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Sample records for assisted discharge cleaning

  1. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  2. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  3. Laser-assisted cleaning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experiments conducted with loose contamination on metal and transparent dielectric surfaces proved conclusively the dominant role played by the absorption of the incident radiation by the surface towards the generation of the cleaning force as against the absorption in the particulates alone. Further, the presence of ...

  4. dc glow-discharge cleaning for accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Hseuh, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Average pressure of 1 x 10 -11 torr and vacuum stability are necessary for the successful operation of the proton storage rings such as ISABELLE. Vacuum degassing at high temperature and in situ bake-out will reduce the thermoout-gassing rate of the beam tubes to approx. 10 -13 Tl/cm 2 sec, therefore achieving the required static pressure. The vacuum instability caused by beam-induced ion desorption can be solved by dc glow discharge cleaning. With evidence from this study, the present understanding of glow discharge in a cylindrically symmetric geometry is reviewed. Argon and argon/oxygen mixture serve as plasmas in the glow. The role of oxygen in cleaning the beam tubes during the glow discharge is demonstrated experimentally. Glow discharge cleaning with and without bake-out is also studied

  5. Comparison of glow discharge cleaning with Taylor-type discharge cleaning on JFT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokura, Kenji; Matsuzaki, Yoshimi; Tani, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    Method of glow discharge cleaning (GDC) was applied to JFT-2 tokamak and the cleaning effect of GDC was compared with that of taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC) on the same machin. Results show clearly their individual characteristics to remove light impurities. Their abilities of surface cleaning were compared each other by observing cleanliness of sample surfaces with a AES and by measuring decay times of produced gas pressures during discharge cleanings with a mass-analyser. It was shown that TDC method is better by several times than GDC method from a mass-analyser measurement. Moreover discharge cleaning time necessary to reduce light impurities in the normal plasma to a certain level was compared by monitoring time evolution of radiation loss power with a bolometer, and the time by TDC was only one fifth of that by GDC. The advantage of TDC may come from the excellently high hydrogen flux which interacts with the limiter and the wall. (author)

  6. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.; Bush, C.E.; Gentile, C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; HIll, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C; Owens, D.K.; Pearson, G.; Schivell, J.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Vannoy, C.; Wong, K.L.

    1991-05-01

    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 10 5 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  7. Discharge cleaning on KSTAR 1st plasma events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, J. G.; Wang, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. S.; Yang, H. L.; Kim, K. P.; Kim, K. M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    A discharge cleaning of a vacuum vessel was conducted with a GDC (Glow discharge cleaning) and a ICRF-DC(ICRF assisted discharge cleaning) for the KSTAR first plasma event period. The base pressure of the vessel was kept below 10-7 mbar via a cool down of the cryo-vessel, a 100C baking, and a GDC. (Partial pressure of hydrogen and nitrogen is below 10-8 mbar). The diagnostics for a discharge cleaning is a differential pumped RGA attached to a pumping duct and a cold cathode and a hot cathode gauge attached to the vessel and the pumping duct respectively. To analyze the discharge characteristics, a microwave interferometer, Bremsstahlung, H-alphas and a TV camera were used. Two straps among the four straps of the ICRF antenna are used for the ICRF-DC and ICRF heating experiments. The phase difference between the adjacent straps was 0 degree and the operating frequency was 30-33MHz.

  8. Water cleaning by pulsed corona discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabowski, L.R.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Rutgers, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Direct electrical energization methods for water cleaning are under investigation in the framework of the ytriD-project1. The emphasis of the first stage of the project is optimization of the reactor configuration regarding the energy efficiency. A comparison is made between a batch reactor and an

  9. Impurity studies and discharge cleaning in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.B.

    1979-10-01

    The goal of present and next generation tokamak experiments is to produce high-density, high-purity plasmas during high-power, extended-duration discharges. Plasma discharges with Z/sub eff/ values near unity and low concentrations of medium and high-Z metallic impurities have been obtained in Doublet III using a combination of low-power hydrogen discharge cleaning, gas puffing, precise plasma shape and position control, and high-Z limiters. Analysis of the first wall surface and residual gas impurities confirmed that clean conditions have been achieved. The high-Z limiters showed very limited amounts of melting or arcing. The progress of the wall cleaning process was monitored by three diagnostic techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy of metallic samples at the vessel wall, residual gas analysis, and the resistivity of full power discharges

  10. Impurity studies and discharge cleaning in Doublet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.B.

    1979-10-01

    The goal of present and next generation tokamak experiments is to produce high-density, high-purity plasmas during high-power, extended-duration discharges. Plasma discharges with Z/sub eff/ values near unity and low concentrations of medium and high-Z metallic impurities have been obtained in Doublet III using a combination of low-power hydrogen discharge cleaning, gas puffing, precise plasma shape and position control, and high-Z limiters. Analysis of the first wall surface and residual gas impurities confirmed that clean conditions have been achieved. The high-Z limiters showed very limited amounts of melting or arcing. The progress of the wall cleaning process was monitored by three diagnostic techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy of metallic samples at the vessel wall, residual gas analysis, and the resistivity of full power discharges.

  11. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    advice on financing instruments. In a recent keynote to the Climate and Clean Energy Investment Forum renewable energy technologies in the country. Informing Energy Access and Clean Energy Project Finance understanding and knowledge of how to design policies that enable financing and encourage investment in clean

  12. Active gas discharge cleaning for superconducting lead-plated resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malev, M.D.; Weisser, D.C.

    1985-06-01

    Lead-plating for superconducting RF resonators historically has been directed toward reducing grain size and eliminating spikes on the surface. Investigations were made of degassing lead-plated surfaces under RF resonant electron discharge or multipacting. The mass-spectra of the residual atmosphere showed that decomposition of hydrocarbons on the surface took place. Discolouration of the lead surface, due to the formation of a carbon layer, was easily observed. A method of cleaning surfaces by ion bombardment employing chemically active gases, was proposed and tested. An RF discharge, initiated by multipacting at pressure 10 -2 - 10 -1 torr was used. The first step, discharge treatment in a CO 2 atmosphere, assures oxidation of carbon and hydrocarbons into gaseous compounds which are removed by pumping. During the second step, discharge treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere, lead oxides are reduced to metal

  13. Discharge cleaning and wall conditioning in a Novillo Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, R; Camps, E; Contreras, G; Muhl, S

    2002-01-01

    Our Novillo Tokamak is a small toroidal device magnetically confined defined by the main design parameters: R sub o =0.23 m, a sub v =0.08 m, a sub p =0.06 m, B sub T =0.05-0.47 T, I sub p =1-12 kA, n sub e =1-2x10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 3 , T sub e =150 eV, T sub i =50 eV. For the initial discharge chamber cleaning we have often used vacuum baking up to 100 deg. C and then conditioning using Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC) in H sub 2 and He. In this work we report that vacuum baking is effective for obtaining a final total pressure of the order of 1.6x10 sup - sup 7 Torr. We have found that a single parameter, the performance parameter (PP), can be used to optimize the TDC method. This parameter represents the quantity of electron and ion energy incident on the chamber wall during the Taylor discharge, it is equal to (I sub p tau), where I sub p is the peak-to-peak plasma current and tau is the plasma current duration. In graphs of PP versus the gas pressure for different oscillator powers, the maximum val...

  14. Magnetic field-assisted electrochemical discharge machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chih-Ping; Mai, Chao-Chuang; Wu, Kun-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Shan; Yan, Biing-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is an effective unconventional method for micromachining in non-conducting materials, such as glass, quartz and some ceramics. However, since the spark discharge performance becomes unpredictable as the machining depth increases, it is hard to achieve precision geometry and efficient machining rate in ECDM drilling. One of the main factors for this is the lack of sufficient electrolyte flow in the narrow gap between the tool and the workpiece. In this study a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convection, which enhances electrolyte circulation has been applied to the ECDM process in order to upgrade the machining accuracy and efficiency. During electrolysis in the presence of a magnetic field, the Lorenz force induces the charged ions to form a MHD convection. The MHD convection then forces the electrolyte into movement, thus enhancing circulation of electrolyte. Experimental results show that the MHD convection induced by the magnetic field can effectively enhance electrolyte circulation in the micro-hole, which contributes to higher machining efficiency. Micro-holes in glass with a depth of 450 µm are drilled in less than 20 s. At the same time, better electrolyte circulation can prevent deterioration of gas film quality with increasing machining depth, while ensuring stable electrochemical discharge. The improvement in the entrance diameter thus achieved was 23.8% while that in machining time reached 57.4%. The magnetic field-assisted approach proposed in the research does not require changes in the machining setup or electrolyte but has proved to achieve significant enhancement in both accuracy and efficiency of ECDM.

  15. Plasma-assisted cleaning of extreme UV optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, Alexandr Alexeevich

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-assisted cleaning of extreme UV optics EUV-induced surface plasma chemistry of photo-active agents The next generation of photolithography, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, makes use of 13.5 nm radiation. The ionizing photon flux, and vacuum requirements create a challenging operating

  16. Revisions to the Clean Water Act Regulatory Definition of Discharge of Dredged Material; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated a final rule Amending a Clean Water Act (CWA) section 404 regulation that defines the term discharge of dredged material.

  17. Elimination of inter-discharge helium glow discharge cleaning with lithium evaporation in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maingi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Operation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX typically used either periodic boronization and inter-shot helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC, or inter-shot lithium evaporation without boronization, and initially with inter-shot HeGDC. To assess the viability of operation without HeGDC, dedicated experiments were conducted in which Li evaporation was used while systematically shrinking the HeGDC between shots from the standard 10min to zero (10→6.5→4→0. Good shot reproducibility without HeGDC was achieved with lithium evaporations of 100mg or higher; evaporations of 200–300mg typically resulted in very low ELM frequency or ELM-free operation, reduced wall fueling, and improved energy confinement. The use of HeGDC before lithium evaporation modestly reduced Dα in the outer scrape-off layer, but not at the strike point. Pedestal electron and ion temperature also improved modestly, suggesting that HeGDC prior to lithium evaporation is a useful tool for experiments that seek to maximize plasma performance.

  18. Basic study for gas cleaning using discharge and electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Zhen-Zhou; Sawada, Jun; Takashima, Kazunori; Katsura, Shinji; Mizuno, Akira

    2004-01-01

    A NO x removal method using discharge plasma and electrophoresis for exhaust control was studied. The 65-50% of NO was oxidized to NO 2 or HNO 3 by the discharge plasma with specific input energy of 45J/l. The electrophoresis was carried out to concentrate the NO 2 or HNO 3 adsorbed on the adsorbents. As a result, 80% of the adsorbed nitrate ions were found in the anode region. A combination of molecular sieve pellets of 13X and glass fiber cloth was tested for the collection of nitrate ions. The ability of simultaneous concentration of nitrate ions and sulfate ions using electrophoresis was examined

  19. Cleaning up commingled uranium mill tailings: is Federal assistance necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    GAO was asked to determine whether Federal assistance should be given to operating mill owners that have processed uranium for sale to both government and industry and, thus, generated residual radioactive wastes. The wastes generated for both government and commercial use are called commingled uranium mill tailings. GAO recommends that the Congress provide assistance to active mill owners to share in the cost of cleaning up that portion of the tailings which were produced under Federal contract. Further, GAO believes that the Congress should also consider having the Federal government assist those mills who acted in good faith in meeting all legal requirements pertaining to controlling the mill tailings that were generated for commercial purposes and for which the Federal government is now requiring retroactive remedial action. At the same time, the Congress should make sure that this action establishes no precedent for the Federal government assuming the financial responsibility of cleaning up other non-Federal nuclear facilities and wastes, including those mill tailings generated after the date when the Federal government notified industry that the failings should be controlled

  20. The study of discharge cleaning in the JFT-2 tokamak with surface observation by AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomay, Yoshio; Tazima, Teruhiko; Fujisawa, Noboru; Suzuki, Norio; Konoshima, Shigeru

    1976-07-01

    Noticeable correlations were observed between the changes of discharge characteristics, wall conditions and typical mass peaks with discharge cleaning in the JFT-2 tokamak. Atomic composition of the vacuum wall surface observed by AES becomes constant with continuing discharge cleaning in the level except hydrogen and helium: 30-50% C, 20-30% Mo, 15-30% stainless steel elements and 10-15% O. The stable reproducible plasma with Z sub(eff)=4.5 was obtained in this wall condition. The limiter and vacuum wall materials (Mo and 304 stainless steel, respectively), carbon and oxygen were observed depositing on the wall in the thickness of about 300 A at the minimum inner radius of the vacuum chamber and 40 A nearly at the maximum after 2900 cleaning pulses. The mechanism determining the wall condition is also discussed. (auth.)

  1. Effects of discharge cleaning on the production of runaway electrons in TORTUS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, R C; Liu, J R; Giannone, L. (Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Physics)

    1983-06-01

    Experimental results are presented on the production of runaway electrons as a function of wall cleanliness in the TORTUS tokamak. When the walls are clean, the production rate decreases as the filling pressure increases. When the walls are contaminated by oxygen, the production rate can increase when the filling pressure is increased, owing to the production of water vapour during tokamak discharges. These results resolve the differences reported in the literature on the production of runaways as a function of filling pressure. It is also observed that the runaway electron instability seen in other devices is suppressed when the walls are discharge-cleaned.

  2. Effects of discharge cleaning on the production of runaway electrons in TORTUS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.C.; Liu, J.R.; Giannone, L.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the production of runaway electrons as a function of wall cleanliness in the TORTUS tokamak. When the walls are clean, the production rate decreases as the filling pressure increases. When the walls are contaminated by oxygen, the production rate can increase when the filling pressure is increased, owing to the production of water vapour during tokamak discharges. These results resolve the differences reported in the literature on the production of runaways as a function of filling pressure. It is also observed that the runaway electron instability seen in other devices is suppressed when the walls are discharge-cleaned. (author)

  3. Probe measurements of hydrogen fluxes during discharge cleaning in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) has been applied during discharge cleaning in the JFT-2M tokamak to measure hydrogen fluxes. The TDS carbon sample, thickness 0.13 mm, was heated to 1000 0 C by direct current and the temperature distribution of the sample surface measured by infrared thermography. The probe was exposed to three types of plasma: Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC), and glow discharge cleaning (GDC). The TDS spectra show peak desorption at around 800 0 C. The hydrogen flux, obtained by integration of the TDS spectrum, decreases exponentially in the radial direction with decay length 7.4 cm and 5.8 cm in TDC and ECR-DC, respectively. The relation between hydrogen fluxes and water vapour production was investigated. In TDC, the amount of water vapour depends more strongly on the electron temperature of the plasma than on the hydrogen flux. In ECR-DC, the production of water vapour increases approximately linearly with the hydrogen-flux. In GDC, hydrogen fluxes were measured by TDS but no water vapour could be detected in the residual gases during the discharge. (orig.)

  4. Pulse discharge cleaning of the vacuum vessel of HL-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guodong; Zhu Yukun; Xiao Zhenggui; Sun Shouqi; Ze Mingrui

    1986-01-01

    The HL-1 Tokamak was test-operated on September 21, 1984. During the period of vacuum conditioning, including 60 hours of baking up to 200 deg C and 7 x 10 4 shots of pulse discharge cleaning, the calculated quantities of carbon and oxygen removed are equivalent to 24 and 6 monolayers, respectively. Then, 124 shots of tokamak discharge were performed with low level plasma parameters. The plasma current and pulse length achieved were 60 kA and 85 ms at the toroidal magnetic field of 15 kG. This paper described the techniques used and the effect on discharge characteristics of bakeout and pulse discharge cleaning of the vacuum vessel

  5. Cleaning of niobium surface by plasma of diffuse discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ripenko, V. S.

    2017-07-01

    Elements composition of niobium surface before and after plasma treatment by runaway electron preionized diffuse discharge was investigated in atmospheric pressure nitrogen flow by means of an Auger electron spectroscopy. Surface characterizations obtained from Auger spectra show that plasma treatment by diffuse discharge after exposure of 120000 pulses provides ultrafine surface cleaning from carbon contamination. Moreover, the surface free energy of the treated specimens increased up to 3 times, that improve its adhesion property.

  6. Comparison of trace metals in intake and discharge waters of power plants using clean techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvito, D.T.; Allen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the impact to receiving waters of trace metals potentially discharged from a once-through, non-contact cooling water system from a power plant, a study was conducted utilizing clean sampling and analytical techniques for a series of metals. Once-through, non-contact cooling water at power plants is frequently discharged back to the fresh or saline waterbody utilized for its intake water. This water is used to cool plant condensers. Intake and discharge data were collected and evaluated using paired t-tests. Study results indicate that there is no measurable contribution of metals from non-contact cooling water from this power plant

  7. Observations of changes in residual gas and surface composition with discharge cleaning in PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.; Bol, K.; Cohen, S.A.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Meservey, E.B.; Rossnagel, S.M.

    1978-10-01

    Hydrogen discharge cleaning of the PLT vacuum vessel has been studied by mass spectroscopy of desorbed gases and surface analysis of exposed samples. Several modes of vessel conditioning have been studied to date: (1) a high power discharge cleaning (PDC) mode, with a peak power density to the vessel wall P/sub s/ approximately 0.6 w/cm 2 and a peak electron temperature T/sub e/ approximately 100 ev; (2) low power (Taylor-type) discharge cleaning (TDC) with P/sub s/ approximately 0.05 w/cm 2 and T/sub e/ equal to or less than 5 eV. The predominant residual gases produced during PDC are CH 4 (1-5 x 10 -6 torr) and CO (1-10 x 10 -7 torr), whereas TDC produced primarily H 2 O (1-2 x 10 -6 torr) and CH 4 (1-10 x 10 -7 torr). In situ surface analysis of hydrocarbon-covered stainless steel has shown significant decreases in carbon coverage occurring after 10 3 -10 4 pulses of either cleaning mode. Observed changes in oxygen coverage are more difficult to interpret because of the presence of the nascent oxide layer on the stainless steel substrates

  8. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ''Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility'' issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan

  9. Experimental Study on Indoor Air Cleaning Technique of Nano-Titania Catalysis Under Plasma Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Deli; Yang Xuechang; Zhou Fei; Wu Yuhuang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a new technique of air cleaning by plasma combined with catalyst was proposed, which consisted of electrostatic precipitation, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decomposition and sterilization. A novel indoor air purifier based on this technique was adopted. The experimental results showed that formaldehyde decomposition by the plasma-catalyst hybrid system was more efficient than that by plasma only. Positive discharge was better than negative discharge in formaldehyde removal. Meanwhile, the outlet concentration of ozone byproduct was effectively reduced by the nano-titania catalyst.

  10. In situ dc oxygen‐discharge cleaning system for optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Tsuneharu; Shidara, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Yagishita, Akira; Sato, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    In situ dc oxygen‐discharge cleaning arrangements have been developed at the Photon Factory for the removal of carbon contamination from optical surfaces. A high cleaning rate could be achieved by producing an oxygen plasma close to the optical elements with special care taken to avoid any harmful effects from the discharge; contaminant carbon was completely removed within a few hours, at most. This short exposure time and the use of dry oxygen gas resulted in a restoration of the original ultrahigh vacuum without a bakeout. Results with a Seya‐Namioka beamline for gas‐phase experiments showed a flux enhancement amounting to a factor of 50, and results with a grasshopper beamline showed a nearly complete recovery of the light intensity, even at the carbon K edge

  11. In situ dc oxygen-discharge cleaning system for optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, T.; Shidara, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yagishita, A.; Sato, S.

    1989-01-01

    In situ dc oxygen-discharge cleaning arrangements have been developed at the Photon Factory for the removal of carbon contamination from optical surfaces. A high cleaning rate could be achieved by producing an oxygen plasma close to the optical elements with special care taken to avoid any harmful effects from the discharge; contaminant carbon was completely removed within a few hours, at most. This short exposure time and the use of dry oxygen gas resulted in a restoration of the original ultrahigh vacuum without a bakeout. Results with a Seya-Namioka beamline for gas-phase experiments showed a flux enhancement amounting to a factor of 50, and results with a grasshopper beamline showed a nearly complete recovery of the light intensity, even at the carbon K edge

  12. End points in discharge cleaning on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bush, C.E.; Gettelfinger, G.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C.

    1989-07-01

    It has been found necessary to perform a series of first-wall conditioning steps prior to successful high power plasma operation in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This series begins with glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and is followed by pulse discharge cleaning (PDC). During machine conditioning, the production of impurities is monitored by a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). PDC is made in two distinct modes: Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), where the plasma current is kept low (15--50 kA) and of short duration (50 ms) by means of a relatively high prefill pressure and aggressive PDC, where lower prefill pressure and higher toroidal field result in higher current (200--400 kA) limited by disruptions at q(a) /approx/ 3 at /approx/ 250 ms. At a constant repetition rate of 12 discharges/minute, the production rate of H/sub 2/O, CO, or other impurities has been found to be an unreliable measure of progress in cleaning. However, the ability to produce aggressive PDC with substantial limiter heating, but without the production of x-rays from runaway electrons, is an indication that TDC is no longer necessary after /approx/ 10/sup 5/ pulses. During aggressive PDC, the uncooled limiters are heated by the plasma from the bakeout temperature of 150/degree/C to about 250/degree/C over a period of three to eight hours. This limiter heating is important to enhance the rate at which H/sub 2/O is removed from the graphite limiter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. End points in discharge cleaning on TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.

    1989-07-01

    It has been found necessary to perform a series of first-wall conditioning steps prior to successful high power plasma operation in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This series begins with glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and is followed by pulse discharge cleaning (PDC). During machine conditioning, the production of impurities is monitored by a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). PDC is made in two distinct modes: Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), where the plasma current is kept low (15--50 kA) and of short duration (50 ms) by means of a relatively high prefill pressure and aggressive PDC, where lower prefill pressure and higher toroidal field result in higher current (200--400 kA) limited by disruptions at q(a) approx 3 at approx 250 ms. At a constant repetition rate of 12 discharges/minute, the production rate of H 2 O, CO, or other impurities has been found to be an unreliable measure of progress in cleaning. However, the ability to produce aggressive PDC with substantial limiter heating, but without the production of x-rays from runaway electrons, is an indication that TDC is no longer necessary after approx 10 5 pulses. During aggressive PDC, the uncooled limiters are heated by the plasma from the bakeout temperature of 150 degree C to about 250 degree C over a period of three to eight hours. This limiter heating is important to enhance the rate at which H 2 O is removed from the graphite limiter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Cleaning method of aluminium surface by argon discharge for photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Watabe, Hiromi; Horikoshi, Gen-ichi; Mathewson, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    In the Photon Factory program of High Energy Research Laboratory, in which the electron storage ring as a photon source stores the electron beam of 2.5 GeV and 500 mA, beam intensity the probability of gas discharge from the inner surface of doughnut wall due to electron bombardment (for 100 eV electorns) must be limited to 1 x 10 -6 or less, according to the estimation by A.G. Mathewson and others. The pressure inside the ring can be maintained at 1 x 10 -9 Torr only with the above probability value. The standard surface treatment of degreasing and evacuation for 24 hours with heating at 150 deg. C can be of no practical use. Since the ion bombardment of surfaces by argon glow discharge is effective for decreasing the probability, the reduction of the probability by argon discharge cleaning was measured with the surface of aluminium, which is planned to be used as the doughnut material. Two methods were employed for the measurement; the one is analysis of gases being discharged, by introducting them to the analyzing chamber during argon discharge and the other is the measurement of the probability when bombardment with electrons of 100 eV is applied, after stopping argon introduction and evacuating after argon discharge had been performed for a definite period. As a result, the probability of approximately 2 x 10 -5 at the beginning of electron beam incidence was obtained by adding argon discharge cleaning to the standard method. This is estimated to correspondent to approximately 25 mA of beam intensity, which is equivalent to 1/20 of the planned value. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. In-situ reactive glow discharge cleaning of NSLS distributed ion pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Chou, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Based on our experience with the in-situ cleaning of optical systems by reactive r.f. glow discharges and the conditioning and preparation of distributed ion pump (DIP) elements, we have sought to develop strategies for recovering from severe vacuum accidents by restoring DIP elements of storage rings such as those at the NSLS in-situ. In this paper we will describe a series of experiments conducted in a test apparatus to condition a so called ''egg-crate'' DIP in-situ, (this older type element being common in older storage rings). A new untreated element which was unable to pump below 5x10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr in its initial condition was treated in oxygen and subsequent argon r.f. discharges utilizing the pump element as the discharge electrode producing a nitrogen pumping speed of 168 l/s at 2x10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr. A light bake at 75/degree/C increased this to nearly 500 l/s at 5x10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr. After exposure to atmosphere the speed was reduced to nil at these pressures but subsequently recovered, without bakeout, by glow discharge cleaning. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  16. In-situ reactive glow discharge cleaning of NSLS distributed ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Chou, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Based on our experience with the in-situ cleaning of optical systems by reactive r.f. glow discharges and the conditioning and preparation of distributed ion pump (DIP) elements, we have sought to develop strategies for recovering from severe vacuum accidents by restoring DIP elements of storage rings such as those at the NSLS in-situ. In this paper we will describe a series of experiments conducted in a test apparatus to condition a so called ''egg-crate'' DIP in-situ, (this older type element being common in older storage rings). A new untreated element which was unable to pump below 5x10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr in its initial condition was treated in oxygen and subsequent argon r.f. discharges utilizing the pump element as the discharge electrode producing a nitrogen pumping speed of 168 l/s at 2x10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr. A light bake at 75/degree/C increased this to nearly 500 l/s at 5x10 /sup /minus/8/ Torr. After exposure to atmosphere the speed was reduced to nil at these pressures but subsequently recovered, without bakeout, by glow discharge cleaning. 22 refs., 6 figs

  17. Letter from A & R Transport about Section 308 of the Clean Water Act Discharge of Perfluorinated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    January 16, 2009 letter from Kenneth E. Pate, VP of Safety and Risk Management of A & R Transport, Inc. to EPA Clean Water Enforcement Branch, about an Information Request about the Section 308 of the Clean Water Act, discharge of pefluorinated compounds.

