WorldWideScience

Sample records for assisted batch reaction-separation

  1. Computer aided design, analysis and experimental investigation of membrane assisted batch reaction-separation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz; Buchaly, Carsten; Kreis, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    into account the performance of each constituent element and the optimisation of the design must take into consideration their interdependency. In this paper use of a membrane, to assist in the synthesis of propyl-propionate is investigated through the use of a hybrid process design framework, which consists...... of a process design/analysis stage, a process implementation stage and a process verification stage. For the hybrid process design/analysis stage, a model-based methodology has been developed and integrated with the necessary computer-aided methods/tools to identify the operational window of reaction......Membrane assisted batch reaction operation offers an interesting option for equilibrium limited reaction systems in chemical and biochemical manufacturing by selective removal of one of the products and thereby increasing the product yield. The design of such hybrid systems need to take...

  2. High frequency ultrasonic-assisted CO2 absorption in a high pressure water batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, W H; Lau, K K; Shariff, A M

    2016-11-01

    Physical absorption process is always nullified by the presence of cavitation under low frequency ultrasonic irradiation. In the present study, high frequency ultrasonic of 1.7MHz was used for the physical absorption of CO2 in a water batch system under elevated pressure. The parameters including ultrasonic power and initial feed pressure for the system have been varied from 0 to 18W and 6 to 41bar, respectively. The mass transfer coefficient has been determined via the dynamic pressure-step method. Besides, the actual ultrasonic power that transmitted to the liquid was measured based on calorimetric method prior to the absorption study. Subsequently, desorption study was conducted as a comparison with the absorption process. The mechanism for the ultrasonic assisted absorption has also been discussed. Based on the results, the mass transfer coefficient has increased with the increasing of ultrasonic power. It means that, the presence of streaming effect and the formation of liquid fountain is more favorable under high frequency ultrasonic irradiation for the absorption process. Therefore, high frequency ultrasonic irradiation is suggested to be one of the potential alternatives for the gas separation process with its promising absorption enhancement and compact design. PMID:27245970

  3. Biodiesel and FAME synthesis assisted by microwaves: Homogeneous batch and flow processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hernando; P. Leton; M.P. Matia; J.L. Novella; J. Alvarez-Builla [Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain). Planta Piloto de Quimica Fina

    2007-07-15

    Fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) have been prepared under microwave irradiation, using homogeneous catalysis, either in batch or in a flow system. The quality of the biodiesel obtained has been confirmed by GC analysis of the isolated product. While the initial experiments have been performed in a small scale laboratory batch reactor, the best experiment has been straightforward converted into a stop-flow process, by the use of a microwave flow system. Compared with conventional heating methods, the process using microwaves irradiation proved to be a faster method for alcoholysis of triglycerides with methanol, leading to high yields of FAME. Short communication. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Blending Novatein¯ thermoplastic protein with PLA for carbon dioxide assisted batch foaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walallavita, Anuradha; Verbeek, Casparus J. R.; Lay, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The convenience of polymeric foams has led to their widespread utilisation in everyday life. However, disposal of synthetic petroleum-derived foams has had a detrimental effect on the environment which needs to be addressed. This study uses a clean and sustainable approach to investigate the foaming capability of a blend of two biodegradable polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and Novatein® Thermoplastic Protein (NTP). PLA, derived from corn starch, can successfully be foamed using a batch technique developed by the Biopolymer Network Ltd. NTP is a patented formulation of bloodmeal and chemical additives which can be extruded and injection moulded similar to other thermoplastics. However, foaming NTP is a new area of study and its interaction with blowing agents in the batch process is entirely unknown. Subcritical and supercritical carbon dioxide have been examined individually in two uniquely designed pressure vessels to foam various compositions of NTP-PLA blends. Foamed material were characterised in terms of expansion ratio, cell size, and cellular morphology in order to study how the composition of NTP-PLA affects foaming with carbon dioxide. It was found that blends with 5 wt. % NTP foamed using subcritical CO2 expanded up to 11 times due to heterogeneous nucleation. Morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that foams blown with supercritical CO2 had a finer cell structure with consistent cell size, whereas, foams blown with subcritical CO2 ranged in cell size and showed cell wall rupture. Ultimately, this research would contribute to the production of a biodegradable foam material to be used in packaging applications, thereby adding to the application potential of NTP.

  5. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality. PMID:23481637

  6. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Wajsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min, higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  7. Development of an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay to quantify foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-capsid proteins in vaccine-antigen batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria; Martínez, Manuel Rosendo; Schielen, Wilhelmus Joseph Gerardus

    2010-09-14

    In many countries, foot and mouth disease (FMD) is controlled by vaccination and surveillance against non-capsid proteins (NCP); therefore vaccines are required not to induce antibodies against NCP. Vaccine purity is evaluated by repeated inoculation of naïve cattle, an expensive and time consuming protocol that raises several animal welfare concerns. We have developed an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (FAL-ELISA), to detect and quantify NCP in vaccine-antigen batches regardless of its volume and composition. Samples are filtered through PVDF-filter microplates pre-coated with a monoclonal antibody against NCP. Filtration removes all unbound components in the sample and captured NCP are detected by anti-NCP conjugate followed by incubation with the substrate, luminol/peroxide. Analytical detection limit was 2 ng for purified NCP and 4 ng for vaccine-antigen batches spiked with NCP, which makes this assay sensitive enough to be applied to purity control of FMD vaccines. Vaccine components did not interfere with the antibody and substrate reactions in the assay. FAL-ELISA is an alternative for the in vivo tests, observing the objective to Replace, Reduce and Refine the use of animals for quality control of immunobiologicals.

  8. Multiphase surfactant-assisted reaction-separation system in a microchannel reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah ALJBOUR; Tomohiko TAGAWA; Mohammad MATOUQ; Hiroshi YAMADA

    2009-01-01

    The Lewis acid-catalyzed addition of tri-methylsilyl cyanide to p-chlorobenzaldehyde in a micro-channel reactor was investigated. The microchannel was integrated to promote both reaction and separation of the biphase system. FeF3 and Cu(triflate)2 were used as water-stable Lewis acid catalysts. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was incorporated in the organic-aqueous system to enhance the reactivity and to manipulate the multiphase flow inside the microchannel. It was found that the dynamics and the kinetics of the multiphase reaction were affected by the new micellar system. Parallel multiphase flow inside the microchannel was obtained, allowing for continuous and acceptable phase separation. Enhanced selectivity was achieved by operating at lower conversion values.

  9. A Systematic Approach for the Design and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems with Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a systematic model-based analysis and the results obtained from it for an integrated design and analysis of reaction-separation systems with recycle. The methodology (systematic approach) consists of three stages where stage 1 identifies the limiting values o...

  10. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  11. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  12. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  13. Dynamic Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms try to optimize an unknown function that is expensive to evaluate using minimum number of evaluations/experiments. Most of the proposed algorithms in BO are sequential, where only one experiment is selected at each iteration. This method can be time inefficient when each experiment takes a long time and more than one experiment can be ran concurrently. On the other hand, requesting a fix-sized batch of experiments at each iteration causes performance inefficiency in BO compared to the sequential policies. In this paper, we present an algorithm that asks a batch of experiments at each time step t where the batch size p_t is dynamically determined in each step. Our algorithm is based on the observation that the sequence of experiments selected by the sequential policy can sometimes be almost independent from each other. Our algorithm identifies such scenarios and request those experiments at the same time without degrading the performance. We evaluate our proposed method us...

  14. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  15. Column and Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch and column experiments were performed to determine the Cu(II binding capacity of silica-immobilized humin biomass. For column studies, 500 bed volumes of a 0.1 mM Cu(II solution were passed through humin packed columns at the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mL/min. The biopolymer showed an average Cu binding capacity of 12 ± 1.5 mg/g and a Cu recovery of about 96.5 % ± 1.5. The breakthrough points for Cu(II alone were approximately 420, 390, 385, and 300 bed volumes for the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mL/min, respectively. The interference studies demonstrated that at low concentrations, the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II did not seem to represent a major interference on Cu(II binding to the humin biopolymer. The selectivity showed by this biopolymer was Cu(II>Ca(II>Mg(II. On the other hand, batch experiments showed that Ca(II + Mg(II at 100mM each reduced the Cu(II binding to 73 %. However, 1000 mM concentrations of Ca(II and Mg(II, separately and in mixture, reduced the Cu(II binding to 47 %, 44 % and 31 %, respectively. The results of this study showed that immobilized humin in a silica matrix could represent an inexpensive bio-source for Cu removal from contaminated water, even in the presence of low concentrations of the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II.

  16. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  17. BatchJobs and BatchExperiments: Abstraction Mechanisms for Using R in Batch Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Bischl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of statistical algorithms often demands time-consuming experiments. We present two R packages which greatly simplify working in batch computing environments. The package BatchJobs implements the basic objects and procedures to control any batch cluster from within R. It is structured around cluster versions of the well-known higher order functions Map, Reduce and Filter from functional programming. Computations are performed asynchronously and all job states are persistently stored in a database, which can be queried at any point in time. The second package, BatchExperiments, is tailored for the still very general scenario of analyzing arbitrary algorithms on problem instances. It extends package BatchJobs by letting the user define an array of jobs of the kind apply algorithm A to problem instance P and store results. It is possible to associate statistical designs with parameters of problems and algorithms and therefore to systematically study their influence on the results. The packages main features are: (a Convenient usage: All relevant batch system operations are either handled internally or mapped to simple R functions. (b Portability: Both packages use a clear and well-defined interface to the batch system which makes them applicable in most high-performance computing environments. (c Reproducibility: Every computational part has an associated seed to ensure reproducibility even when the underlying batch system changes. (d Abstraction and good software design: The code layers for algorithms, experiment definitions and execution are cleanly separated and enable the writing of readable and maintainable code.

  18. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemier, D.

    2014-01-01

    None of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to our favourite

  19. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Medina-Rivero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  20. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  1. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  2. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  3. Batching System for Superior Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  4. NDA Batch 2002-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  5. Batch-oriented software appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Murri, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents AppPot, a system for creating Linux software appliances. AppPot can be run as a regular batch or grid job and executed in user space, and requires no special virtualization support in the infrastructure. The main design goal of AppPot is to bring the benefits of a virtualization-based IaaS cloud to existing batch-oriented computing infrastructures. In particular, AppPot addresses the application deployment and configuration on large heterogeneous computing infrastructures: users are enabled to prepare their own customized virtual appliance for providing a safe execution environment for their applications. These appliances can then be executed on virtually any computing infrastructure being in a private or public cloud as well as any batch-controlled computing clusters the user may have access to. We give an overview of AppPot and its features, the technology that makes it possible, and report on experiences running it in production use within the Swiss National Grid infrastructure SMSCG.

  6. 间歇结晶过程的分批优化%Batch-to-batch Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woranee Paengjuntuek; Paisan Kittisupakorn; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

    2008-01-01

    It is the fact that several process parameters are either unknown or uncertain. Therefore, an optimal control profile calculated with developed process models with respect to such process parameters may not give an optimal performance when implemented to real processes. This study proposes a batch-to-batch optimization strat-egy for the estimation of uncertain kinetic parameters in a batch crystallization process of potassium sulfate produc-tion. The knowledge of a crystal size distribution of the product at the end of batch operation is used in the proposedmethodology. The updated kinetic parameters are applied for determining an optimal operating temperature policy for the next batch run.

  7. Combinatorial Batch Codes with Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jiyoon; Mummert, Carl; Niese, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Michael w.

    2015-01-01

    A combinatorial batch code with redundancy $r$ and parameters $(n,k,m,t)$ can be represented as a system $C$ of $m$ (not necessarily distinct) subsets of an underlying $n$-element set $F$, so that each $k$-subset of $F$ can be covered by every $(m-r)$-subset $K$ of $C$ while taking no more than $t$ elements of $F$ with each set in $K$. The sum of the cardinalities of the sets in $C$ is the weight of the code. We focus on the case $t =1$, and determine the minimal weight for several ranges of ...

  8. Batch process design: an overview from control

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga Bedoya, Christian Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: batch process design: an overview from control In this work, the topic of batch process design is addressed, through an analysis of the phenomenological-based model and using set-theoretic methods to deduce process constraints and parametric effects in state controllability. A review of literature is presented about characterization of batch process from point of view of design problem. Furthermore simultaneous process and control design is also reviewed, considering the main contri...

  9. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  10. Batch process. Changes and problems of a batch process; Bacchi prosesu no hensen to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, T. [Asahi Engineering (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    One of the characteristics of the manufacture of fine chemical products is multikind production. The life cycles of chemical industrial products have become shorter, and the difference between these life cycles and those of the manufacturing facility has become larger. The use of an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) has been demanded as the measure for solving the problems, and the advantages of a batch process have begun to be reconsidered. This paper describes the history of the development of a batch process, and then explains the problems of a batch process. The paper mentions the process control techniques, production information control systems, production support systems, training systems and process simulation systems as the main techniques supporting the development of a batch process. The paper mentions the modeling and standardizing of a batch process, systematic batch process designing methods and the modeling of a production control information system as the problems of a batch process. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  12. An order-picking operations system for managing the batching activities in a warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cathy H. Y.; Choy, K. L.; Ho, G. T. S.; Lee, C. K. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.

  13. Batch process. Application of CAE technique to a batch process; Bacchi purosesu eno CAE gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Nakai, K.; Oba, S. [Aspentic Japan Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    This paper introduces recent topics of the application of the CAE technique to a batch process. A batch distillation modeling tool (BATCHFRAC) is aimed at modeling a distillation tower and a batch reactor for a batch process for fine chemical products, and is provided as an expanded additional function for ASPEN FLUS batch distillation. A batch process designing system (BATCH PLUS) is a comprehensive batch process simulator for efficiently carrying out the designing, the development or the analysis of a complicated recipe-based batch process concerning medical treatment, biotechnology and agriculture. A batch process information control system (Batch/21) is provided as a system having an expanded and additional function for a batch process of InfoPlus/21, an information control system which enables the observation, management and controlling of a process. 4 figs.

  14. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani;

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  15. Applying prior knowledge to model batch keeping-quality of cucumber batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.; Jongbloed, G.

    2004-01-01

    Keeping-quality of individual cucumbers is limited by the green colour; the keeping-quality of batches of cucumbers is limited by the time it takes before 5␘f the cucumbers in the batch reach a predefined colour limit. From literature concerning the synthesis and degradation of chlorophyll and a pub

  16. Quality and Batch-to-Batch Consistency of Original and Biosimilar Epoetin Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Liem Andhyk; Brinks, Vera; Jiskoot, Wim; Romeijn, Stefan; Haselberg, Rob; Burns, Chris; Wadhwa, Meenu; Schellekens, Huub

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and biological assays are essential parts in assessing quality attributes of biologicals. Here, we compared the quality of different marketed recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) products: originators, Eprex and NeoRecormon as well as 2 biosimilars, Retacrit and Binocrit. In addition, assessment of batch-to-batch variability was included by collecting 2 or more batches of each product. Common assays which included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, capillary zone electrophoresis, and potency testing were used. Of the tested products and among batches of single products, variations in epoetin content, isoform profiles, and potency were found. Ultimately, this study demonstrated the high quality of epoetin products with some degree of variation among products and batches, confirming the "similar but not identical" paradigm of biologicals. PMID:26869417

  17. Dynamic Fractional Resource Scheduling vs. Batch Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Vivien, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel job scheduling approach for homogeneous cluster computing platforms. Its key feature is the use of virtual machine technology to share fractional node resources in a precise and controlled manner. Other VM-based scheduling approaches have focused primarily on technical issues or on extensions to existing batch scheduling systems, while we take a more aggressive approach and seek to find heuristics that maximize an objective metric correlated with job performance. We derive absolute performance bounds and develop algorithms for the online, non-clairvoyant version of our scheduling problem. We further evaluate these algorithms in simulation against both synthetic and real-world HPC workloads and compare our algorithms to standard batch scheduling approaches. We find that our approach improves over batch scheduling by orders of magnitude in terms of job stretch, while leading to comparable or better resource utilization. Our results demonstrate that virtualization technology coupled with light...

  18. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner of the tr......The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  19. Intact cell mass spectrometry as a progress tracking tool for batch and fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmel, Michaela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Raus, Martin; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Šebela, Marek; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production during a fermentation process using industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum is a research topic permanently discussed since the accidental discovery of the antibiotic. Intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) can be a fast and novel monitoring tool for the fermentation progress during penicillin V production in a nearly real-time fashion. This method is already used for the characterization of microorganisms and the differentiation of fungal strains; therefore, the application of ICMS to samples directly harvested from a fermenter is a promising possibility to get fast information about the progress of fungal growth. After the optimization of the ICMS method to penicillin V fermentation broth samples, the obtained ICMS data were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis or an in-house software solution written especially for ICMS data comparison. Growth stages of a batch and fed-batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum are differentiated by one of those statistical approaches. The application of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) instruments in the linear positive ion mode from different vendors demonstrated the universal applicability of the developed ICMS method. The base for a fast and easy-to-use method for monitoring the fermentation progress of P. chrysogenum is created with this ICMS method developed especially for fermentation broth samples.

  20. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.;

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  1. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  2. Batch process. Optimum designing and operation of a batch process; Bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-05

    Since the control of a batch process becomes dynamic, it becomes necessary to handle the process differently from a continuous process in terms of the designing, operating and controlling of the process. This paper describes the characteristics and the problems to be solved of a batch process from three points of view, the designing, operation and controlling of the process. A major problem of a batch process is the designing difficulty. In a batch process, the amount of products capable of being manufactured per unit time by each apparatus and that by the whole plant structured by combining apparatuses are different, and therefore the time and apparatus capacity are wasted in some cases. The actual designing of a batch process involves various factors, such as the seasonal fluctuation of demand for products, the possibility of expanding the apparatuses in the future and the easiness of controlling the process, and the shipment of products during consecutive holidays and periodic maintenance, which are not included in the formulation of mathematical programming problems. Regarding the optimum operation of a batch process and the controlling of the same, descriptions of forming of a dynamic optimum operation pattern and verification of the sequence control system are given. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guo-qing; KONG Qing; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB.

  4. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  5. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  6. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the popula tion balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics, kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  7. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧萍; 王静康

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the population balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics,kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  8. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents provisions. 63.1321... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  10. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  11. Batch Model for Batched Timestamps Data Analysis with Application to the SSA Disability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingqi; Yuan, Ao; Che, Xuan; Huynh, Minh; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) is responsible for holding hearings, issuing decisions, and reviewing appeals as part of the Social Security Administration’s disability determining process. In order to control and process cases, the ODAR has established a Case Processing and Management System (CPMS) to record management information since December 2003. The CPMS provides a detailed case status history for each case. Due to the large number of appeal requests and limited resources, the number of pending claims at ODAR was over one million cases by March 31, 2015. Our National Institutes of Health (NIH) team collaborated with SSA and developed a Case Status Change Model (CSCM) project to meet the ODAR’s urgent need of reducing backlogs and improve hearings and appeals process. One of the key issues in our CSCM project is to estimate the expected service time and its variation for each case status code. The challenge is that the systems recorded job departure times may not be the true job finished times. As the CPMS timestamps data of case status codes showed apparent batch patterns, we proposed a batch model and applied the constrained least squares method to estimate the mean service times and the variances. We also proposed a batch search algorithm to determine the optimal batch partition, as no batch partition was given in the real data. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Finally, we applied the method to analyze a real CPMS data from ODAR/SSA.

  12. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  13. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  14. Brunovsky Normal Form of Monod Kinetics Models and Growth Rate Control of a Fed-batch Cultivation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Y.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical methodology that gives assistance to design of fed-batch stabilization and control is presented. The methodology is based both on Utility theory and optimal Control theory. The Utility theory deals with the expressed subjective preferences and allows for the expert preferences to be taken in consideration in complex biotechnological systems as criteria for control and optimization. The Control theory is used for parameters stabilization of a fed-batch cultivation process. The control is written based on information of the growth rate. The simulations show good efficiency of the control laws.

  15. Production of ethanol in batch and fed-batch fermentation of soluble sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping in view of the demand and need for alternate energy source, especially liquid fuels and the availability of raw materials in Pakistan, we have carried out biochemical and technological studies for ethanol through fermentation of renewable substrates. Molasses and sugar cane have been used as substrate for yeast fermentation. Selected yeast were used in both batch and semi continuous fermentation of molasses. Clarified dilute molasses were fermented with different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol concentration after 64 hours batch fermentation reached 9.4% with 90% yield based on sugar content. During feed batch system similar results were obtained after a fermentation cycle of 48 hours resulting in higher productivity. Similarly carbohydrates in fruit juices and hydro lysates of biomass can be economically fermented to ethanol to be used as feed stock for other chemicals. (author)

  16. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  17. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  18. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  19. PBSNG—Batch System for Farm Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Fromm; K.Genser; 等

    2001-01-01

    FBSNG [1] is a redesigned version of Farm Batch System (FBS[1]),which was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at FNAL.FBSNG is designed for UNIX computer farms and is capable of managing up to 1000 nodes in a single farm.FBSNG allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on one or more farm computers,It uses a simplified abstract resource counting method for load balancing between computers.The resource counting approach allows FBSNG to be a simple and flexible tool for farm resource management.FBSNG scheduler features include guaranteed and controllable” fair-share” scheduling.FBSNG is easily portable across different flavors of UNIX.The system has been successfully used at Fermilab as well as by off-site collaborators for several years on farms of different sizes and different platforms for off-line data processing,Monte-Carlo data generation and other tasks.

  20. Batch-to-batch pharmacokinetic variability confounds current bioequivalence regulations: A dry powder inhaler randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister Getz, E; Carroll, K J; Jones, B; Benet, L Z

    2016-09-01

    Current pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence guidelines do not account for batch-to-batch variability in study design or analysis. Here we evaluate the magnitude of batch-to-batch PK variability for Advair Diskus 100/50. Single doses of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combinations were administered by oral inhalation to healthy subjects in a randomized clinical crossover study comparing three different batches purchased from the market, with one batch replicated across two treatment periods. All pairwise comparisons between different batches failed the PK bioequivalence statistical test, demonstrating substantial PK differences between batches that were large enough to demonstrate bio-inequivalence in some cases. In contrast, between-replicate PK bioequivalence was demonstrated for the replicated batch. Between-batch variance was ∼40-70% of the estimated residual error. This large additional source of variability necessitates re-evaluation of bioequivalence assessment criteria to yield a result that is both generalizable and consistent with the principles of type I and type II error rate control. PMID:27037630

  1. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overwhelming majority of residents are female. Assisted Living Philosophy The philosophy of assisted living is to provide personalized, resident ... loved ones to learn about the care provider philosophy . Freedom of Choice The most progressive state regulations ...

  2. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  3. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific training over and above a degree in science, nursing, physician assisting, or another health profession. Prerequisites . Recommended eligibility requirements for admission into a surgical assisting program are: Bachelor of Science degree (or higher) Associate degree in an allied ...

  4. Melting Properties of Loose and Granulated Glass Batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; DENG Zhenglu; XIE Jun; CHENG Jinshu; HAN Jianjun; ZHOU Xuedong

    2014-01-01

    The physical properties, the pre-reacting performance and melting properties of the loose glass batch and the granulated glass batch were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that compacted glass batch could reduce dust, use ultra-fine powder, and improve heat transfer efficiency. When loose glass batch was compressed into granular, the thermal conductivity was increased from 0.273 W/m•℃to 0.430 W/m•℃, the activation energy Ea of pre-reacting decreased from 178.77 kJ/mol to 143.30 kJ/mol. Using the pre-reacted granular glass batch can significantly reduce the melting time, increase the batch melting rate, and decrease the heat consumption of 1kg molten glass from 3591.24 to 3277.03kJ/kg.

  5. Adaptive quality prediction of batch processes based on PLS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-fu; ZHANG Jie; WANG Gui-zeng

    2006-01-01

    There are usually no on-line product quality measurements in batch and semi-batch processes,which make the process control task very difficult.In this paper,a model for predicting the end-product quality from the available on-line process variables at the early stage of a batch is developed using partial least squares (PLS)method.Furthermore,some available mid-course quality measurements are used to rectify the final prediction results.To deal with the problem that the process may change with time,recursive PLS (RPLS) algorithm is used to update the model based on the new batch data and the old model parameters after each batch.An application to a simulated batch MMA polymerization process demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  7. ENGINEERING CONTRACT ON FY-2 BATCH 2 SATELLITES SIGNED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    The signing ceremony of the Engineering Contract on FY-2 Batch 2 (FY-2 02) Satellites was held in Beijing by Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) on August 31, 2004. The contract on the development and manufacture of FY-2 batch 2 satellites and the contract on the launch, test and control of FY-2 Batch 2 satellites were signed by China Meteorological Administration (CMA),

  8. ADVANCES ON BILINEAR MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL BATCH PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This thesis is aimed to study the implications of the statistical modeling approaches proposed for the bilinear modeling of batch processes, develop new techniques to overcome some of the problems that have not been yet solved and apply them to data of biochemical processes. The study, discussion and development of the new methods revolve around the four steps of the modeling cycle, from the alignment, preprocessing and calibration of batch data to the monitoring of batches trajectories....

  9. A Survey of Batch Cataloging Practices and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Groups of bibliographic records are added to library catalogs with increasing frequency. Batch cataloging requires knowledge of bulk record transfer as well as current cataloging standards. While more efficient than cataloging items individually, batch cataloging requires different skills and creates new challenges. Responses to a wide-ranging online survey document the workload, tools, practices, and problems of batch cataloging. The unique characteristics of electronic resources affect many...

  10. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northen, Michael T.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2005-08-01

    The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel conformal structure to greatly increase inelastic surface contact, enhancing short range interactions and producing significant amounts of attractive forces. Recent work has attempted to reproduce and test the terminal submicrometre 'hairs' of the system. Here we report the first batch fabricated multi-scale conformal system to mimic nature's dry adhesive. The approach makes use of massively parallel MEMS processing technology to produce 20-150 µm platforms, supported by single slender pillars, and coated with ~2 µm long, ~200 nm diameter, organic looking polymer nanorods, or 'organorods'. To characterize the structures a new mesoscale nanoindenter adhesion test technique has been developed. Experiments indicate significantly improved adhesion with the multiscale system. Additional processing caused a hydrophilic to hydrophobic transformation of the surface and testing indicated further improvement in adhesion.

  11. Batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation in the fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Yu, Yong-Jian; Li, Guo-Quan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar is a mixed-culture refreshment process that proceeds for many centuries without spoilage. Here, we investigated bacterial community succession and flavor formation in three batches of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using pyrosequencing and metabolomics approaches. Temporal patterns of bacterial succession in the Pei (solid-state vinegar culture) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among three batches of fermentation. In all the batches investigated, the average number of community operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased dramatically from 119 ± 11 on day 1 to 48 ± 16 on day 3, and then maintained in the range of 61 ± 9 from day 5 to the end of fermentation. We confirmed that, within a batch of fermentation process, the patterns of bacterial diversity between the starter (took from the last batch of vinegar culture on day 7) and the Pei on day 7 were similar (90%). The relative abundance dynamics of two dominant members, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, showed high correlation (coefficient as 0.90 and 0.98 respectively) among different batches. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed dynamics of 16 main flavor metabolites were stable among different batches. The findings validate the batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation accounts for the quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Based on our understanding, this is the first study helps to explain the rationality of age-old artistry from a scientific perspective. PMID:25998816

  12. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  13. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Improved batch correction in untargeted MS-based metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrens, Ron; Hageman, Jos A.; Eeuwijk, van Fred; Kooke, Rik; Flood, Pádraic J.; Wijnker, Erik; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Lommen, Arjen; Eekelen, van Henriëtte D.L.M.; Hall, Robert D.; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Batch effects in large untargeted metabolomics experiments are almost unavoidable, especially when sensitive detection techniques like mass spectrometry (MS) are employed. In order to obtain peak intensities that are comparable across all batches, corrections need to be performed. S

  15. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling o

  16. Communication and control in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part manufactu

  17. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...... to fish length and weight. Significant differences in absolute and relative batch fecundity of Baltic sprat among areas and years were detected, and could partly be explained by hydrographic features of the investigated areas. A non-linear multiple regression model taking into account fish length...... and ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...

  18. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  19. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J; Humrickhouse, Carissa J; Moody, J Adam; Tate, Rachel M; Rainsdon, Timothy T; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E; Arrigoni, Benjamin M; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-03-29

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5-μm in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800°C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass-forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, ±75 μm in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800°C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160°C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, MgO, and Na2O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  20. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1996-01-23

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.

  1. Biodegradability of industrial textile wastewater - batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Wrębiak, Julita; Liwarska-Bizukojć, Ewa; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Following new trends we applied oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests as well as long-term tests (in two batch bioreactors systems) in order to assess the biodegradability of textile wastewater. Effluents coming from a dyeing factory were divided into two streams which differed in inorganic and organic contaminants loads. Usefulness of the stream division was proved. Biodegradation of the low-loaded stream led to over 97% reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) together with 80% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Most of the controlled parameter values were below the levels allowed by legislation for influents to surface water, whereas the high-loaded stream was so contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds that despite the reduction of BOD5 by over 95%, COD, TOC, total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels exceeded permissible values. OUR tests were aimed at determination of the following kinetic parameters: maximum specific growth rate (μMax), half-saturation constant, hydrolysis constant and decay coefficient for activated sludge biomass for both types of textile wastewater studied. The values of kinetic parameters will be applied in activated sludge models used for prediction and optimisation of biological treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:27642827

  2. Batch-to-batch learning for model-based control of process systems with application to cooling crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forgione, M.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, the term process refers to a conversion of raw materials into intermediate or final products using chemical, physical, or biological operations. Industrial processes can be performed either in continuous or in batch mode. There exist for instance continuous and batch

  3. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  4. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ... Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to... 6 to Subpart U of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  6. Batch-specific discrimination using nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakidou, Georgia; Jakobsson, Andreas; Althoefer, Kaspar; Barras, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the identification of batches of analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) tablets using nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy ((14)N NQR). The high sensitivity of NQR to the electron charge distribution surrounding the quadrupolar nucleus enables the unique characterization of the crystal structure of the material. Two hypothesis were tested on batches of the same brand: the within the same batch variability and the difference between batches that varied in terms of their batch number and expiry date. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) did not provide any within-batches variations, indicating the natural deviation of a medicine manufactured under the same conditions. Alternatively, the statistical analysis revealed a significant discrimination between the different batches of paracetamol tablets. Therefore, the NQR signal is an indicator of factors that influence the physical and chemical integrity of the material. Those factors might be the aging of the medicine, the manufacturing, or storage conditions. The results of this study illustrate the potential of NQR as promising technique in applications such as detection and authentication of counterfeit medicines.

