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Sample records for assisted deposition ibad

  1. Reel-to-reel preparation of ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD)-MgO based coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiskott, Sascha; Arendt, Paul N; Coulter, J Yates; Dowden, Paul C; Foltyn, Stephen R; Gibbons, Brady J; Matias, Vladimir; Sheehan, Chris J [Superconductivity Technology Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-05-01

    We report on our efforts in developing and scaling-up the systems for IBAD-MgO based coated conductor fabrication. The overall fabrication process involves a number of different processes including: electropolishing of the substrates; barrier-layer, seed-layer, and IBAD-MgO deposition by e-beam evaporation; and pulsed laser deposition of buffer and YBCO layers. All processes are realized in reel-to-reel processing systems. Latest results have shown that the IBAD-MgO approach yields coated conductor performance comparable to the best results achieved elsewhere to date.

  2. Ion beams application to modification of surface layer of solids with particular regard to IBAD method - ion beam assisted deposition realized in the INP; Zastosowanie wiazek jonowych do modyfikowania warstwy wierzchniej cial stalych, ze szczegolnym uwzglednieniem metody IBAD - Ion Beam Assisted Deposition, realizowanej w IFJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drwiega, M.; Lipinska, E.

    1992-12-31

    The different trends in ion engineering such as: dynamic ion mixing, ionized cluster beam deposition and ion beam assisted deposition are described. Some examples of properties of surface coatings are given and their applications are presented. The future of ion engineering is described. 48 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs.

  3. IBAD-MgO technology for coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, William [Dept. of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technology has been successfully applied to high-temperature superconductor coated conductors (CC) as textured substrates. Since the coated conductors were proposed as a potential framework for utilizing the superior transport characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7 and related cuprate oxides, several methods including rolling-assisted bi-axial textured substrates (RABiTS) and inclined substrate deposition (ISD), as well as IBAD, have been attempted. As of 2016, most companies that are trying to commercialize CC adapt IBAD technology except for American Superconductors who use RABiTS predominantly. For the materials in the IBAD process, initial efforts to use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or related fluorites in Fujikura in Japan have quickly given way to MgO which technique was developed by Stanford University in the USA. In this review, we present a historical overview of IBAD technology, in particular, for the application of CC. We describe the key scientific understanding of nucleation, the texturing mechanism, and the growth of large bi-axial grains and discuss some potential new IBAD materials and systems for large-scale production.

  4. Improved interface growth and enhanced flux pinning in YBCO films deposited on an advanced IBAD-MgO based template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Z.; Zhao, Y.; Wu, X.; Malmivirta, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The growth mechanism is studied from the flux pinning point of view in small-scale YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) thin films deposited on a polycrystalline hastelloy with advanced IBAD-MgO based buffer layer architecture. When compared the situation with YBCO films grown on single crystal substrates, the most critical issues that affect the suitable defect formation and thus the optimal vortex pinning landscape, have been studied as a function of the growth temperature and the film thickness evolution. We can conclude that the best critical current property in a wide applied magnetic field range is observed in films grown at relatively low temperature and having intermediate thickness. These phenomena are linked to the combination of the improved interface growth, to the film thickness related crystalline relaxation and to the formation of linear array of edge dislocations that forms the low-angle grain boundaries through the entire film thickness and thus improve the vortex pinning properties. Hence, the optimized buffer layer structure proved to be particularly suitable for new coated conductor solutions.

  5. Tilting of carbon encapsulated metallic nanocolumns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite films by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Muecklich, Arndt; Zschornak, Matthias; Wintz, Sebastian; Gemming, Sibylle; Abrasonis, Gintautas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Oates, Thomas W. H. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaft, ISAS e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Luis Endrino, Jose [Surfaces and Coatings Department, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Baehtz, Carsten; Shalimov, Artem [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Rossendorf Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2012-07-30

    The influence of assisting low-energy ({approx}50-100 eV) ion irradiation effects on the morphology of C:Ni ({approx}15 at. %) nanocomposite films during ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is investigated. It is shown that IBAD promotes the columnar growth of carbon encapsulated metallic nanoparticles. The momentum transfer from assisting ions results in tilting of the columns in relation to the growing film surface. Complex secondary structures are obtained, in which a significant part of the columns grows under local epitaxy via the junction of sequentially deposited thin film fractions. The influence of such anisotropic film morphology on the optical properties is highlighted.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of c-BN films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition and triode sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben el Mekki, M.; Djouadi, M.A.; Mortet, V.; Guiot, E. [ENSAM, Cluny (France). Lab. Bourguignon des Mater. et Procedes; Nouet, G. [LERMAT, ISMRA, Caen (France); Mestres, N. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, (CSIC), E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    Boron nitride films deposited on unheated c-Si substrates by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and triode sputtering (TS) techniques are studied. The composition, microstructure and crystallinity of the films obtained by the two techniques are compared The methods of characterization used in this study are: X-ray photo-electron, infrared, and Raman spectroscopies. High-resolution cross sectional TEM is used to confirm the optical results. In the case of films prepared by IBAD, the ion energy was 350-500 eV. The films were prepared from different gas mixtures of nitrogen and argon, boron was supplied by evaporation of elemental boron. TS films were prepared with 100% of nitrogen, the boron was supplied by sputtering a pure boron target. This study shows that, in comparison with TS samples, IBAD samples have higher chemical and physical stability. The particle-size dependence of frequencies and damping of optical phonons is studied for all samples from the analysis of Raman scattering and infrared spectra. A very important difference between the particle-sizes of IBAD and TS samples is observed. A progressive chemical etching by nitric acid at 80 C combined with infrared characterization was successfully performed on IBAD samples deposited at low ion flux and announces a mixture of sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} phases with high content of sp{sup 3} structure. All results are in full agreements with TEM results. (orig.)

  7. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  8. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a <111> oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  9. Ion mass and energy selective hyperthermal ion-beam assisted deposition setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, J. W.; Schumacher, P.; Mensing, M.; Rauschenbach, S.; Cermak, I.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2017-06-01

    For the synthesis of high-quality thin films, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is a frequently used technique providing precise control over several substantial film properties. IBAD typically relies on the use of a broad-beam ion source. Such ion sources suffer from the limitation that they deliver a blend of ions with different ion masses, each of them possessing a certain distribution of kinetic energy. In this paper, a compact experimental setup is presented that enables the separate control of ion mass and ion kinetic energy in the region of hyperthermal energies (few 1 eV - few 100 eV). This ion energy region is of increasing interest not only for ion-assisted film growth but also for the wide field of preparative mass spectrometry. The setup consists of a constricted glow-discharge plasma beam source and a tailor-made, compact quadrupole system equipped with entry and exit ion optics. It is demonstrated that the separation of monoatomic and polyatomic nitrogen ions (N+ and N2+) is accomplished. For both ion species, the kinetic energy is shown to be selectable in the region of hyperthermal energies. At the sample position, ion current densities are found to be in the order of 1 μA/cm2 and the full width at half maximum of the ion beam profile is in the order of 10 mm. Thus, the requirements for homogeneous deposition processes in sufficiently short periods of time are fulfilled. Finally, employing the described setup, for the first time in practice epitaxial GaN films were deposited. This opens up the opportunity to fundamentally study the influence of the simultaneous irradiation with hyperthermal ions on the thin film growth in IBAD processes and to increase the flexibility of the technique.

  10. Effects of calcium phosphate coating to SLA surface implants by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method on self-contained coronal defect healing in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Heun-Joo; Song, Ji-Eun; Um, Yoo-Jung; Chae, Gyung Joon; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung-Min [Dentium Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: shchoi726@yuhs.a [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of self-contained coronal defects on a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface implant, which had a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating applied by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We also evaluated the effect of heating the coating to different temperatures. The CaP-coated SLA implants exhibited a slightly larger bone healing capacity in the self-contained coronal defect than SLA implants, indicating that combining SLA surface implants and a CaP coating by the IBAD method had synergistic effects on bone healing. There was no difference in the healing capacity between 350 deg. C and 450 deg. C heat treatment of the coating layer.

  11. High-temperature tribological characteristics of silver and gold coatings on ceramics prepared by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-04-01

    An ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) system was used to deposit silver and gold coatings on polycrystalline {alpha}-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates for tribological studies at temperatures to 400{degrees}C. The wear tests were performed with an oscillating ball-on-flat type of test apparatus as a partial simulation of ring/liner motion and contact geometry in actual engine systems. The test results showed that without a surface coating, both the wear rates and the friction coefficients of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} test pairs were quite high, and increased substantially with temperature. In contract, the wear of flats coated with silver and gold was at unmeasurable levels, even after sliding tests of 110,000 passes. The wear of balls (uncoated) sliding against the Ag- and Au-coated flats was reduced by factors of 45 to more than 500 depending on coating type and ambient temperature. The friction coefficients of pairs with an IBAD-Ag or Au coating were in the range of 0.32--0.5.

  12. Improvement of spatial homogeneity in IBAD based YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulkifli, Z. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering, Graduate School of ISEE, Kyushu University, 744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi 819-0395 (Japan)], E-mail: zulis@super.ees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Kiss, T.; Inoue, M.; Enpuku, K. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering, Graduate School of ISEE, Kyushu University, 744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi 819-0395 (Japan); Kashima, N.; Watanabe, T.; Mori, M.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Ibi, A.; Miyata, S.; Yamada, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Division of Superconducting Tape and Wire, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    Prior to the development of fabrication technique for the chemical vapor deposited (CVD) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} coated conductor on a IBAD-Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, investigations on the improvement of spatial homogeneity have been done. By using spatially resolved measurements and combined multiple microanalysis techniques with length scale of several {mu}m, physical and transport properties of the CVD samples have been investigated before and after fabrication modification. Structural inhomogeneity was visualized using thermoelectric voltage imaging (TVI) technique using a laser scanning microscope. Laser scanning microscopy at superconducting temperature is used to visualize flux flow dissipation; furthermore, mappings of 2D local current flow density distribution have been done using a scanning SQUID microscopy. It has been shown that the superconducting layer consisted of YBCO matrix with localized defects originating from the buffer layer. This led to current non-uniformity and caused high flux flow dissipation within the vicinity of the defects. Process conditions have been modified effectively based on those insights. After fabrication modification, our measurement analyses shows that the texturing of the YBCO layer improved significantly and the appearance of spatially distributed obstacles that are responsible for non-uniform current distribution and localized dissipation are reduced. Our complementing, quick yet non-invasive technique not only can quantify the improvement of YBCO homogeneity but also shed light on the basic understanding of the current limiting mechanism in the IBAD based coated conductors.

  13. Lateral J {sub c} distribution of YBCO coated conductors fabricated by IBAD/MOCVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: ame@rain.dnj.ynu.ac.jp; Maruyama, O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Mori, M. [Chubu Electric Power Co., 20-1 Kita-Sekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Kashima, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co., 20-1 Kita-Sekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co., 20-1 Kita-Sekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., 20-1 Kita-Sekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [ISTEC-SRL, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2006-10-01

    The lateral J {sub c} distributions of YBCO coated conductors fabricated by IBAD/MOCVD process were measured by the magnetic knife method. In the samples, YBCO layer was deposited by MOCVD process on the IBAD template of GZO together with CeO{sub 2} layer. Ag-protective layer was put on YBCO layer. A series of voltage taps were attached with 10 mm separation, and the lateral J {sub c} distribution was measured in each section between two voltage taps. A sample YBCO coated conductor in which YBCO layer was deposited five times using an up-to-date set-up shows a rather uniform J {sub c} distribution. The magnitude of J {sub c} reaches 2 x 10{sup 10} A/m{sup 2} (2 MA/cm{sup 2}) in wide area of the conductor.

  14. I. Measuring and Reducing Stress and Surface Roughness in IBAD MgO Films and II. Developing Tools to Measure Transfer in Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakos, Cory Dale

    I. MgO may be grown with a biaxial texture onto an amorphous substrate with the use of ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). This MgO film may then be used as a platform on which to grow epitaxial films on an amorphous membrane for characterization purposes. However, the IBAD MgO film is stressed, causing buckles in the amorphous membrane and problems with further film growth on the IBAD MgO. This dissertation work explores the source of this film stress and develops methods to relax the stress and reduce surface roughness with annealing and increased growth temperature. It is determined that annealing and increased growth temperature coupled with a higher ion-to-atom ratio (IAR) during film growth reduce stress and surface roughness sufficiently to use even thinner IBAD MgO films as an intermediate layer between an amorphous membrane and epitaxial film. II. Much of the existing literature on knowledge transfer concludes that transfer is rare and does not occur spontaneously. However, studies supporting that transfer is rare often use methods that focus on binary success or failure to solve a problem correctly and do not analyze thought process. This dissertation work aims at developing transfer questions that allow open-ended responses, developing a method of analysis for these responses that looks for transfer in the problem-solving process, and assessing the methodology itself and its sensitivity, validity, and utility as a general transfer measurement technique for use across a broad range of expertise levels in chemistry. Detailed analysis of responses to each transfer question show that some transfer questions are more effective at distinguishing between expertise levels while also allowing responders of all levels to show knowledge transfer. Simpler questions that are more accessible to students of introductory chemistry proved the most useful at eliciting a range of responses that correlate with expertise level while still showing some degree of transfer in

  15. Texture evolution of transition-metal nitride thin films by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.-H.; Huang, J.-H.; Chen, Haydn

    2004-01-15

    TiN, VN and CrN were systematically deposited on silicon substrates using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique at temperatures and ion (N{sub 2}{sup +}) energy ranging from 300 deg. C to 500 deg. C and 100 eV to 650 eV, respectively. The results showed that the texture could be controlled by the ion beam energy, flux, and its incident angle, in conjunction with the deposition temperature. For the 0 deg. angle of ion incidence, fiber textures were formed and could be controlled between (111) and (200) surface plane orientation by adjusting ion flux or ion energy. Three types of in-plane textures were produced, when the ion beam was incident at 45 deg. angle, for which cases ion channeling played an important role in the formation of in-plane texture. Using the strain-energy perturbation method, the stability of texture can be further understood. Among the three in-plane textures, the (200) in-plane texture is strain-energy stable, and the others are not.

  16. Dependence of superconducting layer thickness on critical current density of IBAD/CVD-processed YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himeki, K.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S. [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Matsushita, T., E-mail: matusita@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Shikimachi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1, Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    The thickness dependence of the critical current characteristics was investigated for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d}elta (YBCO) coated conductors fabricated by Ion Beam Assist Deposition (IBAD)/Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) method in the range of 0.18-0.90 mum to find out the optimum thickness for various applications. The transport and magnetization critical current densities were estimated using the electric field criterion of E{sub c} = 1.0 x 10{sup -4} V/m and E{sub c} = 1.0 x 10{sup -9} V/m, respectively. The critical current density decreased with increase thickness in the low magnetic field region in the both electric field region because of the structural degradation of superconducting layer. This decreasing rate was lower than in Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)-processed YBCO coated conductors. It is found that the thickness dependence of irreversibility field B{sub i} differed between the low and normal electric field region. In the low electric field region, B{sub i} increased with increasing thickness. On the other hand, B{sub i} is almost independent of the thickness in the normal electric field region. The thickness dependence of B{sub i} was also superior to that of PLD-processed YBCO coated conductors.

  17. Computer simulation of transient layer chemical composition in Cr-N films obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Marchenko, I G

    2001-01-01

    The computer simulation of Cr-N film deposition by IBAD method was carried out. The implanted nitrogen content in the growing film is calculated, values of the radiation defect formation in the film are obtained. The variation of the implanted nitrogen relationship to the defect distribution in the growing film depth is analyzed.

  18. Structure investigation of BN films grown by ion-beam-assisted deposition by means of polarised IR and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben el Mekki, M.; Djouadi, M.A.; Guiot, E.; Mortet, V. [ENSAM, Cluny (France). Lab. Bourguignon des Materiaux et Procedes; Pascallon, J.; Stambouli, V.; Bouchier, D. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Mestres, N. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Nouet, G. [LERMAT, ISMRA, Caen (France)

    1999-09-01

    We present an optical investigation, by means of polarised infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Raman scattering, of the microstructure and crystallinity of mixed films of hexagonal and cubic boron nitride (h-BN and c-BN, respectively). The films were deposited on an unheated silicon substrate by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method (IBAD) at low energy (400-500 eV). The deposition temperature, due to the ion bombardment, was in the range 200-250 C at the end of the deposition process. Different film types were grown on a silicon substrate of dimensions 75 mm x 15 mm by changing the ion (nitrogen+argon) to atom (thermal boron) arrival ratio, {phi}{sub ion}/{phi}{sub B}, in the range 0.69-3. Polarised IR reflectivity (PIRR) spectra were acquired at different positions on the BN film (different arrival ratios {phi}{sub ion}/{phi}{sub B}) and show an important upwards shift of transverse optical (TO) and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons of the twofold degenerated mode E{sub 1u} of the sp{sup 2} phase at the transition zone from sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3} phases. Several processes can shift the IR phonon peaks, including the degree of crystallinity, film thickness, film stoichiometry and intrinsic stress. The micro-Raman results and the full-width at half-maximum values of TO phonons of the E{sub 1u} mode show that the BN film has a similar crystallinity in all regions. The effect of the film thickness was shown by using a microstructure-dependent model for the IR anisotropic effective dielectric function of thin films. (orig.)

  19. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yzhang@superpower-inc.com [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90 Degree-Sign to 180 Degree-Sign) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  20. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition of germanium thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diethyl germanium bis-picolinate, [Et2Ge(O2CC5H4N)2], and trimethyl germanium quinaldate, [Me3Ge(O2CC9H6N)], have been used as precursors for deposition of thin films of germanium by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). The thermogravimetric analysis revealed complete volatilization of ...

  1. Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaogan [Berkeley, CA

    2011-11-15

    An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

  2. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Bloisi, Francesco, E-mail: bloisi@na.infn.it [SPIN – CNR, Naples (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria [Istituto Motori – CNR, Naples (Italy); Depero, Laura E. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Federici, Stefania [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori – CNR, Naples (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [SPIN – CNR, Naples (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • A lipase film was deposited with Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique. • FTIR spectra show that laser irradiation do not damage lipase molecule. • Laser fluence controls the characteristics of complex structure generated by MAPLE. - Abstract: Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence.

  3. Low-Temperature Deposition of Zinc Oxide Film by Plasma-Assisted Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Okumura, Yusuke; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2012-08-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) film deposition using a plasma-assisted mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with an inductively-coupled plasma source has been performed and the effects of the plasma exposure on film properties have been investigated with oxygen mixture ratio as a parameter. With increasing oxygen mixture ratio to Ar+O2(10%), the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed evident peaks of ZnO(0002), indicating that highly c-axis-oriented films were grown at low substrate temperatures below 200 °C. The deposition rate of ZnO films was as high as 100 nm/min. ZnO films with an optical transmittance of 75% for the visible region and a band gap energy of 3.32 eV have been obtained by using plasma-assisted mist CVD.

  4. Matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition of melanin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloisi, F.; Pezzella, A.; Barra, M.; Chiarella, F.; Cassinese, A.; Vicari, L.

    2011-07-01

    Melanins constitute a very important class of organic pigments, recently emerging as a potential material for a new generation of bioinspired biocompatible electrically active devices. In this paper, we report about the deposition of synthetic melanin films starting from aqueous suspensions by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). In particular, we demonstrate that it is possible to deposit melanin films by MAPLE even if melanin (a) is not soluble in water and (b) absorbs light from UV to IR. AFM images reveal that the film surface features are highly depending on the deposition parameters. UV-VIS and FTIR spectra show both the optical properties and the molecular structure typical of melanins are preserved.

  5. Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2007-02-28

    Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

  6. Microstructural and frictional control of diamond-like carbon films deposited on acrylic rubber by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martinez, D.; Schenkel, M.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we concentrate on the microstructure of diamond-like carbon films prepared by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition on acrylic rubber. The temperature variation produced by the ion impingement during plasma cleaning and subsequent film deposition was monitored and controlled as a

  7. Mechanical and transport properties of IBAD/EDDC-SmBCO coated conductor tapes during fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Dedicatoria, Marlon J.

    2011-06-01

    In electrical devices like superconducting motor, generator and SMES, HTS coated conductor (CC) tapes will be subjected to alternating stress or strain during manufacturing and operation. The repeated loading will affect the mechanical integrity and eventually the electrical transport property of CC tapes. Therefore in such applications, electro-mechanical property of CC tapes should be evaluated. In this study, the endurance of an IBAD/EDDC-SmBCO CC tape under high-cycle fatigue loading has been evaluated. Applied maximum stress and fatigue life ( S-N) relation was obtained at 77 K. The mechanical properties and the critical current, I c, of the sample under fatigue loading were investigated at 77 K. Considering the practical operating environment, the effect of the stress ratio R, on the degradation behavior of I c under fatigue loading was also examined.

  8. Influence of substrate pre-treatments by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on the behavior of TiN coatings deposited by plasma reactive sputtering on 100Cr6 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, S., E-mail: sandra.vales@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Brito, P., E-mail: ppbrito@gmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Av. Dom José Gaspar 500, 30535-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pineda, F.A.G., E-mail: pipe8219@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Ochoa, E.A., E-mail: abigail_ochoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Droppa, R., E-mail: roosevelt.droppa@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Garcia, J., E-mail: jose.garcia@sandvik.com [Sandvik Coromant R& D, Lerkrogsvägen 19, SE-12680, Stockholm (Sweden); Morales, M., E-mail: monieriz@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Alvarez, F., E-mail: alvarez@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the influence of pre-treating a 100Cr6 steel surface by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding at low temperature (380 °C) on the roughness, wear resistance and residual stresses of thin TiN coatings deposited by reactive IBAD was investigated. The Xe{sup +} ion bombardment was carried out using a 1.0 keV kinetic energy by a broad ion beam assistance deposition (IBAD, Kaufman cell). The results showed that in the studied experimental conditions the ion bombardment intensifies nitrogen diffusion by creating lattice imperfections, stress, and increasing roughness. In case of the combined pre-treatment with Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and subsequent plasma nitriding, the samples evolved relatively high average roughness and the wear volume increased in comparison to the substrates exposed to only nitriding or ion bombardment. - Highlights: • Effect of Xe ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on TiN coatings was investigated. • Xe ion bombardment with 1.0 KeV increases nitrogen retention in plasma nitriding. • 1.0 KeV ion impact energy causes sputtering, thus increasing surface roughness. • TiN coating wear is minimum after plasma nitriding due to lowest roughness.

  9. Characterisation of optical thin films obtained by plasma ion assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placido, Frank; Gibson, Des; Waddell, Ewan; Crossan, Edward

    2006-08-01

    Optical thin films deposited using plasma ion assisted deposition (PAD) are characterized by ellipsometry, spectrophotometry and nano-indentation. PAD utilizes a dc voltage between an anode and a hot cathode, creating a high-density plasma that is extracted by an electromagnetic field. The assisted source allows denser, more stable films with higher refractive indices to be deposited without additional heating of the substrates. The primary advantage of the plasma compared to the ion source approach is that the plasma fills the vacuum chamber and couples into the evaporant, inducing partial ionization.

  10. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition of germanium thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These films on oxidation under an oxygen atmosphere at 600◦C yield GeO2. Both Ge ... corrosive. To overcome these problems, research is directed to design and develop new organogermanium precursors for deposition of germanium films by CVD. Recently ... stat PGSTAT 20 (Echochimie, The Netherlands), was used.

  11. Dielectric Properties of Thermal and Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinesh, K. B.; van Hemmen, J. L.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Roozeboom, F.; Klootwijk, J. H.; Besling, W. F. A.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    A comparative electrical characterization study of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) deposited by thermal and plasma-assisted atomic layer depositions (ALDs) in a single reactor is presented. Capacitance and leakage current measurements show that the Al2O3 deposited by the plasma-assisted ALD shows excellent

  12. Aspects of the SrO-CuO-TiO2 Ternary System Related to the Deposition of SrTiO3 and Copper-Doped SrTiO3 Thin-Film Buffer Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, Alicia [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2004-12-20

    YBa2Cu3O27-δ (YBCO) coated conductors are promising materials for large-scale superconductivity applications. One version of a YBCO coated conductor is based on ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of magnesium oxide (MgO) onto polycrystalline metal substrates. SrTiO3 (STO) is often deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods as a buffer layer between the YBCO and IBAD MgO due to its chemical stability and lattice mismatch of only ~1.5% with YBCO. In this work, some aspects of the stability of STO with respect to copper (Cu) and chemical solution deposition of STO on IBAD MgO templates were examined. Solubility limits of Cu in STO were established by processing Cu-doped STO powders by conventional bulk preparation techniques. The maximum solubility of Cu in STO was ~1% as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction (XRD) data. XRD analysis, performed in collaboration with NIST, on powder compositions on the STO/SrCuO2 tie line did not identify any ternary phases. SrCu0.10T0.90Oy buffer layers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and CSD on IBAD MgO flexible metallic textured tapes. TEM analysis of a ~100 nm thick SrCu0.10Ti0.90Oy buffer layer deposited by PLD showed a smooth Cu-doped STO/MgO interface. A ~600 nm thick YBCO film, deposited onto the SrCu0.10Ti0.90Oy buffer by PLD, exhibited a Tc of 87 K and critical current density (Jc) of ~1 MA/cm2. STO and Cu-doped STO thin films by CSD were ~30 nm thick. The in plane alignment (FWHM) after deposition of the STO improved by ~1° while it degraded by ~2° with the SrCu0.05TiOy buffer. YBCO was deposited by PLD on the STO and SrCu0.05TiOy buffers. The in plane alignment (FWHM) of the YBCO with the STO buffer layer

  13. Basic AC loss properties of IBAD/CVD-YBCO tapes for pancake-type coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, K. [Research Institute of Superconductor Science and Systems, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)], E-mail: funaki@sc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Sueyoshi, T.; Iwakuma, M. [Research Institute of Superconductor Science and Systems, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1 Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    We are experimentally studying basic AC loss properties of IBAD/CVD-YBCO coated conductors with a copper layer for stabilizing, especially the temperature dependence of perpendicular field loss in alternating electromagnetic environments. We prepared two types of short specimens with and without a copper layer and measured AC losses by a saddle-shaped pickup coil in an alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the wide surfaces at liquid helium temperature. In the ranges of the amplitude up to 4 T and the frequency up to 0.2 Hz, the AC losses both of the two specimens are hardly dependent upon the frequency. The results show that hysteresis loss is a major component of the AC loss in the specimens and the effects of the copper layer can be negligible. We also measured AC losses for the specimens with the copper layer at liquid nitrogen temperature to estimate the dependence on measurement temperature. The results suggested that the AC loss vs. the amplitude of applied field can be scaled by a critical current at a zero magnetic field.

  14. Laser-assisted deposition of thin C60 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Fæster, Søren

    . However, organic materials are usually not well suited for direct laser irradiation, since the organic molecules may suffer from fragmentation by the laser light. We have, therefore, explored the possible fragmentation of organic molecules by attempting to produce thin films of C60 which is a strongly...... bound carbon molecule with a well-defined mass (M = 720 amu) and therefore a good, organic test molecule. C60 fullerene thin films of average thickness of more than 100 nm was produced in vacuum by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A 355 nm Nd:YAG laser was directed onto a frozen target...

  15. Gallium assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardo, I; Roessler, J; Frimmer, M; Fontcuberta i Morral, A [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Yu, L; Alet, Pierre Jean; Roca i Cabarrocas, P [LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Conesa-Boj, S; Estrade, S; Peiro, F; Arbiol, J; Morante, J R [EME/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departamento d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    Silicon nanowires have been grown with gallium as catalyst by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The morphology and crystalline structure has been studied by electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy as a function of growth temperature and catalyst thickness. We observe that the crystalline quality of the wires increases with the temperature at which they have been synthesized. The crystalline growth direction has been found to vary between <111> and <112>, depending on both the growth temperature and catalyst thickness. Gallium has been found at the end of the nanowires, as expected from the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. These results represent good progress towards finding alternative catalysts to gold for the synthesis of nanowires.

  16. Functional porphyrin thin films deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Atomistilor 409, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Popescu, A.C.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Atomistilor 409, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ciucu, A.A. [Univeristy of Bucharest, Chemistry Department, Bucharest (Romania); Andronie, A.; Iordache, S.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3 Nano-SAE Research Center, P.O. Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Fagadar-Cosma, E. [Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, Department of Organic Chemistry, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, School of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Troy 12180-3590, NY (United States)

    2010-05-25

    We report the first successful deposition of functionalized and nanostructured Zn(II)- and Co(II)-metalloporphyrin thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation onto silicon wafers, quartz plates and screen-printed electrodes. The deposited nanostructures have been characterized by Raman spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. The novelty of our contribution consists of the evaluation of the sensitivity of the MAPLE-deposited Zn(II)- and Co(II)-metalloporphyrin thin films on screen-printed carbon nanotube electrodes when challenged with dopamine.

  17. UV and RIR matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition of organic MEH-PPV films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Papantonalis, M.R.; Auyeung, R.C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of thin film production based on gentle laser-ablation techniques has been carried out with the luminescent polymer poly [2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]. Using a free-electron laser films were made by resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR......-PLD). For the first time resonant infrared matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) was successfully demonstrated on a luminescent polymer system. In addition to this, an excimer laser has been used for UV-MAPLE depositions at 193 and 248-nm irradiation. Films deposited onto NaCl and quartz substrates...... were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance and photoluminescence. Photoluminescent material was deposited by RIR-MAPLE and 248-nm MAPLE, while the RIR-PLD and 193-nm-MAPLE depositions displayed the smoothest surfaces but did not show photoluminescence. (C) 2003...

  18. Kinetics of the electrochemically-assisted deposition of sol-gel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Walcarius, Alain

    2017-06-14

    Electrochemically-assisted deposition is now becoming a widespread method for preparing sol-gel films. It is based on the electrochemical generation of OH - ions, which can then catalyze the sol-gel condensation reactions. It has a key advantage of selectively facilitating the film deposition on electrochemically active surfaces while not affecting the stability of the bulk precursor solution. Experimental studies have clearly shown that the thickness of the electrochemically-assisted deposited films is influenced by the deposition parameters such as the potential and time. However, there is still a lack of quantitative description of the kinetics of film growth due to the complexity of the process. In this preliminary study, we derived quantitative analytical expressions for describing the kinetics associated with the growth of sol-gel films generated by electrochemically assisted deposition. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous condensation reactions were considered. The key strategy was to simplify the process by separating the electrochemical step of generating OH - ions with the condensation steps of film formation under approximation. Furthermore, numerical simulation was carried out to examine the validity and any errors in the analytical expressions in the cases when the required approximations were not fulfilled. The analytical expressions could well explain the trends observed in the experimental studies and could also be used for fitting the experimental results from the literature. This study provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism and quantitative guidance for manipulating electrochemically-assisted deposition processes at a large scale in industry. It may also be referred to in regard to other indirect electrodeposition systems in which the deposition is not an electrochemical step but is instead driven by electrochemically-generated catalysts.

  19. Comparative study on Pulsed Laser Deposition and Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation of urease thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smausz, Tomi, E-mail: tomi@physx.u-szeged.h [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged, P.O. Box 406 (Hungary); Megyeri, Gabor; Kekesi, Renata; Vass, Csaba [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged, P.O. Box 406 (Hungary); Gyoergy, Eniko; Sima, Felix; Mihailescu, Ion N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-54, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Hopp, Bela [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6701 Szeged, P.O. Box 406 (Hungary)

    2009-06-01

    Urease thin films were produced by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) and Pulsed Laser Deposition from two types of targets: frozen water solutions of urease with different concentrations (1-10% m/v) and pure urease pellets. The fluence of the ablating KrF excimer laser was varied between 300 and 2200 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the deposited films showed no difference as compared to the original urease. Morphologic studies proved that the films consist of a smooth 'base' layer with embedded micrometer-sized droplets. Absorption-coefficient measurements contradicted the traditional 'absorptive matrix' model for MAPLE deposition. The laser energy was absorbed by urease clusters leading to a local heating-up and evaporation of the frozen matrix from the uppermost layer accompanied by the release of dissolved urease molecules. Significant enzymatic activity of urease was preserved only during matrix assisted transfer.

  20. Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition – Technological Design Of Functional Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januś M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (PA CVD method allows to deposit of homogeneous, well-adhesive coatings at lower temperature on different substrates. Plasmochemical treatment significantly impacts on physicochemical parameters of modified surfaces. In this study we present the overview of the possibilities of plasma processes for the deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings doped Si and/or N atoms on the Ti Grade2, aluminum-zinc alloy and polyetherketone substrate. Depending on the type of modified substrate had improved the corrosion properties including biocompatibility of titanium surface, increase of surface hardness with deposition of good adhesion and fine-grained coatings (in the case of Al-Zn alloy and improving of the wear resistance (in the case of PEEK substrate.

  1. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  2. Laser-assisted metal deposition from liquid-phase precursors on polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordás, K.; Békési, J.; Vajtai, R.; Nánai, L.; Leppävuori, S.; Uusimäki, A.; Bali, K.; George, Thomas F.; Galbács, G.; Ignácz, F.; Moilanen, P.

    2001-03-01

    In this work, a short review is presented for results utilizing the technique of laser-assisted metallization of dielectrics. Experimental efforts and results related to the metal (palladium (Pd), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag)) deposition on polymeric materials (polyimide (PI), mylar) are reported. These polymers and metals are chosen due to their growing importance in the rapidly-developing microelectronics packaging industry. The method of laser-induced chemical liquid-phase deposition (LCLD) offers many advantages compared to other techniques such as laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and laser-assisted chemical vapor-phase deposition (LCVD). The LCLD is time and cost effective because vacuum tools and special pre-treatments are not required. The consumed chemicals used in precursors are non-harmful and easy to handle due to the liquid phase. For the optimal physical and chemical properties of deposits, the laser and solution parameters are varied. XeCl and KrF excimer and Ar + lasers are employed for executing the palladium, Ag and/or Cu formation on the polymer substrates. Chemical and physical analyses of the formed metal patterns are performed by EDX, XRD, FESEM, SEM, resistance and adhesion measurements.

  3. Highly textured zinc oxide films by room temperature ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehl, D.; Wuttig, M. [I. Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Luysberg, M. [Ernst Ruska-Zentrum fuer Mikroskopie und Spektroskopie mit Elektronen/IFF, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    A new ion beam assisted sputter deposition technique has been developed which facilitates room temperature fabrication of thin ZnO films with exceptional structural order. The well-defined texture of these films is comparable to films deposited at elevated temperatures of typically 200-300 C in standard sputter processes. Structural investigations reveal that the applied Xe{sup +} ion bombardment mainly affects the nucleation of ZnO crystallites. The high structural order of the nucleation layer is maintained in subsequent stages of film growth. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Ion - beam assisted process in the physical deposition of organic thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimov, D; Spassova, E; Assa, J; Danev, G [Acad. J .Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgiev, A, E-mail: dean@clf.bas.b [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    A novel method was developed for physical deposition of thin polyimide layers by applying an argon plasma assisted process. The influence was investigated of the plasma on the combined molecular flux of the two thermally evaporated precursors - oxydianiline and pyromellitic dianhydride. The effects observed on the properties of the deposited films are explained with the increased energy of the precursor molecules resulting from the ion-molecular collisions. As could be expected, molecules with higher energy possess higher mobility and thus determine the modification of the films structure and their electrical properties.

  5. Mechanical Properties and Thermal Stability of TiN/Ta Multilayer Film Deposited by Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Shang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiN/Ta multilayer film with a modulation period of 5.6 nm and modulation ratio of 1 : 1 was produced by ion beam assisted deposition. Microstructure of the as-deposited TiN/Ta multilayer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy and mechanical properties were investigated. Residual stress in the TiN/Ta multilayer film was about 72% of that of a TiN monolayer film with equivalent thickness deposited under the same conditions. Partial residual stress was released in the Ta sublayers during deposition, which led to the decrease of the residual stress of the TiN/Ta multilayer film. Nanohardness (H of the TiN/Ta multilayer film was 24 GPa, 14% higher than that of the TiN monolayer film. It is suggested that the increase of the nanohardness is due to the introduction of the Ta layers which restrained the growth of TiN crystal and led to the decrease of the grain size. A significant increase (3.5 times of the H3/E2 (E elastic modulus value indicated that the TiN/Ta multilayer film has higher elasticity than the TiN monolayer film. The Lc (critical load in nano-scratch test value of the TiN monolayer film was 45 mN, which was far lower than that of the TiN/Ta multilayer film (around 75 mN. Results of the indentation test showed a higher fracture toughness of the TiN/Ta multilayer film than that of the TiN monolayer film. Results of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA indicate that the TiN/Ta multilayer film has better thermal stability than the TiN monolayer film.

  6. ZnO micro/nanocrystals grown by Laser Assisted Flow Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,J.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Mata, D.; Holz, T.; Carvalho, R. G.; Allah, R. Fath; Ben, T; Gonzalez, D; Silva, R F; da Cunha, A.F.; Correia, M. R.; Alves,L.C.; Lorenz, K; Neves, A.J.; Costa, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Laser assisted flow deposition (LAFD) is a very high yield method based on a vapor-solid mechanism, allowing the production of ZnO crystals in a very short time. The LAFD was used in the growth of different morphologies (nanoparticles, tetrapods and microrods) of ZnO micro/nanocrystals and their microstructural characterization confirms the excellent crystallinity of the wurtzite structure. The optical properties of the as-grown ZnO crystals investigated by low temperature photoluminescence (...

  7. Hydroxyapatite thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation: Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu-Pelin, G.; Sima, F.; Sima, L. E.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Luculescu, C.; Iordache, I.; Socol, M.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) techniques were applied for growing hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films on titanium substrates. All experiments were conducted in a reaction chamber using a KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≈ 25 ns). Half of the samples were post-deposition thermally treated at 500 °C in a flux of water vapours in order to restore crystallinity and improve adherence. Coating surface morphologies and topographies specific to the deposition method were evidenced by scanning electron, atomic force microscopy investigations and profilometry. They were shown to depend on deposition technique and also on the post-deposition treatment. Crystalline structure of the coatings evaluated by X-ray diffraction was improved after thermal treatment. Biocompatibility of coatings, cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation tests were conducted using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results showed that annealed MAPLE deposited HA coatings were supporting MSCs proliferation, while annealed PLD obtained films were stimulating osteogenic differentiation.

  8. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  9. Ion assisted deposition of SiO2 film from silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan. H.; Dang, Cu. X.

    2005-09-01

    Silicon dioxide, SiO2, is one of the preferred low index materials for optical thin film technology. It is often deposited by electron beam evaporation source with less porosity and scattering, relatively durable and can have a good laser damage threshold. Beside these advantages the deposition of critical optical thin film stacks with silicon dioxide from an E-gun was severely limited by the stability of the evaporation pattern or angular distribution of the material. The even surface of SiO2 granules in crucible will tend to develop into groove and become deeper with the evaporation process. As the results, angular distribution of the evaporation vapor changes in non-predicted manner. This report presents our experiments to apply Ion Assisted Deposition process to evaporate silicon in a molten liquid form. By choosing appropriate process parameters we can get SiO2 film with good and stable property.

  10. Low Temperature Metal Free Growth of Graphene on Insulating Substrates by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, R; Munuera, C; Martínez, J I; Azpeitia, J; Gómez-Aleixandre, C; García-Hernández, M

    2017-03-01

    Direct growth of graphene films on dielectric substrates (quartz and silica) is reported, by means of remote electron cyclotron resonance plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition r-(ECR-CVD) at low temperature (650°C). Using a two step deposition process- nucleation and growth- by changing the partial pressure of the gas precursors at constant temperature, mostly monolayer continuous films, with grain sizes up to 500 nm are grown, exhibiting transmittance larger than 92% and sheet resistance as low as 900 Ω·sq-1. The grain size and nucleation density of the resulting graphene sheets can be controlled varying the deposition time and pressure. In additon, first-principles DFT-based calculations have been carried out in order to rationalize the oxygen reduction in the quartz surface experimentally observed. This method is easily scalable and avoids damaging and expensive transfer steps of graphene films, improving compatibility with current fabrication technologies.

  11. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meininger, M. [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Wolf-Brandstetter, C. [Max Bergmann Center for Biomaterials, Technical University of Dresden, Budapester Straße 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Zerweck, J.; Wenninger, F.; Gbureck, U.; Groll, J. [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Moseke, C., E-mail: claus.moseke@fmz.uni-wuerzburg.de [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr{sup 2+} ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr{sup 2+} into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr{sup 2+} ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant–bone interface. - Highlights: • Sr-doped struvite coatings have been deposited on titanium by electrochemically assisted deposition. • Sr content can be adjusted by means of process time, current density and pulse mode. • Sr-doped coatings release therapeutically relevant Sr doses in physiological media for several weeks. • During immersion in physiological media Sr-doped struvite coatings transform into a low crystalline calcium phosphate phase.

  12. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  13. Electric field-assisted deposition of nanowires on carbon nanotubes for nanoelectronics and sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Kousik; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2005-02-01

    Manipulation and control of matter at the nanoscale and atomic scale levels are crucial for the success of nanoscale sensors and actuators. The ability to control and synthesize multilayer structures using carbon nanotubes that will enable the building of electronic devices within a nanotube is still in its infancy. In this paper, we present results on selective electric field-assisted deposition of metals on carbon nanotubes realizing metallic nanowire structures. Silver and platinum nanowires have been fabricated using this approach for their applications in chemical sensing as catalytic materials to sniff toxic agents and in the area of biomedical nanotechnology for construction of artificial muscles. Electric field-assisted deposition allows the deposition of metals with a high degree of selectivity on carbon nanotubes by manipulating the charges on the surface of the nanotubes and forming electrostatic double-layer supercapacitors. Deposition of metals primarily occurred due to electrochemical reduction, electrophoresis, and electro-osmosis inside the walls of the nanotube. SEM and TEM investigations revealed silver and platinum nanowires between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. The present technique is versatile and enables the fabrication of a host of different types of metallic and semiconducting nanowires using carbon nanotube templates for nanoelectronics and a myriad of sensor applications.

  14. Synthesis and in vacuo deposition of iron oxide nanoparticles by microplasma-assisted decomposition of ferrocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Michael, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: axk650@case.edu, E-mail: mohan@case.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Kumar, Ajay, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: axk650@case.edu, E-mail: mohan@case.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu; Mohan Sankaran, R., E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: axk650@case.edu, E-mail: mohan@case.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio 44106 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: axk650@case.edu, E-mail: mohan@case.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Microplasma-assisted gas-phase nucleation has emerged as an important new approach to produce high-purity, nanometer-sized, and narrowly dispersed particles. This study aims to integrate this technique with vacuum conditions to enable synthesis and deposition in an ultrahigh vacuum compatible environment. The ultimate goal is to combine nanoparticle synthesis with photoemission spectroscopy-based electronic structure analysis. Such measurements require in vacuo deposition to prevent surface contamination from sample transfer, which can be deleterious for nanoscale materials. A homebuilt microplasma reactor was integrated into an existing atomic layer deposition system attached to a surface science multi-chamber system equipped with photoemission spectroscopy. As proof-of-concept, we studied the decomposition of ferrocene vapor in the microplasma to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles. The injection parameters were optimized to achieve complete precursor decomposition under vacuum conditions, and nanoparticles were successfully deposited. The stoichiometry of the deposited samples was characterized in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicating that iron oxide was formed. Additional transmission electron spectroscopy characterization allowed the determination of the size, shape, and crystal lattice of the particles, confirming their structural properties.

  15. Deposition of Methylammonium Lead Triiodide by Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, E. Tomas; Dunlap-Shohl, Wiley A.; Mitzi, David B.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2017-09-01

    Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) was used to deposit the metal-halide perovskite (MHP) CH3NH3PbI3 (methylammonium lead triiodide, or MAPbI), creating phase-pure films. Given the moisture sensitivity of these crystalline, multi-component organic-inorganic hybrid materials, deposition of MAPbI by RIR-MAPLE required a departure from the use of water-based emulsions as deposition targets. Different chemistries were explored to create targets that properly dissolved MAPbI components, were stable under vacuum conditions, and enabled resonant laser energy absorption. Secondary phases and solvent contamination in the resulting films were studied through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorbance and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, suggesting that lingering excess methylammonium iodide (MAI) and low-vapor pressure solvents can distort the microstructure, creating crystalline and amorphous non-perovskite phases. Thermal annealing of films deposited by RIR-MAPLE allowed for excess solvent to be evaporated from films without degrading the MAPbI structure. Further, it was demonstrated that RIR-MAPLE does not require excess MAI to create stoichiometric films with optoelectronic properties, crystal structure, and film morphology comparable to films created using more established spin-coating methods for processing MHPs. This work marks the first time a MAPLE-related technique was used to deposit MHPs.

  16. Deposition of Methylammonium Lead Triiodide by Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, E. Tomas; Dunlap-Shohl, Wiley A.; Mitzi, David B.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2018-02-01

    Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) was used to deposit the metal-halide perovskite (MHP) CH3NH3PbI3 (methylammonium lead triiodide, or MAPbI), creating phase-pure films. Given the moisture sensitivity of these crystalline, multi-component organic-inorganic hybrid materials, deposition of MAPbI by RIR-MAPLE required a departure from the use of water-based emulsions as deposition targets. Different chemistries were explored to create targets that properly dissolved MAPbI components, were stable under vacuum conditions, and enabled resonant laser energy absorption. Secondary phases and solvent contamination in the resulting films were studied through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorbance and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, suggesting that lingering excess methylammonium iodide (MAI) and low-vapor pressure solvents can distort the microstructure, creating crystalline and amorphous non-perovskite phases. Thermal annealing of films deposited by RIR-MAPLE allowed for excess solvent to be evaporated from films without degrading the MAPbI structure. Further, it was demonstrated that RIR-MAPLE does not require excess MAI to create stoichiometric films with optoelectronic properties, crystal structure, and film morphology comparable to films created using more established spin-coating methods for processing MHPs. This work marks the first time a MAPLE-related technique was used to deposit MHPs.