  18. Cleaning and conditioning of the walls of plasma devices by glow discharges in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.; Winter, J.; Ali-Khan, I.; Wienhold, P.; Dietz, K.J.

    1980-12-01

    The influence of a number of parameters on the cleaning and preconditioning efficiency of a combined rf and glow (RG) discharge is studied experimentally. The emphasis is laid on problems of oxygen removal from the surface. The important parameters are the wall temperature Tsub(W), the pump speed SP, the current Isub(G)D of the glow discharge and the hydrogen pressure P 2 . In a device with a ratio SP/S = 0,1 ms -1 (S: inner area), a rapid deoxidation is achieved when T-W >= 200 0 C. At room temperature, the oxide layer is reduced from a (carbon-free) surface when 1 to 2% of methane is added to the hydrogen: carbon monoxide is formed and evacuated. Admixture of other gases such as He, Ne do not increase the cleaning efficiency. An equation derived from a simplified model describes semi-quantitatively the observed parametric dependances. The tendency for arc spots to occur during the initial phases of the discharge depends on the preconditioning of the wall: a prolonged bake-out at 200 0 C leads to the non-appearance of arcs in all cases examined. Problems arise when a quadrupole residual gas analyser is used to measure the partial pressure of water in hydrogen. These are analysed and a conditioning technique is described which has proven to be appropriate in our measurements. (orig.)

  19. The experience with JET's combined dc/Rf glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, R.J.H.; Andrew, P.; Bryan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The JET Tokamak was fitted with four new electrodes of novel design, each powered from individual computer controlled dc and RF supplies. Details of enhancements and problems from 15 months experience with the system are outlined. Experiments were performed to assess the effect of RF on the glow discharge characteristics, and to establish stable glow at low pressure and high voltage. JET combined RF/dc glow discharge cleaning (GDC) had no significant advantages over pure dc GDC, provided highly stable dc current control was obtained. In fact, the mechanically weak electrode inductor spiral required to allow RF posed a distinct disadvantage. The electrodes were converted to simple plates, following damage caused by halo currents during Tokamak plasma disruptions. The performance of these electrodes was assessed. Future developments in the JET GDC system are outlined. (Author)

  20. An intense lithium ion beam source using vacuum baking and discharge cleaning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschella, J.J.; Kusse, B.R.; Longfellow, J.P.; Olson, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a high-purity, intense, lithium ion beam source which operates at 500 kV and 120 A/cm 2 with pulse widths of 125 ns full width half maximum. The beams were generated using a lithium chloride anode in planar magnetically insulated geometry. We have found that the combination of vacuum baking of the anode at 250 degree C followed by the application of 100 W of pure argon, steady-state, glow discharge cleaning reduced the impurity concentration in the beam to approximately 10% (components other than chlorine or lithium were considered impurities). Although the impurities were low, the concentration of chlorine in the 1+ and 2+ charge states was significant (∼25%). The remaining 65% of the beam consisted of Li + ions. Without the special cleaning process, over half the beam particles were impurities. It was determined that these impurities entered the beam at the anode surface but came originally from material in the vacuum chamber. After the cleaning process, recontamination was observed to occur in approximately 6 min. This long recontamination time, which was much greater than the expected monolayer formation time, was attributed to the elevated temperature of the anode. We also compared the electrical characteristics of the beams produced by LiCl anodes to those generated by a standard polyethylene proton source. In contrast to the polyethylene anode, the LiCl source exhibited a higher impedance, produced beams of lower ion current efficiency and had longer turn on times

  1. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  2. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, Pratibha; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 X 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium (He) glow discharge cleaning (GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nanometers from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.48. In this paper, the results of effect of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (author)

  3. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, P; Khan, Z; Raval, D C; Dhanani, K R; George, S; Paravastu, Y; Prakash, A; Thankey, P; Ramesh, G; Khan, M S; Saikia, P; Pradhan, S

    2017-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (paper)

  4. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, P.; Khan, Z.; Raval, D. C.; Dhanani, K. R.; George, S.; Paravastu, Y.; Prakash, A.; Thankey, P.; Ramesh, G.; Khan, M. S.; Saikia, P.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-04-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10-5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail.

  5. Conditioning of SST-1 Tokamak Vacuum Vessel by Baking and Glow Discharge Cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Raval, Dilip C.; Babu, Gattu Ramesh; Khan, Mohammed Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SST-1 Tokamak was successfully commissioned. • Vacuum vessel was pumped down to 4.5 × 10"–"8 mbar after baking and continuous GDC. • GDC reduced the water vapour by additional 57% while oxygen was reduced by 50%. • Under this condition, an initial plasma breakdown with current of 40 kA for 75 ms was achieved. - Abstract: Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel (VV) adopts moderate baking at 110 ± 10 °C and the limiters baking at 250 ± 10 °C for ∼ 200 h followed by glow discharge cleaning in hydrogen (GDC-H) with 0.15 A/m"2 current density towards its conditioning prior to plasma discharge experiment. The baking in SST-1 reduces the water (H_2O) vapor by 95% and oxygen (O_2) by 60% whereas the GDC reduces the water vapor by an additional 57% and oxygen by another 50% as measured with residual gas analyzer. The minimum breakdown voltage for H-GDC in SST-1 tokamak was experimentally observed to 300 V at 8 mbar cm. As a result of these adherences, SST-1 VV achieves an ultimate of 4.5 × 10"−"8 mbar with two turbo-molecular pumps with effective pumping speed of 3250 l/s. In the last campaign, SST-1 has achieved successful plasma breakdown, impurity burn through and a plasma current of ∼ 40 kA for 75 ms.

  6. Conditioning of SST-1 Tokamak Vacuum Vessel by Baking and Glow Discharge Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ziauddin, E-mail: ziauddin@ipr.res.in; George, Siju; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Raval, Dilip C.; Babu, Gattu Ramesh; Khan, Mohammed Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • SST-1 Tokamak was successfully commissioned. • Vacuum vessel was pumped down to 4.5 × 10{sup –8} mbar after baking and continuous GDC. • GDC reduced the water vapour by additional 57% while oxygen was reduced by 50%. • Under this condition, an initial plasma breakdown with current of 40 kA for 75 ms was achieved. - Abstract: Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel (VV) adopts moderate baking at 110 ± 10 °C and the limiters baking at 250 ± 10 °C for ∼ 200 h followed by glow discharge cleaning in hydrogen (GDC-H) with 0.15 A/m{sup 2} current density towards its conditioning prior to plasma discharge experiment. The baking in SST-1 reduces the water (H{sub 2}O) vapor by 95% and oxygen (O{sub 2}) by 60% whereas the GDC reduces the water vapor by an additional 57% and oxygen by another 50% as measured with residual gas analyzer. The minimum breakdown voltage for H-GDC in SST-1 tokamak was experimentally observed to 300 V at 8 mbar cm. As a result of these adherences, SST-1 VV achieves an ultimate of 4.5 × 10{sup −8} mbar with two turbo-molecular pumps with effective pumping speed of 3250 l/s. In the last campaign, SST-1 has achieved successful plasma breakdown, impurity burn through and a plasma current of ∼ 40 kA for 75 ms.

  7. Re-design of ITER Glow Discharge Cleaning system based on a fixed electrode concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Kiss, G.; O’Connor, M.; Zhang, Y.; Pitts, R.A.; Shimada, M.; Fang, T.; Wang, Y.; Wang, M.; Pan, Y.; Li, B.; Li, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •This paper summarizes the approved new design of ITER GDC. •It is based on the fixed electrode design instead of the previous movable concept. •Estimates were made on the glow current density. •R and D topics on initiation, steady state and heat load were presented. •Other relevant considerations were listed in an exhaustive manner. -- Abstract: A new design of ITER Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC) system based on a fixed electrode concept replaces the previous design which was based on a movable electrode integrated with the ITER In-Vessel-Viewing-System. Recently the conceptual design of the GDC system was reviewed successfully on the functions, safety, operation and maintenance. The design proposed was checked against the requirements and found to be feasible. This paper gives an overall description of the requirements from physics and operation viewpoints and introduces the design at the conceptual level. Main R and D activities are listed and summarized. Further detailed studies are to be performed in the following design stage

  8. Ultrasound assisted chrome tanning: Towards a clean leather production technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Embialle; Smets, Ilse; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for a cleaner, but still effective alternative for production processes like in the leather industry. Ultrasound (US) assisted processing of leather might be promising in this sense. In the present paper, the use of US in the conventional chrome tanning process has been studied at different pH, temperature, tanning time, chrome dose and US exposure time by exposing the skin before tanning and during tanning operation. Both prior exposure of the skin to US and US during tanning improves the chrome uptake and reduces the shrinkage significantly. Prior exposure of the skin to US increase the chrome uptake by 13.8% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 5% (% based on skin weight) and shorten the process time by half while US during tanning increases the chrome uptake by 28.5% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 4% (half) and the tanning time to one third compared to the control without US. Concomitantly, the resulting leather quality (measured as skin shrinkage) improved from 5.2% to 3.2% shrinkage in the skin exposed to US prior tanning and to 1.3% in the skin exposed to US during the tanning experiment. This study confirms that US chrome tanning is an effective and eco-friendly tanning process which can produce a better quality leather product in a shorter process time with a lower chromium dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physician-assisted suicide-a clean bill of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) laws have been enacted in five US States and, along with physician-administered euthanasia, in Canada and the Netherlands. Annual reports of the Oregon Health Authority and published research papers. Not all recipients of lethal drugs use them to end their lives. Improvements in palliative care provision. Rising numbers of deaths from PAS. Emergence of 'doctor shopping' and multiple-prescribing. Absence of qualitative scrutiny of assessment process. No re-assessment or oversight when prescribed drugs are ingested. Recent pressures to extend Oregon's PAS law. Reasons given for seeking PAS indicate this is a societal rather than a clinical issue and raise the question whether adjudicating on requests for legalized PAS is an appropriate role for doctors. Research into quality of decision-making in requests for PAS and into potential role of doctors as expert witnesses rather than judges in requests for PAS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Testing animal-assisted cleaning prior to transplantation in coral reef restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Torres, Sarah; van de Geer, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project. We tested a novel biomimicry technique of animal-assisted cleaning on nursery corals prior to transplantation at a coral reef restoration site in Seychelles, Indian Ocean. To determine whether animal-assisted cleaning was possible, preliminary visual underwater surveys were performed to quantify the fish community at the study site. Then, cleaning stations consisting of nursery ropes carrying corals and biofouling organisms, set at 0.3 m, 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m from the seabed, were placed at both the transplantation (treatment) site and the nursery (control) site. Remote GoPro video cameras recorded fish feeding at the nursery ropes without human disturbance. A reef fish assemblage of 32 species from 4 trophic levels (18.8% herbivores, 18.8% omnivores, 59.3% secondary consumers and 3.1% carnivores) consumed 95% of the barnacles on the coral nursery ropes placed 0.3 m above the seabed. Using this cleaning station, we reduced coral dislodgement from 16% to zero. This cleaning station technique could be included as a step prior to coral transplantation worldwide on the basis of location-specific fish assemblages and during the early nursery phase of sexually produced juvenile corals.

  11. Testing animal-assisted cleaning prior to transplantation in coral reef restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Frias-Torres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project. We tested a novel biomimicry technique of animal-assisted cleaning on nursery corals prior to transplantation at a coral reef restoration site in Seychelles, Indian Ocean. To determine whether animal-assisted cleaning was possible, preliminary visual underwater surveys were performed to quantify the fish community at the study site. Then, cleaning stations consisting of nursery ropes carrying corals and biofouling organisms, set at 0.3 m, 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m from the seabed, were placed at both the transplantation (treatment site and the nursery (control site. Remote GoPro video cameras recorded fish feeding at the nursery ropes without human disturbance. A reef fish assemblage of 32 species from 4 trophic levels (18.8% herbivores, 18.8% omnivores, 59.3% secondary consumers and 3.1% carnivores consumed 95% of the barnacles on the coral nursery ropes placed 0.3 m above the seabed. Using this cleaning station, we reduced coral dislodgement from 16% to zero. This cleaning station technique could be included as a step prior to coral transplantation worldwide on the basis of location-specific fish assemblages and during the early nursery phase of sexually produced juvenile corals.

  12. Testing animal-assisted cleaning prior to transplantation in coral reef restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Geer, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project. We tested a novel biomimicry technique of animal-assisted cleaning on nursery corals prior to transplantation at a coral reef restoration site in Seychelles, Indian Ocean. To determine whether animal-assisted cleaning was possible, preliminary visual underwater surveys were performed to quantify the fish community at the study site. Then, cleaning stations consisting of nursery ropes carrying corals and biofouling organisms, set at 0.3 m, 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m from the seabed, were placed at both the transplantation (treatment) site and the nursery (control) site. Remote GoPro video cameras recorded fish feeding at the nursery ropes without human disturbance. A reef fish assemblage of 32 species from 4 trophic levels (18.8% herbivores, 18.8% omnivores, 59.3% secondary consumers and 3.1% carnivores) consumed 95% of the barnacles on the coral nursery ropes placed 0.3 m above the seabed. Using this cleaning station, we reduced coral dislodgement from 16% to zero. This cleaning station technique could be included as a step prior to coral transplantation worldwide on the basis of location-specific fish assemblages and during the early nursery phase of sexually produced juvenile corals. PMID:26468440

  13. Preliminary fluid channel design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of glow discharge cleaning permanent electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Lijun, E-mail: cailj@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lin, Tao; Wang, Yingqiao; Wang, Mingxu [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Maruyama, So; Yang, Yu; Kiss, Gabor [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The plasma facing closure cap has to survive after 30,000 thermal heat load cycles. • 0.35 MW/m2 radiation heat load plus nuclear heat load are very challenging for stainless steel. • Multilayer structure has been designed by using advanced welding and drilling technology to solve the neutron heating problem. • Accurate volumetric load application in analysis model by CFX has been mastered. - Abstract: Glow discharge cleaning (GDC) shall be used on ITER device to reduce and control impurity and hydrogenic fuel out-gassing from in-vessel plasma facing components. After first plasma, permanent electrode (PE) will be used to replace Temporary Electrode (TE) for subsequent operation. Two fundamental scenarios i.e., GDC and Plasma Operation State (POS) should be considered for electrode design, which requires the heat load caused by plasma radiation and neutron heating must be taken away by cooling water flowing inside the electrode. In this paper, multilayer cooling channels inside PE are preliminarily designed, and snakelike route in each layer is adopted to improve the heat exchange. Detailed thermal-hydraulic analyses have been done to validate the design feasibility or rationality. The analysis results show that during GDC the cooling water inlet and outlet temperature difference is far less than the allowable temperature rise under water flow rate 0.15 kg/s compromised by many factors. For POS, the temperature rise and pressure drop are within the design goals, but high thermal stress occurs on the front surface of closure cap of electrode. After several iterations of optimization of the closure cap, the equivalent strain range after 30,000 loading cycles for POS is well below 0.3% design goals.

  14. Effect of actuating voltage and discharge gap on plasma assisted detonation initiation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyin, ZHOU; Xueke, CHE; Wansheng, NIE; Di, WANG

    2018-06-01

    The influence of actuating voltage and discharge gap on plasma assisted detonation initiation by alternating current dielectric barrier discharge was studied in detail. A loose coupling method was used to simulate the detonation initiation process of a hydrogen–oxygen mixture in a detonation tube under different actuating voltage amplitudes and discharge gap sizes. Both the discharge products and the detonation forming process assisted by the plasma were analyzed. It was found that the patterns of the temporal and spatial distributions of discharge products in one cycle keep unchanged as changing the two discharge operating parameters. However, the adoption of a higher actuating voltage leads to a higher active species concentration within the discharge zone, and atom H is the most sensitive to the variations of the actuating voltage amplitude among the given species. Adopting a larger discharge gap results in a lower concentration of the active species, and all species have the same sensitivity to the variations of the gap. With respect to the reaction flow of the detonation tube, the corresponding deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) time and distance become slightly longer when a higher actuating voltage is chosen. The acceleration effect of plasma is more prominent with a smaller discharge gap, and the benefit builds gradually throughout the DDT process. Generally, these two control parameters have little effect on the amplitude of the flow field parameters, and they do not alter the combustion degree within the reaction zone.

  15. Corrective action plan for CAU Number 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations, Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the method for implementing the corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Detailed information of the site history and results of previous characterizations can be found in the Work Plan, the Preliminary Investigation Report, and the Phase 2 Characterization Report. Previous characterization investigations were completed as a condition of the Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 14, 1992. The scope of this report is to prepare a CAP based upon the selected remedial alternative for closure of the Area 12, Building 12-16 Fleet Operations steam cleaning discharge area. The effluent discharge area has been impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil. The maximum hydrocarbon and VOC concentrations detected in the Preliminary and Phase 2 Site Characterization Investigations are summarized

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal

  18. Experimental Investigation – Magnetic Assisted Electro Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesava Reddy, Chirra; Manzoor Hussain, M.; Satyanarayana, S.; Krishna, M. V. S. Murali

    2018-04-01

    Emerging technology needs advanced machined parts with high strength and temperature resistance, high fatigue life at low production cost with good surface quality to fit into various industrial applications. Electro discharge machine is one of the extensively used machines to manufacture advanced machined parts which cannot be machined by other traditional machine with high precision and accuracy. Machining of DIN 17350-1.2080 (High Carbon High Chromium steel), using electro discharge machining has been discussed in this paper. In the present investigation an effort is made to use permanent magnet at various positions near the spark zone to improve surface quality of the machined surface. Taguchi methodology is used to obtain optimal choice for each machining parameter such as peak current, pulse duration, gap voltage and Servo reference voltage etc. Process parameters have significant influence on machining characteristics and surface finish. Improvement in surface finish is observed when process parameters are set at optimum condition under the influence of magnetic field at various positions.

  19. Capillary-Force-Assisted Clean-Stamp Transfer of Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuezhi; Liu, Qiushi; Xu, Da; Zhu, Yangzhi; Kim, Sanggon; Cui, Yongtao; Zhong, Lanlan; Liu, Ming

    2017-11-08

    A simple and clean method of transferring two-dimensional (2D) materials plays a critical role in the fabrication of 2D electronics, particularly the heterostructure devices based on the artificial vertical stacking of various 2D crystals. Currently, clean transfer techniques rely on sacrificial layers or bulky crystal flakes (e.g., hexagonal boron nitride) to pick up the 2D materials. Here, we develop a capillary-force-assisted clean-stamp technique that uses a thin layer of evaporative liquid (e.g., water) as an instant glue to increase the adhesion energy between 2D crystals and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the pick-up step. After the liquid evaporates, the adhesion energy decreases, and the 2D crystal can be released. The thin liquid layer is condensed to the PDMS surface from its vapor phase, which ensures the low contamination level on the 2D materials and largely remains their chemical and electrical properties. Using this method, we prepared graphene-based transistors with low charge-neutral concentration (3 × 10 10 cm -2 ) and high carrier mobility (up to 48 820 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature) and heterostructure optoelectronics with high operation speed. Finally, a capillary-force model is developed to explain the experiment.

  20. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  1. Feasibility of arc-discharge and plasma-sputtering methods in cleaning plasma-facing and diagnostics components of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakola, Antti, E-mail: antti.hakola@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Likonen, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Karhunen, Juuso; Korhonen, Juuso T. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University (Finland); Aints, Märt; Laan, Matti; Paris, Peeter [Department of Physics, University of Tartu (Estonia); Kolehmainen, Jukka; Koskinen, Mika; Tervakangas, Sanna [DIARC-Technology Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Feasibility of the arc-discharge and plasma-sputtering techniques in removing deposited layers from ITER-relevant samples demonstrated. • Samples with the size of an A4 paper can be cleaned from 1-μm thick deposited layers in 10–20 minutes by the arc-discharge method. • The plasma-sputtering method is 5–10 times slower but the resulting surfaces are very smooth. • Arc-discharge method could be used for rapid cleaning of plasma-facing components during maintenance shutdowns of ITER, plasma sputtering is preferred for diagnostics mirrors. - Abstract: We have studied the feasibility of arc-discharge and plasma-sputtering methods in removing deposited layers from ITER-relevant test samples. Prototype devices have been designed and constructed for the experiments and the cleaning process is monitored by a spectral detection system. The present version of the arc-discharge device is capable of removing 1-μm thick layers from 350-mm{sup 2} areas in 4–8 s, but due to the increased roughness of the cleaned surfaces and signs of local melting, mirror-like surfaces cannot be treated by this technique. The plasma-sputtering approach, for its part, is some 5–10 times slower in removing the deposited layers but no changes in surface roughness or morphology of the samples could be observed after the cleaning phase. The arc-discharge technique could therefore be used for rapid cleaning of plasma-facing components during maintenance shutdowns of ITER while in the case of diagnostics mirrors plasma sputtering is preferred.

  2. Utilisation of CO2, fixation of nitrogen and exhaust gas cleaning in electric discharge with electrode catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcela, M.; Imrich, M.; Mario, J.

    2001-01-01

    The method reported here provides a contribution to CO 2 utilisation, nitrogen fixation and combustion exhaust cleaning using synergetic effect of electric discharge with heterogeneous catalysis on electrodes. The efficiency of CO 2 removal is about 40-65%. The process of CO 2 removal is always accompanied by NO x , VOC, SX and other component removal and is connected with O 2 formation. The final product of process is powder with fractal microstructure, low specific weight, water insoluble suitable for use as nitrogen containing fertilizer. The main component (95%) of solid product is amorphous condensate of amino acids with about 5% of metal organic compound with catalytic properties. The condensate has character of statistical proteinoid. Its creation seems to play important role during formation of life in pre-biotic Earth

  3. Economic and environmental impacts of proposed changes to Clean Water Act thermal discharge requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economic and environmental impact to the power industry of limiting thermal mixing zones to 1000 feet and eliminating the Clean Water Act section 316(a) variance. Power companies were asked what they would do if these two conditions were imposed. Most affected plants would retrofit cooling towers and some would retrofit diffusers. Assuming that all affected plants would proportionally follow the same options as the surveyed plants, the estimated capital cost of retrofitting cooling towers or diffusers at all affected plants exceeds $20 billion. Since both cooling towers and diffusers exert an energy penalty on a plant's output, the power companies must generate additional power. The estimated cost of the additional power exceeds $10 billion over 20 years. Generation of the extra power would emit over 8 million tons per year of additional carbon dioxide. Operation of the new cooling towers would cause more than 1.5 million gallons per minute of additional evaporation

  4. Closure report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations steam-cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) provides documentation of the completed corrective action at the Area 12 Fleet Operations site located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Field work was performed in July 1997 as outlined in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The CAP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in June 1997. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 12-19-01 and is the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. The former Area 12 Fleet Operations Building 12-16 functioned as a maintenance facility for light- and heavy-duty vehicles from approximately 1965 to January 1993. Services performed at the site included steam-cleaning, tire service, and preventative maintenance on vehicles and equipment. Past activities impacted the former steam-cleaning discharge area with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil

  5. Microwave-assisted clean synthesis of amides via aza-wittig reaction under solvent-free condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathishkumar, Murugan; Nagarajan, Sangaraiah; Velan, Poovan Shanmuga; Dinesh, Murugan; Ponnuswamy, Alagusundaram [Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-09-15

    A solvent-free microwave-assisted coupling of phosphazenes with acyl chlorides or carboxylic anhydrides in presence of triethylphosphite has been accomplished resulting in a clean synthesis of amides in good yields. Unlike the prevailing time-consuming solution phase methodologies employing chlorinated solvents, benzene (carcinogenic), etc, the present protocol is an eco friendly, rapid and simple approach. (author)

  6. Plasma-assisted ignition and combustion: nanosecond discharges and development of kinetic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    This review covers the results obtained in the period 2006-2014 in the field of plasma-assisted combustion, and in particular the results on ignition and combustion triggered or sustained by pulsed nanosecond discharges in different geometries. Some benefits of pulsed high voltage discharges for kinetic study and for applications are demonstrated. The necessity of and the possibility of building a particular kinetic mechanism of plasma-assisted ignition and combustion are discussed. The most sensitive regions of parameters for plasma-combustion kinetic mechanisms are selected. A map of the pressure and temperature parameters (P-T diagram) is suggested, to unify the available data on ignition delay times, ignition lengths and densities of intermediate species reported by different authors.

  7. Clean air, clear market. Making emissions trading work: The role of a computer-assisted auction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, C.W.; Marron, D.B.; Lipsky, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    Creating a new commodity presents the chance to develop new markets in which to trade it. In many cases, existing markets can be adapted easily; in other cases it proves worthwhile to develop new forms that reflect special characteristics of the commodity and those who trade it. In the case of the sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission allowances created by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a number of standard market forms already have been adopted. While these will prove useful for handling some transactions, a new Market Clearing Auction (MCA) offers buyers and sellers a centralized marketplace for trading SO 2 emission allowances. The MCA, which was developed by the brokerage firm Cantor Fitzgerald, is a computer-assisted open-quotes smartclose quotes auction designed to replicate the outcome of an efficient market in emission allowances, and accepts bids and offers for any possible combination of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances covering more than one year. The auction then determines the combination of bids and offers that maximizes the gains from trades in the market, and establishes uniform market clearing prices for each allowance issue (1995, 1996, and so on). Once executed, trades are settled on a cash-forward basis; that is, allowances are delivered and payments are made at future dates

  8. Early assisted discharge with generic community nursing for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: Results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. Utens (Cecile); L.M.A. Goossens (Lucas); F.W.J.M. Smeenk (Frank); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); M. van Vliet (Monique); M.W. Braken (Maria); L. van Eijsden (Loes); O.C.P. Schayck (Onno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To determine the effectiveness of early assisted discharge for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, with home care provided by generic community nurses, compared with usual hospital care. Design: Prospective, randomised controlled and multicentre trial

  9. Experimental Investigation on the Performance of Grinding Assisted Electrochemical Discharge Drilling of Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladeesh V G

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grinding assisted electrochemical discharge drilling (G-ECDD is a novel technique for producing micro and macro holes in brittle materials including advanced ceramics and glass, both efficiently and economically. G-ECDD involves the use of a rotating diamond core drill as the tool in a normal electrochemical discharge machine setup. The material removal happens by a combination of thermal melting due to electric discharges, followed by grinding action of diamond grits and chemical etching action. In this study, the effect of process parameters like voltage, duty cycle, cycle time and electrolyte concentration on material removed (MR was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. Analysis of variance was performed to identify the significant factors and their percentage contribution. The most significant factor was found to be duty cycle followed by voltage, cycle time and concentration. A quadratic mathematical model was developed to predict MR. Tool wear was found for different frequencies and voltages. Higher tool wear was observed for high frequency above 5kHz pulsed DC supply at high voltage of 110V. Tool wear at the end face of the tool was found to be a significant problem affecting the tool life.