  7. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  8. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price

  9. Batch cooling crystallization and pressure filtration of sulphathiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häkkinen, Antti; Pöllänen, Kati; Karjalainen, Milja;

    2005-01-01

    crystal suspensions obtained through an unseeded batch-cooling-crystallization process was studied. Sulphathiazole, which is an antibiotic agent with multiple polymorphic forms, was produced by performing laboratory-scale cooling crystallization experiments from five different mixtures of water and propan...... the samples obtained from different solvents. The crystals produced in the batch-cooling-crystallization experiments were separated from the crystallizing solvents using a batch-type pressure Nutsche filter, and the filtration characteristics of the suspensions were evaluated on the basis of average filter...

  10. A New Batch Verifying Scheme for Identifying Illegal Signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian Atanasiu

    2013-01-01

    The concept of batch verifying multiple digital signatures is to find a method by which multiple digital signatures can be verified simultaneously in a lower time complexity than separately verifying all the signatures.In this article,we analyze the complexity of the batch verifying schemes defined by Li,Hwang and Chen in 2010,and propose a new batch verifying multiple digital signature scheme,in two variants:one for RSA-by completing the Harn's schema with an identifying illegal signatures algorithm,and the other adapted for a modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm protocol.

  11. Optimal configuration, design and operation of batch distillation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Low, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to study the optimal configuration. design and operating policy of batch distillation processes in different separation scenarios. In so doing, this work also aims to provide conceptual insights and compare the performance of the traditional regular column against unconventional columns. In the first part of the thesis, the optimal operation of extractive batch distillation is investigated. A rigorous dynamic optimisation approach based o...

  12. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  13. Differences of silicon photodiode spectral reflectance among the same batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mu(n)oz Zurita; J.Campos Acosta; A.Pons Aglio; A.Shcherbakov

    2008-01-01

    Photodiode's reflectance plays an important role regarding the relation between responsivity and the incident flux. In this work we analyze how the spectral reflectance changes among photodiodes from the same manufacturer and batch and how the reflectance of three standard photodiodes has drifted during six years. The results show that the reflectance changes from diode to diode within the same batch and also show th.at the reflectance ofphotodiodes changes on time. This ageing is spectrally dependent.

  14. Dynamic Extensions of Batch Systems with Cloud Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compute clusters use Portable Batch Systems (PBS) to distribute workload among individual cluster machines. To extend standard batch systems to Cloud infrastructures, a new service monitors the number of queued jobs and keeps track of the price of available resources. This meta-scheduler dynamically adapts the number of Cloud worker nodes according to the requirement profile. Two different worker node topologies are presented and tested on the Amazon EC2 Cloud service.

  15. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan Sandra A.; Castro Heizir F. de

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose) or mixed (xylose and glucose) sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch culti...

  16. Shortcut Algorithm for Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huixiong; XU Shimin; HU Hui; XIAO Bin

    2007-01-01

    The batch extractive distillation (BED) process has the advantages of both batch and extractive distillation. It is one of the most promising means for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling point systems. However, so far this process has not been applied in industry due to its over-complexity. A new shortcut model was proposed to simulate the operation of the batch extractive distillation operations. This algorithm is based on the assumption that the batch extractive distillation column can be considered as a continuous extractive distillation column with changing feed at anytime. Namely, the whole batch process is simulated as a succession of a finite number of steady states of short duration, in which holdup is considered as constant mole. For each period of time the batch extractive distillation process is solved through the algorithm for continuous extractive distillation. Finally, the practical implementation of the shortcut model is discussed and data from the lab-oratory and literature are presented. It is found that this model has better adaptability, more satisfactory accuracy and less calculative load than previous rigorous model. Hence the algorithm for simulating BED is verified.

  17. Batch process monitoring based on multilevel ICA-PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang GE; Zhi-huan SONG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we describe a new batch process monitoring method based on multilevel independent component analysis and principal component analysis (MLICA-PCA).Unlike the conventional multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) method,MLICA-PCA provides a separated interpretation for multilevel batch process data.Batch process data are partitioned into two levels:the within-batch level and the between-batch level.In each level,the Gaussian and non-Ganssian components of process information can be separately extracted.I2,T2 and SPE statistics are individually built and monitored.The new method facilitates fault diagnosis.Since the two variation levels arc decomposed,the variables responsible for faults in each level can be identified and interpreted more easily.A case study of the Dupont benchmark process showed that the proposed method was more efficient and interpretable in fault detection and diagnosis,compared to the alternative batch process monitoring method.

  18. OPLS in batch monitoring - Opens up new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souihi, Nabil; Lindegren, Anders; Eriksson, Lennart; Trygg, Johan

    2015-02-01

    In batch statistical process control (BSPC), data from a number of "good" batches are used to model the evolution (trajectory) of the process and they also define model control limits, against which new batches may be compared. The benchmark methods used in BSPC include partial least squares (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). In this paper, we have used orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) in BSPC and compared the results with PLS and PCA. The experimental study used was a batch hydrogenation reaction of nitrobenzene to aniline characterized by both UV spectroscopy and process data. The key idea is that OPLS is able to separate the variation in data that is correlated to the process evolution (also known as 'batch maturity index') from the variation that is uncorrelated to process evolution. This separation of different types of variations can generate different batch trajectories and hence lead to different established model control limits to detect process deviations. The results demonstrate that OPLS was able to detect all process deviations and provided a good process understanding of the root causes for these deviations. PCA and PLS on the other hand were shown to provide different interpretations for several of these process deviations, or in some cases they were unable to detect actual process deviations. Hence, the use of OPLS in BSPC can lead to better fault detection and root cause analysis as compared to existing benchmark methods and may therefore be used to complement the existing toolbox. PMID:25604817

  19. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  20. Assisted Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear. PMID:25501776

  1. Effect of batch and fed-batch growth modes on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Diana Alexandra Ferreira; Almeida, Marta A. S.; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) biofilm formation feeding conditions (batch and fed-batch) at different temperatures on biofilm biomass and activity was determined. Biofilm biomass and cellular metabolic activity were assessed by Crystal Violet (CV) staining and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT) colorimetric method, respectively. Live/Dead staining was also performed in order to get microscopic visualization of ...

  2. Design and Application of Software Sensors in Batch and Fed-batch Cultivations during Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Warth, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    Software sensors are a potent tool to improve biotechnological real time process monitoring and control. In the current project, algorithms for six partly novel, software sensors were established and tested in a microbial reactor system. Eight batch and two fed-batch runs were carried out with a recombinant Escherichia coli to investigate the suitability of the different software sensor models in diverse cultivation stages. Special respect was given to effects on the sensors after recombinant...

  3. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not

  4. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  5. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  6. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  7. Hearing Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  8. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of a Group 1 batch process vent, as determined using the procedures in § 63.1323, shall comply with...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-recordkeeping... Batch process vents—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Group determination records for batch process vents... batch process vent subject to the group determination procedures of § 63.1323. Except for paragraph...

  12. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assumes that the batch unit operation is operating at the maximum design capacity of the EPPU for 12... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process...

  13. Fluoride and nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters by batch-mode capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wangwang; Kovalsky, Peter; He, Di; Waite, T David

    2015-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging water desalination technology in which pairs of porous electrodes are electrically charged to remove ionic species from water. In this work, the feasibility of fluoride and nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters by batch-mode CDI was investigated. Initially, the effects of flow rate, initial fluoride concentration, and initial coexisting NaCl concentration on fluoride removal were studied. The steady-state fluoride concentration declined as the initial fluoride concentration decreased while initial NaCl concentration remained constant. Due to the competitive electrosorption between fluoride and chloride for limited pore surface sites, a higher initial chloride concentration resulted in a higher equilibrium dissolved fluoride concentration. A simplified one-dimensional transport model for dual anions was developed and found to reliably describe the dynamic process of removal of both fluoride and chloride ions in CDI cells over a range of well-defined operating conditions. Based on the ability of the model to describe fluoride removal, it was extended to description of nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters and also found to perform well. Thus, the approach to description of ion removal, at least in batch studies, appears robust and should assist in optimization of design and operating conditions such that optimal removal of trace ionic species is achieved even when high background concentrations of salt are present. PMID:26278188

  14. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weimin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Criddle, Craig S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  15. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  16. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.)

    OpenAIRE

    Joël Wajsman; Farid Chemat; Sandrine Périno-Issartier; Loïc Petigny

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids suc...

  17. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen

    2009-01-01

    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  18. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring Approach to a Cocrystallization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O Dos; Lopes, João A

    2015-12-01

    Cocrystals are defined as crystalline structures composed of two or more compounds that are solid at room temperature held together by noncovalent bonds. Their main advantages are the increase of solubility, bioavailability, permeability, stability, and at the same time retaining active pharmaceutical ingredient bioactivity. The cocrystallization between furosemide and nicotinamide by solvent evaporation was monitored on-line using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical technology tool. The near-infrared spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis. Batch statistical process monitoring was used to create control charts to perceive the process trajectory and define control limits. Normal and non-normal operating condition batches were performed and monitored with NIRS. The use of NIRS associated with batch statistical process models allowed the detection of abnormal variations in critical process parameters, like the amount of solvent or amount of initial components present in the cocrystallization.

  19. Biogas plasticization coupled anaerobic digestion: batch test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Keith A

    2007-06-01

    Biogas has unique properties for improving the biodegradability of biomass solids during anaerobic digestion (AD). This report presents batch test results of the first investigation into utilizing biogas plasticization to "condition" organic polymers during active digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Preliminary design calculations based on polymer diffusion rate limitation are presented. Analysis of the 20 degrees C batch test data determined the first order (k(1)) COD conversion coefficient to be 0.167 day(-1) with a maximum COD utilization rate of 11.25 g L(-1) day(-1). Comparison of these batch test results to typical conventional AD performance parameters showed orders of magnitude improvement. These results show that biogas plasticization during active AD could greatly improve renewable energy yields from biomass waste materials such as MSW RDF, STP sludges, food wastes, animal manure, green wastes, and agricultural crop residuals. PMID:17054122

  20. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  1. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  2. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.;

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  3. Batch-related sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a series of patients with sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection from 2 different batches of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 eyes with severe inflammation after IVB injections from two different batches (7 eyes from one and 4 from the other on two separate days were evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients in one day were treated with one batch and 18 eyes of 17 patients were treated another day using another batch injected for different retinal diseases. Each batch was opened on the day of injection. We used commercially available bevacizumab (100 mg/4 ml kept at 4°C. Severe cases with hypopyon were admitted to the ward and underwent anterior chamber and vitreous tap for direct smear and culture. Results: Pain, redness and decreased vision began after 11-17 days. All had anterior chamber and vitreous reactions and 5 had hypopyon. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were initiated immediately, but the antibiotics were discontinued after negative culture results. Visual acuity returned to pre-injection levels in 10 eyes after 1 month and only in one eye pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Mean VA at the time of presentation with inflammation (1.76 ± 0.78 logMAR decreased significantly (P = 0.008 compared to the initial mean corrected VA (1.18 ± 0.55 logMAR; however, final mean corrected VA (1.02 ± 0.48 logMAR improved in comparison with the baseline but not to a significant level (P = 0.159. Conclusions: We report a cluster of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab from the same batch of bevacizumab that has a favorable prognosis.

  4. Batch Private Keys Generation for RSA in Security Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; CHEN Xin

    2005-01-01

    RSA public key cryptosystem is extensively used in information security systems.However, key generation for RSA cryptosystem requires multiplicative inversion over finite field, which has higher computational complexity, compared with either multiplication in common sense or modular multiplication over finite field. In order to improve the performance of key generation, we propose a batch private keys generation method in this paper. The method derives efficiency from cutting down multiplicative inversions over finite field. Theoretical analysis shows that the speed of batch private keys generation for s users is faster than that of s times solo private key generation. It is suitable for applications in those systems with large amount of users.

  5. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  6. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  7. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  8. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  9. Performance comparison of suspended bed and batch contactor chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-García, I; Rayner, I; Levison, P R; Dickson, N; Purdom, G

    2001-01-26

    In some applications, the purification and recovery of biomolecules is performed via a cascade of batch adsorption and desorption stages using agitated contactors and related filtration devices. Suspended bed chromatography is a recent process-scale innovation that is applicable to these separations. This hybrid technique exploits the benefits of combining batch adsorption in an agitated contactor with elution in an enclosed column system. To some extent, the process is similar to batch contactor chromatography but can be fully contained and significantly quicker. The process has two steps; first the fluid containing the sample is mixed with the adsorbent in a stirred tank. Second, the slurry suspension is transferred directly into a specialized column, such as an IsoPak column. The media with the adsorbed product is formed as a packed bed, whilst the suspension liquid is passed out of the column. The product is then eluted from the packed bed utilizing standard column-chromatography techniques. The performance of the suspended bed and the agitated contactor operations are demonstrated both by full-scale experimental results and process simulations. The purification of ovalbumin from a hen-egg white feedstock by anion-exchange chromatography was used as a case study in order to prove the concept. With the availability of both pump-packed systems and shear-resistant media, suspended bed chromatography is a better alternative for a range of applications than the traditional batch separations using agitated contactors. PMID:11218119

  10. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. PMID:25914370

  11. The second batch of environmental standard qualified list released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection released the second batch of enterprises list that basically meet environment standards recently. Total 41 enterprises from 10 provinces and autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Gansu and so on are included in the list.

  12. A fixed-size batch service queue with vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with batch service queues with vacations in which customers arrive according to a Poisson process. Decomposition method is used to derive the queue length distributions both for single and multiple vacation cases. The authors look at other decomposition techniques and discuss some related open problems.

  13. A Storage Assignment Model for Batch Preparation in Process Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2010-01-01

    A new model formulation is developed for reducing the workload in pre-batching at a manufacturer of flavours and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about volumes and number of storage units

  14. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengaduk...

  15. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...

  16. Research of an Efficient Variant of Batch RSA Algorithm%一种有效的Batch RSA算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云飞; 柳青; 李彤; 郝林

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种改进的Batch RSA算法来提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.该改进算法结合了负载转移技术和Multi-Power RSA技术,在Batch RSA算法的指数计算阶段提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.实验结果和理论分析表明,该改进算法使得Batch RSA算法的解密性能得到显著提升,且易于并行实现,可使基于多核平台的Batch RSA算法的整体性能得到进一步提升.%This paper aimed at speeding up Batch RSA decryption. An efficient variant of Batch RSA was proposed to improve the Batch RSA decryption performance. The improved Batch RSA variant speeds up decryption by combining the load transferring technique and multi-power RSA technique in the exponentiation phase. The experimental result and the theoretical values show that the speed of the decryption is substantially improved and the variant can be efficiently implemented in parallel and parallel implementation of the variant on multi-core devices can further improve the overall performance of Batch RSA algorithm.

  17. Batch sequencing of oil derivates in pipeline networks; Sequenciamento de bateladas de derivados leves de petroleo numa rede dutoviaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacin, Mario Vicente; Oliveira, Daniel Rossato de; Czaikowski, Daniel Irineu; Polli, Helton Luis; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio Leandro; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a computational tool to assist the operational scheduling of a pipeline network. In this network, transfer of products is carried out by batches, from a source to a destination. This tool implements a proposal to determine priorities of the outgoing batches as well as alternatives for sequencing them fulfilling the stated periods stipulated. This proposal uses an analysis of production and demand plans, stockage, products draining in terminals, as well as operational restrictions of the pipeline network, looking for optimizing the use of resources such as pipes, bombs and tanks. The scenario in study is composed by 14 areas (4 refineries, 2 harbours, 6 distribution centres and 2 costumers) and 29 pipes. Prioritizing the attendance to the areas of source or demand, the algorithm carries choices between routes and possible batches volumes, considering calculations of time windows, that determine the limited interval when transference operations must occur. Moreover, operations called 'lung' are also treated, which involve flow changes during the movement. (author)

  18. Computer Simulation of Batch Grinding Process Based on Simulink 5.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YANG Ying-jie; DENG Hui-yong; HUANG Guang-yao

    2005-01-01

    How to use Simulink software in grinding system was studied. The method of designing batch grinding subsystem and the steps of building batch grinding blockset were introduced. Based on batch grinding population balance model, batch grinding was simulated with Simulink. The results show that the simulation system designed with Simulink explain reasonably the impersonal rule of batch grinding. On the basis of batch grinding simulation, the computer simulation of mineral processing system with Simulink of grinding and classification, comminution, etc, can be properly explored.

  19. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...... growth rate of the fungus were independent of pH when grown in batch cultivations. The specific glucoamylase productivity increased linearly with the specific growth rate in the range 0-0.1 h(-1) and was constant in the range 0.1-0.2 h(-1) Maltose and maltodextrin were non-inducing carbon sources...... compared to glucose, and the maximum specific growth rate was 0.19 +/- 0.02 h(-1) irrespective of whether glucose or maltose was the carbon source. In fed-batch cultivations, glucoamylase titres of up to 6.5 g 1(-1) were obtained even though the strain contained only one copy of the glaA gene....

  20. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted separation method, has previ-ously shown potential for removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of MSWI fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent...... was studied, and the results were compared with traditional batch extraction experiments. The application of electric current was found to increase the heavy metal release significantly compared to batch extraction experiments at comparable conditions (same liquid-to-solid ratio, same assisting agent...

  1. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  2. On the choice of batch mode in order to maximize throughput

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of serial process configurations consisting of three processes and two machines shows interesting relations between the choice of batch mode (or batch structure), utilization of capacities and maximum throughput.

  3. JAVA Implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard Payne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MIT iLab Shared Architecture is limited currently to running on the Microsoft Windows platform. A JAVA implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been developed that can be used on other operating systems and still interoperate with the existing Microsoft .NET web services of MIT’s iLab ServiceBroker. The Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been revised and separates the Labserver into a LabServer that handles experiment management and a LabEquipment that handles experiment execution. The JAVA implementation provides a 3-tier code development model that allows code to be reused and to develop only the code that is specific to each experiment.

  4. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of multicomponent batch distillation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jiménez

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare several of the commercial dynamic models for batch distillation available worldwide. In this context, BATCHFRAC™, CHEMCAD™ BATCH, and HYSYS.Plant® software performances are compared to experimental data. The software can be used as soft sensors, playing the roll of ad-hoc observers or estimators for control objectives. Rigorous models were used as an alternative to predict the concentration profile and to specify the optimal switching time from products to slop cuts. The performance of a nonlinear model obtained using a novel identification algorithm was also studied. In addition, the strategy for continuous separation was revised with residue curve map analysis using Aspen SPLIT™.

  5. Method to incorporate energy integration considerations in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain))

    Systemization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the product changeover problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation; and (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  6. A new look at energy integration in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Systematization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the changeover product problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation, (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. This includes the heat exchanger network of all campaigns in an overall design, and contemplates the common matches between networks of campaigns of different products. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  7. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  8. MACROSCOPIC KINETIC MODELS OF GLYCEROL BATCH FERMENTATION WITH OSMOTOLERANT YEAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    l introductionGlycerol production by fermentation has beenwidely investigated to meet the great commercialdemand in last decades and osmotolerant yeast wasthe microorganism studied most. To analyze thefermentation process more efficiently, a kinetic modelshould be established but little works about it werereported because of its complicated metabolism ofglycerol [1-3]. Batch fermentation experiment showedthat low glucose concentration in the latterfermentation stage resulted in decrease in both glucoseconsu...

  9. Batch gating for data association in monocular SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Paradas, Edmundo; Munguía Alcalá, Rodrigo Francisco; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the development and implementation of a single-camera SLAM system, introducing a novel data validation algorithm. A 6-DOF monocular SLAM method developed is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D) Feature Initialization, with the addition of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The DI-D initializes new features in the system defining single hypothesis for the initial depth of features by stoch...

  10. Group technology. [Increasing batch-lot production efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs.

  11. Feasibility of extractive distillation process variants in batch rectifier column

    OpenAIRE

    Stéger, Csaba; Varga, Viktoria; Horvath, Laszlo; Rev, Endre; Fonyo, Zsolt; Meyer, Michel; Lelkes, Zoltan

    2005-01-01

    A systematic comparison is presented about the separation tasks of azeotropic and close-boiling mixtures applying batch extractive distillation (BED) in rectifier. All the eight possible mixture types with at most a single azeotrope (minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes with heavy, light, and intermediate boiling entrainers; and close boiling mixtures with heavy and light entrainers) are compared. The main results of the feasibility studies on the hitherto unpublished cases are presented. A...

  12. Mathematical modeling of recombinant Escherichia coli aerobic batch fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rafael S; Rocha, I; Ferreira, E. C.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, three competing unstructured mathematical models for the biomass growth by recombinant E. coli strains with different acetate inhibition kinetics terms were evaluated for batch processes at constant temperature and pH. The models considered the dynamics of biomass growth, acetate accumulation, substrate consumption, Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) production and three metabolic pathways for E. coli. Parameter estimation and model validation was carried out usi...

  13. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R) by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reac...

  14. Optimization of Recipe Based Batch Control Systems Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Šoštarec, A.; Gosak, D.; Hlupić, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the modern pharmaceutical industry many flexible batch plants operate under an integrated business and production system, using ISA S95 and ISA S88 standards for models and terminology, and implementing flexible recipe-based production. In the environment of constantly changing market conditions, adjustment to surroundings is a business necessity. To support necessary production improvement, regulatory authorities have introduced the risk based approach for the control of process dev...

  15. Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Treatment in the Sequencing Batch Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Vrtovsek, J.; Ros, M.

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of Industrial wastewater from chemical industry (varnish, paint and pigments production) and municipal wastewater was treated in pilot sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Results of the pilot experiments show that the foaming problem has great influence on the behavior of SBR, especially when the ratio between industrial and municipal wastewater is very high. Foaming problem was negligible when the mixture with φ; 20 % of the industrial wastewater and j = 80 % of the municipal wastewate...

  16. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A.H Mahvi

    2008-01-01

    Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical ...

  17. Integration of virtualized worker nodes in standard batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buege, Volker; Kunze, Marcel; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Guenter; Scheurer, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hessling, Hermann [HTW Berlin, University of Applied Sciences, 10318 Berlin (Germany); Kemp, Yves; Synge, Owen, E-mail: Oliver.Oberst@iwr.fzk.d [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    Current experiments in HEP only use a limited number of operating system flavours. Their software might only be validated on one single OS platform. Resource providers might have other operating systems of choice for the installation of the batch infrastructure. This is especially the case if a cluster is shared with other communities, or communities that have stricter security requirements. One solution would be to statically divide the cluster into separated sub-clusters. In such a scenario, no opportunistic distribution of the load can be achieved, resulting in a poor overall utilization efficiency. Another approach is to make the batch system aware of virtualization, and to provide each community with its favoured operating system in a virtual machine. Here, the scheduler has full flexibility, resulting in a better overall efficiency of the resources. In our contribution, we present a lightweight concept for the integration of virtual worker nodes into standard batch systems. The virtual machines are started on the worker nodes just before jobs are executed there. No meta-scheduling is introduced. We demonstrate two prototype implementations, one based on the Sun Grid Engine (SGE), the other using Maui/Torque as a batch system. Both solutions support local job as well as Grid job submission. The hypervisors currently used are Xen and KVM, a port to another system is easily envisageable. To better handle different virtual machines on the physical host, the management solution VmImageManager is developed. We will present first experience from running the two prototype implementations. In a last part, we will show the potential future use of this lightweight concept when integrated into high-level (i.e. Grid) work-flows.

  18. Health advantages of transition to batch management system in farrow-to-finish pig herds

    OpenAIRE

    Vangroenweghe, F; Suls, L; Van Driessche, E.; Maes, Dominiek; De Graef, E.

    2012-01-01

    Sow batch management systems have become more popular due to advantages in labour planning, piglet batch sizes, all-in all-out practices and health management. The present study investigated the potential health advantages of 10 selected farrow-to-finish pig herds before and after transition from a one week batch management system to a four or five week batch management system. Five different animal categories (gilts, sows, piglets, growers and finishers) were sampled at three time points (T0...

  19. On-line Scheduling Algorithm for Penicillin Fed-batch Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yao-feng; YUAN Jing-qi

    2005-01-01

    An on-line scheduling algorithm to maximize gross profit of penicillin fed-batch fermentation is proposed. According to the on-line classification method, fed-batch fermentation batches are classified into three categories. Using the scheduling strategy, the optimal termination sequence of batches is obtained. Pseudo on-line simulations for testing the proposed algorithm with the data from industrial scale penicillin fermentation are carried out.

  20. Analyzing data flows of WLCG jobs at batch job level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.

  1. Batch fabrication of micro-optical sensing and imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Reimann, A.; Oelschläger, A.; Dannberg, P.; Blöhbaum, F.; Koburg, C.; Köhler, T.

    2013-03-01

    As demonstrated in microelectronics, the batch fabrication based on the processing of wafers can lead to a significant reduction in prize as well as in size. This concept was adapted to the fabrication of imaging optics extensively used in mobile phone cameras relying on small pixels and low resolutions such as VGA. We report on batch fabricated customer specific opto-electronical modules used in machine sensing and automotive applications relying on large pixel sizes and non-conventional sensor characteristics. We specially focus on the lens mold mastering for the subsequent UV-replication since comparatively large sag heights of 250μm are required. Two technological approaches were applied, first, based on reflow of photoresist and, second, using diamond turning for the generation of a single lens mold and a subsequent step&repeat-process for array mastering on 8" wafers. Aspects of the optical design and simulation, the batch fabrication based on 8" wafers and characterization results are provided by the example of an f/1.1 opto-electronic sensor and an objective for a global shutter imager using 550x550 pixels with 3.6μm pitch.

  2. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  3. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengadukan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh pada kehidupan mikroba. Dan pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan perancangan sistem pengaduk yang digerakkan oleh sebuah motor dimana menggunakan timer dan pengatur kecepatan. Desain disesuaikan dengan substrat yang digunakan yaitu limbah cair tahu dan eceng gondok, yang mengalami pengendapan sehingga pada pengaduk memiliki blade yang diletakkan di dasar dalam bioreaktor. Sistem pengadukan dilakukan pada saat nilai pH yang diamati tiap harinya mengalami penurunan, yaitu pada hari ke–24 pH bernilai 6,49. Dan pada pengukuran berikutnya ditunjukkan dengan pH bernilai 6,89. Pengadukan dilakukan secara pelan dengan putaran 170 rpm selama 2 x 1 menit. Hasil daripada jumlah produksi biogas yang dihasilkan bisa dibandingkan antara bioreaktor batch tidak berpengaduk dengan bioreaktor batch berpengaduk, dimana berturut-turut memiliki jumlah volume 467 mL (25 hari dan 873 mL (31 hari.

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Batch Process Vents 2 Table 2 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents As required in § 63.11496, you must comply with the requirements for batch process vents as shown in the following...

  5. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  6. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  7. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  8. OSAT: a tool for sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Batch effect is one type of variability that is not of primary interest but ubiquitous in sizable genomic experiments. To minimize the impact of batch effects, an ideal experiment design should ensure the even distribution of biological groups and confounding factors across batches. However, due to the practical complications, the availability of the final collection of samples in genomics study might be unbalanced and incomplete, which, without appropriate attention in sample-to-batch allocation, could lead to drastic batch effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective and handy tool to assign collected samples across batches in an appropriate way in order to minimize the impact of batch effects. Results We describe OSAT (Optimal Sample Assignment Tool, a bioconductor package designed for automated sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments. Conclusions OSAT is developed to facilitate the allocation of collected samples to different batches in genomics study. Through optimizing the even distribution of samples in groups of biological interest into different batches, it can reduce the confounding or correlation between batches and the biological variables of interest. It can also optimize the homogeneous distribution of confounding factors across batches. It can handle challenging instances where incomplete and unbalanced sample collections are involved as well as ideally balanced designs.

  9. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Rishi; Kumar Sanjay; Gomes James; Kuhad Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydroly...

  10. Physician-Assisted Death

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, John S.

    1994-01-01

    Physician-assisted death includes both euthanasia and assistance in suicide. The CMA urges its members to adhere to the principles of palliative care. It does not support euthanasia and assisted suicide. The following policy summary includes definitions of euthanasia and assisted suicide, background information, basic ethical principles and physician concerns about legalization of physician-assisted death.

  11. Critical analysis of data concerning Saccharomyces cerevisiae free-cell proliferations and fermentations assisted by magnetic and electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hristov, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The review analyses studies on magnetically assisted proliferations and batch fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. The results available in the literature are contradictory and show two tendencies: magnetic field suppression of the cell growth and positive effects in batch fermentation with increasing both biomass and metabolite production. The amount of data analyzed allows several concepts existing in the literature to be outlined and critically commented. Further, a new concept of magnetically induced micro-dynamos, recently conceived, is developed towards a unified explanation of the results provided by proliferation and batch fermentation experiments

  12. A design algorithm for batch stirred tank transesterification reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Simplified algorithm for batch biodiesel reactor design was developed. ► C Sharp software tool for implementing the algorithm was also developed. ► 50 L/batch reactor was constructed and used to process neem oil biodiesel. ► Results showed that the produced neem biodiesel is a fuel grade product. ► Scale-up of the reactor was carried out using the developed software. - Abstract: A 50 L per batch, stirred tank reactor, suitable for carrying out transesterification of vegetable oils was designed and constructed. The major design assumptions included stainless steel plate thickness of 2 mm, reaction temperature of 60–65 °C and an initial/final fluid temperature of 25/70 °C. The calculated impeller Reynolds number was in the mixed regime zone of 10–104; the power number was varied between 1 and 5, while a typical propeller speed of 22.5 rev/s (or 1350 rev/min) was adopted. The limiting design conditions were maximum reactor diameter of 1.80 m, straight side height-to-diameter ratio in the range of 0.75–1.5 and minimum agitator motor power of 746 W (1 Hp). Based upon the design, a simple algorithm was developed and interpreted into Microsoft C Sharp computer programming language to enable scale up of the reactor. Performance testing of the realized reactor was carried out while using it to produce Neem oil biodiesel via base – catalyzed methanolysis, which yielded high quality fuel product.

  13. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists.

  14. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists. PMID:27499290

  15. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  16. Simple multicomponent batch distillation procedure with a variable reflux policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a shortcut procedure for batch distillation simulation with a variable reflux policy. The procedure starts from a shortcut method developed by Sundaram and Evans in 1993 and uses an iterative cycle to calculate the reflux ratio at each moment. The functional relationship between the concentrations at the bottom and the dome is evaluated using the Fenske equation and is complemented with the equations proposed by Underwood and Gilliland. The results of this procedure are consistent with those obtained using a fast method widely validated in the relevant literature.

  17. Batch Mode Data Analysis at ORNL for Radiation Portal Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Security Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed two batch-mode data analysis tools to address the volume of data generated by radiation portal monitors (RPMs) deployed by the Second Line of Defense (SLD). The first of these tools, the ORNL Data Portal (ORNLDP), serves as both a repository and an analysis environment for the data generated by RPMs. The second tool, the In-Country Analysis Tool (ICAT), is portable and serves primarily as a small-scale analysis environment.

