present a new highly sensitive technique for the detection of explosives directly from the surface using laser desorption-corona discharge-ion mobility spectrometry (LD-CD-IMS). We have developed LD based on laser diode modules (LDM) and the technique was tested using three different LDM (445, 532 and 665 nm). The explosives were detected directly from the surface without any further preparation. We discuss the mechanism of the LD and the limitations of this technique such as desorption time, transport time and desorption area. After the evaluation of experimental data, we estimated the potential limits of detection of this method to be 0.6 pg for TNT, 2.8 pg for RDX and 8.4 pg for PETN. PMID:25118619

  17. Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry for High Throughput DNA Analysis and Its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allman, S.L.; Chen, C.H.; Golovlev, V.V.; Isola, N.R.; Matteson, K.J.; Potter, N.T.; Taranenko, N.I.

    1999-01-23

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) has been developed for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and DNA Fingerprinting for forensic applications. With LDMS, the speed of DNA analysis can be much faster than conventional gel electrophoresis. No dye or radioactive tagging to DNA segments for detection is needed. LDMS is emerging as a new alternative technology for DNA analysis.

  18. Concise Synthesis of Photocleavable Molecular Tag for Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry via Fries Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gathirwa, Jeremiah W.; Maki, Toshihide

    2013-01-01

    A new synthetic route for the photocleavable molecular tag for laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) was achieved using Fries reaction of 2,6-dimethylphenyl ester as its key reaction. Zirconium chloride was found as uniquely efficient adjuvant to promote the reaction. The molecular tag was obtained in 5 steps without chromatographic purification.

  19. Exploration and research of rapidly identifying escherichia coli and detecting ESBLs strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry%MALDI-TOF MS方法快速鉴定大肠杆菌及ESBLs菌株检测探索研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战晓微; 杜影; 王宏伟; 吴远高; 郑秋月

    2015-01-01

    Objective The strains of Escherichia coli was tested by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). ESBLs strains were distinguished, and different type ESBLs strains was differentiated by clustering analysis. Feasibility of identification was explored by MALDI-TOF MS for E.coli and ESBLs strains. Methods Peptide mass fingerprints were obtained via collecting mass spectrometric data of 47 E.coli. Their species were identified by biotyper sortware, and drug resistance results were studied. ESBLs strains of E.coli were researched by clustering analysis. Feasibility of identification was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS for E.coli and ESBLs strains. Results The identification results were coincident with conventional method and PCR method. There were 9 ESBLs stains in 10 E.coli that were prompted for ESBLs strains by MALDI-TOF MS. It had good distinguishing capability for OXA type ESBLs E.coli by cluster analysis. Conclusion E.coli strains could be rapidly, accurately identified by MALDI-TOF MS, and there was a certain screening capacity for ESBLs strains.%目的:研以基质辅助激光解析电离飞行时间质谱(matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF MS)方法检测大肠杆菌,并利用MALDI-TOF MS方法鉴别ESBLs菌株及聚类分析法区分不同分型的ESBLs菌株,探索MALDI-TOF MS方法鉴定大肠杆菌及ESBLs菌株的可行性。方法利用MALDI-TOF MS采集47株大肠杆菌分离株的质谱数据,生成肽指纹图谱,并利用biotyper软件进行菌种鉴定,同时研究其耐药性鉴定结果,并利用聚类分析法研究大肠杆菌 ESBLs 菌株,最终确定MALDI-TOF MS对大肠杆菌菌种鉴定及ESBLs菌株鉴别的可行性。结果 MALDI-TOF MS方法鉴定大肠杆菌的结果与传统方法及PCR方法检测结果均符合,经MALDI-TOF MS鉴定方法提示为ESBLs菌株的10株大肠杆菌中有9株为 ESBLs 菌株,且聚类分析法对 OXA

  20. Application of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to the study of the proteinaceous binders in paint: blue paint composition in the series "The Life of Virgin" by Alonso Cano (17th century) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Natalia Navas, Natalia Navas; Rodríguez-Simón, Luís; Lario-Simón, Antonio; Kuckova, Stepanka; Manzano, Eloísa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of proteinaceous materials in paint constituents provides very valuable information regarding the techniques used by the painter and the most suitable procedures for conserving and restoring their works. Although the analysis of proteinaceous materials is nowadays a common task when dealing with works of art, the reliable detection and identification of protein traces is still complicated, particularly when very small samples can be taken that may contain a mixture of different organic materials (oils, waxes, resins, gums etc.). We therefore proposed a proteomic approach to investigate protein materials in paintings at trace levels in order to obtain a better understanding of the painter's technique. After trypsin digestion of the paint samples, mass spectra were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and they were compared with the Mascot database and with theoretical digested proteins. This study contributes to the knowledge about the technique used by Alonso Cano (Granada, Spain, 1601-1667), one of the most original and brilliant artists from the Spanish Golden Age (17th century), in the series called the Life of the Virgin (six paintings), part of the iconographic program about the life of the Virgin Mary, nowadays seen in the main chapel of Granada Cathedral. The objective of the present study was to test the use of proteinaceous material, mainly egg yolk, in the paint used by Cano, as suggested in previous research, although this would have been unusual at that time when most artists used oil paints. Based on the results of the analysis here presented, the use of protein in the binding media can most likely be excluded. PMID:25906031

  1. Desorption/ablation of lithium fluoride induced by extreme ultraviolet laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blejchař Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of reliable modeling tools and input data required for the prediction of surface removal rate from the lithium fluoride targets irradiated by the intense photon beams is essential for many practical aspects. This study is motivated by the practical implementation of soft X-ray (SXR or extreme ultraviolet (XUV lasers for the pulsed ablation and thin film deposition. Specifically, it is focused on quantitative description of XUV laser-induced desorption/ablation from lithium fluoride, which is a reference large band-gap dielectric material with ionic crystalline structure. Computational framework was proposed and employed here for the reconstruction of plume expansion dynamics induced by the irradiation of lithium fluoride targets. The morphology of experimentally observed desorption/ablation craters were reproduced using idealized representation (two-zone approximation of the laser fluence profile. The calculation of desorption/ablation rate was performed using one-dimensional thermomechanic model (XUV-ABLATOR code taking into account laser heating and surface evaporation of the lithium fluoride target occurring on a nanosecond timescale. This step was followed by the application of two-dimensional hydrodynamic solver for description of laser-produced plasma plume expansion dynamics. The calculated plume lengths determined by numerical simulations were compared with a simple adiabatic expansion (blast-wave model.

  2. Laser-assisted nuclear photoeffect reexamined

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter; Keszthelyi, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    The S-matrix element and the cross section of the laser-assisted nuclear photoeffect are recalculated in a gauge invariant manner taking into account the effect of the Coulomb field of the remainder nucleus. The \\gamma-photon energy dependence of the laser free cross section obtained in the plane wave and long-wavelength Coulomb-Volkov approximations are compared. Numerically the laser-assisted partial cross sections with laser photon energy 2 keV and some different polarization states of \\gamma-photon of energy 3 MeV are investigated.

  3. High fluence deposition of polyethylene glycol films at 1064 nm by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purice, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Kingshott, P.; Pryds, Nini; Dinescu, M.

    2007-01-01

    microbalance. The laser fluence needed to produce PEG films turned out to be unexpectedly high with a threshold of 9 J/cm(2) and the deposition rate was much lower than that with laser light at 355 nm. Results from matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI......Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been applied for deposition of thin polyethylene glycol (PEG) films with infrared laser light at 1064 nm. We have irradiated frozen targets (of 1 wt.% PEG dissolved in water) and measured the deposition rate in situ with a quartz crystal 2...

  4. High-resolution atmospheric pressure infrared laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, Andreas; Schäfer, Karl Christian; Guenther, Sabine; Wang, Zheng; Köstler, Martin; Leisner, Arne; Paschke, Carmen; Schramm, Thorsten; Spengler, Bernhard

    2013-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging ion source has been developed that combines high spatial resolution and high mass resolution for the in situ analysis of biological tissue. The system is based on an infrared laser system working at 2.94 to 3.10 μm wavelength, employing a Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametrical oscillator. A Raman-shifted Nd:YAG laser system was also tested as an alternative irradiation source. A dedicated optical setup was used to focus the laser beam, coaxially with the ion optical axis and normal to the sample surface, to a spot size of 30 μm in diameter. No additional matrix was needed for laser desorption/ionization. A cooling stage was developed to reduce evaporation of physiological cell water. Ions were formed under atmospheric pressure and transferred by an extended heated capillary into the atmospheric pressure inlet of an orbital trapping mass spectrometer. Various phospholipid compounds were detected, identified, and imaged at a pixel resolution of up to 25 μm from mouse brain tissue sections. Mass accuracies of better than 2 ppm and a mass resolution of 30,000 at m/z = 400 were achieved for these measurements. PMID:23877173

  5. 应用超高分辨质谱成像技术研究脂类分子在小鼠肝组织中的分布%Imaging and Identification of Phospholipids in Mouse Liver Tissue by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 陈国强; 王艳英; 李智立

    2011-01-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS)-based mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) was applied to profile and identify phospholipid molecules in mouse liver tissues, which were cut into tissue sections (7 μm)on a cryostat at -20 ℃ and covered with 7 g/L of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamicacid (CHCA) as matrix in 50% methanol/0. 2 trifluoroacetic acid solution. 13 phospholipid compounds, which are classified as 5 different species, phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylserine (PS), were accurately identified. Their molecular weights are between 700 and 900 Da. The present results indicate that MALDIFTICR MS-based MSI is a powerful tool to explore the distribution of disease-related molecules and drug metabolites in tissues.%利用基质辅助激光解吸电离-傅里叶变换离子回旋共振质谱仪对磷脂类分子在小鼠肝组织中的分布进行了研究,建立了质谱成像技术检测小鼠肝组织中磷脂类分子分布的分析方法.以7 g/Lα腈基-4-羟基肉桂酸的50%甲醇溶液(含0.2%三氟乙酸)作为基质,采用正离子采集模式,准确鉴定了5类13种磷脂类分子,其分子量主要分布在700~900 Da之间,且观察到它们在组织内分布呈现不均匀性.本研究表明,以超高分辨和超高精度的质谱仪开展组织成像研究,不仅可以探究脂类分子在组织中的分布,而且可以直接准确鉴定相关分子,真正实现分子水平上的组织成像.

  6. Study of the mechanism of direct laser desorption/ionisation for some small organic molecules (M < 400 Daltons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazouz; Hakim; Debrun; Strivay; Weber

    1999-12-15

    Aspects of direct laser desorption/ionisation have been studied for three molecules, aminotriazole (positive ion), dinoterb and ioxynil (negative ion). The samples are deposited on metallic substrates, and a nitrogen laser is used for desorption/ionisation; ion yields are measured with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Previous work had shown that ion yields can strongly vary from one substrate to another, and that this variation does not reflect the (calculated) metal surface temperatures. New results obtained in this work indicate that the desorption/ionisation mechanism is linked to the physical state of the substrate surface. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10567927

  7. Two-color laser desorption of nanostructured MgO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral magnesium atom emission from nanostructured MgO thin films is induced using two-color nanosecond laser excitation. We find that combined vis/UV excitation, for single-color pulse energies below the desorption threshold, induces neutral Mg-atom emission with hyperthermal kinetic energies in the range of 0.1-0.2 eV. The observed metal atom emission is consistent with a mechanism involving rapid electron transfer to three-coordinated Mg surface sites. The two-color Mg-atom signal is significant only for parallel laser polarizations and temporally overlapped laser pulses indicating that intermediate excited states are short-lived compared to the 5 ns laser pulse duration.

  8. Structure of neat and hydrated liquid nicotine and laser resonant desorption of clusters from nicotine-water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihesan, Claudia; Ziskind, Michael; Focsa, Cristian; Seydou, Mahamadou; Lecomte, Frédéric; Schermann, Jean Pierre

    2008-11-01

    The microscopic structures of neat liquid nicotine and nicotine-water mixtures are examined through infrared spectroscopy and laser resonant desorption mass-spectroscopy. The infrared spectra of the solutions are analyzed using DFT calculations of homogenous and mixed hydrogen-bonded clusters. Neat nicotine and hydrated nicotine cluster are experimentally observed through IR laser resonant desorption of a nicotine/water ice mixture followed by laser ionization mass-spectrometry. A sizable fraction of those cluster ions is the result of laser ionization of small neutral clusters already present in the sample.

  9. Brominated Tyrosine and Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Analysis by Laser Desorption VUV Postionization and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Illinois at Chicago; Blaze, Melvin M. T.; Takahashi, Lynelle; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Gasper, Gerald; Pleticha, F. Douglas; Hanley, Luke

    2011-03-14

    The small molecular analyte 3,5-dibromotyrosine (Br2Y) and chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) with and without adsorbed Br2Y were analyzed by laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS). LDPI-MS using 7.87 eV laser and tunable 8 ? 12.5 eV synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation found that desorption of clusters from Br2Y films allowed detection by≤8 eV single photon ionization. Thermal desorption and electronic structure calculations determined the ionization energy of Br2Y to be ~;;8.3?0.1 eV and further indicated that the lower ionization energies of clusters permitted their detection at≤8 eV photon energies. However, single photon ionization could only detect Br2Y adsorbed within PEMs when using either higher photon energies or matrix addition to the sample. All samples were also analyzed by 25 keV Bi3 + secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), with the negative ion spectra showing strong parent ion signal which complemented that observed by LDPI-MS. The negative ion SIMS depended strongly on the high electron affinity of this specific analyte and the analyte?s condensed phase environment.

  10. Desorption/ionization of biomolecules from aqueous solutions at atmospheric pressure using an infrared laser at 3 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiko, Victor V; Taranenko, Nelli I; Berkout, Vadym D; Yakshin, Mikhail A; Prasad, Coorg R; Lee, H Sang; Doroshenko, Vladimir M

    2002-04-01

    A new atmospheric pressure (AP) infrared (IR) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion source was developed and interfaced with a Thermo Finnigan LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer. The source utilized a miniature all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator (OPO)-based IR laser system tunable in the lambda = 1.5-4 microm spectral range and a nitrogen ultraviolet (UV) laser (lambda = 337 nm) for use in comparative studies. The system demonstrated comparable performance at 3 microm and 337 nm wavelengths if UV matrices were used. However, AP IR-MALDI using a 3 microm wavelength showed good performance with a much broader choice of matrices including glycerol and liquid water. AP IR-MALDI mass spectra of peptides in the mass range up to 2000 Da were obtained directly from aqueous solutions at atmospheric conditions for the first time. A potential use of the new AP IR-MALDI ion source includes direct MS analysis of biological cells and tissues in a normal atmospheric environment as well as on-line coupling of mass spectrometers with liquid separation techniques. PMID:11951973

  11. Organic chemical analysis on a microscopic scale using two-step laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, L. J.; Philippoz, J.-M.; Bucenell, J. R.; Zenobi, R.; Zare, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of PAHs in the Allende meteorite has been measured using two-step laser desorption and laser multiphoton-ionization mass spectrometry. This method enables in situ analysis (with a spatial resolution of 1 mm or better) of selected organic molecules. Results show that PAH concentrations are locally high compared to the average concentration found by analysis of pulverized samples, and are found primarily in the fine-grained matrix; no PAHs were detected in the interiors of individual chondrules at the detection limit (about 0.05 ppm).

  12. 21 CFR 884.6200 - Assisted reproduction laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction laser system. 884.6200... Assisted reproduction laser system. (a) Identification. The assisted reproduction laser system is a device that images, targets, and controls the power and pulse duration of a laser beam used to ablate a...

  13. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using nanosecond laser desorption/femtosecond ionization laser mass spectrometry (FLMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosecond laser desorption/femtosecond ionization laser mass spectrometry (LD/FLMS) allows ultra-sensitive detection and trace analysis of atoms and molecules. In this study, we have applied the LD/FLMS technique to the characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using high intensity femtosecond laser pulses (1013-1015 W/cm2) at λ∼395 nm and 790nm coupled to a reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer a series of PAHs have been investigated. In particular, anthracene, tetracene and pentacene are discussed. The spectra presented show intact parent ion at both wavelengths, with little fragmentation at lower ionization laser intensities. This initial data suggests that the optimum wavelength to operate FLMS for PAHs may be 395 nm and not 790 nm for maximum parent ion production. Comparative studies adopting nanosecond ionization are also discussed

  14. Interaction of Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Radiation with Solid Surface: Ablation, Desorption, Nanostructuring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Juha, Libor; Chalupský, Jaromír

    Vol. 9255. Bellingham: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2015 - (Tang, C.; Chen, S.; Tang, X.), 92553U-92553U. (SPIE. 9255). ISBN 978-1-62841-322-9. ISSN 0277-786X. [International Symposium on High Power Laser Systems and Applications 2014/20./. Chengdu (CN), 25.08.2014-29.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : interaction of XUV radiation with solid surface * desorption * ablation * nanostructuring * nanopatterning * ablation plume * ablation jet Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s; BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s (FZU-D) http://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Volume/9255

  15. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  16. Quantum dynamics of STM and laser induced desorption of atoms and molecules from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manipulation of atoms and molecules at solid surfaces by electronic excitations with electrons (or holes) emitted from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or with laser radiation is both of applied and fundamental interest, e.g. for micro- and nanostructuring of materials, the clarification of elementary (catalytic) reaction mechanisms and for the question of how to treat the quantum dynamics of a laser or STM driven 'system' (the adsorbate) in contact with a dissipative (energy-withdrawing) 'bath' (the substrate). Desorption induced by electronic transitions (DIET) and its variant DIMET (M = multiple) are among the simplest possible 'reactions' of adsorbate-surface systems; usually involving extremely short-lived electronically excited intermediates. In this thesis, the ultra-short dynamics of directly (localised to the adsorbate-substrate complex) and indirectly (i.e., through the substrate) stimulated DIET and DIMET processes was studied for Si(100)-(2x1):H(D) and Pt(111):NO. Isotope effects and the influence of substrate temperature and applied electric fields on the desorption yields were examined and possibilities to actively control the outcome (e.g. yields, isotope ratios), for example by laser shaping techniques, were investigated. For that purpose, time-dependent wave packet methods and open system density matrix theory were used to account for energy dissipation and thus resulting ultrashort lifetime of the electronically excited states involved. (author)

  17. Exploring the high-mass components of humic acid by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilom, Gabriela; Chilom, Ovidiu; Rice, James A

    2008-05-01

    Leonardite and Elliot soil humic acids have been analyzed by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) in the m/z 4000-200,000 range. Positive ion mass spectra for each humic acid obtained under optimum conditions showed a broad high-mass distribution between m/z 20,000 and 80,000. The dependence of the mass distribution on instrumental parameters and solution conditions was used to investigate the nature of the high-mass peaks from humic acid spectra. Our data suggests that macromolecular ions and humic acid aggregates have the same probability of occurrence while cluster ion formation has a low probability of occurrence. PMID:18421699

  18. Near threshold laser-assisted nuclear photoeffect

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter; Keszthelyi, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    The change of nuclear photoeffect due to an intense coherent (laser) field is discussed near the threshold, where the hindering effect of the Coulomb field of the remainder nucleus is essential. The ratio of laser-assisted and laser free differential cross section is deduced and found to be independent of the polarization state of the \\gamma field and the two types of initial nuclear state considered. The numerical values of this ratio are given at some characteristic parameters of the intense field and the detuning.

  19. OH desorption energies for a palladium catalyst characterised by kinetic modelling and laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, J. C. G.; Johansson, Å.; Björnbom, P.; Rosén, A.

    2004-08-01

    A kinetic model for the H 2/O 2 reaction on a polycrystalline palladium catalyst has been constructed using CHEMKIN in order to understand the coverage-dependent OH desorption energy. Each adsorbed oxygen atom was modelled to cover four Pd surface sites. The yield of OH and the water production were measured with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and microcalorimetry respectively as a function of the relative hydrogen concentration, αH 2. The temperature of the catalyst was 1300 K, the total pressure was 13 Pa and the flow was set to 100 SCCM. In fitting the model to the experimental data, the OH desorption energy EdOH was found to have a first-order coverage dependence according to: EdOH( θ)= EdOH(0)- Bθ, where B is a constant set to 92 kJ/mol. The desorption energy at zero coverage EdOH(0) was determined to be 226 kJ/mol. The model could also qualitatively and quantitatively reproduce the apparent desorption energy as a function of αH 2; therefore it is believed that the coverage could be predicted by the model. The values for EdOH( θ) were calculated as a function of αH 2. From the results of a sensitivity analysis and rate of production calculations, there are strong reasons to believe that the main water-forming reaction on Pd at 1300 K is the hydrogen addition reaction, H + OH ⇌ H 2O. Enthalpy diagrams for the water-forming reactions are also presented.

  20. Highly reproducible laser beam scanning device for an internal source laser desorption microprobe Fourier transform mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, mass spectrometry has relied on manipulating the sample target to provide scanning capabilities for laser desorption microprobes. This has been problematic for an internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (LD-FTMS) because of the high magnetic field (7 Tesla) and geometric constraints of the superconducting magnet bore. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented a unique external laser scanning mechanism for an internal source LD-FTMS. This mechanism provides adjustable resolution enhancement so that the spatial resolution at the target is not limited to that of the stepper motors at the light source (˜5 μm/step). The spatial resolution is now limited by the practical optical diffraction limit of the final focusing lens. The scanning mechanism employs a virtual source that is wavelength independent up to the final focusing lens, which can be controlled remotely to account for focal length dependence on wavelength. A binary index provides an automatic alignment feature. The virtual source is located ˜9 ft from the sample; therefore, it is completely outside of the vacuum system and beyond the 50 G line of the fringing magnetic field. To eliminate reproducibility problems associated with vacuum pump vibrations, we have taken advantage of the magnetic field inherent to the FTMS to utilize Lenz's law for vibrational dampening. The LD-FTMS microprobe has exceptional reproducibility, which enables successive mapping sequences for depth-profiling studies.

  1. Reaction kinetics and growth window for plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Ga2O3: Incorporation of Ga vs. Ga2O desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    A detailed study of the reaction kinetics of the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of the n-type semiconducting oxide Ga2O3 is presented. The growth rate as a function of gallium flux is measured in situ by laser reflectometry at different growth temperatures (TG) and gallium-to-oxygen ratios (rGa). The flux of the suboxide Ga2O desorbed off the growth surface is identified in situ by line-of-sight quadrupole mass spectroscopy. The measurements reveal the influence of TG and rGa on the competing formation of Ga2O3 and desorption of Ga2O resulting in three different growth regimes: (i) Ga transport limited, (ii) Ga2O desorption limited, and (iii) O transport limited. As a result, we present a growth diagram of gallium oxide. This diagram illustrates the regimes of complete, partial, and no Ga incorporation as a function of TG and rGa, and thus provides guidance for the MBE growth of Ga2O3.