  10. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  11. Discharge destination following lower limb fracture: development of a prediction model to assist with decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Lara A; Holland, Anne E; Edwards, Elton R; Cameron, Peter A; De Steiger, Richard; Page, Richard S; Gabbe, Belinda

    2012-06-01

    Accurate prediction of the likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation following lower limb fracture made on admission to hospital may assist patient discharge planning and decrease the burden on the hospital system caused by delays in decision making. To develop a prognostic model for discharge to inpatient rehabilitation. Isolated lower extremity fracture cases (excluding fractured neck of femur), captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR), were extracted for analysis. A training data set was created for model development and validation data set for evaluation. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed based on patient and injury characteristics. Models were assessed using measures of discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) statistic). A total of 1429 patients met the inclusion criteria and were randomly split into training and test data sets. Increasing age, more proximal fracture type, compensation or private fund source for the admission, metropolitan location of residence, not working prior to injury and having a self-reported pre-injury disability were included in the final prediction model. The C-statistic for the model was 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88, 0.95) with an H-L statistic of χ(2)=11.62, p=0.17. For the test data set, the C-statistic was 0.86 (95% CI 0.83, 0.90) with an H-L statistic of χ(2)=37.98, plower limb fracture was developed with excellent discrimination although the calibration was reduced in the test data set. This model requires prospective testing but could form an integral part of decision making in regards to discharge disposition to facilitate timely and accurate referral to rehabilitation and optimise resource allocation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of NO2 and O3 generated from corona discharge in indoor air cleaning with MnO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, H; Yu, R; Zhu, Y M; Mi, D

    2013-01-01

    The production rules and removal efficiency of harmful byproducts such as NO 2 and O 3 generated from DC corona discharge in indoor air cleaning were investigated. The production behaviours of NO 2 and O 3 and the relationship between the amount of catalyst (MnO 2 ) and the removal rate of harmful byproducts were experimentally studied. Further, indoor application tests were carried out in a closed room with 90 m 3 . The results showed that the concentrations of NO 2 and O 3 produced by corona discharge linearly increased with discharge time. The NO 2 yield is larger than O 3 by almost one order of magnitude under the same discharge power. To satisfy the demand of Standard of Indoor Air Quality (GB/T18883-2002), the power consumption of unit volume should be less than 1 W m −3 and the catalyst MnO 2 consumptions in positive-negative corona discharge were 200 cm 3 W −1 and 100 cm 3 W −1 , respectively.

  13. [Microwave assisted UV electrodeless discharge lamp photochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol in aquatic solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhi-hui; Jiang, Jun-qing; Yang, Peng; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Xiao-hua

    2004-07-01

    A microwave assisted UV electrodeless discharge lamp system (MW/UV) was used for photo-degradation of 4CP simulated wastewater. In order to evaluate the degradation efficiency of 4CP, UV spectrophotometry and ion chromatography were used for determination of 4CP and Cl- respectively. The degradation rate in MW/UV system was higher than that in the UV system within 120min, which were 52.40% and 21.56% respectively. The degradation efficiency was improved by increasing pH value of the solution, aerating O2 gas, enhancing light intensity, or adding H2O2 oxidant. The degradation of 4CP under MW/UV accords with the first order kinetics equation.

  14. Degradation of atrazine by microwave-assisted electrodeless discharge mercury lamp in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Na; Hong, Jun; Liu, Tingfeng; Sun, Cheng

    2006-11-02

    The present study investigates the degradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethyl amino)-6-isopropyl amino-s-triazine) in aqueous solution by a developed new method, namely by means of a microwave-assisted electrodeless discharge mercury lamp (MW-EDML). An experimental design was conducted to assess the influence of various parameters: pH value, initial concentration, amount of EDML, initial volume and coexisted solvent. Atrazine was degraded completely by EDML in a relatively short time (i.e. t(1/2)=1.2 min for 10 mg/l). Additionally, the identification of main degradation products during atrazine degradation process was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This study proposes the degradation mechanism including four possible pathways for atrazine degradation according to the degradation products.

  15. Alkali-assisted membrane cleaning for fouling control of anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiaojie; Quek, Pei Jun; Wang, Zhiwei; Ng, How Yong

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a chemically enhanced backflush (CEB) cleaning method using NaOH solution was proposed for fouling mitigation in anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). Ex-situ cleaning tests revealed that NaOH dosages ranging from 0.05 to 1.30mmol/L had positive impacts on anaerobic biomass, while higher dosages (>1.30mmol/L) showed inhibition and/or toxic impacts. In-situ cleaning tests showed that anaerobic biomass could tolerate much higher NaOH concentrations due to the alkali consumption by anaerobic process and/or the buffering role of mixed liquor. More importantly, 10-20mmol-NaOH/L could significantly reduce membrane fouling rates (4-5.5 times over the AnMBR with deionized water backflush) and slightly improve methanogenic activities. COD removal efficiencies were over 87% and peaked at 20mmol-NaOH/L. However, extremely high NaOH concentration had adverse effects on filtration and treatment performance. Economic analysis indicated that 12mmol/L of NaOH was the cost-efficient and optimal fouling-control dosage for the CEB cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of MHD activity in LH-assisted discharges in the PBX-M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvard, M.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Sesnic, S.; von Goeler, S.

    1995-01-01

    A data base for the 1993 run period of PBX-M has been documented (i) to investigate whether it was possible to forecast the development of MHD instabilities often observed in LH assisted discharges and (ii) to detail the origin, the nature and the effects of those instabilities. The deposition radius of the RF current, the plasma internal inductance and the LH power are used to separate MHD active and quiescent regimes prior the MHD onset. 1/1, 2/1, 3/1 global modes driven by the m = 2, n = 1 component are observed in discharges with LHCD. The destabilization is attributed to an increase of the current density gradient within the q = 2 surface. MHD fluctuations reduce the soft x-ray and hard x-ray intensities mainly around the RF current deposition radius. Minor disruptions with large inversion radii and mode locking are analyzed. Pi possible precursor to the MHD is evidenced on the hard x-ray horizontal profiles. A resonance between fast trapped electrons and turbulent waves present in the background plasma is proposed to support the observations

  17. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  18. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  19. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  20. Microbial Assisted Phyto remediation Of Palm Oil Mill Final Discharge (POMFD) Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Faizal Hamzah; Norjan Yusof; Hasimah Alimon

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses microbial assisted phyto remediation of palm oil mill final discharge (POMFD) wastewater using three local macrophyte species: Leersia oryzoides, Pistia stratiotes and Ludwigia peploides. It was found respectively that BOD 5 , COD, NH 3 -N removal efficiencies of 84.7 %, 22.3 %, and 73.5 % were achieved for P. stratiotes; 88.1 %, 18 % and 69.2 % for L. peploides; and 86.1 %, 11.7 % and 69.3 % for L. oryzoides. The level of C, H and N in the tissue were influenced by macrophyte species and organs (p < 0.05). The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of various metals such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, Fe and Zn of the three macrophyte were 10 -1 to 10 0 with Fe being highly accumulated in roots of all the macrophyte (BCF=10 2 ). The translocation factors (TF) of most metals from root to shoot tissues were in a range of 10 -3 to 10 0 . In comparison with other metals, K was capable to be efficiently translocated from root to shoots in all the macrophyte species (TF=10 0 ). In this study, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus cereus that are usually involved in denitrification were identified in P. stratiotes, L. pepoides and L. oryzoides roots respectively. This confirms the macrophyte-microorganism interaction in remediation of POMFD wastewater. (author)

  1. Discharging process of a finned heat pipe–assisted thermal energy storage system with high temperature phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang; Mahdavi, Mahboobe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The discharging process of a latent heat thermal energy storage system is studied. • The thermal energy storage system is assisted by finned heat pipes. • The influences of heat pipe spacing and fins geometrical features are studied. • Smaller heat pipe spacing enhances the solidification rate. • Better heat pipe and fin arrangements are determined. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a numerical study conducted to investigate the discharging process of a latent heat thermal energy storage system assisted by finned heat pipes. A two-dimensional finite volume based numerical model along with enthalpy-porosity technique is employed to simulate the phase change of storage media during the discharging mode. The thermal energy storage system in this study consists of a square container, finned heat pipes, and potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) as the phase change material. The charging process of the same thermal energy storage system was reported in an early paper by the authors. This paper reports the results of discharging process of the thermal energy storage system. The influences of heat pipe spacing, fin geometry and quantities as well as the effects of natural convection heat transfer on the thermal performance of the storage system were studied. The results indicate that the phase change material solidification process is hardly affected by the natural convection. Decreasing the heat pipe spacing results in faster discharging process and higher container base wall temperature. Increasing the fins length does not change the discharging time but yields higher base wall temperature. Using more fins also accelerates the discharging process and increases the container base wall temperature.

  2. Studies on laser-assisted Penning ionization by the optogalvanic effect in Ne/Eu hollow cathode discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V K; Kumar, P; Dixit, S K; Nakhe, S V

    2015-02-01

    Laser-assisted Penning ionization (LAPI) is detected in a Ne/Eu hollow cathode (HC) discharge lamp using the pulsed optogalvanic (OG) method. In the Ne/Eu discharge, doubly ionized europium excited energy levels Eu[4f(7)(P(7/2,5/2)6)] lie within the thermal limit (∼kT) from the laser-excited neon's energy level [2p(5)(P3/202)3p or 2p(8) (in Paschen notation)] lying at 149,848  cm(-1). Therefore, Penning ionization (PI) of europium atoms likely to occur into its highly excited ionic states is investigated. To probe the PI of europium, the temporal profiles of its counterpart neon OG signal are studied as a function of discharge current for the transitions (1s(4)→2p(8)) and (1s(2)→2p(2)), corresponding to 650.65 and 659.89 nm wavelengths, respectively. It is observed that PI of europium alters the overall discharge characteristics significantly and, hence, modifies the temporal profile of the OG signals accordingly. The quasi-resonant ionizing energy transfer collisions between laser-excited Ne 2p(8) atoms and electronically excited europium P(9/2)10 atoms are used to explain the LAPI mechanism. Such LAPI studies carried out in HC discharge could be useful for the discharge of a metal-vapor laser with appropriate Penning mixtures.

  3. Thinking about the patient's wishes: practical wisdom of discharge planning nurses in assisting surrogate decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Yoko; Asano, Midori

    2017-12-01

    The accelerating trend towards shorter hospital stays in Japan has made modes of decision-making essential for effective patient transition from the hospital to recuperation in the regional community, and the ageing of the population has brought a rise in surrogate decision-making by the families of patients lacking decision-making ('self-decision') capacity. To verbalise and elucidate the practical wisdom of discharge planning nurses by focusing on the perceptions and judgements, they apply in practice and describing their methodology in concrete terms. Participants were six discharge planning nurses and one person with previous experience as a discharge planning nurse, all working at discharge planning departments of acute care hospitals. Separate, semi-structured, interactive interviews were conducted with each participant. The study design was qualitative descriptive in form with qualitative content analysis. All participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study, which was approved by the study institution. Three concepts were extracted as the basis for discharge planning nurses' perception and judgement at acute care hospitals: working for mutual envisionment of the available postdischarge options; helping the family act as spokesperson(s) for the patient's wishes; and understanding the family inclusive of the patient as a relationship of strongly interaffecting interests. The practical wisdom of the nurse, working in mutual envisionment with the family, and collaborative decision-making through discussion with those who know the patient, leads to rational discharge assistance. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Dependence of laser assisted cleaning of clad surfaces on the laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilaya, J.P.; Raote, P.; Sai Prasad, M.B.; Biswas, D.J.; Aniruddha Kumar

    2005-01-01

    The decontamination factor is studied as a function of laser fluence for three kinds of clad surfaces viz., plain zircaloy, autoclaved zircaloy and SS with cesium as the test contamination. It has been found that the decontamination factor exhibits a maximal behaviour with the laser fluence and its maximum value occurs at different laser fluences in the three cases. The maximal behaviour is attributed to reduced coupling of energy from the laser beam to the substrate due to the initiation of surface-assisted optical breakdown. The results obtained in the experiment carried out in helium environment qualitatively support this explanation (author)

  5. Ionization Waves in a Fast, Hollow-Cathode-Assisted Capillary Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkevich, I.; Mond, M.; Kaufman, Y.; Choi, P.; Favre, M.

    1999-01-01

    The initial, low-current stage of the evolution of a soft x-ray emitting, hollow-cathode-assisted capillary discharge initiated by a steep high-voltage pulse is investigated. The capillary is surrounded by a shield having the cathode potential. The mean electric field E of the order of 10 kV/cm and the low gas pressure (P<1Torr) provide conditions for extensive electron runaway. This is taken into account in the formulation of the theoretical approach by retaining the inertial terms in the momentum equation for the electrons. In addition, the ionization rate is calculated by considering the cross section for ionization by high-energy electrons. The two-dimensional system of the basic equations is reduced to a system of one-dimensional equations for the axial distributions of the physical quantities by introducing appropriate radial profiles of the electric potential, and the electron gas parameters and satisfying the electrodynamic boundary conditions at the capillary wall and at the shield. The resulting system of equations admits solutions in the form of stationary ionization waves transferring the anode potential to the cathode end. Numerical calculations of such solutions for argon show that the wave velocity V increases with the gas pressure P and with the density of initial electron beam ejected from the cathode hole ahead of the ionization front, while the dependence of V on the applied voltage is weak. At the instant when the virtual anode reaches the cathode hole, the plasma in the capillary is not yet fully ionized. The traverse time of the ionization wave along the capillary calculated for various gas pressures is in reasonable agreement with experimentally registered time delay for a high-current stage resulting in voltage collapse and soft x-ray emission

  6. Microelectrode-assisted low-voltage atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzheng; Zhao, Shuai; Niu, Jiangqi; Chai, Maolin

    2017-09-01

    During the process of discharge, appropriately changing the paths corresponding to electric field lines and the field strength distribution along these paths, as well as increasing the number of initial electrons, can effectively enhance the uniformity of discharge and inhibit the formation of filamentary discharge. A method is proposed that uses a microelectrode to initiate the macroscopic discharge phenomenon. An asymmetric structure was designed comprising a single electrode of carbon fiber; this electrode structure is of helical-contact type. Benefitting from the special electric field distribution and the microdischarge process, a three-dimensional atmospheric pressure glow discharge was achieved in air, characterized by low discharge voltage, low energy consumption, good diffusion performance, and less ozone generation. The plasma studied is uniform and stable with good diffusion characteristics and low levels of contaminants and hence has potential applications in the field of air purification.

  7. Direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps – A clean steady state approach for overall performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliafico, Luca A.; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Traditional thermal solar panel technologies have limited efficiency and the required economic investments make them noncompetitive in the space heating market. The greatest limit to the diffusion of thermal solar systems is the characteristic temperatures they can reach: the strong connection between the user temperature and the collector temperature makes it possible to achieve high thermal (collector) efficiency only at low, often useless, user temperatures. By using solar collectors as thermal exchange units (evaporators) in a heat pump system (direct expansion solar assisted heat pump, DX-SAHP), the overall efficiency greatly increases with a significative cut of the associated investment in terms of pay-back time. In this study, an approach is proposed to the steady state analysis of DX-SAHP, which is based on the simplified inverse Carnot cycle and on the second law efficiency concept. This method, without the need of calculating the refrigerant fluid properties and the detailed processes occurring in the refrigeration device, allows us to link the main features of the plant to its relevant interactions with the surroundings. The very nature of the proposed method makes the relationship explicit and meaningful among all the involved variables. The paper, after the description of the method, presents an explanatory application of this technique by reviewing various aspects of the performance of a typical DX-SAHP in which the savings on primary energy consumption is regarded as the main feature of the plant and highlighted in a monthly averaged analysis. Results agree to those coming from a common standard steady state thermodynamic analysis. The application to a typical DX-SAHP system demonstrates that a mean saved primary energy of about 50% with respect to standard gas burner can be achieved for the same user needs. Such a result is almost independent from the type of flat plate solar panel used (double or single glazed, or even bare panels) as a result of

  8. Rapid and clean amine functionalization of carbon nanotubes in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor for biosensor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodadadei, Fatemeh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Soltanieh, Mansour; Hosseinalipour, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Yadollah

    2014-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were amine-functionalized using the process of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment. The scanning electron microscope micrographs and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy clearly demonstrated that the carbon skeleton structure of the plasma-treated MWCNTs was preserved and amine groups were coupled to MWCNTs during this process. The amine-functionalized MWCNTs were then fixed on glassy carbon (GC) electrode and glucose oxidase (GO X ) as a model enzyme was immobilized on the modified GC electrode. Direct electron transfer between the redox active center of the immobilized GO X and the plasma-treated MWCNTs was investigated through cyclic voltammetry. The well-defined, quasi-reversible redox peaks of the immobilized GO X revealed that GO X retained its activity such that it could specifically catalyze the oxidation of glucose with great efficiency. The obtained enzyme electrode was used for glucose biosensing with the linear range from 17 to 646 μM and sensitivity of 12.3 μA/mM cm 2 . Based on the signal to noise ratio of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 9 μM. The Michaelis–Menten constant for immobilized GO X was as low as 480 μM

  9. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). V. Microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of Bacillus subtilis in simulated electroplating wash wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Abe, Masahiko; Ohba, Naoki; Uchida, Masayoshi; Serpone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This short article examines the microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of aqueous solutions contaminated by Bacillus subtilis microorganisms using UV and vacuum-UV radiation emitted from a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL), a device containing a Hg/Ar gas-fill that was proposed recently for use in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). Results of the disinfection are compared with those obtained from UV radiation emitted by a low-pressure electrode Hg lamp and by an excimer lamp. Also examined is the disinfection of B. subtilis aqueous media that contained Au3+ or Ni2+ ions, species often found in the treatment of electroplating wash wastewaters.

  10. Comparison of solid phase extraction, saponification and gel permeation chromatography for the clean-up of microwave-assisted biological extracts in the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, P; Cortazar, E; Bartolomé, L; Deusto, M; Raposo, J C; Zuloaga, O; Arana, G; Etxebarria, N

    2006-09-22

    The feasibility of different clean-up procedures was studied for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biota samples such as oysters, mussels and fish liver. In this sense, once the samples were extracted--essentially with acetone and in a microwave system--and before they could be analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), three different approaches were studied for the clean-up step: solid phase extraction (SPE), microwave-assisted saponification (MAS) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The main aim of this work was to maximise the recoveries of PAHs and to minimise the presence of interfering compounds in the last extract. In the case of SPE, Florisil cartridges of 1, 2 and 5 g, and silica cartridges of 5 g were studied. In that case, and with oysters and mussels, microwave-assisted extraction and 5 g Florisil cartridges provided good results. In addition, the concentrations obtained for Standard Reference Material (SRM) NIST 2977 (mussel tissue) were in good agreement with the certified values. In the case of microwave-assisted saponification, the extracts were not as clean as those obtained with 5 g Florisil and this fact lead to overestimate the concentration of the heaviest PAHs. Finally, the cleanest extracts were obtained by GPC. The method was successfully applied to mussels, oysters and hake liver, and the results obtained for NIST 2977 (mussel tissue) were within the confidence interval of the certified reference material for most of the certified analytes.

  11. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  12. Removal of Refractory Organics from Biologically Treated Landfill Leachate by Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp Assisted Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically treated leachate usually contains considerable amount of refractory organics and trace concentrations of xenobiotic pollutants. Removal of refractory organics from biologically treated landfill leachate by a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL assisted Fenton process was investigated in the present study in comparison to conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes. Conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes could substantially remove up to 70% of the refractory organics in a membrane bioreactor treated leachate. MDEL assisted Fenton process achieved excellent removal performance of the refractory components, and the effluent chemical oxygen demand concentration was lower than 100 mg L−1. Most organic matters were transformed into smaller compounds with molecular weights less than 1000 Da. Ten different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the biologically treated leachate, most of which were effectively removed by MDEL-Fenton treatment. MDEL-Fenton process provides powerful capability in degradation of refractory and xenobiotic organic pollutants in landfill leachate and could be adopted as a single-stage polishing process for biologically treated landfill leachate to meet the stringent discharge limit.

  13. CT-guided thermoplastic assisted segmentectomy is an optimal breast conserving surgery for breast cancer with nipple discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, Masujiro; Gomi, Naoya; Tachikawa, Tomohiro

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of imaging by injecting contrast agents into the discharging duct and immobilizing the breast mound with a drape-type thermoplastic shell in breast conserving surgery was assessed by evaluating 96 cases of breast cancer patients with nipple discharge treated by partial mastectomy between April 1998 and August 2003. These patients were divided to three groups: Group A was treated by ordinary partial mastectomy or microdochectomy without new methods. Group B underwent contrast imaging without shell immobilization, and Group C received both shell immobilization and contrast imaging. The negative rates of surgical margins in Groups A, B and C were 19.0%, 17.2%, and 37.5%, respectively. The rates of negative ''lateral'' surgical margins in Groups A, B and C were 23.8%, 27.6%, and 50%, respectively. The rate of negative ''lateral'' surgical margins in Group C was significantly higher than that in Group A. Our findings suggest CT-guided thermoplastic assisted segmentectomy, adopting both ductography CT and immobilization by shell, is an optimal breast conserving surgery for breast cancer with nipple discharge. (author)

  14. Study of ultrasound-assisted radio-frequency plasma discharges in n-dodecane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerotto, Elisabeth; De Schepper, Peter; Nikiforov, Anton Y.; Brems, Steven; Shamiryan, Denis; Boullart, Werner; Leys, Christophe; De Gendt, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    This paper investigates the generation of a stable plasma phase in a liquid hydrocarbon (n-dodecane) by means of ultrasound (US) and radio-frequency (RF) or electromagnetic radiation. It is demonstrated for the first time that ultrasonic aided RF plasma discharges can be generated in a liquid. Plasma discharges are obtained for different gas mixtures at a pressure of 12 kPa and at low ignition powers (100 W for RF and 2.4 W cm-2 for US). Direct carbon deposition from the liquid precursor on Cu, Ni, SiO2 and Si substrates has been obtained and no apparent compositional or structural difference among the substrate materials was observed. Characterization of the deposited solid phase revealed an amorphous structure. In addition, structural changes in the liquid precursor after plasma treatment have been analysed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) allowed the estimation of several plasma characteristic temperatures. The plasma excitation temperature was estimated to be about 2.3-2.4 eV. The rotational and vibrational temperatures of the discharge in n-dodecane with Ar as a feed gas were 1400 K and 6500 K, respectively. In Ar/O2 plasma, an increased rotational (1630 K) and vibrational temperature (7200 K) were obtained.

  15. Plasma assisted combustion : Interaction of a flat flame with a nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkholy, A.H.E.; van Oijen, J.A.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Using of non-equilibrium Plasma-assisted for ignition, combustion and high speed flow applications are rapidly developing in the last decades due to its ability to produce a large amount of radicals and excited species. Which has a great potential in flame stabilization and emission control.

  16. Improvements to methods for assisted discharge of coal and ash from storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.; Richards, D.G. [CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom)

    1999-03-01

    The project studied the effects of vibration on coal in storage and assessed the effect of changes in vibration parameters, with respect to changes in physical properties of coal, to the flow of material through the storage system. An effective technique was developed for the measurement of transmission of vibration through coal residing in storage vessels, at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory scale to large industrial plant. Significant parameters affecting vibration transmission were impact position (discharge was favoured by application near the outlet), and bulk density of the stored material. Use was made of computer-based discrete element modelling (DEM) techniques for studying vibrations. 27 refs., 62 figs., 13 tabs., 1 app.

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  18. Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-08-11

    Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1 ng mL(-1) for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Ultrasound-Guided Directional Vacuum-Assisted Removal Help Eliminate Abnormal Nipple Discharge in Patients with Benign Intraductal Single Mass?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Na Ri Ya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se Yeong [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Mi Jung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate whether the removal of an intraductal mass using an ultrasound (US)-guided directional vacuum-assisted device can eliminate symptoms in patients presenting with abnormal nipple discharge. Between March 2004 and October 2006, 36 patients who presented with abnormal nipple discharge, underwent US-guided, 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy for a benign intraductal single mass on US. The ability of the procedure to eliminate nipple discharge was evaluated by physical examination during follow-up US. Lesion characteristics, biopsy variables, and histologic features were analyzed to identify factors affecting symptom resolution. Of the 36 lesions, 25 (69%) were intraductal papillomas, 10 (28%) were fibrocystic changes, and one (3%) was a fibroadenoma. The nipple discharge disappeared in 69% (25 of 36) of the women at a mean follow-up time of 25 months (range 12-42 month). There was no difference in the lesion characteristics, biopsy variables, and the histologic features between groups that eliminated the symptom compared those with persistent nipple discharge. US-guided directional vacuum-assisted removal of an intraductal mass appears to eliminate nipple discharge in only 69% of patients and thus, it should not be considered as an alternative to surgical excision.