  18. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-04-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  19. Detection and isolation of Bluetongue virus from commercial vaccine batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbarov, Velizar; Golender, Natalia; Erster, Oran; Khinich, Yevgeny

    2016-06-14

    In this report we describe the detection and identification of Bluetongue virus (BTV) contaminations in commercial vaccines. BTV RNA was detected in vaccine batches of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) and Sheep pox (SP) using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for VP1 and NS3 genes. Both batches were positive for VP1 and NS3 in qPCR. The LSD vaccine-derived sample was positive for VP1 and VP2 in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was examined by amplification of VP1, VP4, VP6, VP7, NS2 and NS3 gene segments in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was further propagated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and Vero cells. Preliminary sequence analysis showed that the LSD vaccine-derived sequence was 98-99% similar to BTV9. Analysis of the six genomic segments from the SP vaccine-derived isolate showed the highest similarity to BTV26 (66.3-97.8%). These findings are particularly important due to the effect of BTV on cattle and sheep, for which the vaccines are intended. They also demonstrate the necessity of rigorous vaccine inspection and strict vaccine production control. PMID:27171751

  20. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  1. Transfer bonding technology for batch fabrication of SMA microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, T.; Guerre, R.; Despont, M.; Kohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    Currently, the broad market introduction of shape memory alloy (SMA) microactuators and sensors is hampered by technological barriers, since batch fabrication methods common to electronics industry are not available. The present study intends to overcome these barriers by introducing a wafer scale transfer process that allows the selective transfer of heat-treated and micromachined shape memory alloy (SMA) film or foil microactuators to randomly selected receiving sites on a target substrate. The technology relies on a temporary adhesive bonding layer between SMA film/foil and an auxiliary substrate, which can be removed by laser ablation. The transfer technology was tested for microactuators of a cold-rolled NiTi foil of 20 μm thickness, which were heat-treated in free-standing condition, then micromachined on an auxiliary substrate of glass, and finally selectively transferred to different target substrates of a polymer. For demonstration, the new technology was used for batch-fabrication of SMA-actuated polymer microvalves.

  2. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  3. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  4. Treatemnt of Wastewater with Modified Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡龙兴; 刘宇陆

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the removel of COD and nitrogen from wastewater with modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor,The strategy of simultaneous feeding and draining was explored.The results show that introduction of a new batch of wastewater and withdrawal of the purifeid water can be conducted simultaneously with the maximum volumetric exchange rate of about 70%,Application of this feeding and draining mode leads to the reduction of the cycle time,the increase of the utilization of the reactor volume and the simplification of the reactor structure.The treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing COD and nitrogen was investigated.The operation mode of F(D)-O(i.e.,simultaneous feeding and draining followed by the aerobic condition)was adopted.It was found that COD was degraded very fast in the initial reaction period of time,then reduced slowly and the ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations decreased and increased with time respectively,while the nitrite nitrogen level increased first and then reduced.The relationship between the COD or ammonia nitrogen loading and its removal rate was examined,and the removal of COD,ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could exceed 95%,90%and 80% respectively,The fact that nitrogen could e removed more completely under constant aeration(aerobic condition)of the SBBR operation mode is very interesting and could be explained in several respects.

  5. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  6. Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fine-grained access control on outsourced files. One issue in existing ABE schemes is that they are designed for the users of a single organization. When one wants to share the data with the users of different organizations, the owner needs to encrypt the messages to the receivers of one organization and then repeats this process for another organization. This situation is deteriorated with more and more mobile devices using cloud services, as the ABE encryption process is time consuming and may exhaust the power supplies of the mobile devices quickly. In this paper, we propose a batch attribute-based encryption (BABE approach to address this problem in a provably-secure way. With our approach, the data owner can outsource data in batches to the users of different organizations simultaneously. The data owner is allowed to decide the receiving organizations and the attributes required for decryption. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that our approach is more efficient than traditional encryption implementations in computation and communication.

  7. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. PMID:26802183

  8. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  9. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  10. Two-stage assembly-type flowshop batch scheduling problem subject to a fixed job sequence

    OpenAIRE

    F J Hwang; B M T Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a two-stage assembly-type flowshop scheduling problem with batching considerations subject to a fixed job sequence. The two-stage assembly flowshop consists of m stage-1 parallel dedicated machines and a stage-2 assembly machine which processes the jobs in batches. Four regular performance metrics, namely, the total completion time, maximum lateness, total tardiness, and number of tardy jobs, are considered. The goal is to obtain an optimal batching decision for the prede...

  11. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  12. Sample Results From Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-14

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal (increasing cesium decontamination), due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  13. Study on the numerical simulation of batch sieving process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Hong-guang; MA Jiao; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Lun-jian

    2006-01-01

    Screening was widely used in many sectors of industry. However, it is rather incomplete to the cognition of the sieving process for us due to the daedal separation process involving interactions of thousands of particulates. To address this problem, two dimensional numerical simulation of batch sieving process was performed by adopting advanced discrete element method (DEM), which is one of the highly nonlinear digitized dynamic simulative methods and can be used to reveal the quantitative change from particle dimension level. DEM simulation results show that the jam phenomena of sieve-plate apertures of the "blinding particles" in the screen feed can be demonstrated vividly and results also reveal that the velocity of particle moving on the screen plate will vary along with the screen length. This conclusion will be helpful to the design and operation of screen.

  14. Simulated annealing and joint manufacturing batch-sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Ruhul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We address an important problem of a manufacturing system. The system procures raw materials from outside suppliers in a lot and processes them to produce finished goods. It proposes an ordering policy for raw materials to meet the requirements of a production facility. In return, this facility has to deliver finished products demanded by external buyers at fixed time intervals. First, a general cost model is developed considering both raw materials and finished products. Then this model is used to develop a simulated annealing approach to determining an optimal ordering policy for procurement of raw materials and also for the manufacturing batch size to minimize the total cost for meeting customer demands in time. The solutions obtained were compared with those of traditional approaches. Numerical examples are presented. .

  15. CONSOLIDATING BATCH AND TRANSACTIONAL WORKLOADS USING DEPENDENCY STRUCTURE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NIVETHITHA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations offer efficient services to their customers through cloud. These services can either be a batch or transactional workloads. To offer a real-time service, there comes a need to schedule these workloads in an efficient way. An idea to consolidate these workloads enables us to cut down the energy consumption and infrastructure cost. It will be harder to consolidate both these workloads due to the difference in their nature, performance goals and control mechanisms. The proposed work implements the concept of Dependency Structure Prioritization (DSP to assign priority to the job. This work tends to make effective resource utilization through reducing the number of job migration and missed deadline jobs by considering the deadline and the priority of the job as the most important evaluation factor.

  16. [Neural network detection of abnormalities in fed-batch fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Feng; Yuan, Jing-Qi

    2005-01-01

    During fermentation, it is often difficult to detect the abnormalities, for example, caused by contamination on-line. Instead, the faults were detected usually by off-line laboratory analysis or other ways, which in most cases, is too late to remedy the situation. In this paper, a simple three-layers BP network was used for the early prediction of the amount of product, based on the difference in prediction errors between normal and abnormal charges and other accessorial information, such as profit function and pH value. In addition, three indications characteristic to abnormal charge are incorporated in practical operation. The prediction for Cephalosporin C Fed-batch Fermentation in a Chinese pharmaceutical factory was studied in details as an example and the result shows the abnormal charge can be discovered early successfully using the method. PMID:15859337

  17. Analytical study plan: Shielded Cells batch 1 campaign; Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive operations in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will require that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) perform analyses and special studies with actual Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste sludge. SRS Tank 42 and Tank 51 will comprise the first batch of sludge to be processed in the DWPF. Approximately 25 liters of sludge from each of these tanks will be characterized and processed in the Shielded Cells of SRTC. During the campaign, processes will include sludge characterization, sludge washing, rheology determination, mixing, hydrogen evolution, feed preparation, and vitrification of the waste. To complete the campaign, the glass will be characterized to determine its durability and crystallinity. This document describes the types of samples that will be produced, the sampling schedule and analyses required, and the methods for sample and analytical control

  18. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  19. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  20. Uranium Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon – Batch Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of two activated carbon samples (Tusaar Lot B-64, Tusaar ER2-189A) was tested using unadjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests support ongoing performance optimization efforts to use the best material for uranium treatment in the Hanford Site 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. A linear response of uranium loading as a function of the solution-to-solid ratio was observed for both materials. Kd values ranged from ~380,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the B-64 material and ~200,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the ER2-189A material. Uranium loading values ranged from 10.4 to 41.6 μg/g for the two Tusaar materials.

  1. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  2. Minimum Amount of Slop Cut in Batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-control operation technique which alternates between total reflux operation and total efflux operation in batch distillation was studied along with the minimum amount of slop cut.Total reflux time was confirmed by dynamic simulation, and total efflux time was adopted by statistic method. For the mixture of hexane and cyclohexane and the traditional constant reflux ratio operation strategy, the amount of slop cut is 1.8-2.1 times of the minimum amount of slop cut; whereas for the pulse-control operation strategy, it is 1.2-1.4 times of the minimum amount of slop cut. So compared with the traditional constant reflux ratio operation, the pulse-control operation can decrease the amount of slop cut and operation time, and meanwhile, enhance separation efficiency and yield.

  3. Fed-batch Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production: A Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng Lee, Boon; Tham, Heng Jin; Chan, Eng Seng

    Recently, fed-batch fermentation has been introduced in an increasing number of fermentation processes. Previous researches showed that fed-batch fermentation can increase the biomass yield of many strains. Improvement of the biomass yield is interested because biomass from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this research is to study the ability and feasibility of fed-batch fermentation to improve biomass production of LAB. Appropriate model has been selected from literature. Monod equation described the substrate limitation of LAB and the product inhibition of LAB follows a non-competitive model. Furthermore, the lactic acid production follows Luedeking and Piret model. Then the models are applied to simulate the fermentation of batch and fed-batch cultures by using MATLAB. From the results of simulation, fed-batch fermentation showed that substrate limitation and substrate inhibition can be avoided. Besides that, the variable volume fed-batch fermentation also showed that product inhibition can be eliminated by diluting the product concentration with added fresh feed. However, it was found that fed-batch fermentation is not economically feasible because large amount of substrate is required to reduce the product inhibition effect. Therefore, fed-batch fermentation plays more importance role if the fermentation strain has high Ks value or low Kp value.

  4. Analysis of Mixing Characteristics of Batch Stirred Vessels Using the Networks-of-Zones Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Batch stirred vessels, being devoid of through flow, cannot be assessed by the classical response technique. However, visible inert tracers can be readily observed in a batch or semi-batch stirred vessel. Visible images of the mixing and dispersion of the tracer present a picture in both space and time of the mixing process. Axi-symmetric networks of backmixed zones were used in an image reconstruction approach to analytically characterize the mixing. Computer generated images were compared with experimental results. The qualitative agreement between the observed and calculated images suggests that the analysis of batch stirred reactors can be used to guide operational strategies to control internal concentration fields.

  5. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  6. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign

  7. Retardation characteristics of radionuclides in geologic media through batch and packed column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch and packed column experiments are performed to investigate the retardation characteristics of radionuclide,i.e, Cs-137 in geologic media. In batch experiment, the effects of important parameters on the sorption of radionuclide in geologic media, such as nuclide concentration, pH, and particle size are examined. The Kd value obtained from breakthrough curve was compared with that from the batch sorption experiment to investigate the applicability of the Kd value from batch experiment to prediction of radionuclide migration in dynamic flow through porous media. The proposed model of radionuclide migration in porous media is also verified using the experimental results. (Author)

  8. Sludge Batch 2 (Marcobath 3) Flowsheet Studies with Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-03-02

    Sludge-only process simulations of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle were conducted for the two most likely scenarios for Sludge Batch 2 (Macrobatch 3). The two scenarios are a roughly 50:50 blend of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge and Tank 40 washed sludge by itself. The testing used new simulants of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge prepared at the University of South Carolina. The washing endpoint was about 0.5 moles sodium per liter supernate. This report summarizes both the simulant preparation and process simulation activities. The rheology work requested in the Task Plan will be documented in a separate report. Two scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for Tank 40 sludge. This was followed by a complete SRAT and SME simulation using Sludge Batch 1B acid stoichiometry (137.5 percent). Four scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for the Tank 8/40 blend. Three complete SRAT and SME simulations using blended sludge were then performed. One was at the recommended acid stoichiometry of 125 percent. The second used identical acid stoichiometry with HM levels of noble metals. The final run was at worst case noble metals and assumed complete transfer of the Formic Acid Feed Tank. Testing was completed without any major incidents. Hydrogen flow rates in excess of the design bases (0.65 lbs./hr for the SRAT and 0.23 lbs./hr for the SME) are marked in bold. Full details on the noble metals concentrations can be found in the body of the report.

  9. Integrating PROOF Analysis in Cloud and Batch Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis are becoming more complex and demanding due to the large amount of data collected by the current experiments. The Parallel ROOT Facility (PROOF) provides researchers with an interactive tool to speed up the analysis of huge volumes of data by exploiting parallel processing on both multicore machines and computing clusters. The typical PROOF deployment scenario is a permanent set of cores configured to run the PROOF daemons. However, this approach is incapable of adapting to the dynamic nature of interactive usage. Several initiatives seek to improve the use of computing resources by integrating PROOF with a batch system, such as Proof on Demand (PoD) or PROOF Cluster. These solutions are currently in production at Universidad de Oviedo and IFCA and are positively evaluated by users. Although they are able to adapt to the computing needs of users, they must comply with the specific configuration, OS and software installed at the batch nodes. Furthermore, they share the machines with other workloads, which may cause disruptions in the interactive service for users. These limitations make PROOF a typical use-case for cloud computing. In this work we take profit from Cloud Infrastructure at IFCA in order to provide a dynamic PROOF environment where users can control the software configuration of the machines. The Proof Analysis Framework (PAF) facilitates the development of new analysis and offers a transparent access to PROOF resources. Several performance measurements are presented for the different scenarios (PoD, SGE and Cloud), showing a speed improvement closely correlated with the number of cores used.

  10. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Coexistence of nitrifying, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eLangone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale Sequencing Batch Reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of 8.0 and 7.8-8.0, rispectively. Short term effect of nitrite on anammox activity was studied, showing nitrite up to 42 mg/L did not result in inhibition. Both denitrification via nitrate and nitrite were measured. To reduce nitrite-oxidizing activity, high of NH3 – N (1.9-10 mg N-NH3/L and low nitrite (3-8 mg TNN/L are required conditions during the whole SBR cycle.Molecular analysis showed the nitritation-anammox sludge harbored a high microbial diversity, where each microorganism has a specific role. Using ammonia monooxygenase α –subunit (amoA gene as a marker, our analyses suggested different macro- and micro-environments in the reactor strongly affect the AOB community, allowing the development of different AOB species, such as N. europaea/eutropha and N. oligotropha groups, which improve the stability of nitritation process. A specific PCR primer set, used to target the 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, confirmed the presence of the Ca. Brocadia fulgida type, able to grow in precence of organic matter and to tolerate high nitrite concentrations. The diversity of denitrifiers was assessed by using dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nirS gene-based analyses, who showed denitifiers were related to different betaproteobacterial genera, such as Thauera, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Aromatoleum, able to assist in forming microbial aggregates. Concerning possible secondary processes, no n-damo bacteria were found while NOB from the genus of Nitrobacter

  12. Modelling, Design, Operability and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2006-01-01

    perfekt separation til multiple (isoterme og ikke-isoterme) reaktionssystemer med komplicerede separationssektioner (destillation, stripning eller flash). Procesopførsel såsom input og outputmultipliciteter er påvist ved analyse af teoretiske RSR processer for forskellige scenarier. Viden om sådan...

  13. A comparative study of sequencing batch reactor and moving-bed sequencing batch reactor for piggery wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwannate Sombatsompop

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to comparatively study the efficiency of piggery wastewater treatment by the moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (moving-bed SBR system with held medium, and the conventional sequencing batch reactor (SBR system, by varying the organic load from 0.59 to 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The COD treatment efficiency of the SBR and moving-bed SBR was higher than 60% at an organic load of 0.59 kgCOD/m3.d and higher than 80% at the organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The BOD removal efficiency was greater than 90% at high organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The moving-bed SBR gave TKN removal efficiency of 86-93%, whereas the SBR system exhibited the removal efficiency of 75-87% at all organic loads. The amount of effluent suspended solids for SBR systems exceeded the piggery wastewater limit of 200 mg/L at the organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d while that for the moving-bed SBR system did not. When the organic load was increased, the moving-bed SBR system yielded better treatment efficiency than that of the SBR system. The wastewater treated by the moving-bed SBR system met the criteria of wastewater standard for pig farms at all organic loads, while that treated by the SBR system was not satisfactory at a high organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d.

  14. Production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor and its application in decolorization of dyestuffs : (Ⅰ) Production of laccase by batch and repeated-batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor wasstudied. The effect of cultivation conditions on laccase productionby Coriolus versicolor was examined to obtain optimal medium andcultivation conditions. Both batch and repeated-batch processeswere performed for laccase production. In repeated-batchfermentation with self-immobilized mycelia, total of 14 cycles wereperformed with laccase activity in the range between 3.4 and 14.8U/ml.

  15. Meeting Report: Batch-to-Batch Variability in Estrogenic Activity in Commercial Animal Diets—Importance and Approaches for Laboratory Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Heindel, Jerrold J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2007-01-01

    We report information from two workshops sponsored by the National Institutes of Health that were held to a) assess whether dietary estrogens could significantly impact end points in experimental animals, and b) involve program participants and feed manufacturers to address the problems associated with measuring and eliminating batch-to-batch variability in rodent diets that may lead to conflicting findings in animal experiments within and between laboratories. Data were presented at the work...

  16. Improving the batch-to-batch reproducibility of microbial cultures during recombinant protein production by regulation of the total carbon dioxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenzsch, Marco; Gnoth, Stefan; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Simutis, Rimvydas; Lübbert, Andreas

    2007-03-10

    Batch-to-batch reproducibility of fermentation processes performed during the manufacturing processes of biologics can be increased by operating the cultures at feed rate profiles that are robust against typically arising disturbances. Remaining randomly appearing deviations from the desired path should be suppressed automatically by manipulating the feed rate. With respect to the cells' physiology it is best guiding the cultivations along an optimal profile of the specific biomass growth rate mu(t). However, there are two problems that speak for further investigations: Upon severe disturbances that may happen during the fermentation, the biomass concentration X may significantly deviate from its desired value, then a fixed mu-profile leads to a diminished batch-to-batch reproducibility. Second, the specific growth rate cannot easily be estimated online to a favourably high accuracy, hence it is difficult to determine the deviations in mu from the desired profile. The alternative discussed here solves both problems by keeping the process at the corresponding total cumulative carbon dioxide production-profile: it is robust against distortions in X and the controlled variable can accurately be measured online during cultivations of all relevant sizes. As compared to the fermentation practice currently used in industry, the experimental results, presented at the example of a recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli cells, show that CPR-based corrections lead to a considerably improved batch-to-batch reproducibility.

  17. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  18. Assisted Living Community Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Seniors Housing & Care Industry, reflects NCAL's philosophy of assisted living. 2 Data also from the ... Assisted Living Studies Clinical Practice Guidelines Health Information Technology In-Service Training Tools Periodicals State Regulatory Review ...

  19. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Skip sharing on social media links Share ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved June 11, 2012, ...

  20. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently

  1. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility

  2. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents... § 63.489 Batch front-end process vents—monitoring equipment. (a) General requirements. Each owner...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have required a... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-monitoring... Batch process vents—monitoring equipment. (a) General requirements. Each owner or operator of a...

  4. Monitoring and Characterization of Crystal Nucleation and Growth during Batch Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Batch crystallization is commonly used in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, specialty and fine chemicals industry. The advantages of batch crystallization lie in its ease of operation and the relatively simple equipment that can be used. On the other hand a major disadvantage associated with it is the i

  5. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the dep...

  6. Degradation of the herbicide mecoprop in an aerobic aquifer determined by laboratory batch studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The potential of a shallow aerobic aquifer to degrade the herbicide Mecoprop (2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid) was evaluated in the laboratory using groundwater and sediment suspension batches. Mecoprop was added to the batches to obtain concentrations of 65, 140, 400 and 1400 μg...

  7. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the...

  8. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Bruin, E. de; Bol, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation. W

  9. Batch and continuous extraction of bromelain enzyme by reversed micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Frattini Fileti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for bromelain extraction by reversed micelles from pineapple juice (Ananas comosus. The purification was carried out in batch extraction and a micro-column with pulsed caps for continuous extraction. The cationic micellar solution was made of BDBAC as a surfactant, isooctane as a solvent and hexanol as a co-solvent. For the batch process, a purification factor of 3 times at the best values of surfactant agent, co-solvent and salt concentrations, pH of the back and forward extractions were, 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3.5 and 8, respectively. For the continuous operation, independent variables optimal point was determined: ratio between light phase flow rate and total flow rate equal to 0.67 and 1 second for the time interval between the pulses. This optimal point led to a productivity of 1.29 mL/min and a purification factor of 4.96.Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal otimizar as condições para extração da bromelina do suco do abacaxi (Ananas comosus por micelas reversas. A purificação foi feita usando o processo de extração em batelada e contínuo, este último em uma micro-coluna de campânulas pulsantes. A solução micelar catiônica foi preparada com o surfactante BDBAC, i-octano como solvente e hexanol como co-solvente. Na extração em batelada encontrou-se um fator de purificação de 3 vezes, e seus melhores valores de concentração do agente surfactante, co-solvente e sal, de pH da re-extração e extração, foram respectivamente iguais a: 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3,5 e 8. Para a operação contínua, as variáveis independentes ótimas foram: 0,67 para a razão entre as taxas de fluxos da fase leve e a total e 1 s para o intervalo de tempo entre pulsos das campânulas. Este ponto ótimo leva a uma produtividade de 1,29 mL/min e a um fator de purificação igual a 4,96.

  10. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  11. Case-by-case risk assessment of broiler meat batches: An effective control strategy for Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others...... and the results of more than 3,000 batches of broiler meat tested since 2007. The risk was assessed for batches with one or more samples positive for Campylobacter (>100 cfu/g). Reductions in the number of positive batches from 2007 to 2010 were observed for both domestic (from 17% to 7%, p=0.01) and imported......, for reasons of contamination. This provision allows each member state to make a specific risk assessment of food batches, and decide whether a batch poses an unacceptable risk to the consumer or not. Here we present the basis for the risk assessment model on Campylobacter used in this new approach...

  12. Sample Results from Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Ion Chromatography Anions (IC-A). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from earlier samples from this and previous macrobatches. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal, due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) notes that historically, most measured Concentration Factor (CF) values during salt processing have been in the 12-14 range. However, recent processing gives CF values closer to 11. This observation does not indicate that the solvent performance is suffering, as the Decontamination Factor (DF) has still maintained consistently high values. Nevertheless, SRNL will continue to monitor for indications of process upsets. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  13. Catalytic hydroliquefaction of coal: about the methodology in batch experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, M.; Bacaud, R.; Charcosset, H.; Cebolla-Burillo, V.; Oberson, M.

    1986-03-01

    The results of catalytic hydroliquefaction under batch conditions depend on a large number of variables. The present results concern a few of these variables, in particular the influence of the catalyst concentration, of the mode of sulfidation or (and) of introduction of the catalyst in the coal/solvent mixture, and of the nature of the model compound solvent. The results indicate that increasing the concentration of catalyst increase the conversion of coal into toluene soluble products and the hydrogen consumption but has a small effect on oil formation. An inhibition of the figst fractions of a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst added is shown. Strong effects of the sulfiding mode of an iron oxide catalyst, and of the temperature of introduction of the iron oxide into the autoclave are observed relative to the hydrogenation activity of the iron catalyst, when at the same time there is no influence on coal conversions. The replacement of tetralin by a non-donor solvent, 1-methylnaphthalene, suggests that the direct hydrogen transfer process from molecular hydrogen to coal fragment radicals on the catalyst surface may be important. 9 tabs., 4 firs., 16 refs.

  14. Separation of Benzene and Cyclohexane by Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiao; ZHANG Weijiang; GUI Xia

    2007-01-01

    Azeotropic liquid mixture cannot be separated by conventional distillation. But extractive distillation or combination of the two can be valid for them. An experiment to separate benzene and cyclohexane by batch extractive distillation was carried out with N, N-dimethylformide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and their mixture as extractive solvent. The effect of the operation parameterssuch as solvent flow rate and reflux ratio on the separation was studied under the same operating conditions. The results show that the separation effect was improved with the increase of solvent flow rate and the reflux ratio; all the three extractive solvents can separate benzene and cyclohexane, with DMF being the most efficient one, the mixture the second, and DMSO the least. In the experiment the best operation conditions are with DMF as extractive solvent, the solvent flow rate being 12.33 mL/min, and the reflux ratio being 6. As a result, we can get cyclohexane from the top of tower with the average product content being 86.98%, and its recovering ratio being 83.10%.

  15. Design of Batch Pressing Mechanism for Bedded Standard Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianguang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In stability analysis of rock soil engineering, before establishing similar physical simulation model, many match experiments on similar material are required, the current standard sample forming processes are difficult to satisfy the uniformity and compactness in the same sample set often, and have obvious defects in the molding process, molding efficiency and bedding processing. A pressing mechanism consists of adjustable concave-convex composite mould, multi-function trough, drive screw and framework is designed, the mould is pressed nto material to fill directly. Each layered material, dip angle, thickness and position can be controlled, forming number for each lot is adjustable, uniform of the same lot is good, all parts are detachable, operation is also simple. This mechanism is suitable for small batch forming, and has obvious advantages in bedding controlling, forming efficiency, forming quality and operation convenience, which can work well for match experiments before large-scale physical similar simulation experiment, geotechnical experiment, composite rock mass experiment, also can be used to make micro physical model with engineering structure.

  16. Microfabrication-derived DDS: From batch to individual production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, K

    2008-06-01

    As a result of recent advances in microfabrication technology (MFT), microparticles including microcapsules and microspheres can be prepared individually and the disadvantages of the conventional microparticles produced by batch production, i.e. (i) low loading efficiency, (ii) large size variation, and (iii) initial burst release, have been remedied. In addition, all conventional microparticles have the same structure, a spherical shape, so they have only one function, sustained release. Threelayer microcapsules (TLMCs) have been designed to address these issues. TLMCs consist of a surface layer, a drug carrying layer, and a basement layer. TLMCs have sustained release as well as adhesiveness and targeting functions. TLMCs are prepared using ink-jet printer nozzle technology. The obtained TLMCs are used for the oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs and long-term sustained-release injection preparation. In addition, self-dissolving micropiles (SDMPs) can be individually produced by MFT as a percutaneous preparation. MFT allows biopharmaceutical drugs like insulin, erythropoietin, and growth hormone to be absorbed through the skin. Thus, advances in MFT have accelerated the development of pharmaceutical technology.

  17. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 36 days (5 days for acclimatization of sludge and 31 days for normal operation at different initial dye concentrations. The dye concentrations were adjusted to be 20, 25, 30 and 40 mg/L in the reactors R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. In all reactors, effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate and sludge retention time were 5.5 L, 3.0 L/d and 10 d, respectively. According to the obtained data, average dye removal efficiencies of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were 57% ± 2, 50.18% ± 3, 44.97% ± 3 and 30.98% ± 3, respectively. The average COD removal efficiencies of all reactors were 97% ± 1, 97.12% ± 1, 96.93% ± 1 and 97.22% ± 1, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was decreased by increasing the dye concentration with the correlation coefficient of 0.997.

  18. Simultaneous denitrifying phosphorus accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linjiang; HAN Wei; WANG Lei; YANG Yongzhe; WANG Zhiying

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the biological treatment process,denitrifying phosphorus accumulation(DNPA)and its affecting factors were studied in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR)with synthetic wastewater.The results showed that when acetate was used as the sole carbon resource in the influent.the sludge acclimatized under anaerobic/aerobic operation had good phosphorus removal ability.Denitrifying phosphorus accumulation was observed soon when fed with nitrate instead of aeration following the anaerobic stage,which is a vital premise to DNPA.If DNPA sludge is fed with nitrate prior to the anaerobic stage,the DNPA would weaken or even disappear.At the high concen tration of nitrate fed in the anoxic stage,the longer anoxic time needed,the better the DNPA was.Induced DNPA did not disappear even though an aerobic stage followed the anoxic stage,but the shorter the aerobic stage lasted,the higher the proportions of phosphorus removal via DNPA to total removal.

  19. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  20. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  1. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  2. Biological hydrogen production measured in batch anaerobic respirometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Oh, Sang-Eun; Kim, In S; Van Ginkel, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The biological production of hydrogen from the fermentation of different substrates was examined in batch tests using heat-shocked mixed cultures with two techniques: an intermittent pressure release method (Owen method) and a continuous gas release method using a bubble measurement device (respirometric method). Under otherwise identical conditions, the respirometric method resulted in the production of 43% more hydrogen gas from glucose than the Owen method. The lower conversion of glucose to hydrogen using the Owen protocol may have been produced by repression of hydrogenase activity from high partial pressures in the gastight bottles, but this could not be proven using a thermodynamic/rate inhibition analysis. In the respirometric method, total pressure in the headspace never exceeded ambient pressure, and hydrogen typically composed as much as 62% of the headspace gas. High conversion efficiencies were consistently obtained with heat-shocked soils taken at different times and those stored for up to a month. Hydrogen gas composition was consistently in the range of 60-64% for glucose-grown cultures during logarithmic growth but declined in stationary cultures. Overall, hydrogen conversion efficiencies for glucose cultures were 23% based on the assumption of a maximum of 4 mol of hydrogen/ mol of glucose. Hydrogen conversion efficiencies were similar for sucrose (23%) and somewhat lower for molasses (15%) but were much lower for lactate (0.50%) and cellulose (0.075%).

  3. Changes of Resistance During Polyelectrolyte-enhanced Stirred Batch Ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xin-Sheng; Kwang-Ho CHOO

    2007-01-01

    The permeation flux or the resistance in the ultrafiltration process is mainly limited by osmotic pressure,and it may originate from various kinds of polymer interactions. However, the real origin of permeation resistance hasn't been clarified yet in the light of polymer solution nature. The removal of nitrate contamination by polyelectrolytes was carried out with stirred batch ultrafiltration. The polyelectrolyte concentrations both in permeate and retentate were analyzed with total organic carbon analyzer and permeate mass was acquired by electronic balance connected with computer. The total resistance was calculated and interpreted based on the osmotic pressures in three concentration regimes. In the dilute region, the resistance was proportional to polymer concentration; in the semidilute region, the resistance depended on polymer concentration in the parabolic relationship; in the highly concentrated solution regime, the osmotic pressure factor (OPF) would dominate the total resistance; and the deviation from OPF control could come from the electrostatic repulsion between the tightly compacted and charged polyelectrolyte particles at extremely concentrated solution regime. It was first found that dilute and semidilute concentration regions can be easily detected by plotting the log-log curves of the polymer concentration versus the ratio of the total resistance to polymer concentration. The new concept OPF was defined and did work well at highly concentrated regime.

  4. Kinetic Batch Soil Adsorption Studies of 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, J.; Mark, N. W.; Taylor, S.; Brusseau, M. L.; Dontsova, K.

