WorldWideScience

Sample records for assistance enhancing safety

  1. ESSAA: Embedded system safety analysis assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Peter; Holzer, Joseph; Guarro, Sergio; Hyatt, Larry

    1987-01-01

    The Embedded System Safety Analysis Assistant (ESSAA) is a knowledge-based tool that can assist in identifying disaster scenarios. Imbedded software issues hazardous control commands to the surrounding hardware. ESSAA is intended to work from outputs to inputs, as a complement to simulation and verification methods. Rather than treating the software in isolation, it examines the context in which the software is to be deployed. Given a specified disasterous outcome, ESSAA works from a qualitative, abstract model of the complete system to infer sets of environmental conditions and/or failures that could cause a disasterous outcome. The scenarios can then be examined in depth for plausibility using existing techniques.

  2. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety; Final Rule #0;#0... Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule... Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter Education and...

  3. Suitable footwear for enhanced safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Safety shoes are the theme of a new safety campaign. Always remember that accidents can happen - even to your feet! When entering hazardous areas such as underground halls, work sites, experiment assembly sites, workshops etc., sandals, ordinary shoes or similar light footwear should not be worn. Whatever the risks to which you may be exposed, always think safety and wear suitable footwear, i.e. safety shoes, which have non-slip soles and steel reinforcements to protect your feet from being crushed, fractured or pierced. Is it serious, Doctor? "Some traumas resulting from foot-related accidents - open fractures for instance - can be quite serious," explains CERN Works Doctor Véronique Fassnacht. "But the most common injuries are sprained ankles sustained during simple falls caused by differences in floor-levels (e.g. false floors). Fractures, bruising, surface wounds or deep wounds caused by objects falling onto the top of the foot are also quite common." ...

  4. Enhancing Safety through Generic Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.

  5. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  6. 76 FR 37815 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Shellfish Safety Assistance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement To Support Shellfish Safety Assistance... its intent to award a single source cooperative agreement to support the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC). The purpose of this cooperative agreement is to enhance the FDA...

  7. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  8. 78 FR 53790 - Public Forum-Safety Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Culture; Organizational Leadership Perspectives on Safety Culture; Safety Culture Management and Oversight... effective safety cultures within their industries. There will also be a review of some recent organizational... SAFETY BOARD Public Forum--Safety Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety On Tuesday and...

  9. Minimally assistive robot training for proprioception enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Maura; Morasso, Pietro; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Giannoni, Psiche

    2009-04-01

    In stroke survivors, motor impairment is frequently associated with degraded proprioceptive and/or somatosensory functions. Here we address the question of how to use robots to improve proprioception in these patients. We used an 'assist-as-needed' protocol, in which robot assistance was kept to a minimum and was continuously adjusted during exercise. To specifically train proprioceptive functions, we alternated blocks of trials with and without vision. A total of nine chronic stroke survivors participated in the study, which consisted of a total of ten 1-h exercise sessions. We used a linear mixed-effects statistical model to account for the effects of exercise, vision and the degree of assistance on the overall performance, and to capture both the systematic effects and the individual variations. Although there was not always a complete recovery of autonomous movements, all subjects exhibited an increased amount of voluntary control. Moreover, training with closed eyes appeared to be beneficial for patients with abnormal proprioception. Our results indicate that training by alternating vision and no-vision blocks may improve the ability to use proprioception as well as the ability to integrate it with vision. We suggest that the approach may be useful in the more general case of motor skill acquisition, in which enhancing proprioception may improve the ability to physically interact with the external world.

  10. Performance of Compiler-Assisted Memory Safety Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Performance of Compiler -Assisted Memory Safety Checking David Keaton Robert C. Seacord August 2014 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2014-TN...014 | vii Abstract Buffer overflows affect a large installed base of C code. This technical note describes the criteria for deploying a compiler ...describes a modification to the LLVM compiler to enable hoisting bounds checks from loops and functions. This proof-of-concept prototype has been used

  11. Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    ARL-TR-7743 ● AUG 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology...AUG 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology Demonstration by Muthuvel...COVERED (From - To) 10 January 2012–29 February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology

  12. Safety Culture Enhancement Project. Final Report. A Field Study on Approaches to Enhancement of Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Andrew; Hayward, Brent (Dedale Asia Pacific, Albert Park VIC 3206 (Australia))