  20. Pulsed ion beam-assisted carburizing of titanium in methane discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, M.; Shahzad, K.; Zakaullah, M.; Hassan, M.; Qayyum, A.; Ahmad, S.; Rawat, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    The carburizing of titanium (Ti) is accomplished by utilizing energetic ion pulses of a 1.5 kJ Mather type dense plasma focus (DPF) device operated in methane discharge. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the deposition of polycrystalline titanium carbide (TiC). The samples carburized at lower axial and angular positions show an improved texture for a typical (200)TiC plane. The Williamson–Hall method is employed to estimate average crystallite size and microstrains in the carburized Ti surface. Crystallite size is found to vary from ∼ 50 to 100 nm, depending on the deposition parameters. Microstrains vary with the sample position and hence ion flux, and are converted from tensile to compressive by increasing the flux. The carburizing of Ti is confirmed by two major doublets extending from 300 to 390 cm −1 and from 560 to 620 cm −1 corresponding to acoustic and optical active modes in Raman spectra, respectively. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) have provided qualitative and quantitative profiles of the carburized surface. The Vickers microhardness of Ti is significantly improved after carburizing. (nuclear physics)

  1. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  2. Optimization of waste water discharge and waste water cleaning on the basis of measurements of the organic pollutant load; Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und Abwasserreinigung durch Messung der organischen Abwasserbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, M. [Dr. Bruno Lange GmbH Berlin, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The spectral absorption coefficient (SAC) is a sum parameter for describing the organic pollutant load of waste water. It is based on a purely physical measuring technique and can be monitored continuously and directly in the medium by means of the described UV process probe. From this arise numerous opportunities for optimizing waste water discharge and cleaning. (orig.) [German] Der spektrale Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) ist ein Summenparameter zur Beschreibung der organischen Abwasserbelastung. Er basiert auf einem rein physikalischen Messverfahren und kann mit der hier vorgestellten UV-Prozess-Sonde kontinuierlich und direkt im Medium erfasst werden. Daraus ergeben sich zahlreiche Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und -reinigung. (orig.)

  3. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  4. Experimental investigation on large-area dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric nitrogen and air assisted by the ultraviolet lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Gu, Biao; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Dezhen; Peng, Xuwen

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, ultraviolet radiation produced by the ultraviolet lamp is employed to supply pre-ionization for the dielectric barrier discharge in N(2) or air at atmospheric pressure. The effect of the ultraviolet pre-ionization on improving the uniformity of the dielectric barrier discharge is investigated experimentally. The atmospheric pressure glow discharge of the large area (270 mm x 120 mm) is obtained successfully via the ultraviolet pre-ionization in atmospheric DBD in N(2) when the gas gap decrease to 3mm. Based on the emission spectra, the mechanism which ultraviolet pre-ionization improves the uniformity of the dielectric barrier discharge is discussed.

  5. Salt-assisted clean transfer of continuous monolayer MoS2 film for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heung-Yeol; Nguyen, Tri Khoa; Ullah, Farman; Yun, Jong-Won; Nguyen, Cao Khang; Kim, Yong Soo

    2018-03-01

    The transfer of two-dimensional (2D) materials from one substrate to another is challenging but of great importance for technological applications. Here, we propose a facile etching and residue-free method for transferring a large-area monolayer MoS2 film continuously grown on a SiO2/Si by chemical vapor deposition. Prior to synthesis, the substrate is dropped with water- soluble perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic acid tetrapotassium salt (PTAS). The as-grown MoS2 on the substrate is simply dipped in water to quickly dissolve PTAS to yield the MoS2 film floating on the water surface, which is subsequently transferred to the desired substrate. The morphological, optical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results show that our method is useful for fast and clean transfer of the MoS2 film. Specially, we demonstrate that monolayer MoS2 film transferred onto a conducting substrate leads to excellent performance for hydrogen evolution reaction with low overpotential (0.29 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode) and Tafel slope (85.5 mV/decade).

  6. Wastewater remediation by TiO2-impregnated chitosan nano-grafts exhibited dual functionality: High adsorptivity and solar-assisted self-cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawy, Amr A; Sayyah, S M; El-Nggar, A M

    2017-08-01

    This work provides a very infrequent and unique avenue of a novel bio-based nanografted polymeric composites achieving encouraging results in green management of dye contaminants in wastewater. A chitosan-grafted-polyN-Methylaniline (Ch-g-PNMANI) and chitosan-grafted-polyN-Methylaniline imprinted TiO 2 nanocomposites (Ch-g-PNMANI/TiO 2 ) were prepared and efficiently applied in wastewater remediation. The nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (BET) measurements. The prepared composites exhibit higher adsorptivity in removing remazol red RB-133 (RR RB-133) dye compared to other adsorbents reported in literature. The effects of TiO 2 loadings, initial dye concentration, contact time, and pH on dye adsorption were investigated. The maximum adsorption of dye was found at low pH values. Furthermore, Ch-g-PNMANI/TiO 2 of the optimum TiO 2 loading has higher adsorption capacity (116.3mg/g) than the pristine Ch-g-PNMANI (108.7mg/g). Moreover, the prepared adsorbents are photoactive under sunlight-irradiation. The study addresses a nanocomposite of considerable adsorption and in the same time has the fastest self-cleaning photoactivity (t 1/2 =31.5min.) under sunlight irradiation where a plausible photodegradation mechanism was proposed. Interestingly, the presented photoactive adsorbents are still effective in removing dye after five adsorption/sunlight-assisted self-cleaning photoregeneration cycles and therefore, they can be potentially applied to the rapid, "green" and low-cost remediation of RR RB-133 enriched industrial printing and dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  8. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  9. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  10. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA

  11. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Impact of pharmacists assisting with prescribing and undertaking medication review on oxycodone prescribing and supply for patients discharged from surgical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T; Taylor, S E; Hardidge, A; Findakly, D; Aminian, P; Elliott, R A

    2017-10-01

    Overprescribing of oxycodone is a contributor to the epidemic of prescription opioid misuse and deaths. Practice models to optimize oxycodone prescribing and supply need to be evaluated. We explored the impact of pharmacist-assisted discharge prescribing and medication review on oxycodone prescribing and supply for patients discharged from surgical wards. A retrospective audit was conducted on two surgical inpatient wards following a 16-week prospective pre- and post-intervention study. During the pre-intervention period, discharge prescriptions were prepared by hospital doctors and then reviewed by a ward pharmacist (WP) before being dispensed. Post-intervention, prescriptions were prepared by a project pharmacist in consultation with hospital doctors and then reviewed by a WP and dispensed. Proportion of patients who were prescribed, and proportion supplied, oxycodone on discharge; Median amount (milligrams) of oxycodone prescribed and supplied, for patients who were prescribed and supplied at least one oxycodone-containing preparation, respectively. A total of 320 and 341 patients were evaluated pre- and post-intervention, respectively. Pre-intervention, 75.6% of patients were prescribed oxycodone; after WP review, 60.3% were supplied oxycodone (Psupplied was 100 milligrams/patient. Post-intervention, 68.6% of patients were prescribed oxycodone; after WP review, 57.8% were supplied oxycodone (Psupplied was 50 milligrams/patient (difference in amount prescribed and supplied: 50 milligrams, Psupplied oxycodone but not the amount supplied/patient. Having a pharmacist assist with prescribing reduced the amount of oxycodone supplied. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Biosurfactant assisted synthesis of Fe3O4@rhamnolipid@BiOBr and its behaviour in plasma discharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yu, Zebin; Hou, Yanping; Peng, Zhenbo; Zhang, Li; Meng, Zhengcheng; Li, Fengyuan; He, Jun; Huang, Junlin

    2016-06-01

    A novel Fe3O4@rhamnolipid@BiOBr (FRB) was synthesized via a modified precipitation method and applied in the plasma discharge system. Rhamnolipid was used as biosurfactant to modify Fe3O4 by interacting with Fe3O4 via its aliphatic chain. The results show that the prepared FRB magnetic photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and Fenton reaction behavior in the plasma discharge system. Meanwhile, the addition of FRB could improve energy efficiency of defluorination by 21.29 mg kW-1 h-1.

  14. Biosurfactant assisted synthesis of Fe3O4@rhamnolipid@BiOBr and its behaviour in plasma discharge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Yu, Zebin; Hou, Yanping; Peng, Zhenbo; Zhang, Li; Meng, Zhengcheng; Li, Fengyuan; He, Jun; Huang, Junlin

    2016-01-01

    A novel Fe 3 O 4 @rhamnolipid@BiOBr (FRB) was synthesized via a modified precipitation method and applied in the plasma discharge system. Rhamnolipid was used as biosurfactant to modify Fe 3 O 4 by interacting with Fe 3 O 4 via its aliphatic chain. The results show that the prepared FRB magnetic photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and Fenton reaction behavior in the plasma discharge system. Meanwhile, the addition of FRB could improve energy efficiency of defluorination by 21.29 mg kW −1 h −1 . (paper)

  15. Influence of the voltage waveform during nanocomposite layer deposition by aerosol-assisted atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profili, J. [LAPLACE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Levasseur, O.; Stafford, L. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Naudé, N.; Gherardi, N., E-mail: nicolas.gherardi@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [LAPLACE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Chaneac, C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Collège de France, Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (CMCP), 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-08-07

    This work examines the growth dynamics of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings in plane-to-plane Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBDs) at atmospheric pressure operated in a Townsend regime using nebulized TiO{sub 2} colloidal suspension in hexamethyldisiloxane as the growth precursors. For low-frequency (LF) sinusoidal voltages applied to the DBD cell, with voltage amplitudes lower than the one required for discharge breakdown, Scanning Electron Microscopy of silicon substrates placed on the bottom DBD electrode reveals significant deposition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) close to the discharge entrance. On the other hand, at higher frequencies (HF), the number of TiO{sub 2} NPs deposited strongly decreases due to their “trapping” in the oscillating voltage and their transport along the gas flow lines. Based on these findings, a combined LF-HF voltage waveform is proposed and used to achieve significant and spatially uniform deposition of TiO{sub 2} NPs across the whole substrate surface. For higher voltage amplitudes, in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane and nitrous oxide for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of inorganic layers, it is found that TiO{sub 2} NPs become fully embedded into a silica-like matrix. Similar Raman spectra are obtained for as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NPs and for nanocomposite TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} coating, suggesting that plasma exposure does not significantly alter the crystalline structure of the TiO{sub 2} NPs injected into the discharge.

  16. Numerical study of the dielectric liquid around an electrical discharge generated vapor bubble in ultrasonic assisted EDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervani-Tabar, Mohammad T; Mobadersany, Nima

    2013-07-01

    In electrical discharge machining due to the electrical current, very small bubbles are created in the dielectric fluid between the tool and the workpiece. Increase of the number of bubbles and their growth in size generate a single bubble. The bubble has an important role in electrical discharge machining. In this paper the effect of ultrasonic vibration of the tool and the velocity fields and pressure distribution in the dielectric fluid around the bubble in the process of electrical discharge machining are studied numerically. The boundary integral equation method is applied for the numerical solution of the problem. It is shown that ultrasonic vibration of the tool has great influence on the evolution of the bubble, fluid behavior and the efficiency of the machining in EDM. At the last stages of the collapse phase of the bubble, a liquid jet develops on the bubble which has different shapes. Due to the different cases, and a high pressure region appears just near the jet of the bubble. Also the fluid particles have the highest relative velocity just near the liquid jet of the bubble. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Response surface method optimization of V-shaped fin assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system during discharging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Lohrasbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems (LHTESS containing Phase Change Material (PCM are used to establish balance between energy supply and demand. PCMs have high latent heat but low thermal conductivity, which affects their heat transfer performance. In this paper, a novel fin array has been optimized by multi-objective Response Surface Method (RSM based on discharging process of PCM, and then this fin configuration is applied on LHTESS, and comparison between full discharging time by applying this fin array and LHTESS with other fin structures has been carried out. The employed numerical method in this paper is Standard Galerkin Finite Element Method. Adaptive grid refinement is used to solve the equations. Since the enhancement technique, which has been employed in the present study reduces the employed PCM mass, maximum energy storage capacity variations have been considered. Therefore phase change expedition and maximum energy storage capacity have been considered as the objectives of optimization and the importance of second objective is indicated which is proposed as the novelty here. Results indicate that considering maximum energy storage capacity as the objective of optimization procedure leads to efficient shape design of LHTESS. Also employing optimized V-shaped fin in LHTESS, expedites discharging process considerably in comparison with the LHTESS without fin.

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  1. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  3. Study of nanosecond discharges in H2-air mixtures at atmospheric pressure for plasma assisted combustion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sumire; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Tholin, Fabien; Popov, Nikolay A.; Bourdon, Anne

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents 2D simulations of nanosecond discharges between two point electrodes for four different H2-air mixtures defined by their equivalence ratios ϕ (i.e. φ =0, air, φ =0.3, lean mixture, φ =1, stoichiometric mixture and φ =1.5, rich mixture) at atmospheric pressure and at an initial temperature of 1000 K. In a first step, we have shown that the mixture composition has only a very small influence on the discharge dynamics and structure during the streamer phase and up to the formation of the plasma channel between the two point electrodes in H2-air mixtures with φ \\in [0,1.5]. However, as the plasma channel is formed slightly earlier as the equivalence ratio increases, for a given voltage pulse, the duration of the nanosecond spark phase increases as the equivalence ratio increases. As expected, we have shown that excited states of N2 (and in particular N2(A)) and radicals (and in particular O(D), O(P), H and OH) are very efficiently produced during the voltage pulse after the start of the spark phase. After the voltage pulse, and up to 100 ns, the densities of excited states of N2 and of O(D) decrease. Conversely, most of the O(P), H and OH radicals are produced after the voltage pulse due to the dissociative quenching of electronically excited N2. As for radicals, the gas temperature starts increasing after the start of the spark phase. For all studied mixtures, the density of O(P) atoms and the gas temperature reach their maxima after the end of the voltage pulse and the densities of O(P), H and OH radicals and the maximal gas temperature increase as the equivalence ratio increases. We have shown that the production of radicals is the highest on the discharge axis and the distribution of species after the voltage pulse and up to 100 ns has a larger diameter between the electrodes than close to both electrode tips. As for species, the temperature distribution presents two hot spots close to the point electrode tips. The non

  4. Exercise Capacity and Functional Performance in Heart Failure Patients Supported by a Left Ventricular Assist Device at Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Bartsch, Petra; Deniz, Ezin; Schmitto, Jan; Schulte-Eistrup, Sebastian; Willemsen, Detlev; Reiss, Nils

    2018-01-01

    Adequate physical and functional performance is an important prerequisite for renewed participation and integration in self-determined private and (where appropriate) professional lives following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. During cardiac rehabilitation (CR), individually adapted exercise programs aim to increase exercise capacity and functional performance. A retrospective analysis of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and functional performance in LVAD patients at discharge from a cardiac rehabilitation program was conducted. The results from 68 LVAD patients (59 males, 9 females; 55.9 ± 11.7 years; 47 HVAD, 2 MVAD, 15 HeartMate II, 4 HeartMate 3, and 4 different implanting centers) were included in the analysis. Exercise capacity was assessed using a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a bicycle ergometer (ramp protocol; 10 W/min). The 6-min walk test was used to determine functional performance. At discharge from CR (53 ± 17 days after implantation), the mean peak work load achieved was 62.2 ± 19.3 W (38% of predicted values) or 0.79 ± 0.25 W/kg body weight. The mean cardiopulmonary exercise capacity (relative peak oxygen uptake) was 10.6 ± 5.3 mL/kg/min (37% of predicted values). The 6-min walk distance improved significantly during CR (325 ± 106 to 405 ± 77 m; P exercise capacity remains considerably restricted. In contrast, functional performance, measured by the 6-min walk distance, reaches an acceptable level. Light everyday tasks seem to be realistically surmountable for patients, making discharge from inpatient rehabilitation possible. Long-term monitoring is required in order to evaluate the situation and how it develops further. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  6. Atmospheric plasma generation for LCD panel cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen; Choi, Ju-Yeop; Yim, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    UV lamp systems have been used for cleaning of display panels of TFT LCD or Plasma Display Panel (PDP). However, the needs for high efficient cleaning and low cost made high voltage plasma cleaning techniques to be developed and to be improved. Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs), also referred to as barrier discharges or silent discharges have for a long time been exclusively related to ozone generation. In this paper, a 6kW high voltage plasma power supply system was developed for LCD cleaning. The -phase input voltage is rectified and then inverter system is used to make a high frequency pulse train, which is rectified after passing through a high-power transformer. Finally, bi-directional high voltage pulse switching circuits are used to generate the high voltage plasma. Some experimental results showed the usefulness of atmospheric plasma for LCD panel cleaning.

  7. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  9. Separation and determination of citrinin in corn using HPLC fluorescence detection assisted by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction clean-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid chromatography based method to detect citrinin in corn was developed using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) sample clean-up. Molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as the template and an amine functional monomer. Density func...

  10. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  11. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  12. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  13. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  14. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  15. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  16. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  17. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  18. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  19. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  20. Glow discharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  1. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-18

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Africa.

  2. Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  3. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  4. The rotational spectrum of CuCCH(X̃  1Σ+): a Fourier transform microwave discharge assisted laser ablation spectroscopy and millimeter/submillimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Halfen, D T; Min, J; Harris, B; Clouthier, D J; Ziurys, L M

    2010-11-07

    The pure rotational spectrum of CuCCH in its ground electronic state (X̃  (1)Σ(+)) has been measured in the frequency range of 7-305 GHz using Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) and direct absorption millimeter/submillimeter methods. This work is the first spectroscopic study of CuCCH, a model system for copper acetylides. The molecule was synthesized using a new technique, discharge assisted laser ablation spectroscopy (DALAS). Four to five rotational transitions were measured for this species in six isotopologues ((63)CuCCH, (65)CuCCH, (63)Cu(13)CCH, (63)CuC(13)CH, (63)Cu(13)C(13)CH, and (63)CuCCD); hyperfine interactions arising from the copper nucleus were resolved, as well as smaller splittings in CuCCD due to deuterium quadrupole coupling. Five rotational transitions were also recorded in the millimeter region for (63)CuCCH and (65)CuCCH, using a Broida oven source. The combined FTMW and millimeter spectra were analyzed with an effective Hamiltonian, and rotational, electric quadrupole (Cu and D) and copper nuclear spin-rotation constants were determined. From the rotational constants, an r(m)(2) structure for CuCCH was established, with r(Cu-C) = 1.8177(6) Å, r(C-C) = 1.2174(6) Å, and r(C-H) = 1.046(2) Å. The geometry suggests that CuCCH is primarily a covalent species with the copper atom singly bonded to the C≡C-H moiety. The copper quadrupole constant indicates that the bonding orbital of this atom may be sp hybridized. The DALAS technique promises to be fruitful in the study of other small, metal-containing molecules of chemical interest.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of left ventricular assist devices for patients with end-stage heart failure: analysis of the French hospital discharge database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmouri, Abir; Blomkvist, Josefin; Landais, Cécile; Seymour, Jerome; Azmoun, Alexandre

    2018-02-01

    Although left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are currently approved for coverage and reimbursement in France, no French cost-effectiveness (CE) data are available to support this decision. This study aimed at estimating the CE of LVAD compared with medical management in the French health system. Individual patient data from the 'French hospital discharge database' (Medicalization of information systems program) were analysed using Kaplan-Meier method. Outcomes were time to death, time to heart transplantation (HTx), and time to death after HTx. A micro-costing method was used to calculate the monthly costs extracted from the Program for the Medicalization of Information Systems. A multistate Markov monthly cycle model was developed to assess CE. The analysis over a lifetime horizon was performed from the perspective of the French healthcare payer; discount rates were 4%. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed. Outcomes were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental CE ratio (ICER). Mean QALY for an LVAD patient was 1.5 at a lifetime cost of €190 739, delivering a probabilistic ICER of €125 580/QALY [95% confidence interval: 105 587 to 150 314]. The sensitivity analysis showed that the ICER was mainly sensitive to two factors: (i) the high acquisition cost of the device and (ii) the device performance in terms of patient survival. Our economic evaluation showed that the use of LVAD in patients with end-stage heart failure yields greater benefit in terms of survival than medical management at an extra lifetime cost exceeding the €100 000/QALY. Technological advances and device costs reduction shall hence lead to an improvement in overall CE. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  6. Clean recovery of antioxidant compounds from plant foods, by-products and algae assisted by ultrasounds processing. Modeling approaches to optimize processing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Galanakis, Charis M.; Brnčić, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound treatment is an alternative affordable, effective and reproducible method for the improved recovery of bioactive compounds from various processing streams. The objective of this review is to discuss the impact of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the recovery of polyphenols, carotenoid...

  7. Simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in nutmeg by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Shu-Yu; Qiu, Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-07

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection (USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD) has been developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 13 edible and medicinal nutmeg samples marketed in China. AFs and OTA were extracted from nutmeg samples by ultrasonication using a methanol : water (80 : 20, v/v) solution, followed by an IAC clean-up step. Different USL extraction conditions, pre-processing ways for nutmeg sample and clean-up columns for mycotoxins, as well as HPLC-PCD-FLD parameters (mobile phase, column temperature, elution procedure, excitation and emission wavelengths) were optimized. This method, which was appraised for analyzing nutmeg samples, showed satisfactory results with reference to limits of detection (LODs) (from 0.02 to 0.25 μg kg(-1)), limits of quantification (LOQs) (from 0.06 to 0.8 μg kg(-1)), linear ranges (up to 30 ng mL(-1) for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA and 9 ng mL(-1) for AFB2 and AFG2), intra- and inter-day variability (all application of developed method in nutmeg samples have elucidated that four samples were detected with contamination of AFs and one with OTA. AFB1 was the most frequently found mycotoxin in 30.8% of nutmeg samples at contamination levels of 0.73-16.31 μg kg(-1). At least two different mycotoxins were co-occurred in three samples, and three AFs were simultaneously detected in one sample.

  8. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  9. Time-resolved processes in a pulsed electrical discharge in water generated with shock wave assistance in a plate-to-plate configuration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 49 (2014), s. 495204-495204 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : underwater discharge * streamers * spark * cavitation bubble * shock wave Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/47/49/495204/pdf/0022-3727_47_49_495204.pdf

  10. Determination of organophosphate flame retardants in soil and fish using ultrasound-assisted extraction, solid-phase clean-up, and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Picó, Yolanda

    2018-03-22

    A solid-liquid extraction method in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was developed and optimized for extraction and analysis of organophosphorus flame retardants in soil and fish. Methanol was chosen as the optimum extraction solvent, not only in terms of extraction efficiency, but also for its broader analyte coverage. The subsequent clean-up by solid-phase extraction is required to eliminate matrix coextractives and reduce matrix effects. Recoveries of the optimized method were 50-121% for soil and 47-123% for biota, both with high precision (RSDs solid-phase extraction cartridge clogging that increase variability and analysis time. The method was successfully applied for the determination of organophosphorus flame retardants in soil and fish from L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). Target compounds were detected in all soil and fish samples with values varying from 13.8 to 89.7 ng/g dry weight and from 3.3 to 53.0 ng/g wet weight, respectively. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  13. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  14. Characterization of the Tokamak Novillo in cleaning regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez C, R.; Melendez L, L.; Valencia A, R.; Chavez A, E.; Colunga S, S.; Gaytan G, E.

    1992-02-01

    In this work the obtained results of the investigation about the experimental characterization of those low energy pulsed discharges of the Tokamak Novillo are reported. With this it is possible to fix the one operation point but appropriate of the Tokamak to condition the chamber in the smallest possible time for the cleaning discharges regime before beginning the main discharge. The characterization of the cleaning discharges in those Tokamaks is an unique process and characteristic of each device, since the good points of operation are consequence of those particularities of the design of the machine. In the case of the Tokamak Novillo, besides characterizing it a contribution is made to the cleaning discharges regime which consists on the one product of the current peak to peak of plasma by the duration of the discharge Ip t like reference parameter for the optimization of the operation of the device in the cleaning discharge regime. The maximum value of the parameter I (p) t, under different work conditions, allowed to find the good operation point to condition the discharges chamber of the Tokamak Novillo in short time and to arrive to a regime in which is not necessary the preionization for the obtaining of the cleaning discharges. (Author)

  15. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  16. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  17. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey and study on the 'measures for promoting discharge right transaction/joint implementation (JI) / clean development mechanism (CDM) project'; 1999 nendo 'haishutsuken torihiki / JI / CDM project suishin hosaku' ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The third conference (COP3) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in December 1997 in Kyoto has adopted the Kyoto mechanisms (the 'discharge right transaction', the 'joint implementation (JI)' among advanced countries, and the 'clean development mechanism (CDM)' applied to developing countries). The Kyoto mechanisms are intended to provide flexibility to the methods to achieve the greenhouse effect gas reduction targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto mechanisms are considered to be implemented even during the year 2000, whose details are scheduled to be decided at COP6. Since the advanced countries have established the targets for reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission, governments and research institutes are taking various approaches. In addition, since the targets for reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission have been established, discussions are indispensable on methodology to establish the quantity of discharge and absorption of greenhouse effect gases (the so-called base line) when no project exists, as required to calculate the discharge reduction quantity as a result of implementing the project. The present survey has held study meetings attended by learned people, and compiled the results of the discussions. (NEDO)

  18. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihui; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Chu, Xianfeng; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up. Through optimizing the sample pretreatment procedures and chromatographic conditions, good linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9993), low limit of detection (0.5-0.8 μg/kg), and satisfactory recovery (83.54-94.44%) expressed the good reliability and applicability of the established method in various traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, the aptamer-affinity column, prepared in-house, showed an excellent feasibility owing to its specific identification of ochratoxin A in various kinds of selected traditional Chinese medicines. The maximum adsorption amount and applicability value were 188.96 ± 10.56 ng and 72.3%, respectively. The matrix effects were effectively eliminated, especially for m/z 404.2→358.0 of ochratoxin A. The application of the developed method for screening the natural contamination levels of ochratoxin A in 25 random traditional Chinese medicines on the market in China indicated that only eight samples were contaminated with low levels below the legal limit (5.0 μg/kg) set by the European Union. This study provided a preferred choice for the rapid and accurate monitoring of ochratoxin A in complex matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from Africa are featured here.