  2. Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDI-MS) of Lipids with Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Coated Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Maiko; Kawabata, Shin-Ichirou; Tamura, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Daigou; Murouchi, Masato; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticle (NP)-coated target plates were employed for the direct detection and analysis of low molecular weight lipids by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS). We have demonstrated that the use of the iron oxide NP-coated target provides a simple, direct, and rapid detection method for lipid standards and epidermal surface lipids without any cumbersome sample pretreatment as well as mass spectra that are free of background matrix peaks. Lipid standards (1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) were detected as either protonated or cationated species. Clean MS/MS spectra for each lipid were also successfully obtained. Pre-MS surface cleaning of the target plates with UV-ozone treatment successfully removed organic contaminants that would interfere with the mass spectra especially in the low molecular weight region. Preliminary application of the presented target plate to the detection of endogenous lipids in latent fingerprints showed promising results and for potential use in the visualization and chemical composition determination of latent fingerprints by nanoparticle assistance. PMID:24860715

  3. Analysis of pigmented inkjet printer inks and printed documents by laser desorption/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Shawn; Marrero, Josette E; Cornell, Trevor; Fowler, Kevin; Allison, John

    2010-01-01

    Anyone with a computer, scanner, and color printer has the capability for creating documents such as identification cards, passports, and counterfeit currency. Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for colorant analysis. Inkjet printers are now moving largely toward the use of pigments as colorants; their insolubility makes analysis by simpler methods such as thin-layer chromatography no longer an option. Recent developments in pigmented inkjet printer inks, such as gloss optimizers that coat pigment particles, may prohibit colorant analysis by LDMS. We demonstrate here that pigments used in inks from two Epson printers can be detected and analyzed by LDMS. Also, LDMS spectra of various colors created using a 4-cartridge (cyan/magenta/yellow/black, CMYK) inkset are evaluated, to begin to develop an approach for unraveling LDMS data from real samples, to determine the number of inks used by a printer, and the chemical composition of the colorants. PMID:20015163

  4. Scientific and technological applications of free-electron lasers in ultraviolet photon-stimulated desorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussions of photon-surface interactions have traditionally been cast in terms of the collective properties (e.g., the heat capacity or the optical susceptibility) of the irradiated material. However, the development of lasers and synchrotron light sources, coupled with innovative applications of both mass and optical spectroscopy, is making it possible to study photon-surface interactions at an atomic scale by determining the quantum states of atoms and molecules at and near material surfaces. Short-wavelength free-electron lasers operating in the XUV and VUV regions of the spectrum offer some exciting prospects for novel photon-matter interaction experiments which take advantage of the FEL's intrinsic properties of narrow bandwidth, high intensity, short temporal pulse length and coherence. The authors examine some of the ways in which free electron lasers in the VUV and XUV can lead both to new tools for studying photon-surface interactions through uv-photon-stimulated-desorption (PSD) spectroscopy, and to new developments in optical technology which might help solve certain pressing technological needs of XUV FELs

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies of laser desorption/ionization of methylene blue from the surface of thermally exfoliated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass spectra of products obtained in the course of laser desorption/ionization of methylene blue from the surface of thermally exfoliated graphite have been registered. It is demonstrated that [M+1]+, [M+2]+, and [M+3]+ ions with one, two, or three, respectively, hydrogen atoms bound to the molecular ion dominate in the mass spectra. The experimental results are confirmed by quantum chemical calculations of possible reaction products that may be formed under the influence of laser radiation.

  6. Identification of organic pigments in automotive coatings using laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachura, Sylwia; Desiderio, Vincent J; Allison, John

    2007-05-01

    When one looks at an automotive coating, one sees color due to pigments. Modern organic pigments, with high molar absorptivities, may be only minor components of the mixture. Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) has been shown to be a useful tool for the analysis of colorants such as pen ink dyes. Here, LDMS is used to determine its utility for the identification of pigments, in simple media and in more complex paints. Small paint chips can be introduced into the LDMS instrument, and when an ultraviolet laser is focused on a portion of a chip, ions representative of the pigment(s) are selectively formed. Some pigments such as quinacridones and copper phthalocyanine are very stable and are desorbed and ionized intact. In contrast, benzimidazolones, which contain some single-skeletal bonds, form fragment ions. This method proves to be sensitive and convenient, as no sample preparation is required. The presence of inorganic pigments in addition to modern organic pigments can be determined, and pigments can be directly identified in actual automotive paint chip samples. PMID:17456087

  7. Quantum dynamics of STM and laser induced desorption of atoms and molecules from surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boendgen, G

    2001-01-01

    The manipulation of atoms and molecules at solid surfaces by electronic excitations with electrons (or holes) emitted from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or with laser radiation is both of applied and fundamental interest, e.g. for micro- and nanostructuring of materials, the clarification of elementary (catalytic) reaction mechanisms and for the question of how to treat the quantum dynamics of a laser or STM driven 'system' (the adsorbate) in contact with a dissipative (energy-withdrawing) 'bath' (the substrate). Desorption induced by electronic transitions (DIET) and its variant DIMET (M = multiple) are among the simplest possible 'reactions' of adsorbate-surface systems; usually involving extremely short-lived electronically excited intermediates. In this thesis, the ultra-short dynamics of directly (localised to the adsorbate-substrate complex) and indirectly (i.e., through the substrate) stimulated DIET and DIMET processes was studied for Si(100)-(2x1):H(D) and Pt(111):NO. Isotope effec...

  8. Selective detection of homocysteine by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chih-Lin; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde (NDA) as a selective probe for the determination of homocysteine (HCys) via fluorescence measurement and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). The derivatives of three aminothiols-HCys, glutathione (GSH), and gamma-glutamylcysteine (gamma-Glu-Cys)-with NDA under alkaline conditions possess different fluorescence emission characteristics, which allow us to identify them from amines, amino acids, and thiols. By selecting appropriate pH and excitation wavelengths, the limits of detection (LODs) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 5.2, 1.4 and 16 nM for HCys, GSH and gamma-Glu-Cys, respectively. Additionally, strong UV absorption of the NDA-HCys derivative was further observed at 331 nm; it could be directly detected by LDI-MS with a 337-nm nitrogen laser. Selective detection of HCys has been achieved by conducting the LDI-MS of the NDA-HCys derivative, which was found at m/z 406.9. The lowest detectable concentration of the NDA-HCys derivative in this approach was 500 nM. Quantitative determination of HCys in urine samples was accomplished by LDI-MS. Also, a calibration curve was created from plasma samples spiked with standard HCys (20-100 microM). The experimental results suggest that our proposed methods have great potential in clinical diagnosis and metabolomics application. PMID:17044125

  9. Identification of colorants in pigmented pen inks by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papson, Kaitlin; Stachura, Sylwia; Boralsky, Luke; Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    Pigments are rapidly replacing dyes as colorants in pen and printer inks, due to their superior colors and stability. Unfortunately, tools commonly used in questioned document examination for analyzing pen inks, such as TLC, cannot be used for the analysis of insoluble pigments on paper. Laser desorption mass spectrometry is demonstrated here as a tool for analyzing pigment-based pen inks. A pulsed nitrogen laser can be focused onto a pen stroke from a pigmented ink pen on paper, and positive and negative ions representative of the pigment can be generated for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Targeted pens for this work were a set of Uni-ball 207 pigmented ink pens containing blue, light blue, orange, green, violet, red, pink, and black inks. Copper phthalocyanine was identified as the pigment used to make both blue inks. A mixture of halogenated copper phthalocyanines were identified in the green ink. Unexpectedly, the pink ink was found to contain a red pigment, Pigment Red 12, treated with a mixture of water-soluble dyes. Each sample yielded ions representative of the pigments present. PMID:18279246

  10. Quantum Electrodynamics Theory of Laser Assisted Recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖淑艳; 程太旺; 李晓峰; 潘守甫; 傅盘铭

    2003-01-01

    Using a formal scattering theoretical approach, we develop a nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory to describe laser assisted recombination (LAR), in which an electron initially in the quantized Volkov state recombines with an ion and emits a high-energy photon with frequency defined by energy conservation laws.The transition probability is expressed as an analytic closed form and the spectrum of LAR reflects mainly the properties of general Bessel functions. For the case of a fast electron the LAR spectrum is confined in a well-defined range, while for a slow electron, the LAR spectrum exhibits a double-plateau structure.

  11. Laser assisted decontamination of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser assisted removal of loosely bound fuel particulates from the clad surface following the process of pellet loading has decided advantages over conventional methods. It is a dry and noncontact process that generates very little secondary waste and can occur inside a glove box without any manual interference minimizing the possibility of exposure to personnel. The rapid rise of the substrate/ particulate temperature owing to the absorption of energy from the incident laser pulse results in a variety of processes that may lead to the expulsion of the particulates. As a precursor to the cleaning of the fuel elements, initial experiments were carried out on contamination simulated on commonly used clad surfaces to gain a first hand experience on the various laser parameters for which as efficient cleaning can be obtained without altering the properties of the clad surface. The cleaning of a dummy fuel element was subsequently achieved in the laboratory by integrating the laser with a work station that imparted simultaneous rotational and linear motion to the fuel element. (author)

  12. Electroless plating of silver nanoparticles on porous silicon for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Xu, Ning; Huang, Wen-Yi; Han, Huan-Mei; Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2009-03-01

    An improved DIOS (desorption ionization on porous silicon) method for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) by electroless plating of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on porous silicon (PSi) was developed. By addition of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) into the AgNO3 plating solution, the plating speed can be slowed down and simultaneously 4-ATP self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on AgNPs (4-ATP/AgNPs) were formed. Both AgNPs and 4-ATP/AgNPs coated PSi substrates present much higher stability, sensitivity and reproducibility for LDI MS than the un-treated porous silicon ones. Their shelf life in air was tested for several weeks to a month and their mass spectra still displayed the same high quality and sensitivity as the freshly prepared ones. And more 4-ATP SAMs partly play a role of matrix to increase the ionization efficiency. A small organic molecule of tetrapyridinporphyrin (TPyP), oligomers of polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 and 2300), and a peptide of oxytocin were used as examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the silver-plated PSi as a matrix-free-like method for LDI MS. This approach can obtain limits of detection to femtomoles for TPyP, subpicomoles for oxytocin, and picomoles for PEG 400 and 2300, comparable to the traditional matrix method and much better than the DIOS method. It simplifies the sample preparation as a matrix-free-like method without addition of matrix molecules and homogenizes the sample spread over the spot for better and more even mass signals.

  13. Growth of thin films of low molecular weight proteins by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matei, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Constantinescu, C.;

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of lysozyme and myoglobin grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from a water ice matrix have been investigated. The deposition rate of these two low molecular weight proteins (lysozyme: 14307 amu and myoglobin: 17083 amu) exhibits a maximum of about 1–2 ng/cm2 per...... pulse at a fluence of 1–2 J/cm2 and decreases slowly with increasing fluence. This rate is presumably determined by the matrix rather by the proteins. A significant fraction of the proteins are intact in the film as determined by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) spectrometry. The...... results for lysozyme demonstrate that the fragmentation rate of the proteins during the MAPLE process is not influenced by the pH of the water solution prior to freezing....

  14. Laser-assisted delivery of topical methotrexate - in vitro investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth Hjardem

    2016-06-01

    Ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) are increasingly used to treat dermatological disorders and to facilitate laser-assisted topical drug delivery. In this thesis, laser-tissue interactions generated by stacked pulses with a miniaturized low-power 2,940 nm AFXL were characterized (study I). Knowledge of the correlation between laser parameters and tissue effects was used to deliver methotrexate (MTX) topically through microscopic ablation zones (MAZs) of precise dimensions. MTX is a well-known chemotherapeutic and anti-inflammatory drug that may cause systemic adverse effects, and topical delivery is thus of potential benefit. The impact of MAZ depth (study II) and transport kinetics (study III) on MTX deposition in skin as well as transdermal permeation was determined in vitro. Quantitative analyses of dermal and transdermal MTX concentrations were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (study II & III), while qualitative analyses of MTX biodistribution in skin were illustrated and semi-quantified by fluorescence microscopy (study II & III) and desorption electro spray mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) (study III). Laser-tissue interactions generated by AFXL: AFXL-exposure generated a variety of MAZ-dimensions. MAZ depth increased linearly with the logarithm of total energy delivered by stacked pulses, but was also affected by variations in power, pulse energy, pulse duration, and pulse repetition rate. Coagulation zones lining MAZs increased linearly with the applied total energy, while MAZ width increased linearly with the logarithm of stacked pulses. Results were gathered in a mathematical model estimating relations between laser parameters and specific MAZ dimensions. Impact of MAZ depth on AFXL-assisted topical MTX delivery: Pretreatment by AFXL facilitated topical MTX delivery to all skin layers. Deeper MAZs increased total MTX deposition in skin compared to superficial MAZs and altered the intradermal biodistribution profile towards

  15. 双向凝胶电泳联合 MALDI-TOF/TOF MS 技术探寻狼疮性肾炎的血清标志物%Exploring Serum Protein Biomarkers of Lupus Nephritis by Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Com-bined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许嵘; 朱加明; 龚劭敏; 卢泽军; 张慧; 刘少鹏; 丁小强; 钟一红

    2015-01-01

    发病机制。%Objective:To explore the potential serum biomarkers of patients with lupus nephritis(LN)by using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF/TOF MS),so as to lay the foundation for illuminating pathogenesis.Methods:A total of 40 LN patients were divided into two groups,the active LN group and the inactive LN group,with 20 in each.In addition,20 IgA nephritis patients and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled as IgAN group and healthy control group.Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate and analyze the serum proteins,and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS was applied to the identification of the differentially expressed pro-teins.Results:A total of fifty differentially expressed proteins were identified.Compared with that in healthy control group,23 differentially expressed proteins were discovered in active LN group and inactive LN group,among which,8 proteins were up-regulated and 1 5 proteins were down-regulated.And 1 8 differentially expressed proteins,compared with IgA nephritis group, were found in active LN group and inactive LN group,including 13 up-regulated proteins and 5 down-regulated proteins.Fur-thermore,the number of up-regulated and down-regulated proteins in active LN group,compared with those in inactive LN group,were 4 and 5,respectively.Among the 50 identified differentially expressed proteins,the expression of serum amyloid protein A(SAA )in active LN group was higher than that in the other groups while the expression of complement component C4A in active LN group was lower than that in the other groups.And the expression of chain B (solution structure of double super helix model)in the inactive LN group was higher than that in the other groups.Compared with that in healthy control group,the expression of vitamin D-binding protein isoform 1 precursor,chain A(crystal structure of uncomplexed vitamin D-binding protein)and chain B (a covalent dimer of transthyretin that affects the

  16. Charging-assisted desorption of deuterium films by keV electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2009-01-01

    m. The initial film thickness and the mass loss as result of desorption were monitored by the QCM. The electron beam current was kept at about or below 100 nA to avoid beam-induced evaporation. Secondary electron emission was suppressed to a value below 0.01-0.03 electrons/electron by a repeller...... obtained by short pulse measurements on fresh films. For the thickest films the charging induced a surface potential of more than 1.0 kV, i.e. one-half of the energy of the bombarding electron. For these thick films the desorption yield increased from the minimum value of 6-10 D2/electron up to 380 D2...

  17. Experimental and numerical approaches of Laser assisted turning

    OpenAIRE

    GERMAIN, Guénaël; ROBERT, Patrick; Lebrun, Jean-Lou; Dal Santo, Philippe; Poitou, Arnaud

    2005-01-01

    This study shows experimental and numerical preliminary approaches of laser assisted machining. The laboratory has an industrial lathe equipped with a laser source with 2.5 kW to carry out experiments on various materials. This machine is instrumented for the measurement of cutting forces and thermal fields (infra-red camera). Our aim is to show the viability of the process in industry. After a presentation of laser assisted machining, we will detail the laser heating modelling, and the first...

  18. Filamentous fungal characterizations by matrix-assisted laser desorption⁄ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    C. Santos; Paterson, R. R. M.; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ⁄ ionization time-of-flight intact cell mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF ICMS) is coming of age for the identification and characterization of fungi. The procedure has been used extensively with bacteria. UV-absorbing matrices function as energy mediators that transfer the absorbed photoenergy from an irradiation source to the surrounding sample molecules, resulting in minimum fragmentation. A surprisingly high number of fungal groups have been s...

  19. DIFFERENTIATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESCRIPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY (MALDI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze the...

  20. Structural features of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Determination of molecular mass by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venisse, A; Berjeaud, J M; Chaurand, P; Gilleron, M; Puzo, G

    1993-06-15

    It was recently shown that mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) can be classified into two types (Chatterjee, D., Lowell, K., Rivoire B., McNeil M. R., and Brennan, P. J. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 6234-6239) according to the presence or absence of mannosyl residues (Manp) located at the nonreducing end of the oligoarabinosyl side chains. These two types of LAM were found in a pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain and in an avirulent M. tuberculosis strain, respectively, suggesting that LAM with Manp characterizes virulent and "disease-inducing strains." We now report the structure of the LAM from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain Pasteur, largely used throughout the world as vaccine against tuberculosis. Using an up-to-date analytical approach, we found that the LAM of M. bovis BCG belongs to the class of LAMs capped with Manp. By means of two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear scalar coupling NMR analysis and methylation data, the sugar spin system assignments were partially established, revealing that the LAM contained two types of terminal Manp and 2-O-linked Manp. From the following four-step process: (i) partial hydrolysis of deacylated LAM (dLAM), (ii) oligosaccharide derivatization with aminobenzoic ethyl ester, (iii) HPLC purification, (iv) FAB/MS-MS analysis; it was shown that the dimannosyl unit alpha-D-Manp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Manp is the major residue capping the termini of the arabinan of the LAM. In this report, LAM molecular mass determination was established using matrix-assisted UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry which reveals that the LAM molecular mass is around 17.4 kDa. The similarity of the LAM structures between M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv is discussed in regard to their function in the immunopathology of mycobacterial infection. PMID:8509380

  1. Efficient laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using excitation energy transfer from anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Femtomolar detection of PAHs such as perylene and benzopyrene was achieved. ► Photoexcited anthracene molecules transferred their energy to PAHs. ► Electronically excited PAHs were then excited to be ions. ► Two-photon ionization process was necessary to complete the ionization process. ► The number of defect sites could be reduced by the annealing procedure. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as perylene and benzopyrene, doped at amounts on the order of femtomol (∼10−15 mol) in anthracene crystals could be detected by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Sensitivity was roughly 103 times higher than that of LDI method in our experimental conditions. It was revealed from the excitation power dependence of the peak intensity of PAHs on the mass spectra that two-photon excitation in one UV pulse was necessary to complete the ionization process. It was also clarified that the number of defect sites that trap excitons generated in anthracene crystals could be reduced by the annealing procedure, by which an efficient energy transfer between anthracene and PAHs became possible

  2. Efficient laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using excitation energy transfer from anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Kensuke [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fujino, Tatsuya, E-mail: fujino@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► Femtomolar detection of PAHs such as perylene and benzopyrene was achieved. ► Photoexcited anthracene molecules transferred their energy to PAHs. ► Electronically excited PAHs were then excited to be ions. ► Two-photon ionization process was necessary to complete the ionization process. ► The number of defect sites could be reduced by the annealing procedure. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as perylene and benzopyrene, doped at amounts on the order of femtomol (∼10{sup −15} mol) in anthracene crystals could be detected by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Sensitivity was roughly 10{sup 3} times higher than that of LDI method in our experimental conditions. It was revealed from the excitation power dependence of the peak intensity of PAHs on the mass spectra that two-photon excitation in one UV pulse was necessary to complete the ionization process. It was also clarified that the number of defect sites that trap excitons generated in anthracene crystals could be reduced by the annealing procedure, by which an efficient energy transfer between anthracene and PAHs became possible.

  3. Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDI-MS) of Lipids with Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Coated Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kusano, Maiko; Kawabata, Shin-ichirou; Tamura, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Daigou; Murouchi, Masato; Kawasaki, Hideya; ARAKAWA, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticle (NP)-coated target plates were employed for the direct detection and analysis of low molecular weight lipids by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS). We have demonstrated that the use of the iron oxide NP-coated target provides a simple, direct, and rapid detection method for lipid standards and epidermal surface lipids without any cumbersome sample pretreatment as well as mass spectra that are free of background matrix peaks. Lipid standards (1-ste...

  4. Photoionization and Dissociative Photoionization Study of Cholesterol by IR Laser Desorption/Tunable Synchrotron VUV Photoionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Pan; Li-dong Zhang; Hui-jun Guo; Hao Yin; Fei Qi

    2009-01-01

    Elementary cholesterol was analyzed with IR laser desorption/tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. An exclusive molecular ion of cholesterol is observed by near threshold single-photon ionization with high efficiency. Fragments are yielded with the increase of photon energy. The structures of various fragments are determined with commercial electron ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Dominant fragmentation pathways are discussed in detail with the aid of ab initio calculations.

  5. CO2 adsorption-assisted CH4 desorption on carbon models of coal surface: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Chu, Wei; Huang, Xia; Sun, Wenjing; Jiang, Chengfa; Liu, Zhongqing

    2016-07-01

    Injection of CO2 into coal is known to improve the yields of coal-bed methane gas. However, the technology of CO2 injection-enhanced coal-bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery is still in its infancy with an unclear mechanism. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of CO2 adsorption-assisted CH4 desorption (AAD). To simulate coal surfaces, different six-ring aromatic clusters (2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, and 7 × 7) were used as simplified graphene (Gr) carbon models. The adsorption and desorption of CH4 and/or CO2 on these carbon models were assessed. The results showed that a six-ring aromatic cluster model (4 × 4) can simulate the coal surface with limited approximation. The adsorption of CO2 onto these carbon models was more stable than that in the case of CH4. Further, the adsorption energies of single CH4 and CO2 in the more stable site were -15.58 and -18.16 kJ/mol, respectively. When two molecules (CO2 and CH4) interact with the surface, CO2 compels CH4 to adsorb onto the less stable site, with a resulting significant decrease in the adsorption energy of CH4 onto the surface of the carbon model with pre-adsorbed CO2. The Mulliken charges and electrostatic potentials of CH4 and CO2 adsorbed onto the surface of the carbon model were compared to determine their respective adsorption activities and changes. At the molecular level, our results showed that the adsorption of the injected CO2 promoted the desorption of CH4, the underlying mechanism of CO2-ECBM.

  6. Developments and Applications of Electrophoresis and Small Molecule Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-sensitive native fluorescence detection of proteins with miniaturized one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was achieved with laser side-entry excitation, which provides both high excitation power and low background level. The detection limit for R-phycoerythrin protein spots in 1-D SDS-PAGE was as low as 15 fg, which corresponds to 40 thousand molecules only. The average detection limit of six standard native proteins was 5 pg per band and the dynamic range spanned more than 3 orders of magnitude. Approximately 150 protein spots from 30 ng of total Escherichia coli extraction were detected on a 0.8 cm x 1 cm gel in two-dimensional separation. Estrogen-DNA adducts as 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N3Ade and 4-OHEI(E2)-2-NacCys were hypothesized as early risk assessment of prostate and breast cancers. Capillary electrophoresis, luminescence/absorption spectroscopy and LC-MS were used to characterize and detect these adducts. Monoclonal antibodies against each individual adduct were developed and used to enrich such compounds from urine samples of prostate and breast cancer patients as well as healthy people. Adduct 4-OHE1-1-N3Ade was detected at much higher level in urine from subjects with prostate cancer patients compared to healthy males. The same adduct and 4-OHEI-2-NacCys were also detected at a much higher level in urine from a woman with breast carcinoma than samples from healthy controls. These two DNA adducts may serve as novel biomarkers for early diagnostic of cancers. The adsorption properties of R-phycoerythrin (RPE), on the fused-silica surface were studied using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and single molecule spectroscopy. The band shapes and migration times were measured in CE. Adsorption and desorption events were recorded at the single-molecule level by imaging of the evanescent-field layer using total internal reflection. The adsorbed RPE molecules on the fused-silica prism surface were

  7. Fuzzy model for Laser Assisted Bending Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini Oliviero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuzzy model was developed to predict the residual bending in a conventional metal bending process assisted by a high power diode laser. The study was focused on AA6082T6 aluminium thin sheets. In most dynamic sheet metal forming operations, the highly nonlinear deformation processes cause large amounts of elastic strain energy stored in the formed material. The novel hybrid forming process was thus aimed at inducing the local heating of the mechanically bent workpiece in order to decrease or eliminate the related springback phenomena. In particular, the influence on the extent of springback phenomena of laser process parameters such as source power, scan speed and starting elastic deformation of mechanically bent sheets, was experimentally assessed. Consistent trends in experimental response according to operational parameters were found. Accordingly, 3D process maps of the extent of the springback phenomena according to operational parameters were constructed. The effect of the inherent uncertainties on the predicted residual bending caused by the approximation in the model parameters was evaluated. In particular, a fuzzy-logic based approach was used to describe the model uncertainties and the transformation method was applied to propagate their effect on the residual bending.