    2014-12-01

    Currently the explosive 2, 4, 6- trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a main ingredient in munitions; however the compound has failed to meet sensitivity requirements. The replacement compound being tested is 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). DNAN is less sensitive to shock, high temperatures, and has good detonation characteristics. However, DNAN is more soluble than TNT, which can influence transport and fate behavior and thus bioavailability and exposure potential. DNAN has been shown to have some human and environmental toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental fate of DNAN in soil, with a specific focus on sorption processes. Batch experiments were conducted using 11 soils collected from military installations located across the United States. The soils were characterized for pH, specific surface area, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content. Adsorption kinetic data determined at room temperature were fitted using the first order kinetic equation. Adsorption isotherms were fitted with linear and Freundlich isotherm equations. The magnitudes of the linear adsorption coefficients ranged from 0.6 to 6 cm3/g. Results indicated that the adsorption of DNAN is strongly dependent on the amount of organic carbon present in the soil.

  5. Efficient flotation of yeast cells grown in batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, M C; Greenhalf, W; Laluce, C

    1996-05-01

    A fast flotation assay was used to select new floating yeast strains. The flotation ability did not seem to be directly correlated to total extracellular protein concentration of the culture. However, the hydrophobicity of the cell was definitely correlated to the flotation capacity. The Saccharomyces strains (FLT strains) were highly hydrophobic and showed an excellent flotation performance in batch cultures without additives (flotation agents) and with no need for a special flotation chamber or flotation column. A stable and well-organized structure was evident in the dried foam as shown by scanning electron microscopy which revealed its unique structure showing mummified cells (dehydrated) attached to each other. The attachment among the cells and the high protein concentration of the foams indicated that proteins might be involved in the foam formation. The floating strains (strains FLT) which were not flocculent and showed no tendency to aggregate, were capable of growing and producing ethanol in a synthetic medium containing high glucose concentration as a carbon source. The phenomenon responsible for flotation seems to be quite different from the flocculation phenomenon. PMID:18626952

  6. Pembuatan Biodiesel Secara Batch Dengan Memanfaatkan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhesa Purnama Putra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati, baik minyak baru atau bekas penggorengan melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak goreng secara batch melalui proses transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan radiasi mikrowave serta mempelajari berapa daya dan waktu optimal yang diperlukan untuk proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan radiasi microwave dengan katalis CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga variabel, yaitu daya (Watt;100,200,300,400, waktu (menit; 5,10,15,20 dan jenis katalis; CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Pada tahap persiapan menghitung volume minyak dan metanol yang akan dicampur. Kemudian mencampurnya didalam reaktor. Lalu mendinginkan campuran hingga terbentuk dua lapisan atas dan bawah dilanjutkan dengan melakukan pemisahan lapisan atas (biodiesel dari lapisan bawah (gliserol. Adapun pada tahap analisis, biodiesel hasil reaksi transesterfikasi dianalisa untuk mendapatkan data yield metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan flash point. Dari penelitian diketahui bahwa hasil yang didapatkan masih belum dapat memenuhi standar biodiesel yang ditetapkan. Katalis CaO dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan katalis H2SO4 dan tanpa katalis. Kondisi operasi untuk menghasilkan kualitas yield biodiesel terbaik yaitu pada daya 200 Watt selama 20 menit dengan menggunakan katalis CaO. Yield biodiesel terbesar didapatkan yield sebesar 60,11 %.

  7. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in an anaerobic batch reactor: growth kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Nasrollahzadeh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of mixed consortia of microorganisms to degrade high concentrations of phenanthrene (PHE as the sole carbon source. Batch experiments were carried out by the induction of mineral salt medium containing PHE to the seed culture and monitoring PHE biodegradation. The microbial propagation was conducted using PHE concentrations in the range of 20 to 100 mg/l. The microbial growth on PHE was defined based on Monod and modified Logistic rate models. The kinetic studies revealed that maximum specific growth rates (μm for PHE concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 mg/l were 0.12, 0.23 and 0.035 h-1, respectively. The doubling times for microbial population in PHE concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 mg/l were 13, 15 and 17.5 h, respectively. Also, maximum cell dry weight (xm of 54.23 mg/l was achieved, while the inhibition coefficient was 0.023 h-1. It was observed that the experimental data were well represented by the proposed models. It was also found that the biodegradation of PHE was successfully performed by the isolated strains.

  8. Preparation of Biodiesel from Microalgae and Palm Oil by Direct Transesterification in a Batch Microwave Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan; Suhendrayatna; Indarti, E.

    2015-06-01

    The present work was aimed to study the so-called direct transesterification of microalgae lipids to biodiesel in a batch microwave reactor. As a comparison, preparation of palm oil to biodiesel by alkaline catalyzed ethanolysis was also carried out. Palm oil biodiesel was recovered close to an equilibrium conversion (94-96% yield) under microwave heating for at least 6 min, while the conventional method required more than 45 minutes reaching the same yield. A very short reaction time suggests the benefit of microwave effect over conventional heating method in making biodiesel. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of fatty acid ethyl esters with no undesired chemical groups or compounds formed due to local heat generated by microwave effect, thus the conversion only followed transesterification route. Oil containing microalgae of Chlorella sp. isolated from the local brackish water pond was used as a potential source of biodiesel. High yield of biodiesel (above 0.6 g/g of dried algae) was also attainable for the direct transesterification of microalgae in the microwave reactor. Effect of water content of the algae biomass became insignificant at 11.9%(w/w) or less, related to the algae biomass dried for longer than 6 h. Fast transesterification of the algal oil towards equilibrium conversion was obtained at reaction time of 6 min, and at longer times the biodiesel yield remains unchanged. FAME profile indicates unsaturated fatty acids as major constituents. It was shown that microwave irradiation contributes not only to enhance the transeseterification, but also to assist effective release of fatty acid containing molecules (e.g. triacylglycerol, free fatty acids and phospholipids) from algal cells.

  9. 基于动态SDG模型的间歇过程HAZOP方法研究%Study of HAZOP analysis for batch processes based on dynamic SDG model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰娟; 周江涛; 曹青

    2011-01-01

    HAZOP( Hazard and Operability Analysis) is one of the most widely used methods for safety assessment. However, after surveying most of the existing techniques of process safety assessment and corresponding software at home and abroad, it was found that little research had been done to the HAZOP analysis for batch process. Therefore, a new modeling method which integrated Petri Net deeply into SDG( Signed Directed Graph)model was presented. This model aimed at HAZOP analysis for batch process specially, with SDG as its main body and Petri Net the assistant. As Petri Net could well describe the discrete-event character of batch process, and SDG explicitly represented the continuous nature of it, the combination of them made the presented model an effective tool for HAZOP analysis of batch process.%危险与可操作性分析(HAzOP)是目前应用最为广泛的安全评价方法之一.然而,通过对国内外已实施的生产过程安全评价方法及相关计算机辅助安全评价软件调查发现,目前对间歇过程HAZOP分析的研究还较少.因此,将Petri网与符号定向图(SDG)相结合,以SDG模型为主,Petri网模型为辅,建立专门针对间歇过程HAZOP分析的动态SDG模型.由于Petri网可以准确描述间歇过程的离散事件特性,而SDG能够恰当描述间歇过程的连续特性,二者结合使该模型成为间歇过程HAZOP分析的有力工具.

  10. Grease waste and sewage sludge co-digestion enhancement by thermal hydrolysis: batch and fed-batch assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, R; Nielfa, A; Pérez, A; Bouchy, L; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-01-01

    Grease waste (GW) is an adequate substrate for sewage sludge co-digestion since, coming from a waste water treatment plant, it has a high methane potential (489 NmLCH(4)/gVSin); however, no synergistic effect takes place when co-digesting with 52%VS grease. Conversely, thermal hydrolysis (TH) improves the anaerobic digestion of GW (43% higher kinetics) and biological sludge (29% more methane potential). Therefore, the application of TH to a co-digestion process was further studied. First, biochemical methane potential tests showed that the best configuration to implement the TH to the co-digestion process is pretreating the biological sludge alone, providing a 7.5% higher methane production (398 NmLCH(4)/gVSin), 20% faster kinetics and no lag-phase. Its implementation in a fed-batch operation resulted in considerable methane production (363 NmLCH(4)/gVSin) and TH improved the rheology and dewaterability properties of the digestate. This leads to important economical savings when combined with co-digestion, reducing final waste management costs and showing interesting potential for full-scale application. PMID:24804667

  11. Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultivation using sugarcane molasses and glucose syrup from cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, S S; Impoolsup, A; Noomhorm, A

    1996-02-01

    Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose syrup from cassava starch and sugarcane molasses were studied using batch and fed-batch cultivation. The optimum temperature and pH required for growth were 30 degrees C and pH 5.5, respectively. In batch culture the productivity and overall cell yield were 0.31 g L-1 h-1 and 0.23 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on glucose syrup and 0.22 g L-1 h-1 and 0.18 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on molasses. In fed-batch cultivation, a productivity of 3.12 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.52 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in glucose syrup cultivation and a productivity of 2.33 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.46 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in molasses cultivation by controlling the reducing sugar concentration at its optimum level obtained from the fermentation model. By using an on-line ethanol sensor combined with a porous Teflon tubing method in automating the feeding of substrate in the fed-batch culture, a productivity of 2.15 g L-1 h-1 with a yield of 0.47 g cells g-1 sugar was achieved using glucose syrup as substrate when ethanol concentration was kept at a constant level by automatic control.

  12. A Single Dynamic Metabolic Model Can Describe mAb Producing CHO Cell Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures on Different Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Julien; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CHO cell culture high productivity relies on optimized culture medium management under fed-batch or perfused chemostat strategies enabling high cell densities. In this work, a dynamic metabolic model for CHO cells was further developed, calibrated and challenged using datasets obtained under four different culture conditions, including two batch and two fed-batch cultures comparing two different culture media. The recombinant CHO-DXB11 cell line producing the EG2-hFc monoclonal antibody was studied. Quantification of extracellular substrates and metabolites concentration, viable cell density, monoclonal antibody concentration and intracellular concentration of metabolite intermediates of glycolysis, pentose-phosphate and TCA cycle, as well as of energetic nucleotides, were obtained for model calibration. Results suggest that a single model structure with a single set of kinetic parameter values is efficient at simulating viable cell behavior in all cases under study, estimating the time course of measured and non-measured intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Model simulations also allowed performing dynamic metabolic flux analysis, showing that the culture media and the fed-batch strategies tested had little impact on flux distribution. This work thus paves the way to an in silico platform allowing to assess the performance of different culture media and fed-batch strategies.

  13. Shortcut Procedure for Inverted Batch Distillation Column (Ⅰ) Multicomponent Ideal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Inverted batch distillation colunm(stripper) is opposed to a conventional batch distillation column(rectifier). It has a storage vessel at the top and products leave the column at the bottom. The batch stripper is favourable to separate mixtures with a small amount of light components by removing the heavy components as bottom products. In this paper, we are presenting a shortcut procedure based on our earlier work for design and simulation of the inverted batch distillation column, which is equivalent to the Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland procedure for continuous distillation. Given a separation task, we propose to compute the minimum number of stages(Nbmin)and the minimum reboil ratio(Rbmin) required in a batch stripper,which are the stages and reboil ratio required in a hypothetical inverted batch distillation colnmn operating in total reboil ratio or having an infinite number of stages,respectively. Then, it is shown that the performance of inverted batch columns with a finite number of stages and reboil ratios could be correlated in Gilliland coordinates with the minimum stages Nbmin and the minimum reboil ratio Rbmin.

  14. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  15. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  16. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue

  17. MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

    2008-10-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

  18. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  19. Transient and Stationary Losses in a Finite-Buffer Queue with Batch Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the number of losses, caused by the buffer overflows, in a finite-buffer queue with batch arrivals and autocorrelated interarrival times. Using the batch Markovian arrival process, the formulas for the average number of losses in a finite time interval and the stationary loss ratio are shown. In addition, several numerical examples are presented, including illustrations of the dependence of the number of losses on the average batch size, buffer size, system load, autocorrelation structure, and time.

  20. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...... of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Batch Process Vents 2 Table 2 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment...—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents As required in § 63.2460, you must meet... process vents: For each . . . Then you must . . . And you must . . . 1. Process with Group 1 batch...

  2. Assistance Focus: Africa (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  3. Aerobic Granulation in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR Treating Saline Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Taheri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Aerobic sludge granulation is an advanced phenomenonin which its mechanisms have not been understood. Granulation can be a promising and novel biological wastewater treatment technology to eliminate organic and inorganic materials in future. High salinity is a parameter which leads to plasmolisatian and reduction of the cell activity. This could be a problem for biological treatment of the saline wastewater. Aerobic granule was formed and investigated during this study. Materials and Methods: This study is an intervention study on the treatment of wastewater with 500-10000 mg/L concentration of NaCl by sequencing batch reactor. Asynthesized wastewater including nutrient required for microorganism's growth was prepared. Input and output pH and EC were measured. Range of pH and DO varied between 7-8, and 2-5 mg/L, respectively. SEM technology was used to identify graduals properties.Results: In terms of color, granules divided into two groups of light brown and black. Granule ranged in 3-7mm with the sediment velocity of 0.9-1.35 m/s and density of 32-60 g/L.Properties of granules were varied. Filamentous bacteria and fungi were dominant in some granules. However non filamentous bacteria were dominant in others. EDX analysis indicated the presence of Ca and PO4.Conclusion: Granules with non filamentous bacterial were compact and settled faster. Presence of different concentrations of salinity leaded to plasmolysis of the bacterial cells and increased concentrations of EPS  in the system as a result  of which granulation accelerated. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  4. Characteristics of anoxic phosphors removal in sequence batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-yi; PAN Mian-li; Yan Min; PENG Yong-zhen; WANG Shu-ying

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake was investigated in sequencing batch reactors using denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria (DPB) sludge. The lab-scale experiments were accomplished under conditions of various nitrite concentrations (5.5, 9.5, and 15 mg/L) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (1844, 3231, and 6730 mg/L). The results obtained confirmed that nitrite, MLSS, and pH were key factors, which had a significant impact on anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake in the biological phosphorous removal process. The nitrites were able to successfully act as electron acceptors for phosphorous uptake at a limited concentration between 5.5 and 9.5 mg/L. The denitrification and dephosphorous were inhibited when the nitrite concentration reached 15 mg/L. This observation indicated that the nitrite would not inhibit phosphorus uptake before it exceeded a threshold concentration. It was assumed that an increase of MLSS concentration from 1844 mg/L to 6730 mg/L led to the increase of denitrification and anoxic P-uptake rate. On the contrary, the average P uptake/N denitrifying reduced from 2.10 to 1.57 mg PO43--P/mg NO3--N. Therefore, it could be concluded that increasing MLSS of the DEPHANOX system might shorten the reaction time of phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake. However, excessive MLSS might reduce the specific denitrifying rate. Meanwhile, a rapid pH increase occurred at the beginning of the anoxic conditions as a result of denitrification and anoxic phosphate uptake. Anaerobic P release rate increased with an increase in pH. Moreover, when pH exceeded a relatively high value of 8.0, the dissolved P concentration decreased in the liquid phase, because of chemical precipitation. This observation suggested that pH should be strictly controlled below 8.0 to avoid chemical precipitation if the biological denitrifying phosphorus removal capability is to be studied accurately.

  5. SLUDGE BATCH 5 VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) in early FY 2009. In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 as a transitional frit to initiate processing of SB5. This recommendation was based on the results of assessments on the compositional projections for SB5 available at that time from both the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of the Frit 418-SB5 system, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the acceptability of the Frit 418-SB5 glasses with respect to durability and the applicability of the current durability models. Twenty one glasses were selected for the variability study based on the available SB5 projections primarily spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 25-37%. In order to account for the addition of caustic to Tank 40, which occurred in July 2008, 3 wt% Na2O was added to the original Tank 40 heel projections. The addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream to the blend composition was also included. Two of the glasses were fabricated at 25% and 28% WL in order to challenge the homogeneity constraint of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for SB5 coupled operations. These twenty one glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study indicate that Frit 418 is a viable option for sludge-only and coupled operations. The addition of ARP did not have any negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of the thermal history and were also predictable using the current PCCS model for durability. The homogeneity constraint can

  6. Batch Cooling Crystallization of Potassium Sulphate from Water Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalšan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch cooling crystallization, at the rotation speed of 700 min–1, of an aqueous solution of a potassium sulphate has been investigated on a laboratory scale. The effect of hydrodynamics conditions on the crystallization process were investigated by using different type of impellers. Two types of impellers were investigated; the four-pitched blade impeller which generates axi-al flow and the six-blades Rusthon turbine which generates radial flow. The experiments were performed at four different linear cooling rates in the range from 8-20 °C h–1 for both types of impeller.The influence of the cooling rates on the metastable zone width, the crystallization kinetics and the granulometric properties of the obtained crystals were investigated. The experimental data show that higher cooling rate expands the metastable zone for all the types of impeller (Fig. 2 and influences the crystal size distribution (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.At low cooling rates, supersaturation was kept at a constant value for a longer period. It resulted in improved conditions for mass transfer and the crystals grew. Bigger crystals were obtained at lower cooling rates (Fig. 7.It is stated that radial flow (Rusthon turbine is particularly inappropriate for the nucleation process, and for crystallization. Nucleation started at a lower temperature and higher supersaturation (Fig. 3. These conditions resulted in a high nucleation’s rate and large number of nucleation centres.Also, the obtained crystals settled on the wall of the reactor, baffles and stirrer. A great part of the obtained crystals was agglomerated. The nucleation order, n and coefficient of nucleation, kn were determined for different cooling rates (Fig. 5a. The nucleation order is higher at radial flow (nucleation started at higher supersaturation. The relation between the rate of concentration drop in a solution and supersaturation has beenapproximated with a power low equation (Fig. 5b. For the used impellers

  7. Effects of CO2 enrichment and nutrients supply intermittency on batch cultures of Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Marta C; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz F; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at enhanced performance to increase economic feasibility of microalgae based processes, Isochrysis galbana was grown in three modes of cultivation: batch, intermittent fed batch and semi-continuous. The batch mode was conducted under two regimes of aeration: conventional aeration and CO2 enriched aeration (5% v/v in air). Increased biomass productivity without significant impact on lipid accumulation was observed for CO2 enriched aeration relatively to cultivation aerated with air only. The intermittent fed batch cultivation policy was proven to be useful for lipid accumulation, increasing the lipid content by 19.8%. However, the semi-continuous mode resulted in higher productivity due to increased biomass concentration; the biomass productivity reached 0.51 g/(Ld). Fluorescence measurements were performed; the calculated low electron transport rate showed the need to increase the irradiance. The results showed that I. galbana can be grown in semi-continuous condition at high levels of biomass productivity.

  8. The second batch of RE export quota in 2009 released/Brief News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In accordance with"Regulation on Import and Export of Commodities of the People's Republic of China",the Ministry of Commerce released the second batch of RE export quota of common trade in 2009 on June 29.

  9. A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.

  10. A Novel Operation Policy for Dilute Component Separation Quasi-batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎青; 袁希钢; 杨祖杰; 刘春江

    2005-01-01

    A new operation policy--quasi-batch distillation for recovering infinitesimal amounts species existing in a mixture is presented. In quasi-batch distillation operation, feed is introduced with a constant flow rate onto the feed stage of the column, and the flow rate of the distillate is the same as that of the feed, whereas the bottom product is withdrawn periodically. The behavior of quasi-batch distillation is simulated and analyzed through an example on heavy water separation. Comparing with continuous or batch distillation, the new operation policy is more reliable and efficient to achieve higher recovery of dilute component. This is especially suitable for separating small amount of precious species from large amount of raw material.

  11. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production.

  12. CONVERTING FROM BATCH TO CONTINUOUS INTENSIFIED PROCESSING IN THE STT? REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fluid dynamics, the physical dimensions and characteristics of the reaction zones of continuous process intensification reactors are often quite different from those of the batch reactors they replace. Understanding these differences is critical to the successful transit...

  13. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production. PMID:27262722

  14. UNBOUNDED BATCH SCHEDULING WITH A COMMON DUE WINDOW ON A SINGLE MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongluan ZHAO; Guojun LI

    2008-01-01

    The common due window scheduling problem with batching on a single machine is dealt with to minimize the total penalty of weighted earliness and tardiness. In this paper it is assumed that a job incurs no penalty as long as it is completed within the common due window. It is the first time for the due window scheduling to be extended to this situation so that jobs can be processed in batches. An unbounded version of batch scheduling is also considered. Hence, jobs, no matter how many there are, can be processed in a batch once the machine is free. For two cases that the location of due window is either a decision variable or a given parameter, polynomial algorithms are proposed based on several optimal properties.

  15. MOFCOM announced supplement to the first batch of 2012 export quotas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce of China supplemented the first batch of rare earth export quotas, which were assigned to the companies that had passed the inspection of the Ministry of Environmental Protection.

  16. Preparing cellulose nanocrystal/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanocomposites using the master-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Libo; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Yujie; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Wang, Siqun

    2015-07-10

    The master-batch method provides a simple way to apply cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as reinforcement in a hydrophobic matrix. The two-stage process includes making high-CNC content (70 wt%) master batch pellets, then mixing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene with the master batch pellets to prepare the ABS/CNC nanocomposite in extruder. SEM image indicates that self-assembled CNC nanosheets disperse evenly throughout the polymer matrix. The improved mechanical properties shown in tensile and DMA tests reveal that the CNC combines well with the ABS. TGA results show that the thermal degradation temperature of CNC in the master batch increases because of the protection of the ABS coating. This approach not only improves the dispersion ability and the thermal stability of CNC, but it is also applicable to use with other hydrophobic thermoplastics in industrial scale production. PMID:25857992

  17. Data Driven Modeling for Monitoring and Control of Industrial Fed-Batch Cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Alvarez, María Antonieta; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    A systematic methodology for development of a set of discrete-time sequence models for batch control based on historical and online operating data is presented and investigated experimentally. The modeling is based on the two independent characteristic time dimensions of batch processing, being...... convergence of iterative learning control is combined with the closed-loop performance of model predictive control to form an optimal controller aiming to ensure reliable and reproducible operation of the batch process. This learning model predictive controller may also be used for optimizing control through...... optimization of the bioreactor operations model. The modeling and preliminary control performance is demonstrated on an industrial fed-batch protein cultivation production process. The presented methods lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies....

  18. Quality of rolled barley flakes as affected by batch of grain and processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, B; Abrahamsson, L; Aman, P

    1994-02-01

    Rolled barely flakes were prepared from three different batches of grain by pearling, steaming and rolling. Autoclaved and malted barleys from the three batches were also processed in the same way. Analysis of the nine products showed that both batch of barley and process had significant effects on chemical composition and viscosity. Puddings were prepared from the products and mechanical consistency, juiciness and grain consistency were graded on both newly prepared and heated puddings by a sensory taste panel. Batch of barley had no effect on mechanical consistency but significant effects on juiciness and grain consistency. Type of processing had significant effect on all three parameters for both newly prepared and heated puddings. PMID:8153065

  19. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch sampling...-through support bonded to the back and has an overall thickness of 40 ±20 µm. An inert polymer ring may...

  20. Assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have adopted laws that regulate physician assistance in dying. Such assistance may consist of providing a patient with a prescription of lethal medication that is self-administered by the patient, which is usually referred to as (physician) assistance in suicide, or of administering lethal medication to a patient, which is referred to as euthanasia. The main aim of regulating physician assistance in dying is to bring these practices into the open and to provide physicians with legal certainty. A key condition in all jurisdictions that have regulated either assistance in suicide or euthanasia is that physicians are only allowed to engage in these acts upon the explicit and voluntary request of the patient. All systems that allow physician assistance in dying have also in some way included the notion that physician assistance in dying is only accepted when it is the only means to address severe suffering from an incurable medical condition. Arguments against the legal regulation of physician assistance in dying include principled arguments, such as the wrongness of hastening death, and arguments that emphasize the negative consequences of allowing physician assistance in dying, such as a devaluation of the lives of older people, or people with chronic disease or disabilities. Opinion polls show that some form of accepting and regulating euthanasia and physician assistance in suicide is increasingly supported by the general population in most western countries. Studies in countries where physician assistance in dying is regulated suggest that practices have remained rather stable in most jurisdictions and that physicians adhere to the legal criteria in the vast majority of cases.

  1. OPTIMAL FEED STRATEGY FOR FED-BATCH GLYCEROL FERMENTATION DETERMINED BY MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    1 IntroductionGlycerol fed-batch fermentation is attractive tocommercial application since it can control theglucose concentration by changing the feed rate andget a high glycerol yield, therefore it is essential todevelop an optimal glucose feed strategy. For mostof fed-batch fermentation, optimization of feed ratewas based on Pontryagin's maximum principle [if.Since the term of feed rate appears linearly in theHamiltonian, the optimal feed rate profile usuallyconsists of ba,lg-bang intervals and singular ...

  2. The functionalization of carbon nanotubes using a batch oscillatory flow reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Melendi, Sonia; Bonyadi, S; Castell, P.; Martinez, M.T.; Mackley, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient method for the functionalizing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) using oscillatory flow mixing (OFM). A 3. l batch oscillatory flow reactor (OFR) was designed and constructed for pilot scale functionalization of MWCNT in order to potentially improve their compatibility within a thermoplastic polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) matrix. The OFM batch reactor consisted of a jacketed cylindrical vessel with a vertical axial oscillator that contained a series of b...

  3. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF INTERMITTENT CHLORINATION SYSTEM IN BIOLOGICAL EXCESS SLUDGE REDUCTION BY SEQUENCING BATCH REACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Takdastan ، N. Mehrdadi ، A. A. Azimi ، A. Torabian ، G. Nabi Bidhendi

    2009-01-01

    The excessive biological sludge production is one of the disadvantages of aerobic wastewater treatment processes such as sequencing batch reactors. To solve the problem of excess sludge production, oxidizing some of the sludge by chlorine, thus reducing the biomass coefficient as well as the sewage sludge disposal may be a suitable idea. In this study, two sequencing batch reactors, each with 20 L volume and controlled by on-line system were used. After providing the steady state conditions i...

  5. Stratified randomization controls better for batch effects in 450K methylation analysis: A cautionary tale

    OpenAIRE

    Buhule, Olive D.; Minster, Ryan L.; Nicola L. Hawley; Mario eMedvedovic; Guangyun eSun; Satupaitea eViali; Ranjan eDeka; Stephen T McGarvey; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Batch effects in DNA methylation microarray experiments can lead to spurious results if not properly handled during the plating of samples. Methods: Two pilot studies examining the association of DNA methylation patterns across the genome with obesity in Samoan men were investigated for chip- and row-specific batch effects. For each study, the DNA of 46 obese men and 46 lean men were assayed using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In the first study (Sample One),...

  6. Stratified randomization controls better for batch effects in 450K methylation analysis: a cautionary tale

    OpenAIRE

    Buhule, Olive D.; Minster, Ryan L.; Nicola L. Hawley; Medvedovic, Mario; SUN, GUANGYUN; Viali, Satupaitea; Deka, Ranjan; Stephen T McGarvey; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Batch effects in DNA methylation microarray experiments can lead to spurious results if not properly handled during the plating of samples. Methods: Two pilot studies examining the association of DNA methylation patterns across the genome with obesity in Samoan men were investigated for chip- and row-specific batch effects. For each study, the DNA of 46 obese men and 46 lean men were assayed using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In the first study (Sample One), s...

  7. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS PRODUCTION BY BATCH REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Zhukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an energy-efficient method for producing SiC-based composites via doping with oxide eutectic compositions and batch granulometry regulation. The influence of batch granulometry on physico-mechanical properties of ceramics is studied, and fractions ratio is determined allowing us to obtain a dense material with improved strength and fracture toughness. Such ceramics shows excellent mechanical behavior and holds much promise as a structural and armor material.

  8. Initial Sulfate Solubility Study for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorier, T

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this task is to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) with an assessment of the viability of using the current 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and/or the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility limit to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit was implemented for processing of Frit 418-Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) to avoid the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten sulfate-rich phase on the melt pool in the DWPF melter. The presence of such a phase on the surface of the melt pool increases corrosion rates of melter components, enhances the potential for steam excursions in a slurry-fed waste glass melter, and creates the potential for undesirable current paths that could deplete energy delivered to the melter due to the electrical conductivity of the molten salt layer. This suite of sulfate-solubility tests began by testing the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case for SB4 (as defined by Lilliston and Shah, 2004)--based on this being the most conservative (having the highest predicted viscosity when coupled with specific frits, it could potentially have the greatest impact on SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility) blending scenario of SB4 with the heel of SB3 for SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility. Frits 320 and 418 were tested with SB4 and the tests indicated that at the current SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and the tested waste loadings (30% and 40%), neither Frit 320 nor Frit 418 could be utilized with SB4 (for the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case composition originally provided). More specifically, SO{sub 4}{sup =} was observed on the surface with the SB4 composition and Frit 320 at 40% waste loading (WL) and 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and with Frit 418 at 30% and 40% WL and 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}. As alternative frits were being developed--Frits 447, 448, and 449, that contained CaO and/or V

  9. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of

  10. Egress door opening assister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Thomas L.

    2015-10-06

    A door opening spring assistance apparatus is set forth that will automatically apply a door opening assistance force using a combination of rods and coil springs. The release of the rods by the coil springs reduces the force required to set the door in motion.

  11. Medical Assisting Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a medical assisting program. The program guide is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed by individuals in the medical assisting field, such as medical law and ethics, typing,…

  12. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  13. Model Integrasi Penjadwalan Produksi Batch dan Penjadwalan Perawatan dengan Kendala Due Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the integration model of batch production and preventive maintenance scheduling on a single machine producing an item to be delivered at a common due date. The machine is a deteriorating machine that requires preventive maintenance to ensure the availability of the machine at a desired service level. Decision variables of the model are the number of preventive maintenances, the schedule, length of production runs, as well as the number of batches, batch sizes and the production schedule of the resulting batches for each production run. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consisting of inventory costs during parts processing, setup cost and cost of preventive maintenance. The results show three important points: First, the sequence of optimal batches always follows the SPT (short processing time. Second, variation of preventive maintenance unit cost does not influence the sequence of batches. Third, the first production run length from production starting time is smaller than the next production run length and this pattern continues until the due date. When in process inventory unit cost is increased, the pattern will continue until a specified cost limit, and beyond the limit the pattern will change to be the opposite pattern.