  20. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  1. Cleaning of spent solvent and method of processing cleaning liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masaki; Kawada, Tomio; Tamura, Nobuhiko.

    1993-01-01

    Spent solvents discharged from a solvent extracting step mainly comprise n-dodecane and TBP and contain nuclear fission products and solvent degradation products. The spent solvents are cleaned by using a sodium chloride free detergent comprising hydrazine oxalate and hydrazine carbonate in a solvent cleaning device. Nitric acid is added to the cleaning liquid wastes containing spent detergents extracted from the solvent cleaning device, to control an acid concentration. The detergent liquid wastes of controlled acid concentration are sent to an electrolysis oxidation bath as electrolytes and electrochemically decomposed in carbonic acid gas, nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. The decomposed gases are processed as off gases. The decomposed liquid wastes are processed as a waste nitric acid solution. This can provide more effective cleaning. In addition, the spent detergent can be easily decomposed in a room temperature region. Accordingly, the amount of wastes can be decreased. (I.N.)

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  3. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  4. Resonance hairpin and Langmuir probe-assisted laser photodetachment measurements of the negative ion density in a pulsed dc magnetron discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, James W.; Dodd, Robert; You, S.-D.; Sirse, Nishant; Karkari, Shantanu Kumar [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Republic of Ireland (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Republic of Ireland and Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-05-15

    The time-resolved negative oxygen ion density n{sub -} close to the center line in a reactive pulsed dc magnetron discharge (10 kHz and 50% duty cycle) has been determined for the first time using a combination of laser photodetachment and resonance hairpin probing. The discharge was operated at a power of 50 W in 70% argon and 30% oxygen gas mixtures at 1.3 Pa pressure. The results show that the O{sup -} density remains pretty constant during the driven phase of the discharge at values typically below 5x10{sup 14} m{sup -3}; however, in the off-time, the O{sup -} density grows reaching values several times those in the on-time. This leads to the negative ion fraction (or degree of electronegativity) {alpha}=n{sub -}/n{sub e} being higher in the off phase (maximum value {alpha}{approx}1) than in the on phase ({alpha}=0.05-0.3). The authors also see higher values of {alpha} at positions close to the magnetic null than in the more magnetized region of the plasma. This fractional increase in negative ion density during the off-phase is attributed to the enhanced dissociative electron attachment of highly excited oxygen molecules in the cooling plasma. The results show that close to the magnetic null the photodetached electron density decays quickly after the laser pulse, followed by a slow decay over a few microseconds governed by the negative ion temperature. However, in the magnetized regions of the plasma, this decay is more gradual. This is attributed to the different cross-field transport rates for electrons in these two regions. The resonance hairpin probe measurements of the photoelectron densities are compared directly to photoelectron currents obtained using a conventional Langmuir probe. There is good agreement in the general trends, particularly in the off-time.

  5. Clean vehicles as an enabler for a clean electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coignard, Jonathan; Saxena, Samveg; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Wang, Dai

    2018-05-01

    California has issued ambitious targets to decarbonize transportation through the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs), and to decarbonize the electricity grid through the expansion of both renewable generation and energy storage. These parallel efforts can provide an untapped synergistic opportunity for clean transportation to be an enabler for a clean electricity grid. To quantify this potential, we forecast the hourly system-wide balancing problems arising out to 2025 as more renewables are deployed and load continues to grow. We then quantify the system-wide balancing benefits from EVs modulating the charging or discharging of their batteries to mitigate renewable intermittency, without compromising the mobility needs of drivers. Our results show that with its EV deployment target and with only one-way charging control of EVs, California can achieve much of the same benefit of its Storage Mandate for mitigating renewable intermittency, but at a small fraction of the cost. Moreover, EVs provide many times these benefits if two-way charging control becomes widely available. Thus, EVs support the state’s renewable integration targets while avoiding much of the tremendous capital investment of stationary storage that can instead be applied towards further deployment of clean vehicles.

  6. Cleaning up a biodiesel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The project at Biodiesel Producers Limited in Victoria involved remediation of a wastewater treatment process containing a large covered anaerobic lagoon, an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a series of downstream open ponds. The pond downstream of the SBR was heavily loaded with a thick hard grease cap. The CAL was believed to have a metre-plus grease cap and the SBR had developed a thick foam cap that prevented aeration and mixing. Environmental Biotech was called in to assist with bioremediation using its Grease Eradication System bacteria cultures, with the aim of reducing the fats, oil and grease in the CAL discharge to less than 150 milligrams per litre, eliminating the stable fat foam in the SBR to allow the denitrification sequencing program to be reinstated and to clean up the hard fat layer from the surfaces of the comany's open ponds. The inflow to the CAL was designed for a flow of 210kL per day with a loading of 6900mg/L biochemical oxygen demand and FOG of 425mg/L. The actual load, as measured by Environmental Biotech, was 100kL with 20,000mg/L BOD and 1800mg/L (180kg) FOG. The CAL had been in use for more than two years, generating methane but assumed to be working well in the breakdown of chemical oxygen demand and FOG. In December 2009 the quality of the effluent began to decrease, overloading the SBR with FOG. It caused the formation of dense foam on aeration and mixing. The foam would not break down despite a variety of methods being employed and would overflow from the walls of the SBR. “Due to the foaming issue the SBR became a large holding tank for the fat and because of the reduced mixing, the solids were settling on the bottom of the tank,” Environmental Biotech project manager and franshisee Craig Barr said. “We were brought in to start work inApril 2010 and initially we slug dosed the CAL with 400 litres of GES bacteria in addition to a constant metered dosing rate of 400 litres per fortnight with the

  7. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  8. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants. New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges; Praktiska konsekvenser foer foerbraenningsanlaeggningar vid infoerandet av Vattendirektivet. Nya reningstekniker och foerbaettringsaatgaerder vid utslaepp till vatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Hansson, Christina [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    As a consequence of the growing impact on water resources the Water Framework Directive was legislated in 2000. The directive should ensure that a 'good water status' and entail a coordinated legislation striving for a long-term protection of all water resources. Stakeholders should be able to participate in the preparations of river basin management plans and programs of measures. District based water authorities will administrate the implementation and are mandated to decide upon regional environmental quality standards and promulgate fees for water use and discharges. The Directive contains a list of 33 prioritized substances that should be reduced or phased out. Discharges from combustion plants contain twelve, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. PAH and heavy metals impacts growth and vital functions as respiration and photosynthesis of water living organisms and induces cancer in humans. NOEC-values (NO Effect Concentration) state manageable substance concentrations for an organism. Flue gas condensate contains concentrations of some of the substances which impact exceeds the critical state level. Extended sewage treatment could thus be needed. Sludge, wash and soot water contains elevated levels of heavy metals. This water is normally treated by municipal sewage treatment. Further treatment at plant site could be relevant. Presence of PAH and heavy metals in leach water depends on the precipitation. Additional flowing-independent water treatment could be relevant. It is very uncertain how plant owners will be affected. Licenses could be reviewed and standards could be raised for sensitive recipients; new limits for prioritized substances and standards for other types of discharges and water fees could be added. Respites could be given if costs exceed the benefits. Location, ecotoxicological risk assessments and precautionary measures could become more relevant in an EIA. Pricing of water could take place by using a system of emissions

  10. Nuclear waste water being cleaned in Paldinski

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, A.

    1995-01-01

    The cleaning of nuclear waste water in the former military base of Paldiski, Estonia, has started with Finnish assistance. During the Soviet era, Paldiski served as a site for training nuclear submarine crews. Spent fuel has already been removed from the two nuclear reactors on the base. The volume of water to be cleaned totals some 450 cubic metres. The work is estimated to take till May 1995. The filtering technique used for cleaning has been developed in cooperation by IVO International and the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki. The project is one aspect of an extensive international cooperation programme for reducing environmental hazards arising from the base. The experience of the cleaning obtained so far has been positive. In the first water tank, filtering reduced the cesium activity of waste water from 1,500 becquerels to less than one becquerel. Two water tanks, however, have bottom sediment that probably cannot be treated during the present project. (orig.)

  11. Dischargers_Example.png | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  12. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...... how the home context provides different resources for identification of patient needs and mutual decision making....

  13. Clean Air Act amendments of 1991: Detailed summary of titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    ;Contents: Provisions for Attainment and Maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Provisions Relating to Mobile Sources; Hazardous Air Pollutants; Acid Deposition Control; Permits; Stratospheric Ozone Protection; Provisions Relating to Enforcement; Miscellaneous Provisions; Clean Air Research; Disadvantaged Business Concerns; Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance

  14. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  15. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  16. Ultra-clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergenroether, K.

    1987-01-01

    No other method guarantees such a thorough cleaning of contaminated materials' surfaces. Only ultrasound can reach those cavities crevices and corners where any manual cleaning fails. Furthermore there is no cumbersome and time-consuming manual decontamination which often has to be carried out in glove boxes and hot cells. Depending on the design the cleaning effect can reach from removing adhering dirt particles to removing complete surface layers. (orig./PW) [de

  17. Clean nuclear power (2. part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocherolles, R.

    1998-01-01

    The 450 nuclear power plants which produce 24% of world electricity do not generate greenhouse gas effects, but 8,000 tonnes per year of irradiated, radioactive fuel. The first article which was published in the July-August 1997 issue of this journal, described the composition and management of these fuels. This article wish to show the advantage of 'advanced re-processing', which would separate fission products from actinides, in order to incinerate them separately in dedicated fuels and reactors, which, from an ecological point of view, seems more efficient than burying them underground in deep, geological layers. To rid the planet of waste which is continuing to build up, the first step is to build 'incinerators' which will eliminate fission products by slow neutron assisted neutronic capture, and actinides by fast neutron assisted fission. Various projects have been set up, in particular, in Los Alamos, Japan and the CERN. The Carlo Rubbia hybrid machine operating on the well-known thorium cycle is the most advanced project. An incinerator connected up to standard PWR reactor produces no actinide, and reduces the existing stock of plutonium. However, the proper solution, obviously, is to no longer produce waste along with power; second generation nuclear fission will do this. The CERN team bas studied a clean reactor, producing practically no actinides, or fission products, more or less. Thus, the solution to the problem of waste is at hand, and nuclear power will be cleaner that all other types of power. The world market opening up to clean nuclear power is about 1,300 Gigawatts, or 1,300 plants of 1,000 Megawatts. Remarkable progress is taking place under our very eyes; soon we will have clean power in sufficient quantities, at a lower cost than that of other forms of power. (authors)

  18. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  19. How clean is clean?---How clean is needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of cleaning qualifications used in a variety of industries: from small-scale manufacturer's of precision-machined products to large-scale manufacturer's of electronics (printed wiring boards and surface mount technology) and microelectronics. Cleanliness testing techniques used in the production of precision-machined products, will be described. The on-going DOD program to obtain high-reliability electronics, through the use of military specifications for cleaning and cleanliness levels, will be reviewed. In addition, the continually changing cleanroom/materials standards of the microelectronics industry will be discussed. Finally, we will speculate on the role that new and improved analytical techniques and sensor technologies will play in the factories of the future. 4 refs., 1 tab

  20. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  1. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  2. Carbon pricing comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Together with the Clean Energy Bill, the implications of the Australian Federal Government's climate change legislative package are far reaching. Norton Rose gives business a heads-up in this breakdown of the draft legislation underpinning the carbon pricing and clean energy scheme. It is a summary of Norton Rose's full analysis.

  3. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force

  4. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  5. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  6. Training Students as Technology Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Esther; Peto, Erica

    1996-01-01

    Describes a program where fifth and sixth graders are trained as school technology assistants. The childrens' duties include installation of software, making minor repairs, cleaning computer equipment, and assisting teachers and students. Outlines components of the program, lists forms the assistants use and skills they are taught, and provides…

  7. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Clifford

    Full Text Available The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes.Before-after trial.Newly built community hospital.90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results.Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months.1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant. For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant, and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016. For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN trended toward improvement (P = 0.056; b removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning worsened (P = 0.017; c removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046, but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003; d cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated.At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  8. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  9. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  10. Controlling the clean room atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Several types of clean rooms are commonly in use. They include the conventional clean room, the horizontal laminar flow clean room, the vertical laminar flow clean room and a fourth type that incorporates ideas from the previous types and is known as a clean air bench or hood. These clean rooms are briefly described. The origin of contamination and methods for controlling the contamination are discussed

  11. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  18. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  19. 6 Home Cleaning Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aluminum, brass, ceramics, chrome, copper, fiberglass, glass/quartz, plastic, and steel. GLASS CLEANER 1 cup vinegar 1 ... originally filled with commercial cleaning products. Instead, reuse plastic water bottles.  Always place a label on the ...

  20. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... It's in your hands - prevent sepsis in health care' A 5 May 2018 advocacy message from WHO - ...

  2. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments interested in developing a financing program can use this Excel tool to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  3. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended to promote or encourage adherence ... role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www. ...

  6. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  7. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  8. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  9. Electrohydraulic Discharges and Nonthermal Plasma for Water Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Locke, B.R.; Sato, M.; Hoffman, M.R.; Chang, J.S.; Šunka, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2006), s. 882-905 ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Electrical discharges * water cleaning * environmental applications * liquid phase reactor Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2006

  10. Supersonic CO electric-discharge lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hason, R. K.; Mitchner, M.; Stanton, A.

    1975-01-01

    Laser modeling activity is described which involved addition of an option allowing N2 as a second diatomic gas. This option is now operational and a few test cases involving N2/CO mixtures were run. Results from these initial test cases are summarized. In the laboratory, a CW double-discharge test facility was constructed and tested. Features include: water-cooled removable electrodes, O-ring construction to facilitate cleaning and design modifications, increased discharge length, and addition of a post-discharge observation section. Preliminary tests with this facility using N2 yielded higher power loadings than obtained in the first-generation facility. Another test-section modification, recently made and as yet untested, will permit injection of secondary gases into the cathode boundary layer. The objective will be to vary and enhance the UV emission spectrum from the auxiliary discharge, thereby influencing the level of photoionization in the main discharge region.

  11. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Keith Pine1, Brian Sloan2, Joanna Stewart3, Robert J Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, 2Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, 3Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients.Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists’ Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed.Results: Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists’ Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes.Conclusions: A standardized treatment

  12. Ecological effectiveness of oil spill countermeasures: how clean is clean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper with 94 references examines background levels of hydrocarbons and the difficulty of defining clean. Processes and timescales for natural cleaning, and factors affecting natural cleaning timescales are considered. Ecological advantages and disadvantages of clean-up methods are highlighted, and five case histories of oil spills are summarised. The relationships between ecological and socio-economic considerations, and the need for a net environmental benefit analysis which takes into account the advantages and disadvantages of clean-up responses and natural clean-up are discussed. A decision tree for evaluating the requirement for shore clean-up is illustrated. (UK)

  13. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  14. Reconstructing the history of 14C discharges from Sellafield. Part 2. Aquatic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.T.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Naysmith, F.H.; Anderson, R.; Naysmith, P.; Kershaw, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to 1984, the reported marine 14 C discharges from Sellafield were estimates: 0.2 TBq per annum from 1952 to 1969 and 1 TBq per annum until 1984 when measurements commenced. The relationship between the net excess 14 C activity in annually collected Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis) seaweed samples and the annual discharges (estimated and measured) implies that the discharges were not as constant as the estimates. Based on the relationship between post-1984 measured discharges and the excess 14 C in the seaweed, two simple empirical models were used to re-calculate the discharges between 1967 and 1984. Gamma-spectrometry measurements on the seaweed also indicate that Porphyra is a sensitive indicator of changes in discharge of other radionuclides, brought about by the introduction of new waste clean-up technologies within Sellafield. (author)

  15. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  16. Removal of particles by ICRF cleaning in HT-7 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jiansheng; Li Jiangang; Zhang Shouyin; Gu Xuemao; Zhang Xiaodong; Zhao Yanping; Gong Xianzu; Kuang Guangli; Li Chengfu; Luo Jiarong; Wang Xiaoming; Gao Xiang; Wan Baonian; Xie Jikang; Wan Yuanxi

    2001-01-01

    The ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range Frequency) cleaning technique has been used as a routine wall cleaning method in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak. In a wide range of toroidal field, the removal rate of residual gas by ICRF cleaning was about twenty times higher than that of glow discharge cleaning (GDC). At different gas pressure and RF power levels, the ICRF cleaning is studied carefully. A good impurity cleaning effect and a very high hydrogen removal rate were obtained. The removal rate of hydrogen by 5 kW ICRF cleaning achieved was 1.6 x 10 -5 Torr.l/s. And the relationships among pressure P, outgassing rate Q, atomic layers L absorbed on surface and the cleaning mode were discussed briefly

  17. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  18. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  19. Clean room actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Toshiro

    1987-06-01

    This report explains on the present status of the clean room actuators including the author's research results. In a clean room, there exists a possibility of dust generation, even when a direct human work is eliminated by the use of robots or automatic machines, from the machines themselves. For this, it is important to develop such clean robots and transfer/positioning mechanism that do not generate dusts, and to develop an actuator and its control technique. Topics described in the report are as follows: 1. Prevention of dust diffusion by means of sealing. 2. Elimination of mechanical contact (Linear induction motor and pneumatic float, linear motor and magnetic attraction float, linear motor and air bearing, and magnetic bearing). 3. Contactless actuator having a positioning mechanism (Use of linear step motor and rotary contactless actuator). (15 figs, 11 refs)

  20. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  1. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  2. Keeping condensers clean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  3. Deuteration of metals through electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderas G, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this work deuteration of titanium and a stainless steel through electrical discharges in a vacuum chamber was performed at different thermodynamic conditions. The samples were plates of 0.03 x 4.5 x 54 cm. The titanium sample was first cleaning with chloroform. The oxide layer was removed by cleaning the sample with a 1:1:1 mixture of water, nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Later was rinsed in water and dried with acetone. Finally, was treated with HCl to form an hydride layer on the surface. The stainless steel sample was only cleaned with soap and cleaning with acetone. The samples were cleaning at low pressure for several days with high temperature short cycles. The deuterium was loaded to the chamber at room temperature having absorption on the titanium samples at 10 3 at 10 1 mbar. Afterwards that the samples were heated up at 330 C and was observed the deuterium absorption in the same pressure range. Forced deuteration through electrical discharges between the sample and the chamber was tried obtaining absorption in the range of 10 3 at 10 2 mbar, however the deuterium absorption only was observed in specific cases. In order to detect neutron emission or released particles in this experiment were used alanine detectors and series of plastic CR-39 and borate films. No neutron were detected in the passive systems used in the experiments. (Author)

  4. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  5. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen

    2015-03-01

    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Sterile and Clean Dressing Techniques in Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, ... Chinese hospital, and to compare their impact on wound healing and the cost of the ... up to the time of their discharge. Results: Twelve (18.5 %) patients out of those who received sterile or clean .... identified using automated means [13,14].

  7. Sunoco Pipeline, L.P. Clean Water Act Settlement - 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, and the U.S. Department of Justice announced that Sunoco Pipeline, L.P. (Sunoco) has agreed to pay a civil penalty for alleged violation of the Clean Water Act stemming from a 2012 gasoline discharge near Wellington, Ohio.

  8. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  9. Readiness for hospital discharge: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Eileen Catherine; Wills, Teresa; Coffey, Alice

    2017-11-01

    To report on an analysis on the concept of 'readiness for hospital discharge'. No uniform operational definition of 'readiness for hospital discharge' exists in the literature; therefore, a concept analysis is required to clarify the concept and identify an up-to-date understanding of readiness for hospital discharge. Clarity of the concept will identify all uses of the concept; provide conceptual clarity, an operational definition and direction for further research. Literature review and concept analysis. A review of literature was conducted in 2016. Databases searched were: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and SocINDEX with Full Text. No date limits were applied. Identification of the attributes, antecedents and consequences of readiness for hospital discharge led to an operational definition of the concept. The following attributes belonging to 'readiness for hospital discharge' were extracted from the literature: physical stability, adequate support, psychological ability, and adequate information and knowledge. This analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the area of hospital discharge, by proposing an operational definition of readiness for hospital discharge, derived from the literature. A better understanding of the phenomenon will assist healthcare professionals to recognize, measure and implement interventions where necessary, to ensure patients are ready for hospital discharge and assist in the advancement of knowledge for all professionals involved in patient discharge from hospital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  11. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  13. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  14. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ...

  16. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  17. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  18. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge ... in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of ...

  19. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  20. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  1. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  2. Noncontact COS charge analysis for in-line monitoring of wet cleaning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiafang; Juang, Min; Tai, Sung-Shan; Chen, Kuo-in; Wossen, Ejigu; Horner, Gregory

    1998-08-01

    Contamination levels in chemical cleaning equipment and wafer cleanliness in general are very critical to semiconductor manufacturers. In this work, a Keithley Instruments non contact electrical tester (Quantox) is used to measure the mobile ion (Qm) contamination in a variety of cleaning processes. Results show that photoresist strip cleaning process has a higher mobile ion concentration than standard pre-diffusion cleaning process. RCA1, RCA2 and HF solutions mapping measured by the Quantox indicates some negative static charges on the surface after cleaning. This negative field appears to assist Qm removal during wet chemical cleaning. The dependence of flatband voltage and other oxide charges on various cleaning processes has also been investigated using the Quantox. The data suggests that a dipole layer has been formed by a surface reaction during chemical cleaning.

  3. Plasma cleaning for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1993-07-01

    Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems is described. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that fluorine-containing plasmas can enhance etch rates by 400% over oxygen alone. A discussion of various endpoint indication techniques is discussed and compared for application suitability. Work toward a plasma cleaning database is discussed. In addition to the global problems of plasma cleaning, an experiment where the specific mixed-waste problem of removal of machine oils from radioactive scrap metal is discussed.

  4. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  5. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  6. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  7. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  8. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning

  9. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services are e......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  10. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount

  11. 76 FR 15998 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., treatment plant, and landfill. To address two mines with discharges into the Ohio River Basin, Defendants... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is..., Defendants will perform injunctive relief with two components. To address four mines with discharges into the...

  12. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  13. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  14. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowers, J.

    2002-01-01

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  15. Studies on pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, P; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C; Larour, J; Rous, J [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Favre, M; Moreno, J; Chuaqui, H; Wyndham, E [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Zambra, M [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Wong, C S [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Plasma Research Lab

    1997-12-31

    Preliminary results on radiation characteristics of pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges are presented. The device combines the on axis electron beam assisted ionization capabilities of the transient hollow cathode discharge with a novel high voltage low inductance geometrical design, which integrates the local energy storage into the electrode system. A nanosecond regime high temperature plasma is produced in a long, high aspect ratio capillary, with light emission in the UV to XUV region. The discharge is operated from near vacuum to pressure in the 1000 mTorr range. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs.

  16. Arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment for nanocomposite coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, N.N.; Borisov, D.P.; Savostikov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    its initiation and discharge current) or chemical phase composition and properties of coatings. By now, on the basis of arc discharge plasma assistance, nanocomposite coatings of doped titanium nitride with microhardness of 50 GPa (0.2 N load at 1 mm coating thickness). It has been also established that further application of arc gas discharge plasma at magnetron sputtering provides: - Actual control on operating pressure parameters and magnetron discharge current value, i.e. sputtering rate of coating material; - Cleaning and surface activation of a material prior to coating deposition, providing its good adhesion even at low temperature values (∼ 200 o C); - Control on chemical phase composition of deposited coatings and, correspondingly, their physical properties, in particular, increasing microhardness of coatings over 10 GPa. (author)

  17. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  18. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  19. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  20. Advantages of fluoride ion cleaning at sub-atmospheric pressure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Miglietti, W

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride ion cleaning (FIC) process is used to assist in the successful braze repair of nickel-based super alloy components. This process is especially effective in removing deeply embedded oxides in wide and narrow cracks typically found...

  1. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 2014 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Spring 2014 edition of the biannual newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Each issue contains program news, success stories, and information about tools and resources to assist in the deployment of alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, idle reduction, fuel efficiency improvements, and other measures to cut petroleum use in transportation.

  2. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  3. Practical Approaches for Assessment of Daily and Post-discharge Room Disinfection in Healthcare Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-09-01

    Cleaning and disinfection in healthcare facilities is essential to ensure patient safety. This review examines practical strategies used to assess and improve the effectiveness of daily and post-discharge manual cleaning in healthcare facilities. Effective implementation of cleaning interventions requires objective monitoring of staff performance with regular feedback on performance. Use of fluorescent markers to assess thoroughness of cleaning and measurement of residual ATP can provide rapid and objective feedback to personnel and have been associated with improved cleaning. Direct observation of cleaning and interviews with front-line staff are useful to identify variations and deficiencies in practice that may not be detected by other methods. Although not recommended for routine monitoring, cultures can be helpful for outbreak investigations. Monitoring and feedback can be effective in improving cleaning and disinfection in healthcare facilities. Ongoing commitment within institutions is needed to sustain successful cleaning and disinfection programs.

  4. 78 FR 58986 - Dry Cargo Residue Discharges in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ...), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue... impacts would be included through a prohibition of limestone and clean stone DCR discharges within 3...

  5. Investigation of Combined High-Frequency and Arc Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taran, V.S.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Marinin, V.G.; Shvets, O.M.; Ridozub, V.N.; Gasilin, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze experiment with arc and high-frequency (HF) plasma sources carried out in modified devise of the ''Bulat'' type. The HF-sources and combined discharges have attracted considerable attention for surface cleaning and coating. The utilization of such discharges allows decreasing droplet fraction formation and providing better adhesion and microhardness values. The existence of HF-field in plasma allows obtaining either conductive or dielectric coatings and they can be deposited on any substrates. (author)

  6. Clean Water Act (CWA) Action Plan Implementation Priorities: Changes to Improve Water Quality, Increase Compliance and Expand Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) Action Plan Implementation Priorities describes the new approaches to revamp the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting, compliance and enforcement program.Issued May 11, 2011

  7. Study on out-gassing by baking and glow discharge during wall conditioning of vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiwen; Wei Weixing; Zhao Yuanqing; He Yanhe; Liao Yikui

    2007-01-01

    The model of out-gassing by baking and glow discharge cleaning (GDC) is set up. The properties of them are studied. Out-gassing by baking is from bulk and it obeys the diffusion equation. Out-gassing of glow discharge cleaning is mainly on surface, it is inducement out-gassing by sputtering. Thus the properties of out-gassing for baking and GDC on the HL-1M tokamak are analyzed. Some empirical formulas are given. (authors)

  8. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.; Alaverronen, M.; Lohva, K.; Teivaala, V.