  8. Optimising the Use of TRIzol-extracted Proteins in Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization (SELDI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlaky Laszlo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research with clinical specimens is always hampered by the limited availability of relevant samples, necessitating the use of a single sample for multiple assays. TRIzol is a common reagent for RNA extraction, but DNA and protein fractions can also be used for other studies. However, little is known about using TRIzol-extracted proteins in proteomic research, partly because proteins extracted from TRIzol are very resistant to solubilization. Results To facilitate the use of TRIzol-extracted proteins, we first compared the ability of four different common solubilizing reagents to solubilize the TRIzol-extracted proteins from an osteosarcoma cell line, U2-OS. Then we analyzed the solubilized proteins by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization technique (SELDI. The results showed that solubilization of TRIzol-extracted proteins with 9.5 M Urea and 2% CHAPS ([3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate] (UREA-CHAPS was significantly better than the standard 1% SDS in terms of solubilization efficiency and the number of detectable ion peaks. Using three different types of SELDI arrays (CM10, H50, and IMAC-Cu, we demonstrated that peak detection with proteins solubilized by UREA-CHAPS was reproducible (r > 0.9. Further SELDI analysis indicated that the number of ion peaks detected in TRIzol-extracted proteins was comparable to a direct extraction method, suggesting many proteins still remain in the TRIzol protein fraction. Conclusion Our results suggest that UREA-CHAPS performed very well in solubilizing TRIzol-extracted proteins for SELDI applications. Protein fractions left over after TRIzol RNA extraction could be a valuable but neglected source for proteomic or biochemical analysis when additional samples are not available.

  9. Desorption of H atoms from graphite (0001) using XUV free electron laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemer, B.; Olsen, Thomas; Hoger, T.;

    2010-01-01

    The desorption of neutral H atoms from graphite with femtosecond XUV pulses is reported. The velocity distribution of the atoms peaks at extremely low kinetic energies. A DFT-based electron scattering calculation traces this distribution to desorption out of specific adsorption sites on graphite......, and identifies the highest vibrational state in the adsorbate potential as a major source for the slow atoms. It is evident that multiple electron scattering processes are required for this desorption. A direct electronic excitation of a repulsive hydrogen-carbon bond seems not to be important....

  10. Depth profiling of inks in authentic and counterfeit banknotes by electrospray laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yi-Ying; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Shiea, Jentaie

    2016-01-01

    Electrospray laser desorption ionization is an ambient ionization technique that generates neutrals via laser desorption and ionizes those neutrals in an electrospray plume and was utilized to characterize inks in different layers of copy paper and banknotes of various currencies. Depth profiling of inks was performed on overlapping color bands on copy paper by repeatedly scanning the line with a pulsed laser beam operated at a fixed energy. The molecules in the ink on a banknote were desorbed by irradiating the banknote surface with a laser beam operated at different energies, with results indicating that different ions were detected at different depths. The analysis of authentic $US100, $100 RMB and $1000 NTD banknotes indicated that ions detected in 'color-shifting' and 'typography' regions were significantly different. Additionally, the abundances of some ions dramatically changed with the depth of the aforementioned regions. This approach was used to distinguish authentic $1000 NTD banknotes from counterfeits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26757068

  11. Optical laser-induced CO desorption from Ru(0001) monitored with a free-electron X-ray laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, H.; Gladh, J.; Dell'Angela, M.;

    2015-01-01

    . Estimating the free energy based on the computed potential of mean force along the desorption path, we find an entropic barrier to desorption (and by time-reversal also to adsorption). This entropic barrier separates the chemisorbed and precursor states, and becomes significant at the elevated temperature of...

  12. High-Resolution Live-Cell Imaging and Analysis by Laser Desorption/Ionization Droplet Delivery Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Jansson, Erik T; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N

    2016-05-17

    We have developed a new ambient-ionization mass spectrometric technique named laser desorption/ionization droplet delivery mass spectrometry (LDIDD-MS). LDIDD-MS permits high-resolution, high-sensitivity imaging of tissue samples as well as measurements of both single-cell apoptosis and live-cell exocytosis. A pulsed (15 Hz) UV laser beam (266 nm) is focused on a surface covered with target analytes to trigger their desorption and ionization. A spray of liquid droplets is simultaneously directed onto the laser-focused surface region to capture the ionized analytes and deliver them to a mass spectrometer. The approach of rapid and effective capturing of molecules after laser desorption/ionization allows the limit of detection for the amino acid lysine to be as low as 2 amol under ambient ionization conditions. Two-dimensional maps of the desorbed/ionized species are recorded by moving the sample on an XY translational stage. The spatial resolution for imaging with LDIDD-MS was determined to be 2.4 μm for an ink-printed pattern and 3 μm for mouse brain tissue. We applied LDIDD-MS to single-cell analysis of apoptotic HEK cells. Differences were observed in the profiles of fatty acids and lipids between healthy HEK cells and those undergoing apoptosis. We observed upregulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) with a relatively shorter carbon chain length and downregulation of PC with a relatively longer carbon chain length. We also applied LDIDD-MS for a real-time direct measurements of live-cell exocytosis. The catecholamine dopamine and trace amines (phenethylamine and tyramine) were detected from live PC12 cells without damaging them. PMID:27110027

  13. Tailor-Made Stable Zr(IV)-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks for Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Small Molecules and Simultaneous Enrichment of Phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianfang; Ou, Junjie; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Zhongshan; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-08-10

    Although thousands of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been fabricated and widely applied in gas storage/separations, adsorption, catalysis, and so on, few kinds of MOFs have been used as adsorption materials while simultaneously serving as matrixes to analyze small molecules for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Herein, a new concept is introduced to design and synthesize MOFs as both adsorption materials and matrixes according to the structure of ligands and common matrixes. The proof of concept design was demonstrated by selection of 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDC) and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid (DHT) as ligands for synthesis of MOFs. Two Zr(IV)-based MOFs of UiO-66-PDC and UiO-66-(OH)2 were synthesized and applied for the first time as new matrixes for analysis of small molecules by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Both of them showed low matrix interferences, high ionization efficiency, and good reproducibility when used as matrixes. A variety of small molecules, including saccharides, amino acids, nucleosides, peptides, alkaline drugs, and natural products, were analyzed. In addition, UiO-66-(OH)2 exhibited potential for application in the quantitative determination of glucose and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Furthermore, thanks to its intrinsically large surface area and highly ordered pores, UiO-66-(OH)2 also showed sensitive and specific enrichment of phosphopeptides prior to MS analysis. These results demonstrated that this strategy can be used to efficiently screen tailor-made MOFs as matrixes to analyze small molecules by MALDI-TOF-MS. PMID:27427857

  14. Symmetric laser-assisted charge transfer: A nonperturbative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a nonperturbative treatment of laser-assisted charge transfer under conditions of high laser intensity and low collision energy in a specific symmetric charge transfer system: H(1s) + H+ + mhw → H+ + H(n = 1, 2). Previous work in laser-assisted charge transfer has demonstrated that although perturbative treatments are generally valid for lower laser intensities and higher collision energies, nonperturbative treatments are necessary in the present regime where the influence of the laser on the cross sections is more pronounced. The present work is based on the semiclassical impact parameter method, choosing initial conditions appropriate to charge transfer and treating the projectile-target system within a quasimolecular framework. The interaction with the laser is treated semiclassically, in the velocity gauge. We investigate the effect of the laser on both resonant and nonresonant charge transfer processes and provide comparisons with perturbative results. Finally, we shall discuss possibilities for future research

  15. Velocity and angular distributions of cations produced upon laser desorption of C{sub 60} and C{sub 60}O{sub x} (x = 2-4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, R.D.; Weis, P.; Rockenberger, J.; Kappes, M.M. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-03-23

    The mechanism of UV laser desorption/ionization of C{sub 60} and C{sub 60}O{sub x} (x = 2-4) has been studied by measuring the angle and arrival time distribution for positive ions generated upon laser irradiation of microcrystalline targets. Observations include evidence for desorption `jet` formation as well as for on-beam axis enrichment of coalescence products. These measurements imply that internal and kinetic energy of promptly desorbing material are correlated and suggest that coalescence products such as C{sub 118}{sup +} are generated within the material ablated by one laser pulse rather than from previous photopolymerization. The data are contrasted to laser desorption measurements of NaI/CsI mixed targets for which near effusive ion velocity distributions are observed. 30 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Engineering anisotropy in glass with ultrafast laser assisted nanostructuring

    OpenAIRE

    Beresna, Martynas; Drevinskas, Rokas; Zhang, Jingyu; Gecevičius, Mindaugas; Kazansky, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recent applications of femtosecond laser assisted self-assembled nanostructures will be overviewed. Specifically, polarization sensitive optical elements and 5-dimensional optical data storage with practically unlimited life-time will be demonstrated and discussed.

  17. Continuous Flow Atmospheric Pressure Laser Desorption/Ionization Using a 6–7-µm-Band Mid-Infrared Tunable Laser for Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuji Hiraguchi; Hisanao Hazama; Kenichirou Senoo; Yukinori Yahata; Katsuyoshi Masuda; Kunio Awazu

    2014-01-01

    A continuous flow atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization technique using a porous stainless steel probe and a 6–7-µm-band mid-infrared tunable laser was developed. This ion source is capable of direct ionization from a continuous flow with a high temporal stability. The 6–7-µm wavelength region corresponds to the characteristic absorption bands of various molecular vibration modes, including O–H, C=O, CH3 and C–N bonds. Consequently, many organic compounds and solvents, including ...

  18. A Compact, Solid-State UV (266 nm) Laser System Capable of Burst-Mode Operation for Laser Ablation Desorption Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Coyle, Barry; Paulios, Demetrios; Stysley, Paul; Feng, Steve; Getty, Stephanie; Binkerhoff, William

    2015-01-01

    Compared to wet chemistry and pyrolysis techniques, in situ laser-based methods of chemical analysis provide an ideal way to characterize precious planetary materials without requiring extensive sample processing. In particular, laser desorption and ablation techniques allow for rapid, reproducible and robust data acquisition over a wide mass range, plus: Quantitative, spatially-resolved measurements of elemental and molecular (organic and inorganic) abundances; Low analytical blanks and limits-of-detection ( ng g-1); and, the destruction of minimal quantities of sample ( g) compared to traditional solution and/or pyrolysis analyses (mg).

  19. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdian, David C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  20. Analysis of fatty acids by graphite plate laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K H; Kim, H J

    2001-01-01

    Fatty acids obtained from triglycerides (trioelin, tripalmitin), foods (milk, corn oil), and phospholipids (phosphotidylcholine, phosphotidylserine, phosphatidic acid) upon alkaline hydrolysis were observed directly without derivatization by graphite plate laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GPLDI-TOFMS). Mass-to-charge ratios predicted for sodium adducts of expected fatty acids (e.g. palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) were observed without interference. Although at present no quantitation is possible, the graphite plate method enables a simple and rapid qualitative analysis of fatty acids. PMID:11507764

  1. Laser assisted removal of fixed contamination from metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single mode pulsed fiber laser was used to remove fixed contamination from stainless steel substrate by ablation. Samples were simulated by electro-deposition technique with 232U as the test contaminant. Laser power, repetition rate, laser beam scanning speed and number of passes were optimised to obtain the desired ablation depth in the substrate. Ablation depth varying between few microns to few hundreds of microns could be achieved through careful control of these processing parameters. The absence of any activity in laser treated samples provided experimental signature of the efficacy of the laser assisted removal of fixed contamination. (author)

  2. Electronically driven adsorbate excitation mechanism in femtosecond-pulse laser desorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegård, Per; Heinz, T. F.;

    1995-01-01

    a systematic theoretical treatment of this coupling process in the language of an electronic friction, which generates Langevin noise in the adsorbate center-of-mass degrees of freedom, while the electronic degrees of freedom are at a high temperature. Starting from an influence-functional path...... electronic excitation energies the friction becomes strongly temperature dependent due to dominance by virtual excitations between different adsorbate potential energy surfaces. The former regime is related to the electronic friction model for the desorption process, and the latter to the desorption induced...

  3. Gold nanoparticles bridging infra-red spectroscopy and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of over-the-counter drug and botanical medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Tang, Ho-Wai; Ng, Kwan-Ming

    2016-05-01

    With a coating of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and Chinese herbal medicine granules in KBr pellets could be analyzed by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Surface-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). FT-IR spectroscopy allows fast detection of major active ingredient (e.g., acetaminophen) in OTC drugs in KBr pellets. Upon coating a thin layer of AuNPs on the KBr pellet, minor active ingredients (e.g., noscapine and loratadine) in OTC drugs, which were not revealed by FT-IR, could be detected unambiguously using AuNPs-assisted LDI-MS. Moreover, phytochemical markers of Coptidis Rhizoma (i.e. berberine, palmatine and coptisine) could be quantified in the concentrated Chinese medicine (CCM) granules by the SALDI-MS using standard addition method. The quantitative results matched with those determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Being strongly absorbing in UV yet transparent to IR, AuNPs successfully bridged FT-IR and SALDI-MS for direct analysis of active ingredients in the same solid sample. FT-IR allowed the fast analysis of major active ingredient in drugs, while SALDI-MS allowed the detection of minor active ingredient in the presence of excipient, and also quantitation of phytochemicals in herbal granules. PMID:27086100

  4. The role of physical and chemical properties of Pd nanostructured materials immobilized on inorganic carriers on ion formation in atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silina, Yuliya E; Koch, Marcus; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2014-06-01

    Fundamental parameters influencing the ion-producing efficiency of palladium nanostructures (nanoparticles [Pd-NP], nanoflowers, nanofilms) during laser irradiation were studied in this paper. The nanostructures were immobilized on the surface of different solid inorganic carrier materials (porous and mono-crystalline silicon, anodic porous aluminum oxide, glass and polished steel) by using classical galvanic deposition, electroless local deposition and sputtering. It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of both the nanoparticular layer as well as the carrier material on ion production for selected analyte molecules. Our experiments demonstrated that the dimensions of the synthesized nanostructures, the thickness of the active layers, surface disorders, thermal conductivity and physically or chemically adsorbed water influenced signal intensities of analyte ions during surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) while no effects such as plasmon resonance, photoelectric effect or catalytic activity were expected to occur. Excellent LDI abilities were seen for Pd-NPs immobilized on steel, while Pd nanoflowers on porous silicon exhibited several disadvantages; viz, strong memory effects, dependency of the analytical signal on amount of physically and chemically adsorbed water inside porous carrier, reduced SALDI activity from unstable connections between Pd and semiconductor material, decrease of the melting point of pure silicon after Pd immobilization and resulting strong laser ablation of metal/semiconductor complex, as well as significantly changed surface morphology after laser irradiation. The analytical performance of Pd-NP/steel was further improved by applying a hydrophobic coating to the steel surface before galvanic deposition. This procedure increased the distance between Pd-NPs, thus reducing thermal stress upon LDI; it simultaneously decreased spot sizes of deposited sample solutions. PMID:24913399

  5. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry on nanostructured semiconductor substrates: DIOS(TM) and QuickMass(TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    In the era of systems biology, new analytical platforms are under demand. Desorption/ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (DIOS-MS) is a promising high throughput laser mass spectrometry approach that has attracted a lot of attention, and has been commercialized. Another substrate material manufactured by physical method has also been made commercially available under the trade name of QuickMass(TM). These two commercial substrates, DIOS(TM) and QuickMass(TM), were investigated independently from the manufacturers and were characterized by a number of advanced surface techniques. This work determined (1) the correlation between the substrate physicochemical properties and their LDI activity, (2) the feasibility of metabolic profiling from complex biological matrices and (3) the laser desorption/ionization mechanism. The DIOS(TM) substrate was characterized with a thick nano-sized porous layer, a high surface concentration of fluorocarbon and silicon oxides and super-hydrophobicity. In contrast, the QuickMass(TM) substrate consisted of a non-porous germanium thin-film. The relatively high ionization efficiency obtained from the DIOS(TM) substrate was contributed to the fluorosilane manufacturing processes and its porous morphology. Despite the QuickMass(TM) substrate being less effective, it was noted that the use of germanium affords a self-cleaning mechanism and suppresses background interference of mass spectra. The suitability of DIOS(TM) substrates for metabolic profiling of complex biological matrices was demonstrated. DIOS mass spectra of human blood plasma, human urine and animal liver tissue extracts were produced. Suitable extraction methods were found to be important, but relatively simplified approaches were sufficient. Further investigations of the DIOS desorption/ionization mechanism were carried out. The previously proposed sub-surface state reaction could be a molten-solid interfacial state reaction of the substrate and this had a significant

  6. Laser Assisted Free-Free Transition in Electron - Atom Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, C.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Free-free transition is studied for electron-Hydrogen atom system in ground state at very low incident energies in presence of an external homogeneous, monochromatic and linearly polarized laser field. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser in a non perturbative manner by choosing the Volkov solutions in both the channels. The space part of the scattering wave function for the electron is solved numerically by taking into account the effect of electron exchange, short range as well as of the long range interactions. Laser assisted differential as well as elastic total cross sections are calculated for single photon absorption/emission in the soft photon limit, the laser intensity being much less than the atomic field intensity. A strong suppression is noted in the laser assisted cross sections as compared to the field free situations. Significant difference is noted in the singlet and the triplet cross sections.

  7. 马鹿茸多肽的提取分离及基质辅助激光解吸飞行时间质谱分析%Separation and Analysis of Velvet Antler Polypeptide by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季怡萍; 张红明; 朱文彬

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, active components of velvet antler polypeptide were extracted and separated. The molecular weight and purity of velvet antler polypeptide were determined by MALDI-TOFMS. The different influence factors such as matrix, sample concentration and laser energy were studied. This method is convenient and suitable for the identification of congener biochemical samples.

  8. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery: A current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Moshirfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety, efficacy, advantages, and limitations of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery through a review of the literature. A PubMed search was conducted using topic-appropriate keywords to screen and select articles. Initial research has shown appropriate safety and efficacy of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, with improvements in anterior capsulotomy, phacofragmentation, and corneal incision. Limitations of these studies include small sample size and short-term follow-up. Cost-benefit analysis has not yet been addressed. Preliminary data for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery shows appropriate safety and efficacy, and possible advantage over conventional cataract surgery. Questions to eventually be answered include comparisons of long-term postoperative complication rates-including infection and visual outcomes-and analysis of contraindications and financial feasibility.

  9. Fractional CO(2) laser-assisted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Farinelli, William A;

    2010-01-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) creates vertical channels that might assist the delivery of topically applied drugs into skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drug delivery by CO(2) laser AFR using methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL), a porphyrin precursor, as a test drug.......Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) creates vertical channels that might assist the delivery of topically applied drugs into skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drug delivery by CO(2) laser AFR using methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL), a porphyrin precursor, as a test drug....

  10. Laser-Assisted H- Charge Exchange Injection in Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlov, Timofey V [ORNL; Danilov, Viatcheslav V [ORNL; Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The use of stripping foils for charge exchange injection can cause a number of operational problems in high intensity hadron accelerators. A recently proposed three-step method of laser-assisted injection is capable of overcoming these problems. This paper presents advances in the physical model of laser-assisted charge exchange injection of H- beams and covers a wide field of atomic physics. The model allows the calculation of the evolution of an H0 beam taking into account spontaneous emission, field ionization and external electromagnetic fields. Some new data on the hydrogen atom related to the problem are calculated. The numerical calculations in the model use realistic descriptions of laser field and injection beam. Generally, the model can be used for design and optimization of a laser-assisted injection cell within an accelerator lattice. Example calculations of laser-assisted injection for an intermediate experiment at SNS in Oak Ridge and for the PS2 accelerator at CERN are presented. Two different schemes, distinctively characterized by various magnetic fields at the excitation point, are discussed. It was shown that the emittance growth of an injected beam can be drastically decreased by moving excitation point into a strong magnetic field.

  11. Laser-assisted H- charge exchange injection in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, T.; Danilov, V.; Shishlo, A.

    2010-05-01

    The use of stripping foils for charge exchange injection can cause a number of operational problems in high intensity hadron accelerators. A recently proposed three-step method of laser-assisted injection is capable of overcoming these problems. This paper presents advances in the physical model of laser-assisted charge exchange injection of H- beams and covers a wide field of atomic physics. The model allows the calculation of the evolution of an H0 beam taking into account spontaneous emission, field ionization, and external electromagnetic fields. Some new data on the hydrogen atom related to the problem are calculated. The numerical calculations in the model use realistic descriptions of laser field and injection beam. Generally, the model can be used for design and optimization of a laser-assisted injection cell within an accelerator lattice. Example calculations of laser-assisted injection for an intermediate experiment at SNS in Oak Ridge and for the PS2 accelerator at CERN are presented. Two different schemes, distinctively characterized by various magnetic fields at the excitation point, are discussed. It was shown that the emittance growth of an injected beam can be drastically decreased by moving the excitation point into a strong magnetic field.

  12. Carbamazepine in municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge: ultrafast quantification by laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

    2012-09-15

    In this study, the distribution of the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) in wastewater (WW) and aqueous and solid phases of wastewater sludge (WWS) was carried out. A rapid and reliable method enabling high-throughput sample analysis for quicker data generation, detection, and monitoring of CBZ in WW and WWS was developed and validated. The ultrafast method (15s per sample) is based on the laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD-APCI) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The optimization of instrumental parameters and method application for environmental analysis are presented. The performance of the novel method was evaluated by estimation of extraction recovery, linearity, precision and detection limit. The method detection limits was 12 ng L(-1) in WW and 3.4 ng g(-1) in WWS. The intra- and inter-day precisions were 8% and 11% in WW and 6% and 9% in WWS, respectively. Furthermore, three extraction methods, ultrasonic extraction (USE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with three different solvent condition such as methanol, acetone and acetonitrile:ethyle acetate (5:1, v/v) were compared on the basis of procedural blank and method recovery. Overall, ASE showed the best extraction efficiency with methanol as compared to USE and MAE. Furthermore, the quantification of CBZ in WW and WWS samples showed the presence of contaminant in all stages of the treatment plant. PMID:22967548

  13. Characterization of aromaticity in analogues of titan's atmospheric aerosols with two-step laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Carrasco, Nathalie; Benilan, Yves; Cernogora, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Gazeau, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Nitrogen containing PAH (PANH) as intermediates of aerosol production in the atmosphere of Titan has been a subject of controversy for a long time. An analysis of the atmospheric emission band observed by the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) at 3.28 micrometer suggests the presence of neutral polycyclic aromatic species in the upper atmosphere of Titan. These molecules are seen as the counter part of negative and positive aromatics ions suspected by the Plasma Spectrometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft, but the low resolution of the instrument hinders any molecular speciation. In this work we investigate the specific aromatic content of Titan's atmospheric aerosols through laboratory simulations. We report here the selective detection of aromatic compounds in tholins, Titan's aerosol analogues, produced with a capacitively coupled plasma in a N2:CH4 95:5 gas mixture. For this purpose, Two-Step Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Ma...

  14. Laser-assisted manufacturing of thermal energy devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Tewolde, Mahder; Kim, Ki-Hoon; Seo, Dong-Min; Longtin, Jon P.; Hwang, David J.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we will present recent progress in the laser-assisted manufacturing of thermal energy devices that require suppressed thermal transport characteristics yet maintaining other functionalities such as electronic transport or mechanical strength. Examples of such devices to be demonstrated include thermoelectric generator or insulating materials. To this end, it will be shown that an additive manufacturing approaches can be facilitated and improved by unique processing capabilities of lasers in composite level. In order to tailor thermal characteristics in thermal devices, we will mainly investigate the potential of laser heating, curing, selective removal and sintering processes of material systems in the composite level.

