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Sample records for assisted auxiliary switch

  1. Harmonic Analysis and Mitigation of Low- Frequency Switching Voltage Source Inverter with Auxiliary VSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    The output currents of high-power Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) are distorted by the switching harmonics and the background harmonics in the grid voltage. This paper presents an active harmonic filtering scheme for high-power, low-frequency switching VSIs with an additional auxiliary VSI. In th...

  2. Vehicle energy management for on/off controlled auxiliaries : fuel economy vs. switching frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Weiland, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach for designing energy management strategies concerning vehicle auxiliaries with on/off control is proposed. This approach provides the possibility of making different trade-offs between fuel economy and switching frequency. In this paper, we demonstrate the

  3. Modeling and stability analysis for the upper atmosphere research satellite auxiliary array switch component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, R.; Natarajan, T.; Day, J.

    1987-01-01

    A feedback control system, called an auxiliary array switch, was designed to connect or disconnect auxiliary solar panel segments from a spacecraft electrical bus to meet fluctuating demand for power. A simulation of the control system was used to carry out a number of design and analysis tasks that could not economically be performed with a breadboard of the hardware. These tasks included: (1) the diagnosis of a stability problem, (2) identification of parameters to which the performance of the control system was particularly sensitive, (3) verification that the response of the control system to anticipated fluctuations in the electrical load of the spacecraft was satisfactory, and (4) specification of limitations on the frequency and amplitude of the load fluctuations.

  4. Radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Li, Qiang

    2017-12-05

    A radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch is described. A superconductor is closely coupled to a radio frequency (RF) coil. To turn the switch "off," i.e., to induce a transition to the normal, resistive state in the superconductor, a voltage burst is applied to the RF coil. This voltage burst is sufficient to induce a current in the coupled superconductor. The combination of the induced current with any other direct current flowing through the superconductor is sufficient to exceed the critical current of the superconductor at the operating temperature, inducing a transition to the normal, resistive state. A by-pass MOSFET may be configured in parallel with the superconductor to act as a current shunt, allowing the voltage across the superconductor to drop below a certain value, at which time the superconductor undergoes a transition to the superconducting state and the switch is reset.

  5. Controlled Photon Switch Assisted by Coupled Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Quantum switch is a primitive element in quantum network communication. In contrast to previous switch schemes on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we consider controlled switches of photon system with two DOFs. These controlled photon switches are constructed by exploring the optical selection rules derived from the quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. Several double controlled-NOT gate on different joint systems are greatly simplified with an auxiliary DOF of the controlling photon. The photon switches show that two DOFs of photons can be independently transmitted in quantum networks. This result reduces the quantum resources for quantum network communication. PMID:26095049

  6. Transformer-assisted PWM zero-voltage switching pole inverter with high output bandwidth applied to linear motor drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myrzik, J.M.A.; Duarte, J.L.; Haardt, de P.; Vissers, J.

    2002-01-01

    An application of the transformer-assisted PWM zero-voltage switching pole inverter (TRAP) is described in this paper. The TRAP is based on the auxiliary resonant commutated pole inverter (ARCP), but avoids its disadvantages. This paper describes the converter functionality and its applicability

  7. RF assisted switching in magnetic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, R.; Massarotti, D.; Bolginov, V. V.; Ben Hamida, A.; Karelina, L. N.; Miano, A.; Vernik, I. V.; Tafuri, F.; Ryazanov, V. V.; Mukhanov, O. A.; Pepe, G. P.

    2018-04-01

    We test the effect of an external RF field on the switching processes of magnetic Josephson junctions (MJJs) suitable for the realization of fast, scalable cryogenic memories compatible with Single Flux Quantum logic. We show that the combined application of microwaves and magnetic field pulses can improve the performances of the device, increasing the separation between the critical current levels corresponding to logical "0" and "1." The enhancement of the current level separation can be as high as 80% using an optimal set of parameters. We demonstrate that external RF fields can be used as an additional tool to manipulate the memory states, and we expect that this approach may lead to the development of new methods of selecting MJJs and manipulating their states in memory arrays for various applications.

  8. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  9. A novel excitation assistance switched reluctance wind power generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The high inductance of a general switched reluctance generator (SRG) may prevent the excitation of the magnetic field from being quickly established enough, which may further limit the output power of the SRG. A novel excitation assistance SRG (EASRG) for wind power generation is proposed...... in this paper to solve the above problem. C-shape stator cores are employed in a modular design concept for quick maintenance or replacement, and a ring-shape excitation assistant coil is sandwiched in the space between the modular stator cores. The magnetization and torque characteristics are simulated by 3-D...

  10. Scope and Limitations of Auxiliary-Assisted, Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation and Alkylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadres, Enrico T.; Santos, Gerson Ivan Franco; Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2013-01-01

    The scope of palladium-catalyzed, auxiliary-assisted direct arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H bonds of amine and carboxylic acid derivatives has been investigated. The method employs a palladium acetate catalyst, substrate, aryl, alkyl, benzyl, or allyl halide, and inorganic base in t-amyl alcohol or water solvent at 100-140 °C. Aryl and alkyl iodides as well as benzyl and allyl bromides are competent reagents in this transformation. Picolinic acid auxiliary is used for amine γ-functionalization and 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary is used for carboxylic acid β-functionalization. Some optimization of base, additives, and solvent is required for achieving best results. PMID:24090404

  11. Battery Management System—Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Daowd

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small as possible. Without an appropriate balancing system, the individual cell voltages will differ over time and battery system capacity will decrease quickly. These issues will limit the electric range of the electric vehicle (EV and some cells will undergo higher stress, whereby the cycle life of these cells will be shorter. Quite a lot of cell balancing/equalization topologies have been previously proposed. These balancing topologies can be categorized into passive and active balancing. Active topologies are categorized according to the active element used for storing the energy such as capacitor and/or inductive component as well as controlling switches or converters. This paper proposes an intelligent battery management system (BMS including a battery pack charging and discharging control with a battery pack thermal management system. The BMS user input/output interfacing. The battery balancing system is based on battery pack modularization architecture. The proposed modularized balancing system has different equalization systems that operate inside and outside the modules. Innovative single switched capacitor (SSC control strategy is proposed to balance between the battery cells in the module (inside module balancing, IMB. Novel utilization of isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC is proposed to balance between the modules with the aid of the EV auxiliary battery (AB. Finally an experimental step-up has been implemented for the validation of the

  12. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  13. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL98-0521 : Development of an Electric Bus Inverter Based on ORNL Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART) Soft-Switching Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has for many years been developing technologies for power converters for motor drives and many other applications. Some of the research goals are to improve efficiency and reduce audible and electromagnetic interference noise generation for inverters and the driven loads. The converters are being required to produce more power with reduced weight and volume, which requires improvements in heat removal from the electronics, as well as improved circuit designs that have fewer electrical losses. PEEMRC has recently developed and patented a soft-switching inverter topology called an Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART), and this design has been tested and proven at ORNL using a 10-kW laboratory prototype. The objective of this project was to develop, test, and install the ART inverter technology in an electric transit bus with the final goal of evaluating performance of the ORNL inverter under field conditions in a vehicle. A scaled-up inverter with the capacity to drive a 22-e bus was built based on the 10-kW ORNL laboratory prototype ART soft-switching inverter. Most (if not all) commercially available inverters for traction drive and other applications use hard-switching inverters. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was established with the Chattanooga Area Regional Transit Authority (CARTA), the Electric Transit Vehicle Institute (ETVI), and Advanced Vehicle Systems (AVS), all of Chattanooga, along with ORNL. CARTA, which maintains and operates the public transit system in Chattanooga, provided an area for testing the vehicle alongside other similar vehicles in the normal operating environment. ETVI offers capabilities in standardized testing and reporting and also provides exposure in the electric transit vehicle arena for ORNL's technologies. The third Chattanooga partner, (AVS) manufactures all-electric and hybrid electric transit buses using

  14. Micromagnetic Simulation of Strain-Assisted Current-Induced Magnetization Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of substrate misfit strain on the current-induced magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions by combining micromagnetic simulation with phase-field microelasticity theory. Our results indicate that the positive substrate misfit strain can decrease the critical current density of magnetization switching by pushing the magnetization from out-of-plane to in-plane directions, while the negative strain pushes the magnetization back to the out-of-plane directions. The magnetic domain evolution is obtained to demonstrate the strain-assisted current-induced magnetization switching.

  15. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to...

  16. Characteristics Analysis of an Excitation Assistance Switched Reluctance Wind Power Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully analyze the characteristics of an excitation assistance switched reluctance generator (EASRG) applied in wind power generation, a static model and a dynamic model are proposed. The static model is based on the 3-D finite-element method (FEM), which can be used to obtain the stat...

  17. Evidence for thermally assisted threshold switching behavior in nanoscale phase-change memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gallo, Manuel; Athmanathan, Aravinthan; Krebs, Daniel; Sebastian, Abu

    2016-01-01

    In spite of decades of research, the details of electrical transport in phase-change materials are still debated. In particular, the so-called threshold switching phenomenon that allows the current density to increase steeply when a sufficiently high voltage is applied is still not well understood, even though there is wide consensus that threshold switching is solely of electronic origin. However, the high thermal efficiency and fast thermal dynamics associated with nanoscale phase-change memory (PCM) devices motivate us to reassess a thermally assisted threshold switching mechanism, at least in these devices. The time/temperature dependence of the threshold switching voltage and current in doped Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanoscale PCM cells was measured over 6 decades in time at temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 160 °C. We observe a nearly constant threshold switching power across this wide range of operating conditions. We also measured the transient dynamics associated with threshold switching as a function of the applied voltage. By using a field- and temperature-dependent description of the electrical transport combined with a thermal feedback, quantitative agreement with experimental data of the threshold switching dynamics was obtained using realistic physical parameters

  18. Auxiliary-cavity-assisted ground-state cooling of an optically levitated nanosphere in the unresolved-sideband regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Shan; Tan, Lei; Gu, Huai-Qiang; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2017-12-01

    We theoretically analyze the ground-state cooling of an optically levitated nanosphere in the unresolved-sideband regime by introducing a coupled high-quality-factor cavity. On account of the quantum interference stemming from the presence of the coupled cavity, the spectral density of the optical force exerting on the nanosphere gets changed and then the symmetry between the heating and the cooling processes is broken. Through adjusting the detuning of a strong-dissipative cavity mode, one obtains an enhanced net cooling rate for the nanosphere. It is illustrated that the ground-state cooling can be realized in the unresolved sideband regime even if the effective optomechanical coupling is weaker than the frequency of the nanosphere, which can be understood by the picture that the effective interplay of the nanosphere and the auxiliary cavity mode brings the system back to an effective resolved regime. Besides, the coupled cavity refines the dynamical stability of the system.

  19. Voltage induced magnetostrictive switching of nanomagnets: Strain assisted strain transfer torque random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Ghani, Tahir; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-01

    A spintronic device, called the "strain assisted spin transfer torque (STT) random access memory (RAM)," is proposed by combining the magnetostriction effect and the spin transfer torque effect which can result in a dramatic improvement in the energy dissipation relative to a conventional STT-RAM. Magnetization switching in the device which is a piezoelectric-ferromagnetic heterostructure via the combined magnetostriction and STT effect is simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation incorporating the influence of thermal noise. The simulations show that, in such a device, each of these two mechanisms (magnetostriction and spin transfer torque) provides in a 90° rotation of the magnetization leading a deterministic 180° switching with a critical current significantly smaller than that required for spin torque alone. Such a scheme is an attractive option for writing magnetic RAM cells.

  20. Voltage induced magnetostrictive switching of nanomagnets: Strain assisted strain transfer torque random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Asif; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Ghani, Tahir; Young, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    A spintronic device, called the “strain assisted spin transfer torque (STT) random access memory (RAM),” is proposed by combining the magnetostriction effect and the spin transfer torque effect which can result in a dramatic improvement in the energy dissipation relative to a conventional STT-RAM. Magnetization switching in the device which is a piezoelectric-ferromagnetic heterostructure via the combined magnetostriction and STT effect is simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation incorporating the influence of thermal noise. The simulations show that, in such a device, each of these two mechanisms (magnetostriction and spin transfer torque) provides in a 90° rotation of the magnetization leading a deterministic 180° switching with a critical current significantly smaller than that required for spin torque alone. Such a scheme is an attractive option for writing magnetic RAM cells.

  1. Experimental Results of Network-Assisted Interference Suppression Scheme Using Adaptive Beam-Tilt Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Murakami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a network-assisted interference suppression scheme using beam-tilt switching per frame for wireless local area network systems and its effectiveness in an actual indoor environment. In the proposed scheme, two access points simultaneously transmit to their own desired station by adjusting angle of beam-tilt including transmit power assisted from network server for the improvement of system throughput. In the conventional researches, it is widely known that beam-tilt is effective for ICI suppression in the outdoor scenario. However, the indoor effectiveness of beam-tilt for ICI suppression has not yet been indicated from the experimental evaluation. Thus, this paper indicates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme by analyzing multiple-input multiple-output channel matrices from experimental measurements in an office environment. The experimental results clearly show that the proposed scheme offers higher system throughput than the conventional scheme using just transmit power control.

  2. 78 FR 27321 - Revision of Auxiliary Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Auxiliary organizational structure, extending civil liability protection to Auxiliary units and members, and... entities. C. Assistance for Small Entities If you think that your business, organization, or governmental..., explain why you think your business or organization qualifies, how and to what degree this rule would...

  3. Spin-Orbit Torque-Assisted Switching in Magnetic Insulator Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhong

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque that can induce magnetization switching in a neighboring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. This presentation reports the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems.1 The experiments made use of Pt/BaFe12O19 bi-layered structures. Thanks to its strong spin-orbit coupling, Pt has been widely used to produce pure spin currents in previous studies. BaFe12O19 is an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite and is often referred as BaM. It is one of the few magnetic insulators with strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy and shows an effective uniaxial anisotropy field of about 17 kOe. It's found that the switching response in the BaM film strongly depends on the charge current applied to the Pt film. When a constant magnetic field is applied in the film plane, the charge current in the Pt film can switch the normal component of the magnetization (M⊥) in the BaM film between the up and down states. The current also dictates the up and down states of the remnant magnetization when the in-plane field is reduced to zero. When M⊥ is measured by sweeping an in-plane field, the response manifests itself as a hysteresis loop, which evolves in a completely opposite manner if the sign of the charge current is flipped. When the coercivity is measured by sweeping an out-of-plane field, its value can be reduced or increased by as much as about 500 Oe if an appropriate charge current is applied. 1. P. Li, T. Liu, H. Chang, A. Kalitsov, W. Zhang, G. Csaba, W. Li, D. Richardson, A. Demann, G. Rimal, H. Dey, J. S. Jiang, W. Porod, S. Field, J. Tang, M. C. Marconi, A. Hoffmann, O. Mryasov, and M. Wu, Nature Commun. 7:12688 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12688 (2016).

  4. Polarization encoded all-optical quaternary successor with the help of SOA assisted Sagnac switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath

    2011-06-01

    The application of multi-valued (non-binary) signals can provide a considerable relief in transmission, storage and processing of large amount of information in digital signal processing. Optical multi-valued logical operation is an interesting challenge for future optical signal processing where we can expect much innovation. A novel all-optical quaternary successor (QSUC) circuit with the help of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-assisted Sagnac switch is proposed and described. This circuit exploits the polarization properties of light. Different logical states are represented by different polarization state of light. Simulation result confirming described method is given in this paper. Proposed all-optical successor circuit can take an important and significant role in designing of all-optical quaternary universal inverter and modulo arithmetic unit (addition and multiplication).

  5. Gap-mode-assisted light-induced switching of sub-wavelength magnetic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunert, G.; McCarron, R.; Kullock, R.; Cohen, S. R.; Rechav, K.; Kaplan-Ashiri, I.; Bitton, O.; Hecht, B.; Oron, D.

    2018-04-01

    Creating sub-micron hotspots for applications such as heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is a challenging task. The most common approach relies on a surface-plasmon resonator (SPR), whose design dictates the size of the hotspot to always be larger than its critical dimension. Here, we present an approach which circumvents known geometrical restrictions by resorting to electric field confinement via excitation of a gap-mode (GM) between a comparatively large Gold (Au) nano-sphere (radius of 100 nm) and the magnetic medium in a grazing-incidence configuration. Operating a λ=785 nm laser, sub-200 nm hot spots have been generated and successfully used for GM-assisted magnetic switching on commercial CoCrPt perpendicular magnetic recording media at laser powers and pulse durations comparable to SPR-based HAMR. Lumerical electric field modelling confirmed that operating in the near-infrared regime presents a suitable working point where most of the light's energy is deposited in the magnetic layer, rather than in the nano-particle. Further, modelling is used for predicting the limits of our method which, in theory, can yield sub-30 nm hotspots for Au nano-sphere radii of 25-50 nm for efficient heating of FePt recording media with a gap of 5 nm.

  6. Window-mounted auxiliary solar heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, K. G.; Herndon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    System uses hot-air collectors, no thermal storage, and fan with thermostat switches. At cost of heating efficiency, unit could be manufactured and sold at price allowing immediate entry to market as auxiliary heating system. Its simplicity allows homeowner installation, and maintenance is minimal.

  7. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond...... to adverbs in languages like English, while the rest are tense-aspect markers; and (iv) it is possible to combine several auxiliary verbs in a single clause. For some of the auxiliary verbs there are extant full verbs from which they have evolved. To some extent, therefore, it is possible to observe what...

  8. A novel MEMS inertial switch with a reinforcing rib structure and electrostatic power assist to prolong the contact time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhuoqing; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin; Wang, Hong

    2018-03-01

    The MEMS inertial switch is widely used in various industries owing to its advantage of small size, high integration, low power consumption and low costs, especially in the timing of Internet of things, such as toys, handheld devices, accessories and vibration testing. This paper provided a novel inertial switch with a reinforcing rib structure and electrostatic power assist. The designed inertial switch can reduce the complexity of the post-processing circuit and broaden its application prospect. The continuous electrostatic force can extend the contact time of the designed inertia switch before the leakage of electricity ends. The moving electrode with a reinforcing rib structure can effectively restrain the bending of the lower surface of moving electrode caused by residual stress. The array-type fixed electrode can ensure stable contact between the electrodes when the device is sensitive to external shocks. The dynamic displacement-time curve can be simulated by the COMSOL finite element simulation software. The laminated plating process is used to produce the designed inertial switch and the drop hammer acceleration monitoring system is used to test the fabricated device. The results indicate that, compared with the traditional design, the bouncing phenomenon can be prevented and extend the contact time to 336μs.

  9. Design and Experimental Investigations on a new ZCS Non-Isolated Bidirectional Converter based on Auxiliary resonant Circuit for DC Traction Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera Venkata Subrahmanya Kumar Bhajana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new ZCS non-isolated bidirectional converter for energy storage systems in DC Traction vehicles. The conventional hard-switched non-isolated bidirectional converter is additionally assisted with an auxiliary resonant cell, which is implemented with auxiliary IGBTs, resonant inductor and capacitor will provide the zero current switching, while the main IGBT commutates. This paper mainly deals with the design analysis, simulation and experimental investigations of the proposed converter are provided to prove the soft-switching capability and its overall performance. The 100-200V/2kW laboratory prototype has been implemented and tested to verify the theoretical assumptions and simulation results.

  10. Reversal mechanisms and interactions in magnetic systems: coercivity versus switching field and thermally assisted demagnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebollada, F.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a comparative analysis of the magnetic interactions and reversal mechanisms of two different systems: NdFeB-type alloys with grain sizes in the single domain range and Fe-SiO2 nanocomposites with Fe concentrations above and below the percolation threshold. We evidence that the use of the coercivity as the main parameter to analyse them might be misleading due to the convolution of both reversible and irreversible magnetization variations. We show that the switching field and thermally assisted demagnetization allow a better understanding of these mechanisms since they involve just irreversible magnetization changes. Specifically, the experimental analysis of the coercivity adquisition process for the NdFeB-type system suggests that the magnetization reversal is nucleated at the spin misalignments present due to intergranular exchange interactions. On the other hand, the study of the magnetic viscosity and of the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM and direct field demagnetization (DCD remanence curves indicates that the dipolar interactions are responsible for the propagation of the switching started at individual particles.

    En este artículo presentamos un análisis comparativo de la influencia de la microestructura a través de las interacciones magnéticas en los mecanismos de inversión de la magnetización en dos sistemas diferentes: aleaciones tipo NdFeB con tamaños de grano en el rango de monodominio y nanocompuestos de Fe-SiO2 con concentraciones de Fe tanto por encima como por debajo del umbral de percolación. Ponemos de manifiesto que el uso del campo coercitivo como parámetro de análisis puede llevar a equívocos debido a la coexistencia de variaciones reversibles e irreversibles de la magnetización. También mostramos que el campo de conmutación y la desimanación térmicamente asistida permiten una mejor comprensión de dichos mecanismos ya que reflejan exclusivamente cambios irreversibles de

  11. Magnetization Switching of a Co /Pt Multilayered Perpendicular Nanomagnet Assisted by a Microwave Field with Time-Varying Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Hirofumi; Kanao, Taro; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2018-05-01

    Microwave-assisted magnetization switching (MAS) is attracting attention as a method for reversing nanomagnets with a high magnetic anisotropy by using a small-amplitude magnetic field. We experimentally study MAS of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by applying a microwave magnetic field with a time-varying frequency. Because the microwave field frequency can follow the nonlinear decrease of the resonance frequency, larger magnetization excitation than that in a constant-frequency microwave field is induced, which enhances the MAS effect. The switching field decreases almost linearly as the start value of the time-varying microwave field frequency increases, and it becomes smaller than the minimum switching field in a constant-frequency microwave field. To obtain this enhancement of the MAS effect, the end value of the time-varying microwave field frequency needs to be almost the same as or lower than the critical frequency for MAS in a constant-frequency microwave field. In addition, the frequency change typically needs to take 1 ns or longer to make the rate of change slow enough for the magnetization to follow the frequency change. This switching behavior is qualitatively explained by the theory based on the macrospin model.

  12. Steam generator auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author deals with damage and defect types obtaining in auxiliary systems of power plants. These concern water/steam auxiliary systems (feed-water tank, injection-control valves, slide valves) and air/fluegas auxiliary systems (blowers, air preheaters, etc.). Operating errors and associated damage are not dealt with; by contrast, weak spots are pointed out which result from planning and design. Damage types and events are collected in statistics in order to facilitate damage evaluation for arriving at improved design solutions. (HAG) [de

  13. Analysis of area level and unit level models for small area estimation in forest inventories assisted with LiDAR auxiliary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Francisco; Monleon, Vicente J; Temesgen, Hailemariam; Ford, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    Forest inventories require estimates and measures of uncertainty for subpopulations such as management units. These units often times hold a small sample size, so they should be regarded as small areas. When auxiliary information is available, different small area estimation methods have been proposed to obtain reliable estimates for small areas. Unit level empirical best linear unbiased predictors (EBLUP) based on plot or grid unit level models have been studied more thoroughly than area level EBLUPs, where the modelling occurs at the management unit scale. Area level EBLUPs do not require a precise plot positioning and allow the use of variable radius plots, thus reducing fieldwork costs. However, their performance has not been examined thoroughly. We compared unit level and area level EBLUPs, using LiDAR auxiliary information collected for inventorying 98,104 ha coastal coniferous forest. Unit level models were consistently more accurate than area level EBLUPs, and area level EBLUPs were consistently more accurate than field estimates except for large management units that held a large sample. For stand density, volume, basal area, quadratic mean diameter, mean height and Lorey's height, root mean squared errors (rmses) of estimates obtained using area level EBLUPs were, on average, 1.43, 2.83, 2.09, 1.40, 1.32 and 1.64 times larger than those based on unit level estimates, respectively. Similarly, direct field estimates had rmses that were, on average, 1.37, 1.45, 1.17, 1.17, 1.26, and 1.38 times larger than rmses of area level EBLUPs. Therefore, area level models can lead to substantial gains in accuracy compared to direct estimates, and unit level models lead to very important gains in accuracy compared to area level models, potentially justifying the additional costs of obtaining accurate field plot coordinates.

  14. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... the generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  15. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-01-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  16. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-07-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  17. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, A.; Ramilo, L.; Santecchia, A.; Vindrola, C.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100MWt, about 25MWe).CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium.In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented.Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor

  18. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Santecchia, Alberto; Vindrola, Carlos; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100 M Wt, about 25 M We). CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium. In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented. Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor. (author)

  19. Vacuum switchgear for power station auxiliary switchboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    Sizewell B is the first UK power station in which vacuum switchgear is used for the auxiliary switchboards. Previously the 3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV switchgear has used air-break circuit breakers and fused air-break contactors, known as motor starting devices or fused switching devices (FSD). The use of vacuum interrupters is therefore a new technology in this application, although it has been established in the UK distribution network and in industrial installations from the mid 1970s. Vacuum switchgear was already in use in the USA for power station auxiliary switchgear at the time that it was proposed for Sizewell B. The Sizewell B high voltage auxiliary switchgear comprises eight Unit and Station Auxiliary Switchboards at 3.3kV and 11kV, and four 3.3kV Essential Switchboards for the essential safety related circuits, making a total of 65 circuit breakers plus FSD panels. (Author)

  20. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  1. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  2. Operation auxiliary system (SAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolich, J.; Santome, D.; Drexler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents an auxiliary system for nuclear power plants operation (SAO). The development purpose consisted in a computing supervision system to be installed at different sites of a reactor, mainly in the control room. The inclusion of this system to a nuclear power plant minimizes the possibility of human error for the facility operation. (Author) [es

  3. Auxiliary office chair

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Osés, Maite

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an auxiliary office chair, which favorably will compete with the existing chairs on the market. Evolutions of ergonomical survey in the work environment and on the configuration of offices require new products which fulfill the requirements properly. In order to achieve it a survey about office chairs has been carried out: types, characteristics, ways of usage and products on the market besides a large antropometrical study and ergonomics related to work ...

  4. A new Zero-Voltage-Transition PWM switching cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, V. [Electronics and Telecommunications Faculty `Politebuica` University Bucharest (Romania); Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a new Zero-Voltage-Transition (ZVT) PWM switching cell is presented. The proposed switching cell is composed of the normal hard-switched PWM cell (consisting of one active switch and one passive switch), plus an auxiliary circuit (consisting of one active switch and some reactive components). The auxiliary circuit is inactive during the ON and OFF intervals of the switches in the normal PWM switch. However, the transitions between the two states are controlled by the auxiliary circuit. Prior to turn-on, the voltage across the active switch in the PWM cell is forced to zero, thus the turn-on losses of the active switch are practically eliminated. At turn-off the auxiliary circuit behaves like a non-dissipative passive snubber reducing the turn-off losses to a great extent. Zero-Voltage-Transition switching technique almost eliminates switching losses. The active switch operates under ZVT conditions, the passive switch (diode) has a controlled reverse recovery, and the switch in the auxiliary circuit operates under Zero-Current-Switching (ZCS) conditions. (orig.) 6 refs.

  5. Electric-field assisted switching of magnetization in perpendicularly magnetized (Ga,Mn)As films at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Ma, Jialin; Yu, Xueze; Yu, Zhifeng; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    The electric-field effects on the magnetism in perpendicularly magnetized (Ga,Mn)As films at high temperatures have been investigated. An electric-field as high as 0.6 V nm-1 is applied by utilizing a solid-state dielectric Al2O3 film as a gate insulator. The coercive field, saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy have been clearly changed by the gate electric-field, which are detected via the anomalous Hall effect. In terms of the Curie temperature, a variation of about 3 K is observed as determined by the temperature derivative of the sheet resistance. In addition, electrical switching of the magnetization assisted by a fixed external magnetic field at 120 K is demonstrated, employing the gate-controlled coercive field. The above experimental results have been attributed to the gate voltage modulation of the hole density in (Ga,Mn)As films, since the ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)As is carrier-mediated. The limited modulation magnitude of magnetism is found to result from the strong charge screening effect introduced by the high hole concentration up to 1.10  ×  1021 cm-3, while the variation of the hole density is only about 1.16  ×  1020 cm-3.

  6. A new Zero-Current-Transition PWM switching cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, V. [Electronics and Telecommunications Faculty, `Politechnica` University Bucharest (Romania); Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a new Zero-Current-Transition (ZCT) PWM switching cell is presented. The proposed switching cell is composed of the normal hard-switched PWM cell (consisting of one active switch and one passive switch), plus as auxiliary circuit. The auxiliary circuit is inactive during the ON ad OFF intervals of the switches in the normal PWM switch. The transitions between the two states are controlled by the auxiliary circuit. Prior to turn-off, the current through the active switch in the PWM cell is forced to zero, thus the turn-off losses of the active switch are practically eliminated. At turn-on the auxiliary circuit slows down the growing rate of the current through the main switch. Thus, turn-on losses are also very much reduced. The active switch operates under ZCT conditions, the passive switch (diode) has a controlled reverse recovery, while the switch in the auxiliary circuit operates under Zero-Current-Switching (ZCS) conditions. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Partial spin absorption induced magnetization switching and its voltage-assisted improvement in an asymmetrical all spin logic device at the mesoscopic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Zhizhong; Wang, Lezhi; Nan, Jiang; Zheng, Zhenyi; Li, Xiang; Wong, Kin; Wang, Yu; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Zhang, Youguang; Wang, Kang L.; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-07-01

    Beyond memory and storage, future logic applications put forward higher requirements for electronic devices. All spin logic devices (ASLDs) have drawn exceptional interest as they utilize pure spin current instead of charge current, which could promise ultra-low power consumption. However, relatively low efficiencies of spin injection, transport, and detection actually impede high-speed magnetization switching and challenge perspectives of ASLD. In this work, we study partial spin absorption induced magnetization switching in asymmetrical ASLD at the mesoscopic scale, in which the injector and detector have the nano-fabrication compatible device size (>100 nm) and their contact areas are different. The enlarged contact area of the detector is conducive to the spin current absorption, and the contact resistance difference between the injector and the detector can decrease the spin current backflow. Rigorous spin circuit modeling and micromagnetic simulations have been carried out to analyze the electrical and magnetic features. The results show that, at the fabrication-oriented technology scale, the ferromagnetic layer can hardly be switched by geometrically partial spin current absorption. The voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect has been applied on the detector to accelerate the magnetization switching by modulating magnetic anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layer. With a relatively high VCMA coefficient measured experimentally, a voltage of 1.68 V can assist the whole magnetization switching within 2.8 ns. This analysis and improving approach will be of significance for future low-power, high-speed logic applications.

  8. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  9. Tube Model Predictive Control with an Auxiliary Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Spasic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies Tube Model Predictive Control (MPC with a Sliding Mode Controller (SMC as an auxiliary controller. It is shown how to calculate the tube widths under SMC control, and thus how much the constraints of the nominal MPC have to be tightened in order to achieve robust stability and constraint fulfillment. The analysis avoids the assumption of infinitely fast switching in the SMC controller.