    2006-08-15

    This report documents a study with the objective of enhancing safety culture in the Swedish nuclear power industry. A primary objective of this study was to ensure that the latest thinking on human factors principles was being recognised and applied by nuclear power operators as a means of ensuring optimal safety performance. The initial phase of the project was conducted as a pilot study, involving the senior management group at one Swedish nuclear power-producing site. The pilot study enabled the project methodology to be validated after which it was repeated at other Swedish nuclear power industry sites, providing a broad-ranging analysis of opportunities across the industry to enhance safety culture. The introduction to this report contains an overview of safety culture, explains the background to the project and sets out the project rationale and objectives. The methodology used for understanding and analysing the important safety culture issues at each nuclear power site is then described. This section begins with a summary of the processes used in the information gathering and data analysis stage. The six components of the Management Workshops conducted at each site are then described. These workshops used a series of presentations, interactive events and group exercises to: (a) provide feedback to site managers on the safety culture and safety leadership issues identified at their site, and (b) stimulate further safety thinking and provide 'take-away' information and leadership strategies that could be applied to promote safety culture improvements. Section 3, project Findings, contains the main observations and output from the project. These include: - a brief overview of aspects of the local industry operating context that impinge on safety culture; - a summary of strengths or positive attributes observed within the safety culture of the Swedish nuclear industry; - a set of identified opportunities for further improvement; - the aggregated

  13. Sociodrama approach for enhancing nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K. S.; Kim, C. B.; Ha, Y. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    A role playing or sociodrama has been experimentally conducted among residents from 4 NPP sites in Korea and KINS employees as a psychological approach for enhancing nuclear safety and improving public communication and public confidence in regulator in Dec. 2004. In this paper, the results were analyzed and presented and future plan and area of further study were suggested. This socio-psychological approach can be used as a new communication method for improving mutual understanding between residents and NPP operators at sites. It can be also used to solve conflicts among stakeholders and interest groups in nuclear industry.

  14. Safety Culture Enhancement Project. Final Report. A Field Study on Approaches to Enhancement of Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Andrew; Hayward, Brent (Dedale Asia Pacific, Albert Park VIC 3206 (Australia))

    2006-08-15

    This report documents a study with the objective of enhancing safety culture in the Swedish nuclear power industry. A primary objective of this study was to ensure that the latest thinking on human factors principles was being recognised and applied by nuclear power operators as a means of ensuring optimal safety performance. The initial phase of the project was conducted as a pilot study, involving the senior management group at one Swedish nuclear power-producing site. The pilot study enabled the project methodology to be validated after which it was repeated at other Swedish nuclear power industry sites, providing a broad-ranging analysis of opportunities across the industry to enhance safety culture. The introduction to this report contains an overview of safety culture, explains the background to the project and sets out the project rationale and objectives. The methodology used for understanding and analysing the important safety culture issues at each nuclear power site is then described. This section begins with a summary of the processes used in the information gathering and data analysis stage. The six components of the Management Workshops conducted at each site are then described. These workshops used a series of presentations, interactive events and group exercises to: (a) provide feedback to site managers on the safety culture and safety leadership issues identified at their site, and (b) stimulate further safety thinking and provide 'take-away' information and leadership strategies that could be applied to promote safety culture improvements. Section 3, project Findings, contains the main observations and output from the project. These include: - a brief overview of aspects of the local industry operating context that impinge on safety culture; - a summary of strengths or positive attributes observed within the safety culture of the Swedish nuclear industry; - a set of identified opportunities for further improvement; - the aggregated

  15. Enhancing Transfusion Safety: Nurse’s Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriazi Vasiliki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strict clinical measures, there are distinct steps in transfusion process which require acute attention.The nurse is responsible for insuring that the right unit is administered to the right patient. Knowledge of risks is essential toadminister and monitor transfusions safely.Aim: This study summarizes the available data concerning transfusion adverse events and provides theoretical and technicalaspects for improving transfusion practice.Methodology: A systematic review in PubMed, MedLine and MDConsult database was conducted. The research limitsincluded English texts, referring to transfusion risks and technological means aiming at transfusion safety.Results: Blood transfusion is a medical intervention that saves lives and improves the quality of life. The regulations forensuring the availability and assuring the quality of the blood component cannot avoid transfusion errors, placing patients atrisk. Most frequent errors are attributed to practitioners involved in the clinical transfusion process. Based on reports toSerious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT the risk of transfusion error is estimated at 1:16,500. Over the last years severalcommittees have recommended guidance for enhancing the safety of blood ordering and administration. Moreover, newtechnology like barcode on patient wristband manages to improve the performance in each step.Conclusion: Safe transfusion process depends on a series of linked processes and nurses should take specific measuresreferring to pre- and post-transfusion stage. Technological innovations could help patients in need of transfusion therapy.