  14. An LMI Method to Robust Iterative Learning Fault-tolerant Guaranteed Cost Control for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Limin; CHEN Xi; GAO Furong

    2013-01-01

    Based on an equivalent two-dimensional Fornasini-Marchsini model for a batch process in industry,a closed-loop robust iterative learning fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control scheme is proposed for batch processes with actuator failures.This paper introduces relevant concepts of the fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control and formulates the robust iterative learning reliable guaranteed cost controller (ILRGCC).A significant advantage is that the proposed ILRGCC design method can be used for on-line optimization against batch-to-batch process uncertainties to realize robust tracking of set-point trajectory in time and batch-to-batch sequences.For the convenience of implementation,only measured output errors of current and previous cycles are used to design a synthetic controller for iterative learning control,consisting of dynamic output feedback plus feed-forward control.The proposed controller can not only guarantee the closed-loop convergency along time and cycle sequences but also satisfy the H∞ performance level and a cost function with upper bounds for all admissible uncertainties and any actuator failures.Sufficient conditions for the controller solution are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),and design procedures,which formulate a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints,are presented.An example of injection molding is given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the ILRGCC design approach.

  15. On-line Batch Process Monitoring and Diagnosing Based on Fisher Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xu; SHAO Hui-he

    2006-01-01

    A new on-line batch process monitoring and diagnosing approach based on Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) was proposed. This method does not need to predict the future observations of variables, so it is more sensitive to fault detection and stronger implement for monitoring. In order to improve the monitoring performance,the variables trajectories of batch process are separated into several blocks. The key to the proposed approach for on-line monitoring is to calculate the distance of block data that project to low-dimension Fisher space between new batch and reference batch. Comparing the distance with the predefine threshold, it can be considered whether the batch process is normal or abnormal. Fault diagnosis is performed based on the weights in fault direction calculated by FDA. The proposed method was applied to the simulation model of fed-batch penicillin fermentation and the results were compared with those obtained using MPCA. The simulation results clearly show that the on-line monitoring method based on FDA is more efficient than the MPCA.

  16. An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    state estimate, regardless as to the source of the uncertainty. Also, in its most straight forward form, the technique only requires supplemental calculations to be added to existing batch algorithms. The generation of this direct, empirical form of the state error covariance matrix is independent of the dimensionality of the observations. Mixed degrees of freedom for an observation set are allowed. As is the case with any simple, empirical sample variance problems, the presented approach offers an opportunity (at least in the case of weighted least squares) to investigate confidence interval estimates for the error covariance matrix elements. The diagonal or variance terms of the error covariance matrix have a particularly simple form to associate with either a multiple degree of freedom chi-square distribution (more approximate) or with a gamma distribution (less approximate). The off diagonal or covariance terms of the matrix are less clear in their statistical behavior. However, the off diagonal covariance matrix elements still lend themselves to standard confidence interval error analysis. The distributional forms associated with the off diagonal terms are more varied and, perhaps, more approximate than those associated with the diagonal terms. Using a simple weighted least squares sample problem, results obtained through use of the proposed technique are presented. The example consists of a simple, two observer, triangulation problem with range only measurements. Variations of this problem reflect an ideal case (perfect knowledge of the range errors) and a mismodeled case (incorrect knowledge of the range errors).

  17. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  18. Advances in heat pump assisted distillation column: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This article reviews the heat pump assisted distillation (HPAD) technologies. • It covers the use of vapor recompression in both batch and continuous columns. • It identifies future challenges involved in HPAD schemes. - Abstract: Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy demand and federal laws on environmental emissions have stimulated intensive research in improving energy efficiency of the existing fractionation units. In this light, the heat pump assisted distillation (HPAD) scheme has emerged as an attractive separation technology with great potential for energy saving. This paper aims at providing a state-of-the-art assessment of the research work carried out so far on heat pumping systems and identifies future challenges in this respect. At first, the HPAD technology is introduced with its past progresses that have centered upon column configuration, modeling, design and optimization, economic feasibility and experimental verification for steady state operation. Then the focus is turned to review the progress of a few emerging heat integration approaches that leads to motivate the researchers for further advancement of the HPAD scheme. Presenting the recently developed hybrid HPAD based heat integrated distillation configurations, the feasibility of heat pumping in batch processing is discussed. Finally the work highlights the opportunities and future challenges of the potential methodology

  19. Social and Human Service Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Similar Occupations More Info Summary Social and human service assistants help clients to identify and obtain benefits and services. Quick ... and Human Service Assistants Do Social and human service assistants provide client services, including support for families, in a wide ...

  20. Robotic assisted laparoscopic colectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pandalai, S

    2010-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved over the last decade to compensate for limitations in human dexterity. It avoids the need for a trained assistant while decreasing error rates such as perforations. The nature of the robotic assistance varies from voice activated camera control to more elaborate telerobotic systems such as the Zeus and the Da Vinci where the surgeon controls the robotic arms using a console. Herein, we report the first series of robotic assisted colectomies in Ireland using a voice activated camera control system.

  1. OPTIMIZING BATCH REKEYING INTERVAL FOR SECURE GROUP COMMUNICATION BASED ON QUEUING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of Internet spawns many group oriented multicast applications like Internet pay TV, news dissemination and stock quote system. The fortes of these applications are the support of dynamic, scalable group membership and group members are geographically divergent. As members of the group move in and out, an imperative cryptographic rekeying model should be applied to preserve the confidentiality of the group. A symmetric key called as session key is employed to defend the group communication data during transit. Forward and backward secrecy is attained by updating the session key for every change in group membership. Depends on the application immediate rekeying or batch rekeying can be used employed. The problem with the batch rekeying algorithm is to determine the pertinent batch size and the optimal time for rekeying process. The main aim is to propose a mathematical model based on queuing theory principles by considering the request for rekeying as Poisson process, rekeying service as an exponential distribution. The performance of the proposed model is analyzed using Java based simulator. By varying the arrival rate and rekeying service rate the optimal batch size can be attained. The optimal rekeying interval improves the performance of the group when the group membership grows dynamically. Reduces the long waiting time of the rekeying requests and find the best batch size for the rekeying. Proposed mathematical model analyses the various control parameters for batch rekeying and locates the best values for the batch size and interval time using the M/M/1/K model queues.

  2. Dose and batch-dependent hepatobiliary toxicity of 10 nm silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella De Maglie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are widely used because of their antimicrobial properties in medical devices and in a variety of consumer products. The extensive use of AgNPs raises concerns about their potential toxicity, although it is still difficult to draw definite conclusions about their toxicity based on published data. Our preliminary studies performed to compare the effect of the AgNPs size (10-40-100 nm on toxicity, demonstrated that the smallest AgNPs determine the most severe toxicological effects. In order to best investigate the impact of physicochemical characteristics of 10 nm AgNPs on toxicity, we compare three different batches of 10 nm AgNPs slightly different in size distribution (Batch A: 8.8±1.7 nm; Batch B: 9.4±1.7 nm; Batch C: 10.0±1.8 nm. Mice were intravenously treated with two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg of the 3 AgNPs. 24 hours after the treatment, mice were euthanized and underwent complete necropsy. Tissues were collected for histopathological examination and total silver content was determined in tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. All batches induced severe hepatobiliary lesions, i.e. marked hepatocellular necrosis and massive hemorrhage of the gall bladder. The toxicity was dose-dependent and interestingly, the toxic effects were more severe in mice treated with batches A and B that contained smaller AgNPs. Since the total silver mass concentration was similar, the observed batch-dependent toxicity suggest that even subtle differences in size may contribute to relevant changes in the toxicological outcomes, confirming the fundamental involvement of physicochemical features with respect to toxicity.

  3. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%. In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02% was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  4. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this da Vinci assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Our scrub, which is Alex Santander, our nurse anesthetist back ... Okay, Dr. Pinon, you’re going to come scrub in? Yes, I will, yes. Dr. Pinon is ...

  5. TADS and Technical Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trohanis, Pascal L.

    1983-01-01

    Accomplishments of the Technical Assistance Development System (TADS) are cited, current challenges (including program development, and communication and coordination) are noted, and the mission mandated for TADS is outlined. (CL)

  6. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... joysticks and his feet pressing on pedals to control these robotic instruments. There’s almost always an assistant ... Sure. To help divide the tissue and to control bleeding. Right now I’m going to clean ...

  7. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Robotic Surgery. My name is Dr. Andy Pinon. This is my partner, Dr. Darren Bruck. He’s going ... at the very beginning, helping us navigate through this da Vinci assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Our scrub, ...

  8. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Performance Measure Resources View videos, programming specifications, an introductory guide, and more on how CoCs can measure ... a Program Affordable Housing Community Development Consolidated Planning Economic Development Environmental Review Financial Management Homelessness Assistance Rural ...

  9. [Assisted peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarić, Dragan; Prkačin, Ingrid

    2014-04-01

    According to the National Registry of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT), the incidence of chronic kidney disease (end-stage renal disease) and the need of RRT have declined in the last decade renal. One of the reasons for this tendency certainly is transplantation as the best choice. However, transplant procedure has limitations in elderly patients due to the number of comorbidities. This study was designed as retrospective analysis of outcomes in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis for a period of eleven years. Patients were divided into those who had been assisted or unassisted. Out of 100 patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), 77 completed the treatment, including 26 assisted and 51 unassisted patients. Peritonitis was recorded in 20 assisted and 26 unassisted patients. Peritonitis was more common in unassisted patients, who were more frequently lost from PD. Assisted PD could be a good and safe choice of RRT in this special group of patients.

  10. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  11. Financial Assistance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Sites: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Financial Assistance Information The National Institutes of Health (NIH) ... area call 900-638-0742. Top of page Financial Aid for Medical Treatments Information on financial aid ...

  12. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch South Miami Hospital Surgeons Perform Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy South Miami Hospital Miami, FL January 19, 2010 Good afternoon. Welcome to the South Miami Hospital operating room, the Center ...

  13. Computer assisted radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the CAR'93 symposium present the 126 oral papers and the 58 posters contributed to the four Technical Sessions entitled: (1) Image Management, (2) Medical Workstations, (3) Digital Image Generation - DIG, and (4) Application Systems - AS. Topics discussed in Session (1) are: picture archiving and communication systems, teleradiology, hospital information systems and radiological information systems, technology assessment and implications, standards, and data bases. Session (2) deals with computer vision, computer graphics, design and application, man computer interaction. Session (3) goes into the details of the diagnostic examination methods such as digital radiography, MRI, CT, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, digital angiography, and multimodality imaging. Session (4) is devoted to computer-assisted techniques, as there are: computer assisted radiological diagnosis, knowledge based systems, computer assisted radiation therapy and computer assisted surgical planning. (UWA). 266 figs

  14. Accessibility and assistive products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  15. An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop Production/ Special Job Production/ Discrete Production/ Batch Shop Production Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavlesh Kumar Sharma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop production/ Special job production/ Discrete production/ Batch shop production industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop production than in the continuous/ mass production because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about the wastes during the production of a variety of jobs or discrete manufacturing. This paper provides the guidelines to adopt and mentions to become Lean. In variety of production, it is very difficult to find out all the wastes during the processes from input to desired output, thus Lean techniques may be most suitable to minimize the wastage, time, inventory and assist to improve quality and become economical. These wastes may be managed by means of several Lean principles and techniques available. This paper gives a brief introduction of VSM, in order to recognize the opportunities for the various lean techniques, VSM is the main tool, especially it is used to observe the wastes and time spoilage through knowledge management.

  16. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry

  17. Heteronuclear proton assisted recoupling

    OpenAIRE

    De Paëpe, Gaël; Lewandowski, Józef R.; Loquet, Antoine; Eddy, Matt; Megy, Simon; Böckmann, Anja; Griffin, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a theoretical framework for understanding the heteronuclear version of the third spin assisted recoupling polarization transfer mechanism and demonstrate its potential for detecting long-distance intramolecular and intermolecular 15N–13C contacts in biomolecular systems. The pulse sequence, proton assisted insensitive nuclei cross polarization (PAIN-CP) relies on a cross term between 1H–15N and 1H–13C dipolar couplings to mediate zero- and/or double-quantum 15N–13C recoupling. In ...

  18. Kinetics of D-lactic acid production by Sporolactobacillus sp. strain CASD using repeated batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Limin; Li, Fengsong; Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

    2010-08-01

    D-lactic acid was produced by Sporolactobacillus sp. strain CASD in repeated batch fermentation with one- and two-reactor systems. The strain showed relatively high energy consumption in its growth-related metabolism in comparison with other lactic acid producers. When the fermentation was repeated with 10% (v/v) of previous culture to start a new batch, D-lactic acid production shifted from being cell-maintenance-dependent to cell-growth-dependent. In comparison with the one-reactor system, D-lactic acid production increased approximately 9% in the fourth batch of the two-reactor system. Strain CASD is an efficient D-lactic acid producer with increased growth rate at the early stage of repeated cycles, which explains the strain's physiological adaptation to repeated batch culture and improved performance in the two-reactor fermentation system. From a kinetic point of view, two-reactor fermentation system was shown to be an alternative for conventional one-reactor repeated batch operation. PMID:20374976

  19. Time requirements in closed and open batch distillation arrangements for separation of a binary mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch time requirements are provided for the separation of binary zeotropic mixtures in two different multivessel columns (with and without vapor bypass, a non-cyclic two-vessel column and a regular batch column based on dynamic simulations. The first three columns are operated as closed (total reflux systems and the regular batch column is operated as an open (partial reflux system. We analyze the effects of feed composition, relative volatility and product specification on the time requirements. The multivessel arrangements perform better than the regular batch column, which requires from 4.00 to 34.67% more time to complete a given separation. The elimination of the vapor bypass in the multivessel column is impractical though it has a positive effect on the batch time requirements. Thus, the multivessel column, with the vapor stream bypassing the intermediate vessel, is proposed as the best candidate for a binary zeotropic mixture with low concentration of light component, low relative volatility and high product purity demand. Furthermore, an experimental multivessel column with vapor bypass is built and the corresponding experiments verify the simulations.

  20. Comparison of batch and column tests for the elution of artificial turf system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, O; Kalbe, U; Berger, W; Nordhauβ, K; Christoph, G; Walzel, H-P

    2012-12-18

    Synthetic athletic tracks and turf areas for outdoor sporting grounds may release contaminants due to the chemical composition of some components. A primary example is that of zinc from reused scrap tires (main constituent, styrene butadiene rubber, SBR), which might be harmful to the environment. Thus, methods for the risk assessment of those materials are required. Laboratory leaching methods like batch and column tests are widely used to examine the soil-groundwater pathway. We tested several components for artificial sporting grounds with batch tests at a liquid to solid (LS) ratio of 2 L/kg and column tests with an LS up to 26.5 L/kg. We found a higher zinc release in the batch test eluates for all granules, ranging from 15% higher to 687% higher versus data from column tests for SBR granules. Accompanying parameters, especially the very high turbidity of one ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) or thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) eluates, reflect the stronger mechanical stress of batch testing. This indicates that batch test procedures might not be suitable for the risk assessment of synthetic sporting ground components. Column tests, on the other hand, represent field conditions more closely and allow for determination of time-dependent contaminants release. PMID:23153171

  1. Stage 2 Process Performance Qualification (PPQ): a Scientific Approach to Determine the Number of PPQ Batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhayattil, Ajay; Alsmeyer, Daniel; Chen, Shu; Hye, Maksuda; Ingram, Marzena; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-08-01

    The approach documented in this article reviews data from earlier process validation lifecycle stages with a described statistical model to provide the "best estimate" on the number of process performance qualification (PPQ) batches that should generate sufficient information to make a scientific and risk-based decision on product robustness. This approach is based upon estimation of a statistical confidence from the current product knowledge (Stage 1), historical variability for similar products/processes (batch-to-batch), and label claim specifications such as strength. The analysis is to determine the confidence level with the measurements of the product quality attributes and to compare them with the specifications. The projected minimum number of PPQ batches required will vary depending on the product, process understanding, and attributes, which are critical input parameters for the current statistical model. This new approach considers the critical finished product CQAs (assay, dissolution, and content uniformity), primarily because assay/content uniformity and dissolution as well as strength are the components of the label claim. The key CQAs determine the number of PPQ batches. This approach will ensure that sufficient scientific data is generated to demonstrate process robustness as desired by the 2011 FDA guidance.

  2. Decolouration of industrial metal-complex dyes in successive batches by active cultures of Trametes pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodríguez-Couto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The decolouration of the metal-complex dyes Bemaplex Navy M-T (150 mg/L and Bezaktiv Blue BA (150 mg/L in nine successive batches by immobilised cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens was studied. Two different types of immobilisation supports were used: the commercial carriers Kaldnes™ K1 (synthetic supports and sunflower-seed shells (SS (natural supports. Bemaplex showed more resistance to degradation by T. pubescens cultures than Bezaktiv, especially in the K1 cultures. Thus, SS cultures led to decolouration percentages higher than 59% for Bemaplex in all the batches save for the last two and higher than 50% for Bezaktiv in all the batches except for the 2nd and 9th ones. K1 cultures showed decolouration percentages for Bemaplex higher than 42% in batches 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 and for Bezaktiv higher than 70% in all the batches save for the last one. Dye decolouration was mainly due to enzyme action (biodegradation.

  3. The Introduction of Capturing Package-Remotely Platform Guided by the Batch Program%批处理程序引导的远程抓包平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀云帅; 潘益民

    2014-01-01

    批处理程序运行在DOS系统,具有使用方便、灵活、自动化程度高的特点。利用批处理程序、Plink软件、Wireshark网络分析软件在Windows平台上搭建一个远程抓包平台,可以抓取远程Linux系统终端网卡上的数据报文并进行分析。该平台具有使用方便、高效、快捷的技术特点,是工程技术人员的良好助手。%The batch program runs in DOS system, and has the features such as used conveniently、flexibly、high degree of automation. This paper constructs a capturing package-remotely platform on windows system which can captures and analyzes data package from network adapter of the remote Linux terminal. This platform is composed of batch program,Plink software and Wireshark network analysis software, and has the features such as used conveniently、efficiently and quickly, is a good assistant of engineering and technical personnel.

  4. Repeated-batch production of kojic acid in a cell-retention fermenter using Aspergillus oryzae M3B9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H M; Chen, C C; Giridhar, R; Chang, T S; Wu, W T

    2005-06-01

    A cell-retention fermenter was used for the pilot-scale production of kojic acid using an improved strain of Aspergillus oryzae in repeated-batch fermentations. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources used, sucrose and yeast extract promoted pellet morphology of fungi and higher kojic acid production. Repeated-batch culture using a medium replacement ratio of 75% gave a productivity of 5.3 gL(-1)day(-1) after 11.5 days of cultivation. While batch culture in shake-flasks resulted in a productivity of 5.1 gL(-1)day(-1), a productivity of 5 gL(-1)day(-1) was obtained in a pilot-scale fermenter. By converting the batch culture into repeated batches, the non-productive downtime of cleaning, filling and sterilizing the fermenter between each batch were eliminated, thereby increasing the kojic acid productivity. PMID:15895266

  5. LifeRaft: Data-Driven, Batch Processing for the Exploration of Scientific Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaodan; Malik, Tanu

    2009-01-01

    Workloads that comb through vast amounts of data are gaining importance in the sciences. These workloads consist of "needle in a haystack" queries that are long running and data intensive so that query throughput limits performance. To maximize throughput for data-intensive queries, we put forth LifeRaft: a query processing system that batches queries with overlapping data requirements. Rather than scheduling queries in arrival order, LifeRaft executes queries concurrently against an ordering of the data that maximizes data sharing among queries. This decreases I/O and increases cache utility. However, such batch processing can increase query response time by starving interactive workloads. LifeRaft addresses starvation using techniques inspired by head scheduling in disk drives. Depending upon the workload saturation and queuing times, the system adaptively and incrementally trades-off processing queries in arrival order and data-driven batch processing. Evaluating LifeRaft in the SkyQuery federation of astr...

  6. Optimization of cyclosporin A production by Beauveria nivea in continuous fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the effective control method for fed-batch culture of cyclosporin A production, we chose fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 as feeding nutrients and compared their productivities in relation to different concentrations. The feeding rate of three kinds of feeding materials was controlled to maintain the suitable residual concentration. The fed-batch fermentation results indicated that the optimal concentrations of fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 were about 20 g/L, 0.5 g/L and 0.6 g/L for cyclosporin A production, respectively. The cultivation of Beauveria nivea could produce cyclosporin A up to 6.2 g/L for 240 hrs through a continuous feeding-rate-controlled-batch process under the optimal feeding conditions.

  7. Fuzzy logic feedback control for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chao; Voltan, Diego S; Keshwani, Deepak R; Meyer, George E; Kuhar, Pankaj S

    2016-06-01

    A fuzzy logic feedback control system was developed for process monitoring and feeding control in fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Digested glucose from hydrolysis reaction was assigned as input while doser feeding time and speed of pretreated biomass were responses from fuzzy logic control system. Membership functions for these three variables and rule-base were created based on batch hydrolysis data. The system response was first tested in LabVIEW environment then the performance was evaluated through real-time hydrolysis reaction. The feeding operations were determined timely by fuzzy logic control system and efficient responses were shown to plateau phases during hydrolysis. Feeding of proper amount of cellulose and maintaining solids content was well balanced. Fuzzy logic proved to be a robust and effective online feeding control tool for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.

  8. Oxidative stability of frozen mackerel batches ― A multivariate data analysis approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo Ekgreen, M.; Frosch, Stina; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Mackerel are usually caught in the autumn and often frozen either on board the fishing vessel or soon after landing. Due to the seasonality of the catching period, mackerel can be stored frozen for a long time period before entering the production chain. However, frozen storage of fatty fish...... such as mackerel can lead to a significant loss in fish quality primarily due to oxidation of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids. These quality changes results in significant loss for the fish processing industries and in fish with poor eating quality. In order to investigate batch-to-batch variation due...... to different catching methods and different freezing procedures 6 batches of frozen mackerel were obtained from the local producer of caned mackerel. Fish were processed as soon as possible after landing i.e. headed, gutted and individually frozen at the industry. However, one of the catch was abused...

  9. Modeling and Optimization for Short-term Scheduling of Multipurpose Batch Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国辉; 鄢烈祥; 史彬

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants has received significant at-tention. Most scheduling problems are modeled using either state-task-network or resource-task-network (RTN) process representation. In this paper, an improved mixed integer linear programming model for short-term schedul-ing of multipurpose batch plants under maximization of profit is proposed based on RTN representation and unit-specific events. To solve the model, a hybrid algorithm based on line-up competition algorithm and linear pro-gramming is presented. The proposed model and hybrid algorithm are applied to two benchmark examples in lit-erature. The simulation results show that the proposed model and hybrid algorithm are effective for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants.

  10. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Mayer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch distillation applied to hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production on a small scale still requires operating conditions that ensure optimal top product quality and productivity. The aim of this study is to statistically validate a batch still through the employment of response surface methodology (RSM. Operational and productivity parameters were formulated in order to guarantee quality compliance with the legal requirements for the top product concentration, besides providing support information to control the production of HEF on a small scale. The reboiler control and dephlegmator temperatures maintained within the range of 97.5 to 99.5°C and 60 to 70°C, respectively, combined with a variable reflux ratio, was satisfactory in obtaining a top product concentration, in accordance with legal regulations, as well as high productivity. The results of this study may contribute to the assembly of a simple and low-cost batch distillation control system.

  11. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that is able to generate, screen and identify sustainable alternatives to continuous chemical processes as well as processes operating in the batch mode. The methodology generates the sustainable (design) alternatives by locating...... processes are described, highlighting the main differences between them. Through two case studies, the application of the methodology, to obtain sustainable design alternatives for batch plants, is highlighted....... the operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set...

  12. Optimal Feed Rate Control of Escherichia coli Fed-batch Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an optimal control algorithm for E. coli fed-batch fermentation has been developed. A simple material balance model is used to describe the E. coli fermentation process. The optimal feed rate control of a primary metabolite process is studied and a biomass production is used as an example. An optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process is usually done using the calculus of variations to determine an optimal feed rate profile. In the optimal control literature the problem is formulated as a free final time problem where the control objective is to maximise biomass at the end of the process. The obtained optimal feed rate profile consists of sequences of maximum and minimum feed rates. The obtained results are used for optimization of E. coli fed-batch fermentation and the presented simulations show a good efficiency of the developed optimal feed rate profile.

  13. Waste heat recovery at the glass industry with the intervention of batch and cullet preheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolianitis Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising option to reduce the specific energy consumption and CO2 emissions at a conventional natural gas fired container glass furnace deals with the advanced utilization of the exhaust gases downstream the air regenerators by means of batch and cullet preheating. A 3-dimensional computational model that simulates this process using mass and heat transfer equations inside a preheater has been developed. A case study for an efficient small-sized container glass furnace is presented dealing with the investigation of the impact of different operating and design configurations on specific energy consumption, CO2 emissions, flue gas energy recovery, batch temperature and preheater efficiency. In specific, the effect of various parameters is studied, including the preheater’s dimensions, flue gas temperature, batch moisture content, glass pull, combustion air excess and cullet fraction. Expected energy savings margin is estimated to 12-15%.

  14. Functional Unfold Principal Component Regression Methodology for Analysis of Industrial Batch Process Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregaard, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan;

    2016-01-01

    process operating at Novozymes A/S. Following the FUPCR methodology, the final product concentration could be predicted with an average prediction error of 7.4%. Multiple iterations of preprocessing were applied by implementing the methodology to identify the best data handling methods for the model......This work proposes a methodology utilizing functional unfold principal component regression (FUPCR), for application to industrial batch process data as a process modeling and optimization tool. The methodology is applied to an industrial fermentation dataset, containing 30 batches of a production....... It is shown that application of functional data analysis and the choice of variance scaling method have the greatest impact on the prediction accuracy. Considering the vast amount of batch process data continuously generated in industry, this methodology can potentially contribute as a tool to identify...

  15. Rescheduling to Minimize Total Completion Time Under a Limit Time Disruption for the Parallel Batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-yan; MU Yun-dong; GUO Xiao; HAO Yun

    2015-01-01

    In the rescheduling on a single machine, a set of the original jobs has already been scheduled, in order to make a given objective function is optimal. The decision maker needs to insert the new jobs into the existing schedule without excessively disrupting it. A batching machine is a machine that can handle up to some jobs simultaneously. In this paper, we consider the total completion time under a limit on the sequence disruptions for parallel batching based on rescheduling. For the parallel batching problem based on rescheduling, we research the properties of feasible schedules and optimal schedules on the total completion time under a limit on the maximum time disruptions or total time disruptions, in which the jobs are sequenced in SPT order, and give out the pseudo-polynomial time algorithms on the number of jobs and the processing time of jobs by applying the dynamic programming method.

  16. A Batch Rival Penalized Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture Clustering with Automatic Model Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiechang Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the learning framework of maximum weighted likelihood (MWL proposed by Cheung, 2004 and 2005, this paper will develop a batch Rival Penalized Expectation-Maximization (RPEM algorithm for density mixture clustering provided that all observations are available before the learning process. Compared to the adaptive RPEM algorithm in Cheung, 2004 and 2005, this batch RPEM need not assign the learning rate analogous to the Expectation-Maximization (EM algorithm (Dempster et al., 1977, but still preserves the capability of automatic model selection. Further, the convergence speed of this batch RPEM is faster than the EM and the adaptive RPEM in general. The experiments show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm on the synthetic data and color image segmentation.

  17. Study of a sequencing batch reactor performance in soft drink wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cuba Terán

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A sequencing batch aerobic reactor in pilot scale was constructed and operated with intermittent aeration in Wastewater Treatment Lab of Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia de Unesp at Presidente Prudente city. Research was conducted in order to improve reactor’s performance in organic matter and nitrogen removal by means of the application of different aeration times. In 12 and 14 hours long batch tests, with 6 and 8 hours of aeration, more than 96% of organic matter was removed by the third hour in both cases, in the other hand, nitrification showed 50 and 55% of removal at the end of every cycle. Tough showing nitrate removal, denitrification requires more research to be done in order to obtain more accurate data related with best cycle time for both pollutants removal.Key-words: sequencing batchs, aerobic treatment, industrial wastewater.A sequencing batch aerobic reactor in pilot scale was constructed and operated with intermittent aeration in Wastewater Treatment Lab of Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia de Unesp at Presidente Prudente city. Research was conducted in order to improve reactor’s performance in organic matter and nitrogen removal by means of the application of different aeration times. In 12 and 14 hours long batch tests, with 6 and 8 hours of aeration, more than 96% of organic matter was removed by the third hour in both cases, in the other hand, nitrification showed 50 and 55% of removal at the end of every cycle. Tough showing nitrate removal, denitrification requires more research to be done in order to obtain more accurate data related with best cycle time for both pollutants removal.Key-words: sequencing batchs, aerobic treatment, industrial wastewater.

  18. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayancsik, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above.

  19. Stratified randomization controls better for batch effects in 450K methylation analysis: A cautionary tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olive D. Buhule

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Batch effects in DNA methylation microarray experiments can lead to spurious results if not properly handled during the plating of samples. Methods: Two pilot studies examining the association of DNA methylation patterns across the genome with obesity in Samoan men were investigated for chip- and row-specific batch effects. For each study, the DNA of 46 obese men and 46 lean men were assayed using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In the first study (Sample One, samples from obese and lean subjects were examined on separate chips. In the second study (Sample Two, the samples were balanced on the chips by lean/obese status, age group, and census region. We used methylumi, watermelon, and limma R packages, as well as ComBat, to analyze the data. Principal component analysis and linear regression were respectively employed to identify the top principal components and to test for their association with the batches and lean/obese status. To identify differentially methylated positions (DMPs between obese and lean males at each locus, we used a moderated t-test.Results: Chip effects were effectively removed from Sample Two but not Sample One. In addition, dramatic differences were observed between the two sets of DMP results. After removing'' batch effects with ComBat, Sample One had 94,191 probes differentially methylated at a q-value threshold of 0.05 while Sample Two had zero differentially methylated probes. The disparate results from Sample One and Sample Two likely arise due to the confounding of lean/obese status with chip and row batch effects.Conclusion: Even the best possible statistical adjustments for batch effects may not completely remove them. Proper study design is vital for guarding against spurious findings due to such effects.

  20. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above

  1. Enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper oleoresin for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sayantani; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2015-07-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), the King of Spices is the most popular spice globally and its active ingredient, piperine, is reportedly known for its therapeutic potency. In this work, enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of black pepper oleoresin was investigated using α-amylase (from Bacillus licheniformis) for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract possessing good combination of phytochemical properties. Optimization of the extraction parameters (without enzyme), mainly temperature and pressure, was conducted in both batch and continuous modes and the optimized conditions that provided the maximum yield of piperine was in the batch mode, with a sample size of 20 g of black pepper powder (particle diameter 0.42 ± 0.02 mm) at 60 °C and 300 bar at 2 L/min of CO2 flow. Studies on activity of α-amylase were conducted under these optimized conditions in both batch and continuous modes, with varying amounts of lyophilized enzyme (2 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg) and time of exposure of the enzyme to SC-CO2 (2.25 h and 4.25 h). The specific activity of the enzyme increased by 2.13 times when treated in the continuous mode than in the batch mode (1.25 times increase). The structural changes of the treated enzymes were studied by (1)H NMR analyses. In case of α-amylase assisted extractions of black pepper, both batch and continuous modes significantly increased the yields and phytochemical properties of piperine-rich extracts; with higher increase in batch mode than in continuous. PMID:25617183

  2. Enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper oleoresin for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sayantani; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2015-07-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), the King of Spices is the most popular spice globally and its active ingredient, piperine, is reportedly known for its therapeutic potency. In this work, enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of black pepper oleoresin was investigated using α-amylase (from Bacillus licheniformis) for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract possessing good combination of phytochemical properties. Optimization of the extraction parameters (without enzyme), mainly temperature and pressure, was conducted in both batch and continuous modes and the optimized conditions that provided the maximum yield of piperine was in the batch mode, with a sample size of 20 g of black pepper powder (particle diameter 0.42 ± 0.02 mm) at 60 °C and 300 bar at 2 L/min of CO2 flow. Studies on activity of α-amylase were conducted under these optimized conditions in both batch and continuous modes, with varying amounts of lyophilized enzyme (2 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg) and time of exposure of the enzyme to SC-CO2 (2.25 h and 4.25 h). The specific activity of the enzyme increased by 2.13 times when treated in the continuous mode than in the batch mode (1.25 times increase). The structural changes of the treated enzymes were studied by (1)H NMR analyses. In case of α-amylase assisted extractions of black pepper, both batch and continuous modes significantly increased the yields and phytochemical properties of piperine-rich extracts; with higher increase in batch mode than in continuous.