  10. [Evaluating work intensity in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagulov, N K; Alpysbayeva, Zh T

    2015-01-01

    The article covers evaluation of work strain in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry. The study results conclude that occupational activity of by-product coke industry workers, under exposure to occupational hazards, affects the workers' performance. Major occupations workers demonstrate higher level of functional strain of CNS, poor concentration of attention and lower ability to switch over, decreased general performance, vs. the auxiliary occupations workers who demonstrated increased cardiovascular and neuro-muscular strain due to occupational activity.

  11. Improving Energy Efficiency of Auxiliaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl T. Vuk

    2001-01-01

    The summaries of this report are: Economics Ultimately Dictates Direction; Electric Auxiliaries Provide Solid Benefits. The Impact on Vehicle Architecture Will be Important; Integrated Generators With Combined With Turbo Generators Can Meet the Electrical Demands of Electric Auxiliaries; Implementation Will Follow Automotive 42V Transition; Availability of Low Cost Hardware Will Slow Implementation; Industry Leadership and Cooperation Needed; Standards and Safety Protocols Will be Important. Government Can Play an Important Role in Expediting: Funding Technical Development; Incentives for Improving Fuel Economy; Developing Standards, Allowing Economy of Scale; and Providing Safety Guidelines

  12. Urea-assisted synthesis of AlPO4:Ce,Tb nanorods as a redox luminescence switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei; Hu, Juncheng

    2013-01-01

    AlPO 4 :Ce,Tb nanorods were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The morphology of rod-like AlPO 4 was tuned by varying urea concentrations, AlPO 4 gradually changed from nanosheets to nanorods, and urea provided hydroxyl anion (OH − ) in the aqueous solution to prepare the dispersed nanorods under the hydrothermal conditions. The emission intensity of nanorods increased significantly compared to that of nanosheets. AlPO 4 :Ce,Tb nanorods provided a novel redox luminescence switch on the basis of the reversible switching of the Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ redox couple. The luminescence is quenched (off) when the system is in the oxidized form while it is restored (on) in the reduced form. The mechanism of the energy transfer and electronic transition between Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ in the AlPO 4 nanorods was also discussed. This switch has biocompatibility and low toxicity, and may have a potential application in biomedical diagnostics and analysis

  13. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  14. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Let him always come' e. á vá hátl-é vá yá étlélà. OPT 3PL quickly-OPT 3PL go sleep. 'Let them quickly go to bed'. 3.4 Negative markers. Negation is marked on AA verbs. The auxiliary verb hatla 'quickly' is negated in three tenses.

  15. Auxiliary cooling device for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Kozo.

    1996-01-01

    An auxiliary cooling sea water pipeline for pumping up cooling sea water, an auxiliary cooling sea water pipeline and a primary side of an auxiliary cooling heat exchanger are connected between a sea water taking vessel and a sea water discharge pit. An auxiliary cooling water pump is connected to an auxiliary water cooling pipeline on the second side of the auxiliary cooling heat exchanger. The auxiliary cooling water pipeline is connected with each of auxiliary equipments of a reactor system and each of auxiliary equipments of the turbine system connected to a turbine auxiliary cooling water pipeline in parallel. During ordinary operation of the reactor, heat exchange for each of the auxiliary equipments of the reactor and heat exchange for each of the equipments of the turbine system are conducted simultaneously. Since most portions of the cooling devices of each of the auxiliary equipments of the reactor system and each of the auxiliary equipments of the turbine system can be used in common, the operation efficiency of the cooling device is improved. In addition, the space for the pipelines and the cost for the equipments can be reduced. (I.N.)

  16. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree angle, rising away from the hoist. (c) The Auxiliary emblem consists of a disk with the shield of the Coat of...

  17. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary to...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary facilities. 57.6161 Section 57.6161...-Underground Only § 57.6161 Auxiliary facilities. (a) Auxiliary facilities used to store explosive material near work places shall be wooden, box-type containers equipped with covers or doors, or facilities...

  19. Proceedings: Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The EPRI Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop, held April 24--25, 1991, in Princeton, New Jersey, brought together utilities, architect/engineers, and equipment suppliers to discuss common problems with power plant auxiliary systems. Workshop participants presented papers on monitoring, identifying, and solving problems with auxiliary systems. Panel discussions focused on improving systems and existing and future plants. The solutions presented to common auxiliary system problems focused on practical ideas that can enhance plant availability, reduce maintenance costs, and simplify the engineering process. The 13 papers in these proceedings include: Tutorials on auxiliary electrical systems and motors; descriptions of evaluations, software development, and new technologies used recently by electric utilities; an analysis of historical performance losses caused by power plant auxiliary systems; innovative design concepts for improving auxiliary system performance in future power plants

  20. Loss Model and Efficiency Analysis of Tram Auxiliary Converter Based on a SiC Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the auxiliary converter in the auxiliary power supply system of a modern tram adopts Si IGBT as its switching device and with the 1700 V/225 A SiC MOSFET module commercially available from Cree, an auxiliary converter using all SiC devices is now possible. A SiC auxiliary converter prototype is developed during this study. The author(s derive the loss calculation formula of the SiC auxiliary converter according to the system topology and principle and each part loss in this system can be calculated based on the device datasheet. Then, the static and dynamic characteristics of the SiC MOSFET module used in the system are tested, which aids in fully understanding the performance of the SiC devices and provides data support for the establishment of the PLECS loss simulation model. Additionally, according to the actual circuit parameters, the PLECS loss simulation model is set up. This simulation model can simulate the actual operating conditions of the auxiliary converter system and calculate the loss of each switching device. Finally, the loss of the SiC auxiliary converter prototype is measured and through comparison it is found that the loss calculation theory and PLECS loss simulation model is valuable. Furthermore, the thermal images of the system can prove the conclusion about loss distribution to some extent. Moreover, these two methods have the advantages of less variables and fast calculation for high power applications. The loss models may aid in optimizing the switching frequency and improving the efficiency of the system.

  1. Switching Vertical to Horizontal Graphene Growth Using Faraday Cage-Assisted PECVD Approach for High-Performance Transparent Heating Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Deng, Bing; Guo, Xiao; Chen, Shulin; Gao, Jing; Li, Tianran; Dou, Zhipeng; Ci, Haina; Sun, Jingyu; Chen, Zhaolong; Wang, Ruoyu; Cui, Lingzhi; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Ke; Wang, Huihui; Wang, Sheng; Gao, Peng; Rummeli, Mark H; Peng, Hailin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-02-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is an applicable route to achieve low-temperature growth of graphene, typically shaped like vertical nanowalls. However, for transparent electronic applications, the rich exposed edges and high specific surface area of vertical graphene (VG) nanowalls can enhance the carrier scattering and light absorption, resulting in high sheet resistance and low transmittance. Thus, the synthesis of laid-down graphene (LG) is imperative. Here, a Faraday cage is designed to switch graphene growth in PECVD from the vertical to the horizontal direction by weakening ion bombardment and shielding electric field. Consequently, laid-down graphene is synthesized on low-softening-point soda-lime glass (6 cm × 10 cm) at ≈580 °C. This is hardly realized through the conventional PECVD or the thermal chemical vapor deposition methods with the necessity of high growth temperature (1000 °C-1600 °C). Laid-down graphene glass has higher transparency, lower sheet resistance, and much improved macroscopic uniformity when compare to its vertical graphene counterpart and it performs better in transparent heating devices. This will inspire the next-generation applications in low-cost transparent electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Micelle-assisted signaling of peracetic acid by the oxidation of pyreneboronic acid via monomer-excimer switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyo Jin; Cho, Min Jeoung; Chang, Suk-Kyu

    2015-08-15

    A simple fluorescent probe for the industrial oxidant peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated. PAA-assisted oxidative conversion of pyrene-1-boronic acid into 1-hydroxypyrene was used as the signaling tool. Pyreneboronic acid was found to display selective signaling behavior, being more responsive to PAA than to other commonly used practical oxidants such as H2O2 and HOCl. The changes in pyrene monomer fluorescence to excimer were used in the quantitative analysis of PAA. When using the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as a micellar additive, the signaling of PAA was markedly enhanced. Selective fluorescence signaling of PAA by pyrene-1-boronic acid with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-6)M in aqueous environment was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its electric-field-assisted switching of Heusler-compound-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Zhaoqiang; Wu, Qingyun; Zeng, Minggang; Feng, Yuan Ping; Shen, Lei; Cai, Yongqing; Han, Guchang

    2014-01-01

    Employing density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we systematically investigate the structural, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the Co 2 FeAl(CFA)/MgO interface, as well as the spin-dependent transport characteristics of the CFA/MgO/CFA perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). We find that the structure of the CFA/MgO interface with the oxygen-top FeAl termination has high thermal stability, which is protected by the thermodynamic equilibrium limit. Furthermore, this structure is found to have perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA). Giant electric-field-assisted modifications of this interfacial MCA through magnetoelectric coupling are demonstrated with an MCA coefficient of up to 10 −7 erg V −1 cm. In addition, our non-collinear spin transport calculations of the CFA/MgO/CFA p-MTJ predict a good magnetoresistance performance of the device. (paper)

  4. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  5. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Phase 1 Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System Aging Study, NUREG/CR-5404 V1, focused on how and to what extent the various AFW system component types fail, how the failures have been and can be detected, and on the value of current testing requirements and practices. This follow-on study, which will be provided in full in NUREG/CR-5404 V2, provides a closure to the Phase 1 Study. For each of the component types and for the various sources of component failure identified in the Phase 1 Study, the methods of failure detection were designated and tabulated and the following findings became evident: Instrumentation and Control (I and C) related failures dominated the group of failures that were detected during demand conditions; many of the potential failure sources not detectable by the current monitoring practices were related to the I and C portion of the system; some component failure modes are actually aggravated by conventional test methods; and several important system functions did not undergo any function verification test. The goal of this follow-on study was to categorize and evaluate the deficiencies in testing identified by Phase 1 and to make specific recommendations for corrective action. In addition, this study presents discussions of alternate, state-of-the-art test methods, and provides a proposed Auxiliary Feedwater Pump test at normal operating pressure which should do much to verify system operability while eliminating degradation

  6. On the prohibition of automatic redundant power supply of 6 and 0.4 kV auxiliary sections at Leningrad NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokeev, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    At Leningrad NPP the automatic switching on of the auxiliary power supply sources of 6 and 0.4 kV is prohibited to provide personnel safety and preserve destruction of electroequipment. With excess of current maximum value in the 6 kV section immediate detachment of all electric motors occurs. At that moment by the switchers detechment emergency signal it occurs immediate swithing on of auxiliary systems or emergency switching on of auxiliary supply of the main circulating pumps, that insreases abruptly operation reliability of plant technological department

  7. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...... auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest...... in sampling theory. We verify robustness of the new approach by numerical results, and we use real data to illustrate the applicability....

  8. On the modelling of linear-assisted DC-DC voltage regulators for photovoltaic solar energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Herminio; García-Vílchez, Encarna

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the modelling of linear-assisted or hybrid (linear & switching) DC/DC voltage regulators. In this kind of regulators, an auxiliary linear regulator is used, which objective is to cancel the ripple at the output voltage and provide fast responses for load variations. On the other hand, a switching DC/DC converter, connected in parallel with the linear regulator, allows to supply almost the whole output current demanded by the load. The objective of this topology is to take advantage of the suitable regulation characteristics that series linear voltage regulators have, but almost achieving the high efficiency that switching DC/DC converters provide. Linear-assisted DC/DC regulators are feedback systems with potential instability. Therefore, their modelling is mandatory in order to obtain design guidelines and assure stability of the implemented power supply system.

  9. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 1: Auxiliary BE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, Anna L.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The question of how and when English-speaking children acquire auxiliaries is the subject of extensive debate. Some researchers posit the existence of innately given Universal Grammar principles to guide acquisition, although some aspects of the auxiliary system must be learned from the input. Others suggest that auxiliaries can be…

  10. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures

  11. Comparison of switching control algorithms effective in restricting the switching in the neighborhood of the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, JinWook; Chung, Lan; Smyth, Andrew W

    2010-01-01

    The active interaction control (AIC) system consisting of a primary structure, an auxiliary structure and an interaction element was proposed to protect the primary structure against earthquakes and winds. The objective of the AIC system in reducing the responses of the primary structure is fulfilled by activating or deactivating the switching between the engagement and the disengagement of the primary and auxiliary structures through the interaction element. The status of the interaction element is controlled by switching control algorithms. The previously developed switching control algorithms require an excessive amount of switching, which is inefficient. In this paper, the excessive amount of switching is restricted by imposing an appropriately designed switching boundary region, where switching is prohibited, on pre-designed engagement–disengagement conditions. Two different approaches are used in designing the newly proposed AID-off and AID-off 2 algorithms. The AID-off 2 algorithm is designed to affect deactivated switching regions explicitly, unlike the AID-off algorithm, which follows the same procedure of designing the engagement–disengagement conditions of the previously developed algorithms, by using the current status of the AIC system. Both algorithms are shown to be effective in reducing the amount of switching times triggered from the previously developed AID algorithm under an appropriately selected control sampling period for different earthquakes, but the AID-off 2 algorithm outperforms the AID-off algorithm in reducing the number of switching times

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Class A TV licensees may request a decrease from the authorized facility's ERP in the license application. An FM, TV or Class A TV licensee may also increase the ERP of the auxiliary facility in a license... licensed main facility as an auxiliary facility with an ERP less than or equal to the ERP specified on the...

  14. An improved soft switched PWM interleaved boost AC-DC converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genc, Naci; Iskender, Ires

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an improved soft switched two cell interleaved boost AC/DC converter with high power factor is proposed and investigated. A new auxiliary circuit is designed and added to two cell interleaved boost converter to reduce the switching losses. The proposed auxiliary circuit is implemented using only one auxiliary switch and a minimum number of passive components without an important increase in the cost and complexity of the converter. The main advantage of this auxiliary circuit is that it not only provides zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) for the main switches but also provides soft switching for the auxiliary switch and diodes. Though all semiconductor devices operate under soft switching, they do not have any additional voltage and current stresses. The proposed converter operates successfully in soft switching operation mode for a wide range of input voltage level and the load. In addition, it has advantages such as fewer structure complications, lower cost and ease of control. In the study, the transition modes for describing the behavior of the proposed converter in one switching period are described. A prototype with 600 W output power, 50 kHz/cell switching frequency, input line voltage of 110-220 V rms and an output voltage of 400 V dc has been implemented. Analysis, design and the control circuitry are also presented in the paper.

  15. Hybrid mesons with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid mesons are exotic mesons in which the color field is not in the ground state. Their understanding deserves interest from a theoretical point of view, because it is intimately related to nonperturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, it seems that some recently detected particles, such as the π 1 (1600) and the Y(4260), are serious hybrid candidates. In this work, we investigate the description of such exotic hadrons by applying the auxiliary fields technique (also known as the einbein field method) to the widely used spinless Salpeter Hamiltonian with appropriate linear confinement. Instead of the usual numerical resolution, this technique allows to find simplified analytical mass spectra and wave functions of the Hamiltonian, which still lead to reliable qualitative predictions. We analyse and compare two different descriptions of hybrid mesons, namely a two-body q system with an excited flux tube, or a three-body qg system. We also compute the masses of the 1 -+ hybrids. Our results are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with lattice QCD and other effective models. (orig.)

  16. Exciter switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  17. Resolution of concerns in auxiliary feedwater piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Testa, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Auxiliary feedwater piping systems at pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced unanticipated operating conditions during plant operation. These unanticipated conditions have included plant events involving backleakage through check valves, temperatures in portions of the auxiliary feedwater piping system that exceed design conditions, and the occurrence of unanticipated severe fluid transients. The impact of these events has had an adverse effect at some nuclear stations on plant operation, installed plant components and hardware, and design basis calculations. Beaver Valley Unit 2, a three loop pressurized water reactor nuclear plant, has observed anomalies with the auxiliary feedwater system since the unit went operational in 1987. The consequences of these anomalies and plant events have been addressed and resolved for Beaver Valley Unit 2 by performing engineering and construction activities. These activities included pipe stress, pipe support and pipe rupture analysis, the monitoring of auxiliary feedwater system temperature and pressure, and the modification to plant piping, supports, valves, structures and operating procedures

  18. A Novel Soft-Switching Synchronous Buck Converter for Portable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Panda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a zero-voltage-transition (ZVT pulse-width-modulated (PWM synchronous buck converter, which is designed to operate at low voltage and high efficiency typically required for portable systems. A new passive auxiliary circuit that allows the main switch to operate with zero-voltage switching has been incorporated in the conventional PWM synchronous buck converter. The operation principles and a detailed steady-state analysis of the ZVT-PWM synchronous converter implemented with the auxiliary circuit are presented. Besides, the main switch and all of the semiconductor devices operate under soft-switching conditions. Thus, the auxiliary circuit provides a larger overall efficiency. The feasibility of the auxiliary circuit is confirmed by simulation and experimental results.

  19. Photo-switching element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Yuichi

    1987-10-31

    Photo-input MOS transistor (Photo-switching element) cannot give enough ON/OFF ratio but requires an auxiliary condenser for a certain type of application. In addition, PN junction of amorphous silicon is not practical because it gives high leak current resulting in low electromotive force. In this invention, a solar cell was constructed with a lower electrode consisting of a transparent electro-conducting film, a photosensitive part consisting of an amorphous Si layer of p-i-n layer construction, and an upper metal electrode consisting of Cr or Nichrome, and a thin film transistor was placed on the solar cell, and further the upper metal electrode was co-used as a gate electrode of the thin film transistor; this set-up of this invention enabled to attain an efficient photo-electric conversion of the incident light, high electromotive force of the solar cell, and the transistor with high ON/OFF ratio. (3 figs)

  20. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be— (1...

  1. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billault, P.; Riege, H.; Gulik, M. van; Boggasch, E.; Frank, K.

    1987-01-01

    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  2. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 2: The Modals and Auxiliary DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…

  3. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  4. Nuclear reactor auxiliary heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Pierce, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    An auxiliary heat removal system to remove residual heat from gas-cooled nuclear reactors is described. The reactor coolant is expanded through a turbine, cooled in a heat exchanger and compressed by a compressor before reentering the reactor coolant. The turbine powers both the compressor and the pump which pumps a second fluid through the heat exchanger to cool the reactor coolant. A pneumatic starter is utilized to start the turbine, thereby making the auxiliary heat removal system independent of external power sources

  5. Nuclear reactors with auxiliary boiler circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, B.V.; Cook, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor has a main circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating one or more main energy converting units, such as gas turbines, and an auxiliary circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating at least one steam generating boiler arranged to be heated by the coolant after its passage through the reactor core to provide steam for driving an auxiliary steam turbine, such an arrangement providing a simplified start-up procedure also providing emergency duties associated with long term heat removal on reactor shut down

  6. Transport in Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bitte, M.L.; Bourdelle, C.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Redi, M.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Wilson, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The NSTX spherical torus (ST) provides a unique platform to investigate magnetic confinement in auxiliary-heated plasmas at low aspect ratio. Auxiliary power is routinely coupled to ohmically heated plasmas by deuterium neutral-beam injection (NBI) and by high-harmonic fast waves (HHFW) launch. While theory predicts both techniques to preferentially heat electrons, experiment reveals the electron temperature is greater than the ion temperature during HHFW, but the electron temperature is less than the ion temperature during NBI. In the following we present the experimental data and the results of transport analyses

  7. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and animal improvement programmes particularly as indirect means to improve a metric trait by selection either on an individual basis or on the basis of an index incorporating such information. This paper examines the utility of an index of ...

  8. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and ..... index gets enhanced over RLT. ..... indicated in LT, the sampling errors in the parameter es- .... problem can only be handled by simulation studies of the.

  9. DESAIN DAN IMPLEMENTSI SOFT SWITCHING BOOST KONVERTER DENGAN SIMPLE AUXILLARY RESONANT SWITCH (SARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Bagus Saputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boost konverter merupakan penaik tegangan DC ke tegangan DC yang mempunyai tegangan output yang lebih tinggi dibanding inputnya. Penggunaan boost konverter diera modern semakin meningkat dan dibuat dengan dimensi yang lebih kecil, berat yang lebih ringan dan efisiensi yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan boost konverter generasi terdahulu. Tetapi rugi-rugi periodik saat on/off meningkat. Untuk meraih kriteria tersebut, teknik hard switching boost konverter berevolusi menjadi teknik soft switching dengan menambah rangkaian simple auxiliary resonant circuit (SARC. Karena penambahan rangkaian SARC tersebut konverter bekerja pada kondisi zero-voltage switching switch (ZVS dan zero current switch (ZCS, sehingga saklar semikonduktor tidak bekerja secara hard switching lagi. Pada penelitian ini akan di desain dan diimplementaskan soft switching boost konverter dengan SARC. Kelebihan dari soft switching boost konverter dengan SARC adalah mempunyai efisiensi yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan boost konverter konventional. Dari hasil implementasi menunjukkan konverter yang diajukan telah meraih zero voltage switch (ZVS. Sehingga boost konverter zero voltage switch (ZVS bisa diaplikasikan pada sistem power suplay yang membutuhkan efisiensi energi yang tinggi terutama pada daya yang tinggi.

  10. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  11. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Matthew D [Peoria, IL; Slone, Larry M [Washington, IL; Welter, James Milton [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  12. Computation within the auxiliary field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeurle, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the classical auxiliary field methodology has been developed as a new simulation technique for performing calculations within the framework of classical statistical mechanics. Since the approach suffers from a sign problem, a judicious choice of the sampling algorithm, allowing a fast statistical convergence and an efficient generation of field configurations, is of fundamental importance for a successful simulation. In this paper we focus on the computational aspects of this simulation methodology. We introduce two different types of algorithms, the single-move auxiliary field Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm and two new classes of force-based algorithms, which enable multiple-move propagation. In addition, to further optimize the sampling, we describe a preconditioning scheme, which permits to treat each field degree of freedom individually with regard to the evolution through the auxiliary field configuration space. Finally, we demonstrate the validity and assess the competitiveness of these algorithms on a representative practical example. We believe that they may also provide an interesting possibility for enhancing the computational efficiency of other auxiliary field methodologies

  13. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) Systems has been conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The study has reviewed historical failure experience and current monitoring practices for the AFW System. This paper provides an overview of the study approach and results. 7 figs

  14. The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. Obviously, the fact remains that English Language is a sensitive Language ... Even though the English auxiliary verbs are of two kinds: Primary and Modal auxiliary ..... Therefore we are of the opinion that most speakers lack adequate.

  15. Design and scope of impact of auxiliary lanes : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Texas Department of Transportation districts have constructed auxiliary lanes to support interchange : ramp operations and to resolve congestion proximate to freeway entrance and exit ramps. While auxiliary lanes are : built throughout T...

  16. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  17. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  18. Bayesian Analysis of Geostatistical Models With an Auxiliary Lattice

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jincheol; Liang, Faming

    2012-01-01

    of observations is large. In this article, we propose an auxiliary lattice-based approach for tackling this difficulty. By introducing an auxiliary lattice to the space of observations and defining a Gaussian Markov random field on the auxiliary lattice, our model

  19. Modified Darboux transformations with foreign auxiliary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct a new type of first-order Darboux transformations for the stationary Schroedinger equation. In contrast to the conventional case, our Darboux transformations support arbitrary (foreign) auxiliary equations. We show that among other applications, our formalism can be used to systematically construct Darboux transformations for Schroedinger equations with energy-dependent potentials, including a recent result (Lin et al., 2007) as a special case. -- Highlights: → We generalize the Darboux transformation for the Schroedinger equation. → By admitting arbitrary auxiliary functions, we provide a new tool for generating solutions. → As a special case we recover a recent result on energy-dependent potentials. → We extend the latter result to very general energy-dependence.

  20. Eigenstates with the auxiliary field method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semay, Claude [Service de Physique Nucleaire et Subnucleaire, Universite de Mons-UMONS, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Silvestre-Brac, Bernard, E-mail: claude.semay@umons.ac.b, E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.f [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France)

    2010-07-02

    The auxiliary field method is a powerful technique to obtain approximate closed-form energy formulas for eigenequations in quantum mechanics. Very good results can be obtained for Schroedinger and semirelativistic Hamiltonians with various potentials, even in the case of many-body problems. This method can also provide approximate eigenstates in terms of well-known wavefunctions, for instance harmonic oscillator or hydrogen-like states, but with a characteristic size which depends on quantum numbers. In this paper, we consider two-body Schroedinger equations with linear, logarithmic and exponential potentials and show that analytical approximations of the corresponding eigenstates can be obtained with the auxiliary field method, with very good accuracy in some cases.

  1. Eigenstates with the auxiliary field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The auxiliary field method is a powerful technique to obtain approximate closed-form energy formulas for eigenequations in quantum mechanics. Very good results can be obtained for Schroedinger and semirelativistic Hamiltonians with various potentials, even in the case of many-body problems. This method can also provide approximate eigenstates in terms of well-known wavefunctions, for instance harmonic oscillator or hydrogen-like states, but with a characteristic size which depends on quantum numbers. In this paper, we consider two-body Schroedinger equations with linear, logarithmic and exponential potentials and show that analytical approximations of the corresponding eigenstates can be obtained with the auxiliary field method, with very good accuracy in some cases.

  2. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  3. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Shotaro; Takigami, Yoshio.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  4. Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Flow Distribution Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, J.S.; Bressler, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Flow Distribution Test was the first part of a test program to develop a water-cooled (tube-side), compact heat exchanger for removing heat from the circulating gas in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Measurements of velocity and pressure were made with various shell side inlet and outlet configurations. A flow configuration was developed which provides acceptable velocity distribution throughout the heat exchanger without adding excessive pressure drop

  5. Categorical Data Fusion Using Auxiliary Information

    OpenAIRE

    Fosdick, Bailey K.; DeYoreo, Maria; Reiter, Jerome P.

    2015-01-01

    In data fusion, analysts seek to combine information from two databases comprised of disjoint sets of individuals, in which some variables appear in both databases and other variables appear in only one database. Most data fusion techniques rely on variants of conditional independence assumptions. When inappropriate, these assumptions can result in unreliable inferences. We propose a data fusion technique that allows analysts to easily incorporate auxiliary information on the dependence struc...

  6. Model predictions for auxiliary heating in spheromaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauler, T.K.; Khua, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the plasma temperature waited for under auxiliary heating in spheromaks. A model, ensuring good agreement of earlier experiments with joule heating results, is used. The model includes heat losses due to magnetic fluctuations and shows that the plasma temperatures of the kilo-electron-volt order may be achieved in a small device with the radius of 0.3 m only

  7. Acoustically assisted spin-transfer-torque switching of nanomagnets: An energy-efficient hybrid writing scheme for non-volatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Ayan K.; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2013-01-01

    We show that the energy dissipated to write bits in spin-transfer-torque random access memory can be reduced by an order of magnitude if a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is launched underneath the magneto-tunneling junctions (MTJs) storing the bits. The SAW-generated strain rotates the magnetization of every MTJs' soft magnet from the easy towards the hard axis, whereupon passage of a small spin-polarized current through a target MTJ selectively switches it to the desired state with > 99.99% probability at room temperature, thereby writing the bit. The other MTJs return to their original states at the completion of the SAW cycle

  8. Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  9. The Topologies Research of a Soft Switching Bidirectional DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Yongping; Sun, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    A soft-switching solution implemented to the traditional bidirectional DC/DC converter is developed. The soft-switching cell, which composed of three auxiliary switches, one resonant capacitor and one resonant inductor, is equipped in the traditional bidirectional DC/DC converter to realize circuit...... circle. And the proposed topology of bidirectional soft-switching dc-dc converter(TASBC) performs ideal soft switching at boost operations. The characteristics of the proposed converter has been verified by MATLAB simulations and experimental results....

  10. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  11. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Weng, Yuxiang, E-mail: yxweng@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Xianyou [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, Qingxu [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2, Linggong Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 μm as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm{sup −1} as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for spectral detection in amide I′ region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser.

  12. Auxiliary equipment cooling circuit in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the propagation of bacterias that transform NO 2 into NO 3 in auxiliary equipment coolants using corrosion inhibitors of nitrite type in BWR type reactors. Method: In auxiliary equipments coolant systems, water quality is controlled by using purified water as supplement water and nitrite such as Na 2 NO 2 as the corrosion inhibitors. However, in the circumstance where dissolved oxygen is present, bacteria propagate to oxidize NO 2 into NO 3 . Thus, NO 2 at 200 ppm is reduced to 20 ppm. In view of the above, a surge tank supplied from water supplement line is connected in series and a deaeration device is disposed thereto. Since the presence of dissolved oxygen causes the bacteria to propagate it is desired that the dissolved oxygen density in the supplement water is less than 5 ppm. Deaeration and pressure reduction in the surge tank can remove the dissolved oxygen, prevent NO 3 increase and also prevent stress corrosion cracks in the system pipeways. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Auxiliary Electrodes for Chromium Vapor Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey; Shahzad, Moaiz; Britt, Tommy

    2018-05-15

    Measurement of chromia-containing vapors in solid oxide fuel cell systems is useful for monitoring and addressing cell degradation caused by oxidation of the chomia scale formed on alloys for interconnects and balance-of-plant components. One approach to measuring chromium is to use a solid electrolyte with an auxiliary electrode that relates the partial pressure of the chromium containing species to the mobile species in the electrolyte. One example is YCrO3 which can equilibrate with the chromium containing vapor and yttrium in yttria stabilized zirconia to establish an oxygen activity. Another is Na2CrO4 which can equilibrate with the chromium-containing vapor to establish a sodium activity.

  14. Auxiliary accelerating system for TRIUMF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, M.; Fong, K.; Laxdal, R.; Mackenzie, G.H.; Pacak, V.; Pearson, J.; Richardson, J.R.; Stanford, G.; Worsham, R.

    1990-06-01

    A 92 MHz auxiliary accelerating cavity has been designed and manufactured for installation in the TRIUMF cyclotron. Operating at the fourth harmonic of the RF with a peak voltage of 150 kV, it almost doubles the present energy gain per turn in the 400-500 MeV range, and reduces by ∼50% the stripping loss of the H - beam. This significant improvement will allow a substantial increase in the extracted current above the present routine level of 150μA while maintaining the same levels of residual radioactivity. The system is completed and being commissioned. A description of the design and commissioning procedures is presented, and results of beam tests given. (Author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  15. On Estimating Quantiles Using Auxiliary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Yves G.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a transformation-based approach for estimating quantiles using auxiliary information. The proposed estimators can be easily implemented using a regression estimator. We show that the proposed estimators are consistent and asymptotically unbiased. The main advantage of the proposed estimators is their simplicity. Despite the fact the proposed estimators are not necessarily more efficient than their competitors, they offer a good compromise between accuracy and simplicity. They can be used under single and multistage sampling designs with unequal selection probabilities. A simulation study supports our finding and shows that the proposed estimators are robust and of an acceptable accuracy compared to alternative estimators, which can be more computationally intensive.