  15. Frequency Comb Assisted Broadband Precision Spectroscopy with Cascaded Diode Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Junqiu; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Kordts, Arne; Kamel, Ayman N; Guo, Hairun; Geiselmann, Michael; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2016-01-01

    Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy, employing both the accuracy of an optical frequency comb and the broad wavelength tuning range of a tunable diode laser, has been widely used in many applications. In this letter we present a novel method using cascaded frequency agile diode lasers, which allows extending the measurement bandwidth to 37.4 THz (1355 to 1630 nm) at MHz resolution with scanning speeds above 1 THz/s. It is demonstrated as a useful tool to characterize a broadband spectrum for molecular spectroscopy and in particular it enables to characterize the dispersion of integrated microresonators up to the fourth order.

  16. Effects in laser-assisted stapedotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamalski, D.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In patients with otosclerosis, the stapes fixates in the oval window, resulting in a conductive hearing loss. A stapedotomy can be performed to restore hearing. During this surgery a small hole is created in the footplate of the stapes, by a micropick instrument or laser. Making a fenestration is no

  17. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Bloisi, Francesco, E-mail: bloisi@na.infn.it [SPIN – CNR, Naples (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria [Istituto Motori – CNR, Naples (Italy); Depero, Laura E. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Federici, Stefania [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori – CNR, Naples (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [SPIN – CNR, Naples (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • A lipase film was deposited with Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique. • FTIR spectra show that laser irradiation do not damage lipase molecule. • Laser fluence controls the characteristics of complex structure generated by MAPLE. - Abstract: Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence.

  18. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A lipase film was deposited with Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique. • FTIR spectra show that laser irradiation do not damage lipase molecule. • Laser fluence controls the characteristics of complex structure generated by MAPLE. - Abstract: Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence

  19. Synthesis of Ag@Silica Nanoparticles by Assisted Laser Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castillo, J R; Rodriguez, E; Jimenez-Villar, E; Rodríguez, D; Salomon-García, I; de Sá, Gilberto F; García-Fernández, T; Almeida, D B; Cesar, C L; Johnes, R; Ibarra, Juana C

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles coated with porous silica (Ag@Silica NPs) using an assisted laser ablation method. This method is a chemical synthesis where one of the reagents (the reducer agent) is introduced in nanometer form by laser ablation of a solid target submerged in an aqueous solution. In a first step, a silicon wafer immersed in water solution was laser ablated for several minutes. Subsequently, an AgNO3 aliquot was added to the aqueous solution. The redox reaction between the silver ions and ablation products leads to a colloidal suspension of core-shell Ag@Silica NPs. The influence of the laser pulse energy, laser wavelength, ablation time, and Ag(+) concentration on the size and optical properties of the Ag@Silica NPs was investigated. Furthermore, the colloidal suspensions were studied by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). PMID:26464175

  20. Fractional CO(2) laser-assisted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Farinelli, William A;

    2010-01-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) creates vertical channels that might assist the delivery of topically applied drugs into skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drug delivery by CO(2) laser AFR using methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL), a porphyrin precursor, as a test drug....

  1. Thermal effects in laser-assisted embryo hatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Diarmaid H.; Conia, Jerome D.

    2000-08-01

    Diode lasers [(lambda) equals 1480 nm] are used with in-vitro fertilization [IVF] as a promoter of embryo hatching. A focused laser beam is applied in vitro to form a channel in the zona pellucida (shell) of the pre-embryo. After transfer into the uterus, the embryo hatches: it extrudes itself through the channel and implants into the uterine wall. Laser-assisted hatching can result in improving implantation and pregnancy success rates. We present examples of zone pellucida ablation using animal models. In using the laser it is vital not to damage pre-embryo cells, e.g. by overheating. In order to define safe regimes we have derived some thermal side-effects of zona pellucida removal. The temperature profile in the beam and vicinity is predicted as function of laser pulse duration and power. In a crossed-beam experiment a HeNe laser probe detects the temperature-induced change in refractive index. We find that the diode laser beam produces superheated water approaching 200 C on the beam axis. Thermal histories during and following the laser pulse are given for regions in the neighborhood of the beam. We conclude that an optimum regime exists with pulse duration laser power approximately 100 mW.

  2. Straylight before and after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis or laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lapid-Gortzak; J.W. van der Linden; I.J.E. van der Meulen; C.P. Nieuwendaal; M.P. Mourits; T.J.T.P. van den Berg

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare straylight values before and 3 months after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) and determine the cause of any change SETTING Private refractive surgery clinic, Driebergen, The Netherlands DESIGN Comparative case serie

  3. Straylight measurements in laser in situ keratomileusis and laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy for myopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lapid-Gortzak; J.W. van der Linden; I. van der Meulen; C. Nieuwendaal; T. Berg

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare straylight values before and 3 months after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) and to analyze the causes of any change. SETTING: Private refractive surgery clinic, Driebergen, The Netherlands. METHODS: Straylight was measured

  4. LO-phonon assisted polariton laser

    OpenAIRE

    Maragkou, M.; Grundy, A. J. D.; Ostatnický, T.; Lagoudakis, P. G.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of LO-phonon assisted polariton relaxation in reducing the stimulation threshold in strongly coupled microcavities. When the energy of the relaxation bottleneck is one LO-phonon above the ground polariton state, we observe a ten-fold improvement of the polariton relaxation rate in the linear regime, and a two-fold reduction of the threshold to the non-linear polariton lasing regime.

  5. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  6. Ultrafast Desorption by Impulsive Vibrational Excitation (DIVE). Applications in laser surgery, mass spectrometry and towards ultimate limits in biodiagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ling

    2015-07-15

    The prospects for minimally invasive surgery, spatial imaging with mass spectrometry and rapid high throughput biodiagnosis require new means of tissue incision and biomolecule extraction with conserved molecular structure. Towards this aim, a laser ablation process is utilized in this dissertation, which is capable of performing precise tissue incision with minimal collateral damage and extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological functions. The method is based on the recently developed Picosecond Infrared Laser (PIRL) designed to excite selectively the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast Desorption by Impulsive Vibrational Excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is that the selectively excited water molecules act as propellant to ablate whole biological complexes into the plume, faster than any thermal deleterious effect or fragmentation that would mask molecular identities.The PIRL ablation under DIVE condition is applied for the first time to six types of ocular tissues, rendering precise and minimally invasive incisions in a well-controlled and reproducible way. An eminent demonstration is the contact-free and applanation-free corneal trephination with the PIRL. Mass spectrometry and other analytical techniques show that great abundance of proteins with various molecular weights are extracted from the tissue by the PIRL ablation, and that fragmentation or other chemical alternation does not occur to the proteins in the ablation plume. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nano-scale single protein molecules, viruses and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical to their corresponding controls. The PIRL ablation provides a new means to push the frontiers of laser surgery in ophthalmology and can be applied to resolve chemical activities in situ and in vivo. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological entities

  7. Ultrafast Desorption by Impulsive Vibrational Excitation (DIVE). Applications in laser surgery, mass spectrometry and towards ultimate limits in biodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for minimally invasive surgery, spatial imaging with mass spectrometry and rapid high throughput biodiagnosis require new means of tissue incision and biomolecule extraction with conserved molecular structure. Towards this aim, a laser ablation process is utilized in this dissertation, which is capable of performing precise tissue incision with minimal collateral damage and extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological functions. The method is based on the recently developed Picosecond Infrared Laser (PIRL) designed to excite selectively the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast Desorption by Impulsive Vibrational Excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is that the selectively excited water molecules act as propellant to ablate whole biological complexes into the plume, faster than any thermal deleterious effect or fragmentation that would mask molecular identities.The PIRL ablation under DIVE condition is applied for the first time to six types of ocular tissues, rendering precise and minimally invasive incisions in a well-controlled and reproducible way. An eminent demonstration is the contact-free and applanation-free corneal trephination with the PIRL. Mass spectrometry and other analytical techniques show that great abundance of proteins with various molecular weights are extracted from the tissue by the PIRL ablation, and that fragmentation or other chemical alternation does not occur to the proteins in the ablation plume. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nano-scale single protein molecules, viruses and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical to their corresponding controls. The PIRL ablation provides a new means to push the frontiers of laser surgery in ophthalmology and can be applied to resolve chemical activities in situ and in vivo. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological entities

  8. Femtosecond Laser Desorption of Thin Polymer Films from a Dielectric Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercadier L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We desorb polymer films from fused silica with a femtosecond laser and characterize the results by atomic force microscopy. Our study as a function of beam geometry and energy reveals two ways of achieving spatially controlled nanodesorption.

  9. Analysis of free fatty acids by ultraviolet laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry using insect wings as hydrophobic sample substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkl, Alexander; Meier, Martin; Popkova, Yulia; Letzel, Matthias; Schnapp, Andreas; Schiller, Jürgen; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Physiologically relevant free fatty acids (FFAs) were analyzed by UV-laser desorption/ionization orthogonal extracting time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-oTOF-MS). Dissected wings from Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies were used as the hydrophobic, laser energy strongly absorbing sample substrates. Using untreated substrates produces predominantly molecular [M + K](+) ions of the FFAs, whereas other alkali metal adducts can be generated by treating the wings with the corresponding alkali hydroxide before spotting of analyte. Limits of detection for the positive ion mode were determined for mixtures of isolated FFAs to values in the low 10 pmol range. Specific values depend on chain length and degree of unsaturation. R(2) coefficients for the analysis of saturated FFAs were found to be generally close to 0.98 over about 3 orders of magnitude if an internal standard (15:0 FFA) was added. Semiquantitative analyses of mixtures containing unsaturated FFAs are also possible but require more effort on the calibration strategy. Notably, both saturated and (poly-)unsaturated FFAs are detected sensitively in the presence of relatively high concentrations of other physiologically abundant lipids (phospholipids and triacyclglycerols). This simplifies screening of the FFA composition in crude tissue extracts. This feature is demonstrated by the analysis of a crude liver extract and that of fingermarks. PMID:25268473

  10. Measurement of electronegativity at different laser wavelengths: accuracy of Langmuir probe assisted laser photo-detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirse, N.; Oudini, N.; Bendib, A.; Ellingboe, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    Langmuir probe (LP) assisted pulsed laser photo-detachment (LPD) of negative ions is one of the frequently used diagnostic techniques in electronegative plasmas. The technique is based on measuring the rise in electron saturation current following photo-detachment. During the photo-detachment process it is assumed that the background electron parameters (temperature and density) remain unchanged in the laser channel and the photo-detached electrons thermalize instantaneously with the background electrons (same temperature). Therefore, the measured electronegativity should be independent of laser wavelengths. However, our recent simulation results (2015 Phys. Plasmas 22 073509) demonstrates a failure of these assumptions and suggests that the measured rise in electron saturation current has a dependence on the laser wavelength. This letter presents experimental evidence in support of these simulation results. In this work, photo-detachment is performed at two different laser wavelengths in an oxygen inductively coupled plasma discharge. Electronegativity measured by LP assisted LPD is compared with those obtained by the hairpin probe (HPP) assisted LPD which is based on quasi-neutrality assumption. The experimental results reveal that the electronegativities measured by LP assisted LPD are affected by the laser wavelength, whereas, electronegativities measured by HPP assisted LPD are almost independent. The discrepancy between the measurements is higher at high electronegativities. In conclusion, the experimental results validate the weakness of assumptions to estimate electronegativity from LPD combined with LP and therefore emphasizes the need of a more realistic model to analyze raw data or an alternate solution is to utilize HPP.

  11. Comparison of laser ablation and sputter desorption of clusters from Au7Cu5Al4

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B. V.; Moore, J. F.; Cui, Y.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ionized and neutral clusters were desorbed from spangold, a polycrystalline ternary alloy with composition Au7Cu5Al4, using both a femtosecond laser beam and an energetic ion beam and the resulting time of flight mass spectra compared. Neutral clusters containing up to 7 atoms were ejected by the 15 keV Ar+ beam whereas only smaller positively and negatively charged clusters were observed from the laser ablated spangold surface. Laser ionization mass spectrometry (LIMS) positive ion spectra were dominated by Al containing cluster ions whereas Au containing ions dominated the negative LIMS spectrum. An odd-even variation in LIMS cluster yield was observed, consistent with previous results and due to fragmentation of photoionized clusters. The laser sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (laser SNMS) spectrum showed that larger desorbed clusters were gold rich. The cluster signals also followed a power law dependence with cluster size with the exponent value of 6-7.6 for sputtered mixed clusters being greater than that found from sputtering of pure elements, similar to the result found previously in the Cu-Au system.

  12. Laser-cooling-assisted mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian; Chen, Kuang; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used in a wide range of scientific disciplines including proteomics, pharmaceutics, forensics, and fundamental physics and chemistry. Given this ubiquity, there is a worldwide effort to improve the efficiency and resolution of mass spectrometers. However, the performance of all techniques is ultimately limited by the initial phase-space distribution of the molecules being analyzed. Here, we dramatically reduce the width of this initial phase-space distribution by sympathetically cooling the input molecules with laser-cooled, co-trapped atomic ions, improving both the mass resolution and detection efficiency of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer by over an order of magnitude. Detailed molecular dynamics simulations verify the technique and aid with evaluating its effectiveness. Our technique appears to be applicable to other types of mass spectrometers.

  13. Effect of Surface Charge on Laser-induced Neutral Atom Desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an ionic metal oxide crystal is cleaved, inhomogeneous electrical charging of the surface can be a result. Such an effect has been well-documented in magnesium oxide (100). For example, recent rigorous AFM studies indicate that nanoscale charged clusters of MgO are created during cleavage, with high concentrations often located at terrace step edges.(1) In addition, ablation processes of freshly cleaved magnesium oxide crystals may be effected by remnant surface charging and microstructures.(2) We report here that such surface charging strongly impacts even neutral atom desorption, even under conditions of extremely mild excitation of surface terrace features. In our experiments, single crystal MgO (100) is cleaved in air and placed in an ultra-high vacuum chamber (UHV). We irradiate the crystal at 6.4 eV, photon energy resonant with five-coordinated (5-C) terrace sites and probe desorbing neutral oxygen atoms. It is found that a significant fraction of desorbed neutral oxygen atoms from the charged surface possess kinetic energies in excess of 0.7 eV. This is in contrast to uncharged samples (discharged in vacuo over 24 hours) that display a near-thermal oxygen atom distribution.

  14. Nuclear recollisions in laser-assisted α decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda Cortes, Hector Mauricio; Keitel, Christoph H.; Palffy, Adriana [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Mueller, Carsten [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Laser-driven re-collisions have come to play a crucial part in atomic strong-field physics. In this work we investigate theoretically the nuclear physics counterpart involving a repulsive potential, namely laser-driven re-collisions following α decay. The effects of the intense laser field on the α particle tunneling and dynamics after emission were accounted for in the framework of a laser-assisted decay of quasi-stationary states formalism. We find that under the action of a strong laser field, the α particle may change its trajectory after emission and be driven back to recollide with the daughter nucleus at energies sufficient to produce nuclear reactions and on time scales currently not available in experiments. Fast recollisions can even allow probing short-lived excited nuclear states reached via α decay. Thus, laser-driven nuclear recollisions open the exciting possibility to investigate a new energy regime at the interplay between the electromagnetic and strong forces. We show here that such recollisions are rare but detectable already at presently available laser intensities of 10{sup 22}-10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Process characteristics of fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A; Schnick, M; Rose, S; Demuth, C; Beyer, E; Fuessel, U, E-mail: achim.mahrle@iws.fraunhofer.de [Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Surface and Manufacturing Technology, PO Box, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-08-31

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding (LAPW) were performed. Welding experiments were carried out on aluminium and steel sheets. In the case of a highly focused laser beam and a separate arrangement of plasma torch and laser beam, high-speed video recordings of the plasma arc and corresponding measurements of the time-dependent arc voltage revealed differences in the process behaviour for both materials. In the case of aluminium welding, a sharp decline in arc voltage and stabilization and guiding of the anodic arc root was observed whereas in steel welding the arc voltage was slightly increased after the laser beam was switched on. However, significant improvement of the melting efficiency with the combined action of plasma arc and laser beam was achieved for both types of material. Theoretical results of additional numerical simulations of the arc behaviour suggest that the properties of the arc plasma are mainly influenced not by a direct interaction with the laser radiation but by the laser-induced evaporation of metal. Arc stabilization with increased current densities is predicted for moderate rates of evaporated metal only whereas metal vapour rates above a certain threshold causes a destabilization of the arc and reduced current densities along the arc axis.

  16. Process characteristics of fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrle, A.; Schnick, M.; Rose, S.; Demuth, C.; Beyer, E.; Füssel, U.

    2011-08-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding (LAPW) were performed. Welding experiments were carried out on aluminium and steel sheets. In the case of a highly focused laser beam and a separate arrangement of plasma torch and laser beam, high-speed video recordings of the plasma arc and corresponding measurements of the time-dependent arc voltage revealed differences in the process behaviour for both materials. In the case of aluminium welding, a sharp decline in arc voltage and stabilization and guiding of the anodic arc root was observed whereas in steel welding the arc voltage was slightly increased after the laser beam was switched on. However, significant improvement of the melting efficiency with the combined action of plasma arc and laser beam was achieved for both types of material. Theoretical results of additional numerical simulations of the arc behaviour suggest that the properties of the arc plasma are mainly influenced not by a direct interaction with the laser radiation but by the laser-induced evaporation of metal. Arc stabilization with increased current densities is predicted for moderate rates of evaporated metal only whereas metal vapour rates above a certain threshold causes a destabilization of the arc and reduced current densities along the arc axis.

  17. Process characteristics of fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding (LAPW) were performed. Welding experiments were carried out on aluminium and steel sheets. In the case of a highly focused laser beam and a separate arrangement of plasma torch and laser beam, high-speed video recordings of the plasma arc and corresponding measurements of the time-dependent arc voltage revealed differences in the process behaviour for both materials. In the case of aluminium welding, a sharp decline in arc voltage and stabilization and guiding of the anodic arc root was observed whereas in steel welding the arc voltage was slightly increased after the laser beam was switched on. However, significant improvement of the melting efficiency with the combined action of plasma arc and laser beam was achieved for both types of material. Theoretical results of additional numerical simulations of the arc behaviour suggest that the properties of the arc plasma are mainly influenced not by a direct interaction with the laser radiation but by the laser-induced evaporation of metal. Arc stabilization with increased current densities is predicted for moderate rates of evaporated metal only whereas metal vapour rates above a certain threshold causes a destabilization of the arc and reduced current densities along the arc axis.

  18. Laser assisted Breit-Wheeler and Schwinger processes

    OpenAIRE

    T. Nousch; Otto, A.; Seipt, D.(Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, Jena, 07743, Germany); Kämpfer, B.; Titov, A. I.; Blaschke, D.; Panferov, A. D.; Smolyansky, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The assistance of an intense optical laser pulse on electron-positron pair production by the Breit-Wheeler and Schwinger processes in XFEL fields is analyzed. The impact of a laser beam on high-energy photon collisions with XFEL photons consists in a phase space redistribution of the pairs emerging in the Breit-Wheeler sub-process. We provide numerical examples of the differential cross section for parameters related to the European XFEL. Analogously, the Schwinger type pair production in pul...

  19. Two-Step Resonance-Enhanced Desorption Laser Mass Spectrometry for In Situ Analysis of Organic-Rich Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, S. A.; Grubisic, A.; Uckert, K.; Li, X.; Cornish, T.; Cook, J. E.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    A wide diversity of planetary surfaces in the solar system represent high priority targets for in situ compositional and contextual analysis as part of future missions. The planned mission portfolio will inform our knowledge of the chemistry at play on Mars, icy moons, comets, and primitive asteroids, which can lead to advances in our understanding of the interplay between inorganic and organic building blocks that led to the evolution of habitable environments on Earth and beyond. In many of these environments, the presence of water or aqueously altered mineralogy is an important indicator of habitable environments that are present or may have been present in the past. As a result, the search for complex organic chemistry that may imply the presence of a feedstock, if not an inventory of biosignatures, is naturally aligned with targeted analyses of water-rich surface materials. Here we describe the two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) analytical technique that has seen broad application in the study of organics in meteoritic samples, now demonstrated to be compatible with an in situ investigation with technique improvements to target high priority planetary environments as part of a future scientific payload. An ultraviolet (UV) pulsed laser is used in previous and current embodiments of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDMS) to produce ionized species traceable to the mineral and organic composition of a planetary surface sample. L2MS, an advanced technique in laser mass spectrometry, is selective to the aromatic organic fraction of a complex sample, which can provide additional sensitivity and confidence in the detection of specific compound structures. Use of a compact two-step laser mass spectrometer prototype has been previously reported to provide specificity to key aromatic species, such as PAHs, nucleobases, and certain amino acids. Recent improvements in this technique have focused on the interaction between the mineral matrix and the

  20. Corona discharge secondary ionization of laser desorbed neutral molecules from a liquid matrix at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, Kevin [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Harrison, W.W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)]. E-mail: harrison@chem.ufl.edu

    2006-06-15

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is studied at atmospheric pressure using liquid sampling methods. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer couples to an open sample stage accessed by a UV laser for desorption and ionization. Also coupled to the sampling state is a corona discharge for auxiliary ionization of desorbed neutral molecules. The interaction of the laser desorption and corona ionization is studied for a range of desorption conditions, showing enhanced analyte ionization, but the effect is analytically advantageous only at low desorption rates. The effect of corona discharge voltage was also explored. The decoupling of neutral molecule formation and subsequent ionization provides an opportunity to study each process separately.

  1. Laser plasma formation assisted by ultraviolet pre-ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present experimental and modeling studies of air pre-ionization using ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses and its effect on laser breakdown of an overlapped near-infrared (NIR) pulse. Experimental studies are conducted with a 266 nm beam (fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG) for UV pre-ionization and an overlapped 1064 nm NIR beam (fundamental of Nd:YAG), both having pulse duration of ∼10 ns. Results show that the UV beam produces a pre-ionized volume which assists in breakdown of the NIR beam, leading to reduction in NIR breakdown threshold by factor of >2. Numerical modeling is performed to examine the ionization and breakdown of both beams. The modeled breakdown threshold of the NIR, including assist by pre-ionization, is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results

  2. The effects of laser assisted hatching on pregnancy rates

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Ghannadi; Marjaneh Kazerooni; Fatemeh Jamalzadeh; Sahar Amiri; Parifar Rostami; Forouzan Absalan

    2011-01-01

    Background: For infertile women aged over 35 years, failure of the ZP (zona pellucida) to rupture is believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Objective: In this research, laser assisted hatching (LAH) was offered to patients with advanced maternal age to evaluate a possible benefit. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred thirty two cycles of IVF/ICSI in females were analyzed. Women included in this s...

  3. Special regime of liquid-assisted laser ablation of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinev, D. A.; Dobrina, D. A.; Strusevich, A. V.; Veiko, V. P.; Baranov, M. A.; Yakusheva, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Results of experimental study the peculiarities of liquid-assisted laser ablation of alumina-silicate ceramics are reported giving attention particularly to effect of thin-wall glass macrosphere appearance at the end of irradiation onto a formed hole in bulk material. Typical times of formation, size and temperature dynamics, and chemical composition were determined; kinetics and mechanism of formation are discussed in presented paper.