  3. Batch sodium borohydride hydrolysis systems: Effect of sudden valve opening on hydrogen generation rate

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. F. Ferreira; Coelho, F; Rangel, C. M.; Pinto, A. M. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to investigate the potential of hydrogen (H 2) generation by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride solution (10 wt% NaBH 4 and 7 wt% NaOH), in batch reactors, operating at moderate pressures (up to #8764;1.2 MPa), in the presence of a powdered nickel-ruthenium based catalyst, reused between 311 and 316 times, to feed on-demand a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. A different approach to the testing of the performance of the batch NaBH 4 hydrolysis system is explore...

  4. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  5. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  6. Sensor combination and chemometric variable selection for online monitoring of Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ödman, Peter; Johansen, C.L.; Olsson, L.;

    2010-01-01

    -one-batch-out cross-validation, and the best models had root mean square error of cross-validation values of 1.02 g l(-1) biomass and 0.8 g l(-1) total amino acids, respectively. The fluorescence data were also explored by parallel factor analysis. The analysis revealed four spectral profiles present......Fed-batch cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor, producing the antibiotic actinorhodin, were monitored online by multiwavelength fluorescence spectroscopy and off-gas analysis. Partial least squares (PLS), locally weighted regression, and multilinear PLS (N-PLS) models were built for prediction...

  7. Change in hyphal morphology of Aspergillus Oryzae during fed-batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Martin Brian; Olsson, Lisbeth; Hansen, K;

    2006-01-01

    the batch phase from 2.8-2.9 up to 4.0-4.4 mu m. The diameter of the hyphal elements remained constant, around 4 mu m, after the feed was started. However, the diameter of the immediate hyphal tip, where the enzyme secretion is thought to take place, increased dramatically with up to a factor 2.5 during......Industrial enzymes are often produced by filamentous fungi in fed-batch cultivations. During cultivation, the different morphological forms displayed by the fungi have an impact on the overall production. The morphology of a recombinant lipase producing Aspergillus oryzae strain was investigated...

  8. A Combination of Varying Column Pressure and Total Reflux—Total Efflux in Batch Distillation Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGWeijiang; QUHongmei; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel operation of batch distillation-combination of varying colum pressure and total reflux-total efflux is studied experimentally. In the operation, the product is accumulated at the top of the column under total reflux and then drained off completely, and the column pressure is varying in the whole process. This process has been industrialized successfully with large profits. The conventional mode of batch distillation is improved by this method effectively: the separation eficiency and the yield of product are increased greatly, the operation time is shortened and the production cost is cut down. Moreover, the amount of condensation water is decreased and the over-high reboiler temperature is lowered.

  9. A Practical SSL Server Performance Improvement Algorithm Based on Batch RSA Decryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shi-qun; WU Yong-dong; ZHOU Jian-ying; CHEN Ke-fei

    2008-01-01

    The secure socket layer/ transport layer security(SSL/TLS) handshake protocol uses public key cryptographic algorithms such as RSA for key establishment. Typically, public key cryptographic algorithm is computational intensive due to the modular multiplications. Therefore, SSL/TLS servers often become swamped while performing public key decryptious when the simultaneous requests increase quickly. A batch RSA decryption algorithm was proposed. The novel algorithm provides the reasonable response time and opti-mizes server performance significantly. The decryption speedup is proportional to the batch size b, for instance,the speedup factor is 4, while in Shacham's scheme the acceleration rate is only 2.5 when b=4.

  10. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Hobley, Timothy John; Calabrò, V.;

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22gL−1 were found from whey containing ca. 44gL−1 lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h...... ethanol, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the...... metabolic coefficients within a physically meaningful range thereby providing valuable and reliable insight into fermentation processes....

  11. Kinetics studies of uranium sorption by powdered corn cob in batch and fixed bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Sorption of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution onto powdered corn cob has been carried out using batch and fixed-bed technique. The experimental results in batch technique were fitted well with pseudo second-order kinetics model. In the fixed bed technique, Thomas and Bohart-Adams models were evaluated by linear regression analysis for U(VI) uptake in different flow rates, bed heights and initial concentrations. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas mode (r (2) = 0.999), but the Bohart-Adams model (r (2) = 0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. PMID:26843973

  12. Computer Assisted Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula Cosío, F.; Padilla Castañeda, M. A.

    2003-09-01

    Computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems can provide different levels of assistance to a surgeon during training and execution of a surgical procedure. This is done through the integration of : measurements taken on medical images; computer graphics techniques; and positioning or tracking mechanisms which accurately locate the surgical instruments inside the operating site. According to the type of assistance that is provided to the surgeon, CAS systems can be classified as: Image guided surgery systems; Assistant robots for surgery; and Training simulators for surgery. In this work are presented the main characteristics of CAS systems. It is also described the development of a computer simulator for training on Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) based on a computer model of the prostate gland which is able to simulate, in real time, deformations and resections of tissue. The model is constructed as a 3D mesh with physical properties such as elasticity. We describe the main characteristics of the prostate model and its performance. The prostate model will also be used in the development of a CAS system designed to assist the surgeon during a real TURP procedure. The system will provide 3D views of the shape of the prostate of the patient, and the position of the surgical instrument during the operation. The development of new computer graphics models which are able to simulate, in real time, the mechanical behavior of an organ during a surgical procedure, can improve significantly the training and execution of other minimally invasive surgical procedures such as laparoscopic gall bladder surgery.

  13. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  14. Extraction of valuable compounds from mangosteen pericarps by hydrothermal assisted sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmudah, Siti; Lestari, Sarah Duta; Shiddiqi, Qifni Yasa'Ash; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono, Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2015-12-01

    Valuable compounds, such as xanthone and phenolic compounds, from mangosteen pericarps was extracted by hydrothermal treatment at temperatures of 120-160 °C and pressures of 5 MPa using batch and semi-batch extractor. This method is a simple and environmentally friendly extraction method requiring no chemicals other than water. Under these conditions, there is possibility for the formation of phenolic compounds from mangosteen pericarps from decomposition of bounds between lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose via autohydrolysis. In order to increase the amount of extracted valuable compounds, sonication pre-treament was performed prior to the hydrothermal extraction process. 30 min of sonication pre-treatment could increase significantly the amount of xanthone and phenolic compounds mangosteen pericarps extraction. In batch-system, the xanthone recovery approach to 100 % at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min extraction time. Under semi-batch process, the total phenolic compounds in the extract was 217 mg/g sample at 160 °C with 30 min sonication pre-treatment for 150 min total extraction time. The results revealed that hydrothermal extraction assisted sonication pre-treatment is applicable method for the isolation of polyphenolic compounds from other types of biomass and may lead to an advanced plant biomass components extraction technology.

  15. Ethics and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-06-01

    In vitro fertilization and assisted reproductive technology have made great progress during the last 20 years. Genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and surrogacy are currently practiced in many countries. On the other hand, embryo research is practiced only in a small number of nations, whereas human cloning has thus far been universally condemned. The rapid evolution and progress of all these techniques of assisted reproduction has revealed certain ethical issues that have to be addressed. PMID:10825637

  16. Influence of batch-to-batch reproducibility of Luna C-18(2) packing material, nature of column wall material, and column diameter on the liquid chromatographic analysis of basic analytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, RJM; Ruyter, E; Debets, AJJ; Claessens, HA; Cramers, CA; de Jong, GJ

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects arising on transferring liquid chromatography (LC) methods developed on conventional size columns to micro LC, i.e. the influence of batch-to-batch reproducibility of packing material, the nature of the column wall material, and the column inner diameter. it was shown th

  17. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure slurry in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D.I. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Food Research Branch; Droste, R.L. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory study to evaluate the feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for stabilizing, deodorizing and adding value to swine manure. Preliminary results show that the process is feasible. (author). 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Combined age and segregated kinetic model for industrial-scale penicillin fed-batch cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.F.; Lauwerijssen, M.J.C.; Yuan, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a cell age model forPenicillium chrysogenum fed-batch cultivation to supply a qualitative insight into morphology-associated dynamics. The average ages of the segregated cell populations, such as growing cells, non-growing cells and intact productive cells, were estimated by this

  19. The Removal of Uranium onto Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Particles in Anoxic Batch Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of uranium (U onto nanoscale zero-valent iron particles has been studied for uranium-bearing mine water and synthetic uranyl solutions in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen. The work has been conducted in order to investigate the differential nanoparticle corrosion behaviour and associated mechanisms of U removal behaviour in conditions representative of near-surface and deep groundwater systems. Batch systems were analysed over a 28-day reaction period during which the liquid and nanoparticulate solids were periodically analysed to determine chemical evolution of the solutions and particulates. Analysis of aqueous samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry recorded near-total U removal after 1 hour of reaction in all systems studied. However, in the latter stages of the reaction (after 48 hours, significant rerelease of uranium was recorded for the mine water batch system with dissolved O2 present. In contrast, less than 2% uranium rerelease was recorded for the anoxic batch system. Concurrent analysis of extracted nanoparticle solids using X-ray diffraction recorded significantly slower corrosion of the nanoparticles in the anoxic batch system, with residual metallic iron maintained until after 28 days of reaction compared to only 7 days of reaction in systems with dissolved O2 present. Results provide clear evidence that the corrosion lifespan and associated U6+ removal efficacy of nanoscale zero-valent iron replace enhanced in the absence of dissolved oxygen.

  20. Synthesis of Peptide Amides using Sol-Gel Immobilized Alcalase in Batch and Continuous Reaction System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corici, L.N.; Frissen, A.E.; Zoelen, van D.J.; Eggen, I.F.; Peter, F.; Davidescu, C.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Two commercial proteases from Bacillus licheniformis (Alcalase 2.4 L FG and Alcalase 2.5 L, Type DX) were screened for the production of Z-Ala-Phe-NH2 in batch reaction. Alcalase 2.4 L FG was the most efficient enzyme for the C-terminal amidation of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe using ammonium carbamate as ammonium

  1. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  2. Experimental Verification of Dynamic Operation of Continuous and Multivessel Batch Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgens, Bernd

    1999-07-01

    This thesis presents a rigorous model based on first principles for dynamic simulation of the composition dynamics of a staged high-purity continuous distillation columns and experiments performed to verify it. The thesis also demonstrates the importance of tray hydraulics to obtain good agreement between simulation and experiment and derives analytic expressions for dynamic time constants for use in simplified and vapour dynamics. A newly developed multivessel batch distillation column consisting of a reboiler, intermediate vessels and a condenser vessel provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The total reflux operation of this column was presented previously and the present thesis proposes a simple feedback control strategy for its operation based on temperature measurements. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated by simulations and verified by laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the multivessel column can be easily operated with simple temperature controllers, where the holdups are only controlled indirectly. For a given set of temperature setpoints, the final product compositions are independent of the initial feed composition. When the multivessel batch distillation column is compared to a conventional batch column, both operated under feedback control, it is found that the energy required to separate a multicomponent mixture into highly pure products is much less for the multivessel system. This system is also the simplest one to operate.

  3. The Effects of Batch Reactor Extraction on Antioxidant Activity from Scurulla atropurpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti I. Rahmawati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main active compounds of benalu teh’s include alkaloids and flavonoids, therefore antioxidant of it has big potential to develop. In the context of extraction, the traditional (boiling in the water until one-third remain extraction require a long extraction time and result in low yields of extraction also antioxidant activities. Approach: Batch reactor is extraction at high temperature under applied pressure to keep the solvent under liquid phase, by this technology we hope to obtain better results. Optimum extraction conditions of benalu teh need to be discovered to obtain the antioxidant inside it. Benalu teh was extracted using traditional and batch reactor with different solvents (water, 30, 50, 70 and 99% ethanol at different temperatures (40-180°C for different time periods (10-20 min under additional pressure 0.2 MPa. Results: The best extraction condition by batch reactor extraction was 30% ethanol solvent at temperature 100°C for 10 min. Conclusion: Batch reactor extraction gave a better result than traditional extraction on extract yield, radical scavenging activities and total phenolic compound compared with the traditional extraction.

  4. The economic order decision with continuous dynamic pricing and batch supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.H.J.; Herings, P.J.J.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study an infinite horizon model, where a seller orders his product in batches of fixed size. A sales strategy determines both the order moments and the sales path between these moments. Under some natural conditions on the seller’s revenue function, the strategy that maximizes the seller’s time-d

  5. The development of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick, Stephen; Ştefan, Andrei; Lovett, David; Montague, Gary; Lennox, Barry

    2015-01-10

    This paper describes a simulation of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation that can be used as a benchmark in process systems analysis and control studies. The simulation was developed using a mechanistic model and validated using historical data collected from an industrial-scale penicillin fermentation process. Each batch was carried out in a 100,000 L bioreactor that used an industrial strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. The manipulated variables recorded during each batch were used as inputs to the simulator and the predicted outputs were then compared with the on-line and off-line measurements recorded in the real process. The simulator adapted a previously published structured model to describe the penicillin fermentation and extended it to include the main environmental effects of dissolved oxygen, viscosity, temperature, pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. In addition the effects of nitrogen and phenylacetic acid concentrations on the biomass and penicillin production rates were also included. The simulated model predictions of all the on-line and off-line process measurements, including the off-gas analysis, were in good agreement with the batch records. The simulator and industrial process data are available to download at www.industrialpenicillinsimulation.com and can be used to evaluate, study and improve on the current control strategy implemented on this facility. PMID:25449107

  6. Variation in Sensory Profile of Individual Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Same Production Batch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    The variation in sensory profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), belonging to the same aquaculture production batch and handled the same way, was explored by using objective sensory profiling on heat-treated minced fillets. In addition, quality index, mechanical texture, pH, fat, and wate...

  7. A novel energy-efficient batch stripper: Thermodynamic feasibility, cost analysis and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing energy demand, depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns have stimulated intensive research in improving the energetic potential of well-established process units through process intensification route. In this contribution, a novel internal heat integration scheme is introduced for batch stripping. Aiming to improve the thermodynamic efficiency of this transient distillation column, the tower is proposed to primarily divide into two diabatic sections. The upper section (top stripper) is operated at elevated pressures (heat source) keeping the lower part (bottom stripper) at normal state (heat sink) so that there exists a thermal driving force between them. With this goal, the proposed heat integrated batch stripper (HIBS) additionally requires a couple of internal heat exchangers, a compressor and a pressure reducing throttling valve. To quantify the benefits achieved by this novel scheme over a conventional standalone column, we use three performance indexes, namely energy savings, total annualized cost and CO2 emissions. Finally, the proposed HIBS configuration is demonstrated by simulating a binary system of cyclohexane and toluene. - Highlights: • A novel energy-efficient batch stripper is introduced. • Stripper is proposed to divide into two diabatic sections. • Two divided sections are thermally integrated by a couple of heat exchangers. • The mechanism is illustrated by the batch processing of a binary system

  8. Increasing the strength of metallurgical coke by adding modified petroleum coke to the coking batch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I. Stukov; V.S. Zagainov; Y.B. Kukolev; N.S. Andreichikov; P.V. Shtark; A.V. Vishnyakov; V.A. Antonova; S.N. Soboleva [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    Box-coking data show the possibility of increasing the yield and strength of metallurgical coke by introducing a coking additive in the batch. Specifically, this additive is a product of slow coking of heavy petroleum residues, characterized by excellent thermoplastic properties: clinkering properties and plastic temperature range. A Russian patent has been obtained for the coking additive.

  9. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches. 205.57-6 Section 205.57-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks §...

  10. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. 205.57-7 Section 205.57-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks §...

  11. Production and partial characterization of alkaline feruloyl esterases by Fusarium oxysporum during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topakas, E.; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Production of feruloyl esterases (FAEs) by Fusarium oxysporum was enhanced by optimization of initial pH of the culture medium, the type and concentration of nitrogen and carbon source. Submerged batch cultivation in a laboratory bioreactor (17 1) produced activity at 82 nkat g(-1) dry substrate...

  12. UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS IN BATCH SYSTEMS BY A RECYCLED IRON-BEARING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An iron-bearing material deriving from surface finishing operations in the manufacturing of cast-iron components demonstrates potential for removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Batch isotherm and rate experiments were conducted for uptake of cadmium, zinc, and lead...

  13. Comparison of batch and continuous multi-column protein A capture processes by optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel; Angarita, Monica; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Multi-column capture processes show several advantages compared to batch capture. It is however not evident how many columns one should use exactly. To investigate this issue, twin-column CaptureSMB, 3- and 4-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) and single column batch capture are numerically optimized and compared in terms of process performance for capturing a monoclonal antibody using protein A chromatography. Optimization is carried out with respect to productivity and capacity utilization (amount of product loaded per cycle compared to the maximum amount possible), while keeping yield and purity constant. For a wide range of process parameters, all three multi-column processes show similar maximum capacity utilization and performed significantly better than batch. When maximizing productivity, the CaptureSMB process shows optimal performance, except at high feed titers, where batch chromatography can reach higher productivity values than the multi-column processes due to the complete decoupling of the loading and elution steps, albeit at a large cost in terms of capacity utilization. In terms of trade-off, i.e. how much the capacity utilization decreases with increasing productivity, CaptureSMB is optimal for low and high feed titers, whereas the 3-column process is optimal in an intermediate region. Using these findings, the most suitable process can be chosen for different production scenarios. PMID:26992151

  14. Batch Metadata Editing - Dspace 1.6: a workshop/tutorial to inform and build skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Leonie; Lewis, Stuart; Newton-Wade, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    A new feature of the DSpace 1.6 Software is "Batch Metadata Editing". It gives Repository staff the ability to export metadata and change it easily for re-upload into the system. Once you try this "Data Entry" will never be the same.

  15. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.panneels@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, OFLC/103, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  16. Integration of Generic Multi-dimensional Model and Operational Policies for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    2011-01-01

    A generic multi-dimensional modeling framework for studying batch cooling crystallization processes under generated operational policies is presented. The generic nature of the modeling allows the study of a wide range of chemical systems under different operational scenarios, enabling thereby, t...

  17. Reaction invariant-based reduction of the activated sludge model ASM1 for batch applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santa Cruz, Judith A.; Mussati, Sergio F.; Scenna, Nicolás J.;

    2016-01-01

    to batch activated sludge processes described by the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) for carbon and nitrogen removal. The objective of the model reduction is to describe the exact dynamics of the states predicted by the original model with a lower number of ODEs. This leads to a reduction...

  18. Production of Ammonium Lactate by Fed-batch Fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae from Corncob Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Dong-mei; LI Shi-zhong; LIN Fang-qian

    2004-01-01

    L- (+)-Lactic acid production from corncob hydrolysate as a cheap carbohydrate source by fed-batch fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae HZS6 was studied. After 96 h of fermentation in a 5 L fermentor, the final concentration of ammonium L-(+)-lactate, average productivity(based on initial xylose concentration) and max(+)-lactate was 98.8%.

  19. Observation and mathematical description of the acceleration phenomenon in batch respirograms associated with ammonium oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guisasola, A.; Chandran, K.; Smets, Barth F.;

    2006-01-01

    Two-step nitrification models are generally calibrated using short-term respirometric batch experiments. Important discrepancies appear between model predictions and experimental observations just after the pulse addition since a fast transient in the OUR profile is experimentally observed. Accel...

  20. Determining The Optimal Order Picking Batch Size In Single Aisle Warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Duc (Tho); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis work aims at investigating the influence of picking batch size to average time in system of orders in a one-aisle warehouse under the assumption that order arrivals follow a Poisson process and items are uniformly distributed over the aisle's length. We model this problem as an M

  1. Effect of long-term idle periods on the performance of sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Obermayer, A.; Arnold, E.;

    2000-01-01

    Sludge storage can be used as an effective control handle to adjust plant capacity to large influent variations. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology is well suited for temporary sludge storage because reactors can easily be switched off individually and operated in an idle mode...

  2. MODELING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REDUCTION IN GROUND- WATER IN FIELD-SCALE TRANSPORT AND LABORATORY BATCH EXPERIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A plausible and consistent model is developed to obtain a quantitative description of the gradual disappearance of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from groundwater in a small-scale field tracer test and in batch kinetic experiments using aquifer sediments under similar chemical cond...

  3. Experimental Investigation of NO Formation from Combustion of Wood and Straw in a Batch Combustor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Esben; Jensen, Lars Skaarup; Jensen, Anker;

    1996-01-01

    The formation of NOx from combustion of biomass fuels has been investigated. Samples of wood and straw with an average nitrogen content of 0.04 and 0.4 % mass respectively were burned in a laboratory scale batch fixed bed reactor at 570 °C and 832 °C. The flue gas was analyzed for O2, NO, CO and CO...

  4. Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Enzyme Catalysed Batch Bioreactor for the Production of Ethanol from Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Yelebe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of estimating various kinetic parameters for the design of an optimized enzyme catalysed batch bioreactor of high efficiency and yield. Mathematical models were developed to describe the batch reaction time in relation to the substrate, enzyme and product concentration. The results obtained from the plots generated were: 35.50gmol/l.hr for the velocity of reaction of the enzymes (Vmax, 0.10049hr-1 for the maximum specific growth rate (µmax 826.45gmol/l for the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km, 0.005402577 for maintenance coefficient (Ms, 10.104kgCx/kgCs for yield of cell weight per unit weight of substrate (Ycx/CS, 0.05436kgCp/kgCs for yield of product weight per unit weight of substrate utilized (Ycp/CS and 0.01416 for endogenous decay coefficient (Kd for the design of the batch biochemical reactor. Hence, they are useful parameters for predicting the most appropriate batch reaction conditions and the efficiency of the bioreactor. The mathematical model predictions showed that it can be considered as a good complimentary tool to real system since the simulation results of the mathematical model agrees with experimental data reported in literature.

  5. Sensitivity Analyses of Site Selection for a Concrete Batch Plant at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.P.

    2001-07-10

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for an onsite concrete batch plant to support the construction of the proposed surplus plutonium disposition facilities at the Savannah River site. Presented in this report is a sensitivity analysis that demonstrates the robustness of the site evaluations.

  6. Physiological studies in aerobic batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring the MEL1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Simon; Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Ronnow, B.;

    2000-01-01

    Physiological studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring the MEL1 gene were carried out in aerobic batch cultivations on glucose-galactose mixtures and on the disaccharide melibiose, which is hydrolyzed by the enzyme melibiase (Mel1, EC 3.2.1.22) into a glucose and a galactose moiety. ...

  7. Design and Construction of a Batch Oven for Investigation of Industrial Continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Mette; Nielsen, Brian; Risum, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulated...

  8. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) For a boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity of less than 44 megawatts and where...)(i) and (ii) shall be maintained. (i) Documentation of the maximum design capacity of the EPPU; and... maximum design capacity. (b) Compliance demonstration records. Each owner or operator of a batch...

  9. Biosynthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides by Sporotrichum thermophile during submerged batch cultivation in high sucrose media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katapodis, P.; Kalogeris, E.; Kekos, D.;

    2004-01-01

    Biosynthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was observed during growth of the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile on media containing high sucrose concentrations. Submerged batch cultivation with the optimum initial sucrose concentration of 250 g/l allowed the production of 12.5 g FOS...

  10. Batch chemical microreactors: Reversible, in-situ UHV sealing of a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monkowski, Adam; Johansson, Martin; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk;

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction and analy...

  11. Feasibility of treating partially soluble wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) with mechanical stirring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Samantha Cristina; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Foresti, Eugenio; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2005-03-01

    This work reports on the treatment of partially soluble wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor, containing biomass immobilized on polyurethane matrices and stirred mechanically. The results showed that agitation provided optimal mixing and improved the overall organic matter consumption rates. The system showed to be feasible to enhance the treatment of partially soluble wastewaters. PMID:15491835

  12. Performance of anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (pilot-scale in domestic sewage treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Foresti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the results obtained during 70 days using four pilot scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactors, for sewage system treatment of the campus of the University of São Paulo in São Carlos – SP. Each reactor system with 1.2 m³ of total volume, was designed for the treatment of 1.95 m³d³ of domestic sewage, with geometrical conceptions (ratio H-height/D-diameter, mechanical conceptions (mechanical mixing or liquid re-circulation and different biomass retention type. Three of them were ASBR (AnaerobicSequencing Batch Reactor with granular biomass and another one was an ASBBR (Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor with biomass consisting of cubic matrices of polyurethane foam. The reactors were inoculated and operated within an 8-hour batch cycle. The reactors monitoring included the oxygen chemical demand (OCD, pH, total suspended solids (TSS and volatile suspended solids, volatile fatty acids, alkalinity to bicarbonate and methane concentration. Both ASBR reactors with liquid re-circulation did not show a satisfactory performance. The average values of OCD and TSS removal were close to 40% and 60% respectively. In the ASBR reactors with mechanical mixing and ASBBR with immobilized biomass, showed better results. The ASBBR reactor reached average efficiency of 61% and 75% in OCD and TSS removal, while in the ASBR with mechanical mixing, it reached 60% and 79%, respectively.

  13. 40 CFR 65.117 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Batch processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative means of emission limitation: Batch processes. 65.117 Section 65.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... is visible, audible, or olfactory evidence of fluid loss. (ii) For pressure tests using a liquid,...

  14. Functional State Metabolism in E. coli Fed-batch Cultivation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Kosev

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a biochemical correspondence to defined functional state based on specific metabolic mechanisms. For E. coli fed-batch cultivation processes a set of functional states is considered. As a result through proposed functional states the changes in metabolic pathways can be described accurately.

  15. Optimal Feeding Trajectories Design for E. coli Fed-batch Fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper optimal control algorithms for two E. coli fed-batch fermentations are developed. Fed-batch fermentation processes of E. coli strain MC4110 and E. coli strain BL21(DE3pPhyt109 are considered. Simple material balance models are used to describe the E. coli fermentation processes. The optimal feed rate control of a primary metabolite process is studied and a biomass production is used as an example. The optimization of the considered fed-batch fermentation processes is done using the calculus of variations to determine the optimal feed rate profiles. The problem is formulated as a free final time problem where the control objective is to maximize biomass at the end of the process. The obtained optimal feed rate profiles consist of sequences of maximum and minimum feed rates. The resulting profiles are used for optimization of the E. coli fed-batch fermentations. Presented simulations show a good efficiency of the developed optimal feed rate profiles.

  16. Kinetic Study of COS with Tertiary Alkanolamine Solutions. 1. Experiments in an Intensely Stirred Batch Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Rob J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1992-01-01

    The reaction between COS and various tertiary alkanolamines in aqueous solutions has been studied in an intensely stirred batch reactor. Experiments for TEA, DMMEA, and DEMEA were carried out at 303 K; the reaction between COS and aqueous MDEA has been studied at temperatures ranging from 293 to 323

  17. Batch production of FAEE-biodiesel using a liquid lipase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per Munk;

    2014-01-01

    competitive option for the conversion of oils and fats to biodiesel. This study investigates the impact of several process parameters on the production of fatty acid ethyl esters from rapeseed oil in a pure batch process on the liquid lipase formulation Callera™ Trans L. Oil conversion in excess of 98...

  18. Batch distillation column low-order models for quality program control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, B.H.L.

    2000-01-01

    For batch distillation, the dynamic composition behaviour can be described by the dominant time constant and the bottom exhaustion. Its magnitude is determined by the change of the composition distribution and is maximal when the inflection point of the molar fraction profile is located in the middl

  19. Kinetics of color development of peanuts during dry roasting using a batch roaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetics of color development during peanut roasting were investigated at roasting temperatures from 149 to 204 °C which produced Hunter L color values of 25 to 65. Preliminary and equivalent roasting trials were conducted using a batch roaster simulating the parameters of an industrial continuo...

  20. An Integrated Environment for Batch Process Development - From Recipe to Manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batch process development involves the process of converting a chemical synthesis into an optimum, safe, robust, and economical process for manufacturing the chemical of desired quality at the ultimate desired scale. In this paper we describe a strategy for developing a set of integrated decision...

  1. On the optimal control of fed-batch reactors with substrate-inhibited kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzador, L

    1988-05-01

    The optimal feed rate profiles, for fed-batch fermentation that maximizes the biomass production and accounts for time, are analyzed. The solution can be found only if the final arc of the optimal control is a batch arc, since in this case the final concentrations of substrate and biomass can be determined by ulterior conditions on the mass balance and on the final growth rate of biomass and thus it is possible to solve the resulting time optimal problem by using Green's theorem. This evidences the "turnpike property" of the solution, which tries to spend the maximum time on or at least near the singular arc along which the substrate concentration is maintained constant. The optimality of the final batch arc is related to the time operational cost in the performance index. The sequence of the control depends on the initial conditions for which six different regions, with the respective patterns, have been identified, in case the performance index allows the control sequence to have a final batch.

  2. Assisted Cycling Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

  3. Parent-Assisted Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.

    The effects of parent-monitored practice at home on pupil performance in reading were investigated. The study used as instructional vehicles the Parent-Assisted Learning Program (PAL) and the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) First-Year Communication Skills Program. PAL was designed to enable school personnel to establish a system whereby…

  4. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Voogt; P. Fisser

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss th

  5. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... actually mimicking -- these mimicking the movement of the human hand and the human wrist. Clips, please. So what Dr. Pinon has ... for robots to operate without the assistance of humans? Not yet. We are not quite there. The ...

  6. Physician-Assisted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module fourteen of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version focuses on the skills that the physician can use to respond both compassionately and confidently to a request, not on the merits of arguments for or against legalizing physician-assisted suicide (PAS) or euthanasia.

  7. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sijo J Parekattil; Ahmet Gudeloglu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy,unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques.This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology.Today,we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology.Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields,such as ophthalmology,hand surgery,plastics and reconstructive surgery.The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor,improved stability,surgeon ergonomics,scalability of motion,multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views,enhanced magnification,and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously.This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery.It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures,such as vasectomy reversal,subinguinal varicocelectomy,targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE).