  16. Cooling system for auxiliary reactor component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihira, Tomoko.

    1991-01-01

    A cooling system for auxiliary reactor components comprises three systems, that is, two systems of reactor component cooling water systems (RCCW systems) and a high pressure component cooling water system (HPCCW system). Connecting pipelines having partition valves are intervened each in a cooling water supply pipeline to an emmergency component of each of the RCCW systems, a cooling water return pipeline from the emmergency component of each of the RCCW systems, a cooling water supply pipeline to each of the emmergency components of one of the RCCW system and the HPCCW system and a cooling water return pipeline from each of the emmergency components of one of the RCCW system and the HPCCW system. With such constitution, cooling water can be supplied also to the emmergency components in the stand-by system upon periodical inspection or ISI, thereby enabling to improve the backup performance of the emmergency cooling system. (I.N.)

  17. Major factors in critical equipment reliability - Auxiliary systems; The development of an auxiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsthoffer, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the author details the development of an actual auxiliary system in order to fully understand the function of each major component and how it contributes to the total operation and reliability of the system. Only after the function of an auxiliary system is thoroughly understood, can one proceed to discuss specifications, design audits, testing, operation and preventive maintenance. The application selected will be to develop a pressurized lubrication and steam turbine control oil system for the critical equipment unit. This example was selected since many readers will be familiar with this type and because it provides a good foundation towards understanding fluid sealing systems. In the exercise that follow, he will define the system requirements and determine the system parameters. This information will then be used for component sizing

  18. Launched electrons in plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Rochau, G.E.; Sweeney, M.A.; McDaniel, D.H.; Quintenz, J.P.; Savage, M.E.; Lindman, E.L.; Kindel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma opening switches have provided a means to improve the characteristics of super-power pulse generators. Recent advances involving plasma control with fast and slow magnetic fields have made these switches more versatile, allowing for improved switch uniformity, triggering, and opening current levels that are set by the level of auxiliary fields. Such switches necessarily involve breaks in the translational symmetry of the transmission line geometry and therefore affect the electron flow characteristics of the line. These symmetry breaks are the result of high electric field regions caused by plasma conductors remaining in the transmission line, ion beams crossing the line, or auxilliary magnetic field regions. Symmetry breaks cause the canonical momentum of the electrons to change, thereby moving them away from the cathode. Additional electrons are pulled from the cathode into the magnetically insulated flow, resulting in an excess of electron flow over that expected for the voltage and line current downstream of the switch. We call these electrons ''launched electrons''. Unless they are recaptured at the cathode or else are fed into the load and used beneficially, they cause a large power loss downstream. This paper will show examples of SuperMite and PBFA II data showing these losses, explain the tools we are using to study them, and discuss the mechanisms we will employ to mitigate the problem. The losses will be reduced primarily by reducing the amount of launched electron flow. 7 refs., 9 figs

  19. Seismic qualification of PWR plant auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Tsai, N.C.

    1983-08-01

    The NRC Standard Review Plan specifies that the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a safeguard system that functions in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) to remove the decay heat via the steam generator. Only recently licensed PWR plants have an AFW system designed to the current Standard Review Plan specifications. The NRC devised the Multiplant Action Plan C-14 in order to make a survey of the seismic capability of the AFW systems of operating PWR plants. The purpose of this survey is to enable the NRC to make decisions regarding the need of requiring the licensees to upgrade the AFW systems to an SSE level of seismic capability. To implement the first phase of the C-14 plan, the NRC issued a Generic Letter (GL) 81-14 to all operating PWR licensees requesting information on the seismic capability of their AFW systems. This report summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's efforts to assist the NRC in evaluating the status of seismic qualification of the AFW systems in 40 PWR plants, by reviewing the licensees' responses to GL 81-14

  20. Development of 8 MW Power Supply Based on Pulse Step Modulation Technique for Auxiliary Heating System on HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weidong; Xuan Weimin; Yao Lieying; Wang Yingqiao

    2012-01-01

    The high voltage power supply (HVPS) based on pulse step modulation (PSM) has already been developed for the auxiliary heating system on HL-2A. This power supply consists of many switch power supplies, and its output voltage can be obtained by modulating their delay time and pulse widths. The PSM topology and control principle are presented in this paper. The simple algorithms for the control system are explained clearly. The switch power supply (SPS) module has been built and the test results show it can meet the requirements of the auxiliary heating system. Now, 112 SPS modules and the whole system have already been developed. Its maximum output is about 72 kV/93 A. The protection time is less than 5 μs. The different outputs of this power supply are used for the electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) system with different duty ratios. The experimental results of the entire system are presented. The results indicate that the whole system can meet the requirements of the auxiliary heating system on HL-2A.

  1. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  2. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the... power unit. [Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18974, Apr. 9, 1993] ...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  5. Optimization of feed water control for auxiliary boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lingmao

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the feed water control system of the auxiliary boiler steam drum in Qinshan Phase III Nuclear Power Plant, analyzed the deficiency of the original configuration, and proposed the optimized configuration. The optimized feed water control system can ensure the stable and safe operation of the auxiliary boiler, and the normal operation of the users. (author)

  6. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  7. The Range of Gapping and the Status of Auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, A. R.

    Full verbs and auxiliaries are subject to gapping. In the simplest cases, this construction type involves apparent ellipsis within one or more clausal conjuncts under identity with the finite verb or auxiliary of a preceding conjunct. It has often been suggested that the apparent ellipsis must involve at least a verb. Some researchers see in the…

  8. A new soft switched push pull current fed converter for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delshad, Majid; Farzanehfard, Hosein

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new zero voltage switching current fed push pull dc-dc converter is proposed for fuel cell generation system. The auxiliary circuit in this converter, not only absorbs the voltage surge across the switches at turn off instance, but also provides zero voltage switching condition for all converter switches. Therefore, the converter efficiency is increased and size and weight of the converter can be decreased. Also implementation of control circuit is very simple since the converter is PWM controlled. In this paper, the proposed dc-dc converter operating modes are analyzed and to verify the converter operation a laboratory prototype is implemented and the experimental results are presented.

  9. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...

  10. A soft switching with reduced voltage stress ZVT-PWM full-bridge converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yakup; Ting, Naim Suleyman; Acar, Fatih

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel active snubber cell for soft switching pulse width modulation DC-DC converters. In the proposed converter, the main switch is turned on under zero voltage transition and turned off under zero voltage switching (ZVS). The auxiliary switch is turned on under zero current switching (ZCS) and turned off under zero current transition. The main diode is turned on under ZVS and turned off under ZCS. All of the other semiconductors in the converter are turned on and off with soft switching. There is no extra voltage stress on the semiconductor devices. Besides, the proposed converter has simple structure and ease of control due to common ground. The detailed theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is presented and also verified with both simulation and experimental study at 100 kHz switching frequency and 600 W output power. Furthermore, the efficiency of the proposed converter is 95.7% at nominal power.

  11. IEEE C37.105-1987: IEEE standard for qualifying Class 1E protective relays and auxiliaries for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E protective relays and auxiliaries such as test and control switches, terminal blocks, and indicating lamps for applications in nuclear power generating stations. When properly employed it can be used to demonstrate the design adequacy of such equipment under normal, abnormal, design basis event and post design basis event conditions in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Std 323-1983. When protective relays and auxiliaries are located in areas not subject to harsh environments, environmental qualification is not required. Protective relays and auxiliaries located inside primary containment in a nuclear power generating station present special conditions beyond the scope of this document. The qualification procedure presented is generic in nature. Other methods may be used at the discretion of the qualifier, provided the basic precepts of ANSI/IEEE Std 32301983 are satisfied

  12. Fuel consumption reduction by shutoff of auxiliary aggregates, e.g. water pumps; Moeglichkeiten zur Kraftstoffverbrauchsreduzierung durch Nebenaggregateabschaltung am Beispiel der Wasserpumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eifler, G. [ElringKlinger Motortechnik GmbH, Idstein (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    A significant amount of power which is produced by modern combustion engines is used for driving the auxiliaries. Because of the fact that the modules are designed according to the most extreme case of demand which ever could happen the auxiliaries are mostly operating under low efficiency circumstances - especially when the vehicle is driving at low load and speed in inner city areas. In this publication the coolant water pump was taken for an example to show how significant benefits in fuel economy can be achieved by switching off the auxiliaries if possible. The operating behaviour will not only be discussed in the European test-cycle but also in special city cycles under real conditions. The results will be compared to the fuel consumption saving potentials which can be realized when introducing new combustion processes into series production. (orig.)

  13. Soft switching PWM isolated boost converter for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, M.; Adib, E. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation introduced a newly developed soft switching, isolated boost type converter for fuel cell applications. With a simple PWM control circuit, the converter achieves zero voltage switching the main switch. Since the auxiliary circuit is soft switched, the converter can operate at high powers which make it suitable for fuel cell applications. In particular, the converter is suitable for the interface of fuel cell and inverters because of its high voltage gain and isolation between input and output sources. In addition, the input current of the converter (current drained from the fuel cell) is almost constant since it is a boost type converter. The converter was analyzed and the simulation results validate the theoretical analysis.

  14. Sea water take-up facility for cooling reactor auxiliary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Noriko; Mizutani, Akira; Hirako, Shizuka; Uchiyama, Yuichi; Oda, Atsushi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an improvement of a cooling sea water take-up facility for cooling auxiliary equipments of nuclear power plant. Namely, an existent sea water take-up facility for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments has at least two circulation water systems and three independent sea water systems for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments. In this case, a communication water channel is disposed, which connects the three independent sea water systems for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments mutually by an opening/closing operation of a flow channel partitioning device. With such a constitution, even when any combination of two systems among the three circulation water systems is in inspection at the same time, one system for cooling the reactor auxiliary equipments can be kept operated, and one system is kept in a stand-by state by the communication water channel upon periodical inspection of water take-up facility for cooling the auxiliary equipments. As a result, the sea water take-up facility for cooling auxiliary equipments of the present invention have operation efficiency higher than that of a conventional case while keeping the function and safety at the same level as in the conventional case. (I.S.)

  15. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL is conducting aging assessments of auxiliary feedwater pumps to provide recommendations for monitoring and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation as well as to recommend maintenance and replacement practices. Cornerstones of these activities are the identification of failure modes and causes and ranking of causes. Failure modes and causes of interest are those due to aging and service wear. Design details, functional requirements, and operating experience data were used to identify failure modes and causes and to rank the latter. Based on this input, potentially useful inspection, surveillance, and condition monitoring methods that are currently available for use or in the developmental stage were examined and recommendations made. The methods selected are listed and discussed in terms of use and information to be obtained. Relationships between inspection, surveillance, and monitoring and maintenance practices entered prominently into maintenance recommendations. These recommendations, therefore, embrace predictive as well as corrective and preventative maintenance practices. The recommendations are described, inspection details are discussed, and periodic inspection and maintenance interval guidelines are given. Surveillance testing at low-flow conditions is also discussed. It is shown that this type of testing can lead to accelerated aging

  16. Digital switched hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Plummer, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in digital switched hydraulics particularly the switched inertance hydraulic systems (SIHSs). The performance of SIHSs is presented in brief with a discussion of several possible configurations and control strategies. The soft switching technology and high-speed switching valve design techniques are discussed. Challenges and recommendations are given based on the current research achievements.

  17. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable as...

  18. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple......-source current imbalance mitigation, and 3) the influence on the steady-state current distribution. Lastly, simulations and experimental results validate the theoretical analysis....

  19. New set of auxiliary fields for supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Rivelles, V. de.

    1983-02-01

    A brief introduction on supersymmetry is given. The problems with the obtainment of the auxiliary fields in supergravity theories are discussed, after a short presentation of the supersymmetry algebra representations. (L.C.) [pt

  20. The installation of helium auxiliary systems in HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Zhenya; Fu Xiaodong

    1993-01-01

    The inert gas Helium was chosen as reactor coolant in high temperature gas coolant reactor, therefore a set of Special and uncomplex helium auxiliary systems will be installed, the safe operation of HTR-10 can be safeguarded. It does not effect the inherent safety of HTR-10 MW if any one of all those systems were damaged during operation condition. This article introduces the design function and the system principle of all helium auxiliary systems to be installed in HTR-10. Those systems include: helium purification and its regeneration system, helium supply and storage system, pressure control and release system of primary system, dump system for helium auxiliary system and fuel handling, gaseous waste storage system, water extraction system for helium auxiliary systems and evacuation system for primary system

  1. Auxiliary fields for super Yang-Mills from division algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jonathan M.

    1994-01-01

    Division algebras are used to explain the existence and symmetries of various sets of auxiliary fields for super Yang-Mills in dimensions d=3,4,6,10. (Contribution to G\\"ursey Memorial Conference I: Strings and Symmetries)

  2. Parallel Auxiliary Space AMG Solver for $H(div)$ Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-18

    We present a family of scalable preconditioners for matrices arising in the discretization of $H(div)$ problems using the lowest order Raviart--Thomas finite elements. Our approach belongs to the class of “auxiliary space''--based methods and requires only the finite element stiffness matrix plus some minimal additional discretization information about the topology and orientation of mesh entities. Also, we provide a detailed algebraic description of the theory, parallel implementation, and different variants of this parallel auxiliary space divergence solver (ADS) and discuss its relations to the Hiptmair--Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition of $H(div)$ [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483--2509] and to the auxiliary space Maxwell solver AMS [J. Comput. Math., 27 (2009), pp. 604--623]. Finally, an extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness and scalability of our implementation on large-scale $H(div)$ problems with large jumps in the material coefficients.

  3. Semi-active engine mount design using auxiliary magneto-rheological fluid compliance chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, H.; Arzanpour, S.; Golnaraghi, M. F.; Parameswaran, A. M.

    2011-03-01

    Engine mounts are used in the automotive industry to isolate engine and chassis by reducing the noise and vibration imposed from one to the other. This paper describes modelling, simulation and design of a semi-active engine mount that is designed specifically to address the complicated vibration pattern of variable displacement engines (VDE). The ideal isolation for VDE requires the stiffness to be switchable upon cylinder activation/deactivation operating modes. In order to have a modular design, the same hydraulic engine mount components are maintained and a novel auxiliary magneto-rheological (MR) fluid chamber is developed and retrofitted inside the pumping chamber. The new compliance chamber is a controllable pressure regulator, which can effectively alter the dynamic performance of the mount. Switching between different modes happens by turning the electrical current to the MR chamber magnetic coil on and off. A model has been developed for the passive hydraulic mount and then it is extended to include the MR auxiliary chamber as well. A proof-of-concept prototype of the design has been fabricated which validates the mathematical model. The results demonstrate unique capability of the developed semi-active mount to be used for VDE application.

  4. Progress on radio frequency auxiliary heating system designs in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, M.; Bosia, G.; Elio, F.

    1996-09-01

    ITER will require over 100 MW of auxiliary power for heating, on- and off-axis current drive, accessing the H-mode, and plasma shut-down. The Electron Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ECRF) and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) are two forms of Radio Frequency (RF) auxiliary power being developed for these applications. Design concepts for both the ECRF and ICRF systems are presented, key features and critical design issues are discussed, and projected performances outlined

  5. An auxiliary differential equation FDTD method for anisotropic magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang

    2004-01-01

    An auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain (ADE-FDTD) methodology for anisotropic magnetized plasmas is derived. The method is based on a difference approximation of the auxiliary differential equation. A comparison with the JEC method is included. The CPU time saving by several times and accuracy of the method are confirmed by computing the reflection and transmission through a magnetized plasma layer with the direction of propagation parallel to the direction of the biasing field

  6. Operating experiences and degradation detection for auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    A study of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) Systems has been conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The results of the study are documented in NUREG/CR-5404, Vol. 1, Auxiliary Feedwater System Aging Study. The study reviewed historical failure experience and current monitoring practices for the AFW System. This paper provides an overview of the study approach and results

  7. Proceedings of the switched power workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain most of the presentations given at a workshop on the current state of research in techniques for switched power acceleration. The proceedings are divided, as was the workshop itself, into two parts. Part 1, contains the latest results from a number of groups active in switched power research. The major topic here is a method for switching externally supplied power onto a transmission line. Advocates for vacuum photodiode switching, solid state switching, gas switching, and synthetic pulse generation are all presented. Other important areas of research described in this section concern: external electrical and laser pulsing systems; the properties of the created electromagnetic pulse; structures used for transporting the electromagnetic pulse to the region where the electron beam is located; and possible applications. Part 2 of the proceedings considers the problem of designing a high brightness electron gun using switched power as the power source. This is an important first step in demonstrating the usefulness of switched power techniques for accelerator physics. In addition such a gun could have immediate practical importance for advanced acceleration studies since the brightness could exceed that of present sources by several orders of magnitude. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathleen Tuohy and Patricia Tuttle for their assistance in organizing and running the workshop. Their tireless efforts contribute greatly to a very productive meeting

  8. Latching micro optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  9. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout their...

  10. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information contained in the quantum states of two auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lvjun; Qiu, Daowen

    2007-01-01

    In probabilistic cloning with two auxiliary systems, we consider and compare three different protocols for the success probabilities of cloning. We show that, in certain circumstances, it may increase the success probability to add an auxiliary system to the probabilistic cloning machine having one auxiliary system, but we always can find another cloning machine with one auxiliary system having the same success probability as that with two auxiliary systems

  11. Auxiliary bearing design considerations for gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    The need to avoid contamination of the primary system, along with other perceived advantages, has led to the selection of electromagnetic bearings (EMBs) in most ongoing commercial-scale gas cooled reactor (GCR) designs. However, one implication of magnetic bearings is the requirement to provide backup support to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The demands on these auxiliary or 'catcher' bearings have been substantially escalated by the recent development of direct Brayton cycle GCR concepts. Conversely, there has been only limited directed research in the area of auxiliary bearings, particularly for vertically oriented turbomachines. This paper explores the current state-of-the-art for auxiliary bearings and the implications for current GCR designs. (author)

  12. Electrospinning of aligned fibers with adjustable orientation using auxiliary electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arras, Matthias M L; Grasl, Christian; Schima, Heinrich; Bergmeister, Helga

    2012-01-01

    A conventional electrospinning setup was upgraded by two turnable plate-like auxiliary high-voltage electrodes that allowed aligned fiber deposition in adjustable directions. Fiber morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The auxiliary electric field constrained the jet bending instability and the fiber deposition became controllable. At target speeds of 0.9 m s −1 90% of the fibers had aligned within 2°, whereas the angular spread was 70° without the use of auxiliary electrodes. It was even possible to orient fibers perpendicular to the rotational direction of the target. The fiber diameter became smaller and its distribution narrower, while according to the FTIR-ATR measurement the molecular orientation of the polymer was unaltered. This study comprehensively documents the feasibility of directed fiber deposition and offers an easy upgrade to existing electrospinning setups. (paper)

  13. Extensions of the auxiliary field method to solve Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the auxiliary field method is an interesting tool to compute approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation. This technique can generate the spectrum associated with an arbitrary potential V(r) starting from the analytically known spectrum of a particular potential P(r). In the present work, general important properties of the auxiliary field method are proved, such as scaling laws and independence of the results on the choice of P(r). The method is extended in order to find accurate analytical energy formulae for radial potentials of the form aP(r) + V(r), and several explicit examples are studied. Connections existing between the perturbation theory and the auxiliary field method are also discussed

  14. Extensions of the auxiliary field method to solve Schroedinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)], E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umh.ac.be

    2008-10-24

    It has recently been shown that the auxiliary field method is an interesting tool to compute approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation. This technique can generate the spectrum associated with an arbitrary potential V(r) starting from the analytically known spectrum of a particular potential P(r). In the present work, general important properties of the auxiliary field method are proved, such as scaling laws and independence of the results on the choice of P(r). The method is extended in order to find accurate analytical energy formulae for radial potentials of the form aP(r) + V(r), and several explicit examples are studied. Connections existing between the perturbation theory and the auxiliary field method are also discussed.

  15. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1996-06-07

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  16. Linearized curvatures for auxiliary fields in the de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A

    1988-09-19

    New consistent linearized curvatures in the de Sitter space are constructed. The sequence of actions, describing bosonic and fermionic gauge auxiliary fields, is found based on these curvatures. The proposed actions are parametrized by two integer parameters, n greater than or equal to 0 and m greater than or equal to 0. The simplest case n=m=0 corresponds in the flat limit to the auxiliary fields of 'new minimal' supergravity. The hamiltonian formulation is developed for the auxiliary fields suggested; hamiltonians and first- and second-class constraints are constructed. Using these results, it is shown that the systems of fields proposed possess no dynamical degrees of freedom in de Sitter and flat spaces. In addition the hamiltonian formalism is analysed for some free dynamical systems based on linearized higher-spin curvatures introduced previously.

  17. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  18. Improving Semi-Supervised Learning with Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    Deep generative models based upon continuous variational distributions parameterized by deep networks give state-of-the-art performance. In this paper we propose a framework for extending the latent representation with extra auxiliary variables in order to make the variational distribution more...... expressive for semi-supervised learning. By utilizing the stochasticity of the auxiliary variable we demonstrate how to train discriminative classifiers resulting in state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning exemplified by an 0.96% error on MNIST using 100 labeled data points. Furthermore...

  19. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours.

  20. Intrinsically safe electrical installations, auxiliary circuits and electric communication equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herms, C D

    1981-11-19

    Technical progress has not stopped short of electrical systems in mining, so that three new chapters are new included in the VDE regulations leaflet No. 0118 on 'Installation of electrical systems in underground coal mining'. The regulations on intrinsically safe electric systems, auxiliary circuits and communication systems are briefly described, and grounds for the regulations are presented. The regulations already take account of European regulations on intrinsic safety which will soon be published in a European Regulation on Mine Explosions. In the chapters on auxiliary circuits and communication systems, protection against direct contact, fires, and explosions is discussed as well as the further goal of reliable signal transmission.

  1. Direction of Impurity Pinch and Auxiliary Heating in Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angioni, C.; Peeters, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanism of particle pinch for trace impurities in tokamak plasmas, arising from the effect of parallel velocity fluctuations in the presence of a turbulent electrostatic potential, is identified analytically by means of a reduced fluid model and verified numerically with a gyrokinetic code for the first time. The direction of such a pinch reverses as a function of the direction of rotation of the turbulence in agreement with the impurity pinch reversal observed in some experiments when moving from dominant auxiliary ion heating to dominant auxiliary electron heating

  2. Analysis and Measurement of NOx Emissions in Port Auxiliary Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German de Melo Rodriguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is made NOx pollution emitted by port auxiliary vessels, specifically by harbour tugs, due to its unique operating characteristics of operation, require a large propulsion power changes discontinuously, also possess some peculiar technical characteristics, large tonnage and high propulsive power, that differentiate them from other auxiliary vessels of the port. Taking into account all the above features, there are no studies of the NOx emission engines caused by different working regimes of power because engine manufacturers have not measured these emissions across the range of operating power, but usually we only report the pollution produced by its engines to a maximum continuous power.

  3. Plasma auxiliary heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Heating and current drive systems must fulfil several roles in ITER operating scenarios: heating through the H-mode transition and to ignition; plasma burn control; current drive and current profile control in steady state scenarios; and control of MHD instabilities. They must also perform ancillary functions, such as assisting plasma start-up and wall conditioning. It is recognized that no one system can satisfy all of these requirements with the degree of flexibility that ITER will require. Four heating and current drive systems are therefore under consideration for ITER: electron cyclotron waves at a principal frequency of 170 GHz; fast waves operating in the range 40-70 MHz (ion cyclotron waves); lower hybrid waves at 5 GHz; and neutral beam injection using negative ion beam technology for operation at 1 MeV energy. It is likely that several of these systems will be employed in parallel. The systems have been chosen on the basis of the maturity of physics understanding and operating experience in current experiments and on the feasibility of applying the relevant technology to ITER. Here, the fundamental physics describing the interaction of these heating systems with the plasma is reviewed, the relevant experimental results in the exploitation of the heating and current drive capabilities of each system are discussed, key aspects of their application to ITER are outlined, and the major technological developments required in each area are summarized. (author)

  4. The role of developmental levels in examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is in young english-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen Van Horne, Amanda J; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2011-12-01

    Prior work (Guo, Owen, & Tomblin, 2010) has shown that at the group level, auxiliary is production by young English-speaking children was symmetrical across lexical noun and pronominal subjects. Individual data did not uniformly reflect these patterns. On the basis of the framework of the gradual morphosyntactic learning (GML) hypothesis, the authors tested whether the addition of a theoretically motivated developmental measure, tense productivity (TP), could assist in explaining these individual differences. Using archival data from 20 children between age 2;8 and 3;4 (years;months), the authors tested the ability of 3 developmental measures (TP; finite verb morphology composite, FVMC; mean length of utterance, MLU) to predict use of auxiliary is with different subject types. TP, but not MLU or FVMC, significantly improved model fit. Children with low TP scores produced auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical subjects. The facilitative effect of pronominal subjects on the production of auxiliary is, however, was not found in children with high TP scores. The finding that the effect of subject types on the production accuracy of auxiliary is changed with children's TP is consistent with the GML hypothesis.

  5. Design, simulation and modelling of auxiliary exoskeleton to improve human gait cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani, O; Maleki, A; Jamshidi, N

    2017-03-01

    Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints. To simulate extension and flexion movements of the leg joints, bearings were used at the end of hip and knee joints. The generated torque and motion angles of these joints obtained as well as the displacement curves of screw jacks in the gait cycle. Then, the human gait cycle was simulated in stance and swing phases and the obtained torque curves were compared. The results indicated that they followed the natural circle of the generated torque in joints with a little difference from each other. The maximum displacement obtained 4 and 6 cm in hip and knee joints jack respectively. The maximum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in foot contact phase. Also the minimum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in toe off and heel off phases respectively.

  6. Impact of Auxiliary Equipments Consumption on Electricity Generation Cost in Selected Power Plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on higher generation cost of electricity in selected TPPs (Thermal Power Plants in Sindh, Pakistan. It also investigates the energy consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan. The AC (Auxiliary Consumption of selected TPPs is compared with that in UK and other developed countries. Results show that the AC in selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan exceeds the average AC of the TPPs situated in developed countries. Many energy conservation measures such as impeller trimming and de-staging, boiler feed pump, high voltage inverter, variable frequency drive, and upgrading the existing cooling tower fan blades with fiber reinforced plastic are discussed to overcome higher AC. This study shows that harnessing various available energy conservative measures the AC and unit cost can be reduced by 4.13 and 8.8%; also adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated. Results show that the unit cost of electricity can be reduced from Rs.20 to19/kWh in JTPP (Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Rs.9 to 8.8/kWh in GTPS (Gas Turbine Power Station Kotri and Rs. 11 to 10.27/ kWh in LPS (Lakhara Power Station. Thus, electricity production can be improved with the existing capacity, which will eventually assist to manage the current energy crisis and ensure its conservation

  7. The improved photovoltaic performance of phenothiazine-dithienopyrrole based dyes with auxiliary acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming-Liang; Zhu, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Qing-Long; Ye, Dan; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Jian-Yu

    2018-05-01

    Incorporating alkyl chain decorated dithienopyrrole π-spacer with phenothiazine donor has proven to be efficient strategy for constructing novel dyes, which can achieve both large short-circuit current (Jsc) and high open-circuit voltage (Voc) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To promote the light harvesting capability, auxiliary acceptors including benzotriazole (BTZ), benzothiadiazole (BTD), and quinoxaline (Qu) have been inserted into the skeleton of dyes, and much improved Jsc have been realized. Meantime, the rational design of alkyl chains endows dyes JY53 and JY55 a good shielding effect from the penetration of electrolyte, guaranteeing a high Voc (over 810 mV) through retarding unwanted interfacial charge recombination. As a result, with the assistance of introduced auxiliary acceptors and alkyl chains, the photovoltaic performance of devices have been significantly improved, and dye JY55 has achieved an excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.06% with Jsc of 19.18 mA cm-2, Voc of 829 mV, and FF of 0.63 under AM 1.5 G irradiation.

  8. A modified two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yusheng; Wu, Weimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    A traditional Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) has higher efficiency than a Current Voltage Source (CSI) due to the less conduction power loss. However, the reverse recovery of the free-wheeling diode limits the efficiency improvement for the silicon devices based hard-switching VSI. The traditional...... quasi-soft-switching inverter can alternate between VSI and CSI by using a proper control scheme and thereby reduce the power losses caused by the reverse recovery of the free-wheeling diode. Nevertheless, slightly extra conduction power loss of the auxiliary switch is also introduced. In order...... to reduce the extra conduction power loss and the voltage stress across the DC-link capacitor, a modified two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter is proposed by using a SiC MOSFET instead of an IGBT. The principle of the modified two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter is analyzed...

  9. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  10. Auxiliary services for petrochemistry. Cogeneration, thermocompression, steam distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergerio, G.; Bruzzi, V.

    1999-01-01

    The article gives some guidelines for the choice of the most suitable energy vectors distributed in petrochemical plants and refineries for auxiliary services and for processes (mainly distillation). Conclusions are summed up in a diagram showing the most suitable heat sources and sinks for the various temperature ranges [it

  11. Auxiliary controller for time-to-digital converter module readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolin, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The KD-225 auxiliary controller for time-to-digital converter module readout in the SUMMA crate is described. After readout and preliminary processing the data are written in the P-140 buffer memory module. The controller is used in the FODS-2 experimental setup data acquisition system. 12 refs.; 1 fig

  12. Auxiliary equation method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirendaoreji,; Jiong, Sun

    2003-01-01

    By using the solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, a direct algebraic method is described to construct several kinds of exact travelling wave solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations. By this method some physically important nonlinear equations are investigated and new exact travelling wave solutions are explicitly obtained with the aid of symbolic computation

  13. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue of Tuesday, March 22, 2011, make the...

  14. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author).

  15. Auxiliary basis expansions for large-scale electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yousung; Sodt, Alex; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2005-05-10

    One way to reduce the computational cost of electronic structure calculations is to use auxiliary basis expansions to approximate four-center integrals in terms of two- and three-center integrals, usually by using the variationally optimum Coulomb metric to determine the expansion coefficients. However, the long-range decay behavior of the auxiliary basis expansion coefficients has not been characterized. We find that this decay can be surprisingly slow. Numerical experiments on linear alkanes and a toy model both show that the decay can be as slow as 1/r in the distance between the auxiliary function and the fitted charge distribution. The Coulomb metric fitting equations also involve divergent matrix elements for extended systems treated with periodic boundary conditions. An attenuated Coulomb metric that is short-range can eliminate these oddities without substantially degrading calculated relative energies. The sparsity of the fit coefficients is assessed on simple hydrocarbon molecules and shows quite early onset of linear growth in the number of significant coefficients with system size using the attenuated Coulomb metric. Hence it is possible to design linear scaling auxiliary basis methods without additional approximations to treat large systems.