  17. Ion-substituted calcium phosphate coatings deposited by plasma-assisted techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Gabriela; Bianchi, Michele; Sassoni, Enrico; Russo, Alessandro; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2017-05-01

    One of the main critical aspects behind the failure or success of an implant resides in its ability to fast bond with the surrounding bone. To boost osseointegration, the ideal implant material should exhibit composition and structure similar to those of biological apatite. To this aim, the most common approach is to coat the implant surface with a coating of hydroxyapatite (HA), resembling the main component of mineralized tissues. However, bone apatite is a non-stoichiometric, multi-substituted poorly-crystalline apatite, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, with high biological relevance. Ion-substituted HAs can be deposited by so called "wet methods", which are however poorly reproducible and hardly industrially feasible; at the same time bioactive coatings realized by plasma assisted method, interesting for industrial applications, are generally made of stoichiometric (i.e. un-substituted) HA. In this work, the literature concerning plasma-assisted deposition methods used to deposit ion-substituted HA was reviewed and the last advances in this field discussed. The ions taken into exam are those present in mineralized tissues and possibly having biological relevance. Notably, literature about this topic is scarce, especially relating to in vivo animal and clinical trials; further on, available studies evaluate the performance of substituted coatings from different points of view (mechanical properties, bone growth, coating dissolution, etc.) which hinders a proper evaluation of the real efficacy of ion-doped HA in promoting bone regeneration, compared to stoichiometric HA. Moreover, results obtained for plasma sprayed coatings (which is the only method currently employed for deposition at the industrial scale) were collected and compared to those of novel plasma-assisted techniques, that are expected to overcome its limitations. Data so far available on the topic were discussed to highlight advantages, limitations and possible perspectives of these

  18. Microwave plasma assisted process for cleaning and deposition in future semiconductor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, S.; Boudaden, J.; Wieland, R.; Eisele, I.; Kutter, C.

    2017-06-01

    The epitaxial growth of silicon layers is an important step in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. For conventional silicon epitaxy, high temperatures, up to 900 °C are necessary. However, in future, semiconductor technology epitaxy processes at lower temperatures are required to increase the integration density. The goal of this study was to investigate microwave plasma assisted processes for the selective removing of thin silicon oxide, the cleaning of silicon surfaces and the depositing of high quality silicon films. The main focus was to apply these processes for low temperature epitaxy. All processes, such as oxide removal, cleaning and deposition, were done in one chamber and with microwave plasma assistance. In order to remove silicon dioxide, the etching behavior of hydrogen, fluorine, and hydrogen/fluorine plasma was studied. It was shown, that with hydrogen/fluorine plasma, the best selectivity of oxide to silicon was reached. The deposition process of silicon was studied by growing μc-Si films. The process was characterized and optimized by spectral ellipsometry. After a successful characterization of all process steps, silicon epitaxy layers have been grown with in-situ removal of native oxide and in-situ surface cleaning. The temperature for all process steps was reduced below 450 °C.

  19. Nanoscale physical properties of polymer glasses formed by solvent-assisted laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kimberly; Arnold, Craig; Priestley, Rodney

    2015-03-01

    High-energy, low-density nanostructured polymer glasses are formed via the solvent-assisted laser deposition technique MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation). During film deposition, micro- to nano-size polymer/solvent clusters are ejected via laser ablation from a frozen dilute polymer solution. During flight to the substrate under vacuum, the clusters experience rapid cooling and solvent stripping, forming polymer nanoglobules. Bulk polymer films are formed via the gradual assembly of these spherical-like nanostructured building blocks (i.e. nanoglobules). The MAPLE process thus enables investigation of the exceptional properties of glasses formed under extreme processing conditions. In the bulk state, we probe the effect of process parameters and chemical identity of the thermal behavior of a series of methacrylate polymers. We also employ multiple techniques to directly measure the properties of the polymer nanoglobules and connect the results to the global film properties. This talk will address nanoscale dilatometry via AFM, in which the volume of an individual polymer nanoglobule is tracked as it is heated through its glass transition, as well as Flash DSC analysis of the thermal properties of nanogram size MAPLE-deposited polymer glasses. We then discuss these findings in the context of the material's unconventional route to the glassy state.

  20. Ion assisted deposition with low-energy ions for applications in modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, M

    1999-01-01

    realised by a process adaptation with UV-absorbing films. A further focal point are antireflective coatings on alkali halides optics for high-power CO sub 2 -lasers. Ion assisted deposition of NaF-films at extremely low ion energies (E sub i sub o sub n approx 5 eV) qualifies antireflective coatings with minimal absorption (alpha approx 1.5 cm sup - sup 1), high short-pulse damage threshold (50%-LIDT approx 60J/cm sup 2) and improved degradational stability. Main objective of this work is the development of ion assisted deposition processes without additional substrate heating for applications in precision and laser optics. New low-energy ion sources with ion energies below 100 eV were employed for the research work. Starting point of the process development are basic investigations on the ion assisted evaporation of fluoride and oxide thin film materials. The optimisation of the coating processes is primary done with the help of optical characterisation methods (spectral photometry, laser calorimetry, measur...

  1. All-oxide broadband antireflection coatings by plasma ion assisted deposition: design, simulation, manufacturing and re-optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrandt, Steffen; Stenzel, Olaf; Kaiser, Norbert

    2010-09-13

    A new all-oxide design for broadband antireflection coatings with significantly reduced impact of deposition errors to the final reflectance is presented. Computational manufacturing including re-optimization during deposition has been used in the design work to account for maximum insensibility of the design with respect to deposition errors typical for plasma ion assisted deposition PIAD. Repeated deposition runs with the deducted monitoring and re-optimization strategy verify the validity of the simulations and the stability of the derived design solution.

  2. An evaluation of phase separated, self-assembled LaMnO3-MgO nanocomposite films directly on IBAD-MgO as buffer layers for flux pinning enhancements in YBa2YCu3O7-& coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Kim, Kyunghoon [ORNL; Qiu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Xiong, X. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2010-01-01

    Technological applications of high temperature superconductors (HTS) require high critical current density, Jc, under operation at high magnetic field strengths. This requires effective flux pinning by introducing artificial defects through creative processing. In this work, we evaluated the feasibility of mixed-phase LaMnO3:MgO (LMO:MgO) films as a potential cap buffer layer for the epitaxial growth and enhanced performance of YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO) films. Such composite films were sputter deposited directly on IBAD-MgO templates (with no additional homo-epitaxial MgO layer) and revealed the formation of two phase-separated, but at the same time vertically aligned, self-assembled composite nanostructures that extend throughout the entire thickness of the film. The YBCO coatings deposited on these nanostructured cap layers showed correlated c-axis pinning and improved in-field Jc performance compared to those of YBCO films fabricated on standard LMO buffers. Microstructural characterization revealed additional extended disorder in the YBCO matrix. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of novel and potentially practical approaches in the pursuit of more efficient, economical, and high performance superconducting devices.

  3. Functionalized porphyrin conjugate thin films deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, S.; Cristescu, R.; Popescu, A. C.; Popescu, C. E.; Dorcioman, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Ciucu, A. A.; Balan, A.; Stamatin, I.; Fagadar-Cosma, E.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2013-08-01

    We report on the deposition of nanostructured porphyrin-base, 5(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-phenoxyphenyl)-porphyrin thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation onto silicon substrates with screen-printed electrodes. AFM investigations have shown that at 400 mJ/cm2 fluence a topographical transition takes place from the platelet-like stacking porphyrin-based nanostructures in a perpendicular arrangement to a quasi-parallel one both relative to the substrate surface. Raman spectroscopy has shown that the chemical structure of the deposited thin films is preserved for fluences within the range of 200-300 mJ/cm2. Cyclic voltammograms have demonstrated that the free porphyrin is appropriate as a single mediator for glucose in a specific case of screen-printed electrodes, suggesting potential for designing a new class of biosensors.

  4. Functionalized porphyrin conjugate thin films deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordache, S. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, A.C.; Popescu, C.E.; Dorcioman, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ciucu, A.A. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Bucharest (Romania); Balan, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Fagadar-Cosma, E. [Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, M. Viteazul Ave. 24, 300223-Timisoara (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Tulane University, Departments of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We report on the deposition of nanostructured porphyrin-base, 5(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-phenoxyphenyl)-porphyrin thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation onto silicon substrates with screen-printed electrodes. AFM investigations have shown that at 400 mJ/cm{sup 2} fluence a topographical transition takes place from the platelet-like stacking porphyrin-based nanostructures in a perpendicular arrangement to a quasi-parallel one both relative to the substrate surface. Raman spectroscopy has shown that the chemical structure of the deposited thin films is preserved for fluences within the range of 200–300 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Cyclic voltammograms have demonstrated that the free porphyrin is appropriate as a single mediator for glucose in a specific case of screen-printed electrodes, suggesting potential for designing a new class of biosensors.

  5. Plasma-Assisted Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zinc Oxide Films Using Solution of Zinc Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Okumura, Yusuke; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) film deposition has been carried out by plasma-assisted mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a solution of zinc acetate [Zn(CH3COO)2], and the effects of plasma exposure on film properties have been investigated in terms of RF power. With increasing RF power, the results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of ZnO films with plasma exposure showed the existence of crystallized ZnO films with plasma exposure. Under this condition, the substrate temperature was as low as 200 °C for a plasma exposure time of 20 min. The surface morphology shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images shows that the ZnO films were textured with round grains, which is attributed to the effect of the use of mist with the precursor.

  6. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Mitch A., E-mail: mitch@berkeley.ed [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ashby, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Jacklyn M. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stavsetra, Liv [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-11

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  7. Physical deposition of thin polyimide layers by applying an argon plasma assisted process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimov, D; Georgiev, A; Spassova, E; Assa, J; Dineff, P; Danev, G, E-mail: dean@clf.bas.b

    2010-11-01

    A novel method for physical deposition of thin polyimide layers by applying an argon plasma assisted process has been developed. The influence of the plasma on the combined molecular flux of the two thermally evaporated precursors - 4,4'- oxydianiline and pyromellitic dianhydride was investigated. The process parameters were changed in the limlts 0,4 - 2 A for the anode current and 80 - 170 V for the anode voltage. Their influence was studied using FTIR spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques. It was proposed that the plasma flux crossing the molecular flows of the polyimide precursors enhances the imidization process by partly activating the precursor molecules in the gas phase.

  8. In vitro response to alkaline phosphatase coatings immobilized onto titanium implants using electrospray deposition or polydopamine-assisted deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhuis, Arnold W G; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2014-04-01

    Immobilization of biomolecules onto implant surfaces is one of the most straightforward strategies to control the interaction between an implant and its biological environment. Recently, it was shown that the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) could be efficiently immobilized onto titanium implants in a single step using polydopamine. We hypothesized that such polydopamine-ALP coatings can enhance the early attachment of cells and increase mineralization. Therefore, the current study aimed at immobilization of ALP onto titanium by means of either one- or two-step polydopamine-assisted immobilization or electrospray deposition, the comparative characterization of these experimental substrates and subsequent cell behavioral analysis using primary osteoblast-like cells. Uncoated titanium and ALP-free polydopamine coatings served as controls. Despite significant ALP surface activity and lower water contact for angles ALP-containing surface modifications, only marginal effects on early cell behavior (i.e., cell spreading) and osteogenic differentiation (i.e., proliferation, differentiation and mineralization) were observed in comparison to uncoated titanium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Organic/hybrid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Ge, Wangyao

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most exciting materials research in the 21st century attempts to resolve the challenge of simulating, synthesizing, and characterizing new materials with unique properties designed from first principles. Achievements in such development for organic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials make them important options for electronic and/or photonic devices because they can impart multi-functionality, flexibility, transparency, and sustainability to emerging systems, such as wearable electronics. Functional organic materials include small molecules, oligomers, and polymers, while hybrid materials include inorganic nanomaterials (such as zero-dimensional quantum dots, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, or two-dimensional nanosheets) combined with organic matrices. A critically important step to implementing new electronic and photonic devices using such materials is the processing of thin films. While solution-based processing is the most common laboratory technique for organic and hybrid materials, vacuum-based deposition has been critical to the commercialization of organic light emitting diodes based on small molecules, for example. Therefore, it is desirable to explore vacuum-based deposition of organic and hybrid materials that include larger macromolecules, such as polymers. This review article motivates the need for physical vapor deposition of polymeric and hybrid thin films using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), which is a type of pulsed laser deposition. This review describes the development of variations in the MAPLE technique, discusses the current understanding of laser-target interactions and growth mechanisms for different MAPLE variations, surveys demonstrations of MAPLE-deposited organic and hybrid materials for electronic and photonic devices, and provides a future outlook for the technique.

  10. High-speed deposition of titanium carbide coatings by laser-assisted metal–organic CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yansheng [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tu, Rong, E-mail: turong@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Goto, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A semiconductor laser was first used to prepare wide-area LCVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. • The effect of laser power for the deposition of TiC{sub x} coatings was discussed. • TiC{sub x} coatings showed a columnar cross section and a dense surface texture. • TiC{sub x} coatings had a 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous reports. • This study gives the possibility of LCVD applying on the preparation of TiC{sub x} coating. - Abstract: A semiconductor laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of titanium carbide (TiC{sub x}) coatings on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate using tetrakis (diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} as source materials were investigated. The influences of laser power (P{sub L}) and pre-heating temperature (T{sub pre}) on the microstructure and deposition rate of TiC{sub x} coatings were examined. Single phase of TiC{sub x} coatings were obtained at P{sub L} = 100–200 W. TiC{sub x} coatings had a cauliflower-like surface and columnar cross section. TiC{sub x} coatings in the present study had the highest R{sub dep} (54 μm/h) at a relative low T{sub dep} than those of conventional CVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. The highest volume deposition rate (V{sub dep}) of TiC{sub x} coatings was about 4.7 × 10{sup −12} m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, which had 3–10{sup 5} times larger deposition area and 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous LCVD using CO{sub 2}, Nd:YAG and argon ion laser.

  11. Crack-free yttria stabilized zirconia thin films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition: Influence of water and carrier gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlupp, M.V.F., E-mail: Meike.Schlupp@mat.ethz.ch [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Binder, S.; Martynczuk, J.; Prestat, M. [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gauckler, L.J. [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia thin films are deposited on silicon single crystal substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition from precursor solutions of zirconium and yttrium 2,4-pentanedionate in ethanol. Continuous films are obtained using pure oxygen, pure nitrogen, or mixtures of both as carrier gas. In the simultaneous presence of water and oxygen, crack formation is observed for films deposited at intermediate substrate temperatures (450 Degree-Sign C), while those deposited at low (300 Degree-Sign C) and high (600 Degree-Sign C) temperatures remain crack-free. Crack-free films can be deposited at 450 Degree-Sign C in a water-free setting, or in the presence of water using pure nitrogen as carrier gas. The addition of water to the precursor solutions also significantly reduces film growth rates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin film deposition by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AA-CVD) Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films deposited between 300 Degree-Sign C and 600 Degree-Sign C Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water decreases growth rates and leads to crack formation in AA-CVD of YSZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crack-free YSZ thin films deposited using oxygen and/or nitrogen as carrier gas Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YSZ thin films deposited by AA-CVD show low shrinkage on annealing at 1000 Degree-Sign C.

  12. Phase Equilibrium of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Flame-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changran; Camacho, Joaquin; Wang, Hai

    2017-10-23

    Nano-scale titanium oxide (TiO2) is a material useful for a wide range of applications. In a previous study, we showed that TiO2 nanoparticles of both rutile and anatase crystal phases could be synthesized over the size range of 5 to 20 nm in flame-assisted chemical vapor deposition. While rutile was unexpectedly dominant in oxygen-lean synthesis conditions, anatase is the preferred phase in oxygen-rich gases. The observation is in contrast to the 14 nm rutile-anatase crossover size derived from the existing crystal-phase equilibrium model. In the present work, we made additional measurements over a wider range of synthesis conditions; the results confirm the earlier observations. We propose an improved model for the surface energy that considers the role of oxygen desorption at high temperatures. The model successfully explains the observations made in the current and previous work. The current results provide a useful path to designing flame-assisted chemical vapor deposition of TiO2 nanocrystals with controllable crystal phases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Low-Temperature Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride Moisture Permeation Barrier Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Anne-Marije; Perrotta, Alberto; de Peuter, Koen; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-10-14

    Encapsulation of organic (opto-)electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells, and field-effect transistors, is required to minimize device degradation induced by moisture and oxygen ingress. SiNx moisture permeation barriers have been fabricated using a very recently developed low-temperature plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) approach, consisting of half-reactions of the substrate with the precursor SiH2(NH(t)Bu)2 and with N2-fed plasma. The deposited films have been characterized in terms of their refractive index and chemical composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SiNx thin-film refractive index ranges from 1.80 to 1.90 for films deposited at 80 °C up to 200 °C, respectively, and the C, O, and H impurity levels decrease when the deposition temperature increases. The relative open porosity content of the layers has been studied by means of multisolvent ellipsometric porosimetry (EP), adopting three solvents with different kinetic diameters: water (∼0.3 nm), ethanol (∼0.4 nm), and toluene (∼0.6 nm). Irrespective of the deposition temperature, and hence the impurity content in the SiNx films, no uptake of any adsorptive has been observed, pointing to the absence of open pores larger than 0.3 nm in diameter. Instead, multilayer development has been observed, leading to type II isotherms that, according to the IUPAC classification, are characteristic of nonporous layers. The calcium test has been performed in a climate chamber at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity to determine the intrinsic water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of SiNx barriers deposited at 120 °C. Intrinsic WVTR values in the range of 10(-6) g/m2/day indicate excellent barrier properties for ALD SiNx layers as thin as 10 nm, competing with that of state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor-deposited SiNx layers of a few hundred

  14. Oscillatory barrier-assisted Langmuir–Blodgett deposition of large-scale quantum dot monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shicheng, E-mail: johnxu@stanford.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dadlani, Anup L. [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Acharya, Shinjita; Schindler, Peter [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large-scale monolayers of quantum dots with full coverage up to several millimeters have been achieved by incorporating oscillatory barriers in the commonly used Langmuir–Blodgett method. • By examining dilatational moduli as a function of average particle density, one can obtain an appropriate density and proper timing for depositing desired films. • Time evolution of dilatational moduli gives a clear indication of the film morphology and its stability. - Abstract: Depositing continuous, large-scale quantum dot films with low pinhole density is an inevitable but nontrivial step for studying their properties for applications in catalysis, electronic devices, and optoelectronics. This rising interest in high-quality quantum dot films has provided research impetus to improve the deposition technique. We show that by incorporating oscillatory barriers in the commonly used Langmuir–Blodgett method, large-scale monolayers of quantum dots with full coverage up to several millimeters have been achieved. With assistance of perturbation provided by the oscillatory barriers, the film has been shown to relax towards thermal equilibrium, and this physical process has been supported by molecular dynamics simulation. In addition, time evolution of dilatational moduli has been shown to give a clear indication of the film morphology and its stability.

  15. Plasma-Assisted Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zinc Oxide Films for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-assisted mist chemical vapor deposition of ZnO films was performed for transparent conductive oxide formation of flexible electronics. In this study, ZnO films deposition using atmospheric-pressure He plasma generated by a micro-hollow cathode-type plasma source has been demonstrated. To obtain detail information according to generation of species in the plasma, the optical emission spectra of the atmospheric pressure He plasma with and without mist were measured. The result without mist shows considerable emissions of He lines, emissions attributed to the excitation and dissociation of air including N2 and O2 (N, O, and NO radials, and N2 molecule; N2 second positive band and first positive band), while the results with mist showed strong emissions attributed to the dissociation of H2O (OH and H radicals). The deposition of ZnO films was performed using atmospheric-pressure He plasma. The XRD patterns showed no crystallization of the ZnO films irradiated with pure He. On the other hand, the ZnO film crystallized with the irradiation with He/O2 mixture plasma. These results indicate that the atmospheric-pressure He/O2 mixture plasma has sufficient reactivity necessary for the crystallization of ZnO films at room temperature. This work was supported partly by The Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(C)) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  16. Synthesis of conductive semi-transparent silver films deposited by a Pneumatically-Assisted Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E.; Balderas-Xicoténcatl, R. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, , Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, México, D.F. (Mexico); Arrieta, M.L. Pérez [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Académica de Física, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Meza-Rocha, A.N.; Rivera-Álvarez, Z. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, , Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, México, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C., E-mail: cfalcony@fis.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, , Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • We deposited metallic silver films without post-deposition annealing. • The spray pyrolysis technique is of low cost and scalable for industrial applications. • We obtained deposition rate of 60 nm min{sup −1} at 300 °C. • The average resistivity was 1E−7 Ω m. • Semi-transparent silver films were obtained at 350 °C and deposition time of 45 s. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of nanostructured silver films deposited on corning glass by a deposition technique called Pneumatically-Assisted Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis are reported. Silver nitrate and triethanolamine were used as silver precursor and reducer agent, respectively. The substrate temperatures during deposition were in the range of 300–450 °C and the deposition times from 30 to 240 s. The deposited films are polycrystalline with cubic face-centered structure, and crystalline grain size less than 30 nm. Deposition rates up to 600 Å min{sup −1} were obtained at substrate temperature as low as 300 °C. The electrical, optical, and morphological properties of these films are also reported. Semi-transparent conductive silver films were obtained at 350 °C with a deposition time of 45 s.

  17. Quarterly Report: Microchannel-Assisted Nanomaterial Deposition Technology for Photovoltaic Material Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palo, Daniel R.

    2011-04-26

    Quarterly report to ITP for Nanomanufacturing program. Report covers FY11 Q2. The primary objective of this project is to develop a nanomanufacturing process which will reduce the manufacturing energy, environmental discharge, and production cost associated with current nano-scale thin-film photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing approaches. The secondary objective is to use a derivative of this nanomanufacturing process to enable greener, more efficient manufacturing of higher efficiency quantum dot-based photovoltaic cells now under development. The work is to develop and demonstrate a scalable (pilot) microreactor-assisted nanomaterial processing platform for the production, purification, functionalization, and solution deposition of nanomaterials for photovoltaic applications. The high level task duration is shown. Phase I consists of a pilot platform for Gen II PV films along with parallel efforts aimed at Gen III PV quantum dot materials. Status of each task is described.

  18. Laser-assisted nanomaterial deposition, nanomanufacturing, in situ monitoring and associated apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Hwang, David J; Minor, Andrew M

    2013-11-12

    Laser-assisted apparatus and methods for performing nanoscale material processing, including nanodeposition of materials, can be controlled very precisely to yield both simple and complex structures with sizes less than 100 nm. Optical or thermal energy in the near field of a photon (laser) pulse is used to fabricate submicron and nanometer structures on a substrate. A wide variety of laser material processing techniques can be adapted for use including, subtractive (e.g., ablation, machining or chemical etching), additive (e.g., chemical vapor deposition, selective self-assembly), and modification (e.g., phase transformation, doping) processes. Additionally, the apparatus can be integrated into imaging instruments, such as SEM and TEM, to allow for real-time imaging of the material processing.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of the effect of substrate temperature and Ar ion assisted deposition on the deposition of amorphous TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xian, E-mail: mus_c@qq.com [Science and Technology on Analog Integrated Circuit Laboratory, ChongQing, 401332 (China); Zhang, Jing [Science and Technology on Analog Integrated Circuit Laboratory, ChongQing, 401332 (China); Zhao, Yu-Qing [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’AN, 710049 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The surface roughness of a-TiO{sub 2} films is decreased with the increment of the Ar ion assisted energy. • The surface roughness of a-TiO{sub 2} films is decreased with higher substrate temperature when the substrate has an island structure. • The assisted Ar ion has power of making a flat surface and increasing the local temperature. • The assisted Ar ion will influence the growth mode with the change of surface atom mobility. • The Volmer-Weber (island) growth mode is inhibited with a high assisted Ar ion energy. - Abstract: This paper has investigated the impact of the substrate temperature and Ar ion assisted deposition on the surface structure formation mechanism and the film properties during the amorphous TiO{sub 2} thin film deposition process with the molecular dynamics simulation method. The results show that the reduction of the surface roughness happen when the energy of Ar ions assisted is increased or the substrate temperature rises, and also the film density on surface is changed with the increasing of Ar ions energy and substrate temperature. It is also found that the Volmer-Weber (island) growth mode of films is promoted by the lower Ar ion energy and higher substrate temperature when the substrate has an island structure. The assisted Ar ion has power of making a flat surface and increasing the local temperature. Besides, it will influence the growth mode with the change of surface atom mobility. With a high assisted Ar ion energy the Volmer-Weber (island) growth mode is inhibited, which will be conducive to the formation of more smooth film surface.

  20. Growth of calcium phosphate thin films by in situ assisted ultraviolet pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelea, V.; Craciun, V.; Iliescu, M.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Pelletier, H.; Mille, P.; Werckmann, J

    2003-03-15

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) thin films including hydroxyapatite were intensively studied in order to optimize the technology of the bone prostheses manufacturing. A drawback in the CaP films processing is the poor mechanical characteristics, especially hardness, tensile strength and adherence to the metallic substrate. We report a new method for the growth of high quality CaP films with substantial improvement of the mechanical properties: pulsed laser deposition (PLD) assisted by in situ ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by a low pressure Hg lamp. The depositions were made on Si and Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloys in very low ambient oxygen at pressures of 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} Pa with the substrates maintained at 500-600 deg. C temperature. The films were analyzed by electron microscopy, white light confocal microscopy (WLCM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Berkovich nanoindentation. The films were crystalline and exhibited remarkable mechanical characteristics with values of hardness and Young modulus of 6-8 and 150-170 GPa, respectively, which are uncommonly high for the CaP ceramics. The UV lamp radiation enhanced the gas reactivity and atoms mobility during processing, while the tensile strength between the film's grains and the bonding strength at the CaP film-substrate interface were increased.

  1. Growth mechanism of long aligned multiwall carbon nanotube arrays by water-assisted chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, YeoHeung; Shanov, Vesselin; Tu, Yi; Subramaniam, Srinivas; Schulz, Mark J

    2006-11-30

    Highly aligned arrays of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on layered Si substrates have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The effect of the substrate design and the process parameters on the growth mechanism were studied. Adding water vapor to the reaction gas mixture of hydrogen and ethylene enhanced the growth which led to synthesis of longer CNT arrays with high density. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the CNT morphology and composition. Quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) provided in-situ information on the gas spices within the reaction zone. On the basis of results, we verified the top growth mechanism and evaluated the reason of decline and stoppage of the CNT growth after extended period of deposition. Multilayered Si substrates with a top film of Al2O3, having appropriate roughness, provide favorable conditions to form catalyst islands with uniform distribution and size. Using water-assisted CVD process and optimized substrate design, our group succeeded to grow vertically aligned, patterned MWCNT up to 4-mm long. The arrays were of high purity and weak adhesion which allowed to be peeled off easily from the substrate.

  2. Plasma-assisted deposition of microcapsule containing Aloe vera extract for cosmeto-textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento do Carmo, S.; Zille, A.; Souto, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) atmospheric-pressure plasma was employed to enhance the deposition of commercial microcapsules (MCs) containing Aloe vera extract onto a cotton/polyester (50:50) fabric. DBD conditions were optimized in term of energy dosage and contact angle. The MCs were applied by padding and printing methods and the coatings were characterized in terms of SEM and FTIR. MCs display a spherical shape with size between 2 and 8 μm with an average wall thickness of 0.5 μm. The MCs applied by printing and pretreated with a plasma dosage of 1.6 kW m2 min-1 showed the best results with an increased adhesion of 200% and significant penetration of MCs into the fibres network. Plasma printed fabric retained 230% more MCs than untreated fabric after 10 washing cycles. However, the coating resistance between unwashed and washed samples was only improved by 5%. Considering the fact that no binder or crosslinking agents were used, the DBD plasma-assisted deposition of MCs revealed to be a promising environmental safe and low cost coating technology.

  3. Microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition of nanostructured ZnO particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Tapas K; Kothari, Anjana

    2009-09-01

    Microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition (MACBD) is an emerging technique for quick preparation of nanoscale and nanostructured particles. We report a simple and rapid process for synthesis of nanostructured ZnO particles by MACBD from aqueous solution of tetra ammonium zinc hydroxide. The effect of Zn+2 concentrations (0.025 to 0.2 mole/L), pH (10 to 11) and base on morphology and composition of deposited particles has been studied. Precursor solution (PS) containing 0.12 mole/L Zn+2 at pH approximately 10.3 and NaOH yielded ZnO flowers of sizes 1-2 /tm. The ZnO flowers typically consist of a central round rod surrounded by six tapered petals. Other PSs generated mixture of ZnO flowers and Zn(OH)2 rhombic particles. The results are explained on the basis of thermal decomposition of tetra ammonium zinc complex to ZnO or Zn(OH)2.

  4. High growth rate homoepitaxial diamond film deposition at high temperatures by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Yogesh K. (Inventor); McCauley, Thomas S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The deposition of high quality diamond films at high linear growth rates and substrate temperatures for microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition is disclosed. The linear growth rate achieved for this process is generally greater than 50 .mu.m/hr for high quality films, as compared to rates of less than 5 .mu.m/hr generally reported for MPCVD processes.

  5. Direct Fabrication of Carbon Nanotubes STM Tips by Liquid Catalyst-Assisted Microwave Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Kuei Tung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct and facile method to make carbon nanotube (CNT tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM is presented. Cobalt (Co particles, as catalysts, are electrochemically deposited on the apex of tungsten (W STM tip for CNT growth. It is found that the quantity of Co particles is well controlled by applied DC voltage, concentration of catalyst solution, and deposition time. Using optimum growth condition, CNTs are successfully synthesized on the tip apex by catalyst-assisted microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CA-MPECVD. A HOPG surface is clearly observed at an atomic scale using the present CNT-STM tip.

  6. Application of Taguchi Method to the Optimization of a-C:H Coatings Deposited Using Ion Beam Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Kao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi design method is used to optimize the adhesion, hardness, and wear resistance properties of a-C:H coatings deposited on AISI M2 steel substrates using the ion beam assisted physical vapor deposition method. The adhesion strength of the coatings is evaluated by means of scratch tests, while the hardness is measured using a nanoindentation tester. Finally, the wear resistance is evaluated by performing cyclic ball-on-disc wear tests. The Taguchi experimental results show that the optimal deposition parameters are as follows: a substrate bias voltage of 90 V, an ion beam voltage of 1 kV, an acetylene flow rate of 21 sccm, and a working distance of 7 cm. Given these optimal processing conditions, the a-C:H coating has a critical load of 99.8 N, a hardness of 25.5 GPa, and a wear rate of 0.4 × 10−6 mm3/Nm.

  7. High fluence deposition of polyethylene glycol films at 1064 nm by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purice, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Kingshott, P.

    2007-01-01

    microbalance. The laser fluence needed to produce PEG films turned out to be unexpectedly high with a threshold of 9 J/cm(2) and the deposition rate was much lower than that with laser light at 355 nm. Results from matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF...

  8. Influence of travel speed on spray deposition uniformity from an air-assisted variable-rate sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newly developed LiDAR-guided air-assisted variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications was tested at various travel speeds to compare its spray deposition and coverage uniformity with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including nylon screens and water-sensitive papers (WSP)...

  9. Patterned growth of luminescent metal-organic framework films: a versatile electrochemically-assisted microwave deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Jin; Feng, Ji-Fei; Lin, Zu-Jin; Yang, Ying-Long; Yang, Yan; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Gao, Shui-Ying; Cao, Rong

    2016-03-11

    Electrochemically-assisted microwave deposition technology, a facile method for the fabrication of luminescent metal-organic framework (LMOF) films, is presented herein. This method was further developed into a versatile method for preparing patterned LMOF films. The strategy based on this method can spatially locate microcrystals of MOFs on a surface, which provides great promise in anti-counterfeiting barcode applications.

  10. Improved stability of organic light-emitting diode with aluminum cathodes prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Moon Jeong, Deuk Yeon Lee, Won Hoe Koo, Sang Hun Choi, Hong Koo Baik, Se-Jong Lee and Kie Moon Song

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated highly stable organic electroluminescent devices based on spin-coated poly-p-phenylene-vynylene (PPV thin films. The electrical properties of aluminum cathode, prepared by ion beam assisted deposition, on PPV have been investigated and compared to those by thermal evaporation. Although energetic particles of Al assisted by Ar+ ion may damage the organic material, I–V–L characteristics are improved by applying thin Al buffer layer. In addition, a dense Al cathode inhibits the permeation of H2O and O2 into PPV film through pinhole defects, and thus retards dark spot growth. It may be deduced from highly packed structure of Al cathode with an increase in the contact area between Al and PPV that reduce the contact resistance. In conclusion, the lifetime of organic light-emitting device (OLED has been extended effectively by dense Al film through ion beam assisted deposition process.

  11. Development of aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition for thin film fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Marthatika, Dian; Panatarani, Camellia; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Joni, I. Made

    2016-02-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to grow a thin film applied in many industrial applications. This paper report the development of an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) which is one of the CVD methods. Newly developed AACVD system consists of a chamber of pyrex glass, two wire-heating elements placed to cover pyrex glass, a substrate holder, and an aerosol generator using an air brush sprayer. The temperature control system was developed to prevent condensation on the chamber walls. The control performances such as the overshoot and settling time were obtained from of the developed temperature controller. Wire-heating elements were controlled at certain setting value to heat the injected aerosol to form a thin film in the substrate. The performance of as-developed AACVD system tested to form a thin film where aerosol was sprayed into the chamber with a flow rate of 7 liters/minutes, and vary in temperatures and concentrations of precursor. The temperature control system have an overshoot around 25 °C from the desired set point temperature, very small temperature ripple 2 °C and a settling time of 20 minutes. As-developed AACVD successfully fabricated a ZnO thin film with thickness of below 1 µm. The performances of system on formation of thin films influenced by the generally controlled process such as values of setting temperature and concentration where the aerosol flow rate was fixed. Higher temperature was applied, the more uniform ZnO thin films were produced. In addition, temperature of the substrate also affected on surface roughness of the obtained films, while concentration of ZnO precursor determined the thickness of produce films. It is concluded that newly simple AACVD can be applied to produce a thin film.

  12. Water-assisted growth of graphene on carbon nanotubes by the chemical vapor deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian-Min; Dai, Ye-Jing

    2013-05-21

    Combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with graphene has been proved to be a feasible method for improving the performance of graphene for some practical applications. This paper reports a water-assisted route to grow graphene on CNTs from ferrocene and thiophene dissolved in ethanol by the chemical vapor deposition method in an argon flow. A double injection technique was used to separately inject ethanol solution and water for the preparation of graphene/CNTs. First, CNTs were prepared from ethanol solution and water. The injection of ethanol solution was suspended and water alone was injected into the reactor to etch the CNTs. Thereafter, ethanol solution was injected along with water, which is the key factor in obtaining graphene/CNTs. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman scattering analyses confirmed that the products were the hybrid materials of graphene/CNTs. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of oxygen rich functional groups on the surface of the graphene/CNTs. Given the activity of the graphene/CNT surface, CdS quantum dots adhered onto it uniformly through simple mechanical mixing.

  13. Microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of porous carbon film as supercapacitive electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ai-Min; Feng, Chen-Chen; Huang, Hao; Paredes Camacho, Ramon Alberto; Gao, Song; Lei, Ming-Kai; Cao, Guo-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Highly porous carbon film (PCF) coated on nickel foam was prepared successfully by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) with C2H2 as carbon source and Ar as discharge gas. The PCF is uniform and dense with 3D-crosslinked nanoscale network structure possessing high degree of graphitization. When used as the electrode material in an electrochemical supercapacitor, the PCF samples verify their advantageous electrical conductivity, ion contact and electrochemical stability. The test results show that the sample prepared under 1000 W microwave power has good electrochemical performance. It displays the specific capacitance of 62.75 F/g at the current density of 2.0 A/g and retains 95% of its capacitance after 10,000 cycles at the current density of 2.0 A/g. Besides, its near-rectangular shape of the cyclic voltammograms (CV) curves exhibits typical character of an electric double-layer capacitor, which owns an enhanced ionic diffusion that can fit the requirements for energy storage applications.

  14. Electrospray-assisted characterization and deposition of chlorosomes to fabricate a biomimetic light-harvesting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modesto-Lopez, Luis B.; Thimsen, Elijah J.; Collins, Aaron M.; Blankenship, R. E.; Biswas, Pratim

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthesis is an efficient process by which solar energy is converted into chemical energy. Green photosynthetic bacteria such as Chloroflexus aurantiacus have supramolecular antenna complexes called chlorosomes attached to their cytoplasmic membrane that increase the cross section for light absorption even in low-light conditions. Self-assembled bacteriochlorophyll pigments in the chlorosome interior play a key role in the efficient transfer and funneling of the harvested energy. In this work it was demonstrated that chlorosomes can be rapidly and precisely size-characterized online in real time using an electrospray-assisted mobility-based technique. Chlorosomes were electrospray-deposited onto TiO{sub 2} nanostructured films with columnar morphology to fabricate a novel biomimetic device to overcome the solvent compatibility issues associated with biological particles and synthetic dyes. The assembled unit retained the viability of the chlorosomes, and the harvesting of sunlight over a broader range of wavelengths was demonstrated. It was shown that the presence of chlorosomes in the biomimetic device had a 30-fold increase in photocurrent.

  15. Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition setup for fast synthesis of graphene patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chentao; Zhang, Jianhuan; Lin, Kun; Huang, Yuanqing

    2017-05-01

    An automatic setup based on the laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition method has been developed for the rapid synthesis of graphene patterns. The key components of this setup include a laser beam control and focusing unit, a laser spot monitoring unit, and a vacuum and flow control unit. A laser beam with precision control of laser power is focused on the surface of a nickel foil substrate by the laser beam control and focusing unit for localized heating. A rapid heating and cooling process at the localized region is induced by the relative movement between the focalized laser spot and the nickel foil substrate, which causes the decomposing of gaseous hydrocarbon and the out-diffusing of excess carbon atoms to form graphene patterns on the laser scanning path. All the fabrication parameters that affect the quality and number of graphene layers, such as laser power, laser spot size, laser scanning speed, pressure of vacuum chamber, and flow rates of gases, can be precisely controlled and monitored during the preparation of graphene patterns. A simulation of temperature distribution was carried out via the finite element method, providing a scientific guidance for the regulation of temperature distribution during experiments. A multi-layer graphene ribbon with few defects was synthesized to verify its performance of the rapid growth of high-quality graphene patterns. Furthermore, this setup has potential applications in other laser-based graphene synthesis and processing.

  16. Polymer-assisted deposition of co-doped zinc oxide thin films for the detection of aromatic organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Kim, Dojin

    2011-12-01

    Co-doped Zinc oxide thin films are deposited onto SiO2/Si substrate by polymer-assisted deposition method. The surface morphology, structures and chemical states of the thin films are examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The gas-sensing properties of the thin films upon exposure to aromatic organic compound vapors are also investigated. Co-doping is shown to be very effective in enhancing the response of ZnO thin film to aromatic organic compound.

  17. Zinc-doped CdS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiyemi, Abideen A.; Awodugba, Ayodeji O.; Akinrinola, Olusola; Faremi, Abass A.

    2017-09-01

    Cd1-x Zn x S nanoparticles were grown on pre-cleaned glass substrates using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition technique. Nanoparticles obtained by this method were smooth, uniform, good adherent, brownish yellow in color where the brightness of the yellow color nature decreases with increasing Zn2+ content. The elemental composition analysis confirmed that the nanoparticles comprise of Cd2+, Zn2+ and S2-. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the surface uniformity of the Cd1-x Zn x S nanoparticles devoid of any void, pinhole or cracks and covered the substrate well. The particle size also decreases with increasing Zn ion content. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the hexagonal structure (002) without phase transition. The grain size decreases from 36.45 to 9.60 nm, dislocation density increases from 0.000745 to 0.01085 Line2/m2 and lattice parameter decreased from 6.868 to 6.155 nm with increasing Zn2+ content. The best transmittance of about 95% was achieved for x = 1.0. The nanoparticles showed reduction in the absorbance as Zn ion content increased. Four point probe revealed that the electrical resistivity increased from 1.51 × 1010 to 6.67× {10}10 {{Ω }}\\cdot {cm} while electrical conductivity decreases from 6.62 × 10-11 to 1.49× {10}-11{({{Ω }}\\cdot {cm})}-1 with increasing Zn2+ content. The other electrical properties such as sheet resistance increased from 1.52 × 108 to 1.58× {10}8 {{Ω }}, charge carrier mobility decreased from 0.777 to 0.0105 cm2/(V \\cdot s) and charge carrier density increased from 1.06 × 1012 to 3.95 × 1012 cm-3.

  18. Fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds using precision extrusion deposition with an assisted cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Q; Snyder, J; Wang, C; Guceri, S; Sun, W [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Timmer, M; Hammer, J, E-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu [Advanced Technologies and Regenerative Medicine, Somerville, NJ (United States)

    2011-09-15

    In the field of biofabrication, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, there are many methodologies to fabricate a building block (scaffold) which is unique to the target tissue or organ that facilitates cell growth, attachment, proliferation and/or differentiation. Currently, there are many techniques that fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds; however, there are advantages, limitations and specific tissue focuses of each fabrication technique. The focus of this initiative is to utilize an existing technique and expand the library of biomaterials which can be utilized to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds rather than focusing on a new fabrication technique. An expanded library of biomaterials will enable the precision extrusion deposition (PED) device to construct three-dimensional scaffolds with enhanced biological, chemical and mechanical cues that will benefit tissue generation. Computer-aided motion and extrusion drive the PED to precisely fabricate micro-scaled scaffolds with biologically inspired, porosity, interconnectivity and internal and external architectures. The high printing resolution, precision and controllability of the PED allow for closer mimicry of tissues and organs. The PED expands its library of biopolymers by introducing an assisting cooling (AC) device which increases the working extrusion temperature from 120 to 250 deg. C. This paper investigates the PED with the integrated AC's capabilities to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds that support cell growth, attachment and proliferation. Studies carried out in this paper utilized a biopolymer whose melting point is established to be 200 deg. C. This polymer was selected to illustrate the newly developed device's ability to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds from a new library of biopolymers. Three-dimensional scaffolds fabricated with the integrated AC device should illustrate structural integrity and ability to support cell attachment and proliferation.

  19. Properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films prepared by ion-assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhan, Mansour S. [College of Engineering, Wasit University (Iraq); Zalnezhad, E., E-mail: erfan_zalnezhad@yahoo.com [Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Bushroa, A.R. [Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Investigating the effect of ion-beam parameters on optical properties. • Exploring the effect of ion-beam parameters on structural properties. • Studying XRD patterns of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films deposited at different ion energies. - Abstract: Tantalum penta-oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films were deposited onto highly polished and clean, fused silica glass substrates via ion beam-assisted deposition at room temperature using a high-vacuum coater equipped with an electron beam gun. The effects of ion beam parameters, oxygen flow rate, and deposition rate on the optical and structural properties as well as the stress of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were studied. It has been revealed that Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited at 300 eV ion beam energy, 60 μA/cm{sup 2} ion current density, 20 sccm oxygen flow rate and 0.6 nm/s deposition rate demonstrated excellent optical, structural and compressive stress.

  20. Local electrophoresis deposition assisted by laser trapping coupled with a spatial light modulator for three-dimensional microfabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Toshiki; Takai, Takanari; Iwata, Futoshi

    2017-10-01

    We describe a novel three-dimensional fabrication technique using local electrophoresis deposition assisted by laser trapping coupled with a spatial light modulator (SLM). In a solution containing nanometer-scale colloidal Au particles, multiple laser spots formed on a conductive substrate by the SLM gathered the nanoparticles together, and then the nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited onto the substrate by an applied electrical field. However, undesirable sub-spots often appeared due to optical interference from the multiple laser spots, which deteriorated the accuracy of the deposition. To avoid the appearance of undesirable sub-spots, we proposed a method using quasi-multiple spots, which we realized by switching the position of a single spot briefly using the SLM. The method allowed us to deposit multiple dots on the substrate without undesirable sub-dot deposition. By moving the substrate downward during deposition, multiple micro-pillar structures could be fabricated. As a fabrication property, the dependence of the pillar diameter on laser intensity was investigated by changing the number of laser spots. The smallest diameter of the four pillars fabricated in this study was 920 nm at the laser intensity of 2.5 mW. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, multiple spiral structures were fabricated. Quadruple spirals of 46 µm in height were successfully fabricated with a growth rate of 0.21 µm/s using 2200 frames of the CGH patterns displayed in the SLM at a frame rate of 10 fps.