  8. Preparative chromatography with supercritical fluids. Comparison of simulated moving bed and batch processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Stephanie; Johannsen, Monika; Brunner, Gerd

    2007-12-28

    Preparative chromatography is a key technology for the separation of fine chemicals in production scale. Most of the published studies are carried out using liquid solvents as mobile phase. However, the used organic solvents can often be replaced by supercritical fluids. A reduction or renouncement of organic solvents does not only correspond to the trend of the so-called green chemistry--a sustainable, environmentally friendly production of chemical products. But a changeover to chromatography with supercritical fluids can also be reasonable under economic criteria. In this contribution a comparison between the Batch-supercritical fluid chromatography (Batch-SFC) process and the simulated moving bed (SMB)-SFC process is presented. Because of the minor importance of solvent consumption and solvent recovery in SFC, the separation systems were optimized primarily in terms of their specific productivity. For three of the four investigated model systems, the specific productivity of the SMB process is significantly higher than the productivity of the Batch process. Due to the fact, that the process with the higher specific productivity is not inevitably the more economical process, supplementary the costs of the process were considered. Therefore the comparison of the two processes was done from an economic point of view considering the minimum product price that has to be realized to fulfill the defined economic aim. It was found that although the optimized specific productivities of the SMB process were significantly higher than the productivities of the Batch process, the Batch process is the more profitable process for the investigated production rate range between 0.4 and 5t/a.

  9. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying. PMID:27169205

  10. 40 CFR 63.490 - Batch front-end process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart O. (c) Batch front-end process vent testing and... applicable procedures of Method 301, 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (e) Aggregate batch vent stream testing for... under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii)...

  11. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  12. Production of savinase and population viability of Bacillus clausii during high-cell-density fed-batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Michaelsen, S.; Wumpelmann, M.;

    2003-01-01

    The growth and product formation of a Savinase-producing Bacillus clausii were investigated in high-cell-density fed-batch cultivations with both linear and exponential feed profiles. The highest specific productivity of Savinase was observed shortly after the end of the initial batch phase for a...

  13. Cold-walled UHV/CVD batch reactor for the growth of Si1_x/Gex layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Christensen, Carsten; Andersen, C.R.;

    1997-01-01

    A novel cold-walled, lamp-heated, ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) batch system for the growth of SiGe layers is presented. This system combines the batch capability of the standard UHV/CVD furnace with the temperature processing available in rapid thermal processing (Rm...

  14. Design and Analysis of Integrated Predictive Iterative Learning Control for Batch Process Based on Two-dimensional System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chen; Zhihua Xiong; Yisheng Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Based on the two-dimensional (2D) system theory, an integrated predictive iterative learning control (2D-IPILC) strategy for batch processes is presented. First, the output response and the error transition model predictions along the batch index can be calculated analytically due to the 2D Roesser model of the batch process. Then, an integrated framework of combining iterative learning control (ILC) and model predictive control (MPC) is formed reasonably. The output of feedforward ILC is estimated on the basis of the predefined process 2D model. By min-imizing a quadratic objective function, the feedback MPC is introduced to obtain better control performance for tracking problem of batch processes. Simulations on a typical batch reactor demonstrate that the satisfactory tracking performance as wel as faster convergence speed can be achieved than traditional proportion type (P-type) ILC despite the model error and disturbances.

  15. Optimal iterative learning control for end-point product qualities in semi-batch process based on neural network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG ZhiHua; DONG Jin; ZHANG Jie

    2009-01-01

    An optimal iterative learning control (ILC) strategy of improving endpoint products in semi-batch processes is presented by combining a neural network model. Control affine feed-forward neural network (CAFNN) is proposed to build a model of semi-batch process. The main advantage of CAFNN is to obtain analytically its gradient of endpoint products with respect to input. Therefore, an optimal ILC law with direct error feedback is obtained explicitly, and the convergence of tracking error can be analyzed theoretically. It has been proved that the tracking errors may converge to small values. The proposed modeling and control strategy is illustrated on a simulated isothermal semi-batch reactor, and the results show that the endpoint products can be improved gradually from batch to batch.

  16. THE EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF INVERT SUGAR ON THE PRODUCTION OF CEPHALOSPORIN C IN A FED-BATCH BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Silva

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalosporin C, a b -lactam antibiotic, is the starting molecule for industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins. The bioprocess for its production is carried out in batch stirred and aerated tank reactors utilizing strains of the filamentous fungus Cephalosporium acremonium. In this work a comparison was made between the processes of production of cephalosporin C in a conventional batch bioreactor, with synthetic medium containing glucose and sucrose, and in a fed-batch reactor at several flowrates of supplementary medium containing invert sucrose. In general, the fed-batch process was shown to be more efficient than the conventional batch one, and the process in which the lowest supplementation flowrate was used presented an antibiotic production significantly higher than those obtained under the other conditions.

  17. SuperAssist: Personal assistants for cooperative healthcare treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, G. de; Mast, C.A.P.G. van der; Blanson Henkemans, O.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Human-computer interaction, tele-medicine, supervision, personalization, ambient intelligence, health care, personal assistants, cooperative problem-solving. ABSTRACT This paper describes the research plans in the SuperAssist project, introducing personal assistants in the care of diabetes patients,

  18. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  19. Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Rehabilitative and assistive technology refers to tools, equipment, or products that can ...

  20. Polyol-assisted vermiculite dispersion in polyurethane nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Tae; Qian, Yuqiang; Lindsay, Chris I; Nijs, Conny; Camargo, Rafael E; Stein, Andreas; Macosko, Christopher W

    2013-04-24

    The largest use of polyurethane (PU) is as closed cell rigid foams for thermal insulation. One problem is loss of blowing gases, which leads to slow increase in thermal conductivity. PU composites with plate-like nanofillers create a diffusion barrier, reducing gas transport and slowing insulation aging. In this research, a new in situ intercalative polymerization is described to disperse vermiculite (VMT) in PU. When VMT was modified by cation exchange with long-chain quaternary ammonium, the dispersion in methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was significantly improved. Dispersion of clay in MDI was further improved by combining high intensity dispersive mixing with a polyol-clay preblend (master-batch). The VMT dispersibility was characterized using rheology, microscopy, and X-ray scattering/diffraction. With the method of polyol-assisted VMT dispersion, electron microscopy revealed extensive intercalation and exfoliation of clay particles. In contrast, simple mixing of organoclay in MDI resulted in macroscopic localization and poor distribution of clay particles in PU. The final nanocomposites prepared by the master-batch method showed enhancement of mechanical properties (85% increase in elastic modulus) and reduction in permeability to CO2, as much as 40%, at a low clay concentration of 3.3 wt %. PMID:23506456

  1. Laser assisted electron dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Alexander William

    2016-01-01

    We apply the convergent close-coupling (CCC) formalism to analyse the processes of laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He, and the attosecond time delay in the photodetachment of the H^{-} ion and the photoionisation of He. Such time dependent atomic collision processes are of considerable interest as experimental measurements on the relevant timescale (attoseconds 10^{-18} s) are now possible utilising ultrafast and intense laser pulses. These processes in particular are furthermore of interest as they are strongly influenced by many-electron correlations. In such cases their theoretical description requires a more comprehensive treatment than that offered by first order perturbation theory. We apply such a treatment through the use of the CCC formalism which involves the complete numeric solution of the integral Lippmann-Schwinger equations pertaining to a particular scattering event. For laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He such a treatment is of a considerably greater accuracy than the...

  2. Experience with a distributed control system toolkit in a batch application; Erfahrungen mit einem Prozessleitsystem Toolkit in einer Batch-Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbach, B. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Hennecke, H. [Lang und Peitler Automation GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    At Bayer AG structured automation solutions have been implemented for years on Simatic S5 systems using a software specially developed for this purpose. Due to the benefits gained during implementation and especially during commissioning as well as due to the uniform documentation, this structure was transferred to the new Siemens distributed control system PCS7 in form of the Bayer S7 ToolKit. The S7 ToolKit has been applied successfully in various projects. The following article describes the application of the Bayer S7 ToolKit with regard to basic functions and batch applications. (orig.) [German] Bei der Bayer AG wird seit Jahren eine strukturierte Automatisierung bei Simatic S5-Projekten mit einem eigens dafuer entwickelten Softwaresystem realisiert. Durch die positiven Erfahrungen sowohl in der Projektierung, der vereinfachten Inbetriebnahme und der einheitlichen Dokumentation wurde diese Struktur auch auf das neue Siemens-Prozessleitsystem PCS7 in Form des S7 ToolKits uebetragen. In einer Reihe von Projekten wurde das Bayer S7 ToolKit schon angewendet. Im folgenden wird ueber den Einsatz des ToolKits in Verbindung mit Grundfunktions-Fahrweisen und einer Batch-Anwendung berichtet. (orig.)

  3. Production of Medium-Chain-Length Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates from Saponified Palm Kernel Oil by Pseudomonas putida: Kinetics of Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuar, M. S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates, PHAMCL production by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 in batch and fed-batch fermentations were studied. With saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO supplying the free fatty acids mixture as the sole carbon and energy source, PHAMCL accumulation is encouraged under ammonium-limited condition, which is a nitrogen stress environment. The amount of PHAMCL accumulated and its specific production rate, qPHA were influenced by the residual ammonium concentration level in the culture medium. It was observed that in both fermentation modes, when the residual ammonium was exhausted (< 0.05 gL-1, the PHAMCL accumulation (11.9% and qPHA (0.0062 h-1 were significantly reduced. However, this effect can be reversed by feeding low amount of ammonium to the culture, resulting in significantly improved PHAMCL yield (71.4% and specific productivity (0.6 h-1. It is concluded that the feeding of low ammonium concentration to the culture medium during the PHAMCL accumulation has a positive effect on sustaining the PHAMCL biosynthetic capability of the organism. It was also found that increasing SPKO concentration in the medium significantly reduced (up to 50% the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa of the fermentation system.

  4. l-Lactic acid production by combined utilization of agricultural bioresources as renewable and economical substrates through batch and repeated-batch fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Lebaka Veeranjaneya; Kim, Young-Min; Yun, Jong-Sun; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Wee, Young-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 was used to produce l-lactic acid from hydrol, soybean curd residues (SCR), and malt. Hydrol was efficiently metabolized to l-lactic acid with optical purity of >97.5%, though hydrol contained mixed sugars such as glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltodextrin. Combined utilization of hydrol, SCR, and malt was enough to sustain lactic acid fermentation by E. faecalis RKY1. In order to reduce the amount of nitrogen sources and product inhibition, cell-recycle repeated-batch fermentation was employed, where a high cell mass (26.3g/L) was obtained. Lactic acid productivity was improved by removal of lactic acid from fermentation broth by membrane filtration and by linearly increased cell density. When the total of 10 repeated-batch fermentations were carried out using 100g/L hydrol, 150g/L SCR hydrolyzate, and 20g/L malt hydrolyzate as the main nutrients, lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 3.20g/L/h to 6.37g/L/h. PMID:26970921

  5. Quantitative modeling of viable cell density, cell size, intracellular conductivity, and membrane capacitance in batch and fed-batch CHO processes using dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Cary F; Li, Jincai; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to analyze typical batch and fed-batch CHO cell culture processes. Three methods of analysis (linear modeling, Cole-Cole modeling, and partial least squares regression), were used to correlate the spectroscopic data with routine biomass measurements [viable packed cell volume, viable cell concentration (VCC), cell size, and oxygen uptake rate (OUR)]. All three models predicted offline biomass measurements accurately during the growth phase of the cultures. However, during the stationary and decline phases of the cultures, the models decreased in accuracy to varying degrees. Offline cell radius measurements were unsuccessfully used to correct for the deviations from the linear model, indicating that physiological changes affecting permittivity were occurring. The beta-dispersion was analyzed using the Cole-Cole distribution parameters Deltaepsilon (magnitude of the permittivity drop), f(c) (critical frequency), and alpha (Cole-Cole parameter). Furthermore, the dielectric parameters static internal conductivity (sigma(i)) and membrane capacitance per area (C(m)) were calculated for the cultures. Finally, the relationship between permittivity, OUR, and VCC was examined, demonstrating how the definition of viability is critical when analyzing biomass online. The results indicate that the common assumptions of constant size and dielectric properties used in dielectric analysis are not always valid during later phases of cell culture processes. The findings also demonstrate that dielectric spectroscopy, while not a substitute for VCC, is a complementary measurement of viable biomass, providing useful auxiliary information about the physiological state of a culture.

  6. Based on LSRMAM ICA-Batch Processing for Spectral Unmixing in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.; Wang, J.; Hu, B.; Yu, P.

    2009-05-01

    The individual pixels in remote sensing multispectral images are generally compounded as the sum of the radiances of all materials within the instantaneous filed of view of the sensor. Those pixels are called mixed pixels. The decomposition of mixed pixels is constantly an on-going research topic in remote sensing. The current decomposition models have the following characteristics: linear, probability-statistical, random geometric, geometric optical and fuzzy etc. Linear spectral random mixture analysis model (LSMAM) is the most commonly used model for sub-pixel detection and mixed pixel classification at the current time. It is built on the assumption that the same materials within pixels possess the same spectral characteristics as linear additive model. Its structure is simple along with clear theoretical and physical interpretation. There is a better way that assumes the composition of each of the mixed pixels to be a random variable, i.e. a random signal source, and the spectral response curves of ground types are independent to each other. In this way, each of the spectral response curves constitutes a source signal so that the multispectral image can be considered as a mixture of these source signals. Thus the classification of this mixture turns into a blind source separation task, which is no other than the mathematical model of ICA (independent component analysis). Batch processing is one type of linear ICA approaches that are based on high-order statistics. Its core is to use the high order cumulants matrix to optimize the goal function through the Givens transformation. JADE, SHIBBS and JCC algorithms are commonly used at the current time. As the great virtue, the ICA-Batch processing does not require estimating the probability density function of the mixed signal, and is able to process the mixed signal that contains super-Gaussian and sub-Gaussian signals as well. Furthermore, the sum-to-one constraint can be applied to the ICA-Batch processing so

  7. Physician Assistant Genomic Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldgar, Constance; Michaud, Ed; Park, Nguyen; Jenkins, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Genomic discoveries are increasingly being applied to the clinical care of patients. All physician assistants (PAs) need to acquire competency in genomics to provide the best possible care for patients within the scope of their practice. In this article, we present an updated version of PA genomic competencies and learning outcomes in a framework that is consistent with the current medical education guidelines and the collaborative nature of PAs in interprofessional health care teams. PMID:27490287

  8. Improving assisted living care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Nancy; Gesell, Sabina B; Widmer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a national measurement system, private vendors of satisfaction measurement and improvement services have played a crucial role in the quality movement in the assisted living industry. Survey responses from 175 resident-family dyads at 20 facilities were analyzed to identify priorities for service improvement from the customers' perspective. They include improving care provided by aides and management, meal service, and activities. Practical solutions for addressing these issues are presented.

  9. Computer-assisted psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Jesse H.; Wright, Andrew S.

    1997-01-01

    The rationale for using computers in psychotherapy includes the possibility that therapeutic software could improve the efficiency of treatment and provide access for greater numbers of patients. Computers have not been able to reliably duplicate the type of dialogue typically used in clinician-administered therapy. However, computers have significant strengths that can be used to advantage in designing treatment programs. Software developed for computer-assisted therapy gen...

  10. Computer assisted mathematical programming

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, CA; Mitra, G

    1987-01-01

    A Computer Assisted Mathematical Programming (Modelling) System (CAMPS) is described in this paper. The system uses program generator techniques for model creation and contrasts with earlier approaches which use a special purpose language to construct models. Thus no programming skill is required to formulate a model. In designing the system we have first analysed the salient components of the mathematical programming activity. A mathematical programming model is usually constructed by progre...

  11. Assistance From A Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China joins international relief efforts in Haiti with a powerful sense of mission How long does it take to ready assistance and travel some 15,000 km around the globe to provide a helping hand amid one of the worst earth-quakes in modern history? The answer might surprise you. Less than 36 hours after seismic shocks leveled much of Haiti on January

  12. [EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantero, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion.

  13. Laparoscopic assisted cholecystostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, F

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopic assisted cholecystostomy (LAC) is a safe method for external biliary drainage in jaundiced patients with distal common bile duct obstruction. It consists of the retrieval of the fundus of the gallbladder through the trocar, thus through abdominal wall followed by suture to the skin. This technique could be an option for surgeons who manage a patients with jaundice by distal common bile duct obstruction.

  14. [EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantero, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion. PMID:27356358

  15. Steer assistance for teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Olivier; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane

    2005-05-01

    Giat Industries, expert in combat system, designs and integrates the technologies (electrical network, mechanical design, ergonomic and mobility command and control) for the French military and civil robotic. One of the main problems of current robotics is to treat the lack of operator's perception due to teleoperation. The article details the assistance for the steer control part of mobility command and control. The purpose of the assistance is to secure the vehicle, to insure the continuity of the command (in particular for tracked vehicle equipped of hydrostatic steering group), and to adapt the command (to use all the range of the command even at high speed and to adapt the speed to the desired curve). The advantage of the system presented in the article is to filter the order first and to transmit to the actuators only safe orders preserving the vehicle. This approach transforms the telepilot's order watching and correction problem, to a telepilot's order filtering problem. We pass here, from a logical "a posteriori" to a logical of "a priori" processing. The assistance includes: a model of the dynamic behavior of the vehicle and an open loop, some feed forward with appropriate filters and a closed loop. The article presents the result of the command studies from time simulation to "man on the loop" simulation. This system, at present time applied to the French Observation Robot demonstrator SYRANO (developped for the DGA-French Defence Procurement Agency), is the subject of a patent.

  16. ANALYSIS OF SLUDGE BATCH 4 (MACROBATCH 5) FOR CANISTER S02902 AND SLUDGE BATCH 5 (MACROBATCH 6) FOR CANISTER S03317 DWPF POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-10-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), Macrobatch 5 (MB5) on May 29, 2007. Sludge Batch 4 was a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and SB4 material qualified in Tank 51. On November 28, 2008, DWPF began processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) from Tank 40 which is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from SB4, SB5 material qualified in Tank 51 and H-Canyon Pu and Np transfers. SB4 was processed using Frit 510 and SB5 used Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. During the processing of SB4 and SB5, glass samples were obtained during the pouring of canisters S02902 and S03317, respectively. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed (durability, chemical and radionuclide composition). The following observations and conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of the oxides for the chemical composition of both the SB4 and SB5 pour stream glasses is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) acceptance limits (95 {le} sum of oxides {le} 105). (2) The calculated Sludge Dilution Factor (SDF) for SB4 is 2.52. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB4 Waste Acceptance Production Specification (WAPS) sample (References 1 and 19). (3) The calculated SDF for SB5 is 2.60. The measured radionuclide content is in good agreement with the calculated values from the dried sludge results from the SB5 WAPS sample (References 2 and 20). (4) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis shows there are noble metal inclusions, primarily ruthenium, present in both pour stream samples. (5) The Product

  17. Collaborative study for the calibration of replacement batches for the heparin low-molecular-mass for assay biological reference preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, E; Daas, A

    2016-01-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) prescribes the control of the activity of low molecular mass heparins by assays for anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities (monograph 0828), using a reference standard calibrated in International Units (IU). An international collaborative study coded BSP133 was launched in the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) run under the aegis of the Council of Europe and the European Commission to calibrate replacement batches for the dwindling stocks of the Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 8. Thirteen official medicines control and manufacturers laboratories from European and non-European countries took part in this study to calibrate two freeze-dried candidate batches against the 3rd International Standard (IS) for heparin, low molecular weight (11/176; 3rd IS). The Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay BRP (batch 8) was also included in the test panel to check the continuity between subsequent BRP batches. Taking into account the stability data, the results of this collaborative study and on the basis of the central statistical analysis performed at the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM), the 2 candidate batches were officially adopted by the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia as Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay BRP batches 9 and 10 with assigned anti-Xa activities of 102 and 100 IU/vial and anti-IIa activities of 34 and 33 IU/vial respectively. PMID:27507705

  18. Dissipation of hydrological tracers and the herbicide S-metolachlor in batch and continuous-flow wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Elodie; Lange, Jens; Schreiber, Steffi; Dollinger, Jeanne; Herbstritt, Barbara; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide dissipation in wetland systems with regard to hydrological conditions and operational modes is poorly known. Here, we investigated in artificial wetlands the impact of batch versus continuous-flow modes on the dissipation of the chiral herbicide S-metolachlor (S-MET) and hydrological tracers (bromide, uranine and sulforhodamine B). The wetlands received water contaminated with the commercial formulation Mercantor Gold(®) (960 g L(-1) of S-MET, 87% of the S-enantiomer). The tracer mass budget revealed that plant uptake, sorption, photo- and presumably biodegradation were prominent under batch mode (i.e. characterized by alternating oxic-anoxic conditions), in agreement with large dissipation of S-MET (90%) under batch mode. Degradation was the main dissipation pathway of S-MET in the wetlands. The degradate metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) mainly formed under batch mode, whereas metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (MESA) prevailed under continuous-flow mode, suggesting distinct degradation pathways in each wetland. R-enantiomer was preferentially degraded under batch mode, which indicated enantioselective biodegradation. The release of MESA and MOXA by the wetlands as well as the potential persistence of S-MET compared to R-MET under both oxic and anoxic conditions may be relevant for groundwater and ecotoxicological risk assessment. This study shows the effect of batch versus continuous modes on pollutant dissipation in wetlands, and that alternate biogeochemical conditions under batch mode enhance S-MET biodegradation.

  19. Quality-by-Design approach to monitor the operation of a batch bioreactor in an industrial avian vaccine manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largoni, Martina; Facco, Pierantonio; Bernini, Donatella; Bezzo, Fabrizio; Barolo, Massimiliano

    2015-10-10

    Monitoring batch bioreactors is a complex task, due to the fact that several sources of variability can affect a running batch and impact on the final product quality. Additionally, the product quality itself may not be measurable on line, but requires sampling and lab analysis taking several days to be completed. In this study we show that, by using appropriate process analytical technology tools, the operation of an industrial batch bioreactor used in avian vaccine manufacturing can be effectively monitored as the batch progresses. Multivariate statistical models are built from historical databases of batches already completed, and they are used to enable the real time identification of the variability sources, to reliably predict the final product quality, and to improve process understanding, paving the way to a reduction of final product rejections, as well as to a reduction of the product cycle time. It is also shown that the product quality "builds up" mainly during the first half of a batch, suggesting on the one side that reducing the variability during this period is crucial, and on the other side that the batch length can possibly be shortened. Overall, the study demonstrates that, by using a Quality-by-Design approach centered on the appropriate use of mathematical modeling, quality can indeed be built "by design" into the final product, whereas the role of end-point product testing can progressively reduce its importance in product manufacturing.

  20. Production and delivery batch scheduling with a common due date and multiple vehicles to minimize total cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyaningsih, E.; Suprayogi; Samadhi, TMAA; Halim, AH

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies production and delivery batch scheduling problems for a single- supplier-to-a-single-manufacturer case, with multiple capacitated vehicles wherein different holding costs between in-process and completed parts are allowed. In the problem, the parts of a single item are first batched,then the resulting batches are processed on a single machine. All completed batches are transported in a number of deliveries in order to be received at a common due date. The objective is to find the integrated schedule of production and delivery batches so as to satisfy its due date and to minimize the total cost of associated in-process parts inventory, completed parts inventory and delivery. It should be noted that both holding costs constitute a derivation of the so-called actual flow time, and the delivery cost is proportional to the required number of deliveries. The problem can be formulated as an integer non-linier programming and it is solved optimally by Lingo 11.0 software. Numerical experiences show that there are two patterns of batch sizes affected by the ratio of holding costs of in-process and completed parts. It can be used by practitioners to solve the realistic integrated production and delivery batch scheduling problem.

  1. Characterization Of The As-Received Sludge Batch 9 Qualification Sample (Htf-51-15-81)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has sent SRNL a 3-L slurried sample of Tank 51H (HTF-51-15-81) to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (potentially after combining with Tank 40H sludge). This report documents the first steps of the qualification process – characterization of the as-received Tank 51H qualification sample. These results will be used to support a reprojection of SB9 by SRR from which final Tank 51H washing, frit development, and Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) activities will be based.

  2. Relationship between solids flux and froth features in batch flotation of sulphide ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-sheng; Aldrich Chris

    2005-01-01

    The froth features in the batch flotation of a sulphide ore were investigated by using the digital image parameters of the froth, the small number emphasis(Nsne), the average grey level(Dagl) and the instability number(Nins), under different conditions of impeller speeds and aeration rates. It is found that the value of Nsne is strongly dependent on the average bubble size of the froth and Dagl on the volume fraction of solid in the froth, and the froth features during the batch flotation are influenced by impeller speed and aeration rate. A kinetic model of the concentrate solid flux was developed which relates the flotation process to the image parameters, Nsne and Dagl of the froth and predictions are well consistent with the experimental data.

  3. Human growth hormone radioiodination using different batches of 125I of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproducibility and the influence of the batch and decay level of Na125I on the radioiodination of human growth hormone (hGH) were examined by a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) technique. The between-day coefficient of variation (CV) exhibited a value of 11.9% for labelling yields and 14.3% for antibody specific binding. The within-day variation for different shipments and isotope decay-levels was similar to that for the control experiment, carried out under the same conditions, using Na125I from a single lot. The results indicate that the decay-level and batch do not significantly influence either the yields or the immunological properties of the labelled product. The suitability of this PAGE technique as a control test for radioiodinated proteins is established by comparison with gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100. (Auth.)

  4. Batch and Column Operations for the Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution Using Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Ramesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people rely on drinking water that contains excess fluoride. In fluoride endemic areas, especially small communities with staggered habitat, defluoridation of potable water supply is still a problem. In this study, adsorption potential of bottom ash was investigated for defluoridation of drinking water using batch and continuous fixed bed column studies. Batch sorptive defluoridation conducted under experimental conditions such as pH, temperature, particle size, agitation time and dosage. Adsorption isotherms have been modeled by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The fluoride sorption capacity at breakthrough point for bottom ash was greatly influenced by bed depth. The results were then analyzed using the Bed Depth Service Time (BDST Model and various performance parameters like Adsorption Capacity, Critical Bed Depth, and Adsorption Rate Constant were evaluated. With the observed data Thomas model and Yoon Nelson Model fitted well and constants are found.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.1396

  5. Batch Study for Insecticide Carbofuran Adsorption onto Palm-Oil-Fronds-Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassem M. Salman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of insecticide, carbofuran from aqueous solution onto activated carbon derived from palm oil fronds (PFAC was investigated through batch study. The effects of both initial concentration and pH of the carbofuran over the range of 25 to 250 mg/L and 2 to 12, respectively, on the adsorption of the prepared PFAC were studied in batch experiments. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the Temkin isotherm models. The results obtained from application of these models show that the best fits were achieved with the Langmuir model, and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 164 mg/g was obtained at 30°C. The regeneration efficiency of spent activated carbon was studied and it was found to be 90.0–96.4%. The results indicated that PFAC has good capability as adsorbent for the removal of carbofuran from aqueous solutions.

  6. Use of phosphorus release batch tests for modelling an EBPR pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tykesson, E.; Aspegren, H.; Henze, Mogens;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how routinely performed phosphorus release tests could be used when modelling enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) using activated sludge models such as ASM2d. A pilot plant with an extensive analysis programme was used as basis for the simulations....... Without any calibration the prediction of phosphorus removal was poor and the initial release rates from the simulations were not similar to those found from the laboratory tests. A period with low organic loading was chosen as a calibration period. In this period averages of daily influent measurements...... a simulated batch test and the PHA uptake rate was increased to fit this release rate with the average initial rates from laboratory batch tests performed during the period. The calibrated model was verified with data from the subsequent period where acetate was dosed....

  7. Engineered Option Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts: Surrogate Batch-Blending Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from batch-blending test work for remediated nitrate salt (RNS) treatment. Batch blending was identified as a preferred option for blending RNS and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) material with zeolite to effectively safe the salt/Swheat material identified as ignitable (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency code D001). Blending with zeolite was the preferred remediation option identified in the Options Assessment Report and was originally proposed as the best option for remediation by Clark and Funk in their report, Chemical Reactivity and Recommended Remediation Strategy for Los Alamos Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Wastes, and also found to be a preferred option in the Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing. This test work evaluated equipment and recipe alternatives to achieve effective blending of surrogate waste with zeolite.

  8. Monitoring and robust adaptive control of fed-batch cultures of microorganisms exhibiting overflow metabolism [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vande Wouwer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overflow metabolism characterizes cells strains that are likely to produce inhibiting by-products resulting from an excess of substrate feeding and a saturated respiratory capacity. The critical substrate level separating the two different metabolic pathways is generally not well defined. Monitoring of this kind of cultures, going from model identification to state estimation, is first discussed. Then, a review of control techniques which all aim at maximizing the cell productivity of fed-batch fermentations is presented. Two main adaptive control strategies, one using an estimation of the critical substrate level as set-point and another regulating the by-product concentration, are proposed. Finally, experimental investigations of an adaptive RST control scheme using the observer polynomial for the regulation of the ethanol concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultures ranging from laboratory to industrial scales, are also presented.

  9. The morphology of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium in a repeated-batch fermentation for exopolysaccharide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad Wan-Mohtar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of Ganoderma lucidum BCCM 31549 mycelium in a repeated-batch fermentation (RBF was studied for exopolysaccharide (EPS production. RBF was optimised for time to replace and volume to replace. G. lucidum mycelium showed the ability to self-immobilise and exhibited high stability for repeated use in RBF with engulfed pellets. Furthermore, the ovoid and starburst-like pellet morphology was disposed to EPS production in the shake flask and bioreactor, respectively. Seven RBF could be carried out in 500 mL flasks, and five repeated batches were performed in a 2 L bioreactor. Under RBF conditions, autolysis of pellet core in the shake flask and shaving off of the outer hairy region in the bioreactor were observed at the later stages of RBF (R4 for the shake flask and R6 for the bioreactor. The proposed strategy showed that the morphology of G. lucidum mycelium can withstand extended fermentation cycles.

  10. A Batch Arrival Retrial Queue with Two Phases of Service and Bernoulli Vacation Schedule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Choudhury; Kandarpa Deka

    2013-01-01

    We consider an MX/G/1 queueing system with two phases of heterogeneous service and Bernoulli vacation schedule which operate under a linear retrial policy.In addition,each individual customer is subject to a control admission policy upon the arrival.This model generalizes both the classical M/G/1 retrial queue with arrivals in batches and a two phase batch arrival queue with a single vacation under Bernoulli vacation schedule.We will carry out an extensive stationary analysis of the system,including existence of the stationary regime,embedded Markov chain,steady state distribution of the server state and number of customer in the retrial group,stochastic decomposition and calculation of the first moment.