  4. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting of complex hydrocarbon mixtures: application to crude oils using data mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien P; Ortiz, Israel P; Temiyasathit, Chivalai; Kim, Seoung Bum; Schug, Kevin A

    2008-07-01

    Crude oil fingerprints were obtained from four crude oils by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) using a silver nitrate cationization reagent. Replicate analyses produced spectral data with a large number of features for each sample (>11,000 m/z values) which were statistically analyzed to extract useful information for their differentiation. Individual characteristic features from the data set were identified by a false discovery rate based feature selection procedure based on the analysis of variance models. The selected features were, in turn, evaluated using classification models. A substantially reduced set of 23 features was obtained through this procedure. One oil sample containing a high ratio of saturated/aromatic hydrocarbon content was easily distinguished from the others using this reduced set. The other three samples were more difficult to distinguish by LDI-MS using a silver cationization reagent; however, a minimal number of significant features were still identified for this purpose. Focus is placed on presenting this multivariate statistical method as a rapid and simple analytical procedure for classifying and distinguishing complex mixtures. PMID:18546088

  5. Differentiation of Microbial Species and Strains in Coculture Biofilms by Multivariate Analysis of Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Illinois at Chicago; Montana State University; Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Cui, Yang; Hofstetter, Theresa; Liu, Suet Yi; Bernstein, Hans C.; Carlson, Ross P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Hanley, Luke

    2013-04-01

    7.87 to 10.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon energies were used in laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to analyze biofilms comprised of binary cultures of interacting microorganisms. The effect of photon energy was examined using both tunable synchrotron and laser sources of VUV radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the MS data to differentiate species in Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae coculture biofilms. PCA of LDPI-MS also differentiated individual E. coli strains in a biofilm comprised of two interacting gene deletion strains, even though these strains differed from the wild type K-12 strain by no more than four gene deletions each out of approximately 2000 genes. PCA treatment of 7.87 eV LDPI-MS data separated the E. coli strains into three distinct groups two ?pure? groups and a mixed region. Furthermore, the ?pure? regions of the E. coli cocultures showed greater variance by PCA when analyzed by 7.87 eV photon energies than by 10.5 eV radiation. Comparison of the 7.87 and 10.5 eV data is consistent with the expectation that the lower photon energy selects a subset of low ionization energy analytes while 10.5 eV is more inclusive, detecting a wider range of analytes. These two VUV photon energies therefore give different spreads via PCA and their respective use in LDPI-MS constitute an additional experimental parameter to differentiate strains and species.

  6. Microwave assisted laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljanen, Jan; Sun, Zhiwei; Alwahabi, Zeyad T.

    2016-04-01

    Signal enhancements in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using external microwave power are demonstrated in ambient air. Pulsed microwave at 2.45 GHz and of 1 millisecond duration was delivered via a simple near field applicator (NFA), with which an external electric field is generated and coupled into laser induced plasma. The external microwave power can significantly increase the signal lifetime from a few microseconds to hundreds of microseconds, resulting in a great enhancement on LIBS signals with the use of a long integration time. The dependence of signal enhancement on laser energy and microwave power is experimentally assessed. With the assistance of microwave source, a significant enhancement of ~ 100 was achieved at relatively low laser energy that is only slightly above the ablation threshold. A limit of detection (LOD) of 8.1 ppm was estimated for copper detection in Cu/Al2O3 solid samples. This LOD corresponds to a 93-fold improvement compared with conventional single-pulse LIBS. Additionally, in the microwave assisted LIBS, the self-reversal effect was greatly reduced, which is beneficial in measuring elements of high concentration. Temporal measurements have been performed and the results revealed the evolution of the emission process in microwave-enhanced LIBS. The optimal position of the NFA related to the ablation point has also been investigated.

  7. Laser assisted Breit-Wheeler and Schwinger processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nousch, T; Seipt, D; Kämpfer, B; Titov, A I; Blaschke, D; Panferov, A D; Smolyansky, S A

    2016-01-01

    The assistance of an intense optical laser pulse on electron-positron pair production by the Breit-Wheeler and Schwinger processes in XFEL fields is analyzed. The impact of a laser beam on high-energy photon collisions with XFEL photons consists in a phase space redistribution of the pairs emerging in the Breit-Wheeler sub-process. We provide numerical examples of the differential cross section for parameters related to the European XFEL. Analogously, the Schwinger type pair production in pulsed fields with oscillating components referring to a superposition of optical laser and XFEL frequencies is evaluated. The residual phase space distribution of created pairs is sensitive to the pulse shape and may differ significantly from transiently achieved mode occupations.

  8. Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jieun; Hau, Nguyen Trung; Park, Sung Yeon; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    Laser-assisted lipolysis has been implemented to reduce body fat in light of thermal interactions with adipose tissue. However, using a flat fiber with high irradiance often needs rapid cannula movements and even undesirable thermal injury due to direct tissue contact. The aim of the current study was to explore the feasibility of a radially diffusing optical applicator to liquefy the adipose tissue for effective laser lipolysis. The proposed diffuser was evaluated with a flat fiber in terms of temperature elevation and tissue liquefaction after laser lipolysis with a 980-nm wavelength. Given the same power (20 W), the diffusing applicator generated a 30% slower temperature increase with a 25% lower maximum temperature (84±3.2°C in 1 min plipolysis due to low temperature development and wide coverage of thermal treatment.

  9. Laser-assisted vacuum arc extreme ultraviolet source: a comparison of picosecond and nanosecond laser triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Girum A.; Tobin, Isaac; Juschkin, Larissa; Hayden, Patrick; O’Sullivan, Gerry; Sokell, Emma; Zakharov, Vassily S.; Zakharov, Sergey V.; O’Reilly, Fergal

    2016-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generation by hybrid laser-assisted vacuum arc discharge plasmas, utilizing Sn-coated rotating-disc-electrodes, was investigated. The discharge was initiated by localized ablation of the liquid tin coating of the cathode disc by a laser pulse. The laser pulse, at 1064 nm, was generated by Nd:YAG lasers with variable energy from 1 to 100 mJ per pulse. The impact of shortening the laser pulse from 7 ns to 170 ps on the EUV generation has been investigated in detail. The use of ps pulses resulted in an increase in emission of EUV radiation. With a fixed discharge energy of ~4 J, the EUV conversion efficiency tends to plateau at ~2.4  ±  0.25% for the ps laser pulses, while for the ns pulses, it saturates at ~1.7  ±  0.3%. Under similar discharge and laser energy conditions, operating the EUV source with the ps-triggering resulted also in narrower spectral profiles of the emission in comparison to ns-triggering. The results indicate an advantage in using ps-triggering in laser-assisted discharges to produce brighter plasmas required for applications such as metrology.

  10. Fingerprint of Herb Product by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product authentication, quality assurance, and identification of adulterants/contamination are major issues facing the dietary supplement industry. Scutellaria lateriflora is an herb widely used as a remedy for many ailments ranging from rabies to epilepsy. It could be easily contaminated by similar...

  11. FINGERPRINTING OF C. PARVUM BY MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, an enteric protozoan pathogen, are responsible for the worst microbial waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis in recent history. The 1993 outbreak in Milwaukee, WI, sickened approximately 403,000 individuals, resulting in the hospitalizatio...

  12. MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY BASED ANALYSIS OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia is the protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of giardiasis. This illness is the most common parasitic disease, estimated to infect 2.5 million people in the United States and up to 280 million people worldwide each year [8,19]. Symptoms of giardiasis range from ...

  13. FINGERPRINTING OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI BY MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal enterococci group has been suggested as an indicator of fecal contamination in freshwater and marine water systems and as a potential target for bacterial source tracking of fecal pollution. While many studies have described the diversity of enterococci in environmenta...

  14. Analysis of insect cuticular hydrocarbons using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvačka, Josef; Jiroš, Pavel; Šobotník, Jan; Hanus, Robert; Svatoš, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2006), s. 409-434. ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : lithium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate * mass spectrometry * termites * cuticular hydrocarbons Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.896, year: 2006

  15. MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY BASED ANALYSIS OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that is a leading cause of drinking water related gastro-intestinal disease outbreaks worldwide. Due to the genotypic complexity and high prevalence of this parasite in the environment, numerous research studies are being done to ...

  16. Fundamentals of laser-assisted fabrication of inorganic and organic films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The standard method for producing films by laser-assisted methods, Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) will be reviewed. The films considered are usually inorganic films, but also films of organic materials have been produced. Also the deposition of organic films by MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser...

  17. Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlström, J.M., E-mail: marcus.dahlstrom@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Atomic Physics, Fysikum, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Guénot, D.; Klünder, K.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Mauritsson, J. [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); L’Huillier, A., E-mail: anne.lhuillier@fysik.lth.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Maquet, A. [UPMC Université Paris 6, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, LCPMR, Paris (France); Taïeb, R., E-mail: richard.taieb@upmc.fr [UPMC Université Paris 6, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, LCPMR, Paris (France)

    2013-03-12

    Highlights: ► We find the phase for laser-assisted XUV ionization transition matrix elements (M). ► The phase of M is simply: the sum of the scattering phase of the intermediate continuum state and an universal phase. ► The universal phase is independent of the initial state and it leads to a delay observed in attosecond time-delay experiments. - Abstract: We study the temporal aspects of laser-assisted extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photoionization using attosecond pulses of harmonic radiation. The aim of this paper is to establish the general form of the phase of the relevant transition amplitudes and to make the connection with the time-delays that have been recently measured in experiments. We find that the overall phase contains two distinct types of contributions: one is expressed in terms of the phase-shifts of the photoelectron continuum wavefunction while the other is linked to continuum–continuum transitions induced by the infrared (IR) laser probe. Our formalism applies to both kinds of measurements reported so far, namely the ones using attosecond pulse trains of XUV harmonics and the others based on the use of isolated attosecond pulses (streaking). The connection between the phases and the time-delays is established with the help of finite difference approximations to the energy derivatives of the phases. The observed time-delay is a sum of two components: a one-photon Wigner-like delay and a universal delay that originates from the probing process itself.

  18. Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We find the phase for laser-assisted XUV ionization transition matrix elements (M). ► The phase of M is simply: the sum of the scattering phase of the intermediate continuum state and an universal phase. ► The universal phase is independent of the initial state and it leads to a delay observed in attosecond time-delay experiments. - Abstract: We study the temporal aspects of laser-assisted extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photoionization using attosecond pulses of harmonic radiation. The aim of this paper is to establish the general form of the phase of the relevant transition amplitudes and to make the connection with the time-delays that have been recently measured in experiments. We find that the overall phase contains two distinct types of contributions: one is expressed in terms of the phase-shifts of the photoelectron continuum wavefunction while the other is linked to continuum–continuum transitions induced by the infrared (IR) laser probe. Our formalism applies to both kinds of measurements reported so far, namely the ones using attosecond pulse trains of XUV harmonics and the others based on the use of isolated attosecond pulses (streaking). The connection between the phases and the time-delays is established with the help of finite difference approximations to the energy derivatives of the phases. The observed time-delay is a sum of two components: a one-photon Wigner-like delay and a universal delay that originates from the probing process itself

  19. Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry for minimal destructive forensic analysis of black and color inkjet printed documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudt, Laetitia; Debois, Delphine; Zimmerman, Tyler A; Köhler, Laurent; Bano, Fouzia; Partouche, Franck; Duwez, Anne-Sophie; Gilbert, Bernard; De Pauw, Edwin

    2012-06-10

    Inkjet ink analysis is the best way to discriminate between printed documents, or even though more difficult, to connect an inkjet printed document with a brand or model of printers. Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) have been demonstrated as powerful tools for dyes and pigments analysis, which are ink components. The aim of this work is to evaluate the aforementioned techniques for inkjet inks analysis in terms of discriminating power, information quality, and nondestructive capability. So, we investigated 10 different inkjet ink cartridges (primary colors and black), 7 from the HP manufacturer and one each from Epson, Canon and Lexmark. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of three methods: Raman spectroscopy, LDMS and MALDI-MS. Raman spectroscopy, as it is preferable to try the nondestructive approach first, is successfully adapted to the analysis of color printed documents in most cases. For analysis of color inkjet inks by LDMS, we show that a MALDI matrix (9-aminoacridine, 9AA) is needed to desorb and to ionize dyes from most inkjet inks (except Epson inks). Therefore, a method was developed to apply the 9AA MALDI matrix directly onto the piece of paper while avoiding analyte spreading. The obtained mass spectra are very discriminating and lead to information about ink additives and paper compositions. Discrimination of black inkjet printed documents is more difficult because of the common use of carbon black as the principal pigment. We show for the first time the possibility to discriminate between two black-printed documents coming from different, as well as from the same, manufacturers. Mass spectra recorded from black inks in positive ion mode LDMS detect polyethylene glycol polymers which have characteristic mass distributions and end groups. Moreover, software has been developed for rapid and objective comparison of the low mass range of these positive mode LDMS spectra which have characteristic unknown peaks. PMID

  20. An investigation on co-axial water-jet assisted fiber laser cutting of metal sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhukar, Yuvraj K.; Mullick, Suvradip; Nath, Ashish K.

    2016-02-01

    Water assisted laser cutting has received significant attention in recent times with assurance of many advantages than conventional gas assisted laser cutting. A comparative study between co-axial water-jet and gas-jet assisted laser cutting of thin sheets of mild steel (MS) and titanium (Ti) by fiber laser is presented. Fiber laser (1.07 μm wavelength) was utilised because of its low absorption in water. The cut quality was evaluated in terms of average kerf, projected dross height, heat affected zone (HAZ) and cut surface roughness. It was observed that a broad range process parameter could produce consistent cut quality in MS. However, oxygen assisted cutting could produce better quality only with optimised parameters at high laser power and high cutting speed. In Ti cutting the water-jet assisted laser cutting performed better over the entire range of process parameters compared with gas assisted cutting. The specific energy, defined as the amount of laser energy required to remove unit volume of material was found more in case of water-jet assisted laser cutting process. It is mainly due to various losses associated with water assisted laser processing such as absorption of laser energy in water and scattering at the interaction zone.

  1. Decay-Assisted Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, K M; Bissell, M L; Budincevic, I; Cocolios, T E; De Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly-sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectroscopy is presented, whereby the isomeric ion beam is deflected to a decay spectroscopy station for alpha-decay tagging of the hyperfine components. Here, we present the first hyperfine-structure measurements of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr, in addition to the identification of the low-lying states of $^{202,204}$Fr performed at the CRIS experiment.

  2. Kinetics of Laser-Assisted Carbon Nanotube Growth

    CERN Document Server

    van de Burgt, Yoeri; Mandamparambil, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth is an attractive mask-less process for growing locally aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in selected places on temperature sensitive substrates. The nature of the localized process results in fast carbon nanotube growth with high experimental throughput. Here, we report on detailed investigation of growth kinetics related to physical and chemical process characteristics. Specifically, the growth kinetics is investigated by monitoring the dynamical changes of reflected laser beam intensity during growth. Benefiting from the fast growth and high experimental throughput, we investigate a wide range of experimental conditions and propose several growth regimes. Rate-limiting steps are determined using rate equations linked to the proposed growth regimes, which are further characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), therefore directly linking growth regimes to the structural quality of the CNTs. Activation energies for the differe...

  3. Laser-assisted cleaning: Dominant role of surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Padma Nilaya; D J Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Pulsed laser-assisted removal of particulates from substrates has decided advantages over the conventional methods of cleaning. Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of transparent/semi-transparent particulates on a metal surface was found to result in an increased absorption of the incident radiation by the substrate. This effect, identified as field-enhanced surface absorption was found to increase with reduction in the average particulate size.

  4. Surface plasmon resonance assisted rapid laser joining of glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A.; Tang, Guang; Abdolvand, Amin, E-mail: a.abdolvand@dundee.ac.uk [School of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, Zengbo [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-25

    Rapid and strong joining of clear glass to glass containing randomly distributed embedded spherical silver nanoparticles upon nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation (∼40 ns and repetition rate of 100 kHz) at 532 nm is demonstrated. The embedded silver nanoparticles were ∼30–40 nm in diameter, contained in a thin surface layer of ∼10 μm. A joint strength of 12.5 MPa was achieved for a laser fluence of only ∼0.13 J/cm{sup 2} and scanning speed of 10 mm/s. The bonding mechanism is discussed in terms of absorption of the laser energy by nanoparticles and the transfer of the accumulated localised heat to the surrounding glass leading to the local melting and formation of a strong bond. The presented technique is scalable and overcomes a number of serious challenges for a widespread adoption of laser-assisted rapid joining of glass substrates, enabling applications in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, sensors, micro-fluidic, and medical devices.

  5. Surface plasmon resonance assisted rapid laser joining of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid and strong joining of clear glass to glass containing randomly distributed embedded spherical silver nanoparticles upon nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation (∼40 ns and repetition rate of 100 kHz) at 532 nm is demonstrated. The embedded silver nanoparticles were ∼30–40 nm in diameter, contained in a thin surface layer of ∼10 μm. A joint strength of 12.5 MPa was achieved for a laser fluence of only ∼0.13 J/cm2 and scanning speed of 10 mm/s. The bonding mechanism is discussed in terms of absorption of the laser energy by nanoparticles and the transfer of the accumulated localised heat to the surrounding glass leading to the local melting and formation of a strong bond. The presented technique is scalable and overcomes a number of serious challenges for a widespread adoption of laser-assisted rapid joining of glass substrates, enabling applications in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, sensors, micro-fluidic, and medical devices

  6. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, Antonio; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Depero, Laura E.; Fanelli, Esther; Federici, Stefania; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2015-05-01

    Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence.

  7. Laser-assisted sheet metal working in series production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Eckert, Markus

    2013-02-01

    Based on the demand for a responsible use of natural resources and energy the need for lightweight materials is increasing. The most common materials for lightweight production are high and highest strength steel. These materials are difficult to machine using conventional sheet metal working processes because the high strength leads to a limited formability and high tool wear. The Fraunhofer IPT developed the laser-assisted sheet metal working. Selective laser based heating of the part directly before machining softens the material locally. Thus the quality of the following cut can be increased, for example for shearing 1.4310 the clear cut surface ratio can be increased from 20% up to 100% using a shearing gap of 10% of the sheet thickness. Because of the softening of the material and thus the increased formability, parts with a higher complexity can be produced. For example 1.4310 can be bent laser-assisted with a radius of 0.25 mm instead of 2-3 mm using the conventional process. For the first time spring steel can be embossed with conventional tools up to 50% of the sheet thickness. For the implementation in series production a modular system upgrade "hy-PRESS" has been developed to include laser and scanner technology into existing presses. For decoupling the sensitive optical elements of the machine vibrations an active-passive damping system has been developed. The combination of this new hybrid process and the system technology allows to produce parts of high strength steel with a high complexity and quality.

  8. Nanostructured diamond-like carbon on digital versatile disc as a matrix-free target for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Hausberger, Peter; Kraushaar, Harald; Bonn, Günther K

    2008-10-01

    A nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated digital versatile disk (DVD) target is presented as a matrix-free sample support for application in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). A large number of vacancies, defects, relative sp(2) carbon content, and nanogrooves of DLC films support the LDI phenomenon. The observed absorptivity of DLC is in the range of 305-330 nm (nitrogen laser, 337 nm). The universal applicability is demonstrated through different analytes like amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, peptides, and other metabolites. Carbohydrates and amino acids are analyzed as sodium and potassium adducts. Peptides are detectable in their protonated forms, which avoid the extra need of additives for ionization. A bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest is analyzed to demonstrate the performance for peptide mixtures, coupled with the material-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (MELDI) approach. The detection limit of the described matrix-free target is investigated to be 10 fmol/microL for [Glu(1)]-fibrinopeptide B (m/z 1570.6) and 1 fmol/microL for L-sorbose (Na(+) adduct). The device does not require any chemical functionalization in contrast to other matrix-free systems. The inertness of DLC provides longer lifetimes without any deterioration in the detection sensitivity. Broad applicability allows high performance analysis in metabolomics and peptidomics. Furthermore the DLC coated DVD (1.4 GB) sample support is used as a storage device for measured and processed data together with sampling on a single device. PMID:18729472

  9. Clinical outcome of endonasal KTP laser assisted dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Sean

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the clinical outcome of primary endonasal laser assisted dacryocystorhinostomy (ENL-DCR using the potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all primary ENL-DCRs performed within a period of twelve months by the same combined Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaringology team in Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. The main outcome measure for success was resolution or significant improvement of epiphora. Details of surgery, intraoperative and postoperative complications, as well as pathology associated with failure were also studied. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months. Results A total of 41 consecutive ENL-DCRs on 29 patients (22 females, 7 males, mean age 75 years were analysed. All patients had bicanalicular silicone intubation for at least 4 months. The success rate at 12 months postoperatively was 78.1%. Pathology associated with failure included: intranasal pathology (12.2%, mucocele (7.3%, and systemic sarcoidosis (2.4%. No significant intra-operative complications were recorded. Conclusion The ENL-DCR with potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser can be considered as a safe and efficient primary procedure for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  10. In Situ Probing of Cholesterol in Astrocytes at the Single Cell Level using Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometric Imaging with Colloidal Silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdian, D.C.; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S.; Yeung, Edward S.; and Lee, Young Jin

    2010-03-18

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level.

  11. On the Feasibility of Depth Profiling of Animal Tissue by Ultrashort Pulse Laser Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Milasinovic, Slobodan; Liu, Yaoming; Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Melvin, Blaze M.T.; Gordon, Robert J.; Hanley, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the feasibility of MS depth profiling of animal tissue by ~75 fs, 800 nm laser pulses to expose underlying layers of tissue for subsequent MS analysis. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze phospholipids and proteins from both intact bovine eye lens tissue and tissue ablated by ultrashort laser pulses. Laser desorption postionization (LDPI-MS) with 10.5 eV single photon ionization was also used to ana...

  12. Laser Assisted Emittance Exchange: Downsizing the X-ray Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is proposed to generate electron beam with ultralow transverse emittance through laser assisted transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange. In the scheme a laser operating in the TEM10 mode is used to interact with the electron beam in a dispersive region and to initiate the emittance exchange. It is shown that with the proposed technique one can significantly downsize an x-ray free electron laser (FEL), which may greatly extend the availability of these light sources. A hard x-ray FEL operating at 1.5 (angstrom) with a saturation length within 30 meters using a 3.8 GeV electron beam is shown to be practically feasible.

  13. Posterior Corneal Surface Stability after Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cagini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate posterior corneal surface variation after femtosecond laser-assisted keratomileusis in patients with myopia and myopic astigmatism. Patients were evaluated by corneal tomography preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months. We analyzed changes in the posterior corneal curvature, posterior corneal elevation, and anterior chamber depth. Moreover, we explored correlation between corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, percentage of ablated corneal tissue, and preoperative corneal thickness. During follow-up, the posterior corneal surface did not have a significant forward corneal shift: no significant linear relationships emerged between the anterior displacement of the posterior corneal surface and corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, or percentage of ablated corneal tissue.

  14. Parametric modeling and optimization of laser scanning parameters during laser assisted machining of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, K.; Ramanujam, R.; Kuppan, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a parametric effect, microstructure, micro-hardness and optimization of laser scanning parameters (LSP) on heating experiments during laser assisted machining of Inconel 718 alloy. The laser source used for experiments is a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser with maximum power of 2 kW. The experimental parameters in the present study are cutting speed in the range of 50-100 m/min, feed rate of 0.05-0.1 mm/rev, laser power of 1.25-1.75 kW and approach angle of 60-90°of laser beam axis to tool. The plan of experiments are based on central composite rotatable design L31 (43) orthogonal array. The surface temperature is measured via on-line measurement using infrared pyrometer. Parametric significance on surface temperature is analysed using response surface methodology (RSM), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and 3D surface graphs. The structural change of the material surface is observed using optical microscope and quantitative measurement of heat affected depth that are analysed by Vicker's hardness test. The results indicate that the laser power and approach angle are the most significant parameters to affect the surface temperature. The optimum ranges of laser power and approach angle was identified as 1.25-1.5 kW and 60-65° using overlaid contour plot. The developed second order regression model is found to be in good agreement with experimental values with R2 values of 0.96 and 0.94 respectively for surface temperature and heat affected depth.

  15. Laser assisted die bending: a new application of high power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuöcker, D.; Schumi, T.; Spitzer, O.; Bammer, F.; Schuöcker, G.; Sperrer, G.