    2004-09-01

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  9. Cleaning the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    Volume 6 of the Hamburg Reports contains contributions from scientists from the Special Research Field 188 'Cleaning up Contaminated Soils' of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and the University of Hamburg and of experts from science and from the practical field. The soil science and analytical aspects of the biological and chemical/physical treatment processes are shown and open questions specific to processes are dealt with. Scientific results are compared with practical experience here. The evaluation of treated soils for reuse in the environment is a very important question, which is explained in the first articles here. Examples of case studies are shown in the last part of the volume. (orig.) [de

  10. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  11. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... of the filter. A numerical, FE- and BE-based model for calculation of the response of ultrasonic transducers of various geometries formed the basis for the design of such transducers. During laboratory experiments frequency and output power have been varied in order to find the optimal transducer design...

  12. The "F" in SAFE: Reliability of assessing clean faces for trachoma control in the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila K West

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although facial cleanliness is part of the SAFE strategy for trachoma there is controversy over the reliability of measuring a clean face. A child's face with no ocular and nasal discharge is clean and the endpoint of interest, regardless of the number of times it must be washed to achieve that endpoint. The issue of reliability rests on the reproducibility of graders to assess a clean face. We report the reproducibility of assessing a clean face in a field trial in Kongwa, Tanzania.Seven graders were trained to assess the presence and absence of nasal and ocular discharge on children's faces. Sixty children ages 1-7 years were recruited from a community and evaluated independently by seven graders, once and again about 50 minutes later. Intra-and inter-observer variation was calculated using unweighted kappa statistics. The average intra-observer agreement was kappa = 0.72, and the average inter-observer agreement was kappa = 0.78.Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was substantial for the assessment of clean faces using trained Tanzania staff who represent a variety of educational backgrounds. As long as training is provided, the estimate of clean faces in children should be reliable, and reflect the effort of families to keep ocular and nasal discharge off the faces. These data suggest assessment of clean faces could be added to trachoma surveys, which already measure environmental improvements, in districts.

  13. Cleaning fluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikryl, J; Kotyza, R; Krulikovsky, J; Mjartan, V; Valisova, I

    1981-09-15

    Composition of cleaning fluid emulsion are presented for drilling small diameter wells in clay soils, at high drill bit rotation velocity. The emulsions have lubricating properties and the abilty to improve stability of the drilled soil. The given fluids have a high fatty acid content with 12-24 carbon atoms in a single molecule, with a predominance of resinous acids 1-5% in mass, and having been emulsified in water or clay suspension without additives, or in a clay suspension with high-molecular polymer additives (glycobate cellulose compounds and/or polysaccharides, and/or their derivatives) in an amount of 0.1-3% per mass; thinning agents - huminite or lignite compounds in the amount of 0.01 to 0.5% in mass; weighting material - barite or lime 0.01 to 50% per mass; medium stabilizers - organic poly-electrolyte with polyacrylate in the amount of 0.05 to 2% in mass, or alkaline chloride/alkaline-ground metals 1-10% per mass. A cleaning emulsion fluid was prepared in the laboratory according to the given method. Add 3 kg tall oil to a solution of 1 kg K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per 100 l of water. Dynamic viscosity was equal to 1.4 x 10-/sup 3/ Pa/s. When drilling in compacted clay soils, when the emulsions require improved stability, it is necessary to add the maximum amount of tall oil whose molecules are absorbed by the clay soil and increase its durability.

  14. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  15. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  16. Recent results on cleaning and conditioning the ATF vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.; Clark, T.L.; Glowienka, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for cleaning and conditioning the vacuum vessel of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) and its internal components are described. The vacuum vessel cleaning technique combines baking to 150/degree/C and glow discharges with hydrogen gas. Chromium gettering is used to further condition the system. The major internal components are the anodized aluminum baffles in the Thomson scattering system, a graphite-shielded ICRF antenna, two graphite limiters, and a diagnostic graphite plate. Three independent heating systems are used to bake some of the major components of the system. The major characteristics used for assessing cleanliness and conditioning progress are the maximum pressure attained during bakeout, the results of gas analysis, and relevant plasma parameters (e.g., time to radiative decay). Details of the various cleaning and conditioning procedures and results are presented. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Recent results on cleaning and conditioning the ATF vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.; Clark, T.L.; Glowienka, J.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Rayburn, T.F.; Schaich, C.R.; Shepard, T.D.; Simpkins, J.E.; Yarber, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques for cleaning and conditioning the vacuum vessel of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) and its internal components are described. The vacuum vessel cleaning technique combines baking to 150 degree C and glow discharges with hydrogen gas. Chromium gettering is used to further condition the system. The major internal components are the anodized aluminum baffles in the Thomson scattering system, a graphite-shielded ICRF antenna, two graphite limiters, and a diagnostic graphite plate. Three independent heating systems are used to bake some of the major components of the system. The major characteristics used for assessing cleanliness and conditioning progress are the maximum pressure attained during bakeout, the results of gas analysis, and revelant plasma parameters (e.g., time to radiative decay). Details of the various cleaning and conditioning procedures and results are presented

  18. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  19. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  20. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  1. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  2. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... problems; (8) Any trucked or hauled pollutants, except at discharge points designated by the POTW. (c) When... to respond. (4) POTWs may develop Best Management Practices (BMPs) to implement paragraphs (c)(1) and.... (e) EPA enforcement actions under section 309(f) of the Clean Water Act. If, within 30 days after...

  3. Cleaning device for recycling pump motor cooling system in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Kenjiro; Kondo, Takahisa; Shindo, Kenjiro; Akimoto, Jun.

    1996-01-01

    The cleaning device of the present invention comprises a cleaning water supply pump, a filter for filtering the cleaning water and a cap member for isolating the inside of a motor casing from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. A motor in the motor casing and a pump in the reactor pressure vessel are removed, the cap member is attached to the upper end of the motor casing to isolate the inside of the motor casing from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. If the cleaning water supply pump is operated in this state, the cleaning water flows from a returning pipeline for cooling water circulation, connected to the motor casing to supply pipelines through a heat exchange and is discharged. The discharged water passes through a filter and is sent again, as the cleaning water, to the cleaning water supply pump. With such procedures, the recycling pump motor cooling system in the BWR type reactor can be cleaned without disposing a cyclone separator and irrespective of presence or absence of reactor coolants in the reactor pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  4. Fire protection for clean rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, D.

    1990-01-01

    The fire protection engineer often must decide what size fire can be tolerated before automatic fire suppression systems actuate. Is it a wastepaper basket fire, a bushel basket fire...? In the case of state-of-the-art clean rooms, the answer clearly is not even an incipient fire. Minor fires in clean rooms can cause major losses. This paper discusses what a clean room is and gives a brief overview of the unique fire protection challenges encountered. The two major causes of fire related to clean rooms in the semiconductor industry are flammable/pyrophoric gas fires in plastic ducts and polypropylene wet bench fires. This paper concentrates on plastic ductwork in clean rooms, sprinkler protection in ductwork, and protection for wet benches

  5. Dry cleaning of fluorocarbon residues by low-power electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, S H; Yuh, H K; Yoon Eui Joon; Lee, S I

    1988-01-01

    A low-power ( 50 W) electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma cleaning process was demonstrated for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers formed by reactive ion etching of silicon dioxide. The absence of residue layers was confirmed by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ECR hydrogen plasma cleaning was applied to contact cleaning of a contact string structure, resulting in comparable contact resistance arising during by a conventional contact cleaning procedure. Ion-assisted chemical reaction involving reactive atomic hydrogen species generated in the plasma is attributed for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers.

  6. Accelerating Clean Energy Commercialization. A Strategic Partnership Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Locklin, Ken [Impax Asset Management Group (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Technology development in the clean energy and broader clean tech space has proven to be challenging. Long-standing methods for advancing clean energy technologies from science to commercialization are best known for relatively slow, linear progression through research and development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D); and characterized by well-known valleys of death for financing. Investment returns expected by traditional venture capital investors have been difficult to achieve, particularly for hardware-centric innovations, and companies that are subject to project finance risks. Commercialization support from incubators and accelerators has helped address these challenges by offering more support services to start-ups; however, more effort is needed to fulfill the desired clean energy future. The emergence of new strategic investors and partners in recent years has opened up innovative opportunities for clean tech entrepreneurs, and novel commercialization models are emerging that involve new alliances among clean energy companies, RDD&D, support systems, and strategic customers. For instance, Wells Fargo and Company (WFC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have launched a new technology incubator that supports faster commercialization through a focus on technology development. The incubator combines strategic financing, technology and technical assistance, strategic customer site validation, and ongoing financial support.

  7. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  8. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  9. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  10. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  11. Clean Metal Casting; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components

  12. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  13. Experimental investigation on cleaning of corroded ancient coins using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huazhong; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the work reported is to study experimentally on the removal of corrosion layer from the ancient coins using laser beam as the conservation tool. With the use of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm, dry laser cleaning, steam laser cleaning and chemical-assisted laser cleaning were used to find out a more suitable and efficient laser treatment for corrosion removal. Cleaning tests were performed on ancient Chinese coins. Experimental results shows that the dry laser cleaning was not successful at removing all types of corrosion crust. It was possible to remove the outer thicker layer of the corrosion products (typically known as patina), but failed on the thinner layer of cuprite. The steam laser cleaning could decrease the initial removal threshold and improve the removal efficiency especially for the oxidation with powdery structure. As for chemical-assisted laser treatment, the cleaning results demonstrate that the combination of laser and chemical reagent could provide a considerable improvement in corrosion removal compared with the conventional laser treatments. Most of the corrosion contaminant was stripped, even the cuprite layer. Moreover, no secondary pollution was formed on the cleaned surface. X-ray fluorescence was applied to determine the variation of composition of surface layer and bulk metal before and after the coins cleaned. It shows that all of the three laser treatments were efficient to reduce the chlorine concentration on the surface of the coins more than 75%.

  14. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, J.L.; Fiola, R.J.; Brennenstuhl, K.R.; Zerkee, D.D.; Daniel, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  15. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This report contains Appendix B which provides all of the laboratory summary data sheets for the Area 6 SCEPs closure activities

  16. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This report contains Appendix B which provides all of the laboratory summary data sheets for the Area 6 SCEPs closure activities.

  17. Protecting integrated circuits from excessive charge accumulation during plasma cleaning of multichip modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Girardi, Michael

    2015-04-21

    Internal nodes of a constituent integrated circuit (IC) package of a multichip module (MCM) are protected from excessive charge during plasma cleaning of the MCM. The protected nodes are coupled to an internal common node of the IC package by respectively associated discharge paths. The common node is connected to a bond pad of the IC package. During MCM assembly, and before plasma cleaning, this bond pad receives a wire bond to a ground bond pad on the MCM substrate.

  18. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy

  19. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  20. Experiments on cleaning effects of TDC, GDC and ECR-DC in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Miura, Y.; Ohtsuka, H.; Suzuki, N.; Yamauchi, T.; Tani, T.; Mori, M.

    1987-01-01

    The cleaning effects of Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) were studied in the JFT-2M tokamak by comparing the properties of resulting tokamak plasmas, by observing the surface composition of samples and by residual gas analysis. The operational parameters of the three discharge cleaning techniques were as follows; the plasma current for TDC is 20 kA, the DC current for GDC is 3 A and the RF power for ECR-DC is 2.3 kW. Parameters of the tokamak plasmas such as loop voltages, radiation losses, spectra emission of oxygen, maximum mean electron densities and profiles of electron temperature were improved as the TDC and ECR-DC proceeded. Changes in the surface composition of samples were measured by Auger electron spectrosopy. The results showed that during the TDC and ECR-DC oxygen was reduced, while GDC reduced mainly carbon. Residual gas analysis performed during discharge cleaning corroborated these results. (orig.)

  1. Behavior-based cleaning for unreliable RFID data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong

    2012-01-01

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology promises to revolutionize the way we track items and assets, but in RFID systems, missreading is a common phenomenon and it poses an enormous challenge to RFID data management, so accurate data cleaning becomes an essential task for the successful deployment of systems. In this paper, we present the design and development of a RFID data cleaning system, the first declarative, behavior-based unreliable RFID data smoothing system. We take advantage of kinematic characteristics of tags to assist in RFID data cleaning. In order to establish the conversion relationship between RFID data and kinematic parameters of the tags, we propose a movement behavior detection model. Moreover, a Reverse Order Filling Mechanism is proposed to ensure a more complete access to get the movement behavior characteristics of tag. Finally, we validate our solution with a common RFID application and demonstrate the advantages of our approach through extensive simulations.

  2. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  3. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  4. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  5. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  6. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations

  7. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct....... The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...

  8. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakti, Hendra

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the archipelagic countries that has the longest coastline in the world. Because it is located in the tropics, in general it has a very high rainfall. Each island has a different morphology which is composed of a variety of rocks with different hydrogeological properties. This natural condition allows for the presence of groundwater in different amount in each island. The difference in groundwater hydraulics gradients in aquifer continuous to the sea has triggered the discharge of groundwater to offshore known as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Its presence can be as seepage or submarine springs with components derived from land and sea and a mixture between them. The understanding of SGD phenomenon is very important because it can be useful as a source of clean water in coastal areas, affecting marine health, and improving marine environment.

  9. Gas plant cleaning case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, B

    1971-03-22

    Basic steps to be taken before using any cleaning method are select a responsible group and give it full responsibility; know the problem, what type of fouling, lab samples, amount of material, time and cost; sell the idea to management; maintain the cleaning equipment; and follow up each cleaning operation. These principles have been applied to advantage in the amine contractor at Taylor, a vessel 60 ft high with 78-in. OD, containing carbon steel deck trays with stainless steel caps. The original attempt to clean with wire scrapers manually involved much lost time and several crews. There was limited space in the tray vessels, design created areas difficult to clean, working conditions were unpleasant, equipment downtime was extended, labor cost was high, and the final result was not satisfactory. Chemical cleaning was substituted, preceded by a water wash. Five hours of caustic wash with a 3% solution at 170$F were followed by a water wash, an acid wash, 1-hr neutralization with a weak soda ash solution, and finally passivation to eliminate iron oxide. For the acid wash, sulfamic acid was found best, in 10% concentration for 4 hr. Cascading was most economical, but flooding has been employed sometimes at 2-1/2 times the cost, to reach all the dark corners.

  10. Use of a fluorescent chemical as a quality indicator for a hospital cleaning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Jennifer; O'Neill, Cindy; Speziale, Paul; Revill, Jeff; Ramage, Lee; Ballantyne, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Hamilton Health Sciences is a large teaching hospital with over 1,000 beds and consists of three acute care sites, one Regional Cancer Center and two Rehabilitation/Chronic Care facilities. An environmental cleaning pilot project was initiated at the acute care Henderson site, following an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) due to antibiotic-resistant organisms are increasing in Southern Ontario. Environmental cleaning plays a key role in eradicating resistant organisms that live in hospital environments, thereby helping to reduce HAIs. The environmental cleaning practices on the Orthopaedic Unit were identified as a contributing factor to the VRE outbreak after visual assessments were completed using a Brevis GlitterBug product, a chemical that fluoresces under an ultraviolet (UV) lamp. These findings led to a hospital-wide cleaning improvement initiative on all units except critical care areas. The GlitterBug potion was employed by Infection Control and Customer Support Services (CSS) as a tool to evaluate the daily cleaning of patient washrooms as well as discharge cleaning of contact precaution isolation rooms. Over a four-week period, the GlitterBug potion was applied to seven frequently touched standard targets in randomly selected patient bathrooms on each unit and 14 frequently touched targets prior to cleaning in the rooms used for isolation. The targets were then evaluated using the UV lamp to detect objects that were not cleaned and the results were recorded on a standardized form. The rate of targets cleaned versus the targets missed was calculated. The overall rate for daily cleaning of bathrooms and cleaning of isolation rooms was poor with only 23% of the targets cleaned. Based on these findings, several interventions were implemented. This resulted in a significant improvement in cleaning practices during the pilot project. Greater than 80% of the targets were cleaned compared to the baseline

  11. Ultrasonographic evaluation of women with pathologic nipple discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Yoon, Hae Sung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Park, Young Jean Vivian; Kim, Min Jung

    2017-01-01

    Nipple discharge is a common symptom that is alarming for the patient since it can be a presenting symptom of breast cancer. Breast imaging is used to examine women with pathologic nipple discharge in order to detect any lesions that may be present and to assist in the differential diagnosis. The modalities of breast imaging include mammography, breast ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance imaging. Breast US is currently considered to be useful for the visualization of ductal structures and intraductal lesions that cause nipple discharge. In this review, we discuss US techniques that assist in the clear visualization of ductal structures and intraductal lesions in patients with nipple discharge. Controversy remains regarding the evaluation and management of patients with nipple discharge, and we summarize the results available in the currently published literature

  12. Ultrasonographic evaluation of women with pathologic nipple discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Yoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nipple discharge is a common symptom that is alarming for the patient since it can be a presenting symptom of breast cancer. Breast imaging is used to examine women with pathologic nipple discharge in order to detect any lesions that may be present and to assist in the differential diagnosis. The modalities of breast imaging include mammography, breast ultrasonography (US, and magnetic resonance imaging. Breast US is currently considered to be useful for the visualization of ductal structures and intraductal lesions that cause nipple discharge. In this review, we discuss US techniques that assist in the clear visualization of ductal structures and intraductal lesions in patients with nipple discharge. Controversy remains regarding the evaluation and management of patients with nipple discharge, and we summarize the results available in the currently published literature.

  13. Ultrasonographic evaluation of women with pathologic nipple discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Yoon, Hae Sung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Park, Young Jean Vivian; Kim, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiologic Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Nipple discharge is a common symptom that is alarming for the patient since it can be a presenting symptom of breast cancer. Breast imaging is used to examine women with pathologic nipple discharge in order to detect any lesions that may be present and to assist in the differential diagnosis. The modalities of breast imaging include mammography, breast ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance imaging. Breast US is currently considered to be useful for the visualization of ductal structures and intraductal lesions that cause nipple discharge. In this review, we discuss US techniques that assist in the clear visualization of ductal structures and intraductal lesions in patients with nipple discharge. Controversy remains regarding the evaluation and management of patients with nipple discharge, and we summarize the results available in the currently published literature.

  14. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Kirk, Roy J.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Greene, Richard M.; Buncher, Carole S.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1989-03-01

    Coal, an abundant domestic energy source, provides 25 percent of the nation's energy needs, but its use contributes to various types of pollution, including acid rain. The Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program whose goal is to expand the use of coal in an environmentally safe manner by contributing to the cost of projects demonstrating the commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. Concerned about the implementation of the CCT program, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, requested GAO to report on (1) DOE's process of negotiating cooperative agreements with project sponsors, (2) changes DOE has made to the program, (3) the status of funded projects, and (4) the interrelationship between acid rain control proposals and the potential commercialization of clean coal technologies. Under the CCT program, DOE funds up to 50 percent of the cost of financing projects that demonstrate commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. DOE has conducted two solicitations for demonstration project proposals and is planning a third solicitation by May 1989. The Congress has appropriated $400 million for the first solicitation, or round one of the program, $575 million for round two, and $575 million for round three, for a total of $1.55 billion. For the round-one solicitation, DOE received 51 proposals from project sponsors. As of December 31, 1988, DOE had funded nine projects and was in the process of negotiating cooperative financial assistance agreements with sponsors of four projects. In September 1988, DOE selected 16 round-two projects from 55 proposals submitted and began the process of negotiating cooperative agreements with the project sponsors. The Congress has debated the need to reduce acid rain-causing emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. The 100th Congress considered but did not enact about 20 acid rain control bills. On February 9, 1989

  15. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  16. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  17. Discharge and infection in retinoblastoma post-enucleation sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourits, Daphne L; Hartong, Dyonne T; Budding, Andries E; Bosscha, Machteld I; Tan, H Stevie; Moll, Annette C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the causes and treatment options for socket discharge and infection in patients enucleated for retinoblastoma (Rb). A questionnaire was filled out by (parents of) ocular prosthesis-wearing patients with a history of enucleation as treatment for Rb. We collected data on patients' characteristics, cleaning habits of the prosthesis, frequency of socket irritation, discharge, and infection, and use of antibiotics. With ordinal logistic regression analysis, factors related to the outcome parameters (frequency of irritation, mucoid and purulent discharge) were identified. In a subset of young asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, a swab culture of the socket was performed to determine the presence of microorganisms. A total of 186 patients or their parents (mean age of the patients: 17.3 years, ranging from 0.8 to 88.3 years) filled out the questionnaire. Irritation, mucoid discharge, and purulent discharge were frequently (once a month or more often) experienced in 75 (39.5%), 127 (66.8%), and 15 (13.2%) sockets, respectively. Younger age was associated with a higher frequency of mucoid and purulent discharge. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, gender, age at surgery, cleaning frequency, and nocturnal wear were not associated with the outcome parameters. In a subgroup of 26 patients, the sockets were swabbed and cultured. All symptomatic patients had a positive bacterial culture versus 15% (2/13) of the asymptomatic patients ( P socket infection. These complaints were found to decrease with increasing age, but did not seem to be influenced by cleaning or wearing habits. Symptomatic sockets, with and without discharge, were correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria for which local antibiotic treatment seemed effective in most cases.

  18. Update-processing steam generator cleaning solvent at Palo Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.

    1996-01-01

    Framatome Technologies Inc.(FTI) recently completed the steam generator chemical cleanings at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station Units 1, 2 and 3. Over 500,000 gallons of low-level radioactive solvents were generated during these cleanings and were processed on-site. Chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes are difficult to reduce in volume using standard technologies. The process that was ultimately used at Palo Verde involved three distinct processing steps: The evaporation step was conducted using FTI's submerged combustion evaporator (SCE) that has also been successfully used at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Three Mile Island - Unit 1, and Oconee on similar waste. The polishing step of the distillate used ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology that was also used extensively by Ontario Hydro to assist in their processing of chemical cleaning solvent. This technology, equipment, and operations personnel were provided by Zenon Environmental, Inc. The concentrate from the evaporator was absorbed with a special open-quotes peat mossclose quotes based media that allowed it to be shipped and buried at the Environcare of Utah facility. This is the first time that this absorption media or burial site has been used for chemical cleaning solvent

  19. Laser-assisted surface cleaning of metallic components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI: 10.1007/s12043-013-0665-6; ePublication: 9 February 2014. Abstract. Removal of a thin .... During the experiment the laser was operated in .... on an optical-grade LiF slab with no absorption over the entire range of wavelengths used.

  20. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  1. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  2. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  3. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.

    2004-09-01

    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  4. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  5. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  6. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  7. Surface cleaning in thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A ''clean surface'' is one that contains no significant amounts of undesirable material. This paper discusses the types and origin of various contaminants. Since cleaning is often equated with adhesion, the mechanisms of adhesion to oxide, metal, and organic surfaces are reviewed and cleaning processes for these surfaces are outlined. Techniques for monitoring surface cleaning are presented, and the importance of storage of clean surfaces is discussed. An extensive bibliography is given. 4 figs., 89 references

  8. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based...... on an experimental study, a technology called clean air heat pump is proposed as a practical approach for indoor air cleaning....

  9. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  10. Clean-room robot implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in 2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  11. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  12. Stethoscope Cleaning During Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, Ghazi Wahla; Ahmad, Nina; Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Iftikhar, Sadia

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in two community teaching hospitals to better understand clinicians' beliefs and practices related to cleaning of their stethoscopes. The study was conducted from September 2015 to May 2016. Among the total 358 responses received, 45%, 40%, 10% and 5% were from attending physicians, medical students, nurses, and resident physicians, respectively. Although the majority of the respondents (76%) frequently used a stethoscope at work, and almost all (93%) believed that stethoscopes can be involved in pathogen transmission, only 29% of participants reported cleaning their stethoscopes after every use. Hospitals should include stethoscope cleaning into their overall infection prevention efforts. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-05.asp].

  13. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  14. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  15. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  16. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  17. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  18. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  19. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  20. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  1. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  2. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  3. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000199.htm Knee arthroscopy - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... surgery to treat problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. ...

  4. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  5. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your ...

  6. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  7. Discharges for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, W W; Nimalasuriya, T; Flikweert, A J; Mulders, H C J

    2007-01-01

    The most common man-made discharge is a lamp. Even though lamps are often considered a mature technology, the discharge physics is often poorly understood. Two recent initiatives discussed here show that plasma research can help to make significant improvements. First we discuss color separation in metal halide lamps, which is a problem that prevents these highly efficient lamps from being used in more applications. Secondly a novel lamp concept is presented that may replace the current mercury based fluorescent lamps

  8. Laser paper cleaning: the method of cleaning historical books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekou, Evangelini; Tsilikas, Ioannis; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage treasures is the most important issue for transferring knowledge to the public through the next generation of students, academics, and researchers. Although this century is authenticating e-books and information by means of electronic text, still historical manuscripts as content as well as objects are the main original recourses of keeping a record of this transformation. The current work focuses on cleaning paper samples by the application of pulsed light, which is interventional. Experiments carried out using paper samples that are artificially colonized with Ulocladium chartarum. Paper is treated by Nd:YAG laser light. The available wavelength is 1064 nm, at various fluences, repetition rates and number of pulses. Two types of paper are stained with fungi colonies, which grow on substrates of clean paper, as well as on paper with ink text. The first type of paper is Whatman No.1056, which is closer to pure cellulose. The second type of paper is a page of a cultural heritage book published in 1926. Cleaning is performed using laser irradiation, thus defining the damage threshold of each sample. The treatment on paper Watman showed a yellowing, especially on areas with high concentration of fungi. The second sample was more durable to the exposure, performing the best results at higher fluences. Eventually, the paper samples are characterized, with optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses, prior to and after cleaning.