  1. Thin films of polymer mimics of cross-linking mussel adhesive proteins deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, R.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stamatin, I.; Doraiswamy, A.; Narayan, R. J.; Westwood, G.; Wilker, J. J.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2009-03-01

    Mussels secrete specialized adhesives known as mussel adhesive proteins, which allow attachment of the organisms to underwater marine environments. Obtaining large quantities of naturally derived mussel adhesive proteins adhesives has proven to date rather problematic, thus, synthetic analogs of mussel adhesive proteins have recently been developed. We report deposition of 1:100 and 1:1000 poly[(3,4-dihydroxystyrene)-co-styrene)] mussel adhesive protein analogs by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) using an ArF* excimer laser source. The deposited films have been evaluated for their antifouling behavior. The MAPLE-deposited synthetic mussel adhesive protein analog thin films are homogenous and adhesive, making the use of these materials in thin film form a viable option.

  2. Deposition of cobalt and nickel sulfide thin films from thio- and alkylthio-urea complexes as precursors via the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mgabi, L.P.; Dladla, B.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private bag X1001 KwaDlangezwa, 3880 (South Africa); Malik, M.A. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Garje, Shivram S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Akhtar, J. [Nanoscience and Materials Synthesis Lab, Department of Physics, COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Chak shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan); Revaprasadu, N., E-mail: RevaprasaduN@unizulu.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private bag X1001 KwaDlangezwa, 3880 (South Africa)

    2014-08-01

    We report the synthesis of Co(II) and Ni(II) thiourea and alkylthiourea complexes by reacting the metal salts (CoCl{sub 2} and NiCl{sub 2}) with the thiourea, phenylthiourea and dicyclohexylthiourea ligands in a 1:2 ratio. The complexes, [CoCl{sub 2}(CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (I), [CoCl{sub 2}(CSNHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}NH{sub 2}){sub 2} (II) and [CoCI{sub 2}(SC(NHC{sub 6}H{sub 11}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (III), [NiCl{sub 2}(CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (IV), [NiCl{sub 2}(CSNHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}] (V) and [NiCl{sub 2}(SC(NHC{sub 6}H{sub 11}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (VI) were characterized by C, H, N analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that all complexes undergo a two step decomposition process except for [NiCl{sub 2}(CSNHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}] (V) which decomposes in a single step. The complexes were used as single-source precursors for the deposition of cobalt sulfide and nickel sulfide thin films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition at temperatures between 350 an 500 °C. The crystallinity of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and their morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of the cobalt sulfide thin films varies from randomly oriented platelets, to granulated spheres and cubes as the precursor and deposition conditions are changed. For nickel sulfide, the [NiCl{sub 2}(CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}){sub 2}] (IV) complex gave rods whereas the [NiCl{sub 2}(CSNHC{sub 6}H{sub 5}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}] (V) produced spherical particles. - Highlights: • We report the synthesis of Co(II) and Ni(II) thiourea and alkylthiourea complexes. • C, H, N analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterization • NiS and CoS thin films deposited by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition • X-ray diffraction characterization of the phase of the films • Film morphology determined by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Characterization of conducting polymer films grown via surface polymerization by ion-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepavcevic, Sanja

    2006-04-01

    Optimization of photonic and electronic devices based on conductive polymers, such as polythiophene and polyphenyl, requires the development of processing methods that can control both film chemistry and morphology on the nanoscale. One such method is explored in this thesis: surface polymerization by ion-assisted deposition (SPIAD). Polythiophene and polyphenyl thin films are grown on a silicon surface by SPIAD which uses hyperthermal, mass-selected thiophene cations coincident with alpha-thermal beam of aterthiophene (3T) or p-terphenyl (3P) neutrals. Mass spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to verify polymerization of both 3T and 3P. The optimal conditions for the most efficient polymerization reaction and film growth are found by varying ion/neutral ratio and ion energy. The electronic structures of these films are probed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and polarized near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). The conducting polymer films formed by SPIAD display new valence band features resulting from a reduction in both their band gap and barrier to hole injection. These changes in film electronic structure result from an increase in the electron conjugation length and other changes in film structure induced by SPIAD. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction are used to demonstrate that SPIAD can control the overall polythiophene and polyphenyl film morphology through the mediation of adsorption, diffusion, sublimation (desorption), and other thermal film growth events by ion-induced processes including polymerization, sputtering, bond breakage, and energetic mixing. Predicting the electronic properties, growth mechanism and morphology of the SPIAD films should be possible through computer simulations of the controlling phenomenon. Study with first principles density functional theory-molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations indicates that polymerization and fragmentation of ions and

  4. Synthesis by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition and microstructural characterization of PbTiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Cano, J.; Hurtado-Macías, A.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Fuentes-Cobas, L.; González-Hernández, J.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx

    2013-03-01

    Thin films of PbTiO{sub 3} were deposited onto (001) silicon single-crystal substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition method at different temperatures, using organometallic precursors. With the objective of stabilizing and homogenizing the perovskite phase, the films were annealed at 800 °C, in a Pb-rich atmosphere, for 4 and 6 h. The evolution of compositions and microstructure of the films was characterized before and after annealing, by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, two-dimensional detection of grazing incidence diffraction with synchrotron radiation, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystalline structure of optimized PbTiO{sub 3} films corresponded to a tetragonal perovskite-type, with lattice parameters a = 0.387(4) nm and c = 0.406(4) nm. In addition, the inverse pole figure of the fiber texture representation, had a Gaussian (1, 1, 0) component and distribution width Ω = 15°. - Highlights: ► We report the synthesis of homogeneous PbTiO{sub 3} thin films on Si substrates. ► They were synthesized by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition method. ► Detailed characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy was performed. ► Crystalline structure of PbTiO{sub 3} films corresponded to a tetragonal perovskite-type. ► The fiber texture representation had a Gaussian (1, 1, 0) component.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted copper deposition on a polymer membrane and application for methanol steam reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Young-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Copper particles were electrolessly deposited on a palladium aerosol activated polymer membrane in the presence of ultrasound. An application of ultrasound introduced a faster deposition (220 μg min(-1) in deposition rate) and finer copper particles (9 nm in crystallite size) than those (11 and 41 μg min(-1); 27 and 32 nm) in the absence of ultrasound (i.e. respectively 20 and 45 °C in bath temperature with mechanical agitation). A better performance of methanol steam reforming (0.59 in mean conversion during 5h operation; 1.3 and 1.6 times respectively higher than those from 20 to 45 °C cases) at a 300 °C reaction temperature was materialized for the ultrasound application, probably due to a finer (i.e. a more textured) copper particle deposition on a polymer membrane. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic Thin Films Deposited by Emulsion-Based, Resonant Infrared, Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation: Fundamentals and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wangyao

    Thin film deposition techniques are indispensable to the development of modern technologies as thin film based optical coatings, optoelectronic devices, sensors, and biological implants are the building blocks of many complicated technologies, and their performance heavily depends on the applied deposition technique. Particularly, the emergence of novel solution-processed materials, such as soft organic molecules, inorganic compounds and colloidal nanoparticles, facilitates the development of flexible and printed electronics that are inexpensive, light weight, green and smart, and these thin film devices represent future trends for new technologies. One appealing feature of solution-processed materials is that they can be deposited into thin films using solution-processed deposition techniques that are straightforward, inexpensive, high throughput and advantageous to industrialize thin film based devices. However, solution-processed techniques rely on wet deposition, which has limitations in certain applications, such as multi-layered film deposition of similar materials and blended film deposition of dissimilar materials. These limitations cannot be addressed by traditional, vacuum-based deposition techniques because these dry approaches are often too energetic and can degrade soft materials, such as polymers, such that the performance of resulting thin film based devices is compromised. The work presented in this dissertation explores a novel thin film deposition technique, namely emulsion-based, resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE), which combines characteristics of wet and dry deposition techniques for solution-processed materials. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE to deposit uniform and continuous organic, nanoparticle and blended films, as well as hetero-structures that otherwise are difficult to achieve. However, fundamental understanding of the growth mechanisms that govern

  7. Redeposition in plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition: Silicon nitride film quality ruled by the gas residence time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoops, Harm C. M., E-mail: h.c.m.knoops@tue.nl, E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, North End, Bristol BS49 4AP (United Kingdom); Peuter, K. de; Kessels, W. M. M., E-mail: h.c.m.knoops@tue.nl, E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-07-06

    The requirements on the material properties and growth control of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) spacer films in transistors are becoming ever more stringent as scaling of transistor structures continues. One method to deposit high-quality films with excellent control is atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, depositing SiN{sub x} by ALD has turned out to be very challenging. In this work, it is shown that the plasma gas residence time τ is a key parameter for the deposition of SiN{sub x} by plasma-assisted ALD and that this parameter can be linked to a so-called “redeposition effect”. This previously ignored effect, which takes place during the plasma step, is the dissociation of reaction products in the plasma and the subsequent redeposition of reaction-product fragments on the surface. For SiN{sub x} ALD using SiH{sub 2}(NH{sup t}Bu){sub 2} as precursor and N{sub 2} plasma as reactant, the gas residence time τ was found to determine both SiN{sub x} film quality and the resulting growth per cycle. It is shown that redeposition can be minimized by using a short residence time resulting in high-quality films with a high wet-etch resistance (i.e., a wet-etch rate of 0.5 nm/min in buffered HF solution). Due to the fundamental nature of the redeposition effect, it is expected to play a role in many more plasma-assisted ALD processes.

  8. Surface chemistry of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 studied by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langereis, E.; Keijmel, J.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2008-06-01

    The surface groups created during plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 were studied by infrared spectroscopy. For temperatures in the range of 25-150°C, -CH3 and -OH were unveiled as dominant surface groups after the Al(CH3)3 precursor and O2 plasma half-cycles, respectively. At lower temperatures more -OH and C-related impurities were found to be incorporated in the Al2O3 film, but the impurity level could be reduced by prolonging the plasma exposure. The results demonstrate that -OH surface groups rule the surface chemistry of the Al2O3 process and likely that of plasma-assisted ALD of metal oxides from organometallic precursors in general.

  9. Deposition of matrix-free fullerene films with improved morphology by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Thin films of C60 were deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from a frozen target of anisole with 0.67 wt% C60. Above a fluence of 1.5 J/cm2 the C60 films are strongly non-uniform and are resulting from transfer of matrix-droplets containing fullerenes. At low fluence...... the fullerene molecules in the films are intact, the surface morphology is substantially improved and there are no measurable traces of the matrix molecules in the film. This may indicate a regime of dominant evaporation at low fluence which merges into the MAPLE regime of liquid ejection of the host matrix...

  10. Effect of N bonding structure in AlON deposited by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition on electrical properties of 4H-SiC MOS capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Wakana; Yamamoto, Kensaku; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Sigeaki

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of the N bonding structure in an AlON layer deposited by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the electrical properties of a 4H-SiC MOS structure. The properties of defects in the AlON and SiO2 layers were investigated from the capacitance–voltage and current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics of AlON/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS structures. The density of negatively charged defects in the AlON layer decreases with increasing N content. We found that the leakage current decreases with increasing N content at a low-voltage region from J–V characteristics. The bonding structure in the AlON layer was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The densities of Al–N and Al–O–N bonds in the AlON layer increase with the N content. In contrast, the density of Al–NO2 bonds decreases with increasing N content. We suggest that the decrease in the defect density in the AlON layer is related to the increasing number of Al–N and Al–O–N bonds. Thus, we concluded that it is important to form Al–N and Al–ON bonds in the AlON layer while suppressing the formation of Al–NO2 bonds.

  11. Synthesis of nanostructured and microstructured ZnO and Zn(OH)2 on activated carbon cloth by hydrothermal and microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosayebi, Elham; Azizian, Saeid; Hajian, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructured and microstructured ZnO and Zn(OH)2 loaded on activated carbon cloth were synthesized by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition and hydrothermal methods. By hydrothermal method the deposited sample on carbon fiber is pure ZnO with dandelion-like nanostructures. By microwave-assisted chemical bath method the structure and composition of deposited sample depends on solution pH. At pH = 9.8 the deposited sample on carbon fiber is pure ZnO with flower-like microstructure; but at pH = 10.8 the sample is a mixture of ZnO and Zn(OH)2 with flower-like and rhombic microstructures, respectively. The mechanism of crystal grow by microwave-assisted chemical bath method was investigated by SEM method at both pH.

  12. Fabrication of nanowires of Al-doped ZnO using nanoparticle assisted pulsed laser deposition (NAPLD) for device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanka Rajan, S. [ECMS Division, CSIR – Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India); Subramanian, B., E-mail: subramanianb3@gmail.com [ECMS Division, CSIR – Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India); Nanda Kumar, A.K.; Jayachandran, M. [ECMS Division, CSIR – Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India); Ramachandra Rao, M.S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2014-01-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Novel technique of NP assisted PLD was employed to obtain Al doped ZnO. • AZO nano wires with aspect ratios exceeding 20 were obtained at 500 sccm Ar gas pressure. • AZO films belong to the most stable wurtzite type. • Films show near band edge emission and defect related emission. -- Abstract: Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructures have been successfully synthesized on sapphire substrates by using nanoparticle assisted pulsed laser deposition (NAPLD) in Ar atmosphere without using any catalyst. The growth of the AZO nanowires has been investigated by varying the argon flow rates. The coatings have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), Laser Raman spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results of XRD indicate that the deposited films are crystalline ZnO with hexagonal wurtzite structure with (0 0 2) preferred orientation. FESEM images also clearly reveal the hexagonal structure and the formation of nanowires with aspect ratios between 15 and 20. The surface roughness value of 9.19 nm was observed from AFM analysis. The optical properties of the sample showed that under excitation with λ = 325 nm, an emission band was observed in UV and visible region. The characteristic Raman peaks were detected at 328, 380, 420, 430 cm{sup −1}.

  13. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Chih-Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yu, Pin-Feng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyhpyng [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jiunn-Yuan [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Mu [SuperbIN Co., Ltd., Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  14. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Yen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP, and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  15. Large-aperture plasma-assisted deposition of inertial confinement fusion laser coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, James B; Kupinski, Pete; Rigatti, Amy L; Schmid, Ansgar W; Lambropoulos, John C; Papernov, Semyon; Kozlov, Alexei; Spaulding, John; Sadowski, Daniel; Chrzan, Z Roman; Hand, Robert D; Gibson, Desmond R; Brinkley, Ian; Placido, Frank

    2011-03-20

    Plasma-assisted electron-beam evaporation leads to changes in the crystallinity, density, and stresses of thin films. A dual-source plasma system provides stress control of large-aperture, high-fluence coatings used in vacuum for substrates 1m in aperture.

  16. A comparative study of photo-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiter, E; Hai, Z; Alfaro, S; Remita, H; Valenzuela, M A; Colbeau-Justin, C

    2013-07-01

    Noble metals deposited on TiO2 act as electron traps facilitating electron-hole separation and promoting the interfacial electron transfer process. In particular, silver nanoparticles have the ability to absorb visible light due to localized surface plasmon resonance. Here we report a photochemical and photocatalytic method for depositing Ag nanoparticles (2-20 nm) on TiO2 by using UV light at room temperature. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-resolved microwave conductivity were used as characterization techniques. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by measuring the decomposition of rhodamine B under UV and visible light irradiation. The fastest bleaching of RhB under visible-light irradiation has been obtained by Ag/TiO2 plasmonic photocatalyst prepared by the photocatalytic route. These results were explained in terms of the more efficient photon absorption due to the presence of the surface plasmon resonance.

  17. Upcycling Waste Lard Oil into Vertical Graphene Sheets by Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Angjian; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Jian; Du, Changming; Shen, Wangjun; Yan, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Vertical graphene (VG) sheets were single-step synthesized via inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using waste lard oil as a sustainable and economical carbon source. Interweaved few-layer VG sheets, H2, and other hydrocarbon gases were obtained after the decomposition of waste lard oil. The influence of parameters such as temperature, gas proportion, ICP power was investigated to tune the nanostructures of obtained VG, which indicated that a proper tem...

  18. Electric-field Assisted Deposition of the DNA on Polymer Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Junhwan; Zhu, Ke; Budassi, Julia; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the interaction of DNA with surfaces has been widely studied for its range of applications, including mapping, sequencing and analyzing DNAs. In this study, the Lambda DNA molecules were aligned in 6:50(0.1M NaOH:0.02M MES) buffer solution with different electric fields and deposited onto polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) surfaces by dipping and retracting PMMA coated silicon wafers into the solution. Electric field was set up with platinum wire and gold plated Si wafer. The DNA strands were dyed with YoYo-1 and observed using a fluorescence microscope. The efficiency of deposition was optimized with respect to DNA concentration, DNA length and electric field. The results indicate that the density and possibly the lengths of the DNA deposited on surface can be controlled by this method. Enhancement of adsorption density of greater than twenty-fold were found using electric field strengths of 10v/cm. This study is supported by NSF-DMR-MRSEC program.

  19. Effects of intermittent atomization on the properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Linjie; Wang, Lixin [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Qin, Xiujuan, E-mail: qinxj@ysu.edu.cn [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Cui, Li [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shao, Guangjie [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates with different atomization interval times by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. The structure, morphology, and optical and electrical properties were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscope, UV-vis double beam spectrophotometer and 4 point probe method. ZnO thin films exhibited strong growth orientation along the (002) plane and the crystalline was affected by the atomization interval time. All the films had high transmittance and the films with interval times of 2 min and 4 min had good haze values for the transparent conducting oxide silicon solar cell applications. The AZO thin film had the best optical and electrical properties when the atomization interval time was 4 min. This is very important for the optoelectronic device applications. The surface morphology of AZO films depended on the atomization interval time. - Highlights: • Intermittent atomization is proved to be an effective measure. • Atomization interval time has an important influence on the crystallinity of films. • The surface morphology of ZnO films depends on atomization interval time. • Different hazes can be obtained by changing the atomization interval time.

  20. In-situ photo-assisted deposition of silver particles on hydrogel fibers for antibacterial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raho, Riccardo [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Paladini, Federica; Lombardi, Fiorella Anna [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Boccarella, Sandro [Megatex S.p.A., Via Cima D' Aosta, 73040 Melissano, Lecce (Italy); Zunino, Benedetta [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00198 Roma (Italy); Pollini, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pollini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Silvertech Ltd., Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted intensive research interest and have been recently incorporated in polymers, medical devices, hydrogels and burn dressings to control the proliferation of microorganisms. In this study a novel silver antibacterial coating was deposited for the first time on hydrogel fibers through an in-situ photo-chemical reaction. Hydrogel blends obtained by mixing different percentages of silver-treated and untreated fibers were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Four different fluids, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS), simulated body fluid (SBF), chemical simulated wound fluid (cSWF), and deionized water (DI water), were used for evaluating the swelling properties. The results obtained confirmed that the presence of silver did not affect the properties of the hydrogel. Moreover, the results obtained through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) demonstrated very low silver release values, thus indicating the perfect adhesion of the silver coating to the substrate. Good antibacterial capabilities were demonstrated by any hydrogel blend on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) through agar diffusion tests and optical density readings. - Highlights: • An innovative nano-silver deposition technique was adopted on hydrogel fibers. • Antibacterial effects was verified by agar diffusion and optical density tests. • The swelling properties were investigated using 4 different fluids. • Hydrogel blends with different percentages of silver-treated fibers were compared.

  1. Surface-grafted polymer-assisted electroless deposition of metals for flexible and stretchable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqing; Zhou, Xuechang; Li, Yi; Zheng, Zijian

    2012-05-01

    Surface-grafted polymers, that is, ultrathin layers of polymer coating covalently tethered to a surface, can serve as a particularly promising nanoplatform for electroless deposition (ELD) of metal thin films and patterned structures. Such polymers consist of a large number of well-defined binding sites for highly efficient and selective uptake of ELD catalysts. Moreover, the polymer chains provide flexible 3D network structures to trap the electrolessly deposited metal particles, leading to strong metal-substrate adhesion. In the past decade, surface-grafted polymers have been demonstrated as efficient nanoplatforms for fabricating durable and high-performance metal coatings by ELD on plastic substrates for applications in flexible and stretchable electronics. This focus review summarizes these recent advances, with a particular focus on applications in polymeric flexible and stretchable substrates. An outlook on the future challenges and opportunities in this field is given at the end of this paper. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Properties of La and Nb-modified PZT thin films grown by radio frequency assisted pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verardi, P. [CNR-Istituto di Acustica, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Craciun, F. [CNR-Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dinescu, M. [NILPRP, Bucharest, PO Box MG-16, RO-76900 (Romania)]. E-mail: dinescum@ifin.nipne.ro; Scarisoreanu, N. [NILPRP, Bucharest, PO Box MG-16, RO-76900 (Romania); Moldovan, A. [NILPRP, Bucharest, PO Box MG-16, RO-76900 (Romania); Purice, A. [NILPRP, Bucharest, PO Box MG-16, RO-76900 (Romania); Galassi, C. [CNR-ISTEC, Via Granarolo 64, I 48018 Faenza (Italy)

    2005-04-25

    Lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric thin films added with La and Nb has been grown by radio frequency assisted pulsed laser deposition on Pt/Si, starting from sintered targets. The dielectric properties were measured in a large frequency range and their dependence on the a.c. driving field amplitude has been investigated. A linear decreasing of the dielectric permittivity with frequency logarithm increasing has been evidenced. The most important factor for the driving field amplitude influence on the dielectric properties is the type of vacancies introduced by La and Nb substitutions, which indicates that the dynamics involved in a.c. field behavior is controlled by interaction mechanisms between ferroelectric domain or nanodomain walls and pinning (vacancies) centers.

  3. Fabrication of high-performance fluorine doped-tin oxide film using flame-assisted spray deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: Aguspur@uns.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Widiyandari, Hendri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Jumari, Arif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia)

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) film was fabricated by flame-assisted spray deposition method. By varying the NH{sub 4}F doping concentration, the optimal concentration was established as 8 at.%. X-ray diffractograms confirmed that the as-grown FTO film was tetragonal SnO{sub 2}. In addition, the FTO film was comprised of nano-sized grains ranging from 40 to 50 nm. The heat-treated FTO film exhibited a sheet resistance of 21.8 {Omega}/{open_square} with an average transmittance of 81.9% in the visible region ({lambda} = 400-800 nm). The figures of merit shows that the prepared FTO film can be used for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells electrodes.

  4. Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhinong, E-mail: znyu@bit.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Leng Jian [School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Optical Thin Films, Tianjin Jinhang Institute of Technical Physics, Tianjin 300192 (China); Xue Wei; Zhang Ting; Jiang Yurong; Zhang Jie; Zhang Dongpu [School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-01-15

    ZnS/Ag/ZnS (ZAZ) multilayer films were prepared on polyethene terephthalate (PET) by ion beam assisted deposition at room temperature. The structural, optical and electrical characteristics of ZAZ multilayers dependent on the thickness of silver layer were investigated. The ZAZ multilayers exhibit a low sheet resistance of about 10 {Omega}/sq., a high transmittance of 92.1%, and the improved resistance stabilities when subjected to bending. When the inserted Ag thickness is over 12 nm, the ZAZ multilayers show good resistance stabilities due to the existence of a ductile Ag metal layer. The results suggest that ZAZ film has better optoelectrical and anti-deflection characteristics than conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) single layer.

  5. Properties of Erbium Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Layers Fabricated by Sputtering and Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about properties of carbon layers doped with Er3+ ions fabricated by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD and by sputtering on silicon or glass substrates. The structure of the samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction and their composition was determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. The Absorbance spectrum was taken in the spectral range from 400 nm to 600 nm. Photoluminescence spectra were obtained using two types of Ar laser (λex=514.5 nm, lex=488 nm and also using a semiconductor laser (λex=980 nm. Samples fabricated by magnetron sputtering exhibited typical emission at 1530 nm when pumped at 514.5 nm. 

  6. Structural and Mechanical Properties of CrNx Coatings Deposited by Medium-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering with and without Ion Source Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Xin Tian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CrNx coatings were deposited on Si (100 and WC-Co substrates by a home-made medium-frequency magnetron sputtering system with and without thermal filament ion source assistance. The structure and composition of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties were assessed by microhardness and pin-on-disc testing. The ion source-assisted system showed a deposition rate of 3.88 μm/h, much higher than the value 2.2 μm/h without ion source assistance. The CrNx coatings prepared with ion source assistance exhibited an increase in microhardness (up to 16.3 GPa and adecrease in friction coefficient (down to 0.48 at the optimized cathode source-to-substrate distance.

  7. Polystyrene sphere monolayer assisted electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanorods with controlable surface density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, D., E-mail: daniel.ramirez@ucv.c [Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Gomez, H. [Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Lincot, D. [Institute de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique-IRDEP, 6 Quai Watier 78401, Chatou Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper we report the zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) growth by electrochemical deposition onto polycrystalline gold electrodes modified with assemblies of polystyrene sphere monolayers (PSSMs). Growth occurs through the interstitial spaces between the hexagonally close packed spheres. ZnO NRs nucleate in the region where three adjacent spheres leave a space, being able to grow and projected over the PSSMs. The nanorod surface density (N{sub NR}) shows a linear dependence with respect to a PS sphere diameter selected. XRD analysis shows these ZnO NRs are highly oriented along the (0 0 2) plane (c-axis). This open the possibility to have electronic devices with mechanically supported nanometric materials.

  8. Tris(phosphino)borato silver(I) complexes as precursors for metallic silver aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Matthew N; Schneider, Sven; Salata, Michael R; Marks, Tobin J

    2008-04-07

    A series of light- and air-stable tris(phosphino)borato silver(I) complexes has been synthesized, structurally and spectroscopically characterized, and implemented in the growth of low resistivity metallic silver thin films by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). Of the four complexes in the series, [RB(CH2PR'2) 3]AgPEt3 (R = Ph (1, 3), (n)Bu (2, 4); R' = Ph (1, 2), (i)Pr (3, 4), complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 2 represents a significant improvement over previously available nonfluorinated Ag precursors, owing to ease of handling and efficient film deposition characteristics. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the thermolytic properties of these complexes can be significantly modified by altering the ligand structure. Polycrystalline cubic-phase Ag thin films were grown on glass, MgO(100), and 52100 steel substrates. Ag films of thicknesses 3 microm, grown at rates of 14-18 nm/min, exhibit low levels of extraneous element contamination by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that film growth proceeds primarily via an island growth (Volmer-Weber) mechanism.

  9. Failure Strain and Strain-Stress Analysis in Titanium Nitride Coatings Deposited on Religa Heart Ext Ventricular Assist Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopernik M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Polish ventricular assist device is made of Bionate II with deposited TiN biocompatible nano-coating. The two scale finite element model is composed of a macro-model of blood chamber and a micro-model of the TiN/Bionate II. The numerical analysis of stress and strain states confirmed the possibility of fracture. Therefore, the identification of a fracture parameter considered as a failure strain is the purpose of the present work. The tensile test in a micro chamber of the SEM was performed to calibrate the fracture parameter of the material system TiN/Bionate II. The failure strain is a function of a temperature, a thickness of coating and parameters of surface's profile. The failure strain was calculated at the stage of the test, in which the initiation of fracture occurred. The finite element micro-model includes the surface roughness and the failure strain under tension condition for two thicknesses of coatings which will be deposited on the medical device.

  10. Influence of Carbon Nanotube Coatings on Carbon Fiber by Ultrasonically Assisted Electrophoretic Deposition on Its Composite Interfacial Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT coatings were utilized to enhance the interfacial properties of carbon fiber (CF/epoxy(EP composites by ultrasonically assisted electrophoretic deposition (EPD. A characterization of the CF surface properties was done before and after coating (surface chemistry, surface morphologies, and surface energy. The result shows that oxygenated groups concentrations of the CF surfaces experienced significant increases from 12.11% to 24.78%. Moreover, the uniform and homogeneous CNT films were tightly attached on the surface of CF, and the surface wettability of CF is significant improved by enhanced surface free energy when introduced ultrasonic during the EPD process. In addition, the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS and water absorption of CF/EP composite were measured. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that the fracture mechanisms of the new interface layer formed by depositing CNTs on the CF surface contributed to the enhancement of the mechanical performance of the epoxy. This means that the efficient method to improve interfacial performance of composites has shown great commercial application potential.

  11. Microstructural, chemical and textural characterization of ZnO nanorods synthesized by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Fuentes-Cobas, L.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Pérez-García, S.A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Unidad Monterrey, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition onto TiO{sub 2} covered borosilicate glass substrates. Deposition parameters were optimized and kept constant. Solely the effect of different nozzle velocities on the growth of ZnO nanorods was evaluated in order to develop a dense and uniform structure. The crystalline structure was characterized by conventional X-ray diffraction in grazing incidence and Bragg–Brentano configurations. In addition, two-dimensional grazing incidence synchrotron radiation diffraction was employed to determine the preferred growth direction of the nanorods. Morphology and growth characteristics analyzed by electron microscopy were correlated with diffraction outcomes. Chemical composition was established by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of wurtzite ZnO and anatase TiO{sub 2} phases. Morphological changes noticed when the deposition velocity was lowered to the minimum, indicated the formation of relatively vertically oriented nanorods evenly distributed onto the TiO{sub 2} buffer film. By coupling two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and computational modeling with ANAELU it was proved that a successful texture determination was achieved and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Texture analysis led to the conclusion of a preferred growth direction in [001] having a distribution width Ω = 20° ± 2°. - Highlights: • Uniform and pure single-crystal ZnO nanorods were obtained by AACVD technique. • Longitudinal and transversal axis parallel to the [001] and [110] directions, respectively. • Texture was determined by 2D synchrotron diffraction and electron microscopy analysis. • Nanorods have its [001] direction distributed close to the normal of the substrate. • Angular spread about the preferred orientation is 20° ± 2°.

  12. Protective Sliding Carbon-Based Nanolayers Prepared by Argon or Nitrogen Ion-Beam Assisted Deposition on Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlcak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and the surface properties of samples coated by carbon-based nanolayer were investigated in an effort to increase the surface hardness and reduce the coefficient of friction of the Ti6Al4V alloy. Protective carbon-based nanolayers were fabricated by argon or nitrogen ion-beam assisted deposition at ion energy of 700 eV on Ti6Al4V substrates. The Raman spectra indicated that nanolayers had a diamond-like carbon character with sp2 rich bonds. The TiC and TiN compounds formed in the surface area were detected by X-ray diffraction. Nanoscratch tests showed increased adhesion of a carbon-based nanolayer deposited with ion assistance in comparison with a carbon nanolayer deposited without ion assistance. The results showed that argon ion assistance leads to greater nanohardness than a sample coated by a carbon-based nanolayer with nitrogen ion assistance. A more than twofold increase in nanohardness and a more than fivefold decrease in the coefficient of friction were obtained for samples coated by a carbon-based nanolayer with ion assistance, in comparison with the reference sample.

  13. Mechanical Characterization of Polydopamine-Assisted Silver Deposition on Polymer Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Amanda Laurence

    Inspired by the adhesive proteins in marine mussels, polydopamine has become a popular adhesive ad-layer for surface functionalization of a variety of substrates. Based on the chemistry of the dopamine monomer, amine and thiol functional groups are hypothesized to increase adhesion between polymer substrates and polydopamine thin films. This hypothesis was the central motivation for development of a tailorable thiol-ene system in order to study the effects of substrate chemistry on polydopamine adhesion. While polydopamine-adhered silver has been studied on a variety of substrates, no in depth mechanical characterization has been performed and to date, no research has been published on thiol-enes coated in polydopamine-adhered silver. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical durability and adhesion properties of a polydopamine-adhered silver film on commercial substrates and a tailorable thiol-ene system. Polydopamine and silver coatings were deposited on a variety of polymer substrates through a simple dip-coat process. The polydopamine forms a thin uniform adhesive layer and the silver deposits in a discontinuous manner with a nanoparticle sized base layer covering the full surface and micron-sized clusters adhered sporadically on top. Mechanical tensile testing was performed to characterize the durability of the silver coating on commercial polymers. Coated nylon and HDPE showed no signs of degradation or delamination of the polydopamine-adhered silver coating up to 30% strain although both substrates showed large plastic deformation. Peel tests were performed on both commercial polymers as well as a tailorable thiol-ene system. Results support the hypothesis that polydopamine adhesion is increased with the presence of functional groups. Parts of the HDPE sample were cleanly peeled, but silver patches were left sporadically across the surface pointing to weaker adhesion between polyethylene and polydopamine. A high adhesive strength tape was

  14. In-situ photo-assisted deposition of silver particles on hydrogel fibers for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raho, Riccardo; Paladini, Federica; Lombardi, Fiorella Anna; Boccarella, Sandro; Zunino, Benedetta; Pollini, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted intensive research interest and have been recently incorporated in polymers, medical devices, hydrogels and burn dressings to control the proliferation of microorganisms. In this study a novel silver antibacterial coating was deposited for the first time on hydrogel fibers through an in-situ photo-chemical reaction. Hydrogel blends obtained by mixing different percentages of silver-treated and untreated fibers were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Four different fluids, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS), simulated body fluid (SBF), chemical simulated wound fluid (cSWF), and deionized water (DI water), were used for evaluating the swelling properties. The results obtained confirmed that the presence of silver did not affect the properties of the hydrogel. Moreover, the results obtained through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) demonstrated very low silver release values, thus indicating the perfect adhesion of the silver coating to the substrate. Good antibacterial capabilities were demonstrated by any hydrogel blend on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) through agar diffusion tests and optical density readings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Precipitation of gold nanoparticles on insulating surfaces for metallic ultra-thin film electroless deposition assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livshits, P., E-mail: livship@macs.biu.ac.il [School of Engineering, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Inberg, A.; Shacham-Diamand, Y. [School of Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 66978 (Israel); Malka, D. [School of Engineering, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fleger, Y. [Bar Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Zalevsky, Z. [School of Engineering, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2012-07-15

    In this work, the kinetics of 15 and 25 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP) precipitation on silanized SiO{sub 2}/Si surfaces were studied. The NP coverage as well as distribution on the substrates was explored. It was found that at the beginning of the process, the 25 nm AuNPs precipitate faster than their 15 nm counterparts. However, early saturation and low final surface coverage by these NPs were observed. The 15 nm AuNPs, exhibited higher ({approx}40%) surface coverage and precipitation saturation only after longer treatment times. This makes small NPs a promising candidate for catalyzing the deposition of ultra-thin metallic films on insulating substrates. In addition, it has been demonstrated for the first time that NPs, independently of their size, precipitate with a certain regularity and order. Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) it was observed that NPs are organized in pairs, and in each pair they are located at 50-60 nm from each other and under certain angle.

  16. Upcycling Waste Lard Oil into Vertical Graphene Sheets by Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Angjian; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Jian; Du, Changming; Shen, Wangjun; Yan, Jianhua

    2017-10-12

    Vertical graphene (VG) sheets were single-step synthesized via inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using waste lard oil as a sustainable and economical carbon source. Interweaved few-layer VG sheets, H₂, and other hydrocarbon gases were obtained after the decomposition of waste lard oil. The influence of parameters such as temperature, gas proportion, ICP power was investigated to tune the nanostructures of obtained VG, which indicated that a proper temperature and H₂ concentration was indispensable for the synthesis of VG sheets. Rich defects of VG were formed with a high I D / I G ratio (1.29), consistent with the dense edges structure observed in electron microscopy. Additionally, the morphologies, crystalline degree, and wettability of nanostructure carbon induced by PECVD and ICP separately were comparatively analyzed. The present work demonstrated the potential of our PECVD recipe to synthesize VG from abundant natural waste oil, which paved the way to upgrade the low-value hydrocarbons into advanced carbon material.

  17. Upcycling Waste Lard Oil into Vertical Graphene Sheets by Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjian Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical graphene (VG sheets were single-step synthesized via inductively coupled plasma (ICP-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD using waste lard oil as a sustainable and economical carbon source. Interweaved few-layer VG sheets, H2, and other hydrocarbon gases were obtained after the decomposition of waste lard oil. The influence of parameters such as temperature, gas proportion, ICP power was investigated to tune the nanostructures of obtained VG, which indicated that a proper temperature and H2 concentration was indispensable for the synthesis of VG sheets. Rich defects of VG were formed with a high I D / I G ratio (1.29, consistent with the dense edges structure observed in electron microscopy. Additionally, the morphologies, crystalline degree, and wettability of nanostructure carbon induced by PECVD and ICP separately were comparatively analyzed. The present work demonstrated the potential of our PECVD recipe to synthesize VG from abundant natural waste oil, which paved the way to upgrade the low-value hydrocarbons into advanced carbon material.

  18. In-situ monitoring of plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhausen, Jens; Foest, Rüdiger; Loffhagen, Detlef

    2015-09-01

    Present photonics applications depend on accurate production techniques. Plasma based processes might be termed the backbone of multilayer optical coatings which are the key components of dielectric mirrors, filters or antireflectives. However, the sector strongly relies on process recipies based on empirical optimization of thin film properties. Limitations in quality, repeatability and yield are faced. In this contribution results of efforts on plasma characterization of a beam source employed for PIAD are presented. Data on electron and ion kinetics as well as optical emission facilitated a comprehensive understanding of underlying physics of ion beam generation and propagation in an industrial type batch coater. In order to promote the development of next generation production plants, concepts for in-situ diagnostics are investigated. Results from monitoring of optical radiance of the plasma plume near the source and electron density near the substrates are discussed. The novel concept of the multipole resonance probe is applied during deposition in order to trace variations not only in magnitude of plasma density, but also its spatial distribution. Coating materials comprise TiO2, Ta2O5, Al2O3 and SiO2. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under Grant 13N13213).

  19. Low-stress and high-reflectance Mo/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet lithography by magnetron sputtering deposition with bias assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Jin, Chunshui; Yao, Shun; Li, Chun; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Feng; Guo, Benyin; Wang, Hui; Xie, Yao; Wang, Liping

    2017-09-10

    To explore the potential of achieving low-stress and high-reflectance Mo/Si multilayers deposited by conventional magnetron sputtering with bias assistance, we investigated the effects of varying Ar gas pressure, substrate bias voltage, and a bias-assisted Si ratio on the stress and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance of Mo/Si multilayers. To reduce the damage of ion bombardments on an Si-on-Mo interface, only the final part of the Si layer was deposited with bias assistance. Bias voltage has strong influence on the stress. The compressive stress of Mo/Si multilayers can be reduced remarkably by increasing bias voltage due to the increase of Mo-on-Si interdiffusion and postponement of Mo crystallization transition. Properly choosing gas pressure and a bias-assisted Si ratio is critical to obtain high EUV reflectance. Appropriately decreasing gas pressure can reduce the interface roughness without increasing interdiffusion. Too much bias assistance can seriously reduce the optical contrast between Mo and Si layers and lead to a remarkable decrease of EUV reflectance. Thus, by appropriately choosing gas pressure, bias voltage, and a bias-assisted Si ratio, the stress values of Mo/Si multilayers can be reduced to the order of -100  MPa with an EUV reflectance loss of about 1%.

  20. Thickness Dependence of Optoelectrical Properties of Mo-Doped In2O3 Films Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrates by Ion-Beam-Assisted Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chiuan Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium molybdenum oxide (IMO films were deposited onto the polyethersulfone (PES substrates by ion-beam-assisted evaporation (IBAE deposition at low temperature in this study. The effects of film thickness on their optical and electrical properties were investigated. The results show that the deposited IMO films exhibit a preferred orientation of B(222. The electrical resistivity of the deposited film initially reduces then subsequently increases with film thickness. The IMO film with the lowest resistivity of 7.61 × 10−4 ohm-cm has been achieved when the film thickness is 120 nm. It exhibits a satisfactory surface roughness pv of 8.75 nm and an average visible transmittance of 78.7%.

  1. Iron selenide films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition from single source organometallic precursor in the presence of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Raja Azadar [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Badshah, Amin, E-mail: aminbadshah@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Younis, Adnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Khan, Malik Dilshad [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhtar, Javeed [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-09-30

    This article presents the synthesis and characterization (multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, carbon–hydrogen–nitrogen–sulfur analyzer, atomic absorption spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis) of a single source organometallic precursor namely 1-acetyl-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl)selenourea for the fabrication of iron selenide (FeSe) films on glass substrates using aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The changes in the morphologies of the films have been monitored by the use of two different surfactants i.e. triton X-100 and tetraoctylphosphonium bromide during AACVD. The role of surfactant has been evaluated by examining the interaction of the surfactants with the precursor by using UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The fabricated FeSe films have been characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Ferrocene incorporated selenourea (FIS) has been synthesized and characterized. • FeSe thin films have been fabricated from FIS. • Mechanism of film growth was studied with cyclic voltammetry and UV–vis spectroscopy.

  2. Electrochemically assisted deposition of sol-gel bio-composite with co-immobilized dehydrogenase and diaphorase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhijie [LCPME, UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy University, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Etienne, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.etienne@lcpme.cnrs-nancy.fr [LCPME, UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy University, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Kohring, Gert-Wieland [Mikrobiologie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Campus, Geb. A1.5, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Bon-Saint-Come, Yemima; Kuhn, Alexander [Universite Bordeaux, ISM, ENSCPB, 16 avenue Pey Berland, 33607 Pessac (France); Walcarius, Alain [LCPME, UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy University, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France)

    2011-10-30

    We report here that the electrochemically assisted deposition (EAD) of silica thin films can be a good strategy to co-encapsulate D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (DSDH) and diaphorase in an active form. This is achieved via the electrolysis of a hydrolyzed sol containing the biomolecules to initiate the poly-condensation of silica precursors upon electrochemically induced pH increase at the electrode/solution interface. DSDH was found to be very sensitive to the silica gel environment and the addition of a positively-charged polyelectrolyte was necessary to ensure effective operational behavior of the biomolecules. The composition of the sol and the conditions for electrolysis have been optimized with respect to the intensity of the electrochemical response to D-sorbitol oxidation. The K{sub m} of DSDH in the electrodeposited film was in the range of 3 mM, slightly better than the value determined biochemically in solution (6.5 mM). The co-immobilization of DSDH and diaphorase in this way led on the one hand to the possible reduction of NAD{sup +} to NADH (simultaneously to D-sorbitol oxidation) and on the other hand to the safe re-oxidation of the co-factor using a mediator (ferrocenedimethanol) as electron relay. The bioelectrocatalytic response looks promising for electro-enzymatic applications. To support this idea, the EAD of sol-gel bio-composite has been extended to macroporous electrodes displaying a much bigger electroactive surface area.

  3. Ferroelectric properties of lightly doped La:HfO2 thin films grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozodaev, M. G.; Chernikova, A. G.; Korostylev, E. V.; Park, M. H.; Schroeder, U.; Hwang, C. S.; Markeev, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The structural and ferroelectric properties of lightly La-doped (1 mol. %) HfO2 thin films grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition were examined. An annealing temperature as low as 400 °C crystallized the film into the desired orthorhombic phase, which resulted in it displaying promising ferroelectric performance. The remanent polarization (Pr) increased with annealing temperature, but the performance enhancement seemed to saturate at 500 °C. A slight decrease in the dielectric constant, which was associated with the preferential formation of a polar orthorhombic phase at higher temperatures, was also observed. The long-term wake-up effect, i.e., a marked rise in the 2Pr value during field cycling, was demonstrated for films processed at all annealing temperatures. The presence of domain groups with opposite internal electric biases was found in the pristine state, while the internal bias distribution became more uniform during wake-up. The endurance of up to 4 × 108 switching cycles without marked fatigue using bipolar pulses with a duration of 600 ns, and an amplitude of ±3 MV/cm was demonstrated.

  4. Durability of silver nanoparticulate films within a silica matrix by flame assisted chemical vapour deposition for biocidal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian; Shee, David W; Foster, Howard A; Varghese, Sajnu

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare acquired infection (HCAI) rates have come under increasing scrutiny in recent years and been a major priority for health professionals in the UK and elsewhere. Of particular concern is the rise of so called 'superbugs', or those resistant to conventional antibiotics, such as Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The reasons for this rise are many and complex, but one important factor is bacterial survival rates on wards and other hospital areas. In this respect, nanostructured biocidal surfaces offer a potentially powerful weapon in the fight against HCAI. In addition to providing a toxic environment to a range of infectious disease-causing bacteria (while remaining harmless to human health), any potential bioactive coated surface is required to be durable enough to withstand regular hospital cleaning methods without a reduction in biocidal activity over time and be economically viable to mass produce. The flame assisted chemical vapour deposition (FACVD) of silver and silver/silica films offer a means of producing such surfaces. In this work, we report investigations into a wide range of experimental factors and parameters affecting film durability, including burner head design and relative water vapour content in the flame environment. The produced films were assessed in terms of durability (by scratch testing) and relative silver content using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES).

  5. a-SiCxNy thin films deposited by a microwave plasma assisted CVD process using a CH4/N2/Ar/HMDSN mixture: Methane rate effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulou, S.; Le Brizoual, L.; Miska, P.; de Poucques, L.; Hugon, R.; Belmahi, M.

    2010-06-01

    Amorphous silicon carbonitride thin films were deposited using a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition process fed with a mixture of methane, nitrogen, argon and hexamethyldisilazane (Si2C6H19N). Effects of the methane rate on thin films composition, nanostructuration and characteristics are investigated by means of various techniques such as X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV-Visible absorption. The raise of the methane rate results in less organic, denser films and in an increase of refractive index.