  16. The safety of electrically assisted bicycles compared to classic bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J P; Fishman, E; den Hertog, P; Wolt, K Klein; Schwab, A L

    2014-12-01

    Use of electrically assisted bicycles with a maximum speed of 25 km/h is rapidly increasing. This growth has been particularly rapid in the Netherlands, yet very little research has been conducted to assess the road safety implications. This case-control study compares the likelihood of crashes for which treatment at an emergency department is needed and injury consequences for electric bicycles to classic bicycles in the Netherlands among users of 16 years and older. Data were gathered through a survey of victims treated at emergency departments. Additionally, a survey of cyclists without any known crash experience, drawn from a panel of the Dutch population acted as a control sample. Logistic regression analysis is used to compare the risk of crashes with electric and classical bicycles requiring treatment at an emergency department. Among the victims treated at an emergency department we compared those being hospitalized to those being send home after the treatment at the emergency department to compare the injury consequences between electric and classical bicycle victims. The results suggest that, after controlling for age, gender and amount of bicycle use, electric bicycle users are more likely to be involved in a crash that requires treatment at an emergency department due to a crash. Crashes with electric bicycles are about equally severe as crashes with classic bicycles. We advise further research to develop policies to minimize the risk and maximize the health benefits for users of electric bicycles.

  17. Safety enhancement solutions Laguna Verde NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    After the event happened in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima (Japan) proposals are carried out to improve the safety systems in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Mexico), from the application of the recommendations of the US NRC, until the considerations for the renovation of the operation license. (Author)

  18. Enhancing Safety at Airline Operations Control Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Řasa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a new term of Safety Management System (SMS has been introduced into aviation legislation. This system is being adopted by airline operators. One of the groundbased actors of everyday operations is Operations Control Centre (OCC. The goal of this article has been to identify and assess risks and dangers which occur at OCC and create a template for OCC implementation into SMS.

  19. Physician attitudes towards pharmacological cognitive enhancement: safety concerns are paramount.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi C Banjo

    Full Text Available The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the

  20. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Curt N. [Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  1. Enhancing Computer Assisted Assessment Using Rubrics in a QTI Editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Patricia; Colina, Xavier; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Melero, Javier; Blat, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Santos,P., Colina, X., Hernández-Leo, D., Melero, J., & Blat, J. (accepted). Enhancing Computer Assisted Assessment Using Rubrics in a QTI Editor. The 9th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. July, 14-18, 2009, Riga, Latvia.

  2. 78 FR 3311 - Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...) on Safety Enhancements Part 139, Certification of Airports (76 FR 5510). In the NPRM, the FAA... period until May 13, 2011, (76 FR 20570) because we learned that a number of airport operators were not... again reopened the comment period until July 5, 2011, (76 FR 32105) because several industry...

  3. Safety of computer-assisted surgery for cannulated hip screws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, H.K.M; Haagmans, M.; Snoeren, M.M.; Biert, J.; Vugt, A.B. van; Frolke, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery has developed considerably during the past few years. Several manufacturers produce hardware and software for use in trauma surgery. Validation of these systems before clinical application is mandatory to be sure they work accurately and safely. The accuracy of

  4. Does assisted driving behavior lead to safety-critical encounters with unequipped vehicles' drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuk, Katharina; Stemmler, Eric; Schießl, Caroline; Jipp, Meike

    2016-10-01

    With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers. This is why we tested how unequipped vehicles' drivers (N=60) interpreted and reacted to the driving behavior of an assisted driver. We used a multi-driver simulator with three drivers. The three drivers were driving in a line. The lead driver in the line was a confederate who was followed by two unequipped vehicles' drivers. We varied the equipment of the confederate with an Intelligent Transport System: The confederate was equipped either with or without a traffic light assistance system. The traffic light assistance system provided a start-up maneuver before a light turned green. Therefore, the assisted confederate seemed to show unusual deceleration behavior by coming to a halt at an unusual distance from the stop line at the red traffic light. The unusual distance was varied as we tested a moderate (4m distance from the stop line) and an extreme (10m distance from the stop line) parameterization of the system. Our results showed that the extreme parametrization resulted in shorter minimal time-to-collision of the unequipped vehicles' drivers. One rear-end crash was observed. These results provided initial evidence that safety issues can arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter assisted driving behavior. We recommend that future research identifies counteractions to prevent these safety issues. Moreover, we recommend that system developers