  16. Specific features of auxiliary water supply at underground NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pergamenshchik, B.K.; Pavlov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Specific features of auxiliary water supply systems for underground NPPs related to peculiarities of NPP basis equipment arrangement, are considered. Circulation water supply scheme, in which water cooling storage basin (cooling towers) with operational area corresponding to NPP power is on the surface and has traditional design, is proposed. Sufficiently high efficiency of the arrangement proposed is proved

  17. Verb and auxiliary movement in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; Thompson, C.K.

    Verb production in agrammatic Broca's aphasia has repeatedly been shown to be impaired by a number of investigators. Not only is the number of verbs produced often significantly reduced, but verb inflections and auxiliaries are often omitted as well (e.g., Bastiaanse, Jonkers, & Moltmaker-Osinga,

  18. PWR auxiliary systems, safety and emergency systems, accident analysis, operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The author presents a description of PWR auxiliary systems like volume control, boric acid control, coolant purification, -degassing, -storage and -treatment system and waste processing systems. Residual heat removal systems, emergency systems and containment designs are discussed. As an accident analysis the author gives a survey over malfunctions and disturbances in the field of reactor operations. (TK) [de

  19. Optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1999-01-01

    Optical packet switched networks are investigated with emphasis on the performance of the packet switch blocks. Initially, the network context of the optical packet switched network is described showing that a packet network will provide transparency, flexibility and bridge the granularity gap...... in interferometric wavelength converters is investigated showing that a 10 Gbit/s 19 4x4 swich blocks can be cascaded at a BER of 10-14. An analytical traffic model enables the calculation of the traffice performance of a WDM packet network. Hereby the importance of WDM and wavelegth conversion in the switch blocks...... is established as a flexible means to reduce the optical buffer, e.g., the number of fibre delay lines for a 16x16 switch block is reduced from 23 to 6 by going from 2 to 8 wavelength channels pr. inlet. Additionally, a component count analysis is carried out to illustrate the trade-offs in the switch block...

  20. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  1. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia [Oak Ridge, TN; Peng, Fang Z [Okemos, MI

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  2. FreeSWITCH Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Minessale, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.

  3. Elements of magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter describes magnetic switching as a method of connecting a capacitor bank (source) to a load; reviews several successful applications of magnetic switching, and discusses switching transformers, limitations and future possibilities. Some of the inflexibility and especially the high cost of magnetic materials may be overcome with the availability of the new splash cooled ribbons (Metglas). Experience has shown that magnetics works despite shock, radiation or noise interferences

  4. Pemodelan Markov Switching Autoregressive

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyani, Fiqria Devi; Warsito, Budi; Yasin, Hasbi

    2014-01-01

    Transition from depreciation to appreciation of exchange rate is one of regime switching that ignored by classic time series model, such as ARIMA, ARCH, or GARCH. Therefore, economic variables are modeled by Markov Switching Autoregressive (MSAR) which consider the regime switching. MLE is not applicable to parameters estimation because regime is an unobservable variable. So that filtering and smoothing process are applied to see the regime probabilities of observation. Using this model, tran...

  5. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  6. Minimal set of auxiliary fields and S-matrix for extended supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E S; Vasiliev, M A [Physical Lebedev Institute - Moscow

    1979-05-19

    Minimal set of auxiliary fields for linearized SO(2) supergravity and one-parameter extension of the minimal auxiliary fields in the SO(1) supergravity are constructed. The expression for the S-matrix in SO(2) supergravity are given.

  7. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  8. Optimal switching using coherent control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Heuck, Mikkel; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    that the switching time, in general, is not limited by the cavity lifetime. Therefore, the total energy required for switching is a more relevant figure of merit than the switching speed, and for a particular two-pulse switching scheme we use calculus of variations to optimize the switching in terms of input energy....

  9. Revision of IMO Model Course 3.17 Maritime English. Focus on Maritime English to Auxiliary Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the Manila 2010 amendments to the STCW , all crew members on board cruise vessels, mainly those assisting passengers during emergency situations and not only, “should be able to communicate safety-related issues in English or in the language spoken by the passengers and other personnel on board.” Having in view that navigational and safety communications from ship to shore and vice versa, ship to ship, and on board ships must be precise, simple and unambiguous, so as to avoid confusion and error, besides the need to standardize the language used, there is a growing demand of developing communication skills in English, especially for personnel working on cruise vessels, but also on RORO vessels, yachts and small passenger vessels. This is the reason why we have designed, developed and are already delivering the “Maritime English for Auxiliary Personnel" course in Specialized Maritime English to auxiliary personnel working on board cruise vessels to develop their ability to communicate with passengers, mainly during an emergency. The course covers the specific language used to describe the parts of ships, organisation on board ships, all essential safety-related matters and work-specific topics. It also reflects the situations in which auxiliary personnel need to communicate, with each other, with other crew members and with shore side authorities. The final goal of this course is to improve fluency in spoken English in real life situations which, of course, can be both routine and non-routine.

  10. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  11. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  12. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J W

    2013-06-13

    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. 47 CFR 74.601 - Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.601 Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. (a) TV pickup stations. A land mobile station used for the transmission of TV program material and related communications...

  14. BE, DO, and Modal Auxiliaries of 3-Year-Old African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American English--speaking children's use of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Method: The data were based on language samples obtained from 48 three-year-olds. Analyses examined rates of marking by auxiliary type, auxiliary surface form, succeeding element, and syntactic construction and by a number of child…

  15. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  16. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed and... fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is maintained in compliance with the applicable...

  17. Avalanche photoconductive switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, M. D.; Druce, R. L.; Wilson, M. J.; Hofer, W. W.

    This paper describes work being done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the avalanche mode of operation of laser triggered photoconductive switches. We have been able to generate pulses with amplitudes of 2 kV to 35 kV and rise times of 300 to 500 ps, and with a switching gain (energy of output electrical pulse vs energy of trigger optical pulse) of 10(exp 3) to over 10(exp 5). Switches with two very different physical configurations and with two different illumination wavelengths (1.06 micrometer, 890 nm) exhibit very similar behavior. The avalanche switching behavior, therefore, appears to be related to the material parameters rather than the optical wavelength or switch geometry. Considerable further work needs to be done to fully characterize and understand this mode of operation.

  18. Avalanche photoconductive switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, M.D.; Druce, R.L.; Wilson, M.J.; Hofer, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work being done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the avalanche mode of operation of laser triggered photoconductive switches. We have been able to generate pulses with amplitudes of 2 kV--35 kV and rise times of 300--500 ps, and with a switching gain (energy of output electrical pulse vs energy of trigger optical pulse) of 10{sup 3} to over 10{sup 5}. Switches with two very different physical configurations and with two different illumination wavelengths (1.06 {mu}m, 890 nm) exhibit very similar behavior. The avalanche switching behavior, therefore, appears to be related to the material parameters rather than the optical wavelength or switch geometry. Considerable further work needs to be done to fully characterize and understand this mode of operation. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Versatile Auxiliary Orthodontic Spring for Orthodontic Correction of Impacted Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion such as impacted tooth is not uncommon. Many approaches with various auxiliary springs have been reported in literature till date for correction of such malocclusions. They had biomechanical, retentive and stability drawbacks inherent in their designs. This article presents the innovative approach for orthodontic correction of impacted tooth, especially with light force appliance, i.e. Begg′s appliance, where round wires in round molar tubes are used throughout treatment. A versatile auxiliary orthodontic spring (VAOS is fabricated in the 0.018 inch Australian stainless steel round wire, which may be anchored on round molar buccal tube, and desirable force vector may be applied in any of the three dimensions. Fabrication and its clinical application are discussed.

  20. Cooling system for auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, W.; Mueller, K.; Roller, W.

    1981-01-01

    From the reactor auxiliary and ancillary systems of a nuclear facility heat has to be removed without the hazard arising that radioactive liquids or gases may escape from the safe area of the nuclear facility. A cooling system is described allowing at every moment to make available cooling fluid at a temperature sufficiently low for heat exchangers to be able to remove the heat from such auxiliary systems without needing fresh water supply or water reservoirs. For this purpose a dry cooling tower is connected in series with a heat exchanger that is cooled on the secondary side by means of a refrigerating machine. The cooling pipes are filled with a nonfreezable fluid. By means of a bypass a minimum temperature is guaranteed at cold weather. (orig.) [de

  1. Renormalization of supersymmetric models without using auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previously a linear representation of supersymmetry (Ss) was used in investigations of renormalizability. There auxiliary fields have been introduced in order that the Ss-algebra closes 'off-shell'. When the auxiliary fields are eliminated by their equations of motion, the Ss representation becomes nonlinear and Ss closes only 'on-shell'. Following O.Piguet and K.Sibold 1984 Ss is expressed through Ward identities which are formulated as functional variations of the generating functional of the Green functions. These functional operators form a closed algebra, a fact essential for the proof of renormalizability, which is given. It is not necessary to use a specific subtraction scheme in the Green functions. The procedure is applied to the Wess-Zumino model and the supersymmetric extension of the quantum electrodynamics. 15 refs. (qui)

  2. Aging assessment of PWR [Pressurized Water Reactor] Auxiliary Feedwater Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a review of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater Systems. Two of the objectives of the NPAR Program are to identify failure modes and causes and identify methods to detect and track degradation. In Phase I of the Auxiliary Feedwater System study, a detailed review of system design and operating and surveillance practices at a reference plant is being conducted to determine failure modes and to provide an indication of the ability of current monitoring methods to detect system degradation. The extent to which current practices are contributing to aging and service wear related degradation is also being assessed. This paper provides a description of the study approach, examples of results, and some interim observations and conclusions. 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Component Data Base for Space Station Resistojet Auxiliary Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Clayton H.

    1988-01-01

    The resistojet was baselined for Space Station auxiliary propulsion because of its operational versatility, efficiency, and durability. This report was conceived as a guide to designers and planners of the Space Station auxiliary propulsion system. It is directed to the low thrust resistojet concept, though it should have application to other station concepts or systems such as the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory (MTL), and the Waste Fluid Management System (WFMS). The information will likely be quite useful in the same capacity for other non-Space Station systems including satellite, freeflyers, explorers, and maneuvering vehicles. The report is a catalog of the most useful information for the most significant feed system components and is organized for the greatest convenience of the user.

  4. Auxiliary representations of Lie algebras and the BRST constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdik, C.; Pashnev, A.I.; Tsulaya, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    The method of construction of auxiliary representations for a given Lie algebra is discussed in the framework of the BRST approach. The corresponding BRST charge turns out to be nonhermitian. This problem is solved by the introduction of the additional kernel operator in the definition of the scalar product in the Fock space. The existence of the kernel operator is proved for any Lie algebra

  5. Surgical nurse: his leadership style with nursing auxiliary personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Cristina Maria; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Okino Sawada, Namie

    2008-01-01

    This investigation as carried out in order to promote follow-up in the studies concerning nurse`s leadership in the hospital context. Emphasys is given to the nurses that works in surgical ward unities. As a theoretical framework, authors utilized the model of leadership proposed by Hersey na Blanchard, named Situational Leadership. The objective was to analyze the correspondence of opinion between nurses and nursing auxiliary personnel about the leadership style of nurse should adopt in acco...

  6. Restarting Automata with Auxiliary Symbols and Small Lookahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We present a study on lookahead hierarchies for restarting automata with auxiliary symbols and small lookahead. In particular, we show that there are just two different classes of languages recognised by RRWW automata, through the restriction of lookahead size. We also show that the respective...... (left-) monotone restarting automaton models characterise the context-free languages and that the respective right-left-monotone restarting automata characterise the linear languages both with just lookahead length 2....

  7. Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...

  8. Bayesian Analysis of Geostatistical Models With an Auxiliary Lattice

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jincheol

    2012-04-01

    The Gaussian geostatistical model has been widely used for modeling spatial data. However, this model suffers from a severe difficulty in computation: it requires users to invert a large covariance matrix. This is infeasible when the number of observations is large. In this article, we propose an auxiliary lattice-based approach for tackling this difficulty. By introducing an auxiliary lattice to the space of observations and defining a Gaussian Markov random field on the auxiliary lattice, our model completely avoids the requirement of matrix inversion. It is remarkable that the computational complexity of our method is only O(n), where n is the number of observations. Hence, our method can be applied to very large datasets with reasonable computational (CPU) times. The numerical results indicate that our model can approximate Gaussian random fields very well in terms of predictions, even for those with long correlation lengths. For real data examples, our model can generally outperform conventional Gaussian random field models in both prediction errors and CPU times. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2012 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  9. Auxiliary/Master microprocessor CAMAC Crate Controller applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, E.

    1975-01-01

    The need for further sophistication of an already complex serial CAMAC control system at Fermilab led to the development of an Auxilary/Master CAMAC Crate Controller. The controller contains a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, 2K bytes of RAM, and 8K bytes of PROM memory. Bussed dataway lines are time shared with CAMAC signals to provide memory expansion and direct addressing of peripheral devices without the need of external cabling. The Auxiliary/Master Crate Controller (A/MCC) can function as either a Master, i.e., stand alone, crate controller or as an Auxiliary controller to Fermilab's Serial Crate Controller (SCC). Two modules, one single- and one double-width, make up an A/MCC. The microprocessor has one nonmaskable and one maskable vectored interrupt. Time sharing the dataway between SCC programmed and block transfer generated dataway cycles and A/MCC operations still allows a 99 percent microprocessor CPU busy time. Since the conception of the A/MCC, there has been an increasing number of control system-related projects proposed which would not have been possible or would have been very difficult to implement without such a device. The first such application now in use at Fermilab is a stand-alone control system for a mass spectrometer experiment in the Main Ring Internal Target Area. This application in addition to other proposed A/MCC applications, both stand-alone and auxiliary, is discussed

  10. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  11. Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, E., E-mail: lazzaro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co-I{sub p} direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P{sub RF} absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.

  12. ADAPTIVE SELECTION OF AUXILIARY OBJECTIVES IN MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Petrova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We propose to modify the EA+RL method, which increases efficiency of evolutionary algorithms by means of auxiliary objectives. The proposed modification is compared to the existing objective selection methods on the example of travelling salesman problem. Method. In the EA+RL method a reinforcement learning algorithm is used to select an objective – the target objective or one of the auxiliary objectives – at each iteration of the single-objective evolutionary algorithm.The proposed modification of the EA+RL method adopts this approach for the usage with a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. As opposed to theEA+RL method, in this modification one of the auxiliary objectives is selected by reinforcement learning and optimized together with the target objective at each step of the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. Main Results.The proposed modification of the EA+RL method was compared to the existing objective selection methods on the example of travelling salesman problem. In the EA+RL method and its proposed modification reinforcement learning algorithms for stationary and non-stationary environment were used. The proposed modification of the EA+RL method applied with reinforcement learning for non-stationary environment outperformed the considered objective selection algorithms on the most problem instances. Practical Significance. The proposed approach increases efficiency of evolutionary algorithms, which may be used for solving discrete NP-hard optimization problems. They are, in particular, combinatorial path search problems and scheduling problems.

  13. Energy losses in switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF 6 polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V peak I peak ) 1.1846 . When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset

  14. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College and Graduate School, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Jaafar, Reem [Department of Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, New York 11101 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  15. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem

    2015-01-01

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained

  16. JUNOS Enterprise Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Harry

    2009-01-01

    JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc

  17. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  18. Heralded linear optical quantum Fredkin gate based on one auxiliary qubit and one single photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Chang-Hua; Cao Xin; Quan Dong-Xiao; Pei Chang-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Linear optical quantum Fredkin gate can be applied to quantum computing and quantum multi-user communication networks. In the existing linear optical scheme, two single photon detectors (SPDs) are used to herald the success of the quantum Fredkin gate while they have no photon count. But analysis results show that for non-perfect SPD, the lower the detector efficiency, the higher the heralded success rate by this scheme is. We propose an improved linear optical quantum Fredkin gate by designing a new heralding scheme with an auxiliary qubit and only one SPD, in which the higher the detection efficiency of the heralding detector, the higher the success rate of the gate is. The new heralding scheme can also work efficiently under a non-ideal single photon source. Based on this quantum Fredkin gate, large-scale quantum switching networks can be built. As an example, a quantum Beneš network is shown in which only one SPD is used. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Series resonant converter with auxiliary winding turns: analysis, design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Ren

    2018-05-01

    Conventional series resonant converters have researched and applied for high-efficiency power units due to the benefit of its low switching losses. The main problems of series resonant converters are wide frequency variation and high circulating current. Thus, resonant converter is limited at narrow input voltage range and large input capacitor is normally adopted in commercial power units to provide the minimum hold-up time requirement when AC power is off. To overcome these problems, the resonant converter with auxiliary secondary windings are presented in this paper to achieve high voltage gain at low input voltage case such as hold-up time duration when utility power is off. Since the high voltage gain is used at low input voltage cased, the frequency variation of the proposed converter compared to the conventional resonant converter is reduced. Compared to conventional resonant converter, the hold-up time in the proposed converter is more than 40ms. The larger magnetising inductance of transformer is used to reduce the circulating current losses. Finally, a laboratory prototype is constructed and experiments are provided to verify the converter performance.

  20. Fuel handling machine and auxiliary systems for a fuel handling cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2013-10-01

    This working report is an update for as well as a supplement to an earlier fuel handling machine design (Kukkola and Roennqvist 2006). A focus in the earlier design proposal was primarily on the selection of a mechanical structure and operating principle for the fuel handling machine. This report introduces not only a fuel handling machine design but also auxiliary fuel handling cell equipment and its operation. An objective of the design work was to verify the operating principles of and space allocations for fuel handling cell equipment. The fuel handling machine is a remote controlled apparatus capable of handling intensely radiating fuel assemblies in the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The fuel handling cell is air tight space radiation-shielded with massive concrete walls. The fuel handling machine is based on a bridge crane capable of traveling in the handling cell along wall tracks. The bridge crane has its carriage provided with a carousel type turntable having mounted thereon both fixed and telescopic masts. The fixed mast has a gripper movable on linear guides for the transfer of fuel assemblies. The telescopic mast has a manipulator arm capable of maneuvering equipment present in the fuel handling cell, as well as conducting necessary maintenance and cleaning operations or rectifying possible fault conditions. The auxiliary fuel handling cell systems consist of several subsystems. The subsystems include a service manipulator, a tool carrier for manipulators, a material hatch, assisting winches, a vacuum cleaner, as well as a hose reel. With the exception of the vacuum cleaner, the devices included in the fuel handling cell's auxiliary system are only used when the actual encapsulation process is not ongoing. The malfunctions of mechanisms or actuators responsible for the motion actions of a fuel handling machine preclude in a worst case scenario the bringing of the fuel handling cell and related systems to a condition appropriate for

  1. Fuel handling machine and auxiliary systems for a fuel handling cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suikki, M. [Optimik Oy, Turku (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    This working report is an update for as well as a supplement to an earlier fuel handling machine design (Kukkola and Roennqvist 2006). A focus in the earlier design proposal was primarily on the selection of a mechanical structure and operating principle for the fuel handling machine. This report introduces not only a fuel handling machine design but also auxiliary fuel handling cell equipment and its operation. An objective of the design work was to verify the operating principles of and space allocations for fuel handling cell equipment. The fuel handling machine is a remote controlled apparatus capable of handling intensely radiating fuel assemblies in the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The fuel handling cell is air tight space radiation-shielded with massive concrete walls. The fuel handling machine is based on a bridge crane capable of traveling in the handling cell along wall tracks. The bridge crane has its carriage provided with a carousel type turntable having mounted thereon both fixed and telescopic masts. The fixed mast has a gripper movable on linear guides for the transfer of fuel assemblies. The telescopic mast has a manipulator arm capable of maneuvering equipment present in the fuel handling cell, as well as conducting necessary maintenance and cleaning operations or rectifying possible fault conditions. The auxiliary fuel handling cell systems consist of several subsystems. The subsystems include a service manipulator, a tool carrier for manipulators, a material hatch, assisting winches, a vacuum cleaner, as well as a hose reel. With the exception of the vacuum cleaner, the devices included in the fuel handling cell's auxiliary system are only used when the actual encapsulation process is not ongoing. The malfunctions of mechanisms or actuators responsible for the motion actions of a fuel handling machine preclude in a worst case scenario the bringing of the fuel handling cell and related systems to a condition appropriate for

  2. S-matrix for the theories that admit closure of the algebra with the aid of auxiliary fields. Auxiliary fields in supergravity. [Word identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E S; Vasiliev, M A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1978-08-19

    A minimal set of auxiliary fields (scalarpseudoscalar and pseudovector) providing the closed algebra in supergravity is constructed. A compact scheme for the generating functional with closed gauge algebra is proposed. The S-matrix and the Ward identities for arbitrary theory that admits the closing of the algebra by introducing auxiliary fields is obtained.

  3. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  5. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  6. Seismic Qualification of Auxiliary Feed Water Control Valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. M.; Jang, J. B.; Kim, J. K.; Suh, Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    Although domestic nuclear power industry has almost accomplished technical independence, Auxiliary Feed Water Control Valve (AFWCV) is still depending on import. In order to jump to advanced nation in nuclear power industry, it is very important to achieve technical independence in designing and manufacturing AFWCV. At last, AFWCV is self-manufactured using the domestic technology under the financial support of the government. Therefore, the seismic qualification is carried out to verify the safety and operability of AFWCV against the earthquake in this study

  7. Sampling general N-body interactions with auxiliary fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, C.; Berkowitz, E.; Luu, T.

    2017-09-01

    We present a general auxiliary field transformation which generates effective interactions containing all possible N-body contact terms. The strength of the induced terms can analytically be described in terms of general coefficients associated with the transformation and thus are controllable. This transformation provides a novel way for sampling 3- and 4-body (and higher) contact interactions non-perturbatively in lattice quantum Monte Carlo simulations. As a proof of principle, we show that our method reproduces the exact solution for a two-site quantum mechanical problem.

  8. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 8, Auxiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This volume describes RA reactor auxiliary systems, as follows: special ventilation system, special drainage system, hot cells, systems for internal transport. Ventilation system is considered as part of the reactor safety and protection system. Its role is eliminate possible radioactive particles dispersion in the environment. Special drainage system includes pipes and reservoirs with the safety role, meaning absorption or storage of possible radioactive waste water from the reactor building. Hot cells existing in the RA reactor building are designed for production of sealed radioactive sources, including packaging and transport [sr

  9. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities. Auxiliary capabilities: environmental health information science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories is an engineering laboratory in which research, development, testing, and evaluation capabilities are integrated by program management for the generation of advanced designs. In fulfilling its primary responsibility to ERDA, Sandia Laboratories has acquired extensive research and development capabilities. The purpose of this series of documents is to catalog the many technical capabilities of the Laboratories. After the listing of capabilities, supporting information is provided in the form of highlights, which show applications. This document deals with auxiliary capabilities, in particular, environmental health and information science. (11 figures, 1 table) (RWR)

  10. Optical processes in the performance and recovery of gas-phase switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundersen, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper several optical processes that may be used to affect gas-phase switch performance and operation are discussed, and approaches using a laser to increase recovery rates of switches are presented. In the latter the laser is used during the recovery phase rather than the conductive or closure phase. This papper suggests that it should be possible to use a low-power laser (e.g., one that is technologically feasible to use as part of a switch) to assist in opening the switch by quenching excited atomic and/or molecular species. The application of laser-induced energy extraction to gas-phase switches is also discussed

  11. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young's modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young's modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Aging and low-flow degradation of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the results of research done under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. It examines the degradation imparted to safety Auxiliary Feedwater System pumps at nuclear plants due to the low flow operation. The Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System is normally a stand-by system. As such it is operated most often in the test mode. Since few plants are equipped with full flow test loops, most testing is accomplished at minimum flow conditions in pump by-pass lines. It is the vibration and hydraulic forces generated at low flow conditions that have been shown to be the major causes of AFW pump aging and degradation. The wear can be manifested in a number of ways, such as impeller or diffuser breakage, thrust bearing and/or balance device failure due to excessive loading, cavitation damage on such stage impellers, increase seal leakage or failure, sear injection piping failure, shaft or coupling breakage, and rotating element seizure

  14. On the Auxiliary Status of Dare in Old English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OE *durran ‘dare’ belongs to a group of the so-called preterite-present verbs which developed weak past tense forms replacing the originally strong forms throughout the paradigm. The present study hypothesizes that the potential sources of this development are related to the decay of the subjunctive mood in Old English. Further, this corpus-based study analyses the status of DARE in Old English, with the findings showing that the verb displayed both lexical and auxiliary verb characteristics. These results are juxtaposed and compared with the verb's developments in Middle English. The databases examined are the corpus of The Dictionary of Old English in Electronic Form (A-G and the Innsbruck Computer Archive of Machine-Readable English Texts. In both cases, a search of potential forms was performed on all the files of the corpora, the raw results were then analysed in order to eliminate irrelevant instances (adjectives, nouns, foreign words, etc.. The relevant forms were examined with the aim to check the properties of DARE as a lexical and an auxiliary verb, and compare the findings with Molencki’s (2002, 2005 observations.

  15. Ignition and burn propagation with suprathermal electron auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shensheng; Wu Yanqing

    2000-01-01

    The rapid development in ultrahigh-intensity lasers has allowed the exploration of applying an auxiliary heating technique in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. It is hoped that, compared with the 'standard fast ignition' scheme, raising the temperature of a hot-spot over the ignition threshold based on the shock-heated temperature will greatly reduce the required output energy of an ignition ultrahigh-intensity pulse. One of the key issues in ICF auxiliary heating is: how can we transport the exogenous energy efficiently into the hot-spot of compressed DT fuel? A scheme is proposed with three phases. First, a partial-spherical-shell capsule, such as double-conical target, is imploded as in the conventional approach to inertial fusion to assemble a high-density fuel configuration with a hot-spot of temperature lower than the ignition threshold. Second, a hole is bored through the shell outside the hot-spot by suprathermal electron explosion boring. Finally, the fuel is ignited by suprathermal electrons produced in the high-intensity ignition laser-plasma interactions. Calculations with a simple hybrid model show that the new scheme can possibly lead to ignition and burn propagation with a total drive energy of a few tens of kilojoules and an output energy as low as hundreds of joules for a single ignition ultrahigh-intensity pulse. (author)

  16. VLTI auxiliary telescopes: a full object-oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Duhoux, Philippe; Karban, Robert

    2000-06-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Telescope Control Software (TCS) is a portable system. It is now in use or will be used in a whole family of ESO telescopes VLT Unit Telescopes, VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes, NTT, La Silla 3.6, VLT Survey Telescope and Astronomical Site Monitors in Paranal and La Silla). Although it has been developed making extensive usage of Object Oriented (OO) methodologies, the overall development process chosen at the beginning of the project used traditional methods. In order to warranty a longer lifetime to the system (improving documentation and maintainability) and to prepare for future projects, we have introduced a full OO process. We have taken as a basis the United Software Development Process with the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and we have adapted the process to our specific needs. This paper describes how the process has been applied to the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes Control Software (ATCS). The ATCS is based on the portable VLT TCS, but some subsystems are new or have specific characteristics. The complete process has been applied to the new subsystems, while reused code has been integrated in the UML models. We have used the ATCS on one side to tune the process and train the team members and on the other side to provide a UML and WWW based documentation for the portable VLT TCS.

  17. Dynamic analysis of auxiliary buildings in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.V.; Madhava Rao, A.S.; Warudkar, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    All nuclear power plants have a large number of auxiliary buildings housing various services and control systems required for the operation of the plant. Illustrative examples are turbine building, control building, service building etc. These buildings are seismically qualified as Class I or Class II structures. Usually, these auxiliary buildings are of low rise type with two or three floors and floor heights varying from five to eight meters and of framed construction in steel or concrete or a combination of both the materials. The floors are usually staggered with large cutouts and may not extend over the full area in plan. Some of the bays are often of double story height with the columns continuous over a story in order to accommodate cranes and other equipment. The structural elements supporting the roof may consist of steel roof trusses instead of beams. The seismic analysis of these structures involves the formulation of the analytical model that can simulate the physical behavior of the structure as close as possible taking into consideration the practical aspects. The criteria adopted to formulate the mathematical model has an important bearing on the evaluated dynamic characteristics and seismic response

  18. Optical computer switching network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  19. Stereoselective conjugate radical additions: application of a fluorous oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary for efficient tin removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jason E; Zimmerman, Jake; Sibi, Mukund P; Hultin, Philip G

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] A series of asymmetric free-radical-mediated intermolecular conjugate additions using a fluorous oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary has been completed. The fluorous auxiliary facilitated product isolation using fluorous solid phase extractions (FSPE), effectively removing excess organic and organometallic reagents. Parallel reactions carried out with a similar but nonfluorous norephedrine-derived oxazolidinone demonstrated the superior stereoselectivity and purification obtainable with the fluorous chiral auxiliary.

  20. Energy confinement scaling in tokamaks: some implications of recent experiments with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Recent results from confinement scaling experiments on tokamaks with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating are reviewed. An attempt is made to draw these results together into a low-density ohmic confinement scaling law, and a scaling law for confinement with auxiliary heating. The auxiliary heating confinement law may also serve to explain the saturation in tau/sub E/ vs anti n/sub e/ observed in some ohmic heating density scaling experiments

  1. Entanglement Capacity of Two-Qubit Unitary Operator with the Help of Auxiliary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Baolin; Di Yaomin

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement capacity of general two-qubit unitary operators is studied when auxiliary systems are allowed, and the analytical results based on linear entropy when input states are disentangled are given. From the results the condition for perfect entangler, α 1 = α 2 = π/4, is obtained. Contrary to the case without auxiliary system, the parameter α 3 may play active role to the entanglement capacity when auxiliary systems are allowed.

  2. The relationship among the solutions of two auxiliary ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Liu Chunping

    2009-01-01

    In a recent article [Phys. Lett. A 356 (2006) 124], Sirendaoreji extended their auxiliary equation method by introducing a new auxiliary ordinary differential equation (NAODE) and its 14 solutions. Then the author studied some nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) and got more exact travelling wave solutions. In this paper, we will show that the 14 solutions of the NAODE are actually the same as the solutions obtained by original auxiliary equation method, and they are only different in the form.

  3. The Future Mission Tasking and Resourcing of the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the years. Therefore, this study cannot present what the demographic makeup of the Auxiliary was at any past point, and cannot identify if there were...Auxiliary, and the Nation’s projected demographic composition. The demographic makeup of the country, the country’s future volunteers, is changing...command in the spring of 2010.104 This one-page document broad- brushes three prioritized overarching Auxiliary missions: 1) to promote and improve

  4. Stochastic Switching Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria

    This thesis treats stochastic systems with switching dynamics. Models with these characteristics are studied from several perspectives. Initially in a simple framework given in the form of stochastic differential equations and, later, in an extended form which fits into the framework of sliding...... mode control. It is investigated how to understand and interpret solutions to models of switched systems, which are exposed to discontinuous dynamics and uncertainties (primarily) in the form of white noise. The goal is to gain knowledge about the performance of the system by interpreting the solution...