  6. Pulsed laser deposition-assisted synthesis of porous WP2 nanosheet arrays integrated on graphite paper as a 3D flexible cathode for efficient hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Mingyu; Guo, Weimeng; Wu, Tianli; Wang, Xiaodeng; Zhang, Dingke; Wang, Shuxia; Chen, Shijian

    2017-10-01

    Herein, porous WP2 nanosheet arrays integrated on graphite paper (P-WP2 NSs/GP) as 3D flexible cathode for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are prepared by in situ phosphidation via vacuum encapsulation assisted by pulsed laser deposition technique. Compared to the electrode without pre-deposition process, the enhanced catalytic activities are attributed to the increased effective catalyst loading and the reinforced charge transport kinetics. The results make the present P-WP2 NSs/GP as a promising cathode for energy conversion and paves a new way for designing and fabricating efficient electrodes toward HER.

  7. Topography evolution of rough-surface metallic substrates by solution deposition planarization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jingyuan; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Linfei; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Hong, Zhiyong; Li, Yijie; Jin, Zhijian

    2018-01-01

    As an emerging technique for surface smoothing, solution deposition planarization (SDP) has recently drawn more attention on the fabrication of the second generation high temperature superconducting (2G-HTS) tapes. In our work, a number of amorphous oxide layers were deposited on electro-polished or mirror-rolled metallic substrates by chemical solution route. Topography evolution of surface defects on these two types of metallic substrates was thoroughly investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was showed that root mean square roughness values (at 50 × 50 μm2 scanning scale) on both rough substrates reduced to ∼5 nm after coating with SDP-layer. The smoothing effect was mainly attributed to decrease of the depth at grain boundary grooving on the electro-polished metallic substrate. On the mirror-rolled metallic substrates, the amplitude and frequency of the height fluctuation perpendicular to the rolling direction were gradually reduced as depositing more numbers of SDP-layer. A high Jc value of 4.17 MA cm-2 (at 77 K, s.f.) was achieved on a full stack of YBCO/CeO2/IBAD-MgO/SDP-layer/C276 sample. This study enhanced understanding of the topography evolution on the surface defects covered by the SDP-layer, and demonstrated a low-cost route for fabricating IBAD-MgO based YBCO templates with a simplified architecture.

  8. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); DePaula, Raymond F. (Santa Fe, NM); Usov, Igor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-14

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  9. High intense violet luminescence in fluorine doped zinc oxide (FZO) thin films deposited by aerosol assisted CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anusha, Muthukumar [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS – Grenoble INP, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble (France); Arivuoli, Dakshnamoorthy, E-mail: arivuoli@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Room temperature high intense violet luminescence in aerosol CVD prepared ZnO films. •Violet PL due to electrons transition from zinc vacancies to conduction band. •Stress evaluation using biaxial strain model and urbach energy from UV spectra. •Normalized Lorentzian fit of E{sub 2}(high) phonon mode analysis of Raman spectra. •Violet PL defect emission is well correlated with Raman, PL and UV visible spectra. -- Abstract: Fluorine doped nanocrystalline zinc oxide (F: ZnO–FZO) thin films with varying fluorine dopant level (0–5%) were prepared on corning glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition. The films exhibited polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along c-axis and crystallinity deteriorated with increasing fluorine. As prepared films were found to be stressed in the range from 1.2 to 1.7 GPa and the amount of stress depends strongly on growth conditions. Undoped ZnO films were in a state of less tensile stress, whereas in FZO, the tensile stress increases with the increasing F. Films exhibit hexagonal platelets morphology analyzed using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). UV–Vis-NIR transmission studies indicated a increase of energy bandgap and increase of optical transmission with the increase in fluorine. Urbach energy (E{sub U}) of films have also been determined. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress due to defects introduced by fluorine. A special emphasis was devoted to E{sub 2} high phonon mode analysis of Raman spectra. High intense violet PL has been achieved at room temperature and intensity improved vigorously with the dopant concentration due to a radiative transition of electrons from zinc vacancies level to the conduction band.

  10. Growth of shape- and size-selective zinc oxide nanorods by a microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method: effect on photocatalysis properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaishali R; Gujar, Tanaji P; Noda, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Vinu, Ajayan; Grandcolas, Mathieu; Ye, Jinhua

    2010-09-10

    Herein, we demonstrate the shape- and size-selective growth of ZnO nanostructures on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by using a microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method. By systematically controlling the deposition parameters, it is possible to produce shape- and size-selective nanostructures with high alignment and uniformity. Specifically, the pH of the bath can be used to control the shape of rods from bundled structures to tapered and flat tips. Furthermore, the deposition temperature can be used to control the size of the ZnO array from 770 to 125 nm. The prepared rods were active catalysts in the degradation of methylene blue under UV radiation, and exhibited size-dependent activity.

  11. Performance Improvement of Microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si Thin Film Solar Cells by Using Laser-Assisted Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si thin film solar cells treated with hydrogen plasma were fabricated at low temperature using a CO2 laser-assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LAPECVD system. According to the micro-Raman results, the i-Si films shifted from 482 cm−1 to 512 cm−1 as the assisting laser power increased from 0 W to 80 W, which indicated a gradual transformation from amorphous to crystalline Si. From X-ray diffraction (XRD results, the microcrystalline i-Si films with (111, (220, and (311 diffraction were obtained. Compared with the Si-based thin film solar cells deposited without laser assistance, the short-circuit current density and the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with assisting laser power of 80 W were improved from 14.38 mA/cm2 to 18.16 mA/cm2 and from 6.89% to 8.58%, respectively.

  12. Observation of low resistivity and high mobility in Ga doped ZnO thin films grown by buffer assisted pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajimsha, R.S., E-mail: ajimsha@gmail.com [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Das, Amit K.; Misra, P.; Joshi, M.P.; Kukreja, L.M. [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Kumar, R.; Sharma, T.K.; Oak, S.M. [Semiconductor Physics & Devices Lab., Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • Ga doped ZnO thin films were grown using buffer assisted pulsed laser deposition. • Lowest resistivity ∼5.1 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm with a mobility of ∼41.9 cm{sup 2}/V s was observed. • Buffer assisted growth methodology maintains relatively good crystalline quality. • This plays a key role in decreasing the resistivity of to the aforementioned value. • This resistivity value, to the best of our knowledge is the lowest so far in ZnO. - Abstract: We have grown Ga doped ZnO (GZO) thin films at moderate temperatures with Ga concentrations in the range varying from 0.25 to 3 at.% on sapphire substrates using buffer assisted pulsed laser deposition. Room temperature resistivity measured was ∼5.1 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm with a electron mobility of ∼41.9 cm{sup 2}/V s for an optimum Ga concentration of ∼0.75 at.% in the GZO films. Buffer assisted growth methodology maintains relatively good crystalline quality of the GZO thin films, thereby improving the electron mobility even at high dopant concentrations. This plays a key role in decreasing the resistivity of GZO films to the aforementioned value, which to the best of our knowledge is the lowest so far. These highly conducting GZO thin films with good mobility are potential candidates for transparent conducting oxide (TCO) applications in various optoelectronic devices.

  13. Ecofriendly and Nonvacuum Electrostatic Spray-Assisted Vapor Deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Anower; Wang, Mingqing; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2015-10-14

    Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin films have been deposited by a novel, nonvacuum, and cost-effective electrostatic spray-assisted vapor deposition (ESAVD) method. The generation of a fine aerosol of precursor solution, and their controlled deposition onto a molybdenum substrate, results in adherent, dense, and uniform Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) films. This is an essential tool to keep the interfacial area of thin film solar cells to a minimum value for efficient charge separation as it helps to achieve the desired surface smoothness uniformity for subsequent cadmium sulfide and window layer deposition. This nonvacuum aerosol based approach for making the CIGSSe film uses environmentally benign precursor solution, and it is cheaper for producing solar cells than that of the vacuum-based thin film solar technology. An optimized CIGSSe thin film solar cell with a device configuration of molybdenum-coated soda-lime glass substrate/CIGSSe/CdS/i-ZnO/AZO shows the photovoltaic (j-V) characteristics of Voc=0.518 V, jsc=28.79 mA cm(-2), fill factor=64.02%, and a promising power conversion efficiency of η=9.55% under simulated AM 1.5 100 mW cm(-2) illuminations, without the use of an antireflection layer. This demonstrates the potential of ESAVD deposition as a promising alternative approach for making thin film CIGSSe solar cells at a lower cost.

  14. Microwave-assisted catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production using chemical vapor deposition modified HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-12-01

    Chemical vapor deposition with tetra-ethyl-orthosilicate as the modifier was applied to deposit the external acid sites of HZSM-5, and the modified HZSM-5 samples were used for the microwave-assisted catalytic fast pyrolysis (MACFP) of biomass for bio-oil production. The experimental results showed that the external acid sites of HZSM-5 decreased significantly when SiO2 deposited amount increased from 0% to 5.9%. For product distribution, the coke yield decreased, the oil fraction yield decreased at first and then increased, and the yields of water and gas first increased and then decreased over the range of SiO2 deposited amount studied. For chemical compositions in oil fraction, the relative contents of aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing aromatic compounds first increased to maximum values and then decreased, while the relative content of oxygen-containing aliphatic compounds first decreased and then increased with increasing SiO2 deposited amount. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CFD simulation of pesticide spray from air-assisted sprayers in an apple orchard: Tree deposition and off-target losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Se-Woon; Zhao, Lingying; Zhu, Heping

    2018-02-01

    The ultimate goal of a pesticide spraying system is to provide adequate coverage on intended canopies with a minimum amount of spray materials and off-target waste. Better spray coverage requires an understanding of the fate and transport of spray droplets carried by turbulent airflows in orchards. In this study, an integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to predict displacement of pesticide spray droplets discharged from an air-assisted sprayer, depositions onto tree canopies, and off-target deposition and airborne drift in an apple orchard. Pesticide droplets discharged from a moving sprayer were tracked using the Lagrangian particle transport model, and the deposition model was applied to droplets entering porous canopy zones. Measurements of the droplet deposition and drift in the same orchard were used to validate the model simulations. Good agreement was found between the measured and simulated spray concentrations inside tree canopies and off-target losses (ground deposition and airborne drifts) with the overall relative errors of 22.1% and 40.6%, respectively, under three growth stages. The CFD model was able to estimate the mass balance of pesticide droplets in the orchard, which was practically difficult to investigate by measurements in field conditions. As the foliage of trees became denser, spray deposition inside canopies increased from 8.5% to 65.8% and airborne drift and ground deposition decreased from 25.8% to 7.0% and 47.8% to 21.2%, respectively. Higher wind speed also increased the spray airborne drift downwind of the orchard. This study demonstrates that CFD model can be used to evaluate spray application performance and design and operate sprayers with increased spray efficiencies and reduced drift potentials.

  16. Direct Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Plant Leaves Using Surface-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization with Sputter-deposited Platinum Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Osaka, Issey; Hamada, Satoshi; Murakami, Tatsuya; Miyazato, Akio; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Plant leaves administered with systemic insecticides as agricultural chemicals were analyzed using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is inadequate for the detection of insecticides on leaves because of the charge-up effect that occurs on the non-conductive surface of the leaves. In this study, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a sputter-deposited platinum film (Pt-SALDI) was used for direct analysis of chemicals in plant leaves. Sputter-deposited platinum (Pt) films were prepared on leaves administered with the insecticides. A sputter-deposited Pt film with porous structure was used as the matrix for Pt-SALDI. Acephate and acetamiprid contained in the insecticides on the leaves could be detected using Pt-SALDI-MS, but these chemical components could not be adequately detected using MALDI-MS because of the charge-up effect. Enhancement of ion yields for the insecticides was achieved using Pt-SALDI, accompanied by prevention of the charge-up effect by the conductive Pt film. The movement of systemic insecticides in plants could be observed clearly using Pt-SALDI-IMS. The distribution and movement of components of systemic insecticides on leaves could be analyzed directly using Pt-SALDI-IMS. Additionally, changes in the properties of the chemicals with time, as an indicator of the permeability of the insecticides, could be evaluated.

  17. CdS sensitized TiO{sub 2} film for photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinjuan; Pan, Likun, E-mail: lkpan@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Lv, Tian; Sun, Zhuo

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • CdS sensitized TiO{sub 2} films are synthesized by microwave-assisted deposition method. • The photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by CdS sensitized TiO{sub 2} film is investigated. • A high Cr(VI) reduction rate of 93% is achieved under white LED light irradiation. -- Abstract: CdS quantum dots (QDs) sensitized TiO{sub 2} films were successfully synthesized using one-step microwave assisted chemical bath deposition method, which allows a facile and rapid deposition and integration between CdS QDs and TiO{sub 2} films. The photocatalytic performance of the films fabricated using CdS precursor solutions with different concentrations in the reduction of Cr(VI) under white light emitting diode (LED) light irradiation was investigated. The results show that the CdS sensitization can enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} film with a maximum reduction rate of 93% for 240 min under white LED light irradiation as compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} film (31%) due to the increase of light absorption and the reduction of recombination of the injected electrons from CdS to TiO{sub 2}.

  18. Growth and electro-optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuqun [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Carraro, Giorgio [Department of Chemistry and INSTM, Padova University, Padova 35131 (Italy); Barreca, Davide [CNR-IENI and INSTM, Department of Chemistry, Padova University, Padova 35131 (Italy); Binions, Russell [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-01

    Transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by a low-cost aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition technique and the effect of gallium content on the ZnO film growth behaviour and opto-electronic properties was systematically investigated. It is found that, upon increasing Ga addition, the ZnO film crystallinity exhibits a continuous reduction in quality associated with the preferential orientation transformed from (002) to (102). The (002) oriented samples had a microstructure of parallel columnar grains while the (102) oriented coating was thickened by overlapping particles. The ZnO:Ga coatings exhibit high carrier concentration (up to 4.1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}) but low carrier mobility (up to 0.8 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}), resulting in a minimum resistivity value of 2.3 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm. The inferior carrier mobility performance could result from a profound ionized and neutral impurity scattering effect. Good visible transmittance (≈ 70–80%) is observed in these ZnO:Ga films and samples with higher carrier density present better infrared reflection performance (up to 37.2% at 2500 nm). - Highlights: • Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition of doped zinc oxide thin films • Gallium doping and opto-electronic properties systemically investigated • Growth mechanism changed by % gallium incorporation.

  19. Deposição e perdas da calda em feijoeiro em aplicação com assistência de ar na barra pulverizadora Spray deposition and spray loss using air-assistance boom on bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Raetano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da assistência de ar na deposição da calda de pulverização, em plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris aos 26 dias após a emergência (DAE, com pontas de pulverização de jato cônico vazio (JA-0,5 e JA-1 e jato plano (AXI-110015, e volumes de calda, foi realizado um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando como traçador o íon cobre. Alvos coletores (papel de filtro com 3 x 3 cm foram afixados nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de folíolos posicionados nas partes superior e inferior das plantas. Para aplicar a solução traçadora, utilizou-se pulverizador com barras de 14 metros, com e sem assistência de ar, volumes de 60 e 100 L.ha-1, e velocidade do ar correspondente a 50% da rotação máxima do ventilador. Após a aplicação, os coletores foram lavados individualmente em solução extratora de ácido nítrico a 1,0 mol.L-1, e a quantificação dos depósitos através de espectrofotometria. A assistência de ar não influenciou na deposição da calda tanto a 60 quanto a 100 L.ha-1. O maior volume proporcionou maiores depósitos, sendo constatadas elevadas perdas para o solo (mais de 60%.Aiming to evaluate the effect of air-assistance in spray deposition on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris with hollow nozzles (JA-0,5 and JA-1 and flat fan nozzle type (AXI-110015, and volume rates by air-assisted and non-assisted sprayers, a completely randomized experiment was carried out using copper ion as a tracer to the evaluation of the deposits. At 26 days after emergence, artificial targets were positioned on the upper and under-side of the leaflets, on the top and bottom parts of the same plants under spray boom. For the application of tracer solution it was used a fourteen meter boom sprayer with and without air-assistance at 60 and 100 L.ha-1 of volume rates. The air flow was 50% of the maximum fan rotation. After application, targets were individually washed with an

  20. The Effect of Annealing on the Structural and Optical Properties of Titanium Dioxide Films Deposited by Electron Beam Assisted PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser M. Abdulraheem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrates by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The deposition was performed under vacuum ranging from 10−5 to 10−6 Torr without process gases, resulting in homogeneous TiO2-x layers with a thickness of around 100 nm. Samples were then annealed at high temperatures ranging from 500°C to 800°C for 4 hours under nitrogen, and their structural and optical properties along with their chemical structure were characterized before and after annealing. The chemical and structural characterization revealed a substoichiometric TiO2-x film with oxygen vacancies, voids, and an interface oxide layer. It was found from X-ray diffraction that the deposited films were amorphous and crystallization to anatase phase occurred for annealed samples and was more pronounced for annealing temperatures above 700°C. The refractive index obtained through spectroscopic ellipsometry ranged between 2.09 and 2.37 in the wavelength range, 900 nm to 400 nm for the as-deposited sample, and jumped to the range between 2.23 and 2.65 for samples annealed at 800°C. The minimum surface reflectance changed from around 0.6% for the as-deposited samples to 2.5% for the samples annealed at 800°C.

  1. Deposition of silica protected luminescent layers of Eu:GdVO{sub 4} nanoparticles assisted by atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.moretti@unive.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, INSTM Venice Research Unit, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy); Pizzol, Giorgia [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, INSTM Venice Research Unit, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy); Fantin, Marina; Enrichi, Francesco; Scopece, Paolo [Nanofab-Veneto Nanotech, Via delle Industrie 5, 30175 Marghera, Venezia (Italy); Nuñez, Nuria O.; Ocaña, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-US, Americo Vespucio 49, 41092, Isla de la Cartuja, Sevilla (Spain); Benedetti, Alvise [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, INSTM Venice Research Unit, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy); Polizzi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, INSTM Venice Research Unit, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy); Centro di Microscopia Elettronica “Giovanni Stevanato”, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Eu:GdVO{sub 4} nanophosphors with an average size of 60 nm, synthesized by a facile solvothermal method, were deposited on monocrystalline silicon wafers by a spray-coating technique with artworks anti-counterfeiting applications in mind. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to deposit a silica-based layer on top of the nanometric luminescent layer, in order to improve its adhesion to the substrate and to protect it from the environment. The nanophosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coating composition was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and its morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The film thickness was evaluated by means of ellipsometry and adhesion was estimated by a peeling test. Luminescent properties of the nanophosphors deposited and fixed on silicon wafers were also measured. The whole layer resulted well-adhered to the silicon substrate, transparent and undetectable in the presence of visible light, but easily activated by UV light source. - Highlights: • Luminescent films were obtained by spray deposition of Eu:GdVO{sub 4} nanophosphors. • Plasma jet deposition of SiO{sub 2} fixed the nanophosphors on the substrate. • Optical properties of nanophosphors were preserved after deposition-fixing process. • Films well-adhered to the substrate, even after a scotch tape peeling test and a scratch test.

  2. Composite films prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (IAD) for design and fabrication of antireflection coatings in visible and near-infrared spectral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1994-11-01

    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) processes configured with a well-controlled plasma source at the center base of a vacuum chamber, which accommodates two independent e-gun sources, is used to deposition TiO2MgF2 and TiO2-SiO2 composite films of selected component ratios. Films prepared by this technology are found durable, uniform, and nonabsorbing in visible and near-IR regions. Single- and multilayer antireflection coatings with refractive index from 1.38 to 2.36 at (lambda) equals 550 nm are presented. Methods of enhancement in optical performance of these coatings are studied. The advantages of AR coatings formed by TiO2-MgF2 composite films over those similar systems consisting of TiO2-SiO2 composite films in both visible and near-IR regions are also presented.

  3. Room temperature photoluminescence from In{sub x}Al{sub (1−x)}N films deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W., E-mail: wei.kong@duke.edu; Jiao, W. Y.; Kim, T. H.; Brown, A. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Mohanta, A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Research Participation Program, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Roberts, A. T. [Charles Bowden Research Lab, Army Aviation and Missile RD and E Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Fournelle, J. [Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Losurdo, M. [Plasma Chemistry Research Center-CNR, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy); Everitt, H. O. [Charles Bowden Research Lab, Army Aviation and Missile RD and E Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-09-29

    InAlN films deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy exhibited a lateral composition modulation characterized by 10–12 nm diameter, honeycomb-shaped, columnar domains with Al-rich cores and In-rich boundaries. To ascertain the effect of this microstructure on its optical properties, room temperature absorption and photoluminescence characteristics of In{sub x}Al{sub (1−x)}N were comparatively investigated for indium compositions ranging from x = 0.092 to 0.235, including x = 0.166 lattice matched to GaN. The Stokes shift of the emission was significantly greater than reported for films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, possibly due to the phase separation in these nanocolumnar domains. The room temperature photoluminescence also provided evidence of carrier transfer from the InAlN film to the GaN template.

  4. Ion energy effects on the intrinsic stress in B sub x N sub y layers deposited by ion-beam-assisted evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambouli, V.; Burat, O.; Bouchier, D.; Gautherin, G. (Inst. d' Electronique Fondamentale, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91 - Orsay (France))

    1990-12-05

    The intrinsic stress {sigma} of boron nitride (B{sub x}N{sub y}) films deposited at room temperature by ion-beam-assisted deposition has been investigated as a function of the atomic flux ratio and film composition for different N{sub 2}{sup +} energy values ranging from 0.25 to 2 keV. The value of {sigma} was evaluated by an interferometric Newton's rings method. The stress reverses and becomes compressive for an atomic flux ratio N:B less than 0.3 which is the lowest value we have examined. Two domains of composition can be emphasized following the stress behaviour as a function of the ion energy. The first domain is that of nitrogen-poor films where the absolute value of the stress decreases (from -2.4 to -0.45 GPa) when the energy is increased. The creation of vacancies in the deposit depth or an ''ion annealing'' effect is proposed to explain the corresponding stress behaviour which is correlated with density measurements. The second domain is that of nitrogen-rich films in which the compressive stress increases drastically to -4.8 GPa with the ion energy. In this domain, according to the ion peening model proposed by Windischmann, the stress varies in proportion to the nuclear stopping power of the deposited material. (orig.).

  5. Sample deposition device for off-line combination of supercritical fluid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planeta, Josef; Rehulka, Pavel; Chmelík, Josef

    2002-08-01

    A new sample deposition device for off-line SFC-MALDI combination of supercritical fluid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was assembled. This device was successfully applied to the detailed characterization of synthetic silicone oils. SFC was used to separate samples of silicone oils on micropacked capillary columns and to determine their molecular mass distribution. The separated fractions for the identification studies were obtained from SFC runs at defined time intervals. Using the constructed deposition device, these fractions were sprayed directly from the restrictor on the target probe covered with a proper matrix. MALDI-TOF MS was used for the identification of individual oligomers in the separated fractions and also in the unfractionated sample. The determined molecular mass distributions based on supercritical fluid chromatography with flame ionization detector, MALDI-TOF MS, and combined SFC-MALDI measurements were compared and the results were in a good agreement. The sample deposition device is based on a common plotter unit, complemented by a microcontroller PIC16C84. The unit is connected by an RS-232 interface to a PC with the main control software running under MS Windows. The new sample deposition device made the off-line combination SFC-MALDI simpler, faster, and more sensitive.

  6. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films - Coating characterization and first cell biological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strąkowska, Paulina; Beutner, René; Gnyba, Marcin; Zielinski, Andrzej; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD>HAp/B-NCD>uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  7. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films — Coating characterization and first cell biological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strąkowska, Paulina [Gdańsk University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty (Poland); Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and Informatics (Poland); Beutner, René [Max Bergmann Center, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany); Gnyba, Marcin [Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and Informatics (Poland); Zielinski, Andrzej [Gdańsk University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty (Poland); Scharnweber, Dieter, E-mail: Dieter.Scharnweber@tu-dresden.de [Max Bergmann Center, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD > HAp/B-NCD > uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  8. Copper-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition for high-quality and metal-free single-layer graphene on amorphous SiO2 substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungki; Song, Intek; Park, Chibeom; Son, Minhyeok; Hong, Misun; Kim, Youngwook; Kim, Jun Sung; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Baik, Jaeyoon; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2013-08-27

    We report that high-quality single-layer graphene (SLG) has been successfully synthesized directly on various dielectric substrates including amorphous SiO2/Si by a Cu-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The Cu vapors produced by the sublimation of Cu foil that is suspended above target substrates without physical contact catalyze the pyrolysis of methane gas and assist nucleation of graphene on the substrates. Raman spectra and mapping images reveal that the graphene formed on a SiO2/Si substrate is almost defect-free and homogeneous single layer. The overall quality of graphene grown by Cu-vapor-assisted CVD is comparable to that of the graphene grown by regular metal-catalyzed CVD on a Cu foil. While Cu vapor induces the nucleation and growth of SLG on an amorphous substrate, the resulting SLG is confirmed to be Cu-free by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SLG grown by Cu-vapor-assisted CVD is fabricated into field effect transistor devices without transfer steps that are generally required when SLG is grown by regular CVD process on metal catalyst substrates. This method has overcome two important hurdles previously present when the catalyst-free CVD process is used for the growth of SLG on fused quartz and hexagonal boron nitride substrates, that is, high degree of structural defects and limited size of resulting graphene, respectively.

  9. Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of TiO2 compact layers for flexible mesostructured perovskite solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zardetto, V.; Di Giacomo, F.; Lucarelli, G.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Brown, T.M.; Creatore, M.

    2017-01-01

    In mesostructured perovskite solar cell devices, charge recombination processes at the interface between the transparent conductive oxide, perovskite and hole transport layer are suppressed by depositing an efficient compact TiO2 blocking layer. In this contribution we investigate the role of the

  10. Crystalline phase control and growth selectivity of β-MnO{sub 2} thin films by remote plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi-Akl, M.; Tabbal, M., E-mail: malek.tabbal@aub.edu.lb; Kassem, W.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we exploit the effect of coupling an oxygen remote plasma source to Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for the growth of pure and well crystallized β-MnO{sub 2} films. Films were grown on Si substrates by laser ablation of a MnO target in oxygen ambient and remote plasma. X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy and Raman scattering were used to determine the crystalline structure and bonding in the grown layers, whereas Atomic Force Microscopy was used to study their morphology and surface roughness. Deposition at 500 °C and high oxygen pressure (33.3–66.6 Pa) resulted in the formation of films with roughness of 12 nm consisting of nsutite γ-MnO{sub 2}, a structure characterized by the intergrowth of the pyrolusite β-MnO{sub 2} in a ramsdellite R-MnO{sub 2} matrix. Deposition at the same temperature but low pressure (1.33–3.33 Pa) in oxygen ambient lead to the formation of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas plasma activation within the same pressure range induced the growth of single phase highly crystalline β-MnO{sub 2} having smooth surfaces with a roughness value of 0.6 nm. Such results underline the capability of remote plasma assisted PLD in selecting and controlling the crystalline phase of manganese oxide layers. - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2} films were grown by Remote Plasma Assisted Pulsed Laser Deposition. • Crystalline MnO{sub 2} is formed at a substrate temperature of 500 °C. • Smooth crystalline single phase β-MnO{sub 2} films were obtained at 1.33–3.33 Pa. • Deposition at 1.33–3.33 Pa without plasma activation lead to the growth of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Without plasma, mixed phases of MnO{sub 2} polymorphs are obtained at 33.3 Pa and above.

  11. The effects of the forward speed and air volume of an air-assisted sprayer on spray deposition in tendone trained vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of spray application trials in a tendone trained vineyard in order to evaluate the influence of forward speed and air volume on the foliar deposition of plant protection products (PPPs, maintaining roughly constant the volume applied. The trials used an air-assisted sprayer with a centrifugal fan and 4+4 adjustable fan-shaped diffusers, each with a nozzle-holder group. A full factorial experimental design was implemented, with three forward speeds and two airflow rates, organised with a randomised complete block design including three replicates. In order to consider the influence of canopy development, the tests (one spray application for each replicate of a mixture containing a water-soluble food dye as a tracer were replicated during two phenological stages: i the end of flowering; and ii berry touch. Leaves were picked at random from the canopy after each spray treatment, and foliar PPP deposition was evaluated using a spectrophotometer. This analysis of foliar deposition showed that the airflow rates produced by the fan were unsuitable for the dense canopy typical of this type of vineyard. However, the special shape of the diffusers may make this sprayer effective if the main objective of pesticide applications in tendone trained table grape vineyards is to control bunch diseases.

  12. Laser ablation of YBCO targets and optical-breakdown-assisted PLD for high Tc superconducting thin films deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Ileana; Stoian, Razvan; Luculescu, C.; Dabu, Razvan V.; Stratan, Aurel; Udrea, S.; Flacau, Catalin

    1998-07-01

    We report a YBa2Cu3O7 PLD method designed to reduce the oxygen deficiency in the as deposited YBCO superconducting thin films.OPtical dissociation of O2 buffer gas in front of the plume using a second IR laser pulse simultaneously with the UV laser beam producing the ablation plasma is proposed as a method for oxidation enhancement and oxygen enrichment in the deposited film. Oxides enhancement measurements were performed by optical spectroscopy on YO, BaO and CuO lines at large distances from the target surface. Temporal evolution of ionic, neutral and oxide lines was analyzed in 400-620 nm region, in correlation with plasma expansion in the ambient gas.

  13. Influence of the voltage waveform during nanocomposite layer deposition by aerosol-assisted atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profili, J. [LAPLACE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Levasseur, O.; Stafford, L. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Naudé, N.; Gherardi, N., E-mail: nicolas.gherardi@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [LAPLACE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Chaneac, C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Collège de France, Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (CMCP), 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-08-07

    This work examines the growth dynamics of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings in plane-to-plane Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBDs) at atmospheric pressure operated in a Townsend regime using nebulized TiO{sub 2} colloidal suspension in hexamethyldisiloxane as the growth precursors. For low-frequency (LF) sinusoidal voltages applied to the DBD cell, with voltage amplitudes lower than the one required for discharge breakdown, Scanning Electron Microscopy of silicon substrates placed on the bottom DBD electrode reveals significant deposition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) close to the discharge entrance. On the other hand, at higher frequencies (HF), the number of TiO{sub 2} NPs deposited strongly decreases due to their “trapping” in the oscillating voltage and their transport along the gas flow lines. Based on these findings, a combined LF-HF voltage waveform is proposed and used to achieve significant and spatially uniform deposition of TiO{sub 2} NPs across the whole substrate surface. For higher voltage amplitudes, in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane and nitrous oxide for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of inorganic layers, it is found that TiO{sub 2} NPs become fully embedded into a silica-like matrix. Similar Raman spectra are obtained for as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NPs and for nanocomposite TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} coating, suggesting that plasma exposure does not significantly alter the crystalline structure of the TiO{sub 2} NPs injected into the discharge.

  14. Growth of thick La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} buffer layers for coated conductors by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xzhang@my.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong, E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Xia, Yudong [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Guo, Chunsheng [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhang, Yong [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, Han [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We develops a low-cost and high-efficient technology of fabricating LZO buffer layers. • Sufficient thickness LZO buffer layers have been obtained on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. • Highly biaxially textured YBCO thin film has been deposited on LZO/NiW. - Abstract: La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZO) epitaxial films have been deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) (1 0 0) single-crystal surface and bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition, and afterwards studied with XRD, SEM and AFM approaches. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth, crack free and with a sufficient thickness (>240 nm) LZO buffer layers have been obtained on LAO (1 0 0) single-crystal surface; The films deposited on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate are also found with high degree in-plane and out-of-plane texturing, good density with pin-hole-free, micro-crack-free nature and a thickness of 300 nm. Highly epitaxial 500 nm thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x} (YBCO) thin film exhibits the self-field critical current density (Jc) reached 1.3 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K .These results demonstrate the LZO epi-films obtained with current techniques have potential to be a buffer layer for REBCO coated conductors.

  15. Surface analysis and osteoblasts response of a titanium oxi-carbide film deposited on titanium by ion plating plasma assisted (IPPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, L; Bemporad, E; Misiano, C; Pepe, F; Santini, P; Scandurra, R

    2011-10-01

    Titanium is the most widely used material in orthopaedic and dental implantoprosthesis due to its superior physical properties and enhanced biocompatibility due to the spontaneous formation of a passivating layer of titanium oxides which, however, does not form good chemical bonds with bone and tends to brake exposing bulk titanium to harsh body fluids releasing titanium particles which may prime an inflammation response and a fibrotic tissue production. In order to avoid these possible problems and to enhance the biocompatibility of titanium implants, modifications of titanium surfaces by many different materials as hydroxyapatite, titanium nitride, titanium oxide and titanium carbide have been proposed. The latter is shown to be an efficient protection for the titanium implant in the harsh conditions of biological tissues and, compared to untreated titanium, acting like an osteoblast stimulation factor increasing in vitro production of proteins involved in osteogenesis. These results were confirmed by in vivo experiments in rabbits: implants covered by the titanium carbide (TiC) layer were faster and better osseointegrated than untreated titanium implants. The TiC layer was deposited by a Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) device which allowed only one deposition per cycle, shown to be unsuitable for industrial applications. Therefore the main objective of the present work was to replace PLD process with an Ion Plating Plasma Assisted (IPPA) deposition process, which is suitable for industrial upgrading. By this technique, nanostructured TiOx-TiCy-C has been deposited on titanium after sandblasting with 120 micron zirconia spheres. XPS analyses revealed the presence of about 33% carbon (50% of which is present as free carbon), 39% oxygen and 28% titanium (37% of which is bound to carbon to form TiC and 63% is bound to oxygen to form non stoichiometric oxides). Surface mechanical response of as-deposited coatings has been performed by nanoindentation techniques

  16. Role of the substrate on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films grown by ion-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Prieto, José Emilio; Gargallo-Caballero, Raquel; Marco, José Francisco; de la Figuera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films were deposited on MgO (0 0 1), SrTiO3 (0 0 1), LaAlO3 (0 0 1) single crystal substrates as well on as silicon and amorphous glass in order to study the effect of the substrate on their magnetic properties, mainly the magnetic anisotropy. We have performed a structural, morphological and compositional characterization by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering ion channeling in oxygen resonance mode. The magnetic anisotropy has been investigated by vectorial magneto-optical Kerr effect. The results indicate that the magnetic anisotropy is especially influenced by the substrate-induced microstructure. In-plane isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy behavior have been observed on silicon and glass substrates, respectively. The transition between both behaviors depends on grain size. For LaAlO3 substrates, in which the lattice mismatch between the Fe3O4 films and the substrate is significant, a weak in-plane fourfold magnetic anisotropy is induced. However when magnetite is deposited on MgO (0 0 1) and SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrates, a well-defined fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy is observed with easy axes along [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions. The magnetic properties on these two latter substrates are similar in terms of magnetic anisotropy and coercive fields.

  17. Substrate temperature influence on the properties of GaN thin films grown by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevli, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafaalevli@marmara.edu.tr; Gungor, Neşe [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Marmara University, Goztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda; Leghari, Shahid A.; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara, Turkey and National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    Gallium nitride films were grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using triethylgallium and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma. An optimized recipe for GaN film was developed, and the effect of substrate temperature was studied in both self-limiting growth window and thermal decomposition-limited growth region. With increased substrate temperature, film crystallinity improved, and the optical band edge decreased from 3.60 to 3.52 eV. The refractive index and reflectivity in Reststrahlen band increased with the substrate temperature. Compressive strain is observed for both samples, and the surface roughness is observed to increase with the substrate temperature. Despite these temperature dependent material properties, the chemical composition, E{sub 1}(TO), phonon position, and crystalline phases present in the GaN film were relatively independent from growth temperature.

  18. Copper-Assisted Direct Growth of Vertical Graphene Nanosheets on Glass Substrates by Low-Temperature Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yifei; Jang, Haegyu; Kim, Sun Jung; Pang, Changhyun; Chae, Heeyeop

    2015-12-01

    Vertical graphene (VG) nanosheets are directly grown below 500 °C on glass substrates by a one-step copper-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process. A piece of copper foil is located around a glass substrate as a catalyst in the process. The effect of the copper catalyst on the vertical graphene is evaluated in terms of film morphology, growth rate, carbon density in the plasma and film resistance. The growth rate of the vertical graphene is enhanced by a factor of 5.6 with the copper catalyst with denser vertical graphene. The analysis of optical emission spectra suggests that the carbon radical density is increased with the copper catalyst. Highly conductive VG films having 800 Ω/□ are grown on glass substrates with Cu catalyst at a relatively low temperature.

  19. Epitaxial ZnO Thin Films on a-Plane Sapphire Substrates Grown by Ultrasonic Spray-Assisted Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Hiroyuki; Kamada, Yudai; Kameyama, Naoki; Fujita, Shizuo

    2009-12-01

    High-quality epitaxial ZnO thin films were grown by an ultrasonic spray-assisted mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a-plane sapphire substrates with ZnO buffer layers. The ZnO thin films were grown with c-axis orientation without notable rotational domains. Surface morphologies and electrical properties were markedly improved as an effect of the ZnO buffer layers. The mobility in the ZnO epitaxial (main) layer was estimated to be 90 cm2/(V·s), which is reasonably high compared with those in ZnO layers grown by CVD processes. Photoluminescence at a low temperature (4.5 K) revealed a free A-exiton peak, and that at room temperature showed a strong band-edge peak with little deep-level luminescence.

  20. Tuning Bandgap of p-Type Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 Semiconductor Thin Films via Aqueous Polymer-Assisted Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qinghua; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Hao; Hu, Jiapeng; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu

    2017-01-18

    Bandgap engineering of kesterite Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 with well-controlled stoichiometric composition plays a critical role in sustainable inorganic photovoltaics. Herein, a cost-effective and reproducible aqueous solution-based polymer-assisted deposition approach is developed to grow p-type Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films with tunable bandgap. The bandgap of Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films can be tuned within the range 1.05-1.95 eV using the aqueous polymer-assisted deposition by accurately controlling the elemental compositions. One of the as-grown Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films exhibits a hall coefficient of +137 cm3/C. The resistivity, concentration and carrier mobility of the Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 thin film are 3.17 ohm·cm, 4.5 × 1016 cm-3, and 43 cm2/(V·S) at room temperature, respectively. Moreover, the Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 thin film when used as an active layer in a solar cell leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.55%. The facile growth of Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films in an aqueous system, instead of organic solvents, provides great promise as an environmental-friendly platform to fabricate a variety of single/multi metal chalcogenides for the thin film industry and solution-processed photovoltaic devices.

  1. Facile preparation of heparinized polysulfone membrane assisted by polydopamine/polyethyleneimine co-deposition for simultaneous LDL selectivity and biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Fang, Fei; Liu, Yang; Li, Jing; Huang, Xiaojun

    2016-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) gains worldwide attention for decades as the key risk factor to atherosclerosis that progressively deteriorating into cardiovascular diseases. Until recent years, LDL-apheresis comes to be extensively used as a direct and efficient LDL removal method, with LDL adsorption materials particularly important. In this paper, a new strategy based on the co-deposition of polydopamine (PDA) with polyethylenimine (PEI) onto polysulfone (PSf) membranes, then subsequent heparinization by amino-carbonyl reactions, to achieve LDL selectivity and simultaneous biocompatibility, is proposed. Surface properties of modified PSf membranes are characterized by ATR-FTIR, XPS, FESEM, Zeta potential and WCA measurements. LDL adsorption ability is investigated by ELISA, while blood biocompatibility is evaluated by platelet adhesion experiments. Results suggest that heparin-modified PSf membranes show high selectivity for LDL removal and fine biocompatibility in contact with plasma, as excellent potential materials for LDL-apheresis.

  2. Role of the substrate on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films grown by ion-assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Pilar, E-mail: pilar.prieto@uam.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada M-12, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, José Emilio [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales (CMAM) and Dpto. De Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gargallo-Caballero, Raquel; Marco, José Francisco; Figuera, Juan de la [Instituto de Química Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films is controlled by the substrate induced microstructure. • Single-crystal oxide substrates induce fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy • MgO and SrTiO{sub 3} substrates show the same magnetic behavior despite its different mismatch with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films. • Silicon and glass substrates induce in-plane magnetic isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy, respectively. - Abstract: Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were deposited on MgO (0 0 1), SrTiO{sub 3} (0 0 1), LaAlO{sub 3} (0 0 1) single crystal substrates as well on as silicon and amorphous glass in order to study the effect of the substrate on their magnetic properties, mainly the magnetic anisotropy. We have performed a structural, morphological and compositional characterization by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering ion channeling in oxygen resonance mode. The magnetic anisotropy has been investigated by vectorial magneto-optical Kerr effect. The results indicate that the magnetic anisotropy is especially influenced by the substrate-induced microstructure. In-plane isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy behavior have been observed on silicon and glass substrates, respectively. The transition between both behaviors depends on grain size. For LaAlO{sub 3} substrates, in which the lattice mismatch between the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films and the substrate is significant, a weak in-plane fourfold magnetic anisotropy is induced. However when magnetite is deposited on MgO (0 0 1) and SrTiO{sub 3} (0 0 1) substrates, a well-defined fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy is observed with easy axes along [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions. The magnetic properties on these two latter substrates are similar in terms of magnetic anisotropy and coercive fields.

  3. Atomic-layer-deposition-assisted ZnO nanoparticles for oxide charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Ho; Yun, Da Jeong; Lee, Won Ho; Yoon, Sung Min

    2017-02-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with monolayer structures were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to use for a charge-trap layer (CTL) for nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors (MTFTs). The optimum ALD temperature of the NP formation was demonstrated to be 160 °C. The size and areal density of the ZnO NPs was estimated to be approximately 33 nm and 4.8 × 109 cm-2, respectively, when the number of ALD cycles was controlled to be 20. The fabricated MTFTs using a ZnO-NP CTL exhibited typical memory window properties, which are generated by charge-trap/de-trap processes, in their transfer characteristics and the width of the memory window (MW) increased from 0.6 to 18.0 V when the number of ALD cycles increased from 5 to 30. The program characteristics of the MTFT were markedly enhanced by the post-annealing process performed at 180 °C in an oxygen ambient due to the improvements in the interface and bulk qualities of the ZnO NPs. The program/erase (P/E) speed was estimated to be 10 ms at P/E voltages of -14 and 17 V. The memory margin showed no degradation with the lapse in retention time for 2 × 104 s and after the repetitive P/E operations of 7 × 103 cycles.

  4. Antiresorption implant coatings based on calcium alendronate and octacalcium phosphate deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boanini, Elisa; Torricelli, Paola; Forte, Lucia; Pagani, Stefania; Mihailescu, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N; Bigi, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    The integration of an implant material with bone tissue depends on the chemistry and physics of the implant surface. In this study we applied matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) in order to synthesize calcium alendronate monohydrate (a bisphosphonate obtained by calcium sequestration from octacalcium phosphate by alendronate) and calcium alendronate monohydrate/octacalcium phosphate composite thin films on titanium substrates. Octacalcium phosphate coatings were prepared as reference material. The powders, which were synthesized in aqueous medium, were suspended in deionised water, frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature and used as targets for MAPLE experiments. The transfer was conducted with a KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns) in mild conditions of temperature and pressure. XRD, FTIR and SEM analyses confirmed that the coatings contain the same crystalline phases as the as-prepared powder samples. Osteoblast derived from stem cells and osteoclast derived from monocytes of osteoporotic subjects were co-cultured on the coatings up to 14 days. Osteoclast displayed significantly reduced proliferation and differentiation in the presence of calcium alendronate monohydrate, pointing to a clear role of the coatings containing this bisphosphonate on inhibiting excessive bone resorption. At variance, osteoblast production of alkaline phosphatase and type I pro-collagen were promoted by the presence of bisphosphonate, which also decreased the production of interleukin 6. The positive influence towards osteoblast differentiation was even more enhanced in the composite coatings, thanks to the presence of octacalcium phosphate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of a new air-assisted sprayer and two conventional sprayers in terms of deposition, loss to the soil and residue of azoxystrobin and tebuconazole applied to sunlit greenhouse tomato and field cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjie; Li, Yifan; Pan, Xiang; Li, Qing X; Chen, Ronghua; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping; Song, Jianli

    2018-02-01

    Plant protection products (PPPs) are applied in China and many other developing countries with knapsack sprayers at high volumes with coarse spray quality, resulting in a high percentage of pesticide losses. In this study, a new air-assisted electric knapsack sprayer and two conventional knapsack sprayers were evaluated in terms of pesticide deposition, residues and loss into the soil. Artificial targets fixed to the upper side and underside of the leaf surface in six zones (at two depths and three heights) were used to collect the deposition, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. The air-assisted electric knapsack sprayer produced more deposition and better penetrability and uniformity than the two traditional spraying methods. In particular, the air-assisted electric knapsack sprayer reduced pesticide losses to the soil by roughly 37% to 75% and deposited 1.18 and 1.24 times more pesticide than the manual air-pressure and battery-powered knapsack sprayers, respectively. The residues of azoxystrobin and tebuconazole in tomato and cucumber were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs). In general, use of the the air-assisted electric knapsack sprayer in tomato and cucumber crops could improve the effectiveness of PPPs, reduce the risk of contamination and protect food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Nanoscale dose deposition in cell structures under X-ray irradiation treatment assisted with nanoparticles of a set of elements: an analytical approach to cell survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo B, W.; Barboza F, M. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Chernov, G., E-mail: g.chernovch@gmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Fisica, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The goal of combining nanoparticles (Nps) with radiation therapy is to increase the differential effect between healthy and tumor tissues. Only some elements have been investigated to be used as radiosensitizers and no systematic experimental or theoretical comparisons between different materials have been developed. MacMahon, et al. (Nano scale, 2016, 8, 581) presents the first systematic computational study of the impact of elemental composition on nanoparticle radiation interaction for kilo voltage and megavoltage X-ray exposure, for a range of elements (Z = 14 - 80). In this study we present and analytical model to assess the cell survival modification responses of cell cultures under irradiation treatments with keV X-rays assisted with Nps of different materials as platinum, hafnium, gadolinium, gold, germanium, iodine and iron. This model starts from the data of radial dose deposition around a single 20 nm diameter Np irradiated with photons of an energy 20 keV higher than the element K-shell binding energy to the nano scale probability of dose distribution inside cell structures with embedded Nps (the assessment of the average dose and the average squared dose in cell structure). Also based on the Local Effect Model we estimate potential biological effects, as is the case of the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). Nano scale dose deposition exhibits a complex dependence on atomic number, as a consequence of the variations in secondary Auger electron spectra, this is manifested in significant variations in RBE. Upon in vitro experiments RBE varies from 1 to 1.6. Values representative of a high radiosensitization were observed for lower energies, ones that are well reproduced by our analytical analysis for cell cultures with a homogeneous distribution of different material Nps. (Author)

  7. Nonlinear optical studies on 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, Andreea [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Marinescu, Maria, E-mail: maria.marinescu@chimie.unibuc.ro [UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ion, Valentin; Mitu, Bogdana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ionita, Iulian [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Maria [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Emandi, Ana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A newly synthesized ferrocene-derivative exhibits SHG potential. • Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation is employed for thin film fabrication. • The optical properties of the films are investigated, presented and discussed. • At maximum laser output power, the SHG signal is strongly influenced by thin film thickness. - Abstract: We present results on a new, laboratory synthesized ferrocene-derivative, i.e. 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Thin films with controlled thickness are deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), on quartz and silicon substrates, with the aim of evaluating the nonlinear optical properties for potential optoelectronic applications. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as matrix, with 1% wt. concentration of the guest compound. The frozen target is irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser (4ω/266 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate), at low fluences ranging from 0.1 to 1 J/cm{sup 2}. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to probe the surface morphology of the films. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy reveal similar structure of the thin film material when compared to the starting material. The optical properties of the thin films are investigated by spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE), and the refractive index dependence with respect to temperature is studied. The second harmonic generation (SHG) potential is assessed by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 60–100 fs pulse duration, 80 MHz repetition rate), at 200 mW maximum output power, revealing that the SHG signal intensity is strongly influenced by the films’ thickness.