  9. Condenser performance monitoring and cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The main condenser at Ginna Station was retubed from admiralty brass to 316 stainless steel. A condenser performance monitoring spreadsheet was developed using EPRI guidelines after fouling was discovered. PEPSE computer models were used to determine the power loss and confirm the spreadsheet results. Cleaning of the condenser was performed using plastic scrubbers. Condenser performance improved dramatically following the cleaning. PEPSE, condenser spreadsheet performance, and actual observed plant data correlated well together. The fouling mechanism was determined to be a common lake bacteria and fungus growth which was combined with silt. Chlorination of the circulating water system at the allowable limits is keeping the biofouling under control

  10. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  11. Chaos in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many gas discharges exhibit natural oscillations which undergo a transition from regular to chaotic behavior by changing an experimental parameter or by applying external modulation. Besides several isolated investigations, two classes of discharge phenomena have been studied in more detail: ionization waves in medium pressure discharges and potential relaxation oscillations in filament cathode discharges at very low pressure. The latter phenomenon will be discussed by comparing experimental results from different discharge arrangements with particle-in-cell simulations and with a model based on the van-der-Pol equation. The filament cathode discharge has two stable modes of operation: the low current anode-glow-mode and the high current temperature-limited-mode, which form the hysteresis curve in the I(U) characteristics. Close to the hysteresis point of the AGM periodic relaxation oscillations occur. The authors demonstrate that the AGM can be understood by ion production in the anode layer, stopping of ions by charge exchange, and trapping in the virtual cathode around the filament. The relaxation oscillations consist of a slow filling phase and a rapid phase that invokes formation of an unstable double-layer, current-spiking, and ion depletion from the cathodic plasma. The relaxation oscillations can be mode-locked by external modulation. Inside a mode-locked state, a period doubling cascade is observed at high modulation degree

  12. Atomic hydrogen cleaning of EUV multilayer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Samuel, Jr.; Steinhaus, Charles A.; Clift, W. Miles; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Bajt, Sasa

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have been conducted to investigate the use of atomic hydrogen as an in-situ contamination removal method for EUV optics. In these experiments, a commercial source was used to produce atomic hydrogen by thermal dissociation of molecular hydrogen using a hot filament. Samples for these experiments consisted of silicon wafers coated with sputtered carbon, Mo/Si optics with EUV-induced carbon, and bare Si-capped and Ru-B4C-capped Mo/Si optics. Samples were exposed to an atomic hydrogen source at a distance of 200 - 500 mm downstream and angles between 0-90° with respect to the source. Carbon removal rates and optic oxidation rates were measured using Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. In addition, at-wavelength peak reflectance (13.4 nm) was measured using the EUV reflectometer at the Advanced Light Source. Data from these experiments show carbon removal rates up to 20 Å/hr for sputtered carbon and 40 Å/hr for EUV deposited carbon at a distance of 200 mm downstream. The cleaning rate was also observed to be a strong function of distance and angular position. Experiments have also shown that the carbon etch rate can be increased by a factor of 4 by channeling atomic hydrogen through quartz tubes in order to direct the atomic hydrogen to the optic surface. Atomic hydrogen exposures of bare optic samples show a small risk in reflectivity degradation after extended periods. Extended exposures (up to 20 hours) of bare Si-capped Mo/Si optics show a 1.2% loss (absolute) in reflectivity while the Ru-B4C-capped Mo/Si optics show a loss on the order of 0.5%. In order to investigate the source of this reflectivity degradation, optic samples were exposed to atomic deuterium and analyzed using low energy ion scattering direct recoil spectroscopy to determine any reactions of the hydrogen with the multilayer stack. Overall, the results show that the risk of over-etching with atomic hydrogen is much less than previous studies using RF discharge cleaning

  13. Assistance Focus: Latin America and the Caribbean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-17

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean.

  14. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including nearly 30 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. This document highlights a few examples of the Solutions Center's work in the region.

  15. Discharge and infection in retinoblastoma post-enucleation sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourits DL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Daphne L Mourits,1 Dyonne T Hartong,1 Andries E Budding,2 Machteld I Bosscha,1 H Stevie Tan,1 Annette C Moll1 1Department of Ophthalmology, VU University Medical Center, 2Department of Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: To investigate the causes and treatment options for socket discharge and infection in patients enucleated for retinoblastoma (Rb. Methods: A questionnaire was filled out by (parents of ocular prosthesis-wearing patients with a history of enucleation as treatment for Rb. We collected data on patients’ characteristics, cleaning habits of the prosthesis, frequency of socket irritation, discharge, and infection, and use of antibiotics. With ordinal logistic regression analysis, factors related to the outcome parameters (frequency of irritation, mucoid and purulent discharge were identified. In a subset of young asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, a swab culture of the socket was performed to determine the presence of microorganisms. Results: A total of 186 patients or their parents (mean age of the patients: 17.3 years, ranging from 0.8 to 88.3 years filled out the questionnaire. Irritation, mucoid discharge, and purulent discharge were frequently (once a month or more often experienced in 75 (39.5%, 127 (66.8%, and 15 (13.2% sockets, respectively. Younger age was associated with a higher frequency of mucoid and purulent discharge. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, gender, age at surgery, cleaning frequency, and nocturnal wear were not associated with the outcome parameters. In a subgroup of 26 patients, the sockets were swabbed and cultured. All symptomatic patients had a positive bacterial culture versus 15% (2/13 of the asymptomatic patients (P<0.001. Common cold was correlated with both symptoms and presence of bacteria. Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus were the species most frequently cultured. Conclusion: Ocular prosthesis-wearing patients often experienced mucoid

  16. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  17. Clean fuels from fossil sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy availability is determining to sustain the social development, but energy production involves environmental impacts at regional and global level. The central role of oil, natural gas, coal for energy supply will be kept for decades. The development of the engine-fuel combination to satisfy more stringent emissions limitations, is the challenge for an environmentally clean transportation system [it

  18. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  19. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...

  20. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  1. Meeting the clean air demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, C.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the impacts to the emissions control industry and the future of small independent projects of the Clean Air Act. Topics discussed include technological and market niche of pollution control companies, risk reduction by owning and operating the emission control portion of the plant as a separate entity, the diversity of technologies, and legislative effects

  2. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  3. Sociology: Clean-energy conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    US conservatives receive a steady stream of anti-environmental messaging from Republican politicians. However, clean-energy conservatives sending strong counter-messages on energy issues could mobilize moderate conservatives to break away from the dominant right-wing defence of fossil fuels.

  4. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  5. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  6. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  7. Disposal and handling of nuclear steam generator chemical cleaning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1978-01-01

    A large number of pressurized water nuclear reactor electrical generating plants have experienced a corrosion-related problem with their steam generators known as denting. Denting is a mechanical deformation of the steam generator tubes that occurs at the tube support plates. Corrosion of the tube support plates occurs within the annuli through which the tubes pass and the resulting corrosion oxides, which are larger in volume than the original metal, compress and deform the tubes. In some cases, the induced stresses have been severe enough to cause tube and/or support cracking. The problem was so severe at the Turkey Point and Surrey plants that the tubing is being replaced. For less severe cases, chemical cleaning of the oxides, and other materials which deposit in the annuli from the water, is being considered. A Department of Energy-sponsored program was conducted by Consolidated Edison Co. of New York which identified several suitable cleaning solvents and led to in-plant chemical cleaning pilot demonstrations in the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators. Current programs to improve the technology are being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute, and the three PWR NSSS vendors with the assistance of numerous consultants, vendors, and laboratories. These programs are expected to result in more effective, less corrosive solvents. However, after a chemical cleaning is conducted, a large problem still remains- that of disposing of the spent wastes. The paper summarizes some of the methods currently available for handling and disposal of the wastes

  8. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  9. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  10. Red herring vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2013-09-18

    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  11. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  12. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  13. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  14. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  15. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  16. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  17. Private Exploration Primitives for Data Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Chang; Ilyas, Ihab F.; He, Xi; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin

    2017-01-01

    Data cleaning, or the process of detecting and repairing inaccurate or corrupt records in the data, is inherently human-driven. State of the art systems assume cleaning experts can access the data (or a sample of it) to tune the cleaning process. However, in many cases, privacy constraints disallow unfettered access to the data. To address this challenge, we observe and provide empirical evidence that data cleaning can be achieved without access to the sensitive data, but with access to a (no...

  18. Manufacturing of NAA laboratory clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2001-01-01

    The ''NAA laboratory clean room'' has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of ''AAN laboratory clean room'' doing by started of preparation of the ''manufacturing procedure'' refer to ''Design and manufacturing neutron activation analysis clean room laboratory''. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the ''AAN laboratory clean room'' can be cocluded that the research activity and the user sevises in P2TRR well meet to be done

  19. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  20. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  1. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  2. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  3. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  4. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell is...

  6. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  7. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Das Chintamani; Gaonkar, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  8. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  9. TCV mirrors cleaned by plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic mirrors exposed in TCV tokamak were cleaned by plasma in laboratory. A gold (Au mirror was deposited with 185–285nm of amorphous carbon (aC:D film coming from the carbon tiles of TCV. Another molybdenum (Mo mirror had a thicker deposit due to a different location within the tokamak. The thickness measurements were carried out using ellipsometry and the reflectivity measurements performed by spectrophotometry revealed a decrease of the specular reflectivity in the entire range (250–2500nm for the Mo mirror and specifically in the visible spectrum for the Au. Comparison of the simulated reflectivity using a refractive index of 1.5 and a Cauchy model for the aC:D gives good confidence on the estimated film thickness. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency directly applied to a metallic plate where the mirrors were fixed demonstrated the ability to remove the carbon deposits. A mixture of 50% hydrogen and 50% helium was used with a −200V self-bias. Due to the low sputtering yield of He and the low chemical erosion of hydrogen leading to volatile molecules, 20h of cleaning were needed for Au mirror and more than 60h for Mo mirror. Recovery of the reflectivity was not complete for the Au mirror most likely due to damage of the surface during tokamak exposure (breakdown phenomena.

  10. US Department of Energy first annual clean coal technology conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The first public review of the US DOE/Industry co-funded program to demonstrate the commercial readiness of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) was held at Cleveland, Ohio Sept. 22--24, 1992. The objectives were to provide electric utilities, independent power producers, and potential foreign users information on the DOE-supported CCT projects including status, results, and technology performance potential; to further understanding of the institutional, financial, and technical considerations in applying CCTs to Clean Air Act compliance strategies; to discuss to export market, financial and institutional assistance, and the roles of government and industry in pursuing exports of CCTs; and to facilitate meetings between domestic and international attendees to maximize export opportunities

  11. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  12. Optimization Analysis on Parameters of Cleaning Sieve of Rape Combine of "Bi Lang 4LZ(Y)-1.0"

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Mingliang; Tang Lun; Guan Chunyun; Tang Chuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Against the phenomenon of high impurity rate and cane and pod shell are difficult to discharge at the end of the sieve for rape combine of "Bi Lang 4LZ(Y)-1.0". This study take cleaning sieve of rape combine of "Bi Lang 4LZ(Y)-1.0" as study object, analyzed the movement of materials on sieve, established the virtual prototype model of the cleaning sieve of this rape combine, taken materials and cleaning sieve all at the best motion state as constraint conditions and optimized the structure an...

  13. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  14. Plasma discharge in ferritic first wall vacuum vessel of the Hitachi Tokamak HT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsushi; Nakayama, Takeshi; Asano, Katsuhiko; Otsuka, Michio

    1997-01-01

    A tokamak discharge with ferritic material first wall was tried successfully. The Hitachi Tokamak HT-2 had a stainless steel SUS304 vacuum vessel and modified to have a ferritic plate first wall for experiments to investigate the possibility of ferritic material usage in magnetic fusion devices. The achieved vacuum pressure and times used for discharge cleaning was roughly identical with the stainless steel first wall or the original HT-2. We concluded that ferritic material vacuum vessel is possible for tokamaks. (author)

  15. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  17. Monitoring of lightning discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a brief description of a lightning discharge recording system developed at the NPO 'Monitoring Techniques' under the direction of V.M. Moskolenko (Moscow). The system provides information about dangerous environmental occurrences such as tornados and hurricanes, making the forecast of extreme situations possible, especially in the areas of dangerous industries and objects. The created automatic system can be useful in solving the tasks relating to nuclear test monitoring. (author)

  18. Underwater Ship Husbandry Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    which entered into force in September of 2008, prohibits the use of harmful organotins such as tributyltin ( TBT ) in AFCs used on international...States. The use of TBT AFCs is explicitly prohibited under the VGP, and vessels must remove such coatings or paint over them to prevent toxic ...to hull husbandry include (1) the discharge of toxic chemicals used as biocides in AFCs and (2) biofouling as a vector for aquatic nuisance species

  19. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  20. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  1. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  3. Barriers to clean development mechanism renewable energy projects in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Mexico is not reaching its full potential to capture benefits from clean development mechanism (CDM) projects because of its limited market for independent power producers (IPPs) and the barriers imposed on these entities by the state-run electric utility that controls most of the country's generation and transmission. This state-run entity has pursued CDM revenues only in isolated cases where international financial assistance was given because it is bound by law to pursue the least-cost generation option for its customers. Recent changes in Mexican legislation that provide incentives for renewable energy development could open the marketplace for these types of projects. (author)

  4. Cleaning Insertions and Collimation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, S.; Appleby, R. B.; Bertarelli, A.; Bruce, R.; Jowett, J. M.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.

    High-performance collimation systems are essential for operating efficiently modern hadron machine with large beam intensities. In particular, at the LHC the collimation system ensures a clean disposal of beam halos in the superconducting environment. The challenges of the HL-LHC study pose various demanding requests for beam collimation. In this paper we review the present collimation system and its performance during the LHC Run 1 in 2010-2013. Various collimation solutions under study to address the HL-LHC requirements are then reviewed, identifying the main upgrade baseline and pointing out advanced collimation concept for further enhancement of the performance.

  5. Exhaust gas clean up process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  6. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public industry...

  7. Method of continuously cleaning condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Akira; Takahashi, Sankichi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent marine livings from depositing to the inside of ball recycling pipeways. Method: Copper electrodes are provided to the downstream of a sponge ball collector in a sponge ball recycling pipeways for cleaning through the cooling pipes of a condenser. Electrical current is supplied by way of a variable resister to the electrodes and copper ions resulted from the dissolution of the electrodes are fed in the pipes to kill the marine livings such as barnacles and prevent the marine livings from depositing to the inside of the sponge ball recycling pipeways. (Seki, T.)

  8. Modified PADSS (Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System) for monitoring outpatients discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Piergaspare; Tellan, Guglielmo; Perotti, Bruno; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Vietri, Francesco; Illuminati, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    The decision to discharge a patient undergoing day surgery is a major step in the hospitalization pathway, because it must be achieved without compromising the quality of care, thus ensuring the same assistance and wellbeing as for a long-term stay. Therefore, the use of an objective assessment for the management of a fair and safe discharge is essential. The authors propose the Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System (PADSS), which considers six criteria: vital signs, ambulation, nausea/vomiting, pain, bleeding and voiding. Each criterion is given a score ranging from 0 to 2. Only patients who achieve a score of 9 or more are considered ready for discharge. Furthermore, PADSS has been modified to ensure a higher level of safety, thus the "vital signs" criteria must never score lower than 2, and none of the other five criteria must ever be equal to 0, even if the total score reaches 9. The effectiveness of PADSS was analyzed on 2432 patients, by recording the incidence of postoperative complications and the readmission to hospital. So far PADDS has proved to be an efficient system that guarantees safe discharge.

  9. Improving Posthospital Discharge Telephone Reach Rates Through Prehospital Discharge Face-to-Face Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Franz H; Sheridan, Daniel J; Sullivan, Nancy J; Budhathoki, Chakra

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a face-to-face meeting with patients by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge would result in increased telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates posthospital discharge. Acute care adult medicine inpatient units. A quasiexperimental design was utilized. Two adult inpatient medicine units were selected as the intervention and comparison groups. The framework of the study is the transitions theory. A convenience sampling technique was used, whereby 88 eligible patients on the intervention unit received face-to-face meetings prehospital discharge whereas 123 patients on the comparison unit received standard care (no face-to-face meetings). Cross-tabulation and chi-square tests were employed to examine the association of face-to-face meeting intervention and TFU reach rates. Implementing brief (face-to-face meetings by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge resulted in a TFU reach rate of 87% on the intervention unit, whereas the comparison unit only had a 58% TFU reach rate (p communication with more patients posthospital discharge. A brief prehospital discharge face-to-face meeting with patients assisted them to understand the reasons for a posthospital discharge telephone call, identified the best times to call using accurate telephone numbers, and taught patients how best to prepare for the call. In addition, by meeting patients face-to-face, the telephonic case manager was no longer an unknown person on the telephone asking them questions about their medical condition. These factors combined may have significantly helped to increase TFU reach rates.

  10. Clean technology for the small auriferous mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotruba, Herrnann

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of gold in the small auriferous mining is characterized by several deficiencies, among them low recovery, emissions of mercury in form of milled mercury; amalgams and vapor, cyanide emissions and of its compounds, low level of industrial security. The mercury is used for the amalgamation of concentrated (taken place by several methods of gravimetric separation), for the amalgamation of the whole mineral load. The last case represents a mercury use in open circuit, with lost discharges of mercury to the process tales. The cyanidation is used in most of the cases for the residuals of the gravimetric concentration. This means that combines amalgamation with cyanidation that is in double cost and double environmental impact. To minimize operation costs and environmental impacts, the following steps of the mineral benefit, are advisable: controlled mill and appropriate to liberate the gold and not over miller; gravimetric concentration to recover a pre-concentrated with lost minimum of gold; Separation of the thick gold (if it exists) of the pre-concentrate. The free and thick gold can separate for gravimetric processes of the pre-concentrate and to smelt it directly; the amalgamation is not more necessary. The pre-concentrated cyanidation for agitation generally has bigger recovery and it is quicker than the traditional method for percolation. The realization of the new process has a gold recovery more high, less operation costs, less cyanide emissions, any emission of mercury and a higher work security. It should be mentioned that the viability and efficiency of the clean process depends of the mineral nature

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Plasma assisted ignition and combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2006-08-01

    In recent decades particular interest in applications of nonequilibrium plasma for the problems of plasma-assisted ignition and plasma-assisted combustion has been observed. A great amount of experimental data has been accumulated during this period which provided the grounds for using low temperature plasma of nonequilibrium gas discharges for a number of applications at conditions of high speed flows and also at conditions similar to automotive engines. The paper is aimed at reviewing the data obtained and discusses their treatment. Basic possibilities of low temperature plasma to ignite gas mixtures are evaluated and historical references highlighting pioneering works in the area are presented. The first part of the review discusses plasmas applied to plasma-assisted ignition and combustion. The paper pays special attention to experimental and theoretical analysis of some plasma parameters, such as reduced electric field, electron density and energy branching for different gas discharges. Streamers, pulsed nanosecond discharges, dielectric barrier discharges, radio frequency discharges and atmospheric pressure glow discharges are considered. The second part depicts applications of discharges to reduce the ignition delay time of combustible mixtures, to ignite transonic and supersonic flows, to intensify ignition and to sustain combustion of lean mixtures. The results obtained by different authors are cited, and ways of numerical modelling are discussed. Finally, the paper draws some conclusions on the main achievements and prospects of future investigations in the field.

  12. 34 CFR 686.42 - Discharge of agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge of agreement to serve. 686.42 Section 686.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH...

  13. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  14. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  15. Chemical cleaning of AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.V.; Moore, W.; Rantell, A.

    1978-01-01

    AGR boilers are likely to require post service chemical cleaning to remove accumulated oxides at intervals of 15 - 35 kh. The need to clean will be based on an assessment of such factors as the development of flow imbalances through parallel tubes induced by the formation of rough oxide surfaces, an increasing risk of localised corrosion as the growth of porous oxides proceeds and the risk of tube blockage caused by the exfoliation of steam-grown oxides. The study has shown what heterogeneous multilayer oxides possessing a range of physical and chemical properties form on the alloy steels. They include porous and compact magnetites, chromium spinels and sesquioxide. Ammoniated citric acid has been shown to remove deposited and water-grown magnetites from the carbon and alloy steels but will not necessarily remove the substituted spinels grown on the alloy steels or the potentially spalling steam-grown magnetite on the A1SI 316 superheater. Citric acid supplemented with the reducing agent glyoxal completely removes all oxides from the boiler except the protective inner spinel formed on the 316. Removal of the spinels and compact magnetites occurs more by undercutting and physical detachment than by the dissolution. (author)

  16. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  17. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  18. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy in the management of lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklavari, Zsolt; Ried, Michael; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2014-09-06

    Despite significant advances in the treatment of thoracic infections, complex lung abscess remains a problem in modern thoracic surgery. We describe the novel application of vacuum-assisted closure for the treatment of a lung abscess. The technical details and preliminary results are reported. After the initial failed conservative treatment of an abscess, minimally invasive surgical intervention was performed with vacuum-assisted closure. The vacuum sponges were inserted in the abscess cavity at the most proximal point to the pleural surface. The intercostal space of the chest wall above the entering place was secured by a soft tissue retractor. The level of suction was initially set to 100 mm Hg, with a maximum suction of 125 mm Hg. The sponge was changed once on the 3rd postoperative day. The abscess cavity was rapidly cleaned and decreased in size. The mini-thoracotomy could be closed on the 9th postoperative day. Closure of the cavity was simple, without any short- or long-term treatment failure. This technique reduced the trauma associated with the procedure. The patient was discharged on the 11th postoperative day. Vacuum-assisted closure systems should be considered for widespread use as an alternative option for the treatment of complicated pulmonary abscess in elderly, debilitated, immunocompromised patients after failed conservative treatment.

  19. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  20. Continuous pile discharging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.

    1976-01-01

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug. 7 claims, 10 drawing figures

  1. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-07

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  2. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  3. Continuous pile discharging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  4. Canyon solvent cleaning with activated alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents recent work at SRL concerning the cleaning of solvent extraction solvent used at SRP. The paper explains why we undertook the work, and some laboratory studies on two approaches to solvent cleaning, namely extended carbonate washing and use of solid adsorbents. The paper then discusses scale-up of the preferred method and the results of the full-scale cleaning. 19 figs

  5. Environmental cleaning and disinfection of patient areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Doll

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare setting is predisposed to harbor potential pathogens, which in turn can pose a great risk to patients. Routine cleaning of the patient environment is critical to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. While many approaches to environmental cleaning exist, manual cleaning supplemented with ongoing assessment and feedback may be the most feasible for healthcare facilities with limited resources.

  6. Environmental cleaning and disinfection of patient areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Michelle; Stevens, Michael; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2018-02-01

    The healthcare setting is predisposed to harbor potential pathogens, which in turn can pose a great risk to patients. Routine cleaning of the patient environment is critical to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. While many approaches to environmental cleaning exist, manual cleaning supplemented with ongoing assessment and feedback may be the most feasible for healthcare facilities with limited resources. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Is this an arc or a glow discharge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkarev, V.F.; Bochkarev, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    A well known criterion for distinguishing an arc discharge from a glow discharge is a low voltage drop (10--30 V) and a high current density that varies from a few tens to 10 6 A/cm 2 depending on arc type. The high current density is an attribute of arcs with cathode spots. The authors report here a study of the mechanism of emission in cathode spot arc where they realized a spotless discharge with a low voltage drop (30--50 V) and a high mean current density (10 4 --10 6 A/cm 2 ). The discharge was initiated between a broad cathode and point anode. The cathode was a smooth tungsten sphere electrode of about 100 μm in diameter. The point anode was made of various materials (Mo, Cu, Cd) with initial radius 1 μm. Before the experiment the cathode was cleaned by heating at 2,000 K at high vacuum (10 -8 Torr). The discharge was initiated by self-breakdown when electrodes under the voltage 200--500 V were brought to close proximity with each other. The cathode-anode spacing d at the moment of breakdown was estimated to be < 1 μm. The discharge current was varied within 1--3 A by changing the applied voltage and impedance of coaxial cable generator. The discharge burned during 100--1,000 ns. After the single discharge the cathode and anode were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The cathode surface exposed to the discharge was smooth, i.e. no erosion pits similar to arc craters were found on the cathode surface. The anode was shortened after discharge by 5--50 μm depending on current, material and cone angle. A high current density and low voltage drop implies that this is an arc discharge, while the cold cathode and the absence f cathode spot trace are pertinent to a dense glow discharge. The mechanism of emission involving secondary electron emission is to be discussed

  8. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  9. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  10. Plutonium discharges to the sanitary sewer: Health impacts at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balke, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the largest discharger of sewage treated by the Livermore Water Reclamation (LWRP), contributing approximately 7% by volume of the LWRP influent LILNL operations, as potential sources both of industrial pollutants and radioactivity, are therefore of particular concern to the LWRP. For this reason, LLNL has maintained vigorous wastewater discharge control and monitoring programs. In particular, the monitoring program has demonstrated that, except in a few rare instances, the concentration of contaminants in LLNL effluent have always remained below the appropriate regulatory standards. The exceptions have generally been due to inadvertent discharges of metals-bearing solutions produced by metal plating or cleaning operations

  11. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  12. Contamination spike simulation and measurement in a clean metal vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.E.; Yang, C.Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the generation of contamination-induced voltage spikes in a clean metal vapor laser. The method facilitates the study of the characteristics of this troublesome phenomenon in laser systems. Analysis of these artificially generated dirt spikes shows that the breakdown time of the laser tube is increased when these spike appear. The concept of a Townsend discharge is used to identify the parameter which changes the breakdown time of the discharges. The residual ionization control method is proposed to generate dirt spikes in a clean laser. Experimental results show that a wide range of dirt spike magnitudes can be obtained by using the proposed method. The method provides easy and accurate control of the magnitude of the dirt spike, and the laser tube does not become polluted. Results based on the measurements can be used in actual laser systems to monitor the appearance of dirt spikes and thus avoid the danger of thyratron failure

  13. Optical and EUV studies of laser triggered Z-pinch discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Tobin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with two geometries of laser assisted discharge plasma. Both devices are designed for fast Z-pinch discharge, triggered by laser produced plasma generated by ablation of one or both electrodes. The laser plasma parameters are adjusted to control the plasma load while the discharge parameters are adjusted to yield a rate of rise of current greater than 1010 A/s. The expansion dynamics and emission characteristics of the plasma were analysed, wit...