  5. Experimental fast reactor JOYO MK-III functional test. Primary auxiliary cooling system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karube, Koji; Akagi, Shinji; Terano, Toshihiro; Onuki, Osamu; Ito, Hideaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Odo, Toshihiro

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes the results of primary auxiliary cooling system, which were done as a part of JOYO MK-III function test. The aim of the tests was to confirm the operational performance of primary auxiliary EMP and the protection system including siphon breaker of primary auxiliary cooling system. The items of the tests were: (Test No.): (Test item). 1) SKS-117: EMP start up test. 2) SKS-118-1: EMP start up test when pony motor running. 3) SKS-121: Function test of siphon breaker. The results of the tests satisfied the required performance, and demonstrated successful operation of primary auxiliary cooling system. (author)

  6. Very high plasma switches. Basic plasma physics and switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, H.J.; Roche, M.; Buzzi, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of some high power switches recently developed for very high power technology is made with a special attention to the aspects of plasma physics involved in the mechanisms, which determine the limits of the possible switching parameters

  7. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  8. An integrated circuit switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  9. The Octopus switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter1 discusses the interconnection architecture of the Mobile Digital Companion. The approach to build a low-power handheld multimedia computer presented here is to have autonomous, reconfigurable modules such as network, video and audio devices, interconnected by a switch rather than by a

  10. Untriggered water switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Devender, J.P.; Martin, T.H.

    Recent experiments indicate that synchronous untriggered multichannel switching in water will permit the development of relatively simple, ultra-low impedance, short pulse, relativistic electron beam (REB) accelerators. These experiments resulted in the delivery of a 1.5 MV, 0.75 MA, 15 ns pulse into a two-ohm line with a current risetime of 2 x 10 14 A/sec. The apparatus consisted of a 3 MV Marx generator and a series of three 112 cm wide strip water lines separated by two edge-plane water-gap switches. The Marx generator charged the first line in less than 400 ns. The first switch then formed five or more channels. The second line was charged in 60 ns and broke down with 10 to 25 channels at a mean field of 1.6 MV/cm. The closure time of each spark channel along both switches was measured with a streak camera and showed low jitter. The resulting fast pulse line construction is simpler and should provide considerable costs savings from previous designs. Multiples of these low impedance lines in parallel can be employed to obtain power levels in the 10 14 W range for REB fusion studies. (U.S.)

  11. Multi-level converter with auxiliary resonant-commutated pole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, F.R.; Duarte, J.L.; Groningen, van W.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    The family of multi-level power converters offers advantages for high-power, high-voltage systems. A multi-level nested-cell structure has the attractive feature of static and dynamic voltage sharing among the switches. This is achieved by using clamping capacitors (floating capacitors) rather than

  12. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  13. Design of auxiliary shield for remote controlled metallographic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroki; Okamoto, Hisato

    2014-06-01

    The remote controlled optical microscope installed in the lead cell at the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been upgraded to a higher performance unit to study the effect of the microstructural evolution in clad material on the high burn-up fuel behavior under the accident condition. The optical pass of the new microscope requires a new through hole in the shielding lead wall of the cell. To meet safety regulations, auxiliary lead shieldings were designed to cover the lost shielding function of the cell wall. Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) was used to calculate and determine the shape and setting positions of the shielding unit. Seismic assessments of the unit were also performed. (author)

  14. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  15. Development of the APR+ Auxiliary Building General Arrangement (GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Keun; Park, Young Sheop; Kang, Yong Chul

    2011-01-01

    The general arrangement (GA) drawing of a nuclear power plant is the most basic drawing which contains all of the plant equipment, systems, and rooms. Therefore, it should be issued at an early design stage to provide the contours of the overall plant structure. This type of drawing is typically used widely throughout the design stages. The development project of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+), as a succeeding model of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) design, has its own GA that encompasses all of its power buildings. This was developed starting in October of 2009. Among several of the buildings in this design, the Auxiliary Building (AB) is one of the most important buildings to produce electricity, and to protect against undesirable radiation emissions. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the general arrangement of the AB

  16. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E; Cordero, R

    2008-01-01

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles

  17. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F (Mexico)], E-mail: aramador@gmail.com, E-mail: nbagatella@uv.mx, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx

    2008-03-21

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles.

  18. Bistable energy harvesting enhancement with an auxiliary linear oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, R. L.; Thota, M.; Wang, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recent work has indicated that linear vibrational energy harvesters with an appended degree-of-freedom (DOF) may be advantageous for introducing new dynamic forms to extend the operational bandwidth. Given the additional interest in bistable harvester designs, which exhibit a propitious snap through effect from one stable state to the other, it is a logical extension to explore the influence of an added DOF to a bistable system. However, bistable snap through is not a resonant phenomenon, which tempers the presumption that the dynamics induced by an additional DOF on bistable designs would inherently be beneficial as for linear systems. This paper presents two analytical formulations to assess the fundamental and superharmonic steady-state dynamics of an excited bistable energy harvester to which is attached an auxiliary linear oscillator. From an energy harvesting perspective, the model predicts that the additional linear DOF uniformly amplifies the bistable harvester response magnitude and generated power for excitation frequencies less than the attachment’s resonance while improved power density spans a bandwidth below this frequency. Analyses predict bandwidths having co-existent responses composed of a unique proportion of fundamental and superharmonic dynamics. Experiments validate key analytical predictions and observe the ability for the coupled system to develop an advantageous multi-harmonic interwell response when the initial conditions are insufficient for continuous high-energy orbit at the excitation frequency. Overall, the addition of an auxiliary linear oscillator to a bistable harvester is found to be an effective means of enhancing the energy harvesting performance and robustness.

  19. STARTER-GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Levin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a starter-generator system for an auxiliary power unit of an aircraft. A feature of the presented system is the use of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. The main problem of the system is the generation of electric energy of an aircraft on the basis of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets is the absence of the possibility of regulating the voltage and frequency of electrical energy, in this connection, a semiconductor converter that ensures the conversion of generated electric energy with significant mass-dimensions characteristics.The article proposes an approach to designing a starter-generator system with a parallel connection of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. This approach makes it possible to significantly reduce the part of the electrical energy that needs to be converted, as a consequence, the semiconductor converter has significantly smaller mass-and-batch characteristics.In the article the modes of generation of electric energy and the starter mode of operation of the starter-generator system are considered in detail, the circuit realization of the semiconductor converter is shown. A scheme for replacing one phase of the system for generating electric energy and calculating electric parameters is presented.The possibility of creating a highly efficient starter-generator system based on a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter for an auxiliary power plant of aircrafts is shown. Structural and basic schemes for constructing a system for generating electrical energy are proposed. The approach to the choice of rational circuit solutions is substantiated, basic estimates of the electrical parameters of the system are obtained. The possibility of achieving a specific mass of a semiconductor converter for synchronous

  20. Conduction Mechanism of Valence Change Resistive Switching Memory: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Wah Lim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistive switching effect in transition metal oxide (TMO based material is often associated with the valence change mechanism (VCM. Typical modeling of valence change resistive switching memory consists of three closely related phenomena, i.e., conductive filament (CF geometry evolution, conduction mechanism and temperature dynamic evolution. It is widely agreed that the electrochemical reduction-oxidation (redox process and oxygen vacancies migration plays an essential role in the CF forming and rupture process. However, the conduction mechanism of resistive switching memory varies considerably depending on the material used in the dielectric layer and selection of electrodes. Among the popular observations are the Poole-Frenkel emission, Schottky emission, space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC, trap-assisted tunneling (TAT and hopping conduction. In this article, we will conduct a survey on several published valence change resistive switching memories with a particular interest in the I-V characteristic and the corresponding conduction mechanism.

  1. D and D of a plutonium research laboratory and related auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arocas, P.; Martinez Ortega, A.; Sama Colao, J.; Garcia Diaz, A.; Torre Rodriguez, J.; Diaz Diaz, J.L.; Argiles, E.; Garrido, C.

    2010-01-01

    CIEMAT, former Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) started nuclear research at the 60. decade, focussed on the development of pacific uses of Nuclear Energy. At that time, CIEMAT research and pilot plants developed involved the whole nuclear fuel cycle steps. It means from the uranium recovery to the spent fuel reprocessing. With this scope a plutonium research laboratory was constructed and operated from 1961 to the 90's focussed on chemistry of plutonium studies, separation processes and radiochemical analyses, in order to assist the working pilot plants at the Centre. Thereafter, as the result of the changes on the research objectives of CIEMAT, the plutonium laboratory suffered several modifications and finally it was safety stopped due to the obsolescence of its equipments and auxiliary systems. Present paper shows the D and D activities performed and techniques developed to avoid alpha emitter contamination. In every dismantling phase there were established the measures of operational radiological protection adapted to the radiological risk. Dosimetric controls realized during dismantlement showed that incorporation of radionuclides was not detected. Radiological final control was performed applying the derived levels of declassification to request the installation decommissioning. (authors)

  2. A bidirectional soft switched ultracapacitor interface circuit for hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzanehfard, Hosein; Beyragh, Dawood Shekari; Adib, Ehsan [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156 (Iran)

    2008-12-15

    Ultracapacitors are used as auxiliary elements beside batteries to increase peak power capability and battery life in hybrid electric vehicles. In such a configuration, a bidirectional high efficiency converter is required as an interface between ultracapacitors and batteries. Since the voltage level of ultracapacitors and batteries are different, the interface must be able to increase or decrease the voltage level in each power flow direction while limiting the current. This paper presents a zero voltage transition (ZVT) buck-and-boost converter for ultracapacitors interface. All the switches in the proposed converter are soft switched to reduce switching losses and increase efficiency. The converter operational modes are analyzed and its performance is discussed. Finally, the experimental results from a 150 W laboratory prototype are presented which justify the theoretical analysis. (author)

  3. Synchronization Between Two Different Switched Chaotic Systems By Switching Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the synchronization problem of two different switched chaotic systems, considering the general case that the master-slave switched chaotic systems have uncertainties. Two basic problems are considered: one is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems under arbitrary switching; the other is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any subsystems alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and multiple Lyapunov function method are used respectively, an adaptive control scheme has been presented, some sufficient synchronization conditions are attainted, and the switching signal is designed. Finally, the numerical simulation is provide to show the effectiveness of our method.

  4. Modal Auxiliaries and Their Semantic Functions Used by Advanced EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabiardakani, Najmeh; Khojasteh, Laleh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Since modal auxiliary verbs have been proved to be one of the most troublesome grammatical structures in English, the researchers of this study decided to do an analysis on the ways in which advanced EFL Iranian students use modal auxiliaries focusing specially on nine modals' semantic functions. Consequently, was conducted based on the following…

  5. Auxiliary Armed Forces and Innovations in Security Governance in Mozambique’s Civil War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentzsch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Who rules during the civil war? This article argues that the concept of armed group governance must be expanded to include auxiliary armed forces linked to rebels or the government. Comparing the organization of rebel and government auxiliaries, the article demonstrates that security governance

  6. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.96 Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which...

  7. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis of blower fan for HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mingshan; Yang Guojun; Xu Yang; Zhao Lei; Yu Suyuan

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic bearing instead of ordinary mechanical bearing was chosen to support the rotor in the blower fan system with helium of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), and the auxiliary bearing was applied in the HTR-10 as the backup protector. When the electromagnetic bearing doesn't work suddenly for the power broken, the auxiliary bearing is used to support the falling rotor with high rotating speed. The rotor system will be protected by the auxiliary bearing. The design of auxiliary bearing is the ultimate safeguard for the system. This rotor is vertically mounted to hold the blower fan. The rotor's length is about 1.5 m, its weight is about 240 kg and the rotating speed is about 5400 r/min. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis are very important for the design of blower fan to make success. The research status of the auxiliary bearing was summarized in the paper. A sort of auxiliary bearing scheme was proposed. MSC.Marc was selected to analyze the vibration mode and the natural frequency of the rotor. The scheme design of auxiliary bearing and analysis result of rotor dynamics offer the important theoretical base for the protector design and control system of electromagnetic bearing of the blower fan. (authors)

  8. How Does Dissociation between Written and Oral Forms Affect Reading: Evidence from Auxiliary Verbs in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2011-01-01

    In Arabic, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the written language, but absent from the oral language. This is contrary to languages such as English and French in which auxiliary verbs are mandatory in both written and oral languages. This fact was exploited to examine if dissociation between written and oral forms affects reading measures like…

  9. Dummy auxiliaries in child and adult second language acquisition of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; de Korte, S.

    2011-01-01

    In previous research it has been observed that second language (L2) learners of Dutch and German use analytic verbs in contexts where the target language requires synthetic verbs. These analytic verbs consist of a semantically empty auxiliary (dummy auxiliary) that selects a lexical infinitive. In

  10. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal... requirements for miscellaneous boiler types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating boiler, etc...

  11. A probabilistic evaluation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant auxiliary feedwater isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoba, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a fault tree approach that was used to evaluate the safety significance of modifying the Shearon Harris Auxiliary Feedwater Isolation System. The design modification was a result of on-site reviews which identified a single failure in the Auxiliary Feedwater Isolation circuitry

  12. 29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory) II Appendix II to Part 1918 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND.... 1918, App. II Appendix II to Part 1918—Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory...

  13. A low-latency optical switch architecture using integrated μm SOI-based contention resolution and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgias-Alexandris, G.; Moralis-Pegios, M.; Terzenidis, N.; Cherchi, M.; Harjanne, M.; Aalto, T.; Vyrsokinos, K.; Pleros, N.

    2018-02-01

    The urgent need for high-bandwidth and high-port connectivity in Data Centers has boosted the deployment of optoelectronic packet switches towards bringing high data-rate optics closer to the ASIC, realizing optical transceiver functions directly at the ASIC package for high-rate, low-energy and low-latency interconnects. Even though optics can offer a broad range of low-energy integrated switch fabrics for replacing electronic switches and seamlessly interface with the optical I/Os, the use of energy- and latency-consuming electronic SerDes continues to be a necessity, mainly dictated by the absence of integrated and reliable optical buffering solutions. SerDes undertakes the role of optimally synergizing the lower-speed electronic buffers with the incoming and outgoing optical streams, suggesting that a SerDes-released chip-scale optical switch fabric can be only realized in case all necessary functions including contention resolution and switching can be implemented on a common photonic integration platform. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally a hybrid Broadcast-and-Select (BS) / wavelength routed optical switch that performs both the optical buffering and switching functions with μm-scale Silicon-integrated building blocks. Optical buffering is carried out in a silicon-integrated variable delay line bank with a record-high on-chip delay/footprint efficiency of 2.6ns/mm2 and up to 17.2 nsec delay capability, while switching is executed via a BS design and a silicon-integrated echelle grating, assisted by SOA-MZI wavelength conversion stages and controlled by a FPGA header processing module. The switch has been experimentally validated in a 3x3 arrangement with 10Gb/s NRZ optical data packets, demonstrating error-free switching operation with a power penalty of <5dB.

  14. Goal programming for cyclical auxiliary police scheduling at UiTM Cawangan Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapar, Wasilatul Effah; Nasir, Diana Sirmayunie Mohd; Nor, Nor Azriani Mohamad; Abas, Sharifah Fhahriyah Syed

    2017-11-01

    Constructing a good and fair schedule for shift workers poses a great challenge as it requires a lot of time and effort. In this study, goal programming has been applied on scheduling to achieve the hard and soft constraints for a cyclical schedule that would ease the head of auxiliary police at building new schedules. To accomplish this goal, shift types were assigned in order to provide a fair schedule that takes into account the auxiliary police's policies and preferences. The model was run using Lingo software. Three out of four goals set for the study were achieved. In addition, the results considered an equal allocation for every auxiliary police, namely 70% for total duty and 30% for the day. Furthermore, the schedule was able to cyclically generate another 10 sets schedule. More importantly, the model has provided unbiased scheduling of auxiliary policies which led to high satisfaction in auxiliary police management.

  15. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  16. Optical fiber switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  17. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-04-12

    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  18. Cryogenic switched MOSFET characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Both p channel and n channel enhancement mode MOSFETs can be readily switched on and off at temperatures as low as 2.8 K so that switch sampled readout of a VLWIR Ge:Ga focal plane is electronically possible. Noise levels as low as 100 rms electrons per sample (independent of sample rate) can be achieved using existing p channel MOSFETs, at overall rates up to 30,000 samples/second per multiplexed channel (e.g., 32 detectors at a rate of almost 1,000 frames/second). Run of the mill devices, including very low power dissipation n channel FETs would still permit noise levels of the order of 500 electrons/sample.

  19. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C

    1990-01-01

    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  20. A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for trucks: Analysis of direct and indirect hybrid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Baltzer, Sidney; Gnörich, Bruno; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for heavy duty vehicles is reported. • Comparison of direct and indirect hybrids using representative load profiles. • Evaluation based on validated fuel cell system and battery models. • Indirect hybrid with constant fuel cell load yields 29.3% hybrid system efficiency. • Fuel cell should be pre-heated using waste heat from the diesel engine during drive. - Abstract: The idling operation of engines in heavy duty vehicles to cover electricity demand during layovers entails significant fuel consumption and corresponding emissions. Indeed, this mode of operation is highly inefficient and a noteworthy contributor to the transportation sector’s aggregate carbon dioxide emissions. Here, a potential solution to this wasteful practice is outlined in the form of a hybrid battery-fuel cell system for application as an auxiliary power unit for trucks. Drawing on experimentally-validated fuel cell and battery models, several possible hybrid concepts are evaluated and direct and indirect hybrid configurations analyzed using a representative load profile. The results indicate that a direct hybrid configuration is only applicable if the load demand profile does not deviate strongly from the assumed profile. Operation of an indirect hybrid with a constant fuel cell load yields the greatest hybrid system efficiency, at 29.3%, while battery size could be reduced by 87% if the fuel cell is operated at the highest dynamics. Maximum efficiency in truck applications can be achieved by pre-heating the system prior to operation using exhaust heat from the motor, which increased system efficiency from 25.3% to 28.1%, including start-up. These findings confirm that hybrid systems could offer enormous fuel savings and constitute a sizeable step on the path toward energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly heavy duty vehicles that does not necessitate a fuel switch.

  1. Composite Material Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  2. MCT/MOSFET Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.

  3. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  4. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 μC/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  5. Inundation Mapping for Heterogeneous Land Covers with Synthetic Aperture Radar and Auxiliary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, F.; Judge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect surface water inundation and provides an advantage over multi-spectral instruments due to cloud penetration and higher spatial resolutions. However, detecting inundation for densely vegetated and urban areas with SAR remains a challenge due to corner reflection and diffuse scattering. Additionally, flat urban surfaces such as roads exhibit similar backscatter coefficients as urban surface water. Differences between inundated and non-inundated backscatter over vegetated land covers of static spatial domains have been demonstrated in previous studies. However, these backscatter differences are sensitive to changes in water depth, soil moisture, SAR sensor parameters, terrain, and vegetation properties. These factors tend to make accurate inundation mapping of heterogeneous regions across varying spatial and temporal extents difficult with exclusive use of SAR. This study investigates the utility of auxiliary data specifically high-resolution (10m) terrain information in conjunction with SAR (10m) for detecting inundated areas. Digital elevation models provide an absolute elevation which could enhance inundation mapping given a limited study extent with similar topography. To counter this limitation, a hydrologically relevant terrain index is proposed known as the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) which normalizes topography to the local relative elevation of the nearest point along the relevant drainage line. HAND has been used for assisting remote sensing inundation mapping in the pre-processing stage as a terrain correction tool and as a post-processing mask that eliminates areas of low inundation risk. While the latter technique is useful for reduction of commission errors, it does not employ HAND for reducing omission errors that can occur from dense vegetation, spectral noise, and urban features. Sentinel-1 dual-pol SAR as well as auxiliary HAND will be used as predictors by various supervised and

  6. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    World's Largest Interferometer with Moving Optical Telescopes on Track Summary The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory has just seen another extension of its already impressive capabilities by combining interferometrically the light from two relocatable 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes. Following the installation of the first Auxiliary Telescope (AT) in January 2004 (see ESO PR 01/04), the second AT arrived at the VLT platform by the end of 2004. Shortly thereafter, during the night of February 2 to 3, 2005, the two high-tech telescopes teamed up and quickly succeeded in performing interferometric observations. This achievement heralds an era of new scientific discoveries. Both Auxiliary Telescopes will be offered from October 1, 2005 to the community of astronomers for routine observations, together with the MIDI instrument. By the end of 2006, Paranal will be home to four operational ATs that may be placed at 30 different positions and thus be combined in a very large number of ways ("baselines"). This will enable the VLTI to operate with enormous flexibility and, in particular, to obtain extremely detailed (sharp) images of celestial objects - ultimately with a resolution that corresponds to detecting an astronaut on the Moon. PR Photo 07a/05: Paranal Observing Platform with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07b/05: AT1 and AT2 with Open Domes PR Photo 07c/05: Evening at Paranal with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07d/05: AT1 and AT2 under the Southern Sky PR Photo 07e/05: First Fringes with AT1 and AT2 PR Video Clip 01/05: Two ATs at Paranal (Extract from ESO Newsreel 15) A Most Advanced Device ESO PR Video 01/05 ESO PR Video 01/05 Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal [QuickTime: 160 x 120 pix - 37Mb - 4:30 min] [QuickTime: 320 x 240 pix - 64Mb - 4:30 min] ESO PR Photo 07a/05 ESO PR Photo 07a/05 [Preview - JPEG: 493 x400 pix - 44k] [Normal - JPEG: 985 x 800 pix - 727k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 4060 pix - 13.8M] Captions: ESO PR Video Clip 01/05 is an extract from

  7. Fault tolerant operation of switched reluctance machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    The energy crisis and environmental challenges have driven industry towards more energy efficient solutions. With nearly 60% of electricity consumed by various electric machines in industry sector, advancement in the efficiency of the electric drive system is of vital importance. Adjustable speed drive system (ASDS) provides excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance as well as dramatically improved system efficiency compared with conventional motors without electronics drives. Industry has witnessed tremendous grow in ASDS applications not only as a driving force but also as an electric auxiliary system for replacing bulky and low efficiency auxiliary hydraulic and mechanical systems. With the vast penetration of ASDS, its fault tolerant operation capability is more widely recognized as an important feature of drive performance especially for aerospace, automotive applications and other industrial drive applications demanding high reliability. The Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), a low cost, highly reliable electric machine with fault tolerant operation capability, has drawn substantial attention in the past three decades. Nevertheless, SRM is not free of fault. Certain faults such as converter faults, sensor faults, winding shorts, eccentricity and position sensor faults are commonly shared among all ASDS. In this dissertation, a thorough understanding of various faults and their influence on transient and steady state performance of SRM is developed via simulation and experimental study, providing necessary knowledge for fault detection and post fault management. Lumped parameter models are established for fast real time simulation and drive control. Based on the behavior of the faults, a fault detection scheme is developed for the purpose of fast and reliable fault diagnosis. In order to improve the SRM power and torque capacity under faults, the maximum torque per ampere excitation are conceptualized and validated through theoretical analysis and

  8. Modelling switching-time effects in high-frequency power conditioning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, H. A.; Sloane, T. H.; Rimer, B. H.; Wilson, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    Power transistor networks which switch large currents in highly inductive environments are beginning to find application in the hundred kilohertz switching frequency range. Recent developments in the fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in the power device category have enhanced the movement toward higher switching frequencies. Models for switching devices and of the circuits in which they are imbedded are required to properly characterize the mechanisms responsible for turning on and turning off effects. Easily interpreted results in the form of oscilloscope-like plots assist in understanding the effects of parametric studies using topology oriented computer-aided analysis methods.

  9. [Determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds (DHTDMAC) in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and diluted with acidified methanol by 5% (v/v) formic acid under ultrasonic assistance. The separation was performed on an Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phases. Identification and quantification were achieved by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results indicated that the calibration curve of DHTDMAC showed good linear relationship between peak area and mass concentration in the range of 10-280 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9991. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N= 10) of this method were 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries from three typical textile auxiliary matrices including dispersant, antistatic agent and fabric softener, at three spiked levels were in the range of 97.2%-108.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5%-4.6%. The method is sensitive, accurate, simple and effective for the analysis of DHTDMAC in textile auxiliaries.

  10. Heat removal performance of auxiliary cooling system for the high temperature engineering test reactor during scrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Takenaka, Satsuki

    2003-01-01

    The auxiliary cooling system of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is employed for heat removal as an engineered safety feature when the reactor scrams in an accident when forced circulation can cool the core. The HTTR is the first high temperature gas-cooled reactor in Japan with reactor outlet gas temperature of 950 degree sign C and thermal power of 30 MW. The auxiliary cooling system should cool the core continuously avoiding excessive cold shock to core graphite components and water boiling of itself. Simulation tests on manual trip from 9 MW operation and on loss of off-site electric power from 15 MW operation were carried out in the rise-to-power test up to 20 MW of the HTTR. Heat removal characteristics of the auxiliary cooling system were examined by the tests. Empirical correlations of overall heat transfer coefficients were acquired for a helium/water heat exchanger and air cooler for the auxiliary cooling system. Temperatures of fluids in the auxiliary cooling system were predicted on a scram event from 30 MW operation at 950 degree sign C of the reactor outlet coolant temperature. Under the predicted helium condition of the auxiliary cooling system, integrity of fuel blocks among the core graphite components was investigated by stress analysis. Evaluation results showed that overcooling to the core graphite components and boiling of water in the auxiliary cooling system should be prevented where open area condition of louvers in the air cooler is the full open

  11. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r -vector ,r -vector ′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r -vector ,r -vector ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ SL (ρ(r -vector ),∇ρ(r -vector ),r -vector −r -vector ′). γ SL depends on the electron density ρ(r -vector ) at reference point r -vector , and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r -vector −r -vector ′ dependence of γ SL in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ SL yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms

  12. Radiological conditions and experiences in the TMI-2 Auxiliary Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, P.E.; Zurliene, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Although the radiological conditions following the TMI-2 accident were extraordinary, those that had a potential impact on personnel were largely confined to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Building. The most significant pathway was the Letdown and Make-Up and Purification System. Dose rates in some locations in the Aux/Fuel Handling Buildings were in excess of 3 mSv/s (1000 R/h) during the first few days following the accident. They decreased after three to four days and stabilized after about one week. Airborne radioactivity levels were initially due to the release of noble gases, and subsequently due to resuspension of surface contamination. During the first month, the mixture of fission products in the reactor coolant change from one of largely cesium to where the strontium and cesium were about equal in radiological importance. This created some very high beta radiation levels. The significant strontium levels caused the contamination control limit to be reduced to one-half of the pre-accident limit. 5 refs., 6 figs

  13. Auxiliary controllers for data acquisition from scintillation detector electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonenko, D A; Rybakov, V G; Sen' ko, V A [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij

    1983-01-01

    Structural schemes of auxiliary controllers of three types ensuring compression, filtration and record in buffer storage of data from scintillation detectors electronic equipment are described. The electronics is made according to the CAMAC ideology. The KD-85 controller exercises data readout from analog-to-digital converters (ADC), subtraction of pedestal values, discrimination by the bottom level and record into the buffer storage module. The KD-86 controller summarizes data from all the ADC channels in a crate dicscriminates the summarized data by the upper and bottom levels, and rejects data classified as useless. The KD-90 controller ensures data reading from different modules of the crate according to preset code and records information in the buffer storage module. The considered controllers employ integral microcircuits of the K 155 series. At present the controllers are under experimental operation. Their utilization would permit to adopt new arrangement of data acquisition from experimental facilities in the nearest future and essentially increase the operating efficiency of these facilities.

  14. A magnetorheological clutch for efficient automotive auxiliary device actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a project funded by Regione Toscana aimed at reducing the power absorption of auxiliary devices in vehicles are presented. In particular the design, testing and application of a magnetorheological clutch (MR is proposed, aimed at disengaging the vacuum pump, which draws in air from the power-brake booster chamber, in order to reduce the device power absorption. Several clutch preliminary studies done to choose the clutch geometry and the magnetic field supply are illustrated. The final choice consisted in an MR clutch with permanent magnet, which satisfied size, torque and fail-safe specifications. The clutch characteristics, in terms of torque versus slip, were obtained experimentally for three different clutch prototypes on an ad-hoc developed test bench.As result of a preliminary simulation, a comparison between the power absorption of a current production vacuum pump, an innovative vacuum pump and both vacuum pumps coupled with the MR clutch is presented. The New European Driving Cycle is considered for simulating the vacuum pump operation both in urban and highway driving. Results show that the use of the innovative vacuum pump reduces the device consumption of about 35%, whereas the use of MR clutch coupled with the innovative vacuum pump reduces it up to about 44% in urban driving and 50% in highway driving.

  15. Auxiliary water supply device for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    In the device of the present invention, a cooling condensation means is disposed to a steam discharge channel of a turbine for driving pumps to directly return condensates to the reactor, so that the temperature of the suppression pool water is not elevated. Namely, the cooling condensation means for discharged steams is disposed to the discharge channel of the turbine. The condensate channel from the cooling condensation means is connected to a sucking side of the turbine driving pump. With such a constitution, when the reactor is isolated from a main steam system, reactor scram is conducted. Although the reactor water level is lowered by the reactor scram, the lowering of the reactor water level is prevented by supplementing cooling water by the turbine driving pump using steams generated in the reactor as a power source. The discharged steams after driving the turbine are cooled and condensated by the cooling condensation means by way of the discharge channel and returned to the reactor again by way of the condensate channel. With such procedures, since the temperature of suppression pool water is not elevated, there is no need to operate other cooling systems. In addition, auxiliary water can be supplied for a long period of time. (I.S.)

  16. Simulation of a passive auxiliary feedwater system with TRACE5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorduy, María; Gallardo, Sergio; Verdú, Gumersindo, E-mail: maloral@upv.es, E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Instituto Universitario de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental (ISIRYM), València (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    The study of the nuclear power plant accidents occurred in recent decades, as well as the probabilistic risk assessment carried out for this type of facility, present human error as one of the main contingency factors. For this reason, the design and development of generation III, III+ and IV reactors, which include inherent and passive safety systems, have been promoted. In this work, a TRACE5 model of ATLAS (Advanced Thermal- Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) is used to reproduce an accidental scenario consisting in a prolonged Station BlackOut (SBO). In particular, the A1.2 test of the OECD-ATLAS project is analyzed, whose purpose is to study the primary system cooling by means of the water supply to one of the steam generators from a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). This safety feature prevents the loss of secondary system inventory by means of the steam condensation and its recirculation. Thus, the conservation of a heat sink allows the natural circulation flow rate until restoring stable conditions. For the reproduction of the test, an ATLAS model has been adapted to the experiment conditions, and a PAFS has been incorporated. >From the simulation test results, the main thermal-hydraulic variables (pressure, flow rates, collapsed water level and temperature) are analyzed in the different circuits, contrasting them with experimental data series. As a conclusion, the work shows the TRACE5 code capability to correctly simulate the behavior of a passive feedwater system. (author)

  17. Ion engine auxiliary propulsion applications and integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafran, S. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The benefits derived from application of the 8-cm mercury electron bombardment ion thruster were assessed. Two specific spacecraft missions were studied. A thruster was tested to provide additional needed information on its efflux characteristics and interactive effects. A Users Manual was then prepared describing how to integrate the thruster for auxiliary propulsion on geosynchronous satellites. By incorporating ion engines on an advanced communications mission, the weight available for added payload increases by about 82 kg (181 lb) for a 100 kg (2200 lb) satellite which otherwise uses electrothermal hydrazine. Ion engines can be integrated into a high performance propulsion module that is compatible with the multimission modular spacecraft and can be used for both geosynchronous and low earth orbit applications. The low disturbance torques introduced by the ion engines permit accurate spacecraft pointing with the payload in operation during thrusting periods. The feasibility of using the thruster's neutralizer assembly for neutralization of differentially charged spacecraft surfaces at geosynchronous altitude was demonstrated during the testing program.