  8. Microwave assisted chemical bath deposition of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on a variety of substrates seeded by PVA-Zn(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, J.J., E-mail: j1j2h72@yahoo.com [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (N.O.R.), School of Physics Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Mahdi, M.A. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (N.O.R.), School of Physics Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Chin, C.W.; Hassan, Z.; Abu-Hassan, H. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (N.O.R.), School of Physics Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia)

    2012-03-01

    Vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized successfully on p-type GaN, c-lattice Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ITO glass, and quartz single crystal substrates using the microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method. All substrates were seeded with a PVA-Zn(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites layer prior to nanorods growth. The effect of substrate type on the vertically alignment and morphology of the zinc oxide nanorods was studied. The diameter of the grown ZnO nanorods ranged from 30 to 170 nm. Their structural quality and morphology were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed hexagonal wurtzite structures perpendicular to the substrate along the z-axis in the direction of (0 0 2) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the grown ZnO nanorods on all substrates exhibited high UV peak intensity compared to broad visible peak. Raman scattering studies were conducted to estimate the lattice vibration modes.

  9. Incorporating C60 as Nucleation Sites Optimizing PbI2 Films To Achieve Perovskite Solar Cells Showing Excellent Efficiency and Stability via Vapor-Assisted Deposition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Bin; Ding, Xi-Hong; Pan, Xu; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ding, Yong; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2018-01-24

    To achieve high-quality perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the morphology and carrier transportation of perovskite films need to be optimized. Herein, C60 is employed as nucleation sites in PbI2 precursor solution to optimize the morphology of perovskite films via vapor-assisted deposition process. Accompanying the homogeneous nucleation of PbI2, the incorporation of C60 as heterogeneous nucleation sites can lower the nucleation free energy of PbI2, which facilitates the diffusion and reaction between PbI2 and organic source. Meanwhile, C60 could enhance carrier transportation and reduce charge recombination in the perovskite layer due to its high electron mobility and conductivity. In addition, the grain sizes of perovskite get larger with C60 optimizing, which can reduce the grain boundaries and voids in perovskite and prevent the corrosion because of moisture. As a result, we obtain PSCs with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.33% and excellent stability. The PCEs of unsealed devices drop less than 10% in a dehumidification cabinet after 100 days and remain at 75% of the initial PCE during exposure to ambient air (humidity > 60% RH, temperature > 30 °C) for 30 days.

  10. Ion-assisted laser deposition of intermediate layers for YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film growth on polycrystalline and amorphous substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reade, Ronald P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The growth of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) high-temperature superconductor thin films has largely been limited to deposition on single-crystal substrates to date. In order to expand the range of potential applications, growth on polycrystalline and amorphous substrates is desirable. In particular, the deposition of YBCO thin films with high critical current densities on polycrystalline metal alloys would allow the manufacture of superconducting tapes. However, it is shown that it is not possible to grow YBCO thin films directly on this type of substrate due to chemical and structural incompatibility. This work investigates the use of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer to address this problem. An ion-assisted pulsed-laser deposition process is developed to provide control of orientation during the growth of the YSZ layers. The important properties of YBCO and YSZ are summarized and the status of research on thin film growth of these materials is reviewed. An overview of the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique is presented. The use of ion-assisted deposition techniques to control thin film properties is discussed.

  11. a-SiC{sub x}N{sub y} thin films deposited by a microwave plasma assisted CVD process using a CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}/Ar/HMDSN mixture: Methane rate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulou, S; Miska, P; Poucques, L de; Hugon, R; Belmahi, M [Institut Jean Lamour (IJL) CNRS UMR 7198, Nancy (France); Brizoual, L Le, E-mail: simon.bulou@uhp-nancy.fr [Institut Jean Rouxel (IMN) CNRS UMR 6502, Nantes (France)

    2010-06-15

    Amorphous silicon carbonitride thin films were deposited using a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition process fed with a mixture of methane, nitrogen, argon and hexamethyldisilazane (Si{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 19}N). Effects of the methane rate on thin films composition, nanostructuration and characteristics are investigated by means of various techniques such as X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV-Visible absorption. The raise of the methane rate results in less organic, denser films and in an increase of refractive index.

  12. Substrate impact on the low-temperature growth of GaN thin films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizir, Seda; Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800, Turkey and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2016-07-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN) thin films were grown on Si (100), Si (111), and c-plane sapphire substrates at 200 °C via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD) using GaEt{sub 3} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma as group-III and V precursors, respectively. The main aim of the study was to investigate the impact of substrate on the material properties of low-temperature ALD-grown GaN layers. Structural, chemical, and optical characterizations were carried out in order to evaluate and compare film quality of GaN on different substrates. X-ray reflectivity measurements showed film density values of 5.70, 5.74, and 5.54 g/cm{sup 3} for GaN grown on Si (100), Si (111), and sapphire, respectively. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements exhibited hexagonal wurtzite structure in all HCPA-ALD grown GaN samples. However, dominant diffraction peak for GaN films grown on Si and sapphire substrates were detected differently as (002) and (103), respectively. X-ray diffraction gonio scans measured from GaN grown on c-plane sapphire primarily showed (002) orientation. All samples exhibited similar refractive index values (∼2.17 at 632 nm) with 2–3 at. % of oxygen impurity existing within the bulk of the films. The grain size was calculated as ∼9–10 nm for GaN grown on Si (100) and Si (111) samples while it was ∼5 nm for GaN/sapphire sample. Root-mean-square surface roughness values found as 0.68, 0.76, and 1.83 nm for GaN deposited on Si (100), Si (111), and sapphire, respectively. Another significant difference observed between the samples was the film growth per cycle: GaN/sapphire sample showed a considerable higher thickness value when compared with GaN/Si samples, which might be attributed to a possibly more-efficient nitridation and faster nucleation of sapphire surface.

  13. Single and multi-layered core-shell structures based on ZnO nanorods obtained by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx

    2015-07-15

    Core–shell nanorod structures were prepared by a sequential synthesis using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Several samples consisting of ZnO nanorods were initially grown over TiO{sub 2} film-coated borosilicate glass substrates, following the synthesis conditions reported elsewhere. Later on, a uniform layer consisting of individual Al, Ni, Ti or Fe oxides was grown onto ZnO nanorod samples forming the so-called single MO{sub x}/ZnO nanorod core–shell structures, where MO{sub x} was the metal oxide shell. Additionally, a three-layer core–shell sample was developed by growing Fe, Ti and Fe oxides alternately, onto the ZnO nanorods. The microstructure of the core–shell materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to corroborate the formation of different metal oxides. X-ray diffraction outcomes for single core–shell structures showed solely the presence of ZnO as wurtzite and TiO{sub 2} as anatase. For the multi-layered shell sample, the existence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as hematite was also detected. Morphological observations suggested the existence of an outer material grown onto the nanorods and further microstructural analysis by HR-STEM confirmed the development of core–shell structures in all cases. These studies also showed that the individual Al, Fe, Ni and Ti oxide layers are amorphous; an observation that matched with X-ray diffraction analysis where no apparent extra oxides were detected. For the multi-layered sample, the development of a shell consisting of three different oxide layers onto the nanorods was found. Overall results showed that no alteration in the primary ZnO core was produced during the growth of the shells, indicating that the deposition technique used herein was and it is suitable for the synthesis of homogeneous and complex nanomaterials high in quality and purity. In addition

  14. Preparation of highly photocatalytic active CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites by combining chemical bath deposition and microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li, E-mail: qqhrll@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Key Laboratory of Composite Modified Material of Colleges in Heilongjiang Province, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Wang, Lili [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Hu, Tianyu [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Xiuli; Chen, Xi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China)

    2014-10-15

    CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared from Cd and Ti (1:1 M ratio) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide by a two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) and microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS) method. A series of nanocomposites with different morphologies and activities were prepared by varying the reaction time in the MAHS (2, 4, and 6 h). The crystal structure, morphology, and surface physicochemical properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements. The results show that the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were composed of anatase TiO{sub 2} and hexagonal CdS phases with strong absorption in the visible region. The surface morphologies changed slightly with increasing microwave irradiation time, while the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area increased remarkably. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) was investigated under UV light and simulated sunlight irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the CdS/TiO{sub 2} (6 h) composites prepared by the MAHS method was higher than those of CdS, P25, and other CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The CdS/TiO{sub 2} (6 h) nanocomposites significantly affected the UV and microwave-assisted photocatalytic degradation of different dyes. To elucidate the photocatalytic reaction mechanism for the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites, controlled experiments were performed by adding different radical scavengers. - Graphical abstract: CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared using CTAB by CBD combined with MAHS method. In addition, with increasing microwave irradiation time, the morphology of CdS/TiO{sub 2} changed from popcorn-like to wedge-like structure. - Highlights: • The CdS/TiO{sub 2} was prepared by CBD combined with MAHS two-step method under CTAB. • The morphologies of as-samples were different with the time of

  15. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition of gas sensitive SnO2 and Au-functionalised SnO2 nanorods via a non-catalysed vapour solid (VS) mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Stella; Selina, Soultana; Annanouch, Fatima Ezahra; Gràcia, Isabel; Llobet, Eduard; Blackman, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Tin oxide nanorods (NRs) are vapour synthesised at relatively lower temperatures than previously reported and without the need for substrate pre-treatment, via a vapour-solid mechanism enabled using an aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition method. Results demonstrate that the growth of SnO2 NRs is promoted by a compression of the nucleation rate parallel to the substrate and a decrease of the energy barrier for growth perpendicular to the substrate, which are controlled via the deposition conditions. This method provides both single-step formation of the SnO2 NRs and their integration with silicon micromachined platforms, but also allows for in-situ functionalization of the NRs with gold nanoparticles via co-deposition with a gold precursor. The functional properties are demonstrated for gas sensing, with microsensors using functionalised NRs demonstrating enhanced sensing properties towards H2 compared to those based on non-functionalised NRs. PMID:27334232

  16. Comparison between ZnO films grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using H{sub 2}O plasma and O{sub 2} plasma as oxidant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yumi; Hattori, Nozomu; Miyatake, Naomasa; Uraoka, Yukiharu [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Mitsui Engineering and shipbuilding Co., Ltd., 3-16-1 Tamahara, Tamano, Okayama 706-0014 (Japan); Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have attracted significant attention for application in thin film transistors (TFTs) due to their specific characteristics, such as high mobility and transparency. In this paper, the authors fabricated TFTs with ZnO thin films as channel layers deposited by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PAALD) at 100 Degree-Sign C using two different plasma sources, water (H{sub 2}O-plasma) and oxygen gas (O{sub 2}-plasma), as oxidants, and investigated the effects of the plasma sources on TFT performances. The TFT with ZnO channel layer deposited with H{sub 2}O-plasma indicated higher performances such as a field effect mobility ({mu}) of 1.1 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Analysis of the ZnO films revealed that the residual carbon in the film deposited with H{sub 2}O-plasma was lower than that of O{sub 2}-plasma. In addition, the c-axis preferred orientation was obtained in the case of the ZnO film deposited with H{sub 2}O-plasma. These results suggest that it is possible to fabricate high-performance ZnO TFTs at low temperatures by PAALD with H{sub 2}O-plasma.

  17. Assistência de ar e volumes de aplicação na deposição de calda e no controle do arroz vermelho (Oryza sativa L. Air assistance and volume of application in spray deposition and in red rice control (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo L. S. Vigano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da assistência de ar junto à barra pulverizadora e de três volumes de pulverização na dessecação e deposição da calda em arroz vermelho, sob cultivo de nabo forrageiro, em áreas de recuperação de várzeas, utilizando o herbicida paraquat e o corante Azul Brilhante, respectivamente. Os volumes de pulverização foram 100; 200 e 300 L ha-1 da solução aquosa, contendo corante alimentício (1.500 mg L-1. Com ou sem a assistência de ar junto à barra, foram utilizadas pontas de pulverização de jato plano tipo AXI 110015 à pressão de 117,3 kPa, AXI 11002 e AXI 11003 a 276 kPa. A avaliação da deposição da pulverização deu-se em folhas de plantas de arroz vermelho. Os maiores volumes (200 e 300 L ha-1 pulverizados com a assistência de ar junto à barra pulverizadora proporcionaram maiores depósitos do corante em relação ao volume de 100 L ha-1. Não foram constatadas diferenças na deposição do corante para os volumes pulverizados, sem a assistência de ar junto à barra, tampouco entre os volumes de 200 e 300 L ha-1 com a assistência de ar junto à barra. As maiores percentagens de controle do arroz vermelho foram obtidas com a assistência de ar junto à barra, independentemente do volume pulverizado, equivalendo-se ao controle obtido com 300 L ha-1, sem o uso dessa tecnologia.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of air-assistance on spraying at three volumes in spray deposition and control of red rice under fodder radish cultivation. To evaluate the control of this weed and spray deposition were used paraquat herbicide and a Brilliant Blue dye, respectively. The three spraying volumes were 100, 200 and 300 L ha-1, using a tracer dye at 1,500 mg L-1. Both solutions and volumes were sprayed with flat fan nozzles AXI 110015 at 117.3 kPa, AXI 11002 and AXI 11003 at 276 kPa, respectively, with and without air-assistance on the boom. The evaluation of deposition

  18. Fabrication of ferroelectric SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} capacitor films using plasma-assisted metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and their electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B. K.; Hironaka, K.; Isobe, C.; Hishikawa, S.

    2001-06-01

    The fabrication of SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) films using plasma-assisted metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (P-MOCVD) has been investigated. Optimizing the process conditions under plasma environment, amorphous SBT films were successfully deposited at a substrate temperature below 300{degree}C, suggesting that the P-MOCVD process effectively utilizes plasma energy to promote the reaction and decomposition of metal organic source molecules. The amorphous SBT films were crystallized to the bilayered perovskite SBT films by a postannealing at 725{degree}C. Thin SBT capacitors fabricated using P-MOCVD showed a good step coverage and the excellent ferroelectric properties including endurance. Low voltage operation below 1.5 V was successfully achieved using a 75 nm SBT capacitor, in which the signal level derived from the hysteresis curve suggests the feasibility of application to a 64 Mbit ferroelectric random access memories. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Thickness dependence of magnetic properties and giant magneto-impedance effect in amorphous Co{sub 73}Si{sub 12}B{sub 15} thin films prepared by Dual-Ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); BISSE/BUAA-SPNEE joint Laboratory Magnetism and Sperconducting technology on Spacecraft, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, San-sheng, E-mail: wangssh@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); BISSE/BUAA-SPNEE joint Laboratory Magnetism and Sperconducting technology on Spacecraft, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Hu, Teng [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); He, Tong-fu [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Zi-yu [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yi, Zhong; Meng, Li-Fei [Science and Technology on Reliability and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China); BISSE/BUAA-SPNEE joint Laboratory Magnetism and Sperconducting technology on Spacecraft, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition is a suitable method for the preparation of giant magneto-impedance (GMI) materials. In this paper, Co{sub 73}Si{sub 12}B{sub 15} thin films with different thicknesses were prepared by Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition, and the influences of film thickness on magnetic properties and GMI effect were investigated. It was found that the asymmetric magnetic hysteresis loop in the prepared Co{sub 73}Si{sub 12}B{sub 15} thin films occurs at ambient temperature, and the shift behavior of hysteresis loop associated with film thickness. With the film thickness increasing, the values of shift field and coercive field and other parameters such as remanence and shift ratio appeared complex variation. At a certain frequency, the large GMI effect is only observed in some films, which have good magnetic properties including low coercivity, low remanence ratio and high shift ratio. The results indicated that the thickness dependence of magnetic properties nonlinearly determined the GMI effect in Co{sub 73}Si{sub 12}B{sub 15} thin films. - Highlights: • The relationship between film thickness and ΔZ/Z, ΔR/R, ΔX/X ratio of CoSiB film exhibits a complex behavior as the film thickness increases from 1.33 to 7.34 µm. The maximum value of GMI ratio is observed when the film thickness was 1.56, 2.48, 3.81 or 7.34 µm. • With the increase of film thickness, the peak frequency shifts to lower frequency, but does not decrease following the t-power law. • The above thickness phenomenon is due to the different magnetic properties of thin films. • The Dual-Ion Beam Assisted Deposition is introduced to prepare the GMI materials.

  20. Comparison of trimethylgallium and triethylgallium as “Ga” source materials for the growth of ultrathin GaN films on Si (100) substrates via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevli, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafaalevli@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Marmara University, Göztepe Kadıköy, 34722 İstanbul (Turkey); Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda; Leghari, Shahid A.; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara, Turkey and National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and triethylgallium (TEG) as gallium precursors are compared. Optimized and saturated TMG/TEG pulse widths were used in order to study the effect of group-III precursors. The films were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Refractive index follows the same trend of crystalline quality, mean grain, and crystallite sizes. GaN layers grown using TMG precursor exhibited improved structural and optical properties when compared to GaN films grown with TEG precursor.

  1. Deposition mechanism and microstructure of laser-assisted cold-sprayed (LACS) Al-12 wt.%Si coatings: effects of laser power

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olakanmi, EO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment is one of the most costly processes for treating metallic components against corrosion. Laser-assisted cold spray (LACS) has an opportunity to decrease those costs particularly in transportation systems, chemical industries...

  2. Preparation of SmBiO{sub 3} buffer layer on YSZ substrate by an improved chemical solution deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaolei [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Pu, Minghua, E-mail: mhpu@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The proper conditions for SBO growth are 794 °C for 60 min in flowing Ar gas, the temperature of epitaxial growth is relatively low. • The total time by SSD technique for organic solvent removing, salts decomposition and layer growth is not up to 2 h, which are much less than that needed for traditional CSD of over 10 h. • SBO layer on YSZ prepared by SSD technique are suitable for the growth of YBCO, The results may be the usable reference for continuous preparation of SBO buffer layer on IBAD-YSZ/Ni-based alloy tapes. - Abstract: A quick route for chemical solution deposition (CSD) has been developed to prepare SmBiO{sub 3} (SBO) layers on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates rapidly by using of solid state decomposition (SSD) technique. The proper conditions for volatilization of lactic acid, which as solvent in precursor coated layer, and SBO growth are 115°C for 30 min and 794°C for 60 min in flowing Ar gas. The coated layers are amorphous structure of mixture oxides and quasi-crystal structure of SBO before and after growth, respectively. The total time by this quick CSD route for organic solvent volatilization, salts decomposed and layer growth is not up to 2 h, which are much less than that needed for traditional CSD of over 10 h. SBO layer is directly epitaxial growth on YSZ substrate without any lattice rotation. SBO layer prepared by this quick route as well as that by traditional route are suitable for the growth of YBCO. The superconducting transition temperature and critical current density of the coated YBCO layer on SBO/YSZ obtained by this quick route are up to 90 K and 1.66 MA/cm{sup 2}. These results may be the usable reference for continuous preparation of SBO buffer layer on IBAD-YSZ/Ni-based alloy tapes.

  3. Structural, optical and electrical properties of copper antimony sulfide thin films grown by a citrate-assisted single chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranca-Ramos, F. E.; Diliegros-Godines, C. J.; Silva González, R.; Pal, Mou

    2018-01-01

    Copper antimony sulfide (CAS) has been proposed as low toxicity and earth abundant absorber materials for thin film photovoltaics due to their suitable optical band gap, high absorption coefficient and p-type electrical conductivity. The present work reports the formation of copper antimony sulfide by chemical bath deposition using sodium citrate as a complexing agent. We show that by tuning the annealing condition, one can obtain either chalcostibite or tetrahedrite phase. However, the main challenge was co-deposition of copper and antimony as ternary sulfides from a single chemical bath due to the distinct chemical behavior of these metals. The as-deposited films were subjected to several trials of thermal treatment using different temperatures and time to find the optimized annealing condition. The films were characterized by different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer, and Hall Effect measurements. The results show that the formation of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite phases is highly sensitive to annealing conditions. The electrical properties obtained for the chalcostibite films varied as the annealing temperature increases from 280 to 350 °C: hole concentration (n) = 1017-1018 cm-3, resistivity (ρ) = 1.74-2.14 Ωcm and carrier mobility (μ) = 4.7-9.26 cm2/Vseg. While for the tetrahedrite films, the electrical properties were n = 5 × 1019 cm-3, μ = 18.24 cm2/Vseg, and ρ = 5.8 × 10-3 Ωcm. A possible mechanism for the formation of ternary copper antimony sulfide has also been proposed.

  4. Enhanced Photoluminescence and Raman Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Nanostructures Prepared Using Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methanol Assisted with Heated Brass

    OpenAIRE

    Tamil Many K Thandavan; Siti Meriam Abdul Gani; Chiow San Wong; Roslan Md Nor

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as ...

  5. Synthesis of mesoporous NiCo2S4 deposited on reduced graphite oxide assistant by co-polymer Pluronic F127 for high-performance supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huiya; Yang, Shuo; Zhao, Wenliang; Yang, Zhengchun; Li, Xuan; Li, Huijun; Yao, Pei

    2017-10-01

    Mesoporous NiCo2S4 particles deposited on reduced graphite oxide (RGO) sheets using the co-polymer Pluronic F127 as a structure-directing agent have been successfully prepared as a supercapacitor electrode. The formation of F127 micelles alleviated the aggregation of the RGO sheets and generated NiCo2S4 nanoparticles through hydrophilic affinity of ethylene oxide (EO) ends to produce porous channels during the hydrothermal process. This resulted in a large specific area of the prepared material, and superior electrochemical performance in terms of outstanding rate capability of 85.6% (from 1 A g-1 to 20 A g-1) and cycling stability (92.7% retention after 6500 cycles), features that are crucial for supercapacitors in practical application.

  6. High-sensitivity matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry analyses of small carbohydrates and amino acids using oxidized carbon nanotubes prepared by chemical vapor deposition as matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cui-hong; Li, Jian; Yao, Sheng-jun; Guo, Yin-long; Xia, Xing-hua

    2007-12-05

    In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) analyses of small oligosaccharides and amino acids, high sensitivities for oligosaccharides (10 fmol) were obtained by introducing oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with short and open-end structure as valuable matrix. The CNTs were deposited in porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates by chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that those CNTs include low levels of amorphous carbon. Thus, the background interference signals generally caused by amorphous carbon powder in CNTs can be reduced effectively. Experiments also confirmed that the FTMS signal intensity of CNTs prepared in PAA template is much lower than that of commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MCNTs). Moreover, the purified process for CNTs with mixed acid (H2SO4 and HNO3) also contributed to the minimization of background. Intense signals corresponding to alkali cation adduct of neutral carbohydrates and amino acids have been acquired. In addition, reliable quantitative analyses for urine and corn root were also achieved successfully. The present work will open a new way to the application of oxidized CNTs as an effective matrix in MALDI MS research.

  7. Self-archiving to Institutional Repositories Is Improved by Assisted and Mandated Deposit; Disciplinary Culture is not a Factor. A Review of: Xia, Jingfeng. “Assessment of Self-Archiving in Institutional Repositories: Across Disciplines.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 33.6 (Dec. 2007: 647-54.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Haddow

    2008-06-01

    subjected to further analysis. Using an “average publications per year” calculation for each discipline (from a 1977 paper, a final weighted rate of depositing was calculated for the four disciplines in the seven IRs. Main Results – Without weighting for faculty size, deposit rates vary greatly between disciplines. In most institutions, deposit rates for chemistry and sociology were higher than rates for physics and economics. When faculty size is controlled for, the highest deposit rates in five IRs were for chemistry and sociology. Only two IRs were found to have the highest deposit rates for physics and economics. These results did not change overall when the weighting for publishing productivity was applied: the same five IRs had highest deposit rates for chemistry and sociology. Exceptions to these findings were the IRs at University of Melbourne and University of Queensland, where the highest deposit rates were for economics and physics. On examination of depositor information, it was found that only 2.3% of economics deposits in the Melbourne IR were self-archived. Administrative assistants and other staffwere responsible for depositing 97.7% of the IR’s economics holdings. Self-archiving of physics items to the Melbourne IR was 90%; however, these deposits comprised student theses and dissertations only. Self-archiving practices were examined for:chemistry, physics and economics deposits at the University of Melbourne; chemistry and economics at the University of Queensland; and chemistry, physics and sociology at Queensland University ofTechnology (the only IR in the sample with a mandatory deposit policy. Like Melbourne, self-archiving of economics deposits at the University of Queensland was also low, at 17%. Of the remaining economics deposits, a librarian was responsible for depositing 68%. Chemistry deposits at both Melbourne and Queensland had much higher self-archiving rates, 76.2% and 100% respectively, than those found for physics and economics. At

  8. Size-controllable synthesis of Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles using pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition and metal-semiconductor-heterojunction-assisted photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ranjit A.; Wei, Mao-Kuo; Yeh, P.-H.; Liang, Jyun-Bo; Gao, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Han; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-02-01

    We synthesized Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles at various substrate temperatures using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles consisted of Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers. The average diameter of the Bi nanoparticles and the thickness of the Bi2O3 surface layer are linearly proportional to the substrate temperature. The heterojunctions between the Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers, which are the metal-semiconductor heterojunctions, can strongly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of the Bi/Bi2O3 nanoparticles, because the metallic Bi nanoparticles can provide massive free Fermi-level electrons for the electron transitions in the Bi2O3 surface layers. The enhancement of PL emission at room temperature by metal-semiconductor-heterojunctions make the Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles potential candidates for use in optoelectronic nanodevices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs).We synthesized Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles at various substrate temperatures using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles consisted of Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers. The average diameter of the Bi nanoparticles and the thickness of the Bi2O3 surface layer are linearly proportional to the substrate temperature. The heterojunctions between the Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers, which are the metal-semiconductor heterojunctions, can strongly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of the Bi/Bi2O3 nanoparticles, because the metallic Bi nanoparticles can provide massive free Fermi-level electrons for the electron transitions in the Bi2O3 surface layers. The enhancement of PL emission at room temperature by metal-semiconductor-heterojunctions make the Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles potential candidates for use in optoelectronic nanodevices, such as light-emitting diodes

  9. Depósito e perdas de calda em sistema de pulverização com turboatomizador em videira Deposition and spray losses in an air-assisted sprayer system in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Balan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte dos viticultores da região Norte do Paraná pratica a condução da videira em caramanchão, com mais de 50 aplicações fitossanitárias em um único ciclo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar essas aplicações com turboatomizador assistido de ar no sistema de pulverização, por meio do depósito de calda nas folhas e perdas. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando-se de cinco condições de aplicação, variando-se tamanho de gotas e volume de aplicação, com quatro repetições, em blocos casualizados. A avaliação do sistema foi feita com a aplicação de uma calda de cloreto de potássio (5%, sendo o depósito nas folhas medido pela condutividade elétrica, e as perdas, pela comparação entre volumes aplicado e recuperado nas folhas. Para todas as condições, as perdas foram superiores a 48%. Os maiores volumes aplicados apresentaram as maiores deposições, e gotas maiores apresentaram maior depósito e mesma perda em relação a gotas menores. Os menores volumes não diferiram com relação à deposição, destacando-se as condições gotas maiores a volume baixo e a testemunha utilizada pelo viticultor, que apresentaram as menores perdas. Os resultados demonstram que o turboatomizador é uma importante ferramenta para maximizar as operações de pulverização em uva, e as alterações na configuração das pontas de pulverização devem ser mais estudadas.Winegrowers in the north of Paraná State carry on grapevines in arbour and pesticide applications could overcome more than fifty times in a cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the features of the air assisted sprayer application system by spray volume deposition and losses. Five treatments and four randomized blocks were used. The treatments varied the droplet size and application volume. The evaluation of the system was done with a 5% spray solution containing KCl being the leaves spray deposit measured through electric conductivity and the losses by the

  10. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Many K Thandavan

    Full Text Available Vapor phase transport (VPT assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures (NSs. The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Photoluminescence (PL properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni, oxygen interstitials (Oi, zinc vacancy (Vzn, singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-, oxygen vacancy (Vo, singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+ and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  11. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  12. Magnetocaloric effect and temperature coefficient of resistance of La0.85Ag0.15MnO3 epitaxial thin films obtained by polymer-assisted deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobas Acosta R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the magnetocaloric effects and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR of La0.85Ag0.15MnO3 epitaxial thin films grown on single-crystal substrates of LaAlO3 (001 and SrTiO3 (001 using the chemical solution approach of polymer-assisted deposition (PAD. The film thicknesses are in the range 30-35 nm. Magnetocaloric effects, with entropy changes of -2.14 J/kg.K, in the case of the LaAlO3 substrate and -2.72 J/kg.K for the SrTiO3 substrate, (corresponding to a magnetic field variation of 2T were obtained at room temperature. The refrigeration capacity at this field variation reached large values of 125 J/kg and 216 J/kg, indicating that these films prepared by PAD have the potential for microcooling applications. The temperature coefficient of resistance has been calculated from the resistivity measurements. A maximum TCR value of 3.01 % K-1 was obtained at 309 K, which shows that these films also have potential as uncooled thermometers for bolometric applications.

  13. Germanium films by polymer-assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Quanxi; Burrell, Anthony K.; Bauer, Eve; Ronning, Filip; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Zou, Guifu

    2013-01-15

    Highly ordered Ge films are prepared directly on single crystal Si substrates by applying an aqueous coating solution having Ge-bound polymer onto the substrate and then heating in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere. A coating solution was prepared by mixing water, a germanium compound, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and polyethyleneimine to form a first aqueous solution and then subjecting the first aqueous solution to ultrafiltration.

  14. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 4 ... The plasma polymerization process is more economical than ion-assisted physical vapour deposition processes as regards equipment and source materials and is more cost-effective, enabling the surface treatment and deposition of the ARC in the same ...

  15. Dental Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for dental assistants. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of dental assistants with ...

  16. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  17. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Califano, Valeria, E-mail: v.califano@im.cnr.it [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Lipase from Candida Rugosa was deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on KBr pellets, mica and glass substrate. • The deposited film was characterized morphologically and structurally by optical microscopy, SEM and FTIR analysis. • Results of characterization underlined a phenomenon of aggregation taking place. • The aggregation phenomenon was reversible since lipase showed activity in the transesterification reaction between soybean oil and isopropyl alcohol once detached from the substrate. - Abstract: Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  18. Assistive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  19. Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) obtained through chemical vapor deposition assisted by plasma; Peliculas delgadas de carbono amorfo hidrogenado (a-C:H) obtenidas mediante deposito quimico de vapores asistido por plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia H, J.A.; Camps C, E.E.; Escobar A, L.; Romero H, S.; Chirino O, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Muhl S, S. [IIM-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) were deposited using one source of microwave plasma with magnetic field (type ECR), using mixtures of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} in relationship of 80/20 and 95/05 as precursory gases, with work pressures of 4X10{sup -4} to 6x10{sup -4} Torr and an incident power of the discharge of microwaves with a constant value of 400 W. It was analyzed the influence among the properties of the films, as the deposit rate, the composition and the bonding types, and the deposit conditions, such as the flow rates of the precursory gases and the polarization voltage of the sample holders. (Author)

  20. Housing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Baker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, an increasing number of households face problems of access to suitable housing in the private market. In response, the Federal and State Governments share responsibility for providing housing assistance to these, mainly low-income, households. A broad range of policy instruments are used to provide and maintain housing assistance across all housing tenures, for example, assisting entry into homeownership, providing affordability assistance in the private rental market, and the provision of socially owned and managed housing options. Underlying each of these interventions is the premise that secure, affordable, and appropriate housing provides not only shelter but also a number of nonshelter benefits to individuals and their households. Although the nonshelter outcomes of housing are well acknowledged in Australia, the understanding of the nonshelter outcomes of housing assistance is less clear. This paper explores nonshelter outcomes of three of the major forms of housing assistance provided by Australian governments—low-income mortgage assistance, social housing, and private rent assistance. It is based upon analysis of a survey of 1,353 low-income recipients of housing assistance, and specifically measures the formulation of health and well-being, financial stress, and housing satisfaction outcomes across these three assistance types. We find clear evidence that health, finance, and housing satisfaction outcomes are associated with quite different factors for individuals in these three major housing assistance types.

  1. Deposition of thin layers of boron nitrides and hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon assisted by high current direct current arc plasma; Deposition assistee par un plasma a arc a haut courant continu de couches minces de Nitrure de Bore et de Silicium microcristallin hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1999-09-01

    In the frame of this thesis, a high current direct current arc (HCDCA) used for the industrial deposition of diamond, has been adapted to study the deposition of two types of coatings: a) boron nitride, whose cubic phase is similar to diamond, for tribological applications, b) hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon, for applications in the semiconductor fields (flat panel displays, solar cells,...). For the deposition of these coatings, the substrates were placed in the diffusion region of the arc. The substrate heating is mainly due to atomic species recombining on its surface. The deposition temperature, varying from 300 to 900 {sup o}C according to the films deposited, is determined by the substrate position, the arc power and the injected gas fluxes, without the use of any external heating or cooling system. Measurements performed on the arc plasma show that the electronic temperature is around 2 eV (23'000 K) while the gas temperature is lower than 5500 K. Typical electronic densities are in the range of 10{sup 12}-10{sup 1'}3 cm{sup -3}. For the deposition of boron nitride films, different boron precursors were used and a wide parameter range was investigated. The extreme difficulty of synthesising cubic boron nitride films by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) did not allow to stabilize the cubic phase of boron nitride in HCDCA. Coatings resulted in hexagonal or amorphous boron nitride with a chemical composition close to stoichiometric. The presence of hydrogen leads to the deposition of rough and porous films. Negative biasing of the samples, for positive ion bombardment, is commonly used to stabilize the cubic phase. In HCDCA and in our biasing range, only a densification of the films could be observed. A boron nitride deposition plasma study by infrared absorption spectroscopy in a capacitive radio frequency reactor has demonstrated the usefulness of this diagnostic for the understanding of the various chemical reactions which occur in this kind

  2. Enhancement of long-term stability of pentacene thin-film transistors encapsulated with transparent SnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Jin [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Won Hoe [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Jin [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Su [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Hong Koo [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: thinfilm@yonsei.ac.kr; Lee, Jiyoul [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seongil [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    The long-term stability of pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) encapsulated with a transparent SnO{sub 2} thin-film prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) was investigated. After encapsulation process, our organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) showed somewhat degraded field-effect mobility of 0.5 cm{sup 2}/(V s) that was initially 0.62 cm{sup 2}/(V s), when a buffer layer of thermally evaporated 100 nm SnO{sub 2} film had been deposited prior to IBAD process. However, the mobility was surprisingly sustained up to 1 month and then gradually degraded down to 0.35 cm{sup 2}/(V s) which was still three times higher than that of the OTFT without any encapsulation layer after 100 days in air ambient. The encapsulated OTFTs also exhibited superior on/off current ratio of over 10{sup 5} to that of the unprotected devices ({approx}10{sup 4}) which was reduced from {approx}10{sup 6} before aging. Therefore, the enhanced long-term stability of our encapsulated OTFTs should be attributed to well protection of permeation of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} into the devices by the IBAD SnO{sub 2} thin-film which could be used as an effective inorganic gas barrier for transparent organic electronic devices.

  3. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  4. Template-assisted synthesis of III-nitride and metal-oxide nano-heterostructures using low-temperature atomic layer deposition for energy, sensing, and catalysis applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyikli, Necmi; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Eren, Hamit; Haider, Ali; Uyar, Tamer; Kayaci, Fatma; Guler, Mustafa Ozgur; Garifullin, Ruslan; Okyay, Ali K.; Ulusoy, Gamze M.; Goldenberg, Eda

    2015-08-01

    Recent experimental research efforts on developing functional nanostructured III-nitride and metal-oxide materials via low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) will be reviewed. Ultimate conformality, a unique propoerty of ALD process, is utilized to fabricate core-shell and hollow tubular nanostructures on various nano-templates including electrospun nanofibrous polymers, self-assembled peptide nanofibers, metallic nanowires, and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). III-nitride and metal-oxide coatings were deposited on these nano-templates via thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD processes with thickness values ranging from a few mono-layers to 40 nm. Metal-oxide materials studied include ZnO, TiO2, HfO2, ZrO2, and Al2O3. Standard ALD growth recipes were modified so that precursor molecules have enough time to diffuse and penetrate within the layers/pores of the nano-template material. As a result, uniform and conformal coatings on high-surface area nano-templates were demonstrated. Substrate temperatures were kept below 200C and within the self-limiting ALD window, so that temperature-sensitive template materials preserved their integrity III-nitride coatings were applied to similar nano-templates via plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) technique. AlN, GaN, and InN thin-film coating recipes were optimized to achieve self-limiting growth with deposition temperatures as low as 100C. BN growth took place only for >350C, in which precursor decomposition occured and therefore growth proceeded in CVD regime. III-nitride core-shell and hollow tubular single and multi-layered nanostructures were fabricated. The resulting metal-oxide and III-nitride core-shell and hollow nano-tubular structures were used for photocatalysis, dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), energy storage and chemical sensing applications. Significantly enhanced catalysis, solar efficiency, charge capacity and sensitivity performance are reported. Moreover, core-shell metal-oxide and III-nitride materials

  5. Mixed-Halide CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Xx (X=Cl, Br, I) Perovskites: Vapor-Assisted Solution Deposition and Application as Solar Cell Absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Rahime; Tajabadi, Fariba; Shahbazi, Saeed; Gholipour, Somayeh; Taghavinia, Nima

    2016-08-04

    There have been recent reports on the formation of single-halide perovskites, CH3 NH3 PbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I), by means of vapor-assisted solution processing. Herein, the successful formation of mixed-halide perovskites (CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Xx ) by means of a vapor-assisted solution method at ambient atmosphere is reported. The perovskite films are synthesized by exposing PbI2 film to CH3 NH3 X (X=I, Br, or Cl) vapor. The prepared perovskite films have uniform surfaces with good coverage, as confirmed by SEM images. The inclusion of chlorine and bromine into the structure leads to a lower temperature and shorter reaction time for optimum perovskite film formation. In the case of CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Clx , the optimum reaction temperature is reduced to 100 °C, and the resulting phases are CH3 NH3 PbI3 (with trace Cl) and CH3 NH3 PbCl3 with a ratio of about 2:1. In the case of CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Brx , single-phase CH3 NH3 PbI2 Br is formed in a considerably shorter reaction time than that of CH3 NH3 PbI3 . The mesostructured perovskite solar cells based on CH3 NH3 PbI3 films show the best optimal power conversion efficiency of 13.5 %, whereas for CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Clx and CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Brx the best recorded efficiencies are 11.6 and 10.5 %, respectively. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Direct formation of a current collector layer on a partially reduced graphite oxide film using sputter-assisted metal deposition to fabricate high-power micro-supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Segi; Yu, Jin

    2016-03-01

    When a reduced graphite oxide (RGO) freestanding film is fabricated on a supercapacitor cell via compression onto a current collector, there are gaps between the film and the current collector, even if the cell is carefully assembled. These gaps can induce increases in the electrical series resistance (ESR) of the cell, resulting in degradation of the cell's electrochemical performance. Here, to effectively reduce the ESR of the supercapacitor, metal sputtering deposition is introduced. This enables the direct formation of the current collector layer on a partially reduced GO (pRGO) film, the model system. Using metal sputtering, a nickel (Ni) layer with a thickness <1 μm can be created easily on one side of the pRGO film. Good electrical interconnection between the pRGO film and the current collector can be obtained using a Ni layer formed on the pRGO film. The pRGO film sustains its film form with high packing density (∼1.31 g cm-3). Furthermore, the Ni-sputtered pRGO film with optimized Ni thickness exhibits remarkable enhancement of its electrochemical performance. This includes a superior rate capability and semi-permanent cycle life compared with the untreated pRGO film. This is due to the significant decrease in the ESR of the film.

  7. Growth and properties of nanostructured titanium dioxide deposited by supersonic plasma jet deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Orto, E. C.; Caldirola, S.; Sassella, A.; Morandi, V.; Riccardi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a wide gap semiconductor suitable for many applications. In this work, TiO2 nanostructured thin films are deposited by a plasma assisted supersonic deposition technique on silicon and on conductive glass substrates. Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) is used to monitor plasma conditions and precursor dissociation reactions. The influence of deposition parameters on TiO2 structure, uniformity, grain size, and optical properties are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), mechanical profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Experimental results show how employed technique allows obtaining uniform films, with a tunable deposition range. Grains size could be chosen varying precursor flux during the deposition process. Films nanostructure and porosity result to be affected by grains size. Substrate roughness results to affect film morphology.

  8. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  9. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  10. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  11. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, Antonio; Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Fanelli, Esther; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-11-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  12. Deposit Games with Reinvestment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2007-01-01

    In a deposit game coalitions are formed by players combining their capital. The proceeds of their investments then have to be divided among those players. The current model extends earlier work on capital deposits by allowing reinvestment of returns. Two specific subclasses of deposit games are

  13. Calcrete-type uranium deposits of Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aral, H. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship (Australia); Hackl, R., E-mail: ralph.hackl@csiro.au [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Waterford, WA (Australia); CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship (Australia); Pownceby, M. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    CSIRO is undertaking advanced mineralogical and elemental characterisation studies of lowgrade and refractory Australian uranium deposits. Of particular interest are the calcrete-type uranium deposits of Western Australia. These deposits are found in playa lake sediments and channels which drain a uranium-rich source. The primary uranium mineral is carnotite. The ore is highly friable and is usually found in association with clayey and calcareous minerals, such as gypsum, dolomite and halite. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the characteristics and formation of these calcrete-type uranium deposits to assist in the development of new and improved processing routes. (author)

  14. {sup 14}N depth profiles in Ti and Ti6Al4V nitrided by various methods, measured by nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickridge, I.; Trompetter, B. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Brown, I. [Industrial Research Ltd, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1993-12-31

    Titanium alloys have desirable mechanical properties for applications in many areas, but their surface properties, such as friction coefficient, hardness, and wear and corrosion resistance often need to be enhanced. This may be accomplished by forming a thin layer of titanium nitride on the surface, by such methods as thermal nitriding, Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD), sol-gel technology, or ion implantation. Ion Beam Analysis is assuming an increasing importance for characterising the composition of the outer few microns since it is the only technique that can rapidly yield quantitative concentration depth profiles of {sup 14}N with minimal disruption of the analysed region. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Litigation in Perinatal Care: The Deposition Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa A

    Litigation in perinatal nursing represents a disproportionate share of indemnity payouts and results in excessive psychological stress. Testimony at deposition or trial can be challenging for clinicians; little is taught in training or postgraduate education regarding litigation. Nurses, midwives, and physicians can effectively navigate the deposition process and prepare for trial testimony by understanding the plaintiff's goals, recognizing the role of documentation, and becoming familiar with various plaintiff's strategies including reptile theory. Knowledge of psychological concepts such as confirmation bias and cognitive dissonance may assist clinicians in responding to plaintiff's lines of questioning. Deposition preparation is crucial to the defense and requires active participation on the part of clinicians; it may include mock deposition or use of simulation laboratories. Common mistakes in deposition may be avoided with foresight and anticipatory planning by clinicians working closely with risk managers and defense attorneys. This article provides an overview of the deposition process, including the plaintiff's goals and common approaches, as well as the role of documentation and common errors of deponents.