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays high power lasers are mainly used for cutting of sheet metals, for welding, hardening and rapid prototyping. In the forming of sheet metals as bending or deep drawing lasers are not used. Nevertheless a few years ago a new application of high power lasers has been invented, where bending of materials that break at room temperature becomes possible by heating them along the bending edge with high power lasers thus allowing their treatment without cracks and rupture. For this purpose a large number of diode lasers are arranged in the bottom tool of a bending machine (a V-shaped die) which heat up the initially flat sheet metal during the bending process what is performed by pressing it into the die with a knife shaped upper tool where due to the laser heating the material is softened and thus cracks are avoided. For the technical realization of the new process of laser assisted die bending, modules equipped with numerous laser diodes and a total beam power of 2,5 kW are used. The light emitted by these modules enters a tool with a length of 15cm and is deflected towards the workpiece. By using ten of these modules with adjacent dies and by integrating those in a bending press a bending edge of sheet metals with a length of 1500mm can be realized. Such a bending press with laser assistance also needs energization with a power of practically 50kW, a respective water flow, a heat exchanger system and also a control for all functions of this system. Special measures have also been developed to avoid radiating of those tools that are not covered by a workpiece in the case of bending edges shorter than the full length of the bending tools whereas individual short circuiting of diode modules can be performed. Specific measures to ensure a safe operation without any harm to the operational person have been realized. Exploitation of the bending process has been carried out for titanium, where material thicknesses up to 3mm have been bent successfully.

  16. Laser-assisted machining process simulation for precision mould/die manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Quanren; Qin Yi

    2015-01-01

    Laser-assisted machining (LAM) is a kind of thermally assisted manufacturing process which preheats workpiece material with a highly-localized laser beam and then is followed by a conventional machining operation. It could greatly improve the machinability and gives better machining quality, especially suitable for hard-to-cut materials such as superalloys, tool steels. For manufacturing the high-precision moulds/dies that could fabricate micro and precision components, the thermal assistance...

  17. Gas-phase spectroscopy and anharmonic vibrational analysis of the 3-residue peptide Z-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 by the laser desorption supersonic jet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► UV, IR and hole-burning spectra of a tri-peptide Z-PLG-NH2 were measured in a jet. ► The laser desorption technique was used to evaporate the peptide. ► The conformers were detected but the population is mainly distributed to a single conformation. ► MD simulations and DFT calculations reproduced the IR spectrum except for NH stretch. ► Anharmonic vibrational analysis VQDPT reproduced the splitting of the NH stretch. - Abstract: The electronic excitation and infrared (IR) spectra of a capped tri-peptide, Z-PLG-NH2 (Z = benzyloxycarbonyl, P = Pro, L = Leu, G = Gly), were measured in the gas phase by using the laser desorption supersonic jet technique. By measuring an ultraviolet–ultraviolet hole burning spectrum, it was found that Z-PLG-NH2 has the maximum three conformers in the gas phase, but that the population is mainly distributed to a single conformation. Molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations well-reproduced the observed IR spectrum, except for splitting of the NH stretching bands by a β-turn structure that corresponds to a global minimum structure. Anharmonic vibrational analysis by vibrational quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (VQDPT) successfully reproduced the anharmonic splitting, and confirmed the assignments

  18. FORMATION OF POROUS STRUCTURES ON Si SURFACE BY LASER-ASSISTED ETCHING

    OpenAIRE

    H. Y. Zheng; Chai, J.C.; Lam, Y. C.; Zhu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Porous silicon structures were observed in laser-assisted etching in a TMAH solution. The porous structures significantly increase the active surface areas and therefore are of great interest to the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industry, in the areas of high throughput drug discovery, reaction optimization and process development. Laser-assisted etching of silicon using a Nd:YAG laser with a TMAH solution is rarely studied but desirable as the solution is nontoxic. To the best of our kno...

  19. Fundamentals of laser-assisted fabrication of inorganic and organic films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen

    The standard method for producing films by laser-assisted methods, Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) will be reviewed. The films considered are usually inorganic films, but also films of organic materials have been produced. Also the deposition of organic films by MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser...... Evaporation), in which the target is replaced by a frozen matrix containing a few per cent film material, will be reviewed....

  20. Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlström, J M; Klünder, K; Gisselbrecht, M; Mauritsson, J; L'Huillier, A; Maquet, A; Taïeb, R

    2011-01-01

    We study the temporal aspects of laser-assisted extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photoionization using attosecond pulses of harmonic radiation. The aim of this paper is to establish the general form of the phase of the relevant transition amplitudes and to make the connection with the time-delays that have been recently measured in experiments. We find that the overall phase contains two distinct types of contributions: one is expressed in terms of the phase-shifts of the photoelectron continuum wavefunction while the other is linked to continuum--continuum transitions induced by the infrared (IR) laser probe. Our formalism applies to both kinds of measurements reported so far, namely the ones using attosecond pulse trains of XUV harmonics and the others based on the use of isolated attosecond pulses (streaking). The connection between the phases and the time-delays is established with the help of finite difference approximations to the energy derivatives of the phases. This makes clear that the observed time-delays...

  1. Using optical pyrometer in gas assisted laser cutting of steel sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The use of optical methods of nondestructive testing can permit the real time control of gas assisted laser cutting, which is especially important in cutting metal sheets of large thickness and in other cases when the specified laser power is limited by laser operation modes[1,2].

  2. Using optical pyrometer in gas assisted laser cutting of steel sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grishaev; R.; V.; Dubrov; V.; D.; Dubrovin; N.; G.; Zavalov; Yu.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The use of optical methods of nondestructive testing can permit the real time control of gas assisted laser cutting, which is especially important in cutting metal sheets of large thickness and in other cases when the specified laser power is limited by laser operation modes[1,2].……

  3. Laser assisted chemically shaped unstable resonator, for high power coherent laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser assisted chemical etching (LACE) is used to etch a continuous graded channel, set inside a wide stripe graded-index and separate confinement heterostructure (GRIN-SCH) for laser diodes, grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). After a procedure of growing-etching-regrowing, a two-part waveguide is formed inside such modified structure, that is characterized by a negative change in the lateral effective refractive index (ERI). This effects the cavity to work as an unstable resonator. Procedures on the photo etching process are described, including the GaAs photochemistry and the optical system, with special emphasis on the fabrication of the approximately parabolic channels, as this represents a novel step. We call the cavity fabricated by this method, the shaped unstable resonator (SHUR). (Author)

  4. Changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness following mechanical microkeratome-assisted versus femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK

    OpenAIRE

    Hosny M; Zaki RM; RA, Ahmed; Khalil N; Mostafa HM

    2013-01-01

    Mohamed Hosny,1 Rania M Zaki,1 Rania A Ahmed,1 Noha Khalil,1 Hoda M Mostafa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To study the influence of the transient elevation of intraocular pressure during suction in laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness both in microkeratome assisted and femotsecond (FS) LASIK. Patients and methods: An interventional case series that included 40 eyes suffering from myopia who wer...

  5. The effects of laser assisted hatching on pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghannadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For infertile women aged over 35 years, failure of the ZP (zona pellucida to rupture is believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitro fertilization (IVF or intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI.Objective: In this research, laser assisted hatching (LAH was offered to patients with advanced maternal age to evaluate a possible benefit.Materials and Methods: Nine hundred thirty two cycles of IVF/ICSI in females were analyzed. Women included in this study were allocated in 4 groups. In group I and II, embryos were cultured and transferred with and without LAH in women aged ≤35, whereas embryos of group III and IV were examined with and without LAH in women aged ≥ 35. Laser manipulations were performed using a suturn-Tm3 system using 2-3 pulses of 0.8 millisecond with 400 voltage duration. The size of the hole made in the zona was measured to be 5-10 μm, depending on the zona thickness of each individual embryo.Results: The performance of LAH significantly increased clinical pregnancy rates in all patients. In group I and II, the chemical (50.99% and 31.61% respectively, clinical (50% and 30.69% respectively and multiple pregnancies (22.27% and 5.94% respectively significantly differ between these groups. In the patients with advanced female age ≥35 the performance of LAH significantly increased chemical (30.12% and clinical pregnancy (27.71% rates compared to whom without LAH (18.96% and 16.37% respectively.Conclusion: Our data demonstrate in the patients who were less than 35 years old, multiple pregnancy rates were significantly increased compared to other groups who aged over 35 years old. In addition benefit of LAH in improving pregnancy rates after IVF or ICSI in women of advanced age (≥35 was shown

  6. Nickel-disilicide-assisted excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Yan-Ping; Shao Xi-Bin; Gao Feng-Li; Luo Wen-Sheng; Wu Yuan; Fu Guo-Zhu; Jing Hai; Ma Kai

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film has been prepared by means of nickel-disilicide (NiSi2) assisted excimer laser crystallization (ELC). The process to prepare a sample includes two steps. One step consists of the formation of NiSi2 precipitates by heat-treating the dehydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si) coated with a thin layer of Ni. And the other step consists of the formation of poly-Si grains by means of ELC. According to the test results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), another grain growth model named two-interface grain growth has been proposed to contrast with the conventional Ni-metal-induced lateral crystallization (Ni-MILC) model and the ELC model. That is, an additional grain growth interface other than that in conventional ELC is formed, which consists of NiSi2 precipitates and a-Si.The processes for grain growth according to various excimer laser energy densities delivered to the a-Si film have been discussed. It is discovered that grains with needle shape and most of a uniform orientation are formed which grow up with NiSi2 precipitates as seeds. The reason for the formation of such grains which are different from that of Ni-MILCwithout migration of Ni atoms is not clear. Our model and analysis point out a method to prepare grains with needle shape and mostly of a uniform orientation. If such grains are utilized to make thin-film transistor, its characteristics may be improved.

  7. Mechanism of chromophore assisted laser inactivation employing fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mark A; Rajfur, Zenon; Chen, Zaozao; Humphrey, David; Yang, Bing; Sligar, Stephen G; Jacobson, Ken

    2009-03-01

    Chromophore assisted laser inactivation (CALI) is a technique that uses irradiation of chromophores proximate to a target protein to inactivate function. Previously, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mediated CALI has been used to inactivate EGFP-fusion proteins in a spatio-temporally defined manner within cells, but the mechanism of inactivation is unknown. To help elucidate the mechanism of protein inactivation mediated by fluorescent protein CALI ([FP]-CALI), the activities of purified glutathione-S-transferase-FP (GST-EXFP) fusions were measured after laser irradiation in vitro. Singlet oxygen and free radical quenchers as well as the removal of oxygen inhibited CALI, indicating the involvement of a reactive oxygen species (ROS). At higher concentrations of protein, turbidity after CALI increased significantly indicating cross-linking of proximate fusion proteins suggesting that damage of residues on the surface of the protein, distant from the active site, results in inactivation. Control experiments removed sample heating as a possible cause of these effects. Different FP mutants fused to GST vary in their CALI efficiency in the order enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) > enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) > enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), while a GST construct that binds fluorescein-based arsenical hairpin binder (FlAsH) results in significantly higher CALI efficiency than any of the fluorescent proteins (XFPs) tested. It is likely that the hierarchy of XFP effectiveness reflects the balance between ROS that are trapped within the XFP structure and cause fluorophore and chromophore bleaching and those that escape to effect CALI of proximate proteins. PMID:19199572

  8. Growth of thin fullerene films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren

    C60 fullerene thin films of average thickness of more than 100 nm on silicon substrates can be produced in vacuum by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A 355 nm Nd:YAG laser was directed onto a frozen target of anisole with a concentration of 0.67 wt% C60. At laser fluences below 1......, observed over a wide range of laser fluences, are caused by ejection of large matrix-fullerene liquid droplets into the gas-phase and subsequent deposition. At similar laser energies, but using an unfocused laser beam, MAPLE favours evaporation of matrix and organic molecules, resulting in films with...

  9. Computer-Assisted Experiments with a Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    A laser diode from an inexpensive laser pen (laser pointer) is used in simple experiments. The radiant output power and efficiency of the laser are measured, and polarization of the light beam is shown. The "h/e" ratio is available from the threshold of spontaneous emission. The lasing threshold is found using several methods. With a…

  10. Desorption mass spectrometry: Revisiting the in-situ calibration technique for mixed group-V alloy MBE growth of ~3.3 μm diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Ron; Lu, Chunte; Yang, Chi; Newell, Timothy C.; Luong, Sanh

    2015-09-01

    We apply the desorption mass spectrometry (DMS) technique and analyze the desorbed Sb species in-situ during MBE growth of mixed As/Sb heterostructures. We demonstrate how DMS is useful in pre-growth calibration of the V/III ratio, the group-III ratio, as well as the Sb-content in quaternary or quinary mixed As/Sb alloys. We also apply DMS to the digital alloy growth method. For demonstration purposes, we start with an un-calibrated MBE system, use the DMS technique to calibrate all of the previously undetermined MBE parameters and grow a ~3.3 μm diode laser heterostructure in only one attempt. The results demonstrate that the DMS technique will allow the MBE to quickly converge toward a set of acceptable growth parameters without the need for ex-situ calibration of alloy composition.

  11. Detection of in-situ derivatized peptides in microbial biofilms by laser desorption 7.87 eV postionizaton mass spectrometry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edirisinghe, P. D.; Moore, J. F.; Skinner-Nemec, K. A.; Lindberg, C.; Giometti, C. S.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Hunt, J. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Hanley, L.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; MassThink

    2007-01-01

    A novel analytical method based on laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) was developed to investigate the competence and sporulation factor-a pentapeptide of amino acid sequence ERGMT-within intact Bacillus subtilis biofilms. Derivatization of the neat ERGMT peptide with quinoline- and anthracene-based tags was separately used to lower the peptide ionization potential and permit direct ionization by 7.87-eV vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The techniques of mass shifting and selective ionization of the derivatized peptide were combined here to permit detection of ERGMT peptide within intact biofilms by LDPI-MS, without any prior extraction or chromatographic separation. Finally, imaging MS specific to the derivatized peptide was demonstrated on an intact biofilm using LDPI-MS. The presence of ERGMT in the biofilms was verified by bulk extraction/LC-MS. However, MALDI imaging MS analyses were unable to detect ERGMT within intact biofilms.

  12. Characterization of foot- and mouth disease virus antigen by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry in aqueous and oil-emulsion formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Jansen, J.; Westra, D.F.; Coco-Martin, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We have used a novel method, surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine antigens. Using specific capture with FMDV binding recombinant antibody fragments and tryptic digestion of FMDV antig

  13. Investigation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma from colorectal cancer patients and blood donors by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometryscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CASPERSEN, M. B.; Sørensen, N. M.; Iversen, P;

    2007-01-01

    in plasma, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI TOF MS) was used. TIMP-1 measurements of plasma from 16 healthy donors and 14 CRC patients were performed using TIMP-1 monoclonal antibody in SELDI TOF MS and ELISA. SELDI TOF MS applying an antibody to TIMP-1...

  14. Desorption/Ionization Fluence Thresholds and Improved Mass Spectral Consistency Measured Using a Flattop Laser Profile in the Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry of Single Bacillus Endospores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, P T; Srivastava, A; Pitesky, M E; Fergenson, D P; Tobias, H J; Gard, E E; Frank, M

    2004-11-30

    Bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) is being developed to analyze and identify biological aerosols in real-time. Mass spectra of individual Bacillus endospores were measured here with a bipolar aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer in which molecular desorption and ionization were produced using a single laser pulse from a Q-switched, frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser that was modified to have an approximately flattop profile. The flattened laser profile allowed the minimum fluence required to desorb and ionize significant numbers of ions from single aerosol particles to be determined. For Bacillus spores this threshold had a mean value of approximately 1 nJ/{micro}m{sup 2} (0.1 J/cm{sup 2}). Thresholds for individual spores, however, could apparently deviate by 20% or more from the mean. Threshold distributions for clumps of MS2 bacteriophage and bovine serum albumin were subsequently determined. Finally, the flattened profile was observed to increase the reproducibility of single spore mass spectra. This is consistent with the general conclusions of our earlier paper on the fluence dependence of single spore mass spectra and is particularly significant because it is expected to enable more robust differentiation and identification of single bioaerosol particles.

  15. Rapid metabolic profiling of Nicotiana tabacum defence responses against Phytophthora nicotianae using direct infrared laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Engelbert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful defence of tobacco plants against attack from the oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae includes a type of local programmed cell death called the hypersensitive response. Complex and not completely understood signaling processes are required to mediate the development of this defence in the infected tissue. Here, we demonstrate that different families of metabolites can be monitored in small pieces of infected, mechanically-stressed, and healthy tobacco leaves using direct infrared laser desorption ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The defence response was monitored for 1 - 9 hours post infection. Results Infrared laser desorption ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry allows rapid and simultaneous detection in both negative and positive ion mode of a wide range of naturally occurring primary and secondary metabolites. An unsupervised principal component analysis was employed to identify correlations between changes in metabolite expression (obtained at different times and sample treatment conditions and the overall defence response. A one-dimensional projection of the principal components 1 and 2 obtained from positive ion mode spectra was used to generate a Biological Response Index (BRI. The BRI obtained for each sample treatment was compared with the number of dead cells found in the respective tissue. The high correlation between these two values suggested that the BRI provides a rapid assessment of the plant response against the pathogen infection. Evaluation of the loading plots of the principal components (1 and 2 reveals a correlation among three metabolic cascades and the defence response generated in infected leaves. Analysis of selected phytohormones by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry verified our findings. Conclusion The described methodology allows for rapid assessment of infection-specific changes in the plant metabolism, in particular

  16. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation for growth of fullerene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster Nielsen, Søren

    C60 fullerene thin films of average thickness of more than 100 nm can be produced in vacuum by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A 355 nm Nd:YAG laser was directed onto a frozen target of anisole with a concentration of 0.67 wt% C60. At laser fluences below 1.5 J/cm2, a dominant...... fluences, are caused by ejection of large matrix-fullerene liquid droplets into the gas-phase and subsequent deposition. At similar laser energies, but using an unfocused laser beam, MAPLE favours evaporation of matrix and organic molecules, resulting in production of films with smooth surfaces and minimal...

  17. Nanostructured polymer stable glasses via matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kimberly B.

    Amorphous materials, or glasses, which lack a crystalline structure, are technologically ubiquitous with applications including structural components, pharmaceuticals, and electronic devices. Glasses are traditionally formed by rapid cooling from the melt state, where molecules become kinetically trapped into a non-equilibrium configuration. The temperature at which the material transforms from supercooled liquid to glass is the glass transition temperature. The glass transition temperature is the most important property of amorphous materials, as it determines the range of temperatures where they are fabricated, used and stored. Recent technological developments in which glasses are formed by alternative routes, such as physical vapor deposition and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), enable tunability of Tg and related physical properties. High-Tg glasses formed by these techniques are termed "stable glasses" and exhibit a wide range of exceptional properties. This work focuses on the formation and characterization of stable polymer glasses fabricated via MAPLE. Bulk films (>1 microm thick) of glassy polymers fabricated by MAPLE at slow growth rates (polymer glasses. Building on molecular dynamics simulations from the literature on the MAPLE process, we experimentally study the origin of nanostructure in our MAPLE-deposited films. We measure the time-of-flight of MAPLE-deposited material, confirming that the velocity is sufficiently low for intact deposition of polymer nanoglobules. The size distribution of polymer nanoglobules fabricated in short MAPLE depositions provides insight into how nanostructured MAPLE films form. Using our atomic force microscopy-based nanoscale dilatometry technique, we directly probe the nanoscale thermal behavior of individual polymer nanoglobules. We confirm that bulk and nanoscale glasses share many of the same physical behavior: enhanced stability above the glass transition temperature, and ~40% excess volume. We

  18. How to make big molecules fly out of liquid water: applications, features and physics of laser assisted liquid phase dispersion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Ales; Abel, Bernd

    2007-07-14

    Applications, features, and mechanistic details of laser assisted liquid phase dispersion mass spectrometry are highlighted and discussed. It has been used in the past to directly isolate charged molecular aggregates from the liquid phase and to determine their molecular weight employing sensitive time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The liquid matrix in this MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization) type approach consists of a 10 microm diameter free liquid filament in vacuum (or a free droplet) which is excited with a focused infrared laser pulse tuned to match the absorption frequency of the OH-stretch vibration of bulk water near 2.8 microm. Due to these features we will refer to the approach as free liquid matrix assisted laser dispersion of ions or ionic aggregates (IR-FL-MALDI), although also LILBID ("laser induced liquid beam (bead) desorption and ionization") has been proposed early as a descriptive acronym for the technique and may be used alternatively. Low-charge-state macromolecular adducts are isolated in the gas phase from solution via a yet poorly characterized mechanism which sensitively depends upon the laser intensity and wavelength, and after the gentle liquid-to-vacuum transfer the aggregates are analyzed via time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Possible mechanisms for the isolation and charging of biomolecules directly from liquid solution are discussed in the present contribution. Recent technical advances such as minimizing the sample consumption, strategies for high throughput mass spectrometry, and coupling of liquid beam MS with HPLC will be highlighted as well. An interesting feature of IR-FL-MALDI is what we call the linear response, i.e., a surprising linearity of the gas phase mass signal on the solution concentration over many orders of magnitude for a large number of biomolecular systems as well as ions. Due to these features the approach may be regarded as a true solution probing spectroscopy, which enables

  19. Development of a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser paint removal process usually leaves behind traces of combustion product i.e. ashes on the surface. An additional post-processing such as light-brushing or wiping by some mechanical means is required to remove the residual ash. In order to strip out the paint completely from the surface in a single step, a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process has been investigated. The 1.07 μm wavelength of Yb-fiber laser radiation has low absorption in water; therefore a high power fiber laser was used in the experiment. The laser beam was delivered on the paint-surface along with a water jet to remove the paint and residual ashes effectively. The specific energy, defined as the laser energy required removing a unit volume of paint was found to be marginally more than that for the gas-jet assisted laser paint removal process. However, complete paint removal was achieved with the water-jet assist only. The relatively higher specific energy in case of water-jet assist is mainly due to the scattering of laser beam in the turbulent flow of water-jet

  20. Processing of C60 thin films by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of fullerenes (C60) were deposited onto silicon using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The deposition was carried out from a frozen homogeneous dilute solution of C60 in anisole (0.67 wt%), and over a broad range of laser fluences, from 0.15 J/cm2 up to 3.9 J/cm2. MAPL...

  1. Development of a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhukar, Yuvraj K.; Mullick, Suvradip; Nath, Ashish K., E-mail: aknath@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2013-12-01

    The laser paint removal process usually leaves behind traces of combustion product i.e. ashes on the surface. An additional post-processing such as light-brushing or wiping by some mechanical means is required to remove the residual ash. In order to strip out the paint completely from the surface in a single step, a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process has been investigated. The 1.07 μm wavelength of Yb-fiber laser radiation has low absorption in water; therefore a high power fiber laser was used in the experiment. The laser beam was delivered on the paint-surface along with a water jet to remove the paint and residual ashes effectively. The specific energy, defined as the laser energy required removing a unit volume of paint was found to be marginally more than that for the gas-jet assisted laser paint removal process. However, complete paint removal was achieved with the water-jet assist only. The relatively higher specific energy in case of water-jet assist is mainly due to the scattering of laser beam in the turbulent flow of water-jet.

  2. Laser-assisted sol-gel growth and characteristics of ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thin films were grown on Si(100) substrates by a sol-gel method assisted by laser beam irradiation with a 325 nm He-Cd laser. In contrast to conventional sol-gel ZnO thin films, the surface morphology of the laser-assisted sol-gel thin films was much smoother, and the residual stress in the films was relaxed by laser irradiation. The luminescent properties of the films were also enhanced by laser irradiation, especially, by irradiation during the deposition and post-heat treatment stages. The incident laser beam is thought to play several roles, such as annihilating defects by accelerating crystallization during heat treatment, enhancing the surface migration of atoms and molecules, and relaxing the ZnO matrix structure during crystallization.