  18. A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of Past Tense Auxiliary "Be" in Argumentative Essays of Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokaran, Janaki; Ramalingam, Chithra; Adriana, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This research is a corpus-based study of secondary and college ESL Malaysian learner's written work by identifying and classifying the types of errors in the Past Tense Auxiliary "Be". This research studied the past tense auxiliary "be", types of past tense auxiliary "be" errors and frequency of past tense auxiliary…

  19. 76 FR 28795 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard-024 Auxiliary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard-024 Auxiliary Database System of... Security/United States Coast Guard-024 Auxiliary Database (AUXDATA) System of Records.'' This system of...: United States Coast Guard Auxiliary Database (AUXDATA). Security classification: Unclassified. System...

  20. MENGAPA PERUSAHAAN MELAKUKAN AUDITOR SWITCH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Sumadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a large number of accounting firms allowsprovides companies choices whether to stay with current firm or switchto another accounting firm. Decision of Minister of FinanceNo.423/KMK.06/2002 states that a company must switch auditor afterfive years of consecutive assignment. This is mandatory. The questionrises when a company voluntarily switches its auditor. Why does thishappen?One of the reasons is that management does not satisfy withauditor opinion, except for unqualified opinion. New management teamwould directly or indirectly encourage auditor switch to align accountingand reporting policies. Moreover an expanding company expects positivereaction when it does auditor switch. Profitability is also one reason fora company to switch auditor, for example, when a company earns moreprofit it tends to hire more credible auditor. On the other hand, when thecompany faces a financial distress, it probably would switch auditor aswell.

  1. Auxiliary System Load Schemes in Large Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzle, I.; Bosnjak, D.; Pandzic, H.

    2010-01-01

    Uninterrupted auxiliary system power supply in large power plants is a key factor for normal operation, transient states, start-ups and shutdowns and particularly during fault conditions. Therefore, there are many challenges in designing the main electrical system as well as the auxiliary systems power supply. Depending upon the type of fuel used and the environmental control system required, a thermal power plant may consume as much as 10% of its total generation for auxiliary power, while a nuclear power plant may require only 4 - 6% auxiliaries. In general, the larger the power generating plant, the higher the voltage selected for the AC auxiliary electric system. Most stations in the 75 to 500 MW range utilize 4,2 kV as the base auxiliary system voltage. Large generating stations 500 - 1000 MW and more use voltage levels of 6,9 kV and more. Some single dedicated loads such as electric driven boiler feed pumps are supplied ba a 13,8 kV bus. While designing the auxiliary electric system, the following areas must be considered: motor starting requirements, voltage regulation requirements, short-circuit duty requirements, economic considerations, reliability and alternate sources. Auxiliary power supply can't be completely generalized and each situation should be studied on its own merits to determine the optimal solution. Naturally, nuclear power plants have more reliability requirements and safety design criteria. Main coolant-pump power supply and continuity of service to other vital loads deserve special attention. This paper presents an overview of some up-to-date power plant auxiliary load system concepts. The main types of auxiliary loads are described and the electric diagrams of the modern auxiliary system supply concepts are given. Various alternative sources of auxiliary electrical supply are considered, the advantages and disadvantages of these are compared and proposals are made for high voltage distribution systems around the thermal and nuclear plant

  2. An Auxiliary Equation for the Bellman Equation in a One-Dimensional Ergodic Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider the Bellman equation in a one-dimensional ergodic control. Our aim is to show the existence and the uniqueness of its solution under general assumptions. For this purpose we introduce an auxiliary equation whose solution gives the invariant measure of the diffusion corresponding to an optimal control. Using this solution, we construct a solution to the Bellman equation. Our method of using this auxiliary equation has two advantages in the one-dimensional case. First, we can solve the Bellman equation under general assumptions. Second, this auxiliary equation gives an optimal Markov control explicitly in many examples

  3. Low-Crosstalk Composite Optical Crosspoint Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing-Jong; Liang, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Composite optical switch includes two elementary optical switches in tandem, plus optical absorbers. Like elementary optical switches, composite optical switches assembled into switch matrix. Performance enhanced by increasing number of elementary switches. Advantage of concept: crosstalk reduced to acceptably low level at moderate cost of doubling number of elementary switches rather than at greater cost of tightening manufacturing tolerances and exerting more-precise control over operating conditions.

  4. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  5. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  6. Recent developments in switching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Amar

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har

  7. Software Switching for Data Acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Malone, David

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we discuss the feasibility of replacing telecom-class routers with a topology of commodity servers acting as software switches in data acquisition. We extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism. We compare the performance under heavy many-to-one congestion to typical Ethernet switches and evaluate the scalability when building larger topologies, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. Please note that David Malone will speak on behalf of Grzegorz Jereczek.

  8. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, Clement C; Ehizele, Adebola O; Umoh, Agnes; Ojehanon, Patrick I; Akhionbare, Osagie; Okechukwu, Robinson; Igbinosa, Lawrence

    2010-03-15

    To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3%) rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5%) agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life. Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%), tooth restoration (10.3%), to extraction (1.2%). This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.

  9. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement C. Azodo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. Results: The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3% rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5% agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life.Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%, tooth restoration (10.3%, to extraction (1.2%. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.

  10. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. (a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by...

  11. Derived Requirements for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste (HLW) Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-02-28

    The potential need for auxiliary double-shell tank waste mixing and solids mobilization requires an evaluation of optional technologies. This document formalizes those operating and design requirements needed for further engineering evaluations.

  12. Wigner Transport Simulation of Resonant Tunneling Diodes with Auxiliary Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Shin, Mincheol; Byun, Seok-Joo; Kim, Wangki

    2018-03-01

    Resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) with auxiliary quantum wells ( e.g., emitter prewell, subwell, and collector postwell) are studied using a Wigner transport equation (WTE) discretized by a thirdorder upwind differential scheme. A flat-band potential profile is used for the WTE simulation. Our calculations revealed functions of the auxiliary wells as follows: The prewell increases the current density ( J) and the peak voltage ( V p ) while decreasing the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR), and the postwell decreases J while increasing the PVCR. The subwell affects J and PVCR, but its main effect is to decrease V p . When multiple auxiliary wells are used, each auxiliary well contributes independently to the transport without producing side effects.

  13. The Impact Of Dental Auxiliaries In Oral Health Delivery In Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treat 6-10 patients per day while 13 (29.5%) of respondents work without any direct supervision. Out of ... the training and job description of dental auxiliaries in Cameroon. Introduction .... A Textbook for Preventive and. Community Dentistry.

  14. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Auxiliary Files (NODC Accession 0044983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Auxiliary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  15. Numerical analysis of magnetically suspended rotor in HTR-10 helium circulator being dropped into auxiliary bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingxiong; Yang Guojun; Li Yue; Yu Suyuan

    2012-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings (AMB) have been selected to support the rotor of primary helium circulator in commercial 10 Mega-Walt High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTR-10). In an AMB system, the auxiliary bearings are necessary to protect the AMB components in case of losing power. This paper performs the impact simulation of Magnetically Suspended Rotor in HTR-10 Helium Circulator being dropped into the auxiliary bearings using the finite element program ABAQUS. The dynamic response and the strain field of auxiliary bearings are analyzed. The results achieved by the numerical analysis are in agreement with the experiment results. Therefore, the feasibility of the design of auxiliary bearing and the possibility of using the AMB system in the HTR are proved. (authors)

  16. Derived Requirements for Double-Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste (HLW) Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The potential need for auxiliary double-shell tank waste mixing and solids mobilization requires an evaluation of optional technologies. This document formalizes those operating and design requirements needed for further engineering evaluations

  17. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  18. LCT protective dump-switch tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Each of the six coils in the Large Coil Task (LCT) has a separate power supply, dump resistor, and switching circuit. Each switching circuit contains five switches, two of which are redundant. The three remaining switches perform separate duties in an emergency dump situation. These three switches were tested to determine their ability to meet the LCT conditions

  19. A Method of Auxiliary Sources Approach for Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2006-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements......The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements...

  20. A ZVT–ZCT PWM synchronous buck converter with a simple passive auxiliary circuit for reduction of losses and efficiency enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shiva Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Zero-Voltage-Transition (ZVT–Zero-Current Transition (ZCT Pulse-width Modulated (PWM synchronous buck converter (SBC, with a simple passive auxiliary circuit is proposed, which reduces the stresses and improves the efficiency by pacifying the conduction losses compared to a traditional PWM converter, typically suitable for photovoltaic applications. The important design feature of ZVT–ZCT PWM SBC converters is placement of resonant components that mollifies the conduction losses. Due to the ZVT–ZCT, the resonant components with low values are used, thereby resulting in the increase of switching frequency. The ZVT–ZCT operation of the proposed converter is presented through theoretical analysis. The characteristics of the proposed converter are verified with the simulation in the PSIM co-simulated with MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and implemented experimentally.

  1. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on

  2. Circuit switched optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most important components required for enabling optical networking are investigated through both experiments and modelling. These all-optical components are the wavelength converter, the regenerator and the space switch. When these devices become "off-the-shelf" products, optical cross......, it is expected that the optical solution will offer an economical benefit for hight bit rate networks. This thesis begins with a discussion of the expected impact on communications systems from the rapidly growing IP traffic, which is expected to become the dominant source for traffic. IP traffic has some...... characteristics, which are best supported by an optical network. The interest for such an optical network is exemplified by the formation of the ACTS OPEN project which aim was to investigate the feasibility of an optical network covering Europe. Part of the work presented in this thesis is carried out within...

  3. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  4. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  5. Improved switch-resistor packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmerski, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  6. Superconductivity, energy storage and switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laquer, H.L.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of superconductivity can contribute to the technology of energy storage and switching in two distinct ways. On one hand the zero resistivity of the superconductor can produce essentially infinite time constants so that an inductive storage system can be charged from very low power sources. On the other hand, the recovery of finite resistivity in a normal-going superconducting switch can take place in extremely short times, so that a system can be made to deliver energy at a very high power level. Topics reviewed include: physics of superconductivity, limits to switching speed of superconductors, physical and engineering properties of superconducting materials and assemblies, switching methods, load impedance considerations, refrigeration economics, limitations imposed by present day and near term technology, performance of existing and planned energy storage systems, and a comparison with some alternative methods of storing and switching energy. (U.S.)

  7. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Electroluminescence Spectrum Shift with Switching Behaviour of Diamond Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平; 王丽军; 张启仁; 姚宁; 张兵临

    2003-01-01

    We report a special phenomenon on switching behaviour and the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum shift of doped diamond thin films. Nitrogen and cerium doped diamond thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition system and other special techniques. An EL device with a three-layer structure of nitrogen doped diamond/cerium doped diamond/SiO2 thin films was made. The EL device was driven by a direct-current power supply. Its EL character has been investigated, and a switching behaviour was observed. The EL light emission colour of diamond films changes from yellow (590nm) to blue (454 nm) while the switching behaviour appears.

  10. Micromagnetic analysis of geometrically controlled current-driven magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Alejos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetization dynamics induced by current pulses in a pair of two “S-shaped” ferromagnetic elements, each one consisting on two oppositely tilted tapered spikes at the ends of a straight section, is theoretically studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. Our results indicate that the magnetization reversal is triggered by thermal activation, which assists the current-induced domain nucleation and the propagation of domain walls. The detailed analysis of the magnetization dynamics reveals that the magnetization switching is only achieved when a single domain wall is nucleated in the correct corner of the element. In agreement with recent experimental studies, the switching is purely dictated by the shape, being independent of the current polarity. The statistical study points out that successful switching is only achieved within a narrow range of the current pulse amplitudes.

  11. Nonvolatile Resistive Switching Memory Utilizing Cobalt Embedded in Gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the preparation and electrical properties of Al/cobalt-embedded gelatin (CoG/ indium tin oxide (ITO resistive switching memories. Co. elements can be uniformly distributed in gelatin without a conventional dispersion procedure, as confirmed through energy dispersive X-ray analyzer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations. With an appropriate Co. concentration, Co. ions can assist the formation of an interfacial AlOx layer and improve the memory properties. High ON/OFF ratio, good retention capability, and good endurance switching cycles are demonstrated with 1 M Co. concentration, in contrast to 0.5 M and 2 M memory devices. This result can be attributed to the suitable thickness of the interfacial AlOx layer, which acts as an oxygen reservoir and stores and releases oxygen during switching. The Co. element in a solution-processed gelatin matrix has high potential for bio-electronic applications.

  12. Improvement of Equipment reliability for Auxiliary Feed Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deok, Lee Sang; Kwan, Lee Yong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    According to AP913 ER) of INPO, Number of the event related to equipment is higher than others like external or human performance. In the top 25 systems, Auxiliary feed water system is the seventh highest among systems. AWFS consists of many component and complex system and Main Function of AFWS is to supply feedwater to the steam generators for the removal of heat from the RCS(Reactor Coolant System) in event the main feedwater system is unavailable following a transient or accident. Reliability of component means how well operate on demands and monitoring is necessary to keep track of condition of component. If component performance is lower than the required value, corrective action for failure mode should be done. The objective of this study is focused to improve of AF pump by adding the tasks of SHR(System Health Report) into the task of system engineer walkdown of PMT(Preventive Maintenance Template). Increasing the reliability of AF pump will contribute to improvement of reliability of AFWS. Based on operating history, there was high vibration of AF pump during performance test. In that case, there were a lot of maintenance works for normal operation of AF pump. Vibration problem related pump can't be detected by tasks of SE walkdown because it's not running during normal operation except for surveillance test. CHR(Component Health Report) of AF pump in AFWS can be made from necessary part which means monitoring and functional failure because problem of Stand-by pump can be covered by conducting monitoring and analysis of functional failure. To improve reliability of AF pump, walkdown of PMT and SHR should be conducted both in accordance with surveillance test frequency. Health of AF pump based on operation history can be verified first and then can find out which parts of pump are weak. Finally, weak part can be managed intensively and failure can be reduced according to SE walkdown. But this work can be risky and burdensome because all parts of

  13. Role stress among auxiliary nurses midwives in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Vasava, Paul

    2017-01-23

    Understanding Role Stress is important as health service providers, especially nurses experience high levels of Role Stress which is linked to burnout, poor quality of care and high turnover. The current study explicates the concept of Role Stress and assesses the Role Stress experienced by the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) working with rural government health centres from Gujarat, India. The study included 84 ANMs working with government health centres from one district in India. A structured instrument with established reliability and validity was used to measure 10 dimensions of Role Stress namely: Inter-role distance, role stagnation, role expectation conflict, role erosion: role overload, role isolation, personal inadequacy, self-role distance, role ambiguity and resource inadequacy. The study instrument was based on 5 point Likert rating scale that contained 50 unidirectional negative statements, 5 for each dimension. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test were carried out to assess if the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test was carried out to assess reliability of the instrument. The study data was analyzed using descriptive statistics mainly using mean scores with higher scores indicating higher Role Stress and vice versa. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test indicated that the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test indicated values of 0.852 suggesting high reliability of the tool. The highest Role Stress among ANMs was experienced for resource inadequacy. Role overload, role stagnation and inter-role distance were among the other important role stressors for ANMs. The study results suggests that ANMs frequently feel that: they do not have adequate amount of resources, facilities and financial support from the high levels authorities; people have too many expectations from their roles and as result they are overloaded with work and have very limited opportunities for

  14. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-02-01

    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—are no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (≈102 days) down to very small (≈10 ms).

  15. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  16. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  17. DETERMINANT OF DOWNWARD AUDITOR SWITCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Budisantoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Determinant of Downward Auditor Switching. This study examines the factors that influence downward auditor switching in five ASEAN countries. Fixed effect logistic regression was used as analytical method. This study found that opinion shopping occurred in ASEAN, especially in distress companies. Companies with complex businesses will retain the Big Four auditors to reduce complexity and audit costs. Audit and public committees serve as guardians of auditor quality. On the other hand, shareholders failed to maintain audit quality. It indicates that there is entrenchment effect in auditor switching.

  18. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  19. Applicability of PSD to Pennsylvania Power and Light Auxiliary Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. A Switched Capacitor Based AC/DC Resonant Converter for High Frequency AC Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuidong Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A switched capacitor based AC-DC resonant power converter is proposed for high frequency power generation output conversion. This converter is suitable for small scale, high frequency wind power generation. It has a high conversion ratio to provide a step down from high voltage to low voltage for easy use. The voltage conversion ratio of conventional switched capacitor power converters is fixed to n, 1/n or −1/n (n is the switched capacitor cell. In this paper, A circuit which can provide n, 1/n and 2n/m of the voltage conversion ratio is presented (n is stepping up the switched capacitor cell, m is stepping down the switching capacitor cell. The conversion ratio can be changed greatly by using only two switches. A resonant tank is used to assist in zero current switching, and hence the current spike, which usually exists in a classical switching switched capacitor converter, can be eliminated. Both easy operation and efficiency are possible. Principles of operation, computer simulations and experimental results of the proposed circuit are presented. General analysis and design methods are given. The experimental result verifies the theoretical analysis of high frequency AC power generation.

  1. Awareness of biomedical waste management among dental professionals and auxiliary staff in Amritsar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ramandeep S; Manchanda, Adesh; Singh, Simarpreet; Verma, Nitin; Padda, Sarfaraz

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine awareness of biomedical waste (BMW) management policies and practices among dental professionals and auxiliary staff in a dental hospital/clinics in Amritsar, India, to inform the development of future policies for effective implementation of BMW rules. The study involved 160 staff members at the Amritsar hospital/clinics (80 dentists and 80 auxiliary staff) to whom a questionnaire was distributed regarding policies, practices and awareness relating to BMW. The questionnaire was first piloted. Completed questionnaires were returned anonymously. The resulting data were statistically tested using the chi-square test for differences between the dentists and auxiliary staff. In respect of BMW management policies, there was a highly significant difference in the responses of the dentists, whose answers suggested far greater knowledge than that of the auxiliaries (Pmanagement practices, the dentists were significantly more aware (Pwaste collection in the hospital and the disposal of various items into different colour-coded bags. As for employee education/awareness, there was a significant difference (Pmanagement among dental auxiliary staff in the dental hospital/clinics in Amritsar and a lack of awareness of some aspects among dentists who work in the hospital/clinics. The results provide the hospital authorities with data upon which they can develop a strategy for improving BMW management.

  2. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  3. Design and Experiment of Auxiliary Bearing for Helium Blower of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guojun; Shi Zhengang; Liu Xingnan; Zhao Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    The helium blower is the important equipment for HTR-PM. Active magnetic bearing (AMB) instead of mechanical bearing is selected to support the rotor of the helium blower. However, one implication of AMB is the requirement to provide the auxiliary bearing to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The auxiliary bearing is used to support the rotor when the AMB fails to work. It must support the dropping rotor and bear the great impact force and friction heat. The design of the auxiliary bearing is one of the challenging problems in the whole system. It is very important for the helium blower with AMB of HTR-PM to make success. The rotor’s length of helium blower of HTR-PM is about 3.3 m, its weight is about 4000 kg and the rotating speed is 4000 r/min. The axial load is 4500kg, and the radial load is 1950kg. The angular contact ball bearing was selected as the auxiliary bearing. The test rig has been finished. It is difficult to analyze the falling course of the rotor. The preliminary analysis of the dropping rotor was done in the special condition. The impact force of auxiliary bearing was computed for the axial and radial load. And the dropping test of the blower rotor for HTR-10 will be introduced also in this paper. Results offer the important theoretical base for the protector design of the helium blower with AMB for HTR-PM. (author)

  4. Reduction of residual gas in a sputtering system by auxiliary sputter of rare-earth metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dejie

    2002-01-01

    In film deposition by sputtering, the oxidation and nitrification of the sputtered material lead to degradation of film quality, particularly with respect to metal sulfide films. We propose to use auxiliary sputtering as a method to produce a fresh film of rare-earth metal, usually dysprosium (Dy), that absorbs the active gases in a sputtering system, greatly reducing the background pressure and protecting the film from oxidation and nitrification effectively. The influence of the auxiliary sputtering power consumption, sputtering time, and medium gas pressure on the background pressure in the vacuum chamber is investigated in detail. If the auxiliary sputtering power exceeds 120 W and the sputtering time is more than 4 min, the background pressure is only one fourth of the ultimate pressure pumped by an oil diffusion pump. The absorption activity of the sputtered Dy film continues at least an hour after completion of the auxiliary sputter. Applied to film deposition of Ti and ZnS, this technique has been proven to be effective. For the Ti film, the total content of N and O is reduced from 45% to 20% when the auxiliary sputtering power of Dy is 120 W, and the sputtering time is 20 min. In the case of ZnS, the content of O is reduced from 8% to 2%

  5. Total synthesis of cytochrome b562 by native chemical ligation using a removable auxiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Donald W.; Hill, Michael G.; Carrasco, Michael R.; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Botti, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    We have completed the total chemical synthesis of cytochrome b562 and an axial ligand analogue, [SeMet7]cyt b562, by thioester-mediated chemical ligation of unprotected peptide segments. A novel auxiliary-mediated native chemical ligation that enables peptide ligation to be applied to protein sequences lacking cysteine was used. A cleavable thiol-containing auxiliary group, 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl, was added to the α-amino group of one peptide segment to facilitate amide bond-forming ligation. The amine-linked 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl auxiliary was stable to anhydrous hydrogen fluoride used to cleave and deprotect peptides after solid-phase peptide synthesis. Following native chemical ligation with a thioester-containing segment, the auxiliary group was cleanly removed from the newly formed amide bond by treatment with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, yielding a full-length unmodified polypeptide product. The resulting polypeptide was reconstituted with heme and folded to form the functional protein molecule. Synthetic wild-type cyt b562 exhibited spectroscopic and electrochemical properties identical to the recombinant protein, whereas the engineered [SeMet7]cyt b562 analogue protein was spectroscopically and functionally distinct, with a reduction potential shifted by ≈45 mV. The use of the 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl removable auxiliary reported here will greatly expand the applicability of total protein synthesis by native chemical ligation of unprotected peptide segments. PMID:11390992

  6. Simplified technique for auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation using a whole graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; DUCATTI, Liliana; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBURQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute liver failure is associated with a high mortality rate and the main purposes of treatment are to prevent cerebral edema and infections, which often are responsible for patient death. The orthotopic liver transplantation is the gold standard treatment and improves the 1-year survival. Aim To describe an alternative technique to auxiliary liver transplant on acute liver failure. Method Was performed whole auxiliary liver transplantation as an alternative technique for a partial auxiliary liver transplantation using a whole liver graft from a child removing the native right liver performed a right hepatectomy. The patient met the O´Grady´s criteria and the rational to indicate an auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation was the acute classification without hemodynamic instability or renal failure in a patient with deterioration in consciousness. Results The procedure improved liver function and decreased intracranial hypertension in the postoperative period. Conclusion This technique can overcome some postoperative complications that are associated with partial grafts. As far as is known, this is the first case of auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation in Brazil. PMID:26176253

  7. High current vacuum closing switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Maslennikov, D.D.; Romanov, A.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a powerful pulsed closing vacuum switch for high current commutation consisting of series of the vacuum diodes with near 1 mm gaps having closing time determined by the gaps shortening with the near-electrode plasmas [ru

  8. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  9. Switching of chirality by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, B.L.; Schoevaars, A.M; Jager, W.F.; de Lange, B.; Huck, N.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Optically active photoresponsive molecules are described by which control of chirality is achieved by light. These chiroptical molecular switches are based on inherently dissymmetric overcrowded alkenes and the synthesis, resolution and dynamic stereochemical properties are discussed. Introduction

  10. Aurora oil switch upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report describes the short pulse synchronization requirements, the original Aurora trigger scheme, and the PI/SNLA approach to improving the synchronization. It also describes the oil switching design study undertaken as the first phase of the program. A discussion of oil-switch closure analysis and the conceptual design motivated by this analysis are presented. This paper also describes the oil-switch trigger pulser tests required to validate the concept. This includes the design of the testing facility, a description of the test goals, and a discussion of the results. This paper finally describes oil-switch trigger pulser testing on one of the four Aurora Blumlein modules, which includes the hardware design and operation, the testing goals, hardware installation, and test results. 9 refs., 26 figs

  11. Solid state bistable power switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, J.; Shulman, H.

    1970-01-01

    Tin and copper provide high current and switching time capabilities for high-current resettable fuses. They show the best performance for trip current and degree of reliability, and have low coefficients of thermal expansion.

  12. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing; Cha, Dong Kyu; Bosman, Michel; Raghavan, Nagarajan; Migas, Dmitri B.; Borisenko, Victor E.; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Kun; Pey, Kin-Leong

    2013-01-01

    -chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission

  13. Electron collisions in gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  14. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  15. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  16. 30 CFR 57.22208 - Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines... fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Auxiliary fans, except fans used in shops and other areas... applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18, and be operated so that recirculation is minimized. Auxiliary fans...

  17. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Jens H; D'Antona, Anthony D; Shevell, Steven K

    2017-05-01

    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses.

  18. CONTROL OF BOUNCING IN RF MEMS SWITCHES USING DOUBLE ELECTRODE

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Rahim, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    MEMS based mechanical switches are seen to be the likely replacements for CMOS based switches due to the several advantages that these mechanical switches have over CMOS switches. Mechanical switches can be used in systems under extreme conditions

  19. On adjustment for auxiliary covariates in additive hazard models for the analysis of randomized experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vansteelandt, S.; Martinussen, Torben; Tchetgen, E. J Tchetgen

    2014-01-01

    We consider additive hazard models (Aalen, 1989) for the effect of a randomized treatment on a survival outcome, adjusting for auxiliary baseline covariates. We demonstrate that the Aalen least-squares estimator of the treatment effect parameter is asymptotically unbiased, even when the hazard...... that, in view of its robustness against model misspecification, Aalen least-squares estimation is attractive for evaluating treatment effects on a survival outcome in randomized experiments, and the primary reasons to consider baseline covariate adjustment in such settings could be interest in subgroup......'s dependence on time or on the auxiliary covariates is misspecified, and even away from the null hypothesis of no treatment effect. We furthermore show that adjustment for auxiliary baseline covariates does not change the asymptotic variance of the estimator of the effect of a randomized treatment. We conclude...

  20. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mainstay of the current approach to treating patients with CDH. Standard, alternative, and auxiliary therapies are identified. The paper describes different types of current auxiliary and alternative therapy used in the world’s leading headache centers and clinics. It describes experience with cerebrolysin used as auxiliary and alternative pharmacotherapies for CDH.

  1. Theoretical and numerical analysis of auxiliary heating for cryogenic target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohu; Tian Chenglin; Yin Yan; Xu Han; Zhuo Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    In order to compensate for the nonspherical-symmetric heat flux in the hohlraum, auxiliary heating is usually applied to the outside wall of the hohlraum during the cooling process. A one-dimensional heat exchange theoretical model has been proposed in the indirect-drive target, to analyze the required auxiliary heat flux. With a two dimensional axisymmetric model, the auxiliary heating mechanism has been simulated by FLUENT code. The optimum heat flux which is 635 W/m 2 has been obtained as the heaters around the outside of the hohlraum about 1.3 mm above and below the mid-plane. The result is in good agreement with the theoretical model. (authors)

  2. Pressurizer /Auxiliary Spray Piping Stress Analysis For Determination Of Lead Shielding Maximum Allow Able Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setjo, Renaningsih

    2000-01-01

    Piping stress analysis for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines Nuclear Power Plant AV Unit I(PWR Type) has been carried out. The purpose of this analysis is to establish a maximum allowable load that is permitted at the time of need by placing lead shielding on the piping system on class 1 pipe, Pressurizer/Auxiliary Spray Lines (PZR/Aux.) Reactor Coolant Loop 1 and 4 for NPP AV Unit one in the mode 5 and 6 during outage. This analysis is intended to reduce the maximum amount of radiation dose for the operator during ISI ( In service Inspection) period.The result shown that the maximum allowable loads for 4 inches lines for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines is 123 lbs/feet

  3. Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Unidirectional Auxiliary Surfaces for Hypersonic Vehicles Based on Adaptive Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naibao He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flight control scheme is proposed using the terminal sliding mode technique, unidirectional auxiliary surfaces and the disturbance observer model. These proposed dynamic attitude control systems can improve control performance of hypersonic vehicles despite uncertainties and external disturbances. The terminal attractor is employed to improve the convergence rate associated with the critical damping characteristics problem noted in short-period motions of hypersonic vehicles. The proposed robust attitude control scheme uses a dynamic terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces. The nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to estimate system uncertainties and external disturbances. The output of the disturbance observer aids the robust adaptive control scheme and improves robust attitude control performance. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces.

  4. Aiming of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope based on auxiliary optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shengling; Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Wang Xin; Wang Zhanshan; Ding Yongkun; Miao Wenyong; Dong Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    An auxiliary optical system has been designed, which can provide precise positioning for aiming Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope object location. An 8 keV X-ray imaging system by KB microscope with periodic multilayer films has been designed. The field of view and depth of field in the resolution of 5 μm are got, and then the corresponding point and depth of field in diagnostic experiments are calculated. Based on the object-image relations and precision of the KB microscope, an auxiliary visible light imaging system is designed and X-ray imaging experiments are performed, which can achieve equivalent aiming between the visible imaging system and the KB microscope. The results show that ±20 μm vertical axis plane and ±300 μm axial accuracy are achieved through the auxiliary optical path, which can meet the object point positioning requirements of the KB microscope. (authors)

  5. The sensitivity of auxiliary examinations in different stages of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-jiao JIANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the sensitivity of auxiliary examinations in different periods of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD. Methods The clinical data of 53 sCJD patients were retrospectively analyzed including the different stages of skull diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI, 24-hour ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG, 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-CT and cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein. When calculating the sensitivity of an auxiliary examination, the diagnostic criteria were defined by combining the specific clinical manifestations with two or more positive results of other auxiliary examinations. Results There were 24, 53 and 22 sCJD patients, respectively, met the criterion of early (E, middle (M and later (L stage of disease (some patients fit 2 or 3 stages. The sensitivity of DWI (E: 58.3%, M: 85.4%, L: 94.7%, EEG (E: 45.8%, M: 62.7%, L: 77.8%, 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (E: 11.1%, M: 52.9% and PET-CT (E: 80%, M: 100% increased gradually with disease progression. The sensitivity of PET-CT was higher than the other auxiliary examinations for E and M stages; no PET-CT was conducted in L stage. High signal regions mainly distributed in the cortex in E and M stages, but in L stage, no significant difference was found on the distribution of high signal regions between cortex and basal ganglia. Conclusions The sensitivities of the auxiliary examinations were different for sCJD patients in different stages. Reexaminations in different periods may improve the sensitivity for sCJD diagnosis. The sensitivity of PET-CT was high, and the combination of PET-CT and other auxiliary examinations may play a key role in the diagnosis of sCJD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.05.15

  6. Switched capacitor DC-DC converter with switch conductance modulation and Pesudo-fixed frequency control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dennis Øland; Vinter, Martin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    A switched capacitor dc-dc converter with frequency-planned control is presented. By splitting the output stage switches in eight segments the output voltage can be regulated with a combination of switching frequency and switch conductance. This allows for switching at predetermined frequencies, 31...