  16. Tuning the magnetic and transport properties of La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 films by Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 intercalated layers grown with polymer-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S. Y.; Shi, L.; Zhao, J. Y.; Xie, C. Z.; Zhou, S. M.; Li, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The La0.8Ca0.2MnO3/Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 (LCM/BST) bilayer films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 substrates with different orientations by the polymer-assisted deposition. The effects of annealing atmosphere and substrate orientation on the magnetic and transport properties of LCM/BST bilayer films have been investigated. A well crystallization quality of the films is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Besides, the resistivity of the LCM/BST bilayer film shows high substrate-orientation dependent metal-insulator transition (MIT). However, with the decrease in temperature, in addition to the MIT at ˜220 K, an additional MIT emerges at a lower temperature and becomes robust, especially for the (111)-oriented LCM/BST bilayer film. Moreover, the additional MIT still exists when annealed in O2/air atmosphere but disappears in O2 atmosphere. Corroborated by the magnetic properties, it shows that the intercalated-layer technique of tuning the physical properties of transition-metal oxide films is achievable and more variable compared to the conventional way of chemical modification, which is beneficial to the development of multifunctional devices.

  17. Chemical bath deposition of ZnO on functionalized self-assembled monolayers: selective deposition and control of deposit morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiwei; Walker, Amy V

    2015-02-03

    We have developed a method by which to selectively and reproducibly deposit ZnO films on functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The deposition bath is composed of zinc acetate and ethylenediamine. The deposition reaction pathways are shown to be similar to those observed for sulfides and selenides, even though ethylenediamine acts as both an oxygen source and a complexing agent. On -COOH terminated SAMs, Zn-carboxylate surface complexes act as nucleation sites for ion-by-ion growth, leading to the formation of adherent ZnO nanocrystallites. Cluster-by-cluster growth is also observed, which produces weakly adherent micrometer-sized ZnO crystallites. On -CH3 and -OH terminated SAMs, only micrometer-sized ZnO crystallites are observed because Zn(2+) does not complex with the SAM terminal group, preventing nucleation of the nanocrystalline phase. The application of either ultrasound ("sonication-assisted CBD") or stirring promotes ion-by-ion ZnO growth on -COOH terminated SAMs. Stirring produces smoother but less reproducible ZnO films than sonication-assisted CBD.

  18. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  19. Surface Morphology of Zinc Oxide Thin Films deposited by TCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaie, H. A.; Noor, F. W. M.; Amizam, S.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.

    2010-03-01

    Surface morphology study of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films by using Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (Thermal-CVD) was investigated. The ZnO compound was synthesized from zinc acetate dehydrate which act as a starting material to form the ZnO thin films. It was deposited on as-prepared Nanonstructured Silicon (NSi) with deposition temperature ranging from 400-600° C without catalyst-assisted. The surface morphology of the samples before and after the deposition process was examined by using Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result shows that the obtained ZnO thin films possess good crystalline structure at deposition temperature of 600° C and the surface morphologies of the ZnO thin films improved greatly with an increase in deposition temperature. XRD was employed to study the evolution of the crystalline orientation using X-Ray Diffractrometer (XRD).

  20. 24 CFR 954.305 - Tenant-based rental assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the tenant-based rental assistance under this part. (i) Security deposits. (1) A grantee may use HOME..., except that the amount of HOME funds that may be provided for a security deposit may not exceed the equivalent of two month's rent for the unit. (3) Only the prospective tenant may apply for HOME security...

  1. Fundamentals of laser-assisted fabrication of inorganic and organic films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The standard method for producing films by laser-assisted methods, Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) will be reviewed. The films considered are usually inorganic films, but also films of organic materials have been produced. Also the deposition of organic films by MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser ...

  2. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  3. Stratiform chromite deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Stratiform chromite deposits are of great economic importance, yet their origin and evolution remain highly debated. Layered igneous intrusions such as the Bushveld, Great Dyke, Kemi, and Stillwater Complexes, provide opportunities for studying magmatic differentiation processes and assimilation within the crust, as well as related ore-deposit formation. Chromite-rich seams within layered intrusions host the majority of the world's chromium reserves and may contain significant platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralization. This model of stratiform chromite deposits is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. The model focuses on features that may be common to all stratiform chromite deposits as a way to gain insight into the processes that gave rise to their emplacement and to the significant economic resources contained in them.

  4. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available the powder in a highly compressed Nitrogen gas at about 30 bar which is passed through de Laval supersonic nozzle. LACS can be referred to as a surface engineering technique and is desirable in rapid prototyping and manufacturing; particularly for biomedical...

  5. Microstructure of vapor deposited coatings on curved substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Thermal barrier coating systems consisting of a metallic bond coat and ceramic over layer are widely used to extend the life of gas turbine engine components. They are applied using either high-vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques in which vapor atoms rarely experience scattering collisions during propagation to a substrate, or by gas jet assisted (low-vacuum) vapor deposition techniques that utilize scattering from streamlines to enable non-line-of-sight deposition. Both approaches require substrate motion to coat a substrate of complex shape. Here, direct simulation Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods are combined to simulate the deposition of a nickel coating over the concave and convex surfaces of a model airfoil, and the simulation results are compared with those from experimental depositions. The simulation method successfully predicted variations in coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and porosity during both stationary and substrate rotated deposition. It was then used to investigate a wide range of vapor deposition conditions spanning high-vacuum physical vapor deposition to low-vacuum gas jet assisted vapor deposition. The average coating thickness was found to increase initially with gas pressure reaching a maximum at a chamber pressure of 8–10 Pa, but the best coating thickness uniformity was achieved under high vacuum deposition conditions. However, high vacuum conditions increased the variation in the coatings pore volume fraction over the surface of the airfoil. The simulation approach was combined with an optimization algorithm and used to investigate novel deposition concepts to tailor the local coating thickness.

  6. Deposition and Resuspension Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W. G.N.; Horst, T. W.; Sehmel, G. A.; Hodgson, W. H.; Lloyd, F. D.; Orgill, M. M.; Bander, T. J.; Thorp, J. M.; Schwendiman, L. C.; Young, J. A.; Tanner, T. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Wogman, N. A.; Petersen, M. R.; Hadlock, R. K.; Droppo, J. G.; Woodruff, R. K.

    1976-03-01

    Nineteen papers are covered in this section. Significant contributions were made in 1975 in both the theoretical and the more practical experimental measurements of particle deposition and resuspension. Solutions of theoretical deposition-resuspension equations were formulated and nondimensionalized air and ground concentrations were predicted as a function of distance. In other theoretical studies assumptions and analyses regarding surface boundary conditions were investigated and methods presented whereby they can be fitted together within a single theoretical framework. Deposition in vegetation canopies was considered; formulations were developed and conclusions drawn regarding canopy filtration efficiency. Dry deposition of gases was shown to be rate-limited by many processes, and experiments and equipment were designed to measure gradients of SO/sub 2/ and deposition fluxes. A computer model was improved and used to predict downwind concentrations for a generalized area source. A dimensional analysis correlation was formulated from experimental particle deposition velocity data, but was found to show insignificant improvement when compared statistically with an earlier derived correlation. Wind tunnel measurements of deposition velocities to gravel beds and scaled trees showed that particles will penetrate very significantly to underlying surfaces. Initial field experiments measured deposition velocity to sagebrush canopies. Other controlled field studies were initiated for measuring resuspension, including resuspension from truck traffic. Suspension of soil and the size distribution of particles airborne under various air regimes were studied. In the large METROMEX study done near St. Louis, several pollutants were sampled and analyzed as a function of distance. These studies gave insight into the relative inportance of dry deposition and atmospheric dispersion as mechanisms for reducing air concentrations. (auth)

  7. Removal of atmospheric ethanol by wet deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, J. David; Willey, Joan D.; Thomas, Rachel K.; Mullaugh, Katherine M.; Avery, G. Brooks; Kieber, Robert J.; Mead, Ralph N.; Helms, John; Giubbina, Fernanda F.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.; Cala, John

    2017-02-01

    The global wet deposition flux of ethanol is estimated to be 2.4 ± 1.6 Tg/yr with a conservative range of 0.2-4.6 Tg/yr based upon analyses of 219 wet deposition samples collected at 12 locations globally. This estimate calculated by using observed wet deposition ethanol concentrations is in agreement with previous models (1.4-5 Tg/yr) predicting the wet deposition sink using Henry's law coefficients and atmospheric ethanol concentrations. Wet deposition is estimated to remove between 6 and 17% of the total ethanol emitted to the atmosphere on an annual basis. The concentration of ethanol in marine rain (25 ± 6 nM) is an order of magnitude less than in the majority of terrestrial rains (345 ± 280 nM). Terrestrial rain samples collected in locations impacted by high local sources of biofuel usage and locations downwind from ethanol distilleries were an order of magnitude higher in ethanol concentration (3090 ± 448 nM) compared to rain collected in terrestrial locations not impacted by these sources. These results indicate that wet deposition of ethanol is heavily influenced by local sources. Results of this study are important because they suggest that as biofuel production and usage increase, the concentration of ethanol in the atmosphere will increase as well the wet deposition flux. Additional research constraining the sources, sinks, and atmospheric impacts of ethanol is necessary to better assist in the debate as whether or not to increase consumption of the alcohol as a biofuel.

  8. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  9. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Updates Need Housing Assistance? Home Homelessness Assistance Homelessness Assistance Programs CoC CoC Program Page NOFAs Laws, ... VI UT VT VA WA WV WI WY Homelessness Declines in Most Communities of the U.S. with ...

  10. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  11. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  12. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  13. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  14. Podiform chromite deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  15. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  16. Self-assembling and self-limiting monolayer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foest, Rüdiger; Schmidt, Martin; Gargouri, Hassan

    2014-02-01

    Effects of spatial ordering of molecules on surfaces are commonly utilized to deposit ultra-thin films with a thickness of a few nm. In this review paper, several methods are discussed, that are distinguished from other thin film deposition processes by exactly these effects that lead to self-assembling and self-limiting layer growth and eventually to coatings with unique and fascinating properties and applications in micro-electronics, optics, chemistry, or biology. Traditional methods for the formation of self-assembled films of ordered organic molecules, such as the Langmuir-Blodgett technique along with thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) of inorganic molecules are evaluated. The overview is complemented by more recent developments for the deposition of organic or hybrid films by molecular layer deposition. Particular attention is given to plasma assisted techniques, either as a preparative, supplementary step or as inherent part of the deposition as in plasma enhanced ALD or plasma assisted, repeated grafting deposition. The different methods are compared and their film formation mechanisms along with their advantages are presented from the perspective of a plasma scientist. The paper contains lists of established film compounds and a collection of the relevant literature is provided for further reading.

  17. Diamond like carbon coatings deposited by microwave plasma CVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Laser and Plasma Technology Division,. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. MS received 3 May 2007. Abstract. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by microwave assisted chemical vapour deposi- tion system using d.c. bias voltage ranging from –100 V to –300 V. These films were ...

  18. Characterization of duplex hard coatings with additional ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Škorić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin fi lms which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD. In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N+2 ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of eff ects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densifi cation of the fi lms. The evolution of the microstructure from porous and columnar grains to densel packed grains is accompanied by changes in mechanical and physical properties. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, X-ray diff raction (XRD and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX.

  19. Improvement of orthodontic friction by coating archwire with carbon nitride film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Songbo [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shao Tianmin, E-mail: shaotm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ding Peng [Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-10-01

    In order to reduce frictional resistance between archwire and bracket during orthodontic tooth movement, carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were deposited on the surface of archwires with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that the CNx film was successfully deposited on the surface of the orthodontic wires. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggested that the deposited CNx film was sp{sup 2} carbon dominated structures, and diversiform bonds (N-C, N{identical_to}C, et al.) coexisted in the film. The friction tests indicated that the CNx film significantly reduced the wire-bracket friction both in ambient air and in artificial saliva. The sp{sup 2}C rich structure of the CNx film as well as its protection function for the archwire was responsible for the low friction of the wire-bracket sliding system.

  20. Enhanced Barrier Performance of Engineered Paper by Atomic Layer Deposited Al

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Bui, H.V.; van Ommen, J.R.; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.; Englezos, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Surface modification of cellulosic paper is demonstrated by employing plasma assisted atomic layer deposition. Al2O3 thin films are deposited on paper substrates, prepared with different fiber sizes, to improve their barrier properties. Thus, a hydrophobic paper is created

  1. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  2. Distributed Modeling of soil erosion and deposition affected by buffer strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademalrasoul, Ataalah; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    was surveyed during the runoff season. In addition, organic carbon and phosphorous contents as well as bulk density were determined in soils of eroding and depositional sites. General buffer zone properties were recorded. Here we present results from scenario analyses comparing measured sediment deposition...... and discharge to streams with predictions obtained with the distributed soil erosion and deposition model WaTEM and assess the potential of using such tool to assist with the planning of buffer zones in landscapes....

  3. 24 CFR 982.313 - Security deposit: Amounts owed by tenant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982... tenant. (b) The PHA may prohibit security deposits in excess of private market practice, or in excess of...

  4. Control of ordered mesoporous titanium dioxide nanostructures formed using plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Des [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Child, David, E-mail: david.child@uws.ac.uk [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Song, Shigeng; Zhao, Chao [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Alajiani, Yahya [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Waddell, Ewan [Thin Film Solutions Ltd, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow, G20 0TH (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    Three dimensional nanostructures of mesoporous (pore diameter between 2-50 nm) nanocrystalline titania (TiO{sub 2}) were produced using glancing angle deposition combined with plasma ion assisted deposition, providing plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition eliminating the need for post-annealing to achieve film crystallinity. Electron beam evaporation was chosen to deposit nanostructures at various azimuthal angles, achieving designed variation in three dimensional nanostructure. A thermionic broad beam hollow cathode plasma source was used to enhance electron beam deposition, with ability to vary in real time ion fluxes and energies providing a means to modify and control TiO{sub 2} nanostructure real time with controlled density and porosity along and lateral to film growth direction. Plasma ion assisted deposition was carried out at room temperature using a hollow cathode plasma source, ensuring low heat loading to the substrate during deposition. Plasma enhanced glancing angle TiO{sub 2} structures were deposited onto borosilicate microscope slides and used to characterise the effects of glancing angle and plasma ion energy distribution function on the optical and nanostructural properties. Variation in TiO{sub 2} refractive index from 1.40 to 2.45 (@ 550 nm) using PEGLAD is demonstrated. Results and analysis of the influence of plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition on evaporant path and resultant glancing angle deviation from standard GLAD are described. Control of mesoporous morphology is described, providing a means of optimising light trapping features and film porosity, relevant to applications such as fabrication of dye sensitised solar cells. - Highlights: • Plasma assistance during glancing angle deposition enables control of morphology. • Ion energy variation during glancing angle deposition varies columnar angle • Column thickness of glancing angle deposition dependant on ion current density • Ion current density variation during

  5. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  6. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Close Email Share Dialog × Print Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) ART refers to treatments and procedures that ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  8. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz

    1976-01-01

    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  9. A Micrometeorological Perspective on Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dry deposition velocity is given in terms of constant flux layer scaling. Numerical values of upper bounds on the deposition velocity is given for a typical situation. Some remarks are then offered on the relative merits of various ways in which the combined diffusion-deposition...

  10. Current topics of ion beam R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, James K. (Materials Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Watertown, MA 02172 (United States))

    1994-07-01

    The use of directed energetic ion beams to improve the surface-sensitive properties of materials has been pursued worldwide for almost two decades. In that time, numerous examples of property improvements have been demonstrated in the laboratory and some applications are currently finding commercial uses. Among these current topics of transitional R and D are nitrogen ion implantation to impart wear resistance to precision components, including titanium alloy surgical prostheses and selected tooling. The hybrid combination of ion beam bombardment in conjunction with physical vapor deposition, commonly termed ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD), has emerged as a powerful processing technique. It combines many of the positive attributes of ion beam and conventional coating technologies, such as high density, superior adhesion and the ability to produce arbitrarily thick coatings. An important feature of IBAD technology is its frequently demonstrated ability to control many generic properties of coatings, such as the morphology, adhesion, residual stress and stoichiometry. Current applications of ion beam processing for the production of wear-, corrosion- and fatigue-resistant surfaces are presented here with an emphasis on those pertaining to US Army needs. ((orig.))

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of different hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium for keratoprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Qiu, Zhiye; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Liqiang; Yang, Jingxin; Huang, Yifei; Cui, Fuzhai

    2015-09-01

    Stable tissue integration is important to keratoprosthesis (KPro). The aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue bonding ability of hydroxyapatite (HAp)-coated titanium KPro. The samples were divided into three groups: test groups (IBAD group and AD group) and Ti control. The coated samples had a HAp layer created by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) or aerosol deposition (AD). The surface characteristics were analyzed with SEM, AFM, and XRD. The samples were surgically inserted into the muscles of rabbits. Eight weeks after healing, the attachment to the tissue was tested with a universal test device. The three samples exhibited distinctive surface morphology. The force to remove the HAp implants from the muscles was significantly greater than that of Ti group ( P < 0.01), with the AD samples requiring the greatest force ( P < 0.01). After removal, SEM showed that the tissue was firmly attached to the surface of AD samples. Photomicrographs of the peri-implant muscles showed a layer of aligned fibrous tissue without severe inflammation. The AD samples had more fibroblasts. Results indicate that because of enhanced mechanical adhesion of soft tissue to the implants, HAp-coated Ti by AD is a suitable KPro skirt material.

  12. Estimation of magnetic relaxation property for CVD processed YBCO-coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S. [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Matsushita, T., E-mail: matusita@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Shikimachi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1, Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Ion Beam Assist Deposition/Chemical Vapor Deposition(IBAD/CVD)-processed YBCO-coated conductors with high critical current density J{sub c} at high magnetic fields are expected to be applied to superconducting equipments such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). For application to superconducting magnet in SMES one of the most important properties for superconductors is the relaxation property of superconducting current. In this paper, the relaxation property is investigated for IBAD/CVD-processed YBCO-coated conductors of the superconducting layer in the range of 0.18-0.90 {mu}m. This property can be quantitatively characterized by the apparent pinning potential, U{sub 0}*. It is found that U{sub 0}* takes a smaller value due to the two-dimensional pinning mechanism at high magnetic fields for conductor with thinner superconducting layer. Although U{sub 0}* decreases with increasing thickness at low magnetic fields at 20 K, it increases at high magnetic fields. The results are theoretically explained by the model of the flux creep and flow based on the dimensionality of flux pinning. Scaling analysis is examined for the dependence of U{sub 0}{sup *} on the magnetic field, temperature and the layer thickness.

  13. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  14. A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores: Chapter A in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Fey, David L.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a descriptive model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits that presents their geological, mineralogical and geochemical attributes and is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new models that will be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment. This deposit modeling effort by the USGS is intended to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Included in this report are geological, geophysical and geochemical assessment guides to assist in mineral resource estimation. The deposit attributes, including grade and tonnage of the deposits described in this report are based on a new mineral deposits data set of all known MVT deposits in the world.

  15. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition

    OpenAIRE

    SHY, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Deposit insurance schemes in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  16. Aspects of thin film deposition on granulates by physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas; Schmid, Gerwin H. S.; Mahr, Harald; Eisenmenger-Sittner, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Thin film and coating technology has entered fields which may show significant deviations from classical coating applications where films are deposited on plane, sometimes large substrates. Often surfaces of small and irregularly shaped bodies have to be improved in respect to electrical, thermal or mechanical properties. Film deposition and characterization on such small substrates is not a trivial task. This specially holds for methods based on Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes such as sputter deposition and its ion- and plasma assisted varieties. Due to their line of sight nature a key issue for homogenous films is efficient intermixing. If this problem is mastered, another task is the prediction and determination of the film thickness on single particles as well as on large scale ensembles thereof. In this work a mechanism capable of uniformly coating up to 1000 cm3 of granulate with particle sizes ranging from approx. 10 μm to 150 μm by magnetron sputtering is thoroughly described. A method for predicting the average film thickness on the particles is presented and tested for several differently shaped objects like microspheres, irregular grains of sinter powder or micro diamonds. For assessing the film thickness on single particles as well as on particle ensembles several complementary methods based on optics, X-ray analysis and gravimetry are employed. Their respective merits and limitations are discussed. Finally an outlook on adapting the described technology for surface modification by plasma based reactive and non-reactive processes is given.

  17. Evaluation of an IBAD thin-film process as an alternative method for surface incorporation of bioceramics on dental implants: a study in dogs Avaliação de um recobrimento de baixa espessura processado pela deposição assistida por feixe iônico como alternativa para a incorporação de biocerâmicas em implantes dentários: estudo em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo G. Coelho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Thin-film bioceramic coatings are potential alternatives to overcome the limitations provided by other commercially available coating techniques like PSHA, where variable bioceramic dissolution added to a metalloceramic weak link are process- inherent. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the overall and site specific (to 0.5 mm from implant surface levels of osseoactivity around a thin-film (IBAD processed coated titanium alloy implant versus a non surface modified (sand-blasted/acid etched titanium alloy implant in a canine model. The surgical model comprised the proximal tibiae epiphyses with four implants placed in each limb remaining for 2 and 4 weeks in-vivo. 10 mg/Kg oxytetracycline was administered 48 hours prior to euthanization. The limbs were retrieved by sharp dissection, reduced to blocks, and subsequently nondecalcified processed for fluorescent microscopy. Micrographs (20x mag were acquired around the implant perimeter and merged for overall biological response evaluations, and four micrographs (40x mag. subdivided in rectangles were acquired along one of the implant sides for tetracycline labeled area fraction quantification. The results showed biocompatible and osseoconductive properties for the thin-film coated and uncoated titanium alloy implants. Tetracycline labeled area fraction analyses showed that the thin-film coated implants presented significantly higher overall and site specific osseoactivity levels at 2 and 4 weeks. The site specific osseoactivity values were significantly higher compared to overall values for control and thin-film coated implants at both times in-vivo. According to the results obtained in this study, thin-film coated implants enhanced biological response at the early implantation times evaluated.Recobrimentos biocerâmicos de baixa espessura são potenciais alternativas para compensar as limitações de outros recobrimentos biocerâmicos disponíveis comercialmente como o plasma spray

  18. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  19. Investigation of transient dynamics of capillary assisted particle assembly yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virganavičius, D. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Laboratory of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Juodėnas, M. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Tamulevičius, T., E-mail: tomas.tamulevicius@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Department of Physics, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentų St. 50, Kaunas LT-51368 (Lithuania); Schift, H. [Laboratory of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tamulevičius, S. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Department of Physics, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentų St. 50, Kaunas LT-51368 (Lithuania)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Regular particles arrays were assembled by capillary force assisted deposition. • Deposition yield dynamics was investigated at different thermal velocity regimes. • Yield transient behavior was approximated with logistic function. • Pattern density influence for switching behavior was assessed. - Abstract: In this paper, the transient behavior of the particle assembly yield dynamics when switching from low yield to high yield deposition at different velocity and thermal regimes is investigated. Capillary force assisted particle assembly (CAPA) using colloidal suspension of green fluorescent 270 nm diameter polystyrene beads was performed on patterned poly (dimethyl siloxane) substrates using a custom-built deposition setup. Two types of patterns with different trapping site densities were used to assess CAPA process dynamics and the influence of pattern density and geometry on the deposition yield transitions. Closely packed 300 nm diameter circular pits ordered in hexagonal arrangement with 300 nm pitch, and 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} square pits with 2 μm spacing were used. 2-D regular structures of the deposited particles were investigated by means of optical fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The fluorescence micrographs were analyzed using a custom algorithm enabling to identify particles and calculate efficiency of the deposition performed at different regimes. Relationship between the spatial distribution of particles in transition zone and ambient conditions was evaluated and quantified by approximation of the yield profile with a logistic function.

  20. Radioactive deposits in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  1. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  2. Laser-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, Y. van de

    2014-01-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LACVD) is an attractive maskless process for growing locally carbon nanotubes at selected places on substrates that may contain temperature-sensitive components. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the reported research with respect to laser

  3. Kinetics of laser-assisted carbon nanotube growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, Y. van de; Bellouard, Y.; Mandamparambil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth is an attractive mask-less process for growing locally aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in selected places on temperature sensitive substrates. The nature of the localized process results in fast carbon nanotube growth with high experimental

  4. Assistance Focus: Africa (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  5. Turning assistive machines into assistive robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argall, Brenna D.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the potential for automation in particular, in the form of smart wheelchairs to aid those with motor, or cognitive, impairments has been recognized. It is a paradox that often the more severe a person's motor impairment, the more challenging it is for them to operate the very assistive machines which might enhance their quality of life. A primary aim of my lab is to address this confound by incorporating robotics autonomy and intelligence into assistive machines turning the machine into a kind of robot, and offloading some of the control burden from the user. Robots already synthetically sense, act in and reason about the world, and these technologies can be leveraged to help bridge the gap left by sensory, motor or cognitive impairments in the users of assistive machines. This paper overviews some of the ongoing projects in my lab, which strives to advance human ability through robotics autonomy.

  6. Anthropogenic influences on the Preservation of Ancient Tsunami Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2017-04-01

    Deposits and damage on the landscape immediately following a tsunami event are subject to a range of post-depositional alterations driven by natural and anthropogenic processes, ultimately ending in extremely differential preservation that complicates efforts to find and interpret ancient and paleotsunami remains. Along the Israeli Mediterranean coastline, offshore tsunami sediment research has offered a reconstruction of multiple events, but the onshore record has proved challenging due to post-event clean-up, coastal development, and natural erosion. Archaeological excavations in the last half century have also removed a large portion of sediments that might have assisted in the effort. Archival photographs, field descriptions, and newly excavated areas were investigated in light of the offshore and historical evidence for tsunamis. Unique deposits from those records and from newly exposed areas present new information that illustrate circumstances in which a deposit is well-preserved and where it is not. A trend is apparent in which areas which are under heavy use at the time of the event are more likely to be renovated, rebuilt, or otherwise changed post-event; leaving less fingerprint behind, while better preservation of the deposit is present in already neglected or less functioning areas. Also, in some cases field evidence that is seemingly contradictory to the presence of a disaster is, in fact, an acute marker of the event. Worldwide, past tsunami deposit field evidence is a valuable database for better informing estimates and models of potential future events; and therefore such improvements in field identification are important.

  7. Ballistic Deposition of Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrandt, Jeffrey; Li, Yang; Headrick, Randall

    Nanoporous thin-films are an important class of materials, possessing a large surface area to volume ratio, with applications ranging from thermoelectric and photovoltaic materials to supercapacitors. In-Situ X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (GISAXS) were used to monitor thin-films grown from Tungsten Silicide (WSi2) and Copper (Cu) nanoclusters. The nanoclusters ranged in size from 2 nm to 6 nm diameter and were made by high-pressure magnetron sputtering via plasma gas condensation (PGC). X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements of the films at various stages of growth reveal that the resulting films exhibit very low density, approaching 15% of bulk density. This is consistent with a simple off-lattice ballistic deposition model where particles stick at the point of first contact without further restructuring. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences under contract DE-FG02-07ER46380.

  8. Low temperature temporal and spatial atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaee, Morteza, E-mail: m.aghaee@tue.nl; Maydannik, Philipp S. [ASTRaL Group, Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Creatore, Mariadriana [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Homola, Tomáš; Cameron, David C. [R& D Center for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modification, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-15

    Titanium dioxide films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a titanium precursor and water, ozone, or oxygen plasma as coreactants. Low temperatures (80–120 °C) were used to grow moisture barrier TiO{sub 2} films on polyethylene naphthalate. The maximum growth per cycle for water, ozone, and oxygen plasma processes were 0.33, 0.12, and 0.56 Å/cycle, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry was used to evaluate the chemical composition of the layers and the origin of the carbon contamination was studied by deconvoluting carbon C1s peaks. In plasma-assisted ALD, the film properties were dependent on the energy dose supplied by the plasma. TiO{sub 2} films were also successfully deposited by using a spatial ALD (SALD) system based on the results from the temporal ALD. Similar properties were measured compared to the temporal ALD deposited TiO{sub 2}, but the deposition time could be reduced using SALD. The TiO{sub 2} films deposited by plasma-assisted ALD showed better moisture barrier properties than the layers deposited by thermal processes. Water vapor transmission rate values lower than 5 × 10{sup −4} g day{sup −1} m{sup −2} (38 °C and 90% RH) was measured for 20 nm of TiO{sub 2} film deposited by plasma-assisted ALD.

  9. Assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have adopted laws that regulate physician assistance in dying. Such assistance may consist of providing a patient with a prescription of lethal medication that is self-administered by the patient, which is usually referred to as (physician) assistance in suicide, or of administering lethal medication to a patient, which is referred to as euthanasia. The main aim of regulating physician assistance in dying is to bring these practices into the open and to provide physicians with legal certainty. A key condition in all jurisdictions that have regulated either assistance in suicide or euthanasia is that physicians are only allowed to engage in these acts upon the explicit and voluntary request of the patient. All systems that allow physician assistance in dying have also in some way included the notion that physician assistance in dying is only accepted when it is the only means to address severe suffering from an incurable medical condition. Arguments against the legal regulation of physician assistance in dying include principled arguments, such as the wrongness of hastening death, and arguments that emphasize the negative consequences of allowing physician assistance in dying, such as a devaluation of the lives of older people, or people with chronic disease or disabilities. Opinion polls show that some form of accepting and regulating euthanasia and physician assistance in suicide is increasingly supported by the general population in most western countries. Studies in countries where physician assistance in dying is regulated suggest that practices have remained rather stable in most jurisdictions and that physicians adhere to the legal criteria in the vast majority of cases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The study and the realization of radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique; Etude et realisation de detecteurs de rayonnements a base de films de diamant polycristallin elabores par depot chimique en phase vapeur assiste par plasma micro-onde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jany, Ch

    1998-10-29

    The aim of this work was to develop radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique. The influence of surface treatments, contact technology and diamond growth parameters on the diamond detectors characteristics was investigated in order to optimise the detector response to alpha particles. The first part of the study focused on the electrical behaviour of as-deposited diamond surface, showing a p type conduction and its influence on the leakage current of the device. A surface preparation process was established in order to reduce the leakage current of the device by surface dehydrogenation using an oxidising step. Several methods to form and treat electrical contacts were also investigated showing that the collection efficiency of the device decreases after contact annealing. In the second part, we reported the influence of the diamond deposition parameters on the characteristics of the detectors. The increase of the deposition temperature and/or methane concentration was shown to lead {eta} to decrease. In contrast, {eta} was found to increase with the micro-wave power. The evolution of the diamond detector characteristics results from the variation in sp{sup 2} phases incorporation and in the crystallography quality of the films. These defects increase the leakage current and reduce the carrier mobility and lifetime. Measurements carried out on detectors with different thicknesses showed that the physical properties varies along the growth direction, improving with the film thickness. Finally, the addition of nitrogen (> 10 ppm) in the gas mixture during diamond deposition was found to strongly reduce the collection efficiency of the detectors. To conclude the study, we fabricated and characterised diamond devices which were used for thermal neutron detection and for the intensity and shape measurement of VUV and soft X-ray pulses. (author)

  11. GeSbTe deposition for the PRAM application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghyun [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sangjoon [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changsoo [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yoonho [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daeil [School of Materials Science and Engineering. University of Ulsan, San 29, Mugeo-Dong, Nam-Gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: dkim84@mail.ulsan.ac.kr

    2007-02-15

    GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide thin films for the phase-change random access memory (PRAM) were deposited by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. New precursors for GST thin films made with an ALD process were synthesized. Among the synthesized precursors, Ge(N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 4}, Sb(N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 4}, and Te(i-Pr){sub 2} (i-Pr = iso-propyl) were selected. Using the above precursors, GST thin films were deposited using an H{sub 2} plasma-assisted ALD process. Film resistivity abruptly changed after an N{sub 2} annealing process above a temperature of 350 deg. C. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs of the GST films on the patterned substrate with aspect ratio of 7 shows that the step coverage is about 90%.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of gold cluster growth during sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J. W., E-mail: abraham@theo-physik.uni-kiel.de; Bonitz, M., E-mail: bonitz@theo-physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 15, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F. [Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Lehrstuhl für Materialverbunde, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-05-14

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation scheme that we apply to study the time evolution of the self-organized growth process of metal cluster assemblies formed by sputter-deposited gold atoms on a planar surface. The simulation model incorporates the characteristics of the plasma-assisted deposition process and allows for an investigation over a wide range of deposition parameters. It is used to obtain data for the cluster properties which can directly be compared with recently published experimental data for gold on polystyrene [M. Schwartzkopf et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 13547 (2015)]. While good agreement is found between the two, the simulations additionally provide valuable time-dependent real-space data of the surface morphology, some of whose details are hidden in the reciprocal-space scattering images that were used for the experimental analysis.

  13. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2013-01-09

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  14. Multiphase flow wax deposition modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzain, A. [Petronas Research and Scientific Services, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhang, H.-Q.; Volk, M.; Redus, C.L.; Brill, J.P. [University of Tulsa (United States); Apte, M.S. [Shell Technology EP (United States); Creek, J.L. [Chevron Petroleum Technology (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Results are presented from two-phase flow wax deposition tests using a state-of-the-art, high pressure, multiphase flow test facility. Wax deposition was found to be flow pattern dependent and occurs only along the pipe wall in contact with the waxy crude oil. The deposition buildup trend at low mixture velocities is similar to that observed in laminar single-phase flow tests. The buildup trend at high mixture velocities is similar to that observed in turbulent single-phase flow tests. Thinner and harder deposits at the bottom than at the top of the pipe were observed in horizontal intermittent flow tests. Thicker and harder deposits were observed at low liquid superficial velocity than at high liquid superficial velocity annular flow tests. No wax deposition was observed along the upper portion of the pipe in stratified flow tests. A semi-empirical kinetic model tailored for the wax deposition tests predicted wax thickness with an acceptable accuracy, especially at high oil superficial velocity. Deposition rate reduction due to shear stripping and rate enhancement due to entrapment of oil and other mechanisms not accounted for by the classical Fick's mass diffusion theory were incorporated through the use of dimensionless variables and empirical constants derived from the wax deposition data. The kinetic model, although semi-empirical, provides an insight for future model development. (author)

  15. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which are then stac......Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  16. (Acidic deposition and the environment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

    1990-10-24

    The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

  17. 78 FR 11604 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., (202) 898-3670; F. Angus Tarpley III, Supervisory Counsel, Legal Division, (202) 898-6646; Catherine... required to repay a deposit in a foreign branch if it cannot do so because of ``war, insurrection, or civil... the world. The U.K. FSA currently has proposed that the rules governing deposit-taking by foreign...

  18. Training Teaching Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Washington University's (Missouri) Department of Romance Languages and Literature requires its graduate teaching assistants to take a one-semester pedagogy course to ensure their competence and effectiveness as teaching assistants. The course features seminars in which goals, expectations, and learning theories are discussed and practice teaching…

  19. Agricultural Disaster Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-29

    ineligible for crop insurance, and include mushrooms, floriculture , ornamental nursery, Christmas tree crops , turfgrass sod, aquaculture, and ginseng. Trees...federal crop insurance, the noninsured assistance program and emergency disaster loans. Since 1988, Congress regularly has made supplemental financial...assistance available to farmers and ranchers on an ad-hoc basis, primarily in the form of direct crop disaster payments and emergency livestock

  20. Federal disaster assistance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Patterson

    1995-01-01

    The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act—Public Law 93-288, as amended—is designed to provide support and assistance to citizens, state, and local government from catastrophic disasters and emergencies. The law provides support in three distinct phases, including preparedness in avoiding or minimizing the effect of a disaster, response...

  1. Service water assistance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munchausen, J.H. [EPRI Plant Support Engineering, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Service Water Assistance Program was developed to provide utility service water system engineers with a mechanism to quickly and efficiently address service water issues. Since its inception, its ability to assist utilities has resulted in a reduction in the operations and maintenance costs associated with service water systems and has provided a medium for EPRI awareness of industry service water issues.

  2. Assistive Technology (Moldinclud)

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Slides of the seminar "Assistive Technology" taught at the Institul de Stat de Instruire Continua (Chisinau, Moldova) in november 2011. Transparencias del seminario "Assistive Technology" impartido en el Institul de Stat de Instruire Continua (Chisinau, Moldavia) en noviembre 2011. Tempus project: MOLDINCLUD, Teaching Training Centre for Inclusive Education (TEMPUS 158980-2009).

  3. Social Assistance: Theoretical Underpinnings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Minas Hiruy. 90. Reflections: Social assistance: theoretical underpinnings. Minas Hiruy. 1. Key words: marginalized community, social assistance, social welfare, MDGs, development. The case of the marginalized and how society regarded or responded to the same has played a significant part in shaping human history ...

  4. Pulsed laser deposition of the lysozyme protein: an unexpected “Inverse MAPLE” process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Matei, Andreea; Constantinescu, Catalin

    2012-01-01

    Films of organic materials are commonly deposited by laser assisted methods, such as MAPLE (matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation), where a few percent of the film material in the target is protected by a light-absorbing volatile matrix. Another possibility is to irradiate the dry organic...... material directly for film production, as in PLD (pulsed laser deposition), where the film molecules may undergo strong fragmentation. In this presentation we report an alternative surprising mechanism for film deposition of the protein lysozyme in vacuum, when a small amount of residual water drives...... which is used in food processing and is also an important constituent of human secretions such as sweat and saliva. It has a well-defined mass (14307 u) and can easily be detected by mass spectrometric methods such as MALDI (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization) in contrast to many other organic...

  5. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties. The above problems led to the development of the Second-Generation of HTS wires. Three methods were invented to produce flexible metallic substrates, which were also crystallographically biaxially textured, and resembled a long, mosaic single crystal. The first method invented is the Ion-Beam-Assisted-Deposition (IBAD). The second method developed was the Inclined-Substrate-Deposition (ISD). The third method invented is calle...

  6. High laser-fluence deposition of organic materials in water ice matrices by ''MAPLE''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Rodrigo, K.; Schou, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    that the mass distribution of the deposited PEG is similar to that of the starting material. Optical pictures of the films show particle structures of PEG of a size up to 5-10 mu m. The deposition rate measured with a quartz crystal microbalance is typically of the order of 1 ng/ (cm(2) shot). (c) 2005 Elsevier......Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is a deposition technique for organic material. Water ice was used as a matrix for the biotechnologically important guest material, polyethylene glycol (PEG), for concentrations from 0.5 to 4 wt.%. The target was irradiated with 6 ns laser pulses...... at 355 nm at a fluence of 2.5-12 J/cm(2). Even at this high fluence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates a chemical structure of the deposit close to that of the un-irradiated PEG. Matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) show...

  7. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  8. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms...

  9. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  10. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    In 1908, members of the “Danmark Expedition” discovered a coal deposit in a very remote area in western Germania Land, close to the margin of the inland ice in northeast Greenland. The deposit was, however, neither sampled nor described, and was revisited in 2009 for the first time since its...

  11. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  12. Dispersion engineered high-Q silicon Nitride Ring-Resonators via Atomic Layer Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Riemensberger, Johann; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. All results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  13. Biocidal Silver and Silver/Titania Composite Films Grown by Chemical Vapour Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Sheel, DW; Brook, LA; Evans, P.; Foster, HA; Yates, HM; Steele, A; Ditta, IB

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the growth and testing of highly active biocidal films based on photocatalytically active films of TiO2, grownby\\ud thermal CVD, functionally and structurallymodified by deposition of nanostructured silver via a novel flame assisted combination\\ud CVD process. The resulting composite films are shown to be highly durable, highly photocatalytically active and are also shown to\\ud possess strong antibacterial behaviour. The deposition control, arising from the described appr...

  14. Robotic assisted laparoscopic colectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pandalai, S

    2010-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved over the last decade to compensate for limitations in human dexterity. It avoids the need for a trained assistant while decreasing error rates such as perforations. The nature of the robotic assistance varies from voice activated camera control to more elaborate telerobotic systems such as the Zeus and the Da Vinci where the surgeon controls the robotic arms using a console. Herein, we report the first series of robotic assisted colectomies in Ireland using a voice activated camera control system.

  15. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

    2003-10-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two

  16. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  17. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/third-party-reproduction-booklet.pdf (PDF - 902 KB) [top] American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved May ...

  18. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  19. Accessibility and assistive products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  20. 76 FR 21265 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ..., Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 550 17th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20429. Hand Delivery: Guard... Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, enacted as part of the Omnibus Consolidated and...

  1. 76 FR 41392 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... volatility as depository institutions competed for an increased share of business deposits by offering... earnings credits. A third commenter urged that the Financial Stability Oversight Council (the FSOC) should...

  2. Computer Security Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Information COMPUTER SECURITY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM OPR: HQ AFCA/SYS (CMSgt Hogan) Certified by: HQ USAF/SCXX (Lt Col Francis X. McGovern) Pages: 5...Distribution: F This instruction implements Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 33-2, Information Protection, establishes the Air Force Computer Security Assistance...Force single point of contact for reporting and handling computer security incidents and vulnerabilities including AFCERT advisories and Defense

  3. UV photofunctionalization promotes nano-biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Makiko; Ikeda, Takayuki; Yamada, Masahiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Lee, Masaichi Chang-Il; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Although biomimetic apatite coating is a promising way to provide titanium with osteoconductivity, the efficiency and quality of deposition is often poor. Most titanium implants have microscale surface morphology, and an addition of nanoscale features while preserving the micromorphology may provide further biological benefit. Here, we examined the effect of ultraviolet (UV) light treatment of titanium, or photofunctionalization, on the efficacy of biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium and its biological capability. Methods and results Micro-roughed titanium disks were prepared by acid-etching with sulfuric acid. Micro-roughened disks with or without photofunctionalization (20-minute exposure to UV light) were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 or 5 days. Photofunctionalized titanium disks were superhydrophilic and did not form surface air bubbles when immersed in SBF, whereas non-photofunctionalized disks were hydrophobic and largely covered with air bubbles during immersion. An apatite-related signal was observed by X-ray diffraction on photofunctionalized titanium after 1 day of SBF immersion, which was equivalent to the one observed after 5 days of immersion of control titanium. Scanning electron microscopy revealed nodular apatite deposition in the valleys and at the inclines of micro-roughened structures without affecting the existing micro-configuration. Micro-roughened titanium and apatite-deposited titanium surfaces had similar roughness values. The attachment, spreading, settling, proliferation, and alkaline phosphate activity of bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were promoted on apatite-coated titanium with photofunctionalization. Conclusion UV-photofunctionalization of titanium enabled faster deposition of nanoscale biomimetic apatite, resulting in the improved biological capability compared to the similarly prepared apatite-deposited titanium without photofunctionalization. Photofunctionalization-assisted biomimetic apatite

  4. Atmospheric deposition 2000. NOVA 2003; Atmosfaerisk deposition 2000. NOVA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Hovmand, M.F.; Kemp, K.; Skjoeth, C.A.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents measurements and calculations from the atmospheric part of NOVA 2003 and covers results for 2000. It summarises the main results concerning concentrations and depositions of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur compounds related to eutrophication and acidification. Depositions of atmospheric compounds to Danish marine waters as well as land surface are presented. Measurements: In 2000 the monitoring program consisted of eight stations where wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate (semi quantitatively) and sulphate were measured using bulk precipitation samplers. Six of the stations had in addition measurements of atmospheric content of A, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur compounds in gas and particulate phase carried out by use of filter pack samplers. Filters were analysed at the National Environmental Research Institute. Furthermore nitrogen dioxide were measured using nitrogen dioxide filter samplers and monitors. Model calculations: The measurements in the monitoring program were supplemented with model calculations of concentrations and depositions of nitrogen and sulphur compounds to Danish land surface, marine waters, fjords and bays using the ACDEP model (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). The model is a so-called trajectory model and simulates the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere using meteorological and emission data as input. The advantage of combining measurements with model calculations is that the strengths of both methods is obtained. Conclusions concerning: 1) actual concentration levels at the monitoring stations, 2) deposition at the monitoring stations, 3) seasonal variations and 4) long term trends in concentrations and depositions are mainly based on the direct measurements. These are furthermore used to validate the results of the model calculations. Calculations and conclusions concerning: 1) depositions to land surface and to the individual marine water, 2) contributions from different emission

  5. DIMENSION STONE DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology, petrographycal composition and properties of dimension stone deposits in Croatia are described. Dimension stone deposits in the conception of mobilistic view of the genesis and structure of Dinarides, as well as after stratigraphic units, are considered. Valuation of the dimension stones of the active quarries is exposed. The marketable categories of dimension stone in Croatia are different varietes of limestones and calcareous clastites, primarly of Cretaceous age, and to lesser degree of Jurassic and Paleogene. The greatest part of deposits is concentrated in the Adriatic carbonate platform or Adriaticum.

  6. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  7. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  8. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about...

  9. Electrospark deposition for die repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrospark deposition is a process for surfacing of hard metal alloys, e.g. carbides and stellites, on the surfaces of new or old machine elements. In this process, a high current is conducted through an oscillating electrode and a substrate for a very short period of time. In the paper, the process is described and the thickness of deposited layer, chemical composition, dilution rate and the layer roughness are determined.