  3. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis

  4. Isolation of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Using Laser-Assisted Liposuction and Their Therapeutic Potential in Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Michael T.; Zimmermann, Andrew S.; Paik, Kevin J.; Shane D Morrison; Hyun, Jeong S.; Lo, David D; McArdle, Adrian; Montoro, Daniel T.; Walmsley, Graham G.; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Sorkin, Michael; Rennert, Robert; Chen, Hsin-Han; Chung, Andrew S.; Vistnes, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of laser-assisted liposuction on the quality and differentiation potential of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). It was found that laser-assisted liposuction negatively impacts the biology of ASCs, and therefore cell harvest using suction-assisted liposuction is preferable for tissue-engineering purposes.

  5. Computer-assisted experiments with a laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser diode from an inexpensive laser pen (laser pointer) is used in simple experiments. The radiant output power and efficiency of the laser are measured, and polarization of the light beam is shown. The h/e ratio is available from the threshold of spontaneous emission. The lasing threshold is found using several methods. With a data-acquisition system, the measurements are possible in a short time. The frequency response of the laser diode is determined in the range 10-107 Hz. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and for classroom demonstrations on semiconductors.

  6. Computer-assisted experiments with a laser diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov, E-mail: krafty@mail.biu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2011-05-15

    A laser diode from an inexpensive laser pen (laser pointer) is used in simple experiments. The radiant output power and efficiency of the laser are measured, and polarization of the light beam is shown. The h/e ratio is available from the threshold of spontaneous emission. The lasing threshold is found using several methods. With a data-acquisition system, the measurements are possible in a short time. The frequency response of the laser diode is determined in the range 10-10{sup 7} Hz. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and for classroom demonstrations on semiconductors.

  7. In vitro investigation on Ho:YAG laser-assisted bone ablation underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Chen, Chuanguo; Chen, Faner; Zhan, Zhenlin; Xie, Shusen; Ye, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Liquid-assisted hard tissue ablation by infrared lasers has extensive clinical application. However, detailed studies are still needed to explore the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the dynamic process of bubble evolution induced by Ho:YAG laser under water without and with bone tissue at different thickness layer were studied, as well as its effects on hard tissue ablation. The results showed that the Ho:YAG laser was capable of ablating hard bone tissue effectively in underwater conditions. The penetration of Ho:YAG laser can be significantly increased up to about 4 mm with the assistance of bubble. The hydrokinetic forces associated with the bubble not only contributed to reducing the thermal injury to peripheral tissue, but also enhanced the ablation efficiency and improve the ablation crater morphology. The data also presented some clues to optimal selection of irradiation parameters and provided additional knowledge of the bubble-assisted hard tissue ablation mechanism. PMID:27056700

  8. Laser-Assisted Subepithelial Keratectomy versus Laser In Situ Keratomileusis in Myopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Quan Zhao; Huang Zhu; Liang-Mao Li

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review was to compare the clinical outcomes between laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Primary parameters included mean manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), MRSE within ±0.50 diopters, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) ≥20/20, and loss of ≥1 line of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Secondary parameters included flap complications and corneal haze. Twelve clinical controlled trials were identified...

  9. Comb-assisted coherence transfer between laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sala, Tommaso; Burkart, Johannes; Marangoni, Marco; Romanini, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Single mode laser fields oscillate at frequencies well outside the realm of electronics, but their phase/frequency fluctuations fall into the radio frequency domain, where direct manipulation is possible. Electro-optic devices have sufficient bandwidth for controlling and tailoring the dynamics of a laser field down to sub-nanosecond time scales. Thus, a laser field can be arbitrarily reshaped and in particular its phase/frequency fluctuations can be in principle removed. In practice, the time evolution of a reference laser field can be cloned to replace the fluctuations of another laser field, at a close-by frequency. In fact, it is possible to exploit a partially stabilized optical comb to perform the cloning across a large frequency gap. We realize this long-haul phase transfer by using a fibered Mach-Zehnder single-sideband modulator driven by an appropriate mix of the beat notes of the master and the slave laser with the comb.

  10. Cutting Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Laser Cutting Process without Assist Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ozaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laser cutting is used in many industries. Generally, in laser cutting of metallic materials, suitable assist gas and its nozzle are needed to remove the molten metal. However, because of the gas nozzle should be set closer to the surface of a workpiece, existence of the nozzle seems to prevent laser cutting from being used flexible. Therefore, the new cutting process, Assist Gas Free laser cutting or AGF laser cutting, has been developed. In this process, the pressure at the bottom side of a workpiece is reduced by a vacuum pump, and the molten metal can be removed by the air flow caused by the pressure difference between both sides of the specimen. In this study, cutting properties of austenitic stainless steel by using AGF laser cutting with 2 kW CO2 laser were investigated. Laser power and cutting speed were varied in order to study the effect of these parameters on cutting properties. As a result, austenitic stainless steel could be cut with dross-free by AGF laser cutting. When laser power was 2.0 kW, cutting speed could be increased up to 100 mm/s, and kerf width at specimen surface was 0.28 mm.

  11. A report of laser-assisted modified Widman flap for periodontal regeneration: Clinical and radiographic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Salaria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a relatively common disease. Various therapies have been recommended for its treatment which includes nonsurgical, antimicrobial, and surgical therapy. In recent years lasers have been used for all the three above-mentioned purposes. Lasers have been applied for hard and soft tissue debridement, contouring as well as the bacterial load reduction in the pocket. Here we present a case report of chronic periodontitis treated with the help of a new technique, laser-assisted modified Widman flap (LAMWF. The surgical procedure followed with a 980 nm diode laser has been described. The present case report resulted in significant pocket depth reduction, attachment gain, and radiographic evidence of bone fill. The laser-assisted modified Widman flap provided excellent results without complications and high patient as well as clinician satisfaction.

  12. Theory of the photoelectric effect assisted by an elliptically polarized laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser-assisted photoelectric effect in atomic hydrogen is investigated for linear, circular and general elliptic polarizations. The perturbative dressed state of the atom in an elliptically polarized nonresonant laser field is derived in the velocity gauge. The continuum state of the ejected electron is described by a Coulomb-Volkov wavefunction. Numerical results show that the ionization cross section by a vacuum ultraviolet photon is enhanced at high laser field intensities and low frequencies. At small and extremely large scattering angles (measured with respect to the wave vector of the incoming vacuum ultraviolet photon), the process for emitting a laser photon is predominant, while at medium angles, the result favours the process without a laser photon exchange. The dependence of the results on the laser polarization and on various geometries is studied, and an interesting pattern is found for the dependence on the frequency of the dressing laser; an intuitive explanation is offered.

  13. CO2-laser-assisted processing of glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Schares, Richard Ludwig; Stimpfl, Joffrey

    2013-02-01

    To fully exploit the potential of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (FRTC) and to achieve a broad industrial application, automated manufacturing systems are crucial. Investigations at Fraunhofer IPT have proven that the use of laser system technology in processing FRTC allows to achieve high throughput, quality, flexibility, reproducibility and out-of-autoclave processing simultaneously. As 90% of the FRP in Europe1 are glass fiber-reinforced a high impact can be achieved by introducing laser-assisted processing with all its benefits to glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTC). Fraunhofer IPT has developed the diode laser-assisted tape placement (laying and winding) to process carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTC) for years. However, this technology cannot be transferred unchanged to process milky transparent GFRTC prepregs (preimpregnated fibers). Due to the short wavelength (approx. 980 nm) and therefore high transmission less than 20% of the diode laser energy is absorbed as heat into non-colored GFRTC prepregs. Hence, the use of a different wave length, e.g. CO2-laser (10.6 μm) with more than 90% laser absorption, is required to allow the full potential of laser-assisted processing of GFRTC. Also the absorption of CO2-laser radiation at the surface compared to volume absorption of diode laser radiation is beneficial for the interlaminar joining of GFRTC. Fraunhofer IPT is currently developing and investigating the CO2-laser-assisted tape placement including new system, beam guiding, process and monitoring technology to enable a resource and energy efficient mass production of GFRP composites, e.g. pipes, tanks, masts. The successful processing of non-colored glass fiber-reinforced Polypropylene (PP) and Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) has already been proven.

  14. Vision Assisted Laser Scanner Navigation for Autonomous Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a navigation method based on road detection using both a laser scanner and a vision sensor. The method is to classify the surface in front of the robot into traversable segments (road) and obstacles using the laser scanner, this classifies the area just in front of the robot (2...

  15. Fractional laser-assisted delivery of methyl aminolevulinate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, Christina S; Farinelli, William A; Tam, Joshua;

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) enhances the uptake of topical photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Distribution of photosensitizer into skin layers may depend on depth of laser channels and incubation time. This study evaluates whether depth of...

  16. Laser gas assisted treatment of AISI H12 tool steel and corrosion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Toor, Ihsan-ul-Haq; Malik, Jahanzaib; Patel, F.

    2014-03-01

    Laser gas assisted treatment of AISI H12 tool steel surface is carried out and the electrochemical response of the laser treated surface is investigated. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated layer are examined using a scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Potentiodynamic polarization tests are carried out for untreated and laser treated specimen in 0.2 M NaCl solution at room temperature. It is found that the laser treated AISI H12 workpiece surfaces exhibit higher corrosion resistance as compared to untreated specimen as confirmed by lower corrosion rate, higher pitting potential, and lower passive current density.

  17. Laser-assisted direct ink writing of planar and 3D metal architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Gunasekaran, Suman; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to pattern planar and freestanding 3D metallic architectures at the microscale would enable myriad applications, including flexible electronics, displays, sensors, and electrically small antennas. A 3D printing method is introduced that combines direct ink writing with a focused laser that locally anneals printed metallic features “on-the-fly.” To optimize the nozzle-to-laser separation distance, the heat transfer along the printed silver wire is modeled as a function of printing speed, laser intensity, and pulse duration. Laser-assisted direct ink writing is used to pattern highly conductive, ductile metallic interconnects, springs, and freestanding spiral architectures on flexible and rigid substrates.

  18. Laser-assisted direct ink writing of planar and 3D metal architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skylar-Scott, Mark A; Gunasekaran, Suman; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2016-05-31

    The ability to pattern planar and freestanding 3D metallic architectures at the microscale would enable myriad applications, including flexible electronics, displays, sensors, and electrically small antennas. A 3D printing method is introduced that combines direct ink writing with a focused laser that locally anneals printed metallic features "on-the-fly." To optimize the nozzle-to-laser separation distance, the heat transfer along the printed silver wire is modeled as a function of printing speed, laser intensity, and pulse duration. Laser-assisted direct ink writing is used to pattern highly conductive, ductile metallic interconnects, springs, and freestanding spiral architectures on flexible and rigid substrates. PMID:27185932

  19. The impact of treatment density and molecular weight for fractional laser-assisted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, Christina S; Bhayana, Brijesh; Farinelli, William A; Anderson, R Rox; Haedersdal, Merete

    2012-01-01

    treatment density (% of skin occupied by channels) and molecular weight (MW) for fractional CO(2) laser-assisted drug delivery. AFXL substantially increased intra- and transcutaneous delivery of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) in a MW range from 240 to 4300 Da (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, p......Ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) facilitate uptake of topically applied drugs by creating narrow open micro-channels into the skin, but there is limited information on optimal laser settings for delivery of specific molecules. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of laser...

  20. Effect of laser-assisted bleaching with Nd:YAG and diode lasers on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhashemi, Amirhossein; Emadian Razavi, Elham Sadat; Behboodi, Sara; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of laser-assisted bleaching with neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode lasers on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. One hundred and four extracted human premolars were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: No bleaching applied (control group); group 2: Teeth bleached with 40 % hydrogen peroxide; group 3: Teeth treated with 30 % hydrogen peroxide activated with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 2.5 W, 25 Hz, pulse duration of 100 μs, 6 mm distance); and group 4: Teeth treated with 30 % hydrogen peroxide activated with diode laser (810 nm, 1 W, CW, 6 mm distance). Equal numbers of teeth in groups 2, 3, and 4 were bonded at start, 1 h, 24 h, and 1 week after bleaching. A universal testing machine measured the SBS of the samples 24 h after bonding. After bracket debonding, the amount of residual adhesive on the enamel surface was observed under a stereomicroscope to determine the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. The SBS in the unbleached group was significantly higher than that in the bleached groups bonded immediately and 1 h after laser-assisted bleaching (P < 0.05). In groups 3 and 4 at start and group 2 at start and 1 h after laser-assisted bleaching, the SBS was found to be significantly lower than that in the control group. Significant differences in the ARI scores existed among groups as well. The SBS of brackets seems to increase quickly within an hour after laser-assisted bleaching and 24 h after conventional bleaching. Thus, this protocol can be recommended if it is necessary to bond the brackets on the same day of bleaching. PMID:26319247

  1. Nuclear recollisions in laser-assisted α decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castañeda Cortés, Héctor Mauricio [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, Carsten [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstr. 1, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pálffy, Adriana, E-mail: Palffy@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-06-25

    Laser-induced nuclear recollisions following α decay in the presence of an intense laser field are investigated theoretically. We show that while an intense optical laser does not influence notably the tunneling rate in α decay, it can completely change the α particle spectrum. For intensities of 10{sup 22}–10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}, the field is strong enough to induce recollisions between the emitted α particle and the daughter nucleus. The energy gained by the α particle in the field can reach 20 MeV and suffice to trigger several types of nuclear reactions on a femtosecond time scale. Similar conclusions can be drawn about laser-induced recollisions after proton emission. Prospects for the experimental realization of laser-induced nuclear recollisions are discussed.

  2. The role of Volkov waves in laser-assisted electron momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze theoretically laser-assisted electron-impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at high impact energy and large momentum transfer. Considering linearly polarized laser radiation with frequency ω=10.4 fs−1 and intensity W=4×1012 W/cm2, we describe the field-dressed hydrogen state within time-dependent perturbation theory. We find that even at such moderate field parameters the laser effects on the incident, scattered, and ejected electrons with energies of 1–2 keV can in a dramatic way influence the dependence of the field-assisted differential cross sections on the recoil proton momentum. -- Highlights: ► Theory of laser-assisted electron-impact ionization of atomic hydrogen. ► Nd:YAG laser with intensity of 4 TW/cm2. ► Time-dependent perturbation theory for field-dressed atomic hydrogen. ► Volkov waves for incoming and outgoing electrons with energies of 1–2 keV. ► Volkov-wave effects dramatically influence laser-assisted momentum profiles.

  3. Fundamentals of laser-assisted micro- and nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Konov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the state of the art of laser micro- and nanotechnology. The physical fundamentals of different processes and the application are presented. The book deals with different materials like phase change and memory alloys, thin films, polymers etc. New phenomena and mechanisms of laser-matter interaction in nano-domains are explained. This book is helpful for students, postgraduates, engineers and researches working not only in the field of laser microtechnology but also in high-tech industry, like photonics, microelectronics, information technology.

  4. Characteristics of laser assisted machining for silicon nitride ceramic according to machining parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Laser Assisted Machining (LAM) that cuts and removes softened parts by locally heating the ceramic with laser. Silicon nitride ceramics can be machined with general machining tools as well, because YSiAlON, which was made up ceramics, is soften at about 1,000 .deg. C. In particular, the laser, which concentrates on highly dense energy, can locally heat materials and very effectively control the temperature of the heated part of specimen. Therefore, this paper intends to propose an efficient machining method of ceramic by deducing the machining governing factors of laser assisted machining and understanding its mechanism. While laser power is the machining factor that controls the temperature, the CBN cutting tool could cut the material more easily as the material gets deteriorated from the temperature increase by increasing the laser power, but excessive oxidation can negatively affect the quality of the material surface after machining. As the feed rate and cutting depth increase, the cutting force increases and tool lifespan decreases, but surface oxidation also decreases. In this experiment, the material can be cut to 3 mm of cutting depth. And based on the results of the experiment, the laser assisted machining mechanism is clarified

  5. Monitoring of PAHs in air by collection on XAD-2 adsorbent then microwave-assisted thermal desorption coupled with headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ming-Chi; Chang, Wan-Ting [Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Food Science, Taichung (Taiwan); Jen, Jen-Fon [National Chung-Hsing University, Department of Chemistry, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2007-02-15

    Microwave-assisted thermal desorption (MAD) coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been studied for in-situ, one-step, sample preparation for PAHs collected on XAD-2 adsorbent, before gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The PAHs on XAD-2 were desorbed into the extraction solution, evaporated into the headspace by use of microwave irradiation, and absorbed directly on a solid-phase microextraction fiber in the headspace. After desorption from the SPME fiber in the hot GC injection port, PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS. Conditions affecting extraction efficiency, for example extraction solution, addition of salt, stirring speed, SPME fiber coating, sampling temperature, microwave power and irradiation time, and desorption conditions were investigated. Experimental results indicated that extraction of 275 mg XAD-2, containing 10-200 ng PAHs, with 10-mL ethylene glycol-1 mol L{sup -1} NaCl solution, 7:3, by irradiation with 120 W for 40 min (the same as the extraction time), and collection with a PDMS-DVB fiber at 35 C, resulted in the best extraction efficiency. Recovery was more than 80% and RSD was less than 14%. Optimum desorption was achieved by heating at 290 C for 5 min. Detection limits varied from 0.02 to 1.0 ng for different PAHs. A real sample was obtained by using XAD-2 to collect smoke from indoor burning of joss sticks. The amounts of PAHs measured varied from 0.795 to 2.53 ng. The method is a simple and rapid procedure for determination of PAHs on XAD-2 absorbent, and is free from toxic organic solvents. (orig.)

  6. Rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs using thermal desorption – SALDI mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel approach to the rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs by surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry with the rotating ball interface coupled with temperature programmed thermal desorption has been developed. Analytes were thermally desorbed and deposited onto the surface of amorphous silicon substrate attached to the rotating ball. The ball was rotated and the deposited analytes were analyzed using SALDI. The effectiveness of coupling SALDI mass spectrometry with thermal desorption was evaluated by the direct and rapid analysis of tablets containing lidocaine, diphenhydramine and propranolol without any sample pretreatment. The overall duration of the screening procedure was 30÷40 sec. Real urine samples were studied for drug analysis. It is shown that with simple preparation steps, urine samples can be quantitatively analyzed using the proposed technique with the detection limits in the range of 0.2÷0.5 ng/ml.

  7. Oxygen assisted interconnection of silver nanoparticles with femtosecond laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles in the direction of laser polarization is achieved by utilizing femtosecond laser irradiation in air at laser fluence ranging from ∼2 mJ/cm2 to ∼14 mJ/cm2. This directional ablation is attributed to localized surface plasmon induced localized electric field enhancement. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the irradiated particles in different gases and at different pressures indicate that the ablation is further enhanced by oxygen in the air. This may be due to the external heating via the reactions of its dissociation product, atomic oxygen, with the surface of Ag particles, while the ablated Ag is not oxidized. Further experimental observations show that the ablated material re-deposits near the irradiated particles and results in the extension of the particles in laser polarization direction, facilitating the interconnection of two well-separated nanoparticles

  8. Oxygen assisted interconnection of silver nanoparticles with femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Zhou, Y., E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Duley, W. W. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-12-14

    Ablation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles in the direction of laser polarization is achieved by utilizing femtosecond laser irradiation in air at laser fluence ranging from ∼2 mJ/cm{sup 2} to ∼14 mJ/cm{sup 2}. This directional ablation is attributed to localized surface plasmon induced localized electric field enhancement. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the irradiated particles in different gases and at different pressures indicate that the ablation is further enhanced by oxygen in the air. This may be due to the external heating via the reactions of its dissociation product, atomic oxygen, with the surface of Ag particles, while the ablated Ag is not oxidized. Further experimental observations show that the ablated material re-deposits near the irradiated particles and results in the extension of the particles in laser polarization direction, facilitating the interconnection of two well-separated nanoparticles.

  9. Circular dichroism in laser-assisted proton-hydrogen collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We investigated the effects of a strong circularly polarized 1064 nm laser field on electron capture and emission in slow (keV) proton-hydrogen collisions within a reduced-dimensionality model of the scattering system in which both the motion of the active electron and the laser electric field vector are confined to the scattering plane. During the collision, the proton is assumed to move on a straight-line trajectory with impact parameter b. The rotating laser electric field breaks the azimuthal symmetry, and the projectile either follows the rotating laser field ('co-rotating' collisions) or moves against the rotating electric field ('counter-rotating' collisions). By solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we examined the probabilities for electron capture and ionization as a function of laser intensity, impact parameter, and the laser phase that determines the orientation of the laser electric field with respect to the internuclear axis at the time of closest approach between target and projectile. Our results for the b-dependent ionization and capture probabilities show a strong dependence on the helicity of the circularly polarized laser light. For intensities above 2x1012 W/cm2, our model predicts a noticeable circular dichroism in the capture probability. Interestingly, this dichroism persists after averaging over . Capture and electron emission probabilities defer significantly from results for laser-unassisted collisions. Furthermore, we find evidence for a charge resonance enhanced ionization mechanism that may enable the measurement of the absolute laser phase φ. For a fixed impact parameter, the capture probability as a function of φ shows large amplitude oscillations and differs from the field-free results most strikingly at φ = 0o and 180o. It displays a strong dichroism effect, i.e., a substantial difference in the electron capture probability for co-rotating as compared to counter-rotating collisions. Ionization

  10. Visualization of liquid-assisted hard tissue ablation with a pulsed CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the characteristics of liquid-mediated hard tissue ablation induced by a pulsed CO2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm, a high speed camera was used to monitor the interaction between water, tissue and laser irradiation. The results showed that laser irradiation can directly impact on tissue through a vapor channel formed by the leading part of the laser pulse. The ablation debris plays a key role in liquid-assisted laser ablation, having the ability to keep the vapor channel open to extend actuation time. The runoff effect induced by vortex convection liquid flow can remove the tissue that obstructs the effect of the next laser pulse. (letter)

  11. Simultaneous laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and Pd-assisted methane decomposition at different pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane decomposition is investigated during Pd-assisted laser induced plasma in the controlled chamber at various pressures using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Real time LIBS monitoring is applied to reveal the involved mechanisms during methane decomposition by inspecting the plasma parameters at mano-metric pressures of 1 to 10 mbar. The dependence of electron density and plasma temperature with pressure is also studied. It is shown that the plasma recreates higher hydrocarbons during the decomposition of methane. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy are applied to support the findings. - Highlights: ► Simultaneous laser induced breakdown spectroscopy ► Pd-assisted methane decomposition ► Nanosecond pulsed laser decomposition of methane ► Generation of higher hydrocarbon ► Dependence of electron density and temperature of induced plasma with pressure

  12. Diclofenac in municipal wastewater treatment plant: quantification using laser diode thermal desorption--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization--tandem mass spectrometry approach in comparison with an established liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonappan, Linson; Pulicharla, Rama; Rouissi, Tarek; Brar, Satinder K; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valero, José R

    2016-02-12

    Diclofenac (DCF), a prevalent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is often detected in wastewater and surface water. Analysis of the pharmaceuticals in complex matrices is often laden with challenges. In this study a reliable, rapid and sensitive method based on laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD/APCI) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been developed for the quantification of DCF in wastewater and wastewater sludge. An established conventional LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry) method was compared with LDTD-APCI-MS/MS approach. The newly developed LDTD-APCI-MS/MS method reduced the analysis time to 12s in lieu of 12 min for LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The method detection limits for LDTD-APCI-MS/MS method were found to be 270 ng L(-1) (LOD) and 1000 ng L(-1) (LOQ). Furthermore, two extraction procedures, ultrasonic assisted extraction (USE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the extraction of DCF from wastewater sludge were compared and ASE with 95.6 ± 7% recovery was effective over USE with 86 ± 4% recovery. The fate and partitioning of DCF in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) in wastewater treatment plant was also monitored at various stages of treatment in Quebec Urban community wastewater treatment plant. DCF exhibited affinity towards WW than WWS with a presence about 60% of DCF in WW in contrary with theoretical prediction (LogKow=4.51). PMID:26805597

  13. Glycine Identification in Natural Jarosites Using Laser-Desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: Implications for the search for life on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman; Beizhan Yan; Daphne L. Stoner; Jill R. Scott

    2008-04-01

    The jarosite group minerals have received increasing attention since the discovery of jarosite by the Mars Exploration Rover-Opportunity on the Martian surface. The mineral group has the ability to incorporate foreign ions in its structure leading to investigations regarding its use as an indicator of aqueous and/or biological activity on Earth and Mars. The use of laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry has revealed the presence of organic matter in several jarosite samples from various worldwide locations. One of the organic cluster ions has been attributed to glycine based on results from combinations of glycine with synthetic jarosite and K2SO4. The ability to observe these organic signatures in jarosite samples with an “in situ” instrumental technique, such as employed in this study, furthers the goals of planetary geologists to determine whether signs of life (e.g., the presence of biomolecules or biomolecule precursors) can be detected in the rock record of terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples.