  7. A Switch Is Not a Switch: Syntactically-Driven Bilingual Language Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. "Single-word switches," in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete "whole-language switches," in which…

  8. A soft-switching coupled inductor bidirectional DC-DC converter with high-conversion ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Jheng, Yi-Cing

    2018-01-01

    A soft-switching bidirectional DC-DC converter is presented herein as a way to improve the conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) system. Adoption of coupled inductors enables the presented converter not only to provide a high-conversion ratio but also to suppress the transient surge voltage via the release of the energy stored in leakage flux of the coupled inductors, and the cost can kept down consequently. A combined use of a switching mechanism and an auxiliary resonant branch enables the converter to successfully perform zero-voltage switching operations on the main switches and improves the efficiency accordingly. It was testified by experiments that our proposed converter works relatively efficiently in full-load working range. Additionally, the framework of the converter intended for testifying has high-conversion ratio. The results of a test, where a generating system using PV module array coupled with batteries as energy storage device was used as the low-voltage input side, and DC link was used as high-voltage side, demonstrated our proposed converter framework with high-conversion ratio on both high-voltage and low-voltage sides.

  9. Long conduction time plasma opening switch experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, M.E.; Simpson, W.W.; Cooper, G.W.; Usher, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce the size and cost of large pulsed power drivers. The program basis is inductive energy storage and Plasma Opening Switches (POS). Inductive energy storage has well known advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced stress on the vacuum interface. The Sandia approach is to retain the reliable and efficient Marx generator and the temporal pulse compression of the water dielectric capacitor. A triggered closing switch, developed at Sandia, transfers the capacitor charge into the energy storage inductor. This approach has several advantages, including relaxed requirements on Marx jitter and inductance, and much faster current risetime in the energy storage inductor. The POS itself is the key to the Sandia program. The switch design uses an auxiliary magnetic field to inject the plasma and hold it in place during conduction. After opening begins, the self magnetic field of the power pulse pushes on the plasma to increase the opened gap. The authors use magnetic pressure because they desire POS gaps of several cm. Typical plasma opening switches do not achieve large gaps. Improved opening allows more efficient transfer to loads. They present results from recent experiments at Sandia. Their driver presently supplies 650 kA with a 240 ns risetime to the input of the POS. The storage inductor is a 17 Ohm magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) that is five meters long. They discuss the ways in which magnetic field influences the POS, and the ways in which they control the magnetic fields

  10. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C

    2010-01-01

    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  11. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...

  12. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are subsequen......The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs...

  13. A new auxiliary equation and exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirendaoreji

    2006-01-01

    A new auxiliary ordinary differential equation and its solutions are used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the auxiliary equation which has more new exact solutions. More new exact travelling wave solutions are obtained for the quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, the combined KdV and mKdV equation, the sine-Gordon equation and the Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations

  14. Generic description of facilities at the shaft head (auxiliary entrance installations) of deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-10-01

    In a deep geological repository, the access structures function as the link between the surface and the installations and structures at the disposal level. In the planned implementation scenarios, at least two access structures will be in operation up to the time of closure of the repository. The radioactive waste will be transported via the main access from the surface to the disposal level during emplacement operations. For the construction and operation of a deep geological repository, additional access structures are required. These auxiliary accesses and the associated surface infrastructure (e.g. shaft head installations) form the subject of this report. To provide as broad and comprehensive a description as possible, seven types of auxiliary access facilities are defined; these are characterised in line with the current status of planning and their functions and impacts are described. During construction, operation and dismantling of auxiliary access facilities, the usual conventional safety measures (inter alia) have to be observed (e.g. groundwater protection, fire prevention, facility security, accident prevention). Regarding the 'Ordinance on Protection against Major Accidents' no large quantities of hazardous materials, i.e. above the corresponding threshold quantities, are to be expected in the auxiliary access facilities. Proper handling and compliance with applicable regulations in all phases will ensure no hazard to humans and the environment. As no handling of radioactive materials is foreseen in the auxiliary access facilities, and because exhaust air and waste water from the controlled zones of a repository will, in principle, be removed via the main access and not the auxiliary accesses, a safety-relevant emission of radioactive substances and transport of contaminated material can be ruled out for the auxiliary access facilities during both normal operation and also in the case of an accident. Based on the information presented in

  15. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)], E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umh.ac.be

    2009-06-19

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -{alpha}r{sup {lambda}}exp(-{beta}r) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential.

  16. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -αr λ exp(-βr) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential

  17. Research on vibration properties of auxiliary bearing cage used in HTR-10 GT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Qingquan; Yang Guojun; Shi Zhengang; Yu Suyuan

    2009-01-01

    Auxiliary Bearings (ABs) is one of the most important parts in Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system, which was used in HTR-10 GT project. This paper uses finite element method to analyze the centrifugal stress and free vibration properties of the cage according to its work condition. And different geometric parameters of the cage that has effects on its vibration performance are discussed. The results show that the highest centrifugal stress is in the middle of the cage side sill. The low odder vibration modes of the cage can be induced when the auxiliary bearings are working. Proper geometric parameters and ball pocket number can enhance the performance of the cage. (authors)

  18. Review of the Shearon Harris Unit 1 auxiliary feedwater system reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, A.; Youngblood, R.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1986-02-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the Auxiliary Feedwater System Reliability Analysis for the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (SHNPP) Unit 1. The objective of this report is to estimate the probability that the Auxiliary Feedwater System will fail to perform its mission for each of three different initiators: (1) loss of main feedwater with offsite power available, (2) loss of offsite power, (3) loss of all ac power except vital instrumentation and control 125-V dc/120-V ac power. The scope, methodology, and failure data are prescribed by NUREG-0611 for other Westinghouse plants

  19. Pure spinors as auxiliary fields in the ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, B.E.W.

    1986-01-01

    A new way of introducing auxiliary fields into the ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is proposed. The auxiliary fields are commuting 'pure spinors' and constitute a non-linear realisation of the Lorentz group. This invalidates previous no-go theorems concerning the possibility of going off-shell in this theory. There seems to be a close relation between pure spinors and the concepts usually used in twistor theory. The non-Abelian theory can be constructed for all groups having pseudo-real representations. (author)

  20. A High-Precision Control for a ZVT PWM Soft-Switching Inverter to Eliminate the Dead-Time Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoquan Kou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Attributing to the advantages of high efficiency, low electromagnetic interference (EMI noise and closest to the pulse-width-modulation (PWM converter counterpart, zero-voltage-transition (ZVT PWM soft-switching inverters are very suitable for high-performance applications. However, the conventional control algorithms intended for high efficiency generally results in voltage distortion. Thus, this paper, for the first time, proposes a high-precision control method to eliminate the dead-time effect through controlling the auxiliary current in the auxiliary resonant snubber inverter (ARSI, which is a typical ZVT PWM inverter. The dead-time effect of ARSI is analyzed, which is distinguished from hard-switching inverters. The proposed high-precision control is introduced based on the investigation of dead-time effect. A prototype was developed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control. The experimental results shows that the total harmonic distortion (THD of the output current of the ARSI can be reduced compared with that of the hard-switching inverter, because the blanking delay error is eliminated. The quality of the output current and voltage can be further improved by utilizing the proposed control method.

  1. Switching dynamics of TaOx-based threshold switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Jonathan M.; Gala, Darshil K.; Bain, James A.; Skowronski, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Bi-stable volatile switching devices are being used as access devices in solid-state memory arrays and as the active part of compact oscillators. Such structures exhibit two stable states of resistance and switch between them at a critical value of voltage or current. A typical resistance transient under a constant amplitude voltage pulse starts with a slow decrease followed by a rapid drop and leveling off at a low steady state value. This behavior prompted the interpretation of initial delay and fast transition as due to two different processes. Here, we show that the entire transient including incubation time, transition time, and the final resistance values in TaOx-based switching can be explained by one process, namely, Joule heating with the rapid transition due to the thermal runaway. The time, which is required for the device in the conducting state to relax back to the stable high resistance one, is also consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  2. Curriculum Planning for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Assistant Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Ann

    This project was conducted to develop a curriculum for dental auxiliary training in the dental specialty field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Research was conducted to identify the major functions performed by an oral surgery assistant and then to organize these functions into an educational program that would provide adequate didactic and…

  3. A pin-assisted retention technique for resin-bonded restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, P; Touati, B

    1992-09-01

    The value of pins for auxiliary retention has been demonstrated many times. The use of pins with resin-bonded restorations allows for improved aesthetics and less tooth reduction while increasing resistance to dislodging forces. Clinical and technical procedures for resin-bonded bridges with pin-assisted retention are presented.

  4. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  5. Atomic switch: atom/ion movement controlled devices for beyond von-neumann computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Terabe, Kazuya; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-01-10

    An atomic switch is a nanoionic device that controls the diffusion of metal ions/atoms and their reduction/oxidation processes in the switching operation to form/annihilate a conductive path. Since metal atoms can provide a highly conductive channel even if their cluster size is in the nanometer scale, atomic switches may enable downscaling to smaller than the 11 nm technology node, which is a great challenge for semiconductor devices. Atomic switches also possess novel characteristics, such as high on/off ratios, very low power consumption and non-volatility. The unique operating mechanisms of these devices have enabled the development of various types of atomic switch, such as gap-type and gapless-type two-terminal atomic switches and three-terminal atomic switches. Novel functions, such as selective volatile/nonvolatile, synaptic, memristive, and photo-assisted operations have been demonstrated. Such atomic switch characteristics can not only improve the performance of present-day electronic systems, but also enable development of new types of electronic systems, such as beyond von- Neumann computers. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery Energy Storage System with Electric Vehicles’ Auxiliary for a Distribution Network with Renewable Energy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With global conventional energy depletion, as well as environmental pollution, utilizing renewable energy for power supply is the only way for human beings to survive. Currently, distributed generation incorporated into a distribution network has become the new trend, with the advantages of controllability, flexibility and tremendous potential. However, the fluctuation of distributed energy resources (DERs is still the main concern for accurate deployment. Thus, a battery energy storage system (BESS has to be involved to mitigate the bad effects of DERs’ integration. In this paper, optimal scheduling strategies for BESS operation have been proposed, to assist with consuming the renewable energy, reduce the active power loss, alleviate the voltage fluctuation and minimize the electricity cost. Besides, the electric vehicles (EVs considered as the auxiliary technique are also introduced to attenuate the DERs’ influence. Moreover, both day-ahead and real-time operation scheduling strategies were presented under the consideration with the constraints of BESS and the EVs’ operation, and the optimization was tackled by a fuzzy mathematical method and an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. Furthermore, the test system for the proposed strategies is a real distribution network with renewable energy integration. After simulation, the proposed scheduling strategies have been verified to be extremely effective for the enhancement of the distribution network characteristics.

  7. Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition: Experimental Evidence for the Different Behavior of Auxiliary and Lexical Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of verb placement by Moroccan and Turkish second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Elicited production data corroborate earlier findings from L2 German that learners who do not produce auxiliaries do not raise lexical verbs over negation, whereas learners who produce auxiliaries do. Data from elicited…

  8. 75 FR 3639 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    .... 10-24; DA 10-92] Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the... Auxiliary Stations, Including Wireless Microphones, and the Digital Television Transition AGENCY: Federal... language that must be used in the consumer disclosure that is required by Section 15.216 of Appendix B in...

  9. Teaching Grammar: The Use of The English Auxiliary "BE" Present Tense Verb among Malaysian Form 4 and Form 5 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jishvithaa, Joanna M.; Tabitha, M.; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani

    2013-01-01

    This research paper aims to explore the usage of the English Auxiliary "Be" Present Tense Verb, using corpus based method among Malaysian form 4 and form 5 students. This study is conducted by identifying and classifying the types of errors in the Auxiliary "Be" Present Tense verb in students' compositions from the MCSAW corpus…

  10. Acylation, Diastereoselective Alkylation, and Cleavage of an Oxazolidinone Chiral Auxiliary: A Multistep Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for Advanced Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas E.; Richardson, David P.; Truran, George A.; Belecki, Katherine; Onishi, Megumi

    2008-01-01

    An introduction to the concepts and experimental techniques of diastereoselective synthesis using a chiral auxiliary is described. The 4-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary developed by Evans is acylated with propionic anhydride under mild conditions using DMAP as an acyl transfer catalyst. Deprotonation with NaN(TMS)[subscript 2] at -78…

  11. From Root Infinitive to Finite Sentence : The acquisition of verbal inflections and auxiliaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Across languages, children in the earliest stages of syntactic development tend to omit overt markings of finiteness, such as verbal inflections and auxiliaries: when children use a verb, they use an infinitival form (e.g. Dutch) or a bare stem (e.g. English). From Root Infinitive to Finite Sentence

  12. Compact driver, notably for a light emitting diode, having an auxiliary output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The current invention relates to a driver(10,20) for driving at least one main load and one auxiliary load comprising: ä power converter(101) adapted to convert an input voltage(Vin) into at least one main output voltage provided through a main output(1011) for driving said main load, and at least

  13. Development of Intelligent Auxiliary System for Customized Physical Fitness and Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of global high-tech industry and commerce era, the sedentary reduces opportunities of physical activity. And physical fitness and health of people is getting worse and worse. At present, the shortage of physical fitness instructors greatly affected the effectiveness of health promotion. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an auxiliary system which can reduce the workload of instructors and enhance physical fitness and health for people. But current general physical fitness and healthcare system is hard to meet individualized needs. The main purpose of this research is to develop an intelligent auxiliary system for customized physical fitness and healthcare. It records all processes of physical fitness and healthcare system by wireless sensors network. The results of intelligent auxiliary systems for customized physical fitness and healthcare will be generated by fuzzy logic Inference. It will improve individualized physical fitness and healthcare. Finally, we will demonstrate the advantages of the intelligent auxiliary system for customized physical fitness and healthcare.

  14. Auxiliary Verbs, Dictionaries and the Late Evolution of the Italian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of BE as an auxiliary verb with intransitive verbs has declined in all the Romance languages over the past five centuries. Today, Spanish and Portuguese use only HAVE, in Catalan and Romanian BE occurs in marginal contexts, and in French, BE is used with approximately 40 verbs. Italian is a notable exception, since BE is still used as the…

  15. Meaningful questions: The acquisition of auxiliary inversion in a connectionist model of sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Hartmut; Chang, Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Nativist theories have argued that language involves syntactic principles which are unlearnable from the input children receive. A paradigm case of these innate principles is the structure dependence of auxiliary inversion in complex polar questions (Chomsky, 1968, 1975, 1980). Computational approaches have focused on the properties of the input in explaining how children acquire these questions. In contrast, we argue that messages are structured in a way that supports structure dependence in syntax. We demonstrate this approach within a connectionist model of sentence production (Chang, 2009) which learned to generate a range of complex polar questions from a structured message without positive exemplars in the input. The model also generated different types of error in development that were similar in magnitude to those in children (e.g., auxiliary doubling, Ambridge, Rowland, & Pine, 2008; Crain & Nakayama, 1987). Through model comparisons we trace how meaning constraints and linguistic experience interact during the acquisition of auxiliary inversion. Our results suggest that auxiliary inversion rules in English can be acquired without innate syntactic principles, as long as it is assumed that speakers who ask complex questions express messages that are structured into multiple propositions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Polyethylene Moderator Design for Auxiliary Ex-core Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Soo; Shin, Ho Cheol; Bae, Seong Man

    2012-01-01

    The moderator of detector assembly in ENFMS (Excore Neutron Flux Monitoring System) plays a key role for slowing down from fast neutron to thermal neutron at outside of reactor vessel. Since neutron monitoring detector such as BF3, fission chamber detectors mostly responds to thermal neutron, moderator should be included to neutron detector assembly to detect more efficiently. Generally, resin has been used for moderator of detector in ENFMS of OPR1000 and APR1400, because resin has stable thermal resistance, availability and high neutron moderation characteristics due to the light atomic materials. In case of an auxiliary ex-core neutron detector, the polyethylene is suggested that polyethylene has a better moderator rather than resin, then, the amounts of moderator are reduced. This is important thing for auxiliary ex-core detector equipment at reactor, because the auxiliary equipment should affect minimally to another system. In this study, polyethylene moderator is designed for auxiliary ex-core neutron detector. To find out the optimal thickness of polyethylene moderator, preliminary simulation and experiments are performed. And sensitivity simulation for detector moderator at actual reactor is performed by DORT code

  17. Computer determination of event maps with application to auxiliary supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wredenberg, L.; Billinton, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method of evaluating the reliability of sequential operations in systems containing standby and alternate supply facilities is presented. The method is based upon the use of a digital computer for automatic development of event maps. The technique is illustrated by application to a nuclear power plant auxiliary supply system. (author)

  18. Are Modal Auxiliaries in Malaysian English Language Textbooks in Line with Their Usage in Real Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Kafipour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Based on the discrepancies found in many Malaysian English language textbooks, a detailed analysis on the way modal auxiliary verb forms and their semantic functions were introduced and presented in texts and exercises in five Malaysian textbooks was done. For that to be achieved, a qualitative page-by-page content analysis was applied. From the…

  19. Effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is in young English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen, Amanda J; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the authors tested the unique checking constraint (UCC) hypothesis and the usage-based approach concerning why young children variably use tense and agreement morphemes in obligatory contexts by examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is. Twenty typically developing 3-year-olds were included in this study. The children's production of auxiliary is was elicited in sentences with pronominal subjects, high-frequency lexical noun phrase (NP) subjects (e.g., the dog), and low-frequency lexical NP subjects (e.g., the deer). As a group, children did not use auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical NP subjects. Furthermore, individual data revealed that although some children used auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical NP subjects, the majority of children did not show this trend. The symmetry observed between lexical and pronominal subjects supports the predictions of the UCC hypothesis, although additional mechanisms may be needed to account for the asymmetry between subject types in some individual children. Discrepant results between the present study and previous studies were attributed to differences in task formats and children's developmental levels.

  20. Words without Grammar: Linguists and the International Auxiliary Language Movements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julia S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses movements in the United States during the first half of the 20th century to develop an international language, focusing on proponents of the reestablishment of Latin as an international language and the work of the International Auxiliary Language Association to develop an entirely new language. (72 references) (MDM)

  1. The Status of the Auxiliary "Do" in L1 and L2 English Negative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether negative sentences containing auxiliary "do" in L1 and L2 English share the same underlying syntactic representation. To this end, I compare the negative sentences produced by 77 bilingual (Spanish/Basque) L2 learners of English with the corresponding data available for L1 acquirers reported on in Schutze…

  2. Effect of Subject Types on the Production of Auxiliary "Is" in Young English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen, Amanda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors tested the unique checking constraint (UCC) hypothesis and the usage-based approach concerning why young children variably use tense and agreement morphemes in obligatory contexts by examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary "is". Method: Twenty typically developing 3-year-olds were…

  3. Dummy Auxiliaries in the Second Language Acquisition of Moroccan Learners of Dutch: Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Craats, Ineke; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an interlanguage in which Moroccan learners of Dutch use non-thematic verbs in combination with thematic verbs that can be inflected as well. These non-thematic verbs are real dummy auxiliaries because they are deprived of semantic content and primarily have a syntactic function. Whereas in earlier second language (L2) research…

  4. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  5. Natural convection in an asymmetrically heated vertical channel with an adiabatic auxiliary plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, Soumaya; Hatem, Laatar Ali; Balti, Jalloul

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an auxiliary plate on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel is studied numerically in laminar regime. The computational procedure is made by solving the unsteady two dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. This nonlinear system is integrated by a finite volume approach and then solved in time using the projection method, allowing the decoupling pressure from velocity. More than hundred simulations are performed to determine the best positions of the auxiliary plate that enhance the induced mass flow and the heat transfer rate for modified Rayleigh numbers ranging from Ra m = 10 2 to Ra m = 10 5 . Contour maps are plotted and then used to precise the enhancement rates of the mass flow and the heat transfer for any position of the auxiliary plate in the channel. The numerical results (velocity, pressure and temperature fields) provide detailed information about the evolution of the flow structure according to the geometry considered in this study. In addition, they permit to explain why the mass flow rate and Nusselt number are enhanced for certain positions of the auxiliary plate and are on the contrary deteriorated for others. (authors)

  6. Progress in the integration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotamäki, M.; Cordier, J.-J.; Kuehn, I.; Perrin, J.-L.; Sweeney, S.; Villedary, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Usage of 3D CAD model in ITER configuration management presented. • 3D CAD models efficient in configuration and interface management. • Costly and schedule delaying changes avoided with proper interface management. • ITER buildings construction progressing. - Abstract: The ITER Tokamak machine is located in the center of Tokamak complex buildings consisting of Tokamak, Diagnostic, and Tritium buildings. Around the Tokamak complex there are over 30 auxiliary buildings housing various plant systems serving the Tokamak machine either directly or indirectly. The layout and space allocation of each auxiliary building and plant systems housed by the building are represented in the so-called Configuration Management Models (CMM). These are light 3D CAD models that define the required space envelope and the physical interfaces between the systems and the buildings and in-between the systems. The paper describes the CMM and interface management processes of the ITER auxiliary buildings and plant systems, and discusses the preparations for the plant installation phase. In addition, the current baseline configuration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings is described together with the recent developments in the configuration of different systems, as well as the current status of the construction of the buildings.

  7. Introduction to deaerator in auxiliary water supply system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianguo; Zhou Xia; Lei Yongxia

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces the operation theory and thermal calculation and verification requirements for the deaerator in the auxiliary water supply system of nuclear power plant. In addition, it describes the key factors in terms of function, structure, design and fabrication of equipment. (authors)

  8. (S)-1-Aminoindane : synthesis by chirality transfer using (R)-phenylglycine amide as chiral auxiliary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterweerd, Patrick G.H.; Sluis, Marcel van der; Kaptein, Bernard; Lange, Ben de; Kellogg, Richard M.; Broxterman, Quirinus B.

    2003-01-01

    A practical asymmetric synthesis of nearly enantiomerically pure (S)-1-aminoindane has been developed. The key step involves the diastereoselective heterogeneous metal-catalyzed reduction of the ketimine of 1-indanone with the chiral auxiliary (R)-phenylglycine amide. The selectivity of the

  9. Preliminary report on the development of rf auxiliary heating systems for TEPR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, B.W.; Bowen, O.N.; Hill, H.M.; Lawson, J.Q.; Newman, W.G.; Sivo, A.J.

    1977-12-01

    Conceptual designs for 50 MW (expandable to 100 MW) ICRF and LHRF heating systems suitable for auxiliary heating of the TEPR-1 plasma to ignition temperatures are presented. Engineering milestones are enumerated and the extensions of current technology required for successful completion of the project are identified

  10. Speckle Interferometry with the McMath-Pierce East Auxiliary Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Ray, Jimmy; Douglass, David; Prause, Lori; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Engineering runs and tests on the McMath-Pierce 0.8 meter East Auxiliary telescope successfully configured the telescope for speckle interferometry observations of close visual double stars. This paper reports the procedure and results of the speckle analysis of four double stars.

  11. Application of the Method of Auxiliary Sources for the Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering by Impedance Spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2002-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is applied to 3D scattering problems involving spherical impedance scatterers. The MAS results are compared with the reference spherical wave expansion (SWE) solution. It is demonstrated that good agreement is achieved between the MAS and SWE results....

  12. The auxiliary elliptic-like equation and the exp-function method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of auxiliary elliptic-like equation. ... (NEE) have been paid attention by many researchers, especially the investigations of exact solutions for ... elliptic-like equation with the aid of the travelling wave reduction are introduced. The exact solutions of ...

  13. Reliability analysis of the auxiliary feedwater system; Analiza zanesljivosti sistema pomozne napajalne vode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susnik, J; Dusic, M [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    The reliability of a NPP auxiliary feedwater system is evaluated using the fault tree analysis. The system is analyzed during the time interval 0 to 6 hours with the computer package program PREP/KITT which is described in more detail. (author)

  14. Progress in the integration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamäki, M., E-mail: miikka.kotamaki@iter.org; Cordier, J.-J.; Kuehn, I.; Perrin, J.-L.; Sweeney, S.; Villedary, B.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Usage of 3D CAD model in ITER configuration management presented. • 3D CAD models efficient in configuration and interface management. • Costly and schedule delaying changes avoided with proper interface management. • ITER buildings construction progressing. - Abstract: The ITER Tokamak machine is located in the center of Tokamak complex buildings consisting of Tokamak, Diagnostic, and Tritium buildings. Around the Tokamak complex there are over 30 auxiliary buildings housing various plant systems serving the Tokamak machine either directly or indirectly. The layout and space allocation of each auxiliary building and plant systems housed by the building are represented in the so-called Configuration Management Models (CMM). These are light 3D CAD models that define the required space envelope and the physical interfaces between the systems and the buildings and in-between the systems. The paper describes the CMM and interface management processes of the ITER auxiliary buildings and plant systems, and discusses the preparations for the plant installation phase. In addition, the current baseline configuration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings is described together with the recent developments in the configuration of different systems, as well as the current status of the construction of the buildings.

  15. Auxiliary VHF transmitter to aid recovery of solar Argos/GPS PTTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2014-01-01

    While conducting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) research, we found that solar-powered global positioning systems platform transmitter terminals (GPS PTTs) can be lost if the solar panel does not receive adequate sunlight. Thus, we developed 5-g (mortality sensor included; Prototype A) and 9.8-g (no mortality sensor; Prototype B) auxiliary very high...

  16. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for...

  17. Harbingers of Artin's Reciprocity Law. I. The Continuing Story of Auxiliary Primes

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present the history of auxiliary primes used in proofs of reciprocity laws from the quadratic to Artin's reciprocity law. We also show that the gap in Legendre's proof can be closed with a simple application of Gauss's genus theory.

  18. Catalytic Reforming of Higher Hydrocarbon Fuels to Hydrogen: Process Investigations with Regard to Auxiliary Power Units

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltschmitt, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the investigation of the catalytic partial oxidation on rhodium-coated honeycomb catalysts with respect to the conversion of a model surrogate fuel and commercial diesel fuel into hydrogen for the use in auxiliary power units. Furthermore, the influence of simulated tail-gas recycling was investigated.

  19. Histochemical demonstration of creatine kinase activity using polyvinyl alcohol and auxiliary enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    Creatine kinase activity (EC 2.7.3.2.) has been demonstrated in myocardium and skeletal muscle from rats by a method based on the incubation of cryostat sections with a polyvinyl alcohol-containing medium and the use of auxiliary enzymes. Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were spread

  20. International assistance. Licensing assistance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.

    1999-01-01

    Description of licensing assistance project for VATESI is presented. In licensing of unit No.1 of INPP VATESI is supported by many western countries. Experts from regulatory bodies or scientific organizations of those countries assist VATESI staff in reviewing documentation presented by INPP. Among bilateral cooperation support is provided by European Commission through Phare programme

  1. CMOS integrated switching power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Villar-Pique, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the structured design and optimization of efficient, energy processing integrated circuits. The approach is multidisciplinary, covering the monolithic integration of IC design techniques, power electronics and control theory. In particular, this book enables readers to conceive, synthesize, design and implement integrated circuits with high-density high-efficiency on-chip switching power regulators. Topics covered encompass the structured design of the on-chip power supply, efficiency optimization, IC-compatible power inductors and capacitors, power MOSFET switches and effi

  2. All-fiber polarization switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Harald; Margulis, Walter

    2007-03-01

    We report an all-fiber polarization switch made out of silica-based microstructured fiber suitable for Q-switching all-fiber lasers. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses are used to heat and expand an internal electrode to cause λ/2-polarization rotation in less than 10 ns for 1.5 μm light. The 10 cm long component has an experimentally measured optical insertion loss of 0.2 dB and a 0-10 kHz repetition frequency capacity and has been durability tested for more than 109 pulses.

  3. Performance assessment of auxiliary bearing in HTR-10 AMB helium circulator on the event of rotor drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhen; Yang Guojun; Li Yue; Shi Zhengang; Yu Suyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a model for analyzing internal contact stress arid external load of ball bearing from rotor displacement was developed based on the Hertz contact theory and applied to the analysis of the rotor drop test in HTR-10 helium circulator equipped with AMB (Active Magnetic Bearing) to gain a better understanding of auxiliary bearing performance at different stages after the rotor drop. It was shown that the auxiliary bearing can well resist axial impact produced by rotor drop, avoiding of internal severe plastic deformation and damage to the performance of the auxiliary bearing. Rotor's rotary motion and the heat accumulation of the inner ring resulted from the initial acute acceleration are the main contributor of radial load during the rotor idling and may cause the failure of auxiliary bearing. This paper analyzed the influence of this load and confirmed that the auxiliary bearing can still work in its loading limits. (authors)

  4. A level switch with a sound tube

    OpenAIRE

    赤池, 誠規

    2017-01-01

    Level switches are sensor with an electrical contact output at a specific liquid, powder or bulk level. Most of traditional level switches are not suitable for harsh environments. The level switch in this study connects a loudspeaker on top end of the sound tube. When liquid, powder or bulk closes bottom end of the sound tube, the level switch turns on. The level switch is suitable for harsh environments and easy to install. The aim of this study is to propose a level switch with a sound tube...

  5. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  6. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Firm turnover (i.e., firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sector-level productivity growth. In contrast, the role and importance of firms that switch activities from one sector to another is not well understood. Firm switchers are likely to be unique, differing from both newly esta...

  7. Nanoscale organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Wang, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric resistive switches function by grace of nanoscale phase separation in a blend of a semiconducting and a ferroelectric polymer that is sandwiched between metallic electrodes. In this work, various scanning probe techniques are combined with numerical modeling to unravel their

  8. Design of convergent switched systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den R.A.; Pogromsky, A.Y.; Leonov, G.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Gravdahl, J.T.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the problem of rendering hybrid/nonlinear systems into convergent closed-loop systems by means of a feedback law or switching rules. We illustrate our approach to this problem by means of two examples: the anti-windup design for a marginally stable system with input

  9. Incorrect predictions reduce switch costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2015-07-01

    In three experiments, we combined two sources of conflict within a modified task-switching procedure. The first source of conflict was the one inherent in any task switching situation, namely the conflict between a task set activated by the recent performance of another task and the task set needed to perform the actually relevant task. The second source of conflict was induced by requiring participants to guess aspects of the upcoming task (Exps. 1 & 2: task identity; Exp. 3: position of task precue). In case of an incorrect guess, a conflict accrues between the representation of the guessed task and the actually relevant task. In Experiments 1 and 2, incorrect guesses led to an overall increase of reaction times and error rates, but they reduced task switch costs compared to conditions in which participants predicted the correct task. In Experiment 3, incorrect guesses resulted in faster performance overall and to a selective decrease of reaction times in task switch trials when the cue-target interval was long. We interpret these findings in terms of an enhanced level of controlled processing induced by a combination of two sources of conflict converging upon the same target of cognitive control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Stability of Randomly Switched Diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef; Gholami, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a sufficient criterion for ε-moment stability (boundedness) and ergodicity for a class of systems comprising a finite set of diffusions among which switching is governed by a continuous time Markov chain. Stability/instability properties for each separate subsystem are assumed...