  10. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation...... and assisting in prevention or remediation. It is proposed that the deposit formation, observed in offshore water injection systems treated with nitrate, is initiated by formation of a nitrate reducing biofilm promoting under deposit corrosion by activity of sulphate reducing and methanogenic prokaryotes...

  11. Facile synthesis of graphene on single mode fiber via chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Man, B.Y., E-mail: byman@sdnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Jiang, S.Z. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); State Key Lab of Crystal Materials Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang, C.; Liu, M.; Chen, C.S.; Xu, S.C. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Feng, D.J. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bi, D.; Liu, F.Y.; Qiu, H.W. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Direct deposition of graphene film on the standard single mode fiber is offered using a Cu-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition system. The gas flow of H{sub 2} and Ar before the growth process plays a crucial role for the direct deposition of the graphene film and the layers of the graphene can be controlled by the growth time. With a large gas flow, Cu atoms are carried off with the gas flow and hard to deposit on the surface of the single mode fiber before the growth process. Consequently, uniform graphene film is obtained in this case. On the contrary, with a lower one, Cu atoms is facile to deposit on the surface of the single mode fiber and form nanodots acting as active catalytic sites for the growth of carbon nanotubes. This method presents us a promising transfer-free technique for fabrication of the photonic applications.

  12. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  13. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-04-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  14. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION PARAMETERS ON PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF DOPED NANO ALUMINA PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Milani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Doped nano alumina powders were successfully deposited as a thick film by electrophoretic deposition (EPD. A mixture of ethanol, cation salts of alumina dopants and iodine was used for dispersion system. Mg- Y- La- and Ce- salts add to ethanol and deposited with alumina powders on to substrate. The effects of suspension power loading, deposition time, electrode distance and applied potential simultaneously on density, pore size distribution and cell current density of alumina nanoparticles were examined. The weight of deposition increased with time and voltage increased and electrode distance decreased. In all applied voltages in higher suspension concentration, weight of deposition are sufficiently high but the density of the film are clearly better in low and high voltages than medium voltage. In constant suspension concentration with increasing in applied voltage, deposition rate increased and current decreased faster than medium voltage, which limits the homogeneous deposition forming and decreased density. Low applied voltages provided better pore size distribution and narrow and steep slope in middle of pore size distribution plot. High density samples with best pore size distribution achieved in lower rate deposition and assisted to better densification at sintering step in doped alumina plates.

  15. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition growth of bilayer graphene in between molybdenum disulfide sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwieciñski, Wojciech; Sotthewes, Kai; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.; Bampoulis, Pantelis

    2017-01-01

    Direct growth of flat micrometer-sized bilayer graphene islands in between molybdenum disulfide sheets is achieved by chemical vapor deposition of ethylene at about 800 °C. The temperature assisted decomposition of ethylene takes place mainly at molybdenum disulfide step edges. The carbon atoms

  17. Nanoscale Soldering of Positioned Carbon Nanotubes using Highly Conductive Electron Beam Induced Gold Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ method for controlled positioning of carbon nanotubes followed by highly conductive contacting of the nanotubes, using electron beam assisted deposition of gold. The positioning and soldering process takes place inside an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E...

  18. Spray deposition inside multiple-row nursery trees with a laser-guided sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple-row container-grown trees require specially designed sprayers to achieve efficient spray delivery quality. A five-port air-assisted sprayer with both automatic and manual control modes was developed to discharge adequate spray deposition inside multiple-row tree plants. The sprayer resulted...

  19. Role of co-vapors in vapor deposition polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Younghee; Ahn, Ki-Jin; Huh, Jinyoung; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Sampath, Gayathri; Im, Won Bin; Huh, Yang-Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-02-12

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers were fabricated by vapor phase polymerization. Importantly, the vapor-phase deposition of PPy onto cellulose was assisted by employing different co-vapors namely methanol, ethanol, benzene, water, toluene and hexane, in addition to pyrrole. The resulting PPCL papers possessed high mechanical flexibility, large surface-to-volume ratio, and good redox properties. Their main properties were highly influenced by the nature of the co-vaporized solvent. The morphology and oxidation level of deposited PPy were tuned by employing co-vapors during the polymerization, which in turn led to change in the electrochemical properties of the PPCL papers. When methanol and ethanol were used as co-vapors, the conductivities of PPCL papers were found to have improved five times, which was likely due to the enhanced orientation of PPy chain by the polar co-vapors with high dipole moment. The specific capacitance of PPCL papers obtained using benzene, toluene, water and hexane co-vapors was higher than those of the others, which is attributed to the enlarged effective surface area of the electrode material. The results indicate that the judicious choice and combination of co-vapors in vapor-deposition polymerization (VDP) offers the possibility of tuning the morphological, electrical, and electrochemical properties of deposited conducting polymers.

  20. Digital Operating Room assistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geudon, A.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    The Operating Room (OR) is a complex environment, where a large variety of patients and diseases can be treated and many unexpected events occur (such as emergency surgeries and unexpected progress of procedures). In practice, OR assistants support OR processes as well as they can, in order to

  1. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-18

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Africa.

  2. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  3. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  4. The aeromedical physician assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Joshua; Brisson, Michael; Line, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The US Army aeromedical physician assistant (PA) serves aviation units in regards to crewmember medical readiness. All PAs are graduates of a 6-week flight surgeon course. They are responsible for conducting nearly 40% of the annual US Army flight physicals. This unique training and deployment illustrates the growing adaptability of PAs to assume a greater role in military medicine.

  5. Partnership for Prescription Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content ☒ Close PPA is a Free Service Other companies may offer to connect consumers to these same ... Received Assistance Established in 2005 PPA is a Free Service Other companies may offer to connect consumers to these same ...

  6. Physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L; Sulmasy, D P

    2001-08-07

    Medical professional codes have long prohibited physician involvement in assisting a patient's suicide. However, despite ethical and legal prohibitions, calls for the liberalization of this ban have grown in recent years. The medical profession should articulate its views on the arguments for and against changes in public policy and decide whether changes are prudent. In addressing such a contentious issue, physicians, policymakers, and society must fully consider the needs of patients, the vulnerability of particular patient groups, issues of trust and professionalism, and the complexities of end-of-life health care. Physician-assisted suicide is prominent among the issues that define our professional norms and codes of ethics. The American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine (ACP-ASIM) does not support the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. The routine practice of physician-assisted suicide raises serious ethical and other concerns. Legalization would undermine the patient-physician relationship and the trust necessary to sustain it; alter the medical profession's role in society; and endanger the value our society places on life, especially on the lives of disabled, incompetent, and vulnerable individuals. The ACP-ASIM remains thoroughly committed to improving care for patients at the end of life.

  7. Assisted Cycling Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

  8. Robotic assisted kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is the standard of care for patients with end stage renal disease. While open surgery remains the gold standard, minimally invasive surgery has recently been introduced for the recipient undergoing kidney transplantation. We review the evolution of techniques of minimally invasive surgery for kidney transplantation with specific emphasis on technical aspects of robotic assisted kidney transplantation.

  9. Towards Wearable Cognitive Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Nokia -Siemens Networks announced the availability of a “mobile edge computing platform” [1]. Wearable cognitive assistance can be viewed as a “killer...first step, providing an open-source foundation for exploring this exciting new domain. References [1] IBM and Nokia Siemens Networks Announce World’s

  10. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  11. Assisted death and martyrdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasma, David C

    1998-08-01

    Against the backdrop of ancient, mediaeval and modern Catholic teaching prohibiting killing (the rule against killing), the question of assisted suicide and euthanasia is examined. In the past the Church has modified its initial repugnance for killing by developing specific guidelines for permitting killing under strict conditions. This took place with respect to capital punishment and a just war, for example. One wonders why in the least objectionable instance, when a person is already dying, suffering, and repeatedly requesting assistance in dying, there is still such widespread condemnation of assisted suicide and euthanasia. In a Gedankexperiment, I suggest that certain stories of martyrdom in the history of the Christian Church shed some light on the role of taking one's life, or putting one's life in danger out of love. I further suggest that requesting assisted suicide and/or euthanasia from the motive of love of one's family or care givers might possibly qualify as one instance of justifiable euthanasia, although I acknowledge that the Church will not be making changes in its stance any time soon.

  12. Depositional origin of snow sastrugi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, K. C.; Tremblay, B.

    2006-12-01

    Sastrugi are wind-parallel elongated surface roughness features found on both land and sea ice. Simple models of sastrugi formation suggest that these features grow via deposition of windblown snow in the lee of an initial perturbation in surface topography, and subsequent erosion of the up-wind end of the bump. We present a mechanism for the creation of sastrugi nucleation sites: the initial surface perturbation. Modeling results of plumes of blowing snow moving at or above 15 meters per second (at the 10m reference level) show that when the snow surface is depleted of loose (erodible) snow, small amounts of deposition occur. Once formed, these irregularly spaced small deposits of snow (less than 0.1 cm over 1m2 or less) can persist and propagate.

  13. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  14. Lateritic nickel deposits of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, S. M. Barros; Trescases, J. J.; Melfi, A. José

    1992-03-01

    Many nickel deposits are known in Brazil, accounting for about 350 · 106 tons of ore with an average of 1.5% Ni. All are of the lateritic type. These deposits are scattered throughout the country, being rarer in the Northeastern Region and in the South, below 25 °S latitude. They are mainly associated with mafic-ultramafic massifs of large dimensions and ultramafic alkaline complexes, and occur in climatic regions of contrasting seasons. The weathering profile developed over the fresh rock consists, from bottom to top, of the following horizons: altered rock, coarse saprolite, argillaceous saprolite, ferruginous saprolite and lateritic overburden. The thickness of each horizon varies from one deposit to another, the whole profile generally exceeding 20 m. The saprolitic horizons with inherited minerals (serpentine, chlorite) or neoformed minerals (smectites) constitute the silicated nickel ore and are thicker were climatic conditions are drier; the ferruginous upper horizons made up of iron oxide-hydroxides are more developed in more humid regions. In Brazil, the silicated ore generally prevails over the oxidized ore. The main Ni-bearing minerals are serpentine, smectite, garnierite and goethite. The lateritic nickel deposits of Brazil may be correlated with two erosion surfaces, corresponding to the Sul Americano (Lower Tertiary) and Velhas (Upper Tertiary) levelling cycles. The degree of dismantling of the higher and more ancient surface and the consequent development of the Velhas Surface control the position of the nickel accumulation in the landscape. Thus, the deposits may be found either in the lowlands or in the highlands, where they are always covered by a silcrete layer. The alteration profiles in the Brazilian lateritic nickel deposits are broadly similar to those described elsewhere in the world. However, they present two characteristic features: the silicated ore prevails over the oxidized ore, and a silicified layer covers the profies developed on

  15. Effect of deposit composition on the mechanical properties and cracking tendency of cellulosic-covered SMAW weld deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Matthew J.; Weaver, Robert J.; Quintana, Marie A.; Savrin, Tamara [The Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Boron is a concern in the pipeline industry, where its propensity to cause cracking is a concern. The goal of this study is to quantify the effect of changes in deposit composition - specifically boron and Pcm on the properties of cellulosic weld deposits. Four trial electrodes with different concentrations of boron were tested. One, in which the boron was replaced by the same amount of carbon, is the reference test specimen without boron. Gapped bead on plate testing was used to determine the propensity of the electrodes for weld metal cracking. The results do not provide a clear picture of the influence of boron. Replacing boron with carbon showed very slight differences. In most trials, the effect of boron was not found to be significant. In the case of hydrogen assisted cold cracking (HACC), other factors should be investigated but removing the boron is not enough to reduce the sensitivity of cellulosic weld metal to cracking.

  16. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  17. Electrophoretic Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes on 3-Amino-Propyl-Triethoxysilane (APTES) Surface Functionalized Silicon Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Daniels-Race, Theda

    2013-05-13

    Fabrication of uniform thin coatings of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on semiconductor (silicon) substrates with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) surface functionalization has been studied extensively in this report. The gradual deposition and eventual film formation of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is greatly assisted by the Coulombic force of attraction existing between the positively charged -NH₂ surface groups of APTES and the acid treated, negatively charged nanotubes migrating towards the deposition surfaces. The remarkable deposition characteristics of the CNT coatings by EPD in comparison to the dip coating method and the influence of isopropyl (IPA)-based CNT suspension in the fabricated film quality has also been revealed in this study. The effect of varying APTES concentration (5%-100%) on the Raman spectroscopy and thickness of the deposited CNT film has been discussed in details, as well. The deposition approach has eliminated the need of metal deposition in the electrophoretic deposition approach and, therefore, establishes a cost-effective, fast and entirely room temperature-based fabrication strategy of CNT thin films for a wide range of next generation electronic applications.

  18. Electrophoretic Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes on 3-Amino-Propyl-Triethoxysilane (APTES Surface Functionalized Silicon Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theda Daniels-Race

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of uniform thin coatings of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs by electrophoretic deposition (EPD on semiconductor (silicon substrates with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES surface functionalization has been studied extensively in this report. The gradual deposition and eventual film formation of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs is greatly assisted by the Coulombic force of attraction existing between the positively charged –NH2 surface groups of APTES and the acid treated, negatively charged nanotubes migrating towards the deposition surfaces. The remarkable deposition characteristics of the CNT coatings by EPD in comparison to the dip coating method and the influence of isopropyl (IPA-based CNT suspension in the fabricated film quality has also been revealed in this study. The effect of varying APTES concentration (5%–100% on the Raman spectroscopy and thickness of the deposited CNT film has been discussed in details, as well. The deposition approach has eliminated the need of metal deposition in the electrophoretic deposition approach and, therefore, establishes a cost-effective, fast and entirely room temperature-based fabrication strategy of CNT thin films for a wide range of next generation electronic applications.

  19. The role of transverse speed on deposition height and material efficiency in laser deposited titanium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available deposition and reweighing after deposition. The substrate and the deposits were thoroughly cleaned using wire brush and acetone to remove unmelted powder particles from the surface of the substrate and the deposit. The height and width of the deposits were...

  20. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    To investigate the physical process of deposition and resuspension of particles in the indoor environment, scale experiments are used and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and turbulence and velocity of the air on the dust load on a surface are analysed....

  1. Nitrogen deposition and terrestrial biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Clark; Yongfei Bai; William D. Bowman; Jane M. Cowles; Mark E. Fenn; Frank S. Gilliam; Gareth K. Phoenix; Ilyas Siddique; Carly J. Stevens; Harald U. Sverdrup; Heather L. Throop

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition, along with habitat losses and climate change, has been identified as a primary threat to biodiversity worldwide (Butchart et al., 2010; MEA, 2005; Sala et al., 2000). The source of this stressor to natural systems is generally twofold: burning of fossil fuels and the use of fertilizers in modern intensive agriculture. Each of these human...

  2. Grow Your Own Copper Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Timothy John

    2009-01-01

    Crystals are beautiful structures--yet they occur naturally in dirty and remote places. In the inquiry-based activity described here, students will enjoy the process of creating their own crystals and using microscopes to examine them. It demonstrates the process of mineral concentration and deposition. Upon completing this activity, students…

  3. Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process commonly used for the synthesis of thin films for several important technological applications, for example, microelectronics, hard coatings, and smart windows. Unfortunately, the complexity and prohibitive cost of CVD equipment makes it seldom available for undergraduate chemistry students. Here, a…

  4. Fossil ascomycetes in Quaternary deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geel, B.; Aptroot, A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Remains of various ascomycetes, mainly ascospores, have been detected during palynological studies of lake sediments, peat deposits and samples from archaeological sites. Many taxa can be identified to genus or species level of extant taxa. Ascospore remains may sometimes give indications

  5. THE ENVIRONMENTAL THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    textural characteristics, organic matter contents, mineralogical ... such as the organic matter content and depositional environment of the .... laminated. 100. 10510 Shale. Light grey shale. 100. 10610 Shale. Medium grey shale. 100. 10640 Shale. Dark grey shale with termination. 100. 10680 Shale. Dark grey shale with.

  6. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated critical to the life and economy of the advanced fossil energy systems as the higher temperatures and corrosive environments exceed the limits of known structural materials to accommodate the service conditions. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. A new development is the demonstration of advanced aluminide-based ESD coatings for erosion and wear applications. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that yields an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Achieving this regime has required the development of advanced ESD electronic capabilities. Development is now focused on further improvements in deposition rates, system reliability when operating at process extremes, and economic competitiveness.

  7. Nanoantenna-assisted plasmonic enhancement of IR absorption of vibrational modes of organic molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Milekhin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoantenna-assisted plasmonic enhancement of IR absorption and Raman scattering was employed for studying the vibrational modes in organic molecules. Ultrathin cobalt phthalocyanine films (3 nm were deposited on Au nanoantenna arrays with specified structural parameters. The deposited organic films reveal the enhancement of both Raman scattering and IR absorption vibrational modes. To extend the possibility of implementing surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA for biological applications, the detection and analysis of the steroid hormone cortisol was demonstrated.

  8. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  9. In vitro response to alkaline phosphatase coatings immobilized onto titanium implants using electrospray deposition or polydopamine-assisted deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.W.G.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Immobilization of biomolecules onto implant surfaces is one of the most straightforward strategies to control the interaction between an implant and its biological environment. Recently, it was shown that the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) could be efficiently immobilized onto titanium implants

  10. Oxidation Protection Systems for Carbon-Carbon Composites Formed by Chemical Vapor Deposition and Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-22

    combination. They may be in the form of a piece of felt. stacked multiple layers of cloth, filament windings of uni- or multi-directional tubes or cones, as...the measurement was preformed. A 10 gram brass standard balance weight was used for this purpose. Its volume was also measured by Archimedes ’ principle...engine turbine blades from oxidation. 20 These type of diffusion treatments are also used with carbon and nitrogen for carburizing or nitriding metals. 2

  11. Laser-assisted electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.F.

    1995-05-01

    The effect of laser irradiation on electrodeposition processes has been investigated. These studies demonstrated that the addition of laser irradiation to an electroplating process can dramatically enhance plating rates and current efficiencies, as well as improve the morphology of the resultant electrodeposit. During the course of these investigations, the mechanism for the laser enhancement of electrodeposition processes was determined. Experimental evidence was obtained to show that laser irradiation of the substrate results in increased metal ion concentrations at the surface of the electrode due to a laser-induced Soret effect. The laser-induced Soret effect has important implications for laser-assisted electrochemical processing. The increase in the surface concentration of ions allows efficient electrodeposition from dilute solutions. As such, laser- assisted electrodeposition may develop into an environmentally conscious manufacturing process by reducing waste and limiting worker exposure to toxic chemicals.

  12. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from Africa are featured here.

  13. Assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) encompass fertility treatments, which involve manipulations of both oocyte and sperm in vitro. This chapter provides a brief overview of ART, including indications for treatment, ovarian reserve testing, selection of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols, laboratory techniques of ART including in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), embryo transfer techniques, and luteal phase support. This chapter also discusses potential complications of ART, namely ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple gestations, and the perinatal outcomes of ART.

  14. Physician Assistant Genomic Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldgar, Constance; Michaud, Ed; Park, Nguyen; Jenkins, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Genomic discoveries are increasingly being applied to the clinical care of patients. All physician assistants (PAs) need to acquire competency in genomics to provide the best possible care for patients within the scope of their practice. In this article, we present an updated version of PA genomic competencies and learning outcomes in a framework that is consistent with the current medical education guidelines and the collaborative nature of PAs in interprofessional health care teams.

  15. Virtual Personal Assistant

    OpenAIRE

    Imrie, Peter; Bednar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This report discusses ways in which new technology could be harnessed to create an intelligent Virtual Personal Assistant (VPA) with a focus on user-based information. It will look at examples of intelligent programs with natural language processing that are currently available, with different categories of support, and examine the potential usefulness of one specific piece of software as a VPA. This engages the ability to communicate socially through natural language processing, hol...

  16. Personal Digital Assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins III, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    Personal digital assistant sales are growing exponentially, and as medical technology advances the amount of information available becomes staggering, making a handheld device, with the ability to store a great amount of information, progressively more valuable to health care providers. Mobile computing allows for a great deal of knowledge in a small package, creating a “walking library” with a mobile collection of data always accessible. There are many diverse types of PDAs, and this article...

  17. [EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantero, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion.

  18. Pump Assisted Heat Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Yoshiro; OSHIMA, Shigeto

    1987-01-01

    A labortory model of a pump assisted heat pipe has been fablicated and tested. An arterial heat pipe with axial grooves and a gear pump with a magnetic coupling have been developed for the model. The test has been carried out successfully. The reasonable thermal conductance has been obtained so far as the necessary working fluid flow rate is supplied. The necessary flow rate exceeds the theoretical one and the excess flow rate increases as the heat load increases.

  19. Robot-Assisted Nephropexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Guilherme Andrade; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Moschovas, Marcio Covas; Carneiro, Arie; Borrelli, Milton; Colombo, José Roberto

    2017-12-07

    Renal ptosis is defined as the renal descent when there is a change from supine to orthostatic position, usually with a change of two vertebral bodies or more than five cm apart. Although rare, it is one of the causes of chronic flank pain or of upper abdomen. The typical patient of renal ptosis is young, female, thin, with complaint of pain when in an upright position (1, 2). Demonstrate a robot-assisted nephropexy technique in a young woman diagnosed with symptomatic renal ptosis on the right kidney, confirmed by imaging tests. A 29-year-old female patient with a history of chronic right-sided pain and palpable renal mobility on physical examination. The diagnosis of renal ptosis was confirmed by ultrasound imaging, excretory urography (Figure -1), and renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA (Figure-2). She was submitted to a robotic-assisted right nephropexy with a polypropylene mesh fixing the right kidney to the ipsilateral psoas muscle fascia. We reported a 96-minute surgical time. The patient was discharged in the first postoperative day. At the one-month follow-up, there was an important improvement of the symptoms, with normality renal function and imaging tests describing adequate renal positioning. Robotic-assisted nephropexy is feasible and can be an excellent minimally invasive alternative technique for the proposed surgery. We reported a shorter hospital stay and a faster postoperative recovery compared with the opened procedure. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  20. SPECIALIZED EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Bridi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to bring about who the students in situation of inclusion are. The ones who are sent for specialized educational assistance facing the new policy of Special Education under the perspective of the Inclusive Education and to Know how the directions of this document have produced effects are asks for a reflection on this educational space that shelters them in order to create conditions so that they can stay in the context of a common study. The document presents a conceptual and terminological change to reinforce the contingent of pupils characterized as being of the “Special Education as well as sets up guidelines for the special education, for the implementation and functioning of a Specialized Educational Assistance (AEE, in Portuguese. After the discussion in the theoretical, legal and conceptual plan, it is aimed to present how these modifications have happened in the context of the City Teaching Net in Santa Maria, RS state, Brazil. Key words: National policy of special education; Specialized educational assistance; Students of special education

  1. The Orientation and Mobility Assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of recommendations of a position paper on training Orientation Mobility (OM) assistants is considered with suggestions concerning the roles of the OM specialist and OM assistant, specific skill areas for training, the role of the agency or school, and a preparation program for the mobility assistant leading to certification. (DB)

  2. Rapid prototyping-assisted maxillofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Tang, Zhangui; Liu, Ousheng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-05-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have found many uses in dentistry, and especially oral and maxillofacial surgery, due to its ability to promote product development while at the same time reducing cost and depositing a part of any degree of complexity theoretically. This paper provides an overview of RP technologies for maxillofacial reconstruction covering both fundamentals and applications of the technologies. Key fundamentals of RP technologies involving the history, characteristics, and principles are reviewed. A number of RP applications to the main fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including restoration of maxillofacial deformities and defects, reduction of functional bone tissues, correction of dento-maxillofacial deformities, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses, are discussed. The most remarkable challenges for development of RP-assisted maxillofacial surgery and promising solutions are also elaborated.

  3. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  4. Handbook of thin film deposition processes and techniques principles, methods, equipment and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Seshan, Krishna

    2002-01-01

    New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries. This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. The book includes much cutting-edge material. Entirely new chapters on contamination and contamination control describe the basics and the issues-as feature sizes shrink to sub-micron dimensions, cleanliness and particle elimination has to keep pace. A new chapter on metrology explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of sub-micron dimensions. The book also covers PVD, laser and e-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together a...

  5. Heparin for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-08-17

    Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes.  It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to pregnancy. To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. A comprehensive and exhaustive search strategy was developed in consultation with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG). The strategy was used in an attempt to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress). Relevant trials were identified from both electronic databases and other resources (last search 6 May 2013). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included where peri-implantation heparin was given during assisted reproduction. Peri-implantation low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during IVF/ICSI was given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer in the included studies. Live birth rate was the primary outcome. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials and extracted relevant data. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE methods. Three RCTs (involving 386 women) were included in the review.Peri-implantation LMWH administration during assisted reproduction was associated with a significant improvement in live birth rate compared with placebo or no LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.90, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 51%, very low quality evidence with high

  6. Imaging Approaches for Contact Lens Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Shyam; Nichols, Jason J

    2017-07-01

    Deposition on contact lenses (CLs) starts quickly after their application to the ocular surface. Deposits may be composed of tear film components or other extraneous substances. These deposits have been related to various adverse conditions of the eye, leading to reduced biocompatibility between the CLs and the ocular surface. Analysis of these deposits is essential to better elucidate the relationship between these deposits and their adverse reactions so that better methods of increasing biocompatibility can be developed. Although methods such as enzymatic assays are available for quantitative analysis, they do not provide a complete picture of the deposition (e.g., lack of morphological details), and therefore, the use of imaging methods that can provide both qualitative and quantitative information about the deposits may be more preferable. Therefore, a search of the peer-reviewed literature that focused on imaging methods in the analysis of deposits on CLs was conducted. Various methods of imaging deposits in-vitro, in-vivo, or ex-vivo have been described along with the associated results. Imaging methods using fluorescence-based techniques and scanning electron microscopy appear to be the most frequently used methods. Some of the described methods not only provided morphologies but also identified the types of various deposits that were attached to the CLs. Various CL materials possessed different deposition morphologies and different quantities of the attached deposits. Further imaging studies performed in conjunction with other methods that could identify and quantify the deposits at a molecular level are recommended.

  7. High throughput semiconductor deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron Joseph; Kuech, Thomas F.; Schulte, Kevin; Simon, John D.

    2017-11-21

    A reactor for growing or depositing semiconductor films or devices. The reactor may be designed for inline production of III-V materials grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The operating principles of the HVPE reactor can be used to provide a completely or partially inline reactor for many different materials. An exemplary design of the reactor is shown in the attached drawings. In some instances, all or many of the pieces of the reactor formed of quartz, such as welded quartz tubing, while other reactors are made from metal with appropriate corrosion resistant coatings such as quartz or other materials, e.g., corrosion resistant material, or stainless steel tubing or pipes may be used with a corrosion resistant material useful with HVPE-type reactants and gases. Using HVPE in the reactor allows use of lower-cost precursors at higher deposition rates such as in the range of 1 to 5 .mu.m/minute.

  8. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition are described. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200/sup 0/C; and impinging a gas containing N/sub 2/, SiCl/sub 4/, and AlCl/sub 3/ on the surface.

  9. Measuring coal deposits by radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Front-surface, local-oscillator radar directly compares frequency of signals reflected from front and back surfaces of coal deposits. Thickness is measured directly as frequency difference. Transmitter is frequency modulated, so thickness is computed directly from frequency difference. Because front and back reflections are detected in combination rather than separately, masking of comparatively weak back signal is less problem. Also system is not sensitive to extraneous reflections from targets between transmitting antenna and coal surface.

  10. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    between the global climate record (oxygen isotopes) and lithology variations on the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the eastern North Sea. Due to the strongly limited time resolution of low temperature thermochronology, the Cenozoic sedimentary record potentially provides the most detailed history...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  11. Pele Plume Deposit on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The varied effects of Ionian volcanism can be seen in this false color infrared composite image of Io's trailing hemisphere. Low resolution color data from Galileo's first orbit (June, 1996) have been combined with a higher resolution clear filter picture taken on the third orbit (November, 1996) of the spacecraft around Jupiter.A diffuse ring of bright red material encircles Pele, the site of an ongoing, high velocity volcanic eruption. Pele's plume is nearly invisible, except in back-lit photographs, but its deposits indicate energetic ejection of sulfurous materials out to distances more than 600 kilometers from the central vent. Another bright red deposit lies adjacent to Marduk, also a currently active ediface. High temperature hot spots have been detected at both these locations, due to the eruption of molten material in lava flows or lava lakes. Bright red deposits on Io darken and disappear within years or decades of deposition, so the presence of bright red materials marks the sites of recent volcanism.This composite was created from data obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The region imaged is centered on 15 degrees South, 224 degrees West, and is almost 2400 kilometers across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 3 kilometers across. North is towards the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the west.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  13. Particle Deposition onto Enclosure Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-20

    from constant bombardment by surrounding gas molecules. Such irregular motions of pollen grains in water were first observed by the botanist Robert...mode" particles, when neither of the mechanism works effectively to cause particle deposition (Figure 3). With respect to particle composition ... analyses as well as the limitations associated with these models. 7.1 Homogeneous Turbulence Model Modeling efforts for studying particle

  14. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest Lab., WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated as one of the enabling technologies for advanced energy systems. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that promises an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Since this regime borders on and exceeds the normal operating limits of existing ESD electronic equipment, development is in progress to produce equipment that can consistently and reliably achieve these conditions for a broad range of materials. Progress so far has resulted in a consistent 500% increase in deposition rates, and greater rates still are anticipated. Technology transfer activities are a significant portion of the ESD program effort. Notable successes now include the start-up of a new business to commercialize the ESD technology, the incorporation of the process into the operations of a major gas turbine manufacturer, major new applications in gas turbine blade and steam turbine blade protection and repair, and in military, medical, metal-working, and recreational equipment applications.

  15. Forming method of deposited film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Masaaki; Kanai, Masahiro; Han' na, Jun' ichi; Shimizu, Isamu

    1987-06-23

    This invention relates with a forming method of a functional deposited film which is useful for electronic devices such as semiconductor device, photosensitive device for electrophotography, etc. It enables to attain energy saving and film quality control at the same time, and large area deposited film can be obtained which has uniform physical properties. It also excels in productivity. In other words, a starting material which contains elements of Group II of the Periodic Table (Zn, Cd, Hg) and elements of Group VI (O, S, Se, Te) which are in the gaseous form, is contacted in a reaction vessel with gaseous halogen-based oxidizer to chemically form an excited precursor, from which a deposited film formed on a substrate. Halogenic oxidizer is chlorine and fluorine. Example of Group II-containing compound is Zn(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/, and examples of Group II-containing compound are NO, H/sub 2/S, Se(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/. Example of the substrate is Al, s/s, polyester, polyethylene, glass, etc.. (3 tabs)

  16. Solar-assisted hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, John W M; Perkins, Anthony; Tjipto, Alwie

    2012-02-01

    Hemodialysis resource use-especially water and power, smarter processing and reuse of postdialysis waste, and improved ecosensitive building design, insulation, and space use-all need much closer attention. Regarding power, as supply diminishes and costs rise, alternative power augmentation for dialysis services becomes attractive. The first 12 months of a solar-assisted dialysis program in southeastern Australia is reported. A 24-m(2), 3-kWh rated solar array and inverter-total cost of A$16,219-has solar-assisted the dialysis-related power needs of a four-chair home hemodialysis training service. All array-created, grid-donated power and all grid-drawn power to the four hemodialysis machines and minireverse osmosis plant pairings are separately metered. After the grid-drawn and array-generated kilowatt hours have been billed and reimbursed at their respective commercial rates, financial viability, including capital repayment, can be assessed. From July of 2010 to July of 2011, the four combined equipment pairings used 4166.5 kWh, 9% more than the array-generated 3811.0 kWh. Power consumption at 26.7 c/kWh cost A$1145.79. Array-generated power reimbursements at 23.5 c/kWh were A$895.59. Power costs were, thus, reduced by 76.5%. As new reimbursement rates (60 c/kWh) take effect, system reimbursements will more than double, allowing both free power and potential capital pay down over 7.7 years. With expected array life of ∼30 years, free power and an income stream should accrue in the second and third operative decades. Solar-assisted power is feasible and cost-effective. Dialysis services should assess their local solar conditions and determine whether this ecosensitive power option might suit their circumstance.

  17. Physician assistant dual employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Colette; Morton-Rias, Dawn; Rittle, Mary; Cannon, James; Hooker, Roderick S

    2017-07-01

    National health workforce supply and demand models help predict requirements built on individual annual productivity assumptions. Dual employment rarely is addressed, yet in 2015, about 13.5% of certified physician assistants (PAs) reported two or more clinical positions. Of PAs working two positions, 44% reported the main reason was to supplement earnings, followed by role variety. The mean number of hours worked by all certified PAs was 40.7 per week and the average number of patients was 75. Dual-employed PAs averaged more than 51 hours and 97 patients per week. This new finding reveals an added dimension to provider productivity statistics requiring refinements to annual output calculations.

  18. Solar assisted heat pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Godbold, R; Paurine, A; Maidment, GG

    2016-01-01

    Solar Assisted Heat Pumps have the potential to provide low carbon heat for domestic hot water generation and low temperature heating. They have advantages over conventional solar thermal systems because they can generate heating and hot water during periods of low or zero solar, whist still maintain the advantage of not needing to be connected to the gas grid. They are simple in nature and can be installed in a wide range of applications. They are also currently uncommon in the UK so a thoro...

  19. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  20. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  1. CTS and CZTS for solar cells made by pulsed laser deposition and pulsed electron deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt

    This thesis concerns the deposition of thin films for solar cells using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and pulsed electron deposition (PED). The aim was to deposit copper tin sulfide (CTS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) by pulsed laser deposition to learn about these materials in relation to copper zinc tin......, which make them promising alternatives to the commercially successful solar cell material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Complementing our group's work on pulsed laser deposition of CZTS, we collaborated with IMEM-CNR in Parma, Italy, to deposit CZTS by pulsed electron deposition for the first...... of using pulsed electron deposition was to make CZTS at a low processing temperature, avoiding the 570 °C annealing step used for our pulsed laser deposited solar cells. Preliminary solar cells had an efficiency of 0.2 % with a 300 °C deposition step without annealing. Further process control is needed...

  2. Enhanced properties of tungsten thin films deposited with a novel HiPIMS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicu, Ioana-Laura; Tiron, Vasile; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Burducea, Ion; Lupu, Nicoleta; Stoian, George; Popa, Gheorghe; Munteanu, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Despite the tremendous potential for industrial use of tungsten (W), very few studies have been reported so far on controlling and tailoring the properties of W thin films obtained by physical vapor deposition techniques and, even less, for those deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS). This study presents results on the deposition process and properties characterization of nanocrystalline W thin films deposited on silicon and molybdenum substrates (100 W average sputtering power) by conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and HiPIMS techniques. Topological, structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the deposited thin films were investigated. It was found that in HiPIMS, both deposition process and coatings properties may be optimized by using an appropriate magnetic field configuration and pulsing design. Compared to the other deposited samples, the W films grown in multi-pulse (5 × 3 μs) HiPIMS assisted by an additional magnetic field, created with a toroidal-shaped permanent magnet placed in front of the magnetron cathode, show significantly enhanced properties, such as: smoother surfaces, higher homogeneity and denser microstructure, higher hardness and Young's modulus values, better adhesion to the silicon substrate and lower coefficient of friction. Mechanical behaviour and structural changes are discussed based on plasma diagnostics results.

  3. High-rate deposition of optical coatings by closed-field magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in a wide range of optical applications. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished simply using time. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. The CFM configuration also allows plasma treatment of surfaces prior to deposition, allowing optimisation of coating adhesion to substrates such as plastics. This paper presents data on optical, durability and environmental properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process for a range of optical applications are described.

  4. Organic heterostructures deposited by MAPLE on AZO substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Stanculescu, A.; Breazu, C.; Florica, C.; Stanculescu, F.; Iftimie, S.; Girtan, M.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Socol, G.

    2017-09-01

    Organic heterostructures based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerene (C60) as blends or multilayer were deposited on Al:ZnO (AZO) by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The AZO layers were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on glass substrate, the high quality of the films being reflected by the calculated figure of merit. The organic heterostructures were investigated from morphological, optical and electrical point of view by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements, respectively. The increase of the C60 content in the blend heterostructure has as result a high roughness. Compared with the multilayer heterostructure, those based on blends present an improvement in the electrical properties. Under illumination, the highest current value was recorded for the heterostructure based on the blend with the higher C60 amount. The obtained results showed that MAPLE is a useful technique for the deposition of the organic heterostructures on AZO as transparent conductor electrode.

  5. Isotropic metal deposition technique for metamaterials fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    In this work we will present the first steps taken towards isotropic deposition of thin metallic layers on dielectric substrates. The deposition takes place in aqueous environment thus making it both cheap and easy to be implemented.......In this work we will present the first steps taken towards isotropic deposition of thin metallic layers on dielectric substrates. The deposition takes place in aqueous environment thus making it both cheap and easy to be implemented....

  6. Innovations in marketing of deposit services

    OpenAIRE

    Vasylieva, T. A.; I.V. Didenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is recent studies of global trends in marketing of innovative deposit services. The results of the analysis. Summing up the general, it should be noted that, according to our goal, we systematized the theoretical basis of innovation in marketing services and deposit rated their performance justified the specific marketing innovation support domestic banks in the deposit market. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Deposit market is an important resour...

  7. 75 FR 6348 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection; comment [email protected] . Include ``0651-0022 Deposit of Biological Materials comment'' in the subject line [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part of...

  8. Dry deposition of particles to ocean surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.E.; Edson, J.B.; Hummelshoj, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Leeuw, G. de; Mestayer, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric particles mainly depends on wind speed and particle diameter. The dry deposition velocity, Vd, is found to vary by a factor of 100-1,000 with diameter in a likely diameter range, adding uncertainty to deposition estimates, because the diameter distribution for many

  9. 31 CFR 29.334 - Deposit service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deposit service. 29.334 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.334 Deposit service. (a) Teachers Plan. (1) Periods of civilian service that... Benefit Payments under the Teachers Plan if the deposit for the service was paid in full to the Teachers...

  10. 37 CFR 1.25 - Deposit accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deposit accounts. 1.25... Deposit accounts. (a) For the convenience of attorneys, and the general public in paying any fees due, in ordering services offered by the Office, copies of records, etc., deposit accounts may be established in...

  11. 31 CFR 357.26 - Direct Deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct Deposit. 357.26 Section 357.26... Treasury Direct) § 357.26 Direct Deposit. (a) General. A payment by the Department with respect to a security shall be by direct deposit unless it is deemed necessary by the Department to make payment by...

  12. 78 FR 16472 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part of a patent application is...) or, (2) deposited in a suitable depository that has been recognized as an International Depositary...

  13. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  14. 44 CFR 206.62 - Available assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Emergency Assistance § 206.62 Available... threat of a catastrophe; (b) Coordinate all disaster relief assistance (including voluntary assistance... Stafford Act; and (g) Assist State and local governments in the distribution of medicine, food, and other...

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of lysozyme: the dependence on shot numbers and the angular distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinescu, C.; Matei, A.; Schou, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The ejection of molecules from a pressed solid target of lysozyme induced by laser ablation in the UV-regime at a wavelength of 355 nm was investigated. The ablation studies were carried out in vacuum at a laser fluence of 2 J/cm2 for which a significant fraction of proteins remains intact....... This was verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) spectrometry of thin films deposited on silicon substrates. The deposition rate of lysozyme was found to decrease with the number of shots and was correlated with increasing thermal damage of the lysozyme. This was monitored by measurements...

  16. 50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. 259.34 Section 259.34 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Capital Construction Fund Agreement § 259.34 Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. (a...

  17. IBADURRAHMAN VALUE EDUCATION MODEL IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uus Ruswandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on two different phenomena among few of students. On one side, some students have excellent achievement that is gained through optimal training process from all parties. On the other hand, some students do several misbehaviour actions such as fighting, raping, murdering, robbery, pornography, drinking alcohol, selling drugs, and mysticism that can ruin aqidah. This study aims to explain the development of value education model based Ibad al-Rahman character especially its vision, mission, program, situation, process, support from society, parents, and students and evaluation in order to train to be akhlaqul karimah personality. This study reveals some findings that the development of value education based on ‘Ibad al-Rahman character can assist to achieve school‟s vision, mission, objective, situation and condition and make it easy to realize education obejctive of ‘Ibad al-Rahman. In short, education process through habituation and exemplary is the most exact method and sufficient support from internal and external sides to bear ‘Ibad al-Rahman character, and evaluation is done in the development of value education based on ‘Ibad al-Rahman character in school.

  18. [Imaging findings of cristal deposit disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Anna; Studler, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Cristal deposit disorders are characterised by cristal deposits in hyaline and fibrocartilage, in synovium, capsule, ligaments and tendons and periarticular soft tissue. Calciumpyrophosphatedihydrate (CPPD), hydroxyapatite (calcific tendinitis) and uric acid arthropathies are the most common cristal deposit diseases. Radiography is still the number one image modality for initial imaging and the identification of cristal-induced inflammatory arthropathies. Differentiation between the entities of cristal deposit arthropathies can be challenging. Clincial and radiological findings may overlap in different cristal deposit arthropathies, owing a certain diagnosis difficult.

  19. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of laser assisted cold sprayed bioceramic coatings: potential use for biomedical applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of commercial pure titanium (CP)-Ti and HAP bio-ceramic were synthesised on Ti-6Al-4V substrate using laser assisted cold spray (LACS) deposition technique. The LACS system comprised of 4.4 kW Nd:YAG laser system, AT-12000HPHV 5000PSI (35...

  20. Surface morphology of thin lysozyme films produced by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purice, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Pryds, Nini

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of the protein, lysozyme, have been deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Frozen targets of 0.3-1.0 wt.% lysozyme dissolved in ultrapure water were irradiated by laser light at 355 mn with a fluence of 2 J/cm(2). The surface quality of the thin...

  1. Ion assisted growth of B4C diffusion barrier layers in Mo/Si multilayered structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, S.; Bruijn, S.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the thermal stability of e-beam deposited Mo/B 4C/Si/B 4C layered systems, with and without ion assistance during the growth of the B 4C diffusion barrier layers. The thermal stability was investigated by in situ thermal annealing during grazing incidence X-ray reflection. By

  2. Audiology Assistants in Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Teri A; Andrews, Julia P

    2016-11-01

    Using audiology assistants allows a practice to meet the expected increase in patient demand in a cost-effective manner, without compromise to quality of patient care. Assistants are particularly valuable in private practice settings that have an emphasis in amplification, as many of the tasks involved do not require the unique skills of the doctor of audiology. Regulatory considerations, methods of training, and scope of practice of the assistant are discussed.

  3. Wind assistance: A requirement for migration of shorebirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert W.; Williams, Tony D.; Warnock, Nils; Bishop, Mary Anne

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the importance of wind-assisted flight for northward (spring) migration by Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) along the Pacific Coast of North America. Using current models of energy costs of flight and recent data on the phenology of migration, we estimated the energy (fat) requirements for migration in calm winds and with wind-assisted flight for different rates of fat deposition: (1) a variable rate, assuming that birds deposit the minimum amount of fat required to reach the next stopover site; (2) a constant maximum rate of 1.0 g/day; and (3) a lower constant rate of 0.4 g/day. We tested these models by comparing conservative estimates of predicted body mass along the migration route with empirical data on body mass of Western Sandpipers at different stopover sites and upon arrival at the breeding grounds. In calm conditions, birds would have to deposit unrealistically high amounts of fat (up to 330% of observed values) to maintain body mass above absolute lean mass values. Fat-deposition rates of 1.0 g/day and 0.4 g/day, in calm conditions, resulted in a steady decline in body mass along the migration route, with predicted body masses on arrival in Alaska of only 60% (13.6 g) and 26% (5.9 g) of average lean mass (22.7 g). Conversely, birds migrating with wind assistance would be able to complete migration with fat-deposition rates as low as 0.4 g/day, similar to values reported for this size bird from field studies. Our results extend the conclusion of the importance of winds for large, long-distance migrants to a small, short-distance migrant. We suggest that the migratory decisions of birds are more strongly influenced by the frequency and duration of winds aloft, i.e. by events during the flight phase, than by events during the stopover phase of migration, such as fat-deposition rate, that have been the focus of much recent migration theory.

  4. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  5. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  6. Stress in ion-beam assisted silicon dioxide and tantalum pentoxide thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Sirotkina, N

    2003-01-01

    Ta sub 2 O sub 5 and SiO sub 2 thin films, deposited at room temperature by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) and dual ion-beam sputtering (DIBS), and SiO sub 2 films, deposited by reactive e-beam evaporation and ion-assisted deposition, were studied. The energy (150-600 eV) and ion-to-atom arrival ratio (0.27-2.0) of assisting argon and oxygen ions were varied. Influence of deposition conditions (deposition system geometry, nature and amount of gas in the chamber, substrate cleaning and ion-assistance parameters) on films properties (stress, composition, refractive index n sub 5 sub 0 sub 0 sub n sub m and extinction coefficient k sub 5 sub 0 sub 0 sub n sub m) was investigated. A scanning method, based on substrate curvature measurements by laser reflection and stress calculation using the Stoney equation, was employed. RBS showed that stoichiometric Ta sub 2 O sub 5 films contain impurities of Ar, Fe and Mo. Stoichiometric SiO sub 2 films also contain Ta impurity. Argon content increases with ion bombardment and, ...