  11. Mucor miehei's microbial rennin production characteristics in a fed-batch proccess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Sánchez Henao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mucor miehei zygomycete produces an acid protease (EC:3.4.23.10 resembling calf rennet chymosin characteristics. It has been suggested that low glucose concentration levels could be why enzyme synthesis, co-mes to an end even though enzyme production is still great (Escobar and Barnett, 1993, 1995. To overcome this possible limitation, a two stage research process was designed; the relationship between protease production and sugar consumption was studied initially to determine the periods of time when enzyme production is still high and glucose concentration close to zero. The following stage concentrated on developing a glucose fed-batch process during the afore mentioned time periods to observe any increase or decrease in enzyme production. During the batch studies, it was found that maximum enzyme activity (EA was 165 UC/ml for an average glucose consumption rate of 0.1813 g/1 h. Based on the previous.

  12. Variation in sensory profile between individual Rainbow trout from the same production batch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte

    The variation in sensory properties between individual Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) belonging to the same aquaculture production batch was explored by using objective sensory profiling on minced and heat treated fillets. Additionally, Quality Index, mechanical texture, pH, fat and water...... content were measured. 30 fish, all from the same production batch, were sampled at three different times making three groups (ten fish each time). The results showed differences in the sensory profile between individual fish within all three groups. Also sensory differences between the three groups...... of fish were found. Similar differences in mechanical texture were found between individuals in two of the three groups and between the groups. No differences were found in Quality Index neither between individuals nor groups. A significant correlation between lipid content and firm texture was observed...

  13. CONWIP card setting in a flow-shop system with a batch production machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Braglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical technique to determine the optimum number of cards to control material release in a CONWIP system. The work focuses on the card setting problem for a flow-shop system characterised by the presence of a batch processing machine (e.g. a kiln for long heat treatment. To control production, two different static approaches are developed: the first one is used when the bottleneck coincides with the batch processing machine and the second one is proposed when the bottleneck is another machine of the flow shop. In both contexts, by means of the appropriate model, one can optimize the performance of the flow-shop by maximizing the throughput and keeping the work in process at a minimum level. Numerical examples are also included in the paper to confirm the validity of the models and to demonstrate their practical utility.

  14. Investigation of hydrocarbon oil transformation by gliding arc discharge: comparison of batch and recirculated configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. Christopher; Prantsidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The degradation of liquid dodecane was studied in a gliding arc discharge (GAD) of humid argon or nitrogen. A batch or recirculating configuration was used. The products in the gaseous and liquid phase were analysed by infrared and chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy was used to identify the excited species in the discharge. The best degradation performance comes from the use of humid N2 but a GAD of humid argon produces fewer gas-phase products but more liquid-phase end-products. A wide range of products such as heavier saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons both aliphatic and aromatic, and oxidation products mainly alcohols, but also aldehydes, ketones and esters are produced in the liquid-phase. The recirculating treatment mode is more effective than the batch mode increasing the reactivity and changing the product selectivities. Overall, the study shows promising results for the organic liquid waste treatment, especially in the recirculating mode.

  15. Mathematical Description of Functional States in E. coli Fed-batch Cultivation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Kosev

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a biochemical correspondence to defined functional states based on specific metabolic mechanisms. For Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivation processes a set of four functional states is considered. It is shown that the process can be divided into several functional states by considering the cell metabolism in more detail. As a result through the proposed functional states the changes in metabolic pathways can be described accurately. For each functional state a respective local model is proposed. Simulations of the E. coli cultivation process with functional state modelling are presented. Furthermore different functional states in a real E. coli MC4110 fed-batch cultivation process are identified and local models are developed. By simulations and comparing results to experimental data is shown that the concept of functional state modelling works in practice and leads to more precise and adequate mathematical description.

  16. Efficient short-term scheduling of multiproduct batch plants under demand uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Zhu; Xingsheng Gu; Bin Jiao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel formulation for the short-term scheduling of multiproduct batch plants under demand uncertainty is presented. Then it is solved by an improved genetic algorithm. The proposed approach results in an efficient utilization of the plant capability as it allows the optimal selection among all the rescheduling alternatives in a systematic way without the use of any heuristics. Moreover, the objective function can not only maximize the total profit of the plant and minimize the makespan but also allow the flexibility for modeling different weighted instances of the two targets so that a best-possible decision can be determined. According to the discrete characteristic of scheduling of batch plants, through the improvement of the coding method, an effective genetic algorithm is presented. Two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed formulation and algorithm.

  17. Efficacy of Aspergillus sp. for degradation of chlorpyrifos in batch and continuous aerated packed bed bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Maya; Srivastva, Navnita; Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of chlorpyrifos (CP) by Aspergillus sp. was investigated in batch and continuous packed bed bioreactors. The optimal process parameters for achieving the maximum removal efficiency (RE), determined using a batch bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam pieces, were inoculum level: 2.5 mg (wet weight) mL(-1), pH 7.0, temperature 28 °C, DO 5.8 mg L(-1), and CP concentration 300 mg L(-1). The continuous packed bed bioreactor was operated at flow rates ranging from 10 to 40 mL h(-1) while keeping other parameters at their optimal level. Steady-state CP removal efficiencies greater than 85 % were obtained up to the inlet loading of 180 mg L(-1) d(-1). The continuous bioreactor behaved as a plug flow unit and was able to stabilize quickly after perturbation in the inlet loading.

  18. On time discretizations for the simulation of the batch settling-compression process in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Mejías, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the recently introduced Bürger-Diehl simulation model for secondary settling tanks was to resolve spatial discretization problems when both hindered settling and the phenomena of compression and dispersion are included. Straightforward time integration unfortunately means long computational times. The next step in the development is to introduce and investigate time-integration methods for more efficient simulations, but where other aspects such as implementation complexity and robustness are equally considered. This is done for batch settling simulations. The key findings are partly a new time-discretization method and partly its comparison with other specially tailored and standard methods. Several advantages and disadvantages for each method are given. One conclusion is that the new linearly implicit method is easier to implement than another one (semi-implicit method), but less efficient based on two types of batch sedimentation tests.

  19. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.;

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts...... for subsequent polymer replication by injection moulding was analyzed. New tooling solutions to produce nano structured mould surfaces were investigated. Experiments based on three different chemical-based-batch techniques to establish surface nano (i.e. sub-μm) structures on large areas were performed. Three...... approaches were selected: (1) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition for direct patterning of a 4” silicon wafer; (2) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition as mask for 4” silicon wafer etching and subsequent nickel electroplating; (3) using the anodizing process to produce Ø500 nm structures on a 30x80 mm2...

  20. A predictive and feedback control algorithm maintains a constant glucose concentration in fed-batch fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-04-01

    A combined predictive and feedback control algorithm based on measurements of the concentration of glucose on-line has been developed to control fed-batch fermentations of Escherichia coli. The predictive control algorithm was based on the on-line calculation of glucose demand by the culture and plotting a linear regression to the next datum point to obtain a predicted glucose demand. This provided a predictive "coarse" control for the glucose-based nutrient feed. A direct feedback control using a proportional controller, based on glucose measurements every 2 min, fine-tuned the feed rate. These combined control schemes were used to maintain glucose concentrations in fed-batch fermentations as tight as 0.49 +/- 0.04 g/liter during growth of E. coli to high cell densities. PMID:2059049

  1. Virus elimination in activated sludge systems: from batch tests to mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Emma; Ulbricht, Katharina; Nogueira, Regina; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    A virus tool based on Activated Sludge Model No. 3 for modeling virus elimination in activated sludge systems was developed and calibrated with the results from laboratory-scale batch tests and from measurements in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The somatic coliphages were used as an indicator for human pathogenic enteric viruses. The extended model was used to simulate the virus concentration in batch tests and in a municipal full-scale WWTP under steady-state and dynamic conditions. The experimental and modeling results suggest that both adsorption and inactivation processes, modeled as reversible first-order reactions, contribute to virus elimination in activated sludge systems. The model should be a useful tool to estimate the number of viruses entering water bodies from the discharge of treated effluents. PMID:25259502

  2. On-line Batch Process Monitoring with Improved Multi-way Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; LI Hongguang

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades,on-line monitoring of batch processes using multi-way independent component analysis (MICA) has received considerable attention in both academia and industry.This paper focuses on two troublesome issues concerning selecting dominant independent components without a standard criterion and determining the control limits of monitoring statistics in the presence of non-Gaussian distribution.To optimize the number of key independent components,we introduce a novel concept of system deviation,which is able to evaluate the reconstructed observations with different independent components.The monitored statistics are transformed to Gaussian distribution data by means of Box-Cox transformation,which helps readily determine the control limits.The proposed method is applied to on-line monitoring of a fed-batch penicillin fermentation simulator,and the experimental results indicate the advantages of the improved MICA monitoring compared to the conventional methods.

  3. Engineered Option Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts: Surrogate Batch-Blending Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides results from batch-blending test work for remediated nitrate salt (RNS) treatment. Batch blending was identified as a preferred option for blending RNS and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) material with zeolite to effectively safe the salt/Swheat material identified as ignitable (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency code D001). Blending with zeolite was the preferred remediation option identified in the Options Assessment Report and was originally proposed as the best option for remediation by Clark and Funk in their report, Chemical Reactivity and Recommended Remediation Strategy for Los Alamos Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Wastes, and also found to be a preferred option in the Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing. This test work evaluated equipment and recipe alternatives to achieve effective blending of surrogate waste with zeolite.

  4. Batch Process Modelling and Optimal Control Based on Neural Network Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents several neural network based modelling, reliable optimal control, and iterative learning control methods for batch processes. In order to overcome the lack of robustness of a single neural network, bootstrap aggregated neural networks are used to build reliable data based empirical models. Apart from improving the model generalisation capability, a bootstrap aggregated neural network can also provide model prediction confidence bounds. A reliable optimal control method by incorporating model prediction confidence bounds into the optimisation objective function is presented. A neural network based iterative learning control strategy is presented to overcome the problem due to unknown disturbances and model-plant mismatches. The proposed methods are demonstrated on a simulated batch polymerisation process.

  5. Batch efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo; Uria, Christian, E-mail: Ulrich.Schwickerath@cern.c, E-mail: Ricardo.Silva@cern.c [CERN IT, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  6. Pumpkin Batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karen L.

    1988-01-01

    The pumpkin is the theme for a collection of classroom activities which teachers can integrate into the language arts, science, social studies, math, and art curriculums. Many activities were suggested by classroom teachers. (IAH)

  7. Hydrodesulfurization of light gas oil: Kinetic determination in a batch reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Skala Dejan U.; Orlović Aleksandar M.; Marković Branislav; Tarlecki-Barićević Ana; Jovanović Dušan M.

    2002-01-01

    The performed investigations were directed toward the analysis of the performance and activity of the fresh and regenerated Cyanamid HDS 20C catalyst in a laboratory batch reactor (2 dm3) for the HDS of the diesel fraction (light gas oil, LGO). Testing of the regenerated catalyst was performed with light gas oil (LGO) of different characteristics. The determined values of the reaction rate constant were compared to some published data in the literature for the HDS of specific sulfur compounds...

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BATCH REDOX AND SULPHUR BUBBLE DEFECT OF GLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Bubble defects of glass were studied by Ruman spectrum, C equivalent of glass raw materials were analyzed by chemical method, and the solubility of sulphur in glass was determined with SC-132 Sulphur Determination. Then, the relationship between glass bubble, the redox numbers of glass batch and the solubility of sulphur in float glass were discussed. The way that can improve the quality of float glass was found.

  9. Effect of feeding methods on the astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma in fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gomes Moriel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding methods on the production of astaxanthin by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma ATCC 24202 was studied, using continuous and pulsed fed-batch processes and low cost materials as substrates (sugar cane juice and urea. In continuous fed-batch processes, a cellular astaxanthin concentration of 383.73 µg/g biomass was obtained. But in pulsed fed-batch processes a reduction in the cellular astaxanthin concentration (303.34 µg/g biomass was observed. Thus the continuous fed-batch processes could be an alternative to industrial production of astaxanthin, allowing an increase in the biomass productivity without losses on astaxanthin production by the yeast.O efeito da alimentação na produção de astaxantina pela levedura Phaffia rhodozyma ATCC 24202 foi estudado, utilizando processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua e intermitente, e matérias-primas de baixo custo como substratos (caldo de cana de açúcar e uréia. Em processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua, uma concentração celular de astaxantina de 383,73 µg/g biomassa foi obtida. Entretanto, em processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação intermitente, uma redução na concentração celular de astaxantina (303,34 µg/g biomassa foi observada. Desta forma, processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua poderiam ser uma alternativa na produção industrial de astaxantina, permitindo um aumento na produtividade de biomassa sem perdas na produção de astaxantina pela levedura.

  10. ARSENATE BIOSORPTION BY IRON-MODIFIED PINE SAWDUST IN BATCH SYSTEMS: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    María Aranzazú López-Leal,; Raúl Cortés-Martínez; Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva,; Héctor Eduardo Martínez-Flores; , Consuelo De Jesús Cortés-Penagos

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of As(V) from aqueous solutions by pine sawdust chemically modified with iron in batch systems was investigated. The loading process of Fe in this biomaterial was achieved by hydrolysis of two different ferric salts. This modification of sawdust is an attempt to improve As(V) biosorption for practical applications. The kinetics and maximum biosorption capacities of the unmodified and modified pine sawdust were evaluated. It was found that the pseudo-second order model describe...

  11. A MINI SCALE REACTOR FOR BATCH PRODUCTION OF PALM BASED POLYOL

    OpenAIRE

    Badri, K.H.; M. S. Ngah

    2015-01-01

    An investigation on a batch production of palm kernel oil polyol (PKO-p) was conducted via esterification and condensation.The process design was thoroughly studied as a preliminary step for future upscaling. The process variables included necessity of vacuum pump, controlling of heating rate, recording the production time, nitrogen gas flow and agitator speed. About 250 ml PKO-p was successfully synthesized within 3 h. Vacuum pressure was applied to haul out moisture from the sys...

  12. Initialisation and Estimation Methods for Batch Optimisation of Inertial/Visual SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Martin; Sjanic, Zoran; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) denotes the problem of jointly localizing a moving platform and mapping the environment. This work studies the SLAM problem using a combination of inertial sensors, measuring the platform's accelerations and angular velocities, and a monocular camera observing the environment. We formulate the SLAM problem on a nonlinear least squares (NLS) batch form, whose solution provides a smoothed estimate of the motion and map. The NLS problem is highly nonc...

  13. Photochemical synthesis of a "cage" compound in a microreactor: Rigorous comparison with a batch photoreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Aillet, Tristan; Loubiere, Karine; Dechy-Cabaret, Odile; Prat, Laurent E.

    2013-01-01

    International audience An intramolecular [2 + 2] photocycloaddition is performed in a microphotoreactor (0.81 mL) built by winding FEP tubing around a commercially available Pyrex immersion well in which a medium pressure mercury lamp is inserted. A rigorous comparison with a batch photoreactor (225 mL) is proposed by means of a simple model coupling the reaction kinetics with the mass, momentum and radiative transfer equations. This serves as a basis to explain why the chemical conversion...

  14. Fine Drop Recovery in Batch Gas-Agitated Liquid-Liquid Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, H.; Shaw, J. M.

    1996-11-01

    The hydrodynamics of batch gas-agitated liquid-liquid dispersions has received comparatively little attention in the open literature1-5. Such systems arise in diverse contexts but operate on the same basic principle. Two immiscible liquids form stratified layers initially and return to this stratified state at the end of a batch. Liquid from the lower liquid phase is entrained and then dispersed by gas bubbles passing from the lower to the upper liquid phase. At the end of a batch, the liquids separate under the influence of gravity. Fine drops separate slowly. For industrial processes such as nickel conversion, long settling periods reduce equipment productivity. Metal drops entrained in the lower density slag phase also pose leaching problems in slag heaps. We assessed fine drop production in such batch systems previously5. In this work, we address fine drop recovery. The net rate of fine drop recovery can be up to five times greater than Standard Settling experiments if low speed recirculation loops are imposed within the upper liquid phase that are perpendicular to the liquid-liquid interface. The principal mechanism for enhanced fine drop recovery, in this case, arises from improving drop liquid-liquid interface coalescence. 1. Hatzikiriakos et al., A.I.Ch.E. J., 36, 677-684 (1990). 2. Hatzikiriakos et al., Chem. Eng. Sci., 45, 2349-2356 (1990). 3. Konduru & Shaw, Proc. Int. Symp. Materials Handling in Pyromet., Hamilton, Cda, 14-24 (1991). 4. ibid, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 70, 381-384 (1992). 5. Shahrokhi & Shaw, Chem. Eng. Sci., 49, 5203-5213 (1994).

  15. Characteristics of aerobic granules grown on glucose a sequential batch shaking reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chun-guang; ZHU Nan-wen; LIU Jun-shen; WANG Zhen-peng; CAI Wei-min

    2004-01-01

    Aerobic heterotrophic granular sludge was cultivated in a sequencing batch shaking reactor(SBSR) in which a synthetic wastewater containing glucose as carbon source was fed. The characteristics of the aerobic granules were investigated. Compared with the conventional activated sludge flocs, the aerobic granules exhibit excellent physical characteristics in terms of settleability, size, shape, biomass density, and physical strength.Scanning electron micrographs revealed that in mature granules little filamentous bacteria could be found, rodshaped and coccoid bacteria were the dominant microorganisms.

  16. EFFECTS OF HOT WATER EXTRACTION IN A BATCH REACTOR ON THE DELIGNIFICATION OF BIRCH WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Borrega; Kaarlo Nieminen; Herbert Sixta

    2011-01-01

    The amount of residual lignin in birch wood after a hot water extraction in a batch reactor was investigated as a function of extraction temperature and time. A kinetic model fitting the experimental data was then developed to explain delignification of wood during a hot water treatment. Results showed that delignification kinetics involves simultaneous degradation and condensation reactions, with degradation of lignin being much faster than its condensation. Native lignin in wood was success...

  17. Modelling of Fed-batch Fermentation Process with Droppings for L-lysine Production

    OpenAIRE

    Velitchka Ivanova; Julia Kristeva; Tzanko Georgiev; Kalin Todorov; Ignat Dimov; Alexander Ratkov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the article is the development of dynamic unstructured model of L-lysine fed-batch fermentation process with droppings. This approach includes the following procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; identification of the specific rates (growth rate (mu) , substrate utilization rate (nu), production rate (rho); establishment and optimization of the dynamic model of the process; simulation researches.

  18. Modelling of Escherichia coli Cultivations: Acetate Inhibition in a Fed-batch Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyan Tzonkov; Olympia Roeva

    2006-01-01

    A set of three competing, unstructured models has been proposed to model biomass growth, glucose utilization, acetate formation, dissolved oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide accumulation of a fed-batch cultivation process of Escherichia coli. The inhibiting effect of acetate on growth of E. coli cultures is included in the considered models. The model identification is carried out using experimental data from the cultivation process. Genetic algorithms are used for parameter estimation. Th...

  19. Comparison of percolation to batch and sequential leaching tests: theory and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grathwohl, Peter; Susset, Bernd

    2009-10-01

    Leaching tests are becoming more relevant in assessing solid waste material, particularly with respect to groundwater risks. In the field, water infiltration is the dominant leaching mechanism, which is simulated in the lab with batch and column tests. In this study, we compared percolation, through analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation, to laboratory batch and sequential leaching tests. The analytical solutions are supported with comprehensive data from various field and laboratory leaching of different solutes from waste materials and soils collected in long-term joint research projects funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Federal Environment Agency. The comparison of theory and data is facilitated if concentrations and cumulative release are plotted versus the liquid-solid ratios (LS). Both theory and data indicate that leaching behaviour is independent of duration and physical dimensions of the leaching tests. This holds even if field lysimeters are compared to laboratory columns of different size, different flow velocities as well as different contact times. In general, laboratory batch tests over predict effluent concentrations (for LSsulphate from demolition waste) in column and lysimeter tests compares very well and agrees with the analytical solutions. Overall, reproducibility and agreement with theory of column tests are better than batch tests, presumably because the latter are prone to artefacts (e.g. in liquid-solid separation steps). Theory and data fit surprisingly well, despite the fact that the theory is based on the local equilibrium assumption; non-linear sorption and chemical reactions in the solid waste materials are not considered.

  20. Batch means and spectral variance estimators in Markov chain Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Flegal, James M.; Jones, Galin L.

    2008-01-01

    Calculating a Monte Carlo standard error (MCSE) is an important step in the statistical analysis of the simulation output obtained from a Markov chain Monte Carlo experiment. An MCSE is usually based on an estimate of the variance of the asymptotic normal distribution. We consider spectral and batch means methods for estimating this variance. In particular, we establish conditions which guarantee that these estimators are strongly consistent as the simulation effort increases. In addition, fo...

  1. Energy efficiency of cement finish grinding in a dry batch ball mill

    OpenAIRE

    Touil, Djamel; Belaadi, Salah; Frances, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Dry grinding experiments on cement clinker were carried out using a laboratory batch ball mill equipped with torque measurement. The specific energy was found to be dependent on operating parameters and clinker environment. Additional compounds such as gypsum and pozzolanic tuff improve energy efficiency. The optimal parameters allowing maximising the energy efficiency factor were determined. Energy efficiency factors were obtained both on the crude material (size minus 2.8 mm) and on a sieve...

  2. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  3. [Study on the optimization methods of common-batch identification of amphetamine samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Daming

    2008-07-01

    The essay introduced the technology of amphetamine identification and its optimization method. Impurity profiling of amphetamine was analyzed by GC-MS. Identification of common-batch amphetamine samples could be successfully finished by the data transition and pre-treating of the peak areas. The analytical method was improved by optimizing the techniques of sample extraction, gas chromatograph, sample separation and detection. PMID:18839544

  4. Treatment of Slaughter House Wastewater in a Sequencing Batch Reactor: Performance Evaluation and Biodegradation Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Pradyut Kundu; Anupam Debsarkar; Somnath Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains diluted blood, protein, fat, and suspended solids, as a result the organic and nutrient concentration in this wastewater is vary high and the residues are partially solubilized, leading to a highly contaminating effect in riverbeds and other water bodies if the same is let off untreated. The performance of a laboratory-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) has been investigated in aerobic-anoxic sequential mode for simultaneous removal of organic carbon and n...

  5. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Yeow ST; Shahar A; Abdul Aziz N; Anuar MS; Yusof YA; Taip FS

    2011-01-01

    Sin Tung Yeow, Asnawi Shahar, Norashikin Abdul Aziz, Mohd Shamsul Anuar, Yus Aniza Yusof, Farah Saleena TaipDepartment of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer.Methods: Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational pa...

  6. Leachate Treatment by Batch Decant Activated Sludge Process and Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Y Hashempur; R Rezaei Kalantary; Jaafarzadeh, N.; Jorfi, S.

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Direct biodegradation of landfill leachate is too difficult because of high concentrations of COD and NH3 and also the presence of toxic compounds. The main objective of this study was to application of Strurvite precipitation as a pretreatment stage, in order to remove inhibitors of biodegradation before the batch decant activated sludge process with addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC)."nMaterials and Methods: Strurvite precipitated leachate was intro...

  7. Batch and Column Experiments on Fluoride Removal from Waters Using Modified Zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    High fluoride groundwater occurs widely in China, presenting a quite serious environmental problem. Zeolite from Xinyang, China was tested as the fluoride-removing adsorbent. Batch and column experiments on fluoride removal using modified zeolites treated with hydrochloric acid,sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and ferric chloride, respectively show that 0. 1 mol/L HCImodified zeolite can be used as an adsorbent for fluoride, with an adsorption capacity of 173. 16mg/kg.

  8. Comparison of Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Ethylene in Batch and Continuous-Flow Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Jonghwan, L.; Hong, U.; Kim, N.; Ahn, H.; Lee, S.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    A 1.28 L-Batch reactor and continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) fed with formate and trichloriethene (TCE) were operated for 120 days and 72 days, respectively, to study the effect of formate as electron donor on reductive dechlorination of TCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and ethylene (ETH). In batch reactor, injected 60 μmol TCE was completely degraded in presence of 20% hydrogen gas (H2) in less than 8 days by Evanite culture (300 mg-soluble protein) with ability to completely degrade tetrachloroethene (PCE) and TCE to ETH under anaerobic conditions. To determine the effect of formate as electron donor instead of H2, about 3 or 11 mmol of formate injected into batch-reactor every 15 days was enough to support H2 for dechlorination of c-DCE to VC and ETH. Soluble protein concentration of Evanite culture during the batch test increased from 300 mg to 688 mg for 120 days. In CFSTR test, TCE was fed continuously at 9.9 ppm (75.38 μmol/L) and the influent formate feed concentration increased stepwise from 1.3 mmol/L to 14.3 mmol/L. Injected TCE was accumulated at HRT 18 days for 13 days, but TCE was completed degraded at HRT 36 days without accumulation during left of experiment period, getting H2 from fermentative hydrogen production of injected formate. Although c-DCE was also accumulated for 23 days after CFSTR operation, it reached steady-state without accumulation in presence of excessive formate. However, since c-DCE in CFSTR was not completely dechlorinated, we will determine the transcriptional level of enzyme involved in reductive dechlorination of TCE, c-DCE, and VC in our future work.

  9. Preferences based Control Design of Complex Fed-batch Cultivation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pavlov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented preferences based control design and stabilization of the growth rate of fed-batch cultivation processes. The control is based on an enlarged Wang-Monod-Yerusalimsky kinetic model. Expected utility theory is one of the approaches for utilization of conceptual information (expert preferences. In the article is discussed utilization of stochastic machine learning procedures for evaluation of expert utilities as criteria for optimization.

  10. Batch heteroazeotropic distillation in a new Generalised Double-Column System

    OpenAIRE

    Denes, Ferenc; Lang, Peter; Joulia, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We study the separation of the minimum homoazeotrope isopropanol - water by applying cyclohexane and n-hexane as entrainer in a new Generalised Double-Column batch heteroazeotropic distillation System (GDCS). First its feasibility is studied by a simplified method then we do sensitivity analysis by rigorous simulation. The minimum duration is determined for the GDCS and for the original DCS, and their performances are compared. Due to its higher number of degrees of freedom the GDCS provides ...

  11. Modelling of Fed-batch Fermentation Process with Droppings for L-lysine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velitchka Ivanova

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the development of dynamic unstructured model of L-lysine fed-batch fermentation process with droppings. This approach includes the following procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; identification of the specific rates (growth rate (mu , substrate utilization rate (nu, production rate (rho; establishment and optimization of the dynamic model of the process; simulation researches.

  12. Ultrasonic semi-batch pigging of a gas pipeline; Ultraschallmolchung einer Gasleitung im Halbbatchverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfurth, Jens; Stratmann, Jochen; Hille, Christian [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasonic inspections of pipelines need a contact fluid (e.g. water) between the sensor and pipe wall and can therefore not be carried out during operation of a gas pipeline. Further, in the project described sufficient spatial resolution of the data was only possible by semi-batch pigging in a completely water-filled pipeline. The inspection therefore had to be planned carefully on the basis of simulations.

  13. The Effects of Batch Reactor Extraction on Antioxidant Activity from Scurulla atropurpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Siti I. Rahmawati; Nobuyuki Hayashi

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The main active compounds of benalu tehs include alkaloids and flavonoids, therefore antioxidant of it has big potential to develop. In the context of extraction, the traditional (boiling in the water until one-third remain) extraction require a long extraction time and result in low yields of extraction also antioxidant activities. Approach: Batch reactor is extraction at high temperature under applied pressure to keep the solvent under liquid phase, by this technology we ...

  14. Study of nitrifying sequencing batch reactor in presence of m-Cresol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of the nitrification has been studied scantly in presence of phenolic compounds such as m-cresol. the aim of this study was evaluate the tolerance of a nitrifying SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) to m-cresol and the ability of the sludge to consume this phenolic compound. Nitrification is the process of oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate by lithoautotrophic ammonia-and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. (Author)

  15. Batch Secret Sharing for Secure Multi-party Computation in Asynchronous Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zheng; GONG Zheng; LI Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient batch secret sharing protocol among n players resilient to t < n/4 players in asynchronous network. The construction of our protocol is along the line of Hirt's protocol which works in synchronous model. Compared with the method of using secret share protocol m times to share m secrets, our protocol is quite efficient. The protocol can be used to improve the efficiency of secure multi-party computation (MPC) greatly in asynchronous network.

  16. Perancangan Sistem Pengukuran pH dan Temperatur Pada Bioreaktor Anaerob Tipe Semi-Batch

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas Prasetyo Oetomo; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Proses pada bioreaktor dapat dilakukan secara aerob yaitu menggunakan bantuan oksigen dan anaerob yaitu tidak menggunakan bantuan oksigen. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan fermentasi  enceng gondok untuk menghasilkan biogas menggunakan bioreaktor anaerob tipe semi-batch. Enceng gondok memiliki rasio C/N sebesar 22.5 – 35.84% yang merupakan komposisi optimum untuk ekstraksi biogas. Kinerja dari bioreaktor dalam produksi biogas dipengaruhi oleh beberapa parameter seperti pH dan temperatur. Pada pe...

  17. Study of nitrifying sequencing batch reactor in presence of m-Cresol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Alvarez, E.; Steed, E.; Ben-youssef, C.; Zepeda, A.

    2009-07-01

    The process of the nitrification has been studied scantly in presence of phenolic compounds such as m-cresol. the aim of this study was evaluate the tolerance of a nitrifying SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) to m-cresol and the ability of the sludge to consume this phenolic compound. Nitrification is the process of oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate by lithoautotrophic ammonia-and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. (Author)

  18. Monitoring and optimization of industrial batch crystallization processes using NIR and ATR UV-vis spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chun; Billeter, Julien; Gemperline, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, batch crystallization processes at production scale are not always well understood. Several factors have a significant impact on the process of crystallization, such as the physicochemical properties (solubility curve and super-saturation level), the crystal seeding (amount, purity and specific area), the engineering design (crystallizer and propeller), and the control (heating, cooling and stirring rates) [1]. When these factors are poorly understood or insuff...

  19. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  20. Subcritical wet oxidation of municipal sewage sludge: comparison of batch and continuous experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendormi, T; Prevot, C; Doppenbe, F; Foussard, J N; Debellefontaine, H

    2001-01-01

    Wet oxidation in subcritical conditions is a new alternative to usual routes for sewage sludge treatment and it complies with environmental standards. The paper presents tests carried out on a batch reactor and on a continuous pilot unit, treating municipal sewage sludge. A method is proposed that shows that the oxidation efficiency in a continuous reactor can only be easily predicted from the residence time distribution and batch tests results. Nevertheless, a partial settling of the solid residue in the continuous bubble column reactor is evident, and it increases the solid residence time and then decreases its organic content with respect to a similar batch test. In addition, these results highlight the considerable influence of temperature in the oxidation reactor and of the type of sewage sludge which is treated. At temperatures around 240 degrees C, foaming can seriously impair the operation of the continuous reactor, because of the presence of non-degraded fatty compounds and surfactants. Moreover, the COD reduction is limited to 70%. On the contrary, at 300 degrees C, COD removal efficiency greater than 80% is achieved without any catalyst additive and, in addition, only highly biodegradable compounds remain in the oxidised liquor. PMID:11695455