  12. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely...

  13. Charge transport through molecular switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan van der Molen, Sense; Liljeroth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We review the fascinating research on charge transport through switchable molecules. In the past decade, detailed investigations have been performed on a great variety of molecular switches, including mechanically interlocked switches (rotaxanes and catenanes), redox-active molecules and photochromic switches (e.g. azobenzenes and diarylethenes). To probe these molecules, both individually and in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a broad set of methods have been developed. These range from low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) via two-terminal break junctions to larger scale SAM-based devices. It is generally found that the electronic coupling between molecules and electrodes has a profound influence on the properties of such molecular junctions. For example, an intrinsically switchable molecule may lose its functionality after it is contacted. Vice versa, switchable two-terminal devices may be created using passive molecules ('extrinsic switching'). Developing a detailed understanding of the relation between coupling and switchability will be of key importance for both future research and technology. (topical review)

  14. Charge transport through molecular switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan van der Molen, Sense [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Liljeroth, Peter, E-mail: molen@physics.leidenuniv.n [Condensed Matter and Interfaces, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-07

    We review the fascinating research on charge transport through switchable molecules. In the past decade, detailed investigations have been performed on a great variety of molecular switches, including mechanically interlocked switches (rotaxanes and catenanes), redox-active molecules and photochromic switches (e.g. azobenzenes and diarylethenes). To probe these molecules, both individually and in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a broad set of methods have been developed. These range from low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) via two-terminal break junctions to larger scale SAM-based devices. It is generally found that the electronic coupling between molecules and electrodes has a profound influence on the properties of such molecular junctions. For example, an intrinsically switchable molecule may lose its functionality after it is contacted. Vice versa, switchable two-terminal devices may be created using passive molecules ('extrinsic switching'). Developing a detailed understanding of the relation between coupling and switchability will be of key importance for both future research and technology. (topical review)

  15. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  16. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  17. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2013-03-15

    Resistive switching materials are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfiguration of electronic applications. Intensive studies have been carried out on sandwiched metal-insulator-metal structures to achieve high density on-chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission electron microscopy is used to study in real-time the physical structure and analyze the chemical composition of the nanofilament dynamically during resistive switching. Electrical stressing using an external voltage was applied by a tungsten tip to the nanosized devices having hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the insulator layer. The formation and rupture of the nanofilaments result in up to three orders of magnitude change in the current flowing through the dielectric during the switching event. Oxygen vacancies and metal atoms from the anode constitute the chemistry of the nanofilament.

  18. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  20. Comprehensive theory of the Deans' switch as a variable flow splitter: fluid mechanics, mass balance, and system behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan; Mysliwietz, Bodo; Lammers, Peter Schulze

    2013-10-01

    The Deans' switch is an effluent switching device based on controlling flows of carrier gas instead of mechanical valves in the analytical flow path. This technique offers high inertness and a wear-free operation. Recently new monolithic microfluidic devices have become available. In these devices the whole flow system is integrated into a small metal device with low thermal mass and leak-tight connections. In contrast to a mechanical valve-based system, a flow-controlled system is more difficult to calculate. Usually the Deans' switch is used to switch one inlet to one of two outlets, by means of two auxiliary flows. However, the Deans' switch can also be used to deliver the GC effluent with a specific split ratio to both outlets. The calculation of the split ratio of the inlet flow to the two outlets is challenging because of the asymmetries of the flow resistances. This is especially the case, if one of the outlets is a vacuum device, such as a mass spectrometer, and the other an atmospheric detector, e.g. a flame ionization detector (FID) or an olfactory (sniffing) port. The capillary flows in gas chromatography are calculated with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation of the laminar, isothermal and compressible flow in circular tubes. The flow resistances in the new microfluidic devices have to be calculated with the corresponding equation for rectangular cross-section microchannels. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation underestimates the flow to a vacuum outlet. A corrected equation originating from the theory of rarefied flows is presented. The calculation of pressures and flows of a Deans' switch based chromatographic system is done by the solution of mass balances. A specific challenge is the consideration of the antidiffusion resistor between the two auxiliary gas lines of the Deans' switch. A full solution for the calculation of the Deans' switch including this restrictor is presented. Results from validation measurements are in good accordance with the developed

  1. Switch-connected HyperX network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2018-02-13

    A network system includes a plurality of sub-network planes and global switches. The sub-network planes have a same network topology as each other. Each of the sub-network planes includes edge switches. Each of the edge switches has N ports. Each of the global switches is configured to connect a group of edge switches at a same location in the sub-network planes. In each of the sub-network planes, some of the N ports of each of the edge switches are connected to end nodes, and others of the N ports are connected to other edge switches in the same sub-network plane, other of the N ports are connected to at least one of the global switches.

  2. Isolated converter with synchronized switching leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    An amplification device is disclosed providing a way of integrating a switch mode power supply and a class D amplifier (switch mode amplifier). This results in the usage of basically one magnetic component (1), one major energy storage element (4) and switches (20, 30) that are controlled in such a

  3. Mechanism of single atom switch on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Stokbro, Kurt; Thirstrup, C.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate single atom switch on silicon which operates by displacement of a hydrogen atom on the silicon (100) surface at room temperature. We find two principal effects by which the switch is controlled: a pronounced maximum of the switching probability as function of sample bias...

  4. A CW Gunn diode bistable switching element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments with a current-controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode are reported. Switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by current pulses of short duration (5-10 ns). Rise times of the order of several nanoseconds could be obtained.

  5. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  6. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign services that use local exchange switching facilities. (c) If end users of an interstate or... local exchange carriers shall establish rate elements for local switching as follows: (1) Price cap... use local exchange switching facilities for the provision of interstate or foreign services. The...

  7. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  8. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  9. Control and synchronisation in switched arrival systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, B.; Armbruster, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    A chaotic model of a production flow called the switched arrival system is extended to include switching times and maintenance. The probability distribution of the chaotic return times is calculated. Scheduling maintenance, loss of production due to switching, and control of the chaotic dynamics is

  10. Design, Analysis, and Verification of Ka-Band Pattern Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Using RF MEMS Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Deng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a radiating pattern reconfigurable antenna by employing RF Micro-electromechanical Systems (RF MEMS switches. The antenna has a low profile and small size of 4 mm × 5 mm × 0.4 mm, and mainly consists of one main patch, two assistant patches, and two RF MEMS switches. By changing the RF MEMS switches operating modes, the proposed antenna can switch among three radiating patterns (with main lobe directions of approximately −17.0°, 0° and +17.0° at 35 GHz. The far-field vector addition model is applied to analyse the pattern. Comparing the measured results with analytical and simulated results, good agreements are obtained.

  11. Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.; Loke, W. K.; Li, D. S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Saadsaoud, N.; Tripon-Canseliet, C. [Laboratoire d' Electronique et Electromagnétisme, Pierre and Marie Curie University, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Lampin, J. F.; Decoster, D. [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Chazelas, J. [Thales Airborne Systems, 2 Avenue Gay Lussac, 78852 Elancourt (France)

    2013-09-09

    We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 10{sup 7} Ω cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 μm, and a carrier lifetime of ∼1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductive switch application.

  12. Picosecond Electric-Field-Induced Threshold Switching in Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalden, Peter; Shu, Michael J; Chen, Frank; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yi; Wen, Haidan; Johnston, Scott; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Landreman, Patrick; Brongersma, Mark; Fong, Scott W; Wong, H-S Philip; Sher, Meng-Ju; Jost, Peter; Kaes, Matthias; Salinga, Martin; von Hoegen, Alexander; Wuttig, Matthias; Lindenberg, Aaron M

    2016-08-05

    Many chalcogenide glasses undergo a breakdown in electronic resistance above a critical field strength. Known as threshold switching, this mechanism enables field-induced crystallization in emerging phase-change memory. Purely electronic as well as crystal nucleation assisted models have been employed to explain the electronic breakdown. Here, picosecond electric pulses are used to excite amorphous Ag_{4}In_{3}Sb_{67}Te_{26}. Field-dependent reversible changes in conductivity and pulse-driven crystallization are observed. The present results show that threshold switching can take place within the electric pulse on subpicosecond time scales-faster than crystals can nucleate. This supports purely electronic models of threshold switching and reveals potential applications as an ultrafast electronic switch.

  13. Studies on nonvolatile resistance memory switching in ZnO thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Six decades of research on ZnO has recently sprouted a new branch in the domain of resistive random access memories. Highly resistive and c-axis oriented ZnO thin films were grown by us using d.c. discharge assisted pulsed laser deposition on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at room temperature. The resistive switching ...

  14. The effect of gas permeation through vertical membranes on chemical switching reforming (CSR) reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie, S.A.; Gallucci, F.; Cloete, S.; Zaabout, A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Amini, S.

    2016-01-01

    A novel membrane assisted fluidized bed reactor concept has been proposed for ultra-pure hydrogen production with integrated CO2 capture from steam methane reforming. The so-called Chemical Switching Reactor (CSR) concept combines the use of an oxygen carrier for supplying heat and catalysing the

  15. A System for English Vocabulary Acquisition Based on Code-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Michal; Karolczak, Krzysztof; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary plays an important part in second language learning and there are many existing techniques to facilitate word acquisition. One of these methods is code-switching, or mixing the vocabulary of two languages in one sentence. In this paper the authors propose an experimental system for computer-assisted English vocabulary learning in…

  16. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2009-01-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold

  17. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James A.

    1986-01-01

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  18. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  19. Test system design for Hardware-in-Loop evaluation of PEM fuel cells and auxiliaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolf, Guenter; Moore, Robert M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2006-07-14

    In order to evaluate the dynamic behavior of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their auxiliaries, the dynamic capability of the test system must exceed the dynamics of the fastest component within the fuel cell or auxiliary component under test. This criterion is even more critical when a simulated component of the fuel cell system (e.g., the fuel cell stack) is replaced by hardware and Hardware-in-Loop (HiL) methodology is employed. This paper describes the design of a very fast dynamic test system for fuel cell transient research and HiL evaluation. The integration of the real time target (which runs the simulation), the test stand PC (that controls the operation of the test stand), and the programmable logic controller (PLC), for safety and low-level control tasks, into one single integrated unit is successfully completed. (author)

  20. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Cao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H∞ robust control, a H2/H∞ controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  1. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  2. Biased divertor performance under auxiliary heating conditions on the TdeV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decoste, R.; Lachambre, J.L.; Demers, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma biasing has been shown on TdeV in the ohmic regime to be very promising for divertor applications. Negative biasing, with shortened SOL density gradients, improves the divertor performance, whereas positive biasing, with longer gradients, does not do much for the divertor. The next objectives were to extrapolate those results to auxiliary heated plasmas and optimize/simplify the biasing geometry for future upgrades. New results are now available with an improved divertor geometry and auxiliary heating/current drive provided by a new lower hybrid (LH) system. The new geometry, optimized for positive biasing with predictably acceptable negative biasing performances, allows for a fair comparison between the two polarities. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  3. Analysis of design of auxiliary system of Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseh Hasanzadeh, M.

    1999-01-01

    Power plant's internal auxiliary system has an important role in its safety operation. Because of the decay heat and safety aspects in the nuclear power plants, this role is more important. In this thesis, operation of the nuclear power plant with PWR reactor is studied and deferent nuclear systems described. In the next section all electrical loads in the Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant identified and feeding methods of each load is determined. by use of the single line diagram of the internal auxiliary system, the nominal rating of all electrical devices as transformers, inverters, Ups, diesel generators and etc. is determined. In the following, short circuit calculations performed and by above conclusion, rating values of circuit breakers is determined. At last the starting problems of electrical motors is studied and the results of motor's behavior at starting moment is discussed

  4. Design of an increase in the CNAAA unit I South auxiliary building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorentz, R.G.; Loyola Benedicto Ottoni, I. de; Roech, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work it is presented the description of the model adopted in the structural calculations for a modification in the CNAAA Unit I South Auxiliary Building. This modification intended to increase the facilities destinated to keeping and changing of special clothing for access to the controlled area. The design basically constitutes of a slab at the Elevation 5,15m, for which a tridimensional frame model was adopted, in reinforced adopted concrete, fixed in the South Auxiliary Building foundation slab and structurally independent on the building, at the slab level. It was demonstrated in this study that the introduction, in the existing structure, of the masses of this enlarged area does not considerably change the dynamic behaviour of the building, which allowed proceeding the analysis of the new structure independently of the existing one. (author)

  5. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ye [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Sengjie Jiao [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Binggang Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China)

    2010-09-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H-infinity robust control, a H2/H-infinity controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  6. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, M.; Jiao, S. [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Cao, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H{sub 2} optimal control and H{sub {infinity}} robust control, a H{sub 2}/H{sub {infinity}} controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source. (authors)

  7. [The surgical nurse: his/her leadership of auxiliary nursing personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, C M; Trevizan, M A; Sawada, N O; Mendes, I A

    1997-01-01

    This investigation as carried out in order to promote follow-up in the studies concerning nurse's leadership in the hospital context. Emphasys is given to the nurses that works in surgical ward unities. As a theoretical framework, authors utilized the model of leadership proposed by Hersey and Blanchard, named Situational Leadership. The objective was to analyze the correspondence of opinion between nurses and nursing auxiliary personnel about the leadership style of nurse should adopt in accordance with the maturity level of an element of the auxiliary personnel based on six categories of activities that were studied. Authors found out that nurses should adopt the styles of participant leadership, such as E3 (participating) and/or E4 (delegating).

  8. UV photoemission from metal cathodes for picosecond power switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Srinivasan-RAo, T.; Tsang, T.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported of photoemission studies using laser pulses of 10 ps duration and 4.66 eV photon energy on metal cathodes. These included thin wires, flat surfaces and an yttrium cathode with a grainy surface. The measurements of current density and quantum efficiency under low and high surface fields indicate that field assisted efficiencies exceeding 0.1% and current densities exceeding 10 5 A/cm 2 are obtainable. The results are compared to the requirements of switch power applications. 24 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  9. Large aperture optical switching devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs

  10. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  11. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  12. Switch for Good Community Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Tabitha [Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management LLC, Newtown Square, PA (United States); Amran, Martha [WattzOn, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2013-11-19

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective. The program was delivered on-time and on-budget, and its success is based on the teamwork of local BB staff and the WattzOn team. The following graphic shows Switch4Good “by the numbers”, e.g. the scale of operations achieved during Phase I.

  13. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2008-10-01

    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  14. Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael E [Livermore, CA

    2009-01-13

    A switching system and method are provided to facilitate use of videoconference facilities over a plurality of security levels. The system includes a switch coupled to a plurality of codecs and communication networks. Audio/Visual peripheral components are connected to the switch. The switch couples control and data signals between the Audio/Visual peripheral components and one but nor both of the plurality of codecs. The switch additionally couples communication networks of the appropriate security level to each of the codecs. In this manner, a videoconferencing facility is provided for use on both secure and non-secure networks.

  15. Switching strategies to optimize search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlesinger, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Search strategies are explored when the search time is fixed, success is probabilistic and the estimate for success can diminish with time if there is not a successful result. Under the time constraint the problem is to find the optimal time to switch a search strategy or search location. Several variables are taken into account, including cost, gain, rate of success if a target is present and the probability that a target is present. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  16. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  17. The application of 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianhua; Li Xiaoping; Li Chaolong; He Xu; Lin Zhiqi; Zhu Weibing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To affirm the application value of 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation. Methods: The graft was transplanted in the right subhepatic space of recipient to establish pig auxiliary liver transplantation model. The artery blood supplies were the very same in all grafts and the portal vein (PV) blood flows were differently controlled by trussing the host PV at the site neared host liver. According to the constriction degree, PV blood supplies were divided into three groups including A (constricted by 1/3), B (constricted by 1/2) and C(not constricted). The blood flows of the graft liver and the host liver were measured by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy and livers functions were estimated after auxiliary liver transplantation. Contrasted with its histological findings the reflection of graft survival with 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy was investigated. Results: It was detected by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy that the blood flows were almost equilibrated and abundant in grafts and host liver' in group A, and were abundant in grafts of group B and host livers of group C and were significantly decreased in host livers of group B and grafts of group C. Histological work-up demonstrated that the liver was not atrophic while the blood flow was abundant and the liver was atrophic while the blood flow was decreased. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy could accurately reflect the survival and function of grafts and host livers after auxiliary liver transplantation and it is a reliable technique which can be used to estimate the survival and function of the grafts and host livers

  18. Reducing Auxiliary Energy Consumption of Heavy Trucks by Onboard Prediction and Real-time Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad; Feng, Lei; Börjesson, Stefan; Lindgärde, Olof; Wikander, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The electric engine cooling system, where the coolant pump and the radiator fan are driven by electric motors, admits advanced control methods to decrease auxiliary energy consumption. Recent publications show the fuel saving potential of optimal control strategies for the electric cooling system through offline simulations. These strategies often assume full knowledge of the drive cycle and compute the optimal control sequence by expensive global optimization methods. In reality, the full dr...

  19. Experimental simulation of a light aircraft crash on to a nuclear power plant auxiliary building roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Barr, P.; Garton, G.; Howe, W.D.; Neilson, A.J.

    1984-08-01

    The experiments described were conducted at a reduced scale with geometric dimensions of prototype structures of one-fifth full size. The target was based on the auxiliary buildings for the proposed Sizewell PWR. Descriptions of the simulated aircraft model and the test panels are given, together with the instrumentation. Details are given of the test programme and the results are summarized and discussed. Comparison is made of the model aircraft tests with an equivalent hard missile impact. (U.K.)

  20. Direct enantioselective conjugate addition of carboxylic acids with chiral lithium amides as traceless auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Jackson, Jeffrey J; Eickhoff, John A; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-01-21

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B.

  1. Auxiliary collimating device for obtaining irradiation fields of any shape for high energy radiotherapy apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piret, P.; Fraikin, H.; Hubert, A.

    1976-01-01

    An auxiliary collimator is added to the main collimator of a radiotherapy apparatus and comprises a master-container filled with mercury and a localizing container containing a block of nonabsorbent material having a predetermined shape; means being provided for automatically positioning these containers with respect to the main collimator and for allowing the mercury to enter the localizing container when once it has taken its working position

  2. Sodium--NaK engineering handbook. Volume IV. Sodium pumps, valves, piping, and auxiliary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, O.J.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is useful for designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program and by the engineering and scientific community performing investigation and experimentation requiring high-temperature Na and NaK technology. Data are presented for pumps, bearings and seals, valves, vessels and piping, and auxiliary equipment including vapor traps, freeze plugs, fuel-channel flow regulators, antivortexing devices, and miscellaneous mechanical elements. Reactor materials are also discussed

  3. Think different: applying the old macintosh mantra to the computability of the SUSY auxiliary field problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Mathew; Gates, D.E.A.; Gates, S. James Jr. [Center for String and Particle Theory, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Golding, William M. [Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory,Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Starting with valise supermultiplets obtained from 0-branes plus field redefinitions, valise adinkra networks, and the “Garden Algebra,” we discuss an architecture for algorithms that (starting from on-shell theories and, through a well-defined computation procedure), search for off-shell completions. We show in one dimension how to directly attack the notorious “off-shell auxiliary field” problem of supersymmetry with algorithms in the adinkra network-world formulation.

  4. Common-cause failure analysis of McGuire Unit 2 auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.; Shepherd, J.C.; Fowler, R.D.; Summitt, R.L.; Logan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    A powerful method for qualitative common cause failure analysis (CCFA) of nuclear power plant systems was developed by EG and G Idaho at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. As a cooperative project to demonstrate and evaluate the usefulness of the method, the Duke Power Company agreed to allow a CCFA of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) in their McGuire Nuclear Station Unit 2. The results of the CCFA are the subject of this discussion

  5. The Quantum N-Body Problem and the Auxiliary Field Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, C.; Buisseret, F.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2011-01-01

    Approximate analytical energy formulas for N-body semirelativistic Hamiltonians with one- and two-body interactions are obtained within the framework of the auxiliary field method. We first review the method in the case of nonrelativistic two-body problems. A general procedure is then given for N-body systems and applied to the case of baryons in the large-N c limit. (author)

  6. Civil engineering in nuclear power stations: design of the turbine building and nuclear auxiliary building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, R.

    1985-01-01

    After enumerating the specific features of civil engineering in nuclear power stations. One goes on to examine the principal deliberations undertaken with the aim of optimising projects for transition from the P4 to P'4 and then N4 generations of nuclear power stations. The courses of action decided with respect to the design of the machine room and auxiliary equipment building are described [fr

  7. Utilization of Lavandula angustifolia Miller extracts as naturalrepellents, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYOE YUSUFOGLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils, absolutes and concretes were prepared from the flowers and leaves of the plant Lavandula angustifolia Miller cultivated in the Bosphorus region of Istanbul, Turkey. The difference in the chemical composition of the mentioned extracts was investigated and compared by using a combination of capillary GC-MS with the aim of offering them as repellent, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries. The IR-spectra, the yields and the physico-chemical data of the extracts were also analysed.

  8. Arm-length stabilisation for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors using frequency-doubled auxiliary lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Mullavey, Adam J.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Miller, John; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Sigg, Daniel; Waldman, Sam J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this problem by employing auxiliary lasers at twice the fundamental measurement frequency to pre-stabilise the arm cavities’ lengths. Applying this approach, we reduce the apparent length noise of a 1.3 m long, independently suspended Fabry-Perot cavity to 30 pm rms and successfully...

  9. Direct Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Carboxylic Acids with Chiral Lithium Amides as Traceless Auxiliaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B. PMID:25562717

  10. Implementation of GNASH and auxiliary codes on the Harwell CRAY-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    The report describes a version of the preequilibrium, statistical nuclear-model code GNASH which has been implemented, along with a set of small auxiliary codes, on the CRAY-1 at AERE Harwell. GNASH provides a flexible tool for calculating cross sections, isomer ratios and emission spectra. A detailed description of the current user input is provided along with a full listing of the actual FORTRAN code, as modified for this implementation. (author)

  11. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  12. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs

  13. Coating possibilities for magnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.J.; Harjes, H.C.; Mann, G.A.; Morgan, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    High average power magnetic pulse compression systems are now being considered for use in several applications such as the High Power Radiation Source (HiPoRS) project. Such systems will require high reliability magnetic switches (saturable inductors) that are very efficient and have long lifetimes. One of the weakest components in magnetic switches is their interlaminar insulation. Considerations related to dielectric breakdown, thermal management of compact designs, and economical approaches for achieving these needs must be addressed. Various dielectric insulation and coating materials have been applied to Metglas foil in an attempt to solve the complex technical and practical problems associated with large magnetic switch structures. This work reports various needs, studies, results, and proposals in selecting and evaluating continuous coating approaches for magnetic foil. Techniques such as electrophoretic polymer deposition and surface chemical oxidation are discussed. We also propose continuous photofabrication processes for applying dielectric ribs or spacers to the foil which permit circulation of dielectric liquids for cooling during repetitive operation. 10 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs

  14. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Different Switch Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtualization of the network access layer has opened new doors in how we perceive networks. With this virtualization of the network, it is possible to transform a regular PC with several network interface cards into a switch. PC-based switches are becoming an alternative to off-the-shelf switches, since they are cheaper. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the performance of PC-based switches. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two PC-based switches, using Open vSwitch and LiSA, and compare their performance with an off-the-shelf Cisco switch. The RTT, throughput, and fairness for UDP are measured for both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technologies. From this research, we can conclude that the Cisco switch presents the best performance, and both PC-based switches have similar performance. Between Open vSwitch and LiSA, Open vSwitch represents a better choice since it has more features and is currently actively developed.

  15. Streamer model for high voltage water switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazama, F.J.; Kenyon, V.L. III

    1979-01-01

    An electrical switch model for high voltage water switches has been developed which predicts streamer-switching effects that correlate well with water-switch data from Casino over the past four years and with switch data from recent Aurora/AMP experiments. Preclosure rounding and postclosure resistive damping of pulseforming line voltage waveforms are explained in terms of spatially-extensive, capacitive-coupling of the conducting streamers as they propagate across the gap and in terms of time-dependent streamer resistance and inductance. The arc resistance of the Casino water switch and of a gas switch under test on Casino was determined by computer fit to be 0.5 +- 0.1 ohms and 0.3 +- 0.06 ohms respectively, during the time of peak current in the power pulse. Energy lost in the water switch during the first pulse is 18% of that stored in the pulseforming line while similar energy lost in the gas switch is 11%. The model is described, computer transient analyses are compared with observed water and gas switch data and the results - switch resistance, inductance and energy loss during the primary power pulse - are presented

  16. The SOL-2/Neto auxiliary protein modulates the function of AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Mellem, Jerry E; Jensen, Michael; Brockie, Penelope J; Walker, Craig S; Hoerndli, Frédéric J; Hauth, Linda; Madsen, David M; Maricq, Andres V

    2012-09-06

    The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates excitatory synaptic transmission by gating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). AMPA receptors (AMPARs), a subtype of iGluR, are strongly implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We previously discovered two classes of AMPAR auxiliary proteins in C. elegans that modify receptor kinetics and thus change synaptic transmission. Here, we have identified another auxiliary protein, SOL-2, a CUB-domain protein that associates with both the related auxiliary subunit SOL-1 and with the GLR-1 AMPAR. In sol-2 mutants, behaviors dependent on glutamatergic transmission are disrupted, GLR-1-mediated currents are diminished, and GLR-1 desensitization and pharmacology are modified. Remarkably, a secreted variant of SOL-1 delivered in trans can rescue sol-1 mutants, and this rescue depends on in cis expression of SOL-2. Finally, we demonstrate that SOL-1 and SOL-2 have an ongoing role in the adult nervous system to control AMPAR-mediated currents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of regeneration of liver function in pig model of auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiaxin; Chen Xiaopeng; Rui Ging; Shong Qun; Chen Fangman; Lu Meijing; Chen Yongquan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a pig model of auxiliary partial liver transplantation and observe the liver function regeneration of host liver and graft. Methods: The portal vein providing for the host liver were gradually contracted; the donor hepatic veins were eng-to-side anastomosed to inferior vena cava in host caudal; graft was transplanted into the space under the host liver, part of receivers relieved portal vein angiography and color Doppler flow imaging was performed 3 days after surgery. Liver function of double livers in relievers was checked up, 3 days and 1 week after surgery respectively. Results: After surgery 10 relievers survived over 1 week, blood enzymology from hepatic vein of grafts 1 week after surgery were not ameliorative significantly compared with those 3 days after surgery (P > 0.05). Blood enzymology indexes from hepatic veins of grafts 1 week after surgery were were improved significantly compared with 3 days after surgery (P < 0.05). The graft did not reveal atrophic and gained favorable function. Conclusion: Favorable regeneration in the auxiliary partial liver transplantation model has achieved. Ideal foundation has been established for simulating and investigating human auxiliary liver transplantation. (authors)

  18. When you have too many features: Auxiliaries, agreement and clitics in Italian varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta D'Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic variation can be ascribed to a range of factors. The Borer-Chomsky conjecture, as Mark Baker (2008 refers to it, states for instance that all parameters of variation are attributable to differences in the features of particular items (e.g. functional heads in the lexicon. In this paper, this hypothesis is carefully considered in relation to a group of Abruzzese dialects that exhibit three seemingly unrelated syntactic patterns: split auxiliary selection, split differential object marking, and omnivorous participial agreement in number/argumental agreement mismatch marking. It will be proposed that these three patterns are closely interrelated, and can be attributed to the presence of an unvalued bundle of φ-features (π. Depending on which XP this head is merged with, different agreement patterns will emerge. Furthermore, these dialects will be shown to differ from another macrogroup of northern Italian dialects purely in the locus of Merge of this extra functional head: it will also be shown that the almost perfect areal complementary distribution between languages with subject clitics and languages with person-driven auxiliary selection is not accidental, but is the result of the presence of an extra φ-probe doubling the features of the subject in different parts of the syntactic spine. A microtypology of 'v 'will be presented, unifying many phenomena that were previously considered unrelated, such as auxiliary selection, participial agreement, differential object marking and subject clitics.

  19. Evaluation of the pressure loads generated by hydrogen explosion in auxiliary nuclear building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bentaib; Alexandre Bleyer; Pierre Pailhories; Jean-Pierre L'heriteau; Bernard Chaumont; Jerome Dupas; Jerome Riviere

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of nuclear safety, a hydrogen leaks in the auxiliary nuclear building would raise a explosion hazard. A local ignition of the combustible mixture would give birth initially to a slow flame, rapidly accelerated by obstacles. This flame acceleration is responsible for high pressure loads that can damage the auxiliary building and destroy safety equipments in it. In this paper, we evaluate the pressure loads generated by an hydrogen explosion for both bounding and realistic explosion scenarios. The bounding scenarios use stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures and the realistic scenarios correspond to hydrogen leaks with mass flow rate varying between 1 g/s and 9 g/s. For every scenario, the impact of the ignition location and ignition time are investigated. The hydrogen dispersion and explosion are computed using the TONUS code. The dispersion model used is based on a finite element solver and the explosion is simulated by a structured finite volumes EULER equation solver and the combustion model CREBCOM which simulates the hydrogen/air turbulent flame propagation, taking into account 3D complex geometry and reactants concentration gradients. The pressure loads computed are then used to investigate the occurrence of a mechanical failure of the tanks located in the auxiliary nuclear building and containing radioactive fluids. The EUROPLEXUS code is used to perform 3D mechanical calculations because the loads are non uniform and of rather short deviation. (authors)

  20. Simulative technology for auxiliary fuel tank separation in a wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simulative experimental system in wind tunnel conditions for the separation of auxiliary fuel tanks from an aircraft. The experimental system consists of a simulative release mechanism, a scaled model and a pose measuring system. A new release mechanism was designed to ensure stability of the separation. Scaled models of the auxiliary fuel tank were designed and their moment of inertia was adjusted by installing counterweights inside the model. Pose parameters of the scaled model were measured and calculated by a binocular vision system. Additionally, in order to achieve high brightness and high signal-to-noise ratio of the images in the dark enclosed wind tunnel, a new high-speed image acquisition method based on miniature self-emitting units was presented. Accuracy of the pose measurement system and repeatability of the separation mechanism were verified in the laboratory. Results show that the position precision of the pose measurement system can reach 0.1 mm, the precision of the pitch and yaw angles is less than 0.1° and that of the roll angle can be up to 0.3°. Besides, repeatability errors of models’ velocity and angular velocity controlled by the release mechanism remain small, satisfying the measurement requirements. Finally, experiments for the separation of auxiliary fuel tanks were conducted in the laboratory.