  7. Energetic deposition of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Busaidy, M S K

    2001-01-01

    deposited films. The primary aim of this thesis was to study the physical effect of energetic deposition metal thin films. The secondary aim is to enhance the quality of the films produced to a desired quality. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements from a high-energy synchrotron radiation source were carried out to study and characterise the samples. Optical Profilers Interferometery, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Medium energy ion spectroscopy (MEIS), and the Electron microscope studies were the other main structural characterisation tools used. AI/Fe trilayers, as well as multilayers were deposited using a Nordico planar D.C. magnetron deposition system at different voltage biases and pressures. The films were calibrated and investigated. The relation between energetic deposition variation and structural properties was intensely researched. Energetic deposition refers to the method in which the deposited species possess higher kinetic energy and impact ...

  8. Deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and implications for conjunctival inflammation and mucoid discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith Raymond; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert John

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and the implications for conjunctival inflammation and discharge. Forty-three prosthetic eye wearers participated in the study. Twenty-three had their prostheses polished normally before being worn continuously for 2 weeks. After this time, surface deposits were stained, photographed, and graded. The prostheses were then repolished to optical quality contact lens standard and worn for a further 2 weeks, when the deposits were again stained, photographed, and graded. Two participants had deposits on their prostheses stained, photographed, and graded on nine occasions at decreasing intervals ranging from 1 year to 1 day. Eighteen participants had the wetting angles on their prostheses measured with a goniometer before and after cleaning, after polishing normally, after polishing to optical quality contact lens standard, and after 10 minutes of wearing their optical quality contact lens polished prostheses. Concordance correlation, multiple regression, and paired t-tests were used for the statistical analysis. More surface deposits accumulated on prostheses polished normally than on those polished to an optical quality contact lens standard after 2 weeks of wear. The interpalpebral zone of most prostheses (observed without magnification) appeared to be clear of deposits. Removal of deposits significantly decreased surface wettability, but wettability returned after 10 minutes of wear. Optical quality contact lens polishing produced more wettable surfaces and a slower rate of deposit accumulation than normal polishing. We recommend that an optical quality contact lens standard be the minimum standard of finish for prosthetic eyes. This standard may assist the smooth action of the lids over the interpalpebral zone of the prosthesis and the cleansing action of tears. The presence of deposits in the retropalpebral zone may improve the lubricating properties of socket fluids which, in turn, may

  9. Deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and implications for conjunctival inflammation and mucoid discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith Raymond; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert John

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and the implications for conjunctival inflammation and discharge. Methods Forty-three prosthetic eye wearers participated in the study. Twenty-three had their prostheses polished normally before being worn continuously for 2 weeks. After this time, surface deposits were stained, photographed, and graded. The prostheses were then repolished to optical quality contact lens standard and worn for a further 2 weeks, when the deposits were again stained, photographed, and graded. Two participants had deposits on their prostheses stained, photographed, and graded on nine occasions at decreasing intervals ranging from 1 year to 1 day. Eighteen participants had the wetting angles on their prostheses measured with a goniometer before and after cleaning, after polishing normally, after polishing to optical quality contact lens standard, and after 10 minutes of wearing their optical quality contact lens polished prostheses. Concordance correlation, multiple regression, and paired t-tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results More surface deposits accumulated on prostheses polished normally than on those polished to an optical quality contact lens standard after 2 weeks of wear. The interpalpebral zone of most prostheses (observed without magnification) appeared to be clear of deposits. Removal of deposits significantly decreased surface wettability, but wettability returned after 10 minutes of wear. Optical quality contact lens polishing produced more wettable surfaces and a slower rate of deposit accumulation than normal polishing. Conclusion We recommend that an optical quality contact lens standard be the minimum standard of finish for prosthetic eyes. This standard may assist the smooth action of the lids over the interpalpebral zone of the prosthesis and the cleansing action of tears. The presence of deposits in the retropalpebral zone may improve the lubricating properties of

  10. Legal Deposit of Digital Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Oltmans

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital publishing is causing a real paradigm shift for research institutions and publishers, as well as for libraries. As a consequence these institutions have to develop new policies, new business models and new infrastructures and techniques. A major problem is that, at the same rate at which our world is becoming digital, the digital information is threatened. New types of hardware, computer applications and file formats supersede each other, making our recorded digital information inaccessible in the long-term. In the past years libraries and archives have undertaken several actions and studies on digital preservation issues. For instance the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB has jointly with IBM developed a standard-based deposit system: Digital Information Archiving System ( DIAS. Using DIAS the KB realised in 2002 an electronic deposit (the e-Depot and signed archiving agreements with major science publishers for permanent keeping of their digital materials. In this paper I will discuss the fully operational e-Depot at the KB. I will focus on the data flow of processing the digital publications, and I will address the issue of digital preservation in detail.

  11. Area Selective Polymer Brush Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cian; Shaw, Matthew T; Morris, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    Polymer brush films with chemical functionality to attach to site specific substrate areas are introduced for area selective deposition (ASD) application. It is demonstrated that polymer brushes with chemically defined end sites can be selectively bound to copper-specific regions of patterned copper/silica (Cu/SiO2 ) substrates. The process described overcomes various limitations of currently used technology including cost, complexity, and throughput, with potential implications for future electronic devices and nanomanufacturing. A comparative study of amine-terminated polystyrene and amine-terminated poly-2-vinyl pyridine polymer brushes (i.e., PS-NH2 and P2VP-NH2 ) with similar molecular weights display contrasting behavior on patterned Cu/SiO2 line features. Further, a thiol terminated poly-2-vinyl pyridine polymer brush (i.e., P2VP-SH) is investigated as a direct spin-on process to fabricate a metal oxide layer atop Cu areas only. The results presented here detail a novel methodology and open a new exciting process for ASD practices that can facilitate the precise deposition of dense metal, semiconductor, or dielectric films. We also discuss the applicability of polymer brushes to ASD uses going forward. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Processing of C60 thin films by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of fullerenes (C60) were deposited onto silicon using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The deposition was carried out from a frozen homogeneous dilute solution of C60 in anisole (0.67 wt%), and over a broad range of laser fluences, from 0.15 J/cm2 up to 3.9 J/cm2. MAPLE...... has been applied for deposition of fullerenes for the first time and we have studied the growth of thin films of solid C60. The fragmentation of C60 fullerene molecules induced by ns ablation in vacuum of a frozen anisole target with C60 was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption...

  13. The potential of nano-structured silicon oxide type coatings deposited by PACVD for control of aquatic biofouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akesso, L.; Pettitt, M.E.; Callow, J.A.; Callow, M.E.; Stallard, J.; Teer, D.; Liu, C.; Wang, S.; Zhao, Q.; D'Souza, F.; Willemsen, P.R.; Donnelly, G.T.; Donik, C.; Kocijan, A.; Jenko, M.; Jones, L.A.; Guinaldo, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    SiOx-like coatings were deposited on glass slides from a hexamethylsiloxane precursor by plasma-assisted CVD (PACVD). Surface energies (23.1-45.7 mJ m-1) were correlated with the degree of surface oxidation and hydrocarbon contents. Tapping mode AFM revealed a range of surface topologies with Ra

  14. Salt deposition at particle contact points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Evitts, Richard W.; Besant, Robert W.; Kennell, Glyn F.

    2015-09-01

    Caking may occur when granular potash fertilizer with a moisture content greater than 0.25 % (w/w) undergoes drying. Since cake strength is proportional to the mass of crystal deposited per unit volume near contact points (and other factors) the modelling of mass deposition near contact points is important. The Young-Laplace equation for the air-salt-solution interface is used to determine the geometry of a 2-D planar saline film between two cubic potash particles. A 2-D theoretical model is developed and applied for ion diffusion and deposition near the contact point during drying. The numerical predictions of ion diffusion in an initially saturated salt illustrate the transient spatial distribution of new KCl deposits along the solid surfaces near the contact line. These results indicate the average salt deposition commences at the air-liquid-solid intersection, where the liquid film is thinnest, and moves toward the particle contact point with increasing area averaged KCl deposits, causing the formation of crystal deposits and bridges near contact points. It is concluded that the average salt deposit height increases inversely with distance from the contact point and decreases with initial contact angle of the contact region, but the deposition is nearly independent of the evaporation or drying rate near each contact region. Caking strength depends on, among other parameters, the amount of salt deposition near contact points.

  15. Restructuring the Assistant Principal's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Fredonia B.

    1995-01-01

    Assistant principals should be expected, encouraged, and empowered to work beyond their disciplines, outside their cultures, and above their traditional roles. The assistant principal's role in team management is to become an advocate for excellence, a visionary leader, a change agent, a communicator, a motivator, and a determinant of school…

  16. Assistive and Rehabilitation Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Abrudean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A short introduction concerning the content of Assistive Technology and Rehabilitation Engineering is followed by a study of robotic systems which combine two or more assistive functions. Based on biomechanical aspects, a complex robotic system is presented, starting with the study of functionality and ending with the practical aspects of the prototype development.

  17. The Ethics of Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jay

    1994-01-01

    From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…

  18. Robot-assisted endoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruurda, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    During the last three years, robot-assisted surgery systems are increasingly being applied in endoscopic surgery. They were introduced with the objective to overcome the challenges of standard endoscopic surgery. With the improvements in manipulation and visualisation that robotic-assistance offers,

  19. Hispanics' Awareness of Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Alberto; Ostrander, Noam

    2009-01-01

    This study compared Hispanics' awareness of services available to acquire assistive technology and whether they actually sought help to the findings from a national sample. The study assists the field by providing information on a group largely ignored in the literature. The authors sought to answer the following research questions: Are there…

  20. Layered double hydroxides/polymer thin films grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Mitu, B.; Ionita, M.D.; Filipescu, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest–Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Corobea, M.C. [National R. and S. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-09-30

    Due to their highly tunable properties, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an emerging class of the favorably layered crystals used for the preparation of multifunctional polymer/layered crystal nanocomposites. In contrast to cationic clay materials with negatively charge layers, LDHs are the only host lattices with positively charged layers (brucite-like), with interlayer exchangeable anions and intercalated water. In this work, the deposition of thin films of Mg and Al based LDH/polymers nanocomposites by laser techniques is reported. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation was the method used for thin films deposition. The Mg–Al LDHs capability to act as a host for polymers and to produce hybrid LDH/polymer films has been investigated. Polyethylene glycol with different molecular mass compositions and ethylene glycol were used as polymers. The structure and surface morphology of the deposited LDH/polymers films were examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Hybrid composites deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). • Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used. • Mixtures of PEG1450 and LDH were deposited by MAPLE. • Deposited thin films preserve the properties of the starting material. • The film wettability can be controlled by the amount of PEG.

  1. Deposition of multilayer optical coatings using closed-field magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Hall, G. W.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in display technologies. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to < +/-1% is accomplished simply using time, although optical monitoring can be used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, narrowband filters as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process are described.

  2. Modelling the plasma plume of an assist source in PIAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauer, Jochen; Harhausen, Jens; Foest, Rüdiger; Loffhagen, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    Plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) is a technique commonly used to produce high-precision optical interference coatings. Knowledge regarding plasma properties is most often limited to dedicated scenarios without film deposition. Approaches have been made to gather information on the process plasma in situ to detect drifts which are suspected to cause limits in repeatability of resulting layer properties. Present efforts focus on radiance monitoring of the plasma plume of an Advanced Plasma Source (APSpro, Bühler) by optical emission spectroscopy to provide the basis for an advanced plasma control. In this contribution modelling results of the plume region are presented to interpret these experimental data. In the framework of the collisional radiative model used, 15 excited neutral argon states in the plasma are considered. Results of the species densities show good consistency with the measured optical emission of various argon 2 p - 1 s transitions. This work was funded by BMBF under grant 13N13213.

  3. Atmosfærisk deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Kemp, K.

    Kvælstofdepositionen til danske havområder, fjorde, vige og bugte er for 2001 blevet beregnet til 118 ktons N, hvilket er ca. 20 % lavere end i 2000. Tilsvarende er depositionen til landområderne beregnet til 87 ktons N, hvilket svarer til deposition i 2000. Den primære årsag til den højere depos...... koncentrationer af tungmetaller (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, og Pb) i 2001 adskiller sig ikke væsentligt fra det seneste år. Over de sidste ti år er der sket et fald i tungmetalniveauerne på mellem en faktor to og tre; størst for Pb og Cd....

  4. YBCO coated conductor by multiple-stage CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashima, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: kashima.naoji@chuden.co.jp; Niwa, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Mori, M. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Muroga, T. [ISTEC-SRL, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8567 (Japan); Miyata, S. [ISTEC-SRL, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8567 (Japan); Watanabe, T. [ISTEC-SRL, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8567 (Japan); Yamada, Y. [ISTEC-SRL, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8567 (Japan); Izumi, T. [ISTEC-SRL, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [ISTEC-SRL, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    A high speed deposition technique for YBCO coated conductors has been required from the viewpoint of cost reduction for second generation wire. The multiple-stage chemical vapor deposition technique was employed for making YBCO coated conductors with a high deposition rate. In our earlier research, over 2.0 MA/cm{sup 2} of J {sub c} was confirmed on IBAD (PLD-CeO{sub 2}/IBAD-Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Hastelloy) substrates with a maximum deposition rate of 25 m/h using the six-stage CVD system. To evaluate the availability of the multiple-stage CVD technique for making a longer YBCO tape, we have fabricated a 200 m-long YBCO tape on a non-textured silver substrate. Deposition rate was 10 m/h, and number of passing was two times. Total deposition time was 40 h (20 h x 2). During the deposition of a YBCO layer, the CVD system was quite stable. J {sub c} was measured at a voltage tap interval of 10 m with criterion of 1 {mu}V/cm. J {sub c} of the YBCO tape remained in the order of 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} due to the non-textured microstructure. However, J {sub c} distribution of the tape showed a good uniformity. A 210 m-long YBCO/(Ag + IBAD) tape was also prepared. A 210 m-long substrate combined with IBAD and Ag was used. I {sub c} of 60-78 A was obtained on the IBAD substrates part. This result suggested that the multiple-stage CVD technique was very useful to making a long YBCO tape.

  5. Assisted reproduction: who qualifies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLacey, S

    1998-10-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been the focus of considerable debate in which a range of social issues has been addressed, yet the question of who is eligible for ART, who can get access, who is excluded and by what means, has received little attention in comparison with other issues. In Australia social policies presently exist in some (but not all) states which address this question, however several recently publicised cases have highlighted the need for an examination of inclusion/exclusion practices from a social justice perspective. This paper seeks to explore the issue of access and eligibility for ART with a particular interest in exposing the contradictions, inconsistencies and assumptions inherent in arguments put forward for particular inclusions and exclusions. It is my contention that social policy relating to criteria for eligibility and access to ART invests the medical profession with a gatekeeping role which holds the power to define and create different classes of women. Moreover, discourses of 'medical indication' and the 'best interests of children' intersect to inscribe a form of discursive eugenic practice which in turn sustains sexism and discrimination against childless women. Finally, this paper seeks to alert the nursing profession to requirements emerging from social policy which influence practice, interfere in client-nurse relationships, and may ultimately result in unethical conduct.

  6. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tissue cell assisted fabrication of tubular catalytic platinum microengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Moo, James Guo Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-01

    We report a facile platform for mass production of robust self-propelled tubular microengines. Tissue cells extracted from fruits of banana and apple, Musa acuminata and Malus domestica, are used as the support on which a thin platinum film is deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Upon sonication of the cells/Pt-coated substrate in water, microscrolls of highly uniform sizes are spontaneously formed. Tubular microengines fabricated with the fruit cell assisted method exhibit a fast motion of ~100 bodylengths per s (~1 mm s-1). An extremely simple and affordable platform for mass production of the micromotors is crucial for the envisioned swarms of thousands and millions of autonomous micromotors performing biomedical and environmental remediation tasks.We report a facile platform for mass production of robust self-propelled tubular microengines. Tissue cells extracted from fruits of banana and apple, Musa acuminata and Malus domestica, are used as the support on which a thin platinum film is deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Upon sonication of the cells/Pt-coated substrate in water, microscrolls of highly uniform sizes are spontaneously formed. Tubular microengines fabricated with the fruit cell assisted method exhibit a fast motion of ~100 bodylengths per s (~1 mm s-1). An extremely simple and affordable platform for mass production of the micromotors is crucial for the envisioned swarms of thousands and millions of autonomous micromotors performing biomedical and environmental remediation tasks. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Related video. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03720k

  8. [Diagnosis of calcified deposits in soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybier, M; Laredo, J D; Parlier, C; Champsaur, P

    1997-01-01

    Calcific deposit within soft tissues is frequently a clue for diagnosis. The radiological analysis of a calcific deposit within soft tissues includes the following aspects: the basic structure of the calcification, the grade of differentiation of the calcification, the site of the calcification, the number of calcific deposits, the shape of the calcification, the changes in the adjacent non-calcified soft tissues and in the adjacent bone, the course of the clinical signs, the course of the radiological abnormalities.

  9. Pulsed laser deposition of biocompatible polymers: a comparative study in case of pullulan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R.; Stamatin, I.; Mihaiescu, D.E.; Ghica, C.; Albulescu, M.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Chrisey, D.B

    2004-04-01

    We report some results of a comparison between thin films of pullulan biopolymer obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). In experiments we used a KrF* laser source generating pulses of 248 nm and 20 ns pulse duration. We demonstrate by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that MAPLE is more appropriate than conventional PLD for transfer with high structural fidelity of biopolymers from target to substrate. In case of MAPLE, besides FTIR spectra, atomic force microscopy micrographs and scanning electron microscopy images prove that the film composition and structure strongly depend on the solvent used for the targets preparation: distilled water, ethylene glycol, ethanol, tert-butanol and dimethyl sulfoxide. Our best results for pullulan deposition were obtained using dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent. This is the first report of successful MAPLE deposition of this material as thin films.

  10. Tuning the refractive index of blended polymer films by RIR-MAPLE deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Ryan D.; Cline, Eric D.; Chadha, Arvinder S.; Zhou, Weidong; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2012-02-01

    Graded index polymer films enable novel optics using rigid or flexible substrates, such as waveguides or anti-reflection coatings. Previously, such films have been fabricated by nanoimprint lithography or the decomposition of a single component in polymer blends. Yet, it is desirable to have precise control over the polymer film composition in order to have the most flexibility in designing refractive index profiles. Resonant-infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) is a polymer thin film deposition technique that enables multi-layer structures on a wide variety of substrate materials, regardless of the solubilities of constituent polymers. In this work, the feasibility of tuning the refractive index of blended polymer films of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) deposited by RIR-MAPLE is demonstrated. Different polymer blend film compositions are deposited using RIR-MAPLE by varying the polymer target ratio. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to characterize the film morphology.

  11. Copper Deposits in Sedimentary and Volcanogenic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtelot, Elizabeth B.; Vine, James David

    1976-01-01

    Copper deposits occur in sedimentary and volcanogenic rocks within a wide variety of geologic environments where there may be little or no evidence of hydrothermal alteration. Some deposits may be hypogene and have a deep-seated source for the ore fluids, but because of rapid cooling and dilution during syngenetic deposition on the ocean floor, the resulting deposits are not associated with hydrothermal alteration. Many of these deposits are formed at or near major tectonic features on the Earth's crust, including plate boundaries, rift valleys, and island arcs. The resulting ore bodies may be stratabound and either massive or disseminated. Other deposits form in rocks deposited in shallow-marine, deltaic, and nonmarine environments by the movement and reaction of interstratal brines whose metal content is derived from buried sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Some of the world's largest copper deposits were probably formed in this manner. This process we regard as diagenetic, but some would regard it as syngenetic, if the ore metals are derived from disseminated metal in the host-rock sequence, and others would regard the process as epigenetic, if there is demonstrable evidence of ore cutting across bedding. Because the oxidation associated with diagenetic red beds releases copper to ground-water solutions, red rocks and copper deposits are commonly associated. However, the ultimate size, shape, and mineral zoning of a deposit result from local conditions at the site of deposition - a logjam in fluvial channel sandstone may result in an irregular tabular body of limited size; a petroleum-water interface in an oil pool may result in a copper deposit limited by the size and shape of the petroleum reservoir; a persistent thin bed of black shale may result in a copper deposit the size and shape of that single bed. The process of supergene enrichment has been largely overlooked in descriptions of copper deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, supergene processes may be

  12. Giant landslide deposits in northwest Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauque, L.; Strecker, M.R.; Bloom, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Giant Quaternary landslide deposits occur along mountain fronts in the structural transition zone between the high-angle reverse-fault-bounded Sierras Pampeanas and the low-angle thrust belt of the Sierras Subandinas. There are two modes of occurrence: (1) chaotic masses without distinct geometry, and (2) masses with distinct lobate geometry similar to glacial moraines. Type (1) deposits occur where the moving rock mass followed a narrow valley and blocked the drainage. Many of these caused subsequent formation of lakes and changed the sedimentation processes on pediments at the mountain fronts. In type (2) deposits, lateral and frontal ridges are up to 10 m higher than the interior parts; in some places pressure ridges within the lobes are well preserved. Type (2) deposits show reverse grading and were deposited on relatively smooth pediments or alluvial fans. The lobate geometry strongly suggests that type (2) deposits are a product of flowage and are debris stream or sturzstrom deposits (sense of Heim, 1932 and Hsu, 1975). All investigated deposits occur in areas of demonstrated Quaternary faulting and are interpreted as the result of tectonic movements, although structural inhomogeneities in the source area may have been a significant factor for some of the landslides. No datable materials have yet been found associated with the deposits.

  13. Beam-deposited platinum as versatile catalyst for bottom-up silicon nanowire synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibst, N.; Knittel, P.; Kranz, C.; Mizaikoff, B.; Strehle, S.

    2014-10-01

    The controlled localized bottom-up synthesis of silicon nanowires on arbitrarily shaped surfaces is still a persisting challenge for functional device assembly. In order to address this issue, electron beam and focused ion beam-assisted catalyst deposition have been investigated with respect to platinum expected to form a PtSi alloy catalyst for a subsequent bottom-up nanowire synthesis. The effective implementation of pure platinum nanoparticles or thin films for silicon nanowire growth has been demonstrated recently. Beam-deposited platinum contains significant quantities of amorphous carbon due to the organic precursor and gallium ions for a focused ion beam-based deposition process. Nevertheless, silicon nanowires could be grown on various substrates regardless of the platinum purity. Additionally, p-type doping could be realized with diborane whereas n-type doping suppressed a nanowire growth. The rational utilization of this beam-assisted approach enables us to control the localized synthesis of single silicon nanowires at planar surfaces but succeeded also in single nanowire growth at the three-dimensional apex of an atomic force microscopy tip. Therefore, this catalyst deposition method appears to be a unique extension of current technologies to assemble complex nanowire-based devices.

  14. Characterization of deposits formed on diesel injectors in field test and from thermal oxidative degradation of n-hexadecane in a laboratory reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataraman Ramya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid deposits from commercially available high-pressure diesel injectors (HPDI were analyzed to study the solid deposition from diesel fuel during engine operation. The structural and chemical properties of injector deposits were compared to those formed from the thermal oxidative stressing of a diesel fuel range model compound, n-hexadecane at 160°C and 450 psi for 2.5 h in a flow reactor. Both deposits consist of polyaromatic compounds (PAH with oxygen moieties. The similarities in structure and composition of the injector deposits and n-hexadecane deposits suggest that laboratory experiments can simulate thermal oxidative degradation of diesel in commercial injectors. The formation of PAH from n-hexadecane showed that aromatization of straight chain alkanes and polycondensation of aromatic rings was possible at temperatures as low as 160°C in the presence of oxygen. A mechanism for an oxygen-assisted aromatization of cylcoalkanes is proposed.

  15. Exoskeleton plantarflexion assistance for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, S; Derave, W; Bossuyt, F; Calders, P; Malcolm, P; De Clercq, D

    2017-02-01

    Elderly are confronted with reduced physical capabilities and increased metabolic energy cost of walking. Exoskeletons that assist walking have the potential to restore walking capacity by reducing the metabolic cost of walking. However, it is unclear if current exoskeletons can reduce energy cost in elderly. Our goal was to study the effect of an exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off on the metabolic energy cost of walking in physically active and healthy elderly. Seven elderly (age 69.3±3.5y) walked on treadmill (1.11ms2) with normal shoes and with the exoskeleton both powered (with assistance) and powered-off (without assistance). After 20min of habituation on a prior day and 5min on the test day, subjects were able to walk with the exoskeleton and assistance of the exoskeleton resulted in a reduction in metabolic cost of 12% versus walking with the exoskeleton powered-off. Walking with the exoskeleton was perceived less fatiguing for the muscles compared to normal walking. Assistance resulted in a statistically nonsignificant reduction in metabolic cost of 4% versus walking with normal shoes, likely due to the penalty of wearing the exoskeleton powered-off. Also, exoskeleton mechanical power was relatively low compared to previously identified optimal assistance magnitude in young adults. Future exoskeleton research should focus on further optimizing exoskeleton assistance for specific populations and on considerate integration of exoskeletons in rehabilitation or in daily life. As such, exoskeletons should allow people to walk longer or faster than without assistance and could result in an increase in physical activity and resulting health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between intraprostatic tracer deposits and sentinel lymph node mapping in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Tessa; Brouwer, Oscar R; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2012-07-01

    Intraprostatic injection of the hybrid tracer indocyanine green (ICG)-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid enables both preoperative sentinel node (SN) identification and intraoperative visualization of the SN. Relating the fluorescence deposits in embedded prostate tissue specimens to the preoperatively detected SNs also provides the opportunity to study the influence of their placement on lymphatic drainage pattern. Nineteen patients with prostate carcinoma scheduled for robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and lymph node (LN) dissection were included. ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid was injected intraprostatically, guided by ultrasound. SN biopsy was performed using a combination of radioguidance and fluorescence guidance. Tracer distribution was visualized in paraffin-embedded prostate samples using ex vivo fluorescence imaging. This distribution was correlated to the number and location of the SNs identified on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT. ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid helped guide surgical excision of the SNs. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging revealed a large variation in the locations of intraprostatic tracer deposits among patients. Tracer deposits in the peripheral zone correlated with a higher number of visualized LNs than deposits in the central zone (on average, 4.7 vs. 2.4 LNs per patient). Furthermore, tracer deposits in the mid gland correlated with a higher number of visualized LNs than deposits near the base or apex of the prostate (on average, 6 vs. 3.5 LNs per patient). The hybrid nature of the tracer not only enables surgical guidance but also provides an opportunity to study the correlation between the location of tracer deposits within the prostate and the number and location of preoperatively visualized SNs. These data suggest that the location at which a tracer deposit is placed influences the lymphatic drainage pattern.

  17. Knowing when to assist: developmental issues in lifelong assistive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults with sensorimotor disabilities can significantly increase their autonomy through the use of assistive robots. As the field progresses from short-term, task-specific solutions to long-term, adaptive ones, new challenges are emerging. In this paper a lifelong methodological approach is presented, that attempts to balance the immediate context-specific needs of the user, with the long-term effects that the robot's assistance can potentially have on the user's developmental trajectory.

  18. Accommodation Assisting Glasses for Presbyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toyomi; Idesawa, Masanori

    2002-10-01

    We have considered the important functions for developing accommodation-assistance glasses which can assist eye focusing for aged person with presbyopia.We focused on keys to realize small and lightweight variable focusing lens and gaze distance detection. We devised new variable focusing lenses with control and gaze distance detection with a tunnel light path device. A prototype of glasses with devised elements was manufactured experimentally. From the result of trial use of them and experiments for evaluating characteristics,it was confirmed that proposed technologies were useful for realization of accommodation-assistance glasses.

  19. Hideout in steam generator tube deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Franklin, K.J.; Turner, C.W

    1998-05-01

    Hideout in deposits on steam generator tubes was studied using tubes coated with magnetite. Hideout from sodium chloride solutions at 279 degrees C was followed using an on-line high-temperature conductivity probe, as well as by chemical analysis of solution samples from the autoclave in which the studies were done. Significant hideout was observed only at a heat flux greater than 200 kW/m{sup 2}, corresponding to a temperature drop greater than 2 degrees C across the deposits. The concentration factor resulting from the hideout increased highly non-linearly with the heat flux (varying as high as the fourth power of the heat flux). The decrease in the apparent concentration factor with increasing deposit thickness suggested that the pores in the deposit were occupied by a mixture of steam and water, which is consistent with the conclusion from the thermal conductivity measurements on deposits in a separate study. Analyses of the deposits after the hideout tests showed no evidence of any hidden-out solute species, probably due to the concentrations being very near the detection limits and to their escape from the deposit as the tests were being ended. This study showed that hideout in deposits may concentrate solutes in the steam generator bulk water by a factor as high as 2 x 10{sup 3}. Corrosion was evident under the deposit in some tests, with some chromium enrichment on the surface of the tube. Chromium enrichment usually indicates an acidic environment, but the mobility required of chromium to become incorporated into the thick magnetite deposit may indicate corrosion under an alkaline environment. An alkaline environment could result from preferential accumulation of sodium in the solution in the deposit during the hideout process. (author)

  20. Aerosol - assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of Metal Oxide Structures: Zinc Oxide Rods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallejos, S.; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Čechal, J.; Grácia, I.; Cané, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, Č. 127 (2017), č. článku e56127. ISSN 1940-087X Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Zinc oxide * columnar structures * rods * AACVD * non-catalyzed growth * vapor-solid mechanism Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.232, year: 2016 https://www.jove.com/video/56127

  1. The minimum amount of "matrix " needed for matrix-assisted pulsed laser deposition of biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabetah, Marshall; Matei, Andreea; Constantinescu, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a model lysozyme-water system, where the water serves the role of volatile "matrix" that drives the ejection of the biomolecules. The simulations reveal a remarkable ability of a small (5-10 wt %) amount of matrix to cause the ejection...

  2. Polymer-Assisted Direct Deposition of Uniform Carbon Nanotube Bundle Networks for High Performance Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.

    2009-06-23

    Flexible transparent electrodes are crucial for touch screen, flat panel display, and solar cell technologies. While carbon nanotube network electrodes show promise, characteristically poor dispersion properties have limited their practicality. We report that addition of small amounts of conjugated polymer to nanotube dispersions enables straightforward fabrication of uniform network electrodes by spin-coating and simultaneous tuning of parameters such as bundle size and density. After treatment in thionyl chloride, electrodes have sheet resistances competitive with other reported carbon nanotube based transparent electrodes to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  3. Picosecond laser fabrication of nanostructures on ITO film surface assisted by pre-deposited Au film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Z.; Jiang, G. D.; Wang, W. J.; Mei, X. S.; Pan, A. F.; Zhai, Z. Y.

    2017-10-01

    With greater optical penetration depth and lower ablation threshold fluence, it is difficult to directly fabricate large scales of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films. This study proposed an approach to obtain optimized LIPSSs by sputtering an Au thin film on the ITO film surface. The concept behind the proposal is that the upper layer of the thin Au film can cause surface energy aggregation, inducing the initial ripple structures. The ripples deepened and become clear with lower energy due to optical trapping. The effective mechanism of Au film was analyzed and verified by a series of experiments. Linear sweep, parallel to the laser polarization direction, was performed using a Nd:VAN laser system with 10-ps Q-switched pulse, at a central wavelength of 532 nm, with a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The complete and clear features of the nanostructures, obtained with the periods of approximately 320 nm, were observed on ITO films with proper laser fluence and scanning speed. The depth of ripples was varying in the range of 15-65 nm with clear and coherent ITO films. The preferred efficiency of fabricating nanostructures and the excellent results were obtained at a scanning speed of 2.5 mm/s and a fluence of 0.189 J/cm2. In this way, the ablation and shedding of ITO films was successfully avoided. Thus, the proposed technique can be considered to be a promising method for the laser machining of special nonmetal films.

  4. Polymer-assisted deposition of films and preparation of carbon nanotube arrays using the films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongmei; Li, Qingwen; Bauer, Eve; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Jia, Quanxi

    2013-07-16

    Carbon nanotubes were prepared by coating a substrate with a coating solution including a suitable solvent, a soluble polymer, a metal precursor having a first metal selected from iron, nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum, and optionally a second metal selected from aluminum and magnesium, and also a binding agent that forms a complex with the first metal and a complex with the second metal. The coated substrate was exposed to a reducing atmosphere at elevated temperature, and then to a hydrocarbon in the reducing atmosphere. The result was decomposition of the polymer and formation of carbon nanotubes on the substrate. The carbon nanotubes were often in the form of an array on the substrate.

  5. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition for the Modification and Creation of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Erinn Christine

    polymer was infiltrated as before to selectively deposit the second material. By patterning two materials from one patterned polymer, no pattern alignment between materials is necessary. The reaction mechanism determined for this system can be applied and expanded to other vapor-phase metal-organic interactions with polymers. The ability to make and align nanoscale features is critically important for manufacturing improved semiconductor devices. The second half of this dissertation focuses on how modification of CNT affects biological response in a material-dependent manner. CNT have unique physical and chemical properties that lead to applications in many areas including: electronics, high-strength materials, filtration and drug delivery. By surface-modifying these materials, a whole new realm of applications appears. Despite the benefits these coatings may provide (e.g., photocatalytic properties and increased conductivity) they can also alter the toxicological response to MWCNT. In rodent models, the inhalation of MWCNT can lead to inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we observed that ZnO coatings on MWCNT led to an acute inflammatory response but did not change the fibrotic response in mice following inhalation. The contribution of ZnO coating dissolution was still unknown following the in vivo study with mice. Alumina, ZnO and aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) coatings on MWCNT were studied in vitro using various cell lines to determine the contribution of ions to toxicity. AZO is less soluble than ZnO and composed only of previously-characterized materials. We discovered that the concentration of Zn2+ in solution correlated with levels of cytotoxicity in vitro and differences in dissolution between AZO and ZnO coatings led to differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine release. This knowledge can assist with the toxicological assessment of other pure and composite nanomaterials and lead to the creation of safer nanomaterials.

  7. Intelligent wheelchairs and assistant robots

    OpenAIRE

    Amat Girbau, Josep

    1998-01-01

    This work presents an overview over the main technological aids oriented to the rehabilitation of the physically disabled so that they can get some independence. These aids range from wheelchairs up to the assistant robots developed in the last years.

  8. National Center for Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread. Looking for more information reguarding Prefered Provider Program Quality Care Book Store ​​ ​ ​​​ ​ ​​​ Featured Video Intergenerational Programming ​ Learn how Golden Oaks, an assisted living ...

  9. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  10. Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) in the 1950s to make DOE resources and expertise available to organizations...

  11. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  12. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  13. Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, W. A.; de Wit, L. T.; Busch, O. R.; Gouma, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy is performed routinely in patients with small and moderately enlarged spleens at specialized centers. Large spleens are difficult to handle laparoscopically and hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy might facilitate the procedure through enhanced vascular control, easier

  14. Compliance Assistance Tools for Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), find contacts for asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), and get construction industry specific compliance assistance

  15. Occupational Therapist Assistants and Aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study and include instruction in subjects such as psychology, biology, and pediatric health. In addition to taking ... Handbook , Occupational Therapy Assistants and Aides, on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/occupational- ...

  16. S-Chip Technical Assistance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The page will provide access to reports and other published products designed to assist states with complicated S-Chip technical issues. The reports and products...

  17. Colloid Deposit Morphology and Clogging in Porous Media: Fundamental Insights Through Investigation of Deposit Fractal Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric J; Gilbert, Benjamin; Mays, David C

    2015-10-20

    Experiments reveal a wide discrepancy between the permeability of porous media containing colloid deposits and the available predictive equations. Evidence suggests that this discrepancy results, in part, from the predictive equations failing to account for colloid deposit morphology. This article reports a series of experiments using static light scattering (SLS) to characterize colloid deposit morphology within refractive index matched (RIM) porous media during flow through a column. Real time measurements of permeability, specific deposit, deposit fractal dimension, and deposit radius of gyration, at different vertical positions, were conducted with initially clean porous media at various ionic strengths and fluid velocities. Decreased permeability (i.e., increased clogging) corresponded with higher specific deposit, lower fractal dimension, and smaller radius of gyration. During deposition, fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability decreased with increasing specific deposit. During flushing with colloid-free fluid, these trends reversed, with increased fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability. These observations suggest a deposition scenario in which large and uniform aggregates become deposits, which reduce porosity, lead to higher fluid shear forces, which then decompose the deposits, filling the pore space with small and dendritic fragments of aggregate.

  18. Ultrafast deposition of silicon nitride and semiconductor silicon thin films by Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, R.E.I.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Verlaan, V.; Rath, J.K.; Li, H. B. T.

    2009-01-01

    The technology of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) or Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition (Cat-CVD) has made great progress during the last couple of years. This review discusses examples of significant progress. Specifically, silicon nitride deposition by HWCVD (HW-SiNx) is highlighted,

  19. Pulsed laser deposition in Twente: from research tool towards industrial deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, David H.A.; Dekkers, Jan M.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    After the discovery of the perovskite high Tc superconductors in 1986, a rare and almost unknown deposition technique attracted attention. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD), or laser ablation as it was called in the beginning, became popular because of the possibility to deposit complex materials, like

  20. 33 CFR 203.13 - Available assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Introduction § 203... consumption. Subpart E addresses drought assistance. (f) Advance Measures. Advance Measures assistance may be...

  1. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  2. The Cognitive Onboard Operator Assistant Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a cognitively inspired architecture for deploying an automated intelligent onboard operator assistant. This assistant facilitates the onboard control...

  3. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1993-12-31

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  4. Origin of bonebeds in Quaternary tank deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Júnior, Hermínio Ismael de; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Bergqvist, Lílian Paglarelli

    2017-07-01

    Tank deposits are an exceptional type of fossiliferous deposit and bear a remarkably fossil record of the Pleistocene megafauna of South America, particularly of Brazil. The taphonomy of vertebrate remains preserved in this type of environmental context was clearly driven by climate, similarly to most of the Quaternary continental fossil record. The formation of the vertebrates fossil record in tank deposits was influenced by the climate seasonality typical of arid climate. The taphonomic history of most tank deposits is a consequence of this seasonality and, as a result, the paleoecological data preserved in their fossil assemblages is reliable with respect to paleobiological and paleoenvironmental settings of the Quaternary ecosystems of the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR). Other tank deposits experienced an unusual taphonomic history that, besides climate, was affected by recurrent events of reworking produced by the depositional agents dominant in the surrounding alluvial plains. The conclusions obtained here concerning the main taphonomic settings and formative processes that characterize fossil vertebrate assemblages of tank deposits will help further studies aimed to recover information on the paleoecology of Quaternary fauna collected in such deposits by allowing a better understanding of their time and spatial resolutions and other potential biases.

  5. 33 CFR 20.605 - Depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... questions and responses that were noted at the taking of the deposition and that would have been sustained if the witness had been personally present and testifying at a hearing, a deposition may be offered... taken by telephone conference call upon such terms, conditions, and arrangements as are prescribed in...

  6. Global reactive nitrogen deposition from lightning NOx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepon, A.; Gildor, H.; Labrador, L.J.; Butler, T.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of the deposition of nitrogen compounds formed from lightning (LNO x ) using the global chemical transport Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry¿Max Planck Institute for Chemistry version. The model indicates an approximately equal deposition of LNO x in both terrestrial

  7. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  8. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...

  9. 32 CFR 807.6 - Depositing payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depositing payments. 807.6 Section 807.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION SALE TO THE PUBLIC § 807.6 Depositing payments. Obtain instructions from the local Accounting and Finance Office...

  10. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods

  11. 37 CFR 2.208 - Deposit accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deposit accounts. 2.208 Section 2.208 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Fees and Payment of Money in Trademark Cases § 2.208 Deposit...

  12. Deposition and Investigation of Hydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safonov Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluoropolymer coatings of different morphologies are deposited by the HWCVD (Hot Wire CVD method. The effect of activator filament temperature on the structure of fluoropolymer coating is shown. The results of studying the hydrophobic fluoropolymer coatings with different structures, deposited by the HWCVD method, are presented.

  13. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ash deposition on boiler surfaces is a major problem encountered during biomass combustion. Ash deposition adversely influences the boiler efficiency, may corrode heat transfer surfaces, and may even completely block flue gas channels in severe cases, causing expensive unscheduled boiler shutdown...

  14. Chemistry of deposit formation in distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazlett, R.N.; Power, A.J.; Kelso, A.G.; Solly, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of deposit formation in distillate fuels was investigated at 65 and 80 C for time peroids equivalent to up to four years ambient storage. The chemical environment was varied by using different fuels, fuel blends, deposit promoters, and stabilzers. Blends of light cycle oil (LCO) in straight-run automotive distillate oil (ADO) were studied in most detail. A variety of carboxylic acids, a sulfonic acid, thiophenol, and caustic extract from LCO (primarily phenols) increased deposit formation, some very dramatically. For the carboxylic acids, a linear relationship was found between the hydrogen ion concentration calculated from pK/sub a/ values for water solutions and the amount of deposit formed. These acids enhanced deposit formation by catalytic action and are not incorporated into the deposit. Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid and thiophenol were both strong deposit promoters, the latter deriving its major activity through partial conversion to benzenesulfonic acid during fuel stress. The phenols in the LCO caustic extract react via oxidative coupling to increase molecular size and develop low solubility in the fuel. A tertiary aliphatic amine stabilzer was effective for reducing the amounts of deposits from most stressed fuels and from all blends tested.

  15. The geomicrobiology of bauxite deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiluo Hao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite deposits are studied because of their economic value and because they play an important role in the study of paleoclimate and paleogeography of continents. They provide a rare record of the weathering and evolution of continental surfaces. Geomicrobiological analysis makes it possible to verify that microorganisms have played a critical role during the formation of bauxite with the possibility already intimated in previous studies. Ambient temperature, abundance of water, organic carbon and bioavailable iron and other metal substrates provide a suitable environment for microbes to inhabit. Thiobacillus, Leptospirilum, Thermophilic bacteria and Heterotrophs have been shown to be able to oxidize ferrous iron and to reduce sulfate-generating sulfuric acid, which can accelerate the weathering of aluminosilicates and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. Microorganisms referred to the genus Bacillus can mediate the release of alkaline metals. Although the dissimilatory iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in bauxites have not yet been identified, some recorded authigenic carbonates and “bacteriopyrites” that appear to be unique in morphology and grain size might record microbial activity. Typical bauxite minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite, covellite, galena, pyrite, zircon, calcium plagioclase, orthoclase, and albite have been investigated as part of an analysis of microbial mediation. The paleoecology of such bauxitic microorganisms inhabiting continental (sub surfaces, revealed through geomicrobiological analysis, will add a further dimension to paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies.

  16. Assistive Technology and Affective Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor Garay; Idoia Cearreta; Juan Miguel López; Inmaculada Fajardo

    2006-01-01

    The lack of attention towards affective communication in assistive technology and disability research can be potentially overcome thanks to the development of affective computing and affective mediation areas. This document describes the main impairments and disorders that may involve affective communication deficits. We also present several affective mediation technologies that are being applied or may be integrated in assistive technologies in order to improve affective communication for a ...

  17. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  18. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...

  19. [Active euthanasia, or assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-10-01

    Both active euthanasia and assisted suicide are legal in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and, most recently, in Canada. Examination of national legislations of countries where both active euthanasia and assisted suicide are legal. The number of accomplished active euthanasia cases and that of assisted suicide cases. Analysis of national statistical data. Comparison of statistical data before and after 2010. Comparison of the related practices in the surveyed countries. The number of active euthanasia cases markedly predominates over the number of assisted suicide cases. Cancer is a main reason for active euthanasia, or assisted suicide. In countries with a larger population, the number of active euthanasia cases is higher than that in countries with a smaller population. Regarding the fact that the applicants for active euthanasia withdraw their requests in a smaller number than the applicants for assisted suicide, patients prefer the choice of active euthanasia. Since the related legislative product is too recent in Canada at present, it may be only presumed that a certain preference will also develop in the related practices in Canada. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(40), 1595-1600.

  20. Robot-assisted general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazey, Jeffrey W; Melvin, W Scott

    2004-06-01

    With the initiation of laparoscopic techniques in general surgery, we have seen a significant expansion of minimally invasive techniques in the last 16 years. More recently, robotic-assisted laparoscopy has moved into the general surgeon's armamentarium to address some of the shortcomings of laparoscopic surgery. AESOP (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA) addressed the issue of visualization as a robotic camera holder. With the introduction of the ZEUS robotic surgical system (Computer Motion), the ability to remotely operate laparoscopic instruments became a reality. US Food and Drug Administration approval in July 2000 of the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) further defined the ability of a robotic-assist device to address limitations in laparoscopy. This includes a significant improvement in instrument dexterity, dampening of natural hand tremors, three-dimensional visualization, ergonomics, and camera stability. As experience with robotic technology increased and its applications to advanced laparoscopic procedures have become more understood, more procedures have been performed with robotic assistance. Numerous studies have shown equivalent or improved patient outcomes when robotic-assist devices are used. Initially, robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy was deemed safe, and now robotics has been shown to be safe in foregut procedures, including Nissen fundoplication, Heller myotomy, gastric banding procedures, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These techniques have been extrapolated to solid-organ procedures (splenectomy, adrenalectomy, and pancreatic surgery) as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic colectomy. In this chapter, we review the evolution of robotic technology and its applications in general surgical procedures.