  14. Comparing Laser Desorption Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry To Characterize Shale Oils at the Molecular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunjo; Jin, Jang Mi; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Na, Jeong-Geol; Roh, Nam-Sun; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to analyze shale oils. Previous work showed that LDI is a sensitive ionization technique for assessing aromatic nitrogen compounds, and oils generated from Green River Formation oil shales are well-documented as being rich in nitrogen. The data presented here demonstrate that LDI is effective in ionizing high-double-bond-equivalent (DBE) compounds and, therefore, is a suitable method for characterizing compounds with condensed structures. Additionally, LDI generates radical cations and protonated ions concurrently, the distribution of which depends upon the molecular structures and elemental compositions, and the basicity of compounds is closely related to the generation of protonated ions. This study demonstrates that LDI FT-ICR MS is an effective ionization technique for use in the study of shale oils at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that LDI FT-ICR MS has been applied to shale oils.

  15. Characterization of nonpolar lipids and steroids by using laser-induced acoustic desorption/chemical ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z; Daiya, S; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) combined with ClMn(H{sub 2}O){sup +} chemical ionization (CI) was tested for the analysis of nonpolar lipids and selected steroids in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR). The nonpolar lipids studied, cholesterol, 5α-cholestane, cholesta-3,5-diene, squalene, and β-carotene, were found to solely form the desired water replacement product (adduct-H{sub 2}O) upon reaction with the ClMn(H{sub 2}O){sup +} ions. The steroids, androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estrone, estradiol, and estriol, also form abundant adduct-H{sub 2}O ions, but less abundant adduct-2H{sub 2}O ions were also observed. Neither (+)APCI nor (+)ESI can ionize the saturated hydrocarbon lipid, cholestane. APCI successfully ionizes the unsaturated hydrocarbon lipids to form exclusively the intact protonated analytes. However, it causes extensive fragmentation for cholesterol and the steroids. The worst case is cholesterol that does not produce any stable protonated molecules. On the other hand, ESI cannot ionize any of the hydrocarbon analytes, saturated or unsaturated. However, ESI can be used to protonate the oxygen-containing analytes with substantially less fragmentation than for APCI in all cases except for cholesterol and estrone. In conclusion, LIAD/ClMn(H{sub 2}O){sup +} chemical ionization is superior over APCI and ESI for the mass spectrometric characterization of underivatized nonpolar lipids and steroids.

  16. Optimization and evaluation of surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Mancilla Baltazar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF potentially carries an archive of peptides and small proteins relevant to pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS and surrounding brain tissue. Proteomics is especially well suited for the discovery of biomarkers of diagnostic potential in CSF for early diagnosis and discrimination of several neurodegenerative diseases. ProteinChip surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS is one such approach which offers a unique platform for high throughput profiling of peptides and small proteins in CSF. In this study, we evaluated methodologies for the retention of CSF proteins m/z we found a high degree of overlap between the tested array surfaces. The combination of CM10 and IMAC30 arrays was sufficient to represent between 80–90% of all assigned peaks when using either sinapinic acid or α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid as the energy absorbing matrices. Moreover, arrays processed with SPA consistently showed better peak resolution and higher peak number across all surfaces within the measured mass range. We intend to use CM10 and IMAC30 arrays prepared in sinapinic acid as a fast and cost-effective approach to drive decisions on sample selection prior to more in-depth discovery of diagnostic biomarkers in CSF using alternative but complementary proteomic strategies.

  17. BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry: Reagentless Detection of Individual Airborne Spores and Other Bioagent Particles Based on Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, P T

    2004-07-20

    Better devices are needed for the detection of aerosolized biological warfare agents. Advances in the ongoing development of one such device, the BioAerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system, are described here in detail. The system samples individual, micrometer-sized particles directly from the air and analyzes them in real-time without sample preparation or use of reagents. At the core of the BAMS system is a dual-polarity, single-particle mass spectrometer with a laser based desorption and ionization (DI) system. The mass spectra produced by early proof-of-concept instruments were highly variable and contained limited information to differentiate certain types of similar biological particles. The investigation of this variability and subsequent changes to the DI laser system are described. The modifications have reduced the observed variability and thereby increased the usable information content in the spectra. These improvements would have little value without software to analyze and identify the mass spectra. Important improvements have been made to the algorithms that initially processed and analyzed the data. Single particles can be identified with an impressive level of accuracy, but to obtain significant reductions in the overall false alarm rate of the BAMS instrument, alarm decisions must be made dynamically on the basis of multiple analyzed particles. A statistical model has been developed to make these decisions and the resulting performance of a hypothetical BAMS system is quantitatively predicted. The predictions indicate that a BAMS system, with reasonably attainable characteristics, can operate with a very low false alarm rate (orders of magnitude lower than some currently fielded biodetectors) while still being sensitive to small concentrations of biological particles in a large range of environments. Proof-of-concept instruments, incorporating some of the modifications described here, have already performed well in independent testing.

  18. Growth of thin fullerene films by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren

    bound carbon molecule with a well-defined mass (M = 720 amu) and therefore a good, organic test molecule. C60 fullerene thin films of average thickness of more than 100 nm was produced in vacuum by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A 355 nm Nd:YAG laser was di-rected onto a frozen target...... favours evaporation of matrix and organic molecules, resulting in production of films with smooth surfaces and minimal contamination....

  19. Refining femtosecond laser induced periodical surface structures with liquid assist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► LIPSS on silicon wafer was made in air and in ethanol environment. ► Ethanol environment produce cleaner surface ripples. ► Ethanol environment decrease spatial wavelength of the LIPSS by 30%. ► More number of pulses produce smaller spatial wavelength in air. ► Number of pulses do not influence spatial wavelength in ethanol environment. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures were generated on silicon wafer using femtosecond laser. The medium used in this study is both air and ethanol. The laser process parameters such as wavelength, number of pulse, laser fluence were kept constant for both the mediums. The focus of the study is to analyze spatial wavelength. When generating surface structures with air as a medium and same process parameter of the laser, spatial wavelength results showed a 30% increase compared to ethanol. The cleanliness of the surface generated using ethanol showed considerably less debris than in air. The results observed from the above investigation showed that the medium plays a predominant role in the generation of surface structures.

  20. Design and implementation of a system for laser assisted milling of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefeng; Feng, Gaocheng; Liu, Xianli

    2016-04-01

    Laser assisted machining is an effective method to machine advanced materials with the added benefits of longer tool life and increased material removal rates. While extensive studies have investigated the machining properties for laser assisted milling(LAML), few attempts have been made to extend LAML to machining parts with complex geometric features. A methodology for continuous path machining for LAML is developed by integration of a rotary and movable table into an ordinary milling machine with a laser beam system. The machining strategy and processing path are investigated to determine alignment of the machining path with the laser spot. In order to keep the material removal temperatures above the softening temperature of silicon nitride, the transformation is coordinated and the temperature interpolated, establishing a transient thermal model. The temperatures of the laser center and cutting zone are also carefully controlled to achieve optimal machining results and avoid thermal damage. These experiments indicate that the system results in no surface damage as well as good surface roughness, validating the application of this machining strategy and thermal model in the development of a new LAML system for continuous path processing of silicon nitride. The proposed approach can be easily applied in LAML system to achieve continuous processing and improve efficiency in laser assisted machining.

  1. Laser-assisted drug delivery in dermatology: from animal models to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faisal R; Al-Niaimi, Firas

    2016-02-01

    Topical medicaments are the mainstay of the dermatologists' therapeutic arsenal. Laser-assisted drug delivery enhances the ability of topically applied medicaments to penetrate the skin. We discuss the mechanisms of laser-assisted drug delivery and animal models that have informed clinical practice. We review clinical studies that have employed laser-assisted drug delivery for a range of indications to date including non-melanoma skin cancer, vitiligo, scarring, vaccination, local anaesthesia, analgesia, viral warts, infantile haemangiomas and cosmetic uses. Studies thus far suggest that laser pre-treatment improves transepidermal absorption of topical agents and allows for a much deeper penetration of drugs than is possible with topical medicaments alone. This may allow more efficacious action of current treatments, such that conventional duration of treatment can be shortened or lower concentrations of active agents be used, potentially obviating side effects of treatment. The prospect of using laser technologies to facilitate transdermal vaccination and as an adjunct for inflammatory dermatoses and cosmetic indications remains in its infancy. As larger trials are published, involving greater numbers of patients and utilising various laser and topical medicament parameters, we will enhance our understanding of this nascent modality of treatment delivery. PMID:26694489

  2. Ion-beam assisted laser fabrication of sensing plasmonic nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Vitrik, Oleg; Kulchin, Yuri; Milichko, Valentin; Makarov, Sergey; Kudryashov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Simple high-performance two-stage hybrid technique was developed for fabrication of different plasmonic nanostructures, including nanorods, nanorings, as well as more complex structures on glass substrates. In this technique a thin noble metal film on a dielectric substrate is irradiated by a tightly focused single nanosecond laser pulse and then the modified region is slowly polished by an accelerated argon ion (Ar+) beam. As a result, each nanosecond laser pulse locally modifies the initial metal film through initiation of fast melting and subsequent hydrodynamic processes, while the following Ar+-ion polishing removes the rest of the film, revealing the hidden topography features and fabricating separate plasmonic structures on the glass substrate. We demonstrate that the shape and lateral size of the resulting functional plasmonic nanostructures depends on the laser pulse energy and metal film thickness, while subsequent Ar+-ion polishing enables to vary height of the resulting nanostructures. The plasmon...

  3. Optical field enhancement effects in laser-assisted particle removal

    OpenAIRE

    Mosbacher, Mario; Münzer, Hans-Joachim; Zimmermann, Jörg; Solis Cespedes, Francisco Javier; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2001-01-01

    We report on the role of local optical field enhancement in the neighbourhood of particles during dry laser cleaning (DLC) of silicon wafer surfaces. Samples covered with spherical colloidal particles (PS, SiO2) and arbitrarily shaped Al2O3 particles with diameters from 320 1700 nm were cleaned using laser pulses with durations from 150 fs to 6.5 ns and wavelengths ranging from 400 800 nm. Cleaned areas were investigated with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Holes in the substra...

  4. Spectral caustics in laser assisted Breit-Wheeler process

    CERN Document Server

    Nousch, T; Kämpfer, B; Titov, A I

    2015-01-01

    Electron-positron pair production by the Breit-Wheeler process embedded in a strong laser pulse is analyzed. The transverse momentum spectrum displays prominent peaks which are interpreted as caustics, the positions of which are accessible by the stationary phases. Examples are given for the superposition of an XFEL beam with an optical high-intensity laser beam. Such a configuration is available, e.g., at LCLS at present and at European XFEL in near future. It requires a counter propagating probe photon beam with high energy which can be generated by synchronized inverse Compton backscattering.

  5. Spectral caustics in laser assisted Breit-Wheeler process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousch, T.; Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    Electron-positron pair production by the Breit-Wheeler process embedded in a strong laser pulse is analyzed. The transverse momentum spectrum displays prominent peaks which are interpreted as caustics, the positions of which are accessible by the stationary phases. Examples are given for the superposition of an XFEL beam with an optical high-intensity laser beam. Such a configuration is available, e.g., at LCLS at present and at European XFEL in near future. It requires a counter propagating probe photon beam with high energy which can be generated by synchronized inverse Compton backscattering.

  6. Synthesis of Al2O3 thin films using laser assisted spray pyrolysis (LASP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Alumina thin films were made by laser assisted spray pyrolysis at various laser powers. ► The particle size was found to increase with laser power. ► The refractive index of the films was studied using ellipsometry. ► The film stoichiometry was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. ► The film/substrate interface was studied using ellipsometer and secondary ion mass spectrometer. - Abstract: The present study reports the development of a laser assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique and synthesis of dense optical alumina films using the same. In this technique ultrasonically generated aerosols of aluminum acetylacetonate dissolved in ethanol and a laser beam (Nd:YAG, CW, 1064 nm) were fed coaxially and concurrently through a quartz tube on to a hot substrate mounted on an X–Y raster stage. At the laser focused spot the precursor underwent solvent evaporation and solute sublimation followed by precursor vapor decomposition giving rise to oxide coating, the substrate is rastered to get large surface area coating. The surface morphology revealed coalescence of particles with increase in laser power. The observed particle sizes were 17 nm for films synthesized without laser and 18, 21 and 25 nm for films made with laser at 25, 38 and 50 W, respectively. Refractive index of the films synthesized increased from 1.56 to 1.62 as the laser power increased from 0 to 50 W. The stoichiometry of films was studied using XPS and the increase in interfacial layer thickness with laser power was observed from dynamic SIMS depth profiling and ellipsometry.

  7. Functional polyethylene glycol derivatives nanostructured thin films synthesized by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the thin film deposition by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of a polymer conjugate with an hydrophilic sequence between metronidazole molecules that was covalently attached to both oligomer ends of carboxylate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 1.5-metronidazole). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the drug-polymer composite films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical properties similar to the starting materials. The dependence of the surface morphology on incident laser fluence is given.

  8. Functional polyethylene glycol derivatives nanostructured thin films synthesized by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Popescu, A.; Grigorescu, S.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihaiescu, D. [University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti, Bucharest (Romania); Gittard, S.D.; Narayan, R.J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Buruiana, T. [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 41A, Iasi (Romania); Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Troy, NY (United States)

    2009-09-30

    We report the thin film deposition by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of a polymer conjugate with an hydrophilic sequence between metronidazole molecules that was covalently attached to both oligomer ends of carboxylate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 1.5-metronidazole). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the drug-polymer composite films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical properties similar to the starting materials. The dependence of the surface morphology on incident laser fluence is given.

  9. Using chymotrypsin and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer in proteomics of wheat gluten

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Chmelík, Josef; Allmaier, G.

    2004, s. 50. ISBN 963 7067 108. [IMMS. Informal Meeting on Mass Spectrometry /22./. Tokaj (HU), 02.05.2004-06.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : chymotrypsin * wheat gluten * MALDI Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  10. Mould routine identification in the clinical laboratory by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Cassagne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF MS recently emerged as a valuable identification tool for bacteria and yeasts and revolutionized the daily clinical laboratory routine. But it has not been established for routine mould identification. This study aimed to validate a standardized procedure for MALDI-TOF MS-based mould identification in clinical laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, pre-extraction and extraction procedures were optimized. With this standardized procedure, a 143 mould strains reference spectra library was built. Then, the mould isolates cultured from sequential clinical samples were prospectively subjected to this MALDI-TOF MS based-identification assay. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was considered correct if it was concordant with the phenotypic identification; otherwise, the gold standard was DNA sequence comparison-based identification. RESULTS: The optimized procedure comprised a culture on sabouraud-gentamicin-chloramphenicol agar followed by a chemical extraction of the fungal colonies with formic acid and acetonitril. The identification was done using a reference database built with references from at least four culture replicates. For five months, 197 clinical isolates were analyzed; 20 were excluded because they were not identified at the species level. MALDI-TOF MS-based approach correctly identified 87% (154/177 of the isolates analyzed in a routine clinical laboratory activity. It failed in 12% (21/177, whose species were not represented in the reference library. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was correct in 154 out of the remaining 156 isolates. One Beauveria bassiana was not identified and one Rhizopus oryzae was misidentified as Mucor circinelloides. CONCLUSIONS: This work's seminal finding is that a standardized procedure can also be used for MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of a wide array of clinically relevant mould species. It thus makes it possible to identify moulds in the routine clinical laboratory setting and opens new avenues for the development of an integrated MALDI-TOF MS-based solution for the identification of any clinically relevant microorganism.

  11. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for identification of Clostridium species isolated from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMogbel, Mohammed Suliman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify different Clostridium spp. isolated from currency notes from the Ha'il region of Saudi Arabia in September 2014 using MALDI-TOF-MS. Clostridium spp. were identified by Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS and compared with VITEK 2. The confirmation of the presence of different Clostridium spp. was performed by determining the sequence of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. In this study, 144 Clostridium spp. were isolated. Among these specimens, MALDI-TOF-MS could identify 88.8% (128/144) of the isolates to the species level and 92.3% (133/144) to the genus level, whereas, VITEK 2 identified 77.7% of the (112/144) isolates. The correct identification of the 144 isolates was performed by sequence analysis of the 500bp 16S rRNA gene. The most common Clostridium spp. identified were Clostridium perfringens (67.36%), Clostridium subterminale (14.58%), Clostridium sordellii (9%) and Clostridium sporogenes (9%). The results of this study demonstrate that MALDI-TOF-MS is a rapid, accurate and user friendly technique for the identification of Clostridium spp. Additionally, MALDI-TOF-MS has advantages over VITEK 2 in the identification of fastidious micro-organisms, such as Clostridium spp. Incorporating this technique into routine microbiology would lead to more successful and rapid identification of pathogenic and difficult to identify micro-organisms. PMID:26991272

  12. Rapid detection of porins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan eHU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid and cost-efficient determination of carbapenem resistance is an important prerequisite for the choice of an adequate antibiotic therapy. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay was set up to detect porins in the current study. A loss of the components of porin alone such as OmpK35/OmpK36 or together with the production of carbapenemases will augment the carbapenem resistance. Ten strains of E. coli and eight strains of K. pneumoniae were conducted for both SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis was then performed to verify the corrospondence of proteins between SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS. The results indicated that the mass spectrum of ca. 35,000-m/z, 37,000-m/z and 38,000-m/z peaks of E. coli ATCC 25922 corresponded to OmpA, OmpC and OmpF with molecular weight of approximately ca. 38 kDa, 40 kDa and 41 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. The band of OmpC and OmpF porins were unable to be distinguished by SDS-PAGE, whereas it was easy to be differentiated by MALDI-TOF MS. As for K. pneumoniae isolates, the mass spectrum of ca. 36,000-m/z and 38,600-m/z peaks was observed corresponding to OmpA and OmpK36 with molecular weight of approximately ca. 40 kDa and 42 kDa in SDS-PAGE gel, respectively. Porin OmpK35 was not observed in the current SDS-PAGE, while a 37,000-m/z peak was found in K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and carbapenem-susceptible strains by MALDI-TOF MS which was presumed to be the characteristic peak of the OmpK35 porin. Compared with SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS is able to rapidly identify the porin-deficient strains within half an hour with better sensitivity, less cost, and is easier to operate and has less interference.

  13. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight Mass spectrometry can detect Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauget, Marlène; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Bertrand, Xavier; Hocquet, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Within the last decade methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus belonging to CC398 has become a worldwide threat associated with livestock. More recently, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) belonging to CC398 have been increasingly reported as a cause of invasive infections in patients without livestock contact. It appears therefore necessary to implement a convenient tool for the surveillance this emerging pathogen. We evaluated the MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for rapid detection of S. aureus CC398. We used 626 S. aureus isolates characterized by a CC398-specific PCR, to constitute independent training (300 isolates including 60 isolates CC398) and validation sets (326 isolates including 82 isolates CC398). Fifteen peak biomarkers of CC398 were identified from the mass spectra of the training set. Ninety four % (307 of 326) of strains of the validation set were well assigned with an overall sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 95%. Six CC398 and 13 non-CC398 isolates were misclassified. With MALDI-TOF MS, clinical laboratories could rapidly detect S. aureus CC398 associated with a higher mortality in hospitalized patients. PMID:27192668

  14. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization sample preparation optimization for structural characterization of poly(styrene-co-pentafluorostyrene) copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We optimized sample preparation for MALDI TOF poly(styrene-copentafluorostyrene) co-polymers. •Influence of matrix choice was investigated. •Influence of matrix/analyte ratio was examined. •Influence of analyte/salt ratio (for Ag+ salt) was studied. -- Abstract: The influence of the sample preparation parameters (the choice of the matrix, matrix:analyte ratio, salt:analyte ratio) was investigated and optimal conditions were established for the MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the poly(styrene-co-pentafluorostyrene) copolymers. These were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. Use of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as matrix resulted in spectra with consistently high ion yields for all matrix:analyte:salt ratios tested. The optimized MALDI procedure was successfully applied to the characterization of three copolymers obtained by varying the conditions of polymerization reaction. It was possible to establish the nature of the end groups, calculate molecular weight distributions, and determine the individual length distributions for styrene and pentafluorostyrene monomers, contained in the resulting copolymers. Based on the data obtained, it was concluded that individual styrene chain length distributions are more sensitive to the change in the composition of the catalyst (the addition of small amount of CuBr2) than is the pentafluorostyrene component distribution

  15. Rapid detection of porins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yan-Yan; Cai, Jia-Chang; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The rapid and cost-efficient determination of carbapenem resistance is an important prerequisite for the choice of an adequate antibiotic therapy. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay was set up to detect porins in the current study. A loss of the components of porin alone such as OmpK35/OmpK36 or together with the production of carbapenemases will augment the carbapenem resistance. Ten strains of Escherichia coli and eight strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were conducted for both sodium dodecylsulfate-...

  16. Recent Advances in Bacteria Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Nanomaterials as Affinity Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Identifying trace amounts of bacteria rapidly, accurately, selectively, and with high sensitivity is important to ensuring the safety of food and diagnosing infectious bacterial diseases. Microbial diseases constitute the major cause of death in many developing and developed countries of the world. The early detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial in preventing, treating, and containing the spread of infections, and there is an urgent requirement for sensitive, specific, and accurate diag...

  17. Identification of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, V.; Halada, Petr; Hlaváčková, K.; Dokianakis, E.; Volf, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 21 (2014), s. 1-7. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : diptera * phlebotomine sand flies * MALDI * human pathogens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  18. Characterisation of botulinum toxins type A and B, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation and electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Wils, E.R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A method earlier developed for the mass spectrometric (MS) identification of tetanus toxin (TTx) was applied to botulinum toxins type A and B (BTxA and BTxB). Botulinum toxins are extremely neurotoxic bacterial toxins, likely to be used as biological warfare agent. Biologically active BTxA and BTxB

  19. Mould Routine Identification in the Clinical Laboratory by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Carole Cassagne; Stéphane Ranque; Anne-Cécile Normand; Patrick Fourquet; Sandrine Thiebault; Chantal Planard; Marijke Hendrickx; Renaud Piarroux

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF MS recently emerged as a valuable identification tool for bacteria and yeasts and revolutionized the daily clinical laboratory routine. But it has not been established for routine mould identification. This study aimed to validate a standardized procedure for MALDI-TOF MS-based mould identification in clinical laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, pre-extraction and extraction procedures were optimized. With this standardized procedure, a 143 mould strains reference ...

  20. EXAMINATION OF THE PROTEIN PROFILE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI UNDER DIFFERENT GROWTH CONDITIONS USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA currently has H. pylori on its Contaminant Candidate List 2 (CCL 2), methods are needed to detect the occurrence of viable H. pylori in drinking water. H. pyloi is an interesting microorganism because it can change from a cultural and metabolically active state with a heli...