  14. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt Glaeser, W.; Meins, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.) [de

  15. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  16. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Owen, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH and >99.7% for NaI. 7 refs

  17. Cleaning lady saves the day

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At lunch time on Wednesday 21 January a guest at the CERN hostel put her food in the microwave oven and switched it on. "Within seconds I smelt plastic. I looked into the oven and saw flames. I switched it off, took my food out. But the flames continued and so I ran for the door." In the corridor she ran into Jane Kiranga, a cleaning lady working for the company ISS. Without hesitation Jane picked up a portable fire extinguisher, returned to the kitchen and stopped the fire. The Fire Brigade arrived a few minutes later and only needed to ventilate the kitchen. "Jane was just in time, because the flames had not left the oven yet. Her model behaviour deserves recognition," said the team leader on duty for the CERN Fire Brigade. A few days later Jane received a gift voucher from the Prevention and Training section of the Safety Commission (photo).

  18. Treatment of Fournier's Gangrene with Combination of Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy, Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, and Protective Colostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zagli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's gangrene is a rare process which affects soft tissue in the genital and perirectal area. It can also progress to all different stages of sepsis, and abdominal compartment syndrome can be one of its complications. Two patients in septic shock due to Fournier gangrene were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Emergency Department. In both cases, infection started from the scrotum and the necrosis quickly involved genitals, perineal, and inguinal regions. Patients were treated with surgical debridement, protective colostomy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and broad-spectrum antibacterial chemotherapy. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC therapy was applied to the wound with the aim to clean, decontaminate, and avoid abdominal compartmental syndrome development. Both patients survived and were discharged from Intensive Care Unit after hyperbaric oxygen therapy cycles and abdominal closure.

  19. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  20. Fundamentals and applications of dry CO2 cryogenic aerosol for photomask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ivin; Balooch, Mehdi; Bowers, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    There is a dire need for the removal of all printable defects on lithography masks. As the technology node advances, smaller particles need to be efficiently removed from smaller features without any damage or adders. CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning is a dry, residue-free and chemically inert technique that doesn't suffer from disadvantages of conventional wet cleaning methods such as transmission/reflectivity loss, phase change, CD change, haze/progressive defects, and/or limitation on number of cleaning cycles. Ultra-pure liquid CO2 when dispensed through an optimally designed nozzle results in CO2 clusters that impart the required momentum for defect removal. Historically nanomachining debris removal has been established with this technique. Several improvements have been incorporated for cleaning of advanced node masks, which has enabled Full Mask Final Clean, a new capability that has been successfully demonstrated. The properties of the CO2 clusters can be captured utilizing the Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and effect of varying process and design parameters can be verified. New nozzles have been designed to widen the cleaning process window for advanced node optical masks, without any damage to the weak primary features and/or sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). This capability has been experimentally proven for high aspect ratio SRAFs e.g. 2.79 (52nm wide by 145 nm tall) as well as SRAFs 45nm wide by 73 nm tall. In this paper, 100% removal of soft defects that would have printed on advanced node masks is demonstrated. No printed defects larger than 50nm is observed after the CO2 cleaning. Stability of the cleaning and handling mechanisms has been demonstrated over the last 4.5 months in a production environment. The CO2 cleaning technique is expected to be effective for more advanced masks and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) lithography.

  1. Webinar: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A page to register to view the June 22, 2017, webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

  2. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak [Obducat AB, SE-20125 Malmoe (Sweden); Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Lars, E-mail: ivan.maximov@ftf.lth.se [Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Box 117, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-06

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  3. International assistance. Licensing assistance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.

    1999-01-01

    Description of licensing assistance project for VATESI is presented. In licensing of unit No.1 of INPP VATESI is supported by many western countries. Experts from regulatory bodies or scientific organizations of those countries assist VATESI staff in reviewing documentation presented by INPP. Among bilateral cooperation support is provided by European Commission through Phare programme

  4. Collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-11-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective configuration to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without significant heating of the background gas. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinusoidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or diffuse, laterally homogeneous discharges. The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to self-organization of current filaments and pattern formation. Major similarities of the two types of barrier discharges are elaborated.

  5. Characteristics of 2-heptanone decomposition using nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Yuki; Fukuchi, Yuichi; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kumamoto University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) evaporate at room temperature. VOCs typically consist of toluene, benzene and ethyl acetate, which are used in cosmetics, dry cleaning products and paints. Exposure to elevated levels of VOCs may cause headaches, dizziness and irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat; they may also cause environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and photochemical smog. As such, they require prompt removal. Nanosecond pulsed discharge is a kind of non-thermal plasma consisting of a streamer discharge. Several advantages of nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma have been demonstrated by studies of our research group, including low heat loss, highly energetic electron generation, and the production of highly active radicals. These advantages have shown ns pulsed discharge plasma capable of higher energy efficiency for processes, such as air purification, wastewater treatment and ozone generation. In this research, nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma was employed to treat 2-heptanone, which is a volatile organic compound type and presents several harmful effects. Characteristics of treatment dependent on applied voltage, gas flow rate and input energy density were investigated. Furthermore, byproducts generated by treatment were also investigated.

  6. Avalanche boron fusion by laser picosecond block ignition with magnetic trapping for clean and economic reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, H.; Korn, Georg; Eliezer, S.; Nissim, N.; Lalousis, P.; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Margarone, Daniele; Picciotto, A.; Miley, G. H.; Moustaizis, S.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Barty, C.P.J.; Kirchhoff, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, Oct (2016), 1-9, č. článku e35. ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : boron fusion energy * dielectric nonlinear force explosion * economic reactor * environmentally clean energy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  7. Ship for the cleaning of water from oil, fuel oil, and other floating objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nentvih, V

    1969-12-31

    The newly designed ship for the cleaning of water surface from floating pollution has its bow section built much lower than its main hull. A slanted platform leads to a channel guiding the water into a centrifuge which separates oil from water. Oil proceeds to a reservoir for reprocessing while water is discharged from the ship. A variable ballast controls the depth of submersion of the platform. The ship is equilibrated by means of a built-in air float.

  8. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  9. Diffusion of condenser water discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are mostly located in coastal area, and the cooling water is discharged into sea as warm water. Recently, large interest is taken in this matter, and it is desirable to predict the diffusion of warm discharge accurately and to take effective measures for lowering the temperature. As for the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, simplified estimation, mathematical analysis and hydrographical model experiment are used corresponding to objects and conditions. As for the measures to lower temperature, the method of discharging warm water into deep sea bottom was confirmed to be very effective. In this paper, the phenomena of diffusion of warm discharge in sea, the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, and the deep sea discharge as the measure for lowering temperature are outlined. The factors concerning the diffusion of warm discharge in sea are the conditions of discharge, topography and sea state, and the diffusion is roughly divided into mixing diffusion in the vicinity of warm water outlet and eddy diffusion in distant region. It is difficult to change artificially the conditions of diffusion in distant region, and the measures of raising the rate of dilution in near region are effective, therefore the deep sea discharge is adopted. (Kako, I.)

  10. Modelling the combined impact of radionuclide discharges reaching rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.; Small, S.; Hornby, D.; Scarlett, P.; Harvey, M.; Simmonds, J.; Bexon, A.; Jones, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Agency currently authorises direct and indirect (via sewerage systems) discharges of liquid radioactive wastes to rivers from nuclear sites and other registered users of radioactivity. Discharges are normally authorised on a site-by-site basis, taking into account the radiological assessment. Radiological assessments are normally made using dilution models to estimate radionuclide activities in the effluents themselves and in the receiving rivers. These data are then combined with information on habits and dose factor information to give a dose assessment for individuals exposed to the discharge. For each site the highest radiological impact is expected immediately downstream of the disposal point where concentrations of radionuclides and resulting doses are highest. The concentration and doses are expected to decline with increasing distance downstream of the disposal point. However, if discharges are made into the river from other establishments higher up the catchment, the total dose may be higher. Recent Environment Agency research projects provided evidence of the potential radiological significance of multiple discharges to a single river. In the light of these studies, the Agency require a robust modelling tool to assist in the assessment of the effects of combined discharges to river systems. The aim of this R and D project was to develop and test modelling tools that could be used to make assessments of the impact of multiple radiological discharge into river systems and to trial them on the upper Thames river system

  11. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  12. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  13. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology

  14. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  15. Clean fuel technologies and clean and reliable energy: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulatov, Igor; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    There are two major areas covered by this current Special Issue: Cleaner Fuel Technologies and Waste Processing. In addition, the Special Issue, also includes some recent developments in various fields of energy efficiency research. The first group of contributions considers in detail, hydrogen production from biomass and hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process (SE-SMR). Biomass-related technologies are also discussed for a design of an integrated biorefinery, production of clean diesel fuel by co-hydrogenation of vegetable oil with gas oil and utilization of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments in the production of bioethanol from corn. Waste Processing aspects are considered in the second group of papers. This section includes integrated waste-to-energy plants, utilisation of municipal solid waste in the cement industry and urban supply and disposal systems. The third topic is intentionally made rather loose: it includes different research topics on various aspects of energy efficiency, e.g. resource-saving network design, new research on divided wall columns, vehicle logistics as process-network synthesis for energy consumption and CO 2 reduction.

  16. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  17. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  18. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  19. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  20. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  1. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  2. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  3. WWW expert system on producer gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, E.J.; Lammers, G.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The University of Groningen (RUG) has developed an expert system on cleaning of biomass producer gas. This work was carried out in close co-operation with the Biomass Technology Group B.V. (BTG) in Enschede, The Netherlands within the framework of the EC supported JOR3-CT95-0084 project. The expert system was developed as a tool for the designer-engineer of downstream gas cleaning equipment and consists of an information package and a flowsheet package. The packages are integrated in a client/server system. The flowsheeting package of the expert system has been designed for the evaluation of different gas cleaning methods. The system contains a number of possible gas cleaning devices such as: cyclone, fabric filter, ceramic filter, venturi scrubber and catalytic cracker. The user can select up to five cleaning steps in an arbitrary order for his specific gas cleaning problem. After specification of the required design parameters, the system calculates the main design characteristics of the cleaning device. The information package is a collection of HTML{sup TM} files. It contains a large amount of information, tips, experience data, literature references and hyperlinks to other interesting Internet sites. This information is arranged per cleaning device. (orig.)

  4. The Clean Development Mechanism and Technology Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) on the transfer of clean technology in India. The reason this study is unique is because firstly, it adopts an outcome-oriented approach to define ‘technology transfer’, which means that technology transfer occurs if firms...

  5. Reactor water clean-up device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Koji; Egashira, Yasuo; Shimada, Fumie; Igarashi, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To save a low temperature reactor water clean-up system indispensable so far and significantly simplify the system by carrying out the reactor water clean-up solely in a high temperature reactor water clean-up system. Constitution: The reactor water clean-up device comprises a high temperature clean-up pump and a high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. The high temperature adsorption device is filled with amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents, or amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents and anionic adsorbing inorganic adsorbents. The reactor water clean-up device introduces reactor water by the high temperature clean-up pump through a recycling system to the high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. Since cations such as cobalt ions and anions such as chlorine ions in the reactor water are simultaneously removed in the device, a low temperature reactor water clean-up system which has been indispensable so far can be saved to realize the significant simplification for the entire system. (Seki, T.)

  6. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  7. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  8. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  9. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  10. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  11. Should you get your heating ducts cleaned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation conducted research into duct cleaning during which time several houses were tested for hot air furnace duct performance before and after cleaning. Duct cleaning is a major industry which claims that cleaning of ducts will provide you with better indoor air quality, reduce household molds and allergens, get rid of house dust, result in more airflow and better delivery of warm air and reduce energy costs. This report does not substantiate those claims. Researchers found little or no discernible differences in the concentrations of house airborne particles or in duct airflows due to duct cleaning. This is because ducts are metal passages that cannot create dust. Most household dusts come from outdoors that has been tracked in or blows through windows and other openings. While duct cleaning may be justifiable personally, it does not change the quality of the air you breathe, nor will it significantly affect airflow or heating costs. Some filters effectively clean the air in the ducts but they do not create a dust-free environment because of the above-mentioned dust sources. The only time that duct cleaning may make sense is if you have water in your ducts that can result in mold growth, if you are moving into a newly constructed house to remove drywall dust, if your are having trouble with furnace airflow, or if you see an accumulation of debris in the return air ducts. It was emphasized that broadcast spraying of biocides within the duct system should not be performed.

  12. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  13. Consistent approach to air-cleaning system duct design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.; Ornberg, S.C.; Rooney, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plant air-cleaning system effectiveness is dependent on the capability of a duct system to safely convey contaminated gas to a filtration unit and subsequently to a point of discharge. This paper presents a logical and consistent design approach for selecting sheet metal ductwork construction to meet applicable criteria. The differences in design engineers' duct construction specifications are acknowledged. Typical duct construction details and suggestions for their effective use are presented. Improvements in duct design sections of ANSI/ASME N509-80 are highlighted. A detailed leakage analysis of a control room HVAC system is undertaken to illustrate the effects of conceptual design variations on duct construction requirements. Shortcomings of previously published analyses and interpretations of a current standard are included

  14. Collective Phenomena In Volume And Surface Barrier Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-07-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective means to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without appreciable gas heating. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. In laboratory experiments also the use of resistive, ferroelectric and semiconducting materials has been investigated, also porous ceramic layers and dielectric barriers with controlled surface conductivity. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are also devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinu- soidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or laterally homogeneous discharges. Reviews of the subject and the older literature on barrier discharges were published by Kogelschatz (2002, 2003), by Wagner et al. (2003) and by Fridman et al. (2005). A detailed discussion of various properties of barrier discharges can also be found in the recent book "Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure" by Becker et al. (2005). The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges will be discussed in detail. Special attention will be given to self-organization of current filaments. Main similarities and differences of the two types of barrier discharges will be elaborated.

  15. Cleaning metal filters by pulse-jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.; Perry, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cleanable metal filters have an established use in the Nuclear Industry. The filters that have been installed in the past have not proved to be sufficiently cleanable. A series of tests were undertaken to study the application of pulse-jet cleaning to metal fibre filter elements. The efficiency of dust removal was examined under various operating conditions. A very high degree of particulate removal was achieved, with a return to almost clean pressure drop. The effectiveness of cleaning was found to vary inversely with blowback pressure. The position of the blowback nozzle with respect to the filter element throat was also found to be important to cleaning efficiency. Under the test conditions the effect of re-entrainment when cleaning on line was found to be minimal. (author)

  16. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  17. A centrifuge CO2 pellet cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.; Nelson, W.D.; Schechter, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Centrifuge-based cryogenic pellet accelerator technology, originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the purpose of refueling fusion reactors with high-speed pellets of frozen deuterium/tritium,is now being developed as a method of cleaning without the use of conventional solvents. In these applications large quantities of pellets made of frozen CO 2 or argon are accelerated in a high-speed rotor. The accelerated pellet stream is used to clean or etch surfaces. The advantage of this system is that the spent pellets and debris resulting from the cleaning process can be filtered leaving only the debris for disposal. This paper discusses the centrifuge CO 2 pellet cleaning system, the physics model of the pellet impacting the surface, the centrifuge apparatus, and some initial cleaning and etching tests

  18. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  19. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  20. A Reuse Evaluation for Solar-Cell Silicon Wafers via Shift Revolution and Tool Rotation Using Magnetic Assistance in Ultrasonic Electrochemical Micromachining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Pa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reuse fabrication using a tool module with rotation and revolution through a process of magnetic assistance in ultrasonic electrochemical micromachining (UEMM for removal of the surface layers from silicon wafers of solar cells is demonstrated. The target of the proposed reuse fabrication method is to replace the current approach, which uses strong acid and grinding and may damage the physical structure of silicon wafers and pollute to the environment. A precisely engineered clean production approach to removal of surface microstructure layers from silicon wafers is to develop a mass production system for recycling defective or discarded silicon wafers of solar cells that can reduce pollution and cost. The high revolution speed of the shift with the high rotation speed of the designed tool increases the discharge mobility and improves the removal effect associated with the high feed rate of the workpiece. High frequency and high power of ultrasonic with large electrolyte flow rate and high magnetic strengths with a small distance between the two magnets provide a large discharge effect and good removal; only a short period of time is required to remove the epoxy film and Si3N4 layer easily and cleanly.

  1. U.S. DOE Southeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzarella, Isaac [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mago, Pedro [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kalland, Stephen [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Between 2010 and 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Southeast Clean Energy Application Center (SE-CEAC), co-located at the North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University (NCSU) and at Mississippi State University. The SE-CEAC was one of eight regional CEACs established to promote and assist in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), district energy (DE) and waste heat to power (WHP) throughout the U.S. CHP locates power generation at the point of demand and makes productive use of the residual thermal energy for process and space heating in factories and businesses, thus lowering the cost of meeting electricity and heat requirements and increasing energy efficiency. The overall goal of the SE-CEAC was to support end-user implementation and overall market transformation for CHP and related clean energy technologies. Five objectives were targeted to achieve the goal: 1. Market Analysis and Information Dissemination 2. Outreach and Education for Potential CHP End-users 3. Policy Support for State and Regional Stakeholders 4. Technical Assistance to Support CHP Deployment 5. Collaboration with DOE and other CEACs Throughout the project, the CEACs provided key services of education and outreach, technical assistance and market analysis in support of project objectives. These services were very effective at achieving key objectives of assisting prospective CHP end-users and informing policy makers, utilities and others about the benefits of CHP. There is a marked increase in the awareness of CHP technologies and applications as an energy resource among end-users, policymakers, utility regulators, electric utilities and natural gas utilities in the Southeast region as a result. At the end of 2013, a number of best-practice policies for CHP were applied or under consideration in various Southeast states. The SE-CEAC met its targets for providing technical assistance with over 50 analyses delivered for 412 MW of potential end

  2. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  3. [Evaluation of Medical Instruments Cleaning Effect of Fluorescence Detection Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nan; Shen, Yue; Li, Zhen; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Chaoqun

    2016-01-01

    To compare the cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine and manual cleaning on coupling type surgical instruments. A total of 32 cleaned medical instruments were randomly sampled from medical institutions in Putuo District medical institutions disinfection supply center. Hygiena System SUREII ATP was used to monitor the ATP value, and the cleaning effect was evaluated. The surface ATP values of the medical instrument of manual cleaning were higher than that of the automatic cleaning machine. Coupling type surgical instruments has better cleaning effect of automatic cleaning machine before disinfection, the application is recommended.

  4. Effect of Time in Chemical Cleaning of Ultrafiltration Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitsky, I.; Naim, R.; Duek, A.; Gitis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes is often considered successful when the flux through a cleaned membrane is much higher than through a pristine one. Here, a novel definition of cleaning intensity is proposed as the product of the concentration of the cleaning agent and the cleaning

  5. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A; Hase, A [eds.; VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  6. Cleaning Puparia for Forensic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Leon G; Brosius, Tierney R; Reinhard, Karl J; Carter, David

    2016-09-01

    We tested procedures for removing adipocere from insect samples to allow identification. An acceptable procedure was determined: (i) Samples were sorted in petri dishes with 75% alcohol to remove any larvae, adult insects, or other soft-bodied material. (ii) Samples of up to 24 puparia were placed in a vial with 15 mL of 95% acetone, capped, and vortexed for a total of 30-90 sec in 10- to 15-sec bursts. This step removed large masses of adipocere or soil from specimen. (iii) Specimens were removed from acetone and placed in a vial of 15 mL of 2% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and vortexed in 10- to 15-sec bursts until all puparia appeared clean (with our samples this required a total of 60-120 sec). (iv) Specimens were removed from the 2% KOH, placed in 75% ethanol, and examined microscopically. (v) Material was stored in 75% ethanol for identification and long-term preservation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  8. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  9. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  10. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  11. Atomization of thorium in a hollow-cathode type discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Demers, Y.; Gagne, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The atomization of thorium metal in a hollow-cathode electrical discharge has been investigated. Laser absorption spectroscopy with the laser tuned on the 5760.55 A (0-17355 1 cm -1 ) transition of Th I was used to evaluate the density of atoms in the 3 F 2 ground state. The results obtained (densities up to 10 13 atoms cm -3 ) show that our discharge tube is a suitable source of thorium metal atoms for laser assisted spectroscopic analysis of this element. (author)

  12. Risk in cleaning: chemical and physical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, P; Schneider, T; Kildesø, J; Degerth, R; Jaroszewski, M; Schunk, H

    1998-04-23

    Cleaning is a large enterprise involving a large fraction of the workforce worldwide. A broad spectrum of cleaning agents has been developed to facilitate dust and dirt removal, for disinfection and surface maintenance. The cleaning agents are used in large quantities throughout the world. Although a complex pattern of exposure to cleaning agents and resulting health problems, such as allergies and asthma, are reported among cleaners, only a few surveys of this type of product have been performed. This paper gives a broad introduction to cleaning agents and the impact of cleaning on cleaners, occupants of indoor environments, and the quality of cleaning. Cleaning agents are usually grouped into different product categories according to their technical functions and the purpose of their use (e.g. disinfectants and surface care products). The paper also indicates the adverse health and comfort effects associated with the use of these agents in connection with the cleaning process. The paper identifies disinfectants as the most hazardous group of cleaning agents. Cleaning agents contain evaporative and non-evaporative substances. The major toxicologically significant constituents of the former are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), defined as substances with boiling points in the range of 0 degree C to about 400 degrees C. Although laboratory emission testing has shown many VOCs with quite different time-concentration profiles, few field studies have been carried out measuring the exposure of cleaners. However, both field studies and emission testing indicate that the use of cleaning agents results in a temporal increase in the overall VOC level. This increase may occur during the cleaning process and thus it can enhance the probability of increased short-term exposure of the cleaners. However, the increased levels can also be present after the cleaning and result in an overall increased VOC level that can possibly affect the indoor air quality (IAQ) perceived by

  13. Plasma cleaning of ITER first mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Reichle, R.; Leipold, F.; Vorpahl, C.; Le Guern, F.; Walach, U.; Alberti, S.; Furno, I.; Yan, R.; Peng, J.; Ben Yaala, M.; Meyer, E.

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear fusion is an extremely attractive option for future generations to compete with the strong increase in energy consumption. Proper control of the fusion plasma is mandatory to reach the ambitious objectives set while preserving the machine’s integrity, which requests a large number of plasma diagnostic systems. Due to the large neutron flux expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), regular windows or fibre optics are unusable and were replaced by so-called metallic first mirrors (FMs) embedded in the neutron shielding, forming an optical labyrinth. Materials eroded from the first wall reactor through physical or chemical sputtering will migrate and will be deposited onto mirrors. Mirrors subject to net deposition will suffer from reflectivity losses due to the deposition of impurities. Cleaning systems of metallic FMs are required in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems in ITER. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency (RF) generated plasmas is currently being considered the most promising in situ cleaning technique. An update of recent results obtained with this technique will be presented. These include the demonstration of cleaning of several deposit types (beryllium, tungsten and beryllium proxy, i.e. aluminium) at 13.56 or 60 MHz as well as large scale cleaning (mirror size: 200 × 300 mm2). Tests under a strong magnetic field up to 3.5 T in laboratory and first experiments of RF plasma cleaning in EAST tokamak will also be discussed. A specific focus will be given on repetitive cleaning experiments performed on several FM material candidates.

  14. CPV performance versus soiling effects: Cleaning policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, D.; Trujillo, P.; Martinez, M.; Ferrer, J. P.; Rubio, F.

    2012-10-01

    In order to improve the performance of the CPV Plants in a cost effective way it is important to define the best cleaning policies, analyzing the effect of soiling in the surface of CPV modules. The energy generation of a CPV technology based in Fresnel Lens improves up to 7% when the surface of the module is cleaned. Some experimental measurements have been carried out over CPV modules and a model has been defined to analyze what is the best cleaning policy for that Technology in Puertollano. The power losses because of soiling and the critical time until the power losses stabilizes are obtained from the measurements; they are used as an input for the simulation. Using an established cleaning cost and the feeding tariff from Spain in 2007 it has been obtained that cleaning only reports a profit during the summer. The conclusion of the work is that the cleaning tasks have to be carefully planned together with the meteorological forecast in order to maximize the investment made in the cleaning.

  15. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Clean Water Act Dischargers Data Set (effluent violations)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) data sets have been compiled for access to larger sets of national data to ensure that ECHO meets your data...

  16. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Clean Water Act Dischargers Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) data sets have been compiled for access to larger sets of national data to ensure that ECHO meets your data...

  17. Metal-assisted etch combined with regularizing etch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Joanne; Miller, Jeff; Jura, Michael; Black, Marcie R.; Forziati, Joanne; Murphy, Brian; Magliozzi, Lauren

    2018-03-06

    In an aspect of the disclosure, a process for forming nanostructuring on a silicon-containing substrate is provided. The process comprises (a) performing metal-assisted chemical etching on the substrate, (b) performing a clean, including partial or total removal of the metal used to assist the chemical etch, and (c) performing an isotropic or substantially isotropic chemical etch subsequently to the metal-assisted chemical etch of step (a). In an alternative aspect of the disclosure, the process comprises (a) performing metal-assisted chemical etching on the substrate, (b) cleaning the substrate, including removal of some or all of the assisting metal, and (c) performing a chemical etch which results in regularized openings in the silicon substrate.

  18. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, B.

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended

  19. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  20. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.