  5. RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sonam Devgan; Awasthi, Amit K

    2013-12-01

    Medication errors can cause substantial harm to patients. Automated patient medication system with RFID technology is purposely used to reduce the medication error, to improve the patient safety, to provide personalized patient medication and identification and also to provide counterfeit protection to the patients. In order to enhance medication safety for patients we propose a new dynamic ID based lightweight RFID authentication protocol. Due to low storage capacity and limited computational and communicational capacity of tags, only pseudo random number generator function, one way hash function and bitwise Xor operation are used in our authentication protocol. The proposed protocol is practical, secure and efficient for health care domain.

  6. Criticality safety enhancements for SCALE 6.2 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hart, Shane W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ibrahim, Ahmad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lefebvre, Jordan P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lefebvre, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Marshall, William J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, Don [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perfetti, Christopher M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrie Jr, Lester M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wiarda, Dorothea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have relied on SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE 6.2 provides several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features for criticality safety analysis. Enhancements are realized for nuclear data; multigroup resonance self-shielding; continuous-energy Monte Carlo analysis for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, radiation shielding, and depletion; and graphical user interfaces. An overview of these capabilities is provided in this paper, and additional details are provided in several companion papers.

  7. Criticality safety enhancements for SCALE 6.2 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hart, Shane W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ibrahim, Ahmad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lefebvre, Jordan P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lefebvre, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Marshall, William J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, Don [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perfetti, Christopher M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrie Jr, Lester M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wiarda, Dorothea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have relied on SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE 6.2 provides several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features for criticality safety analysis. Enhancements are realized for nuclear data; multigroup resonance self-shielding; continuous-energy Monte Carlo analysis for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, radiation shielding, and depletion; and graphical user interfaces. An overview of these capabilities is provided in this paper, and additional details are provided in several companion papers.

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applied to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ana Paula; Franca, Adriana S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an advanced Raman technique that enhances the vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed on or in the vicinity of metal particles and/or surfaces. Because of its readiness, sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation requirements, SERS is being considered as a powerful technique for food inspection. Key aspects of food-safety assurance, spectroscopy methods, and SERS are briefly discussed in an extended introduction of this review. The recent and potential advances in SERS are highlighted in sections that deal with the (a) detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms and (b) the detection of food contaminants and adulteration, concentrated specifically on antibiotics, drugs, hormones, melamine, and pesticides. This review provides an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for food-safety assessment.

  9. Post-Fukushima Probabilistic Safety Enhancements of Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Janghwan; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hyun-Gyo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nuclear concerned society as well as regulatory agency of Korea also asked several safety measures be included to the existing safety principles. These measures include the post-Fukushima near action items, several mid-long term obligations for severe accidents and rare external hazards which were disregarded due to unlikely event probabilities. This paper illustrates some activities being done or planned in view of probabilistic assessment boundaries; 1) Items currently performed by industry, 2) Regulatory measures which will impact to the industry activities, 3) Activities planned by mid-long bases. After the Fukushima accident, the significance of severe accidents and PSA came to the public as well as the industry itself. Among fifty safety-related plans, in this paper, we showed the implementation strategies and interim insights from LPSD PSA. The plans or activities now underway are further enhancing the safety for operating by introducing PSR and construction plants by inclusion of PSA insights into SAR. The main focus for safety improvement is targeted by not only the hardware improvement, but also systematic structure and effective operational improvement. The results of LPSD PSA implementation strategy will contribute to conforming of regulatory requirement and legislation of PSA which requests the application of extended scope of analysis, new methodology, PSA quality, living PSA through technically sound and application- specific PSA models.

  10. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery.

  11. Enhancing Assisted Living Technology with Extended Visual Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hwee Lim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human vision and memory are powerful cognitive faculties by which we understand the world. However, they are imperfect and further, subject to deterioration with age. We propose a cognitive-inspired computational model, Extended Visual Memory (EVM, within the Computer-Aided Vision (CAV framework, to assist human in vision-related tasks. We exploit wearable sensors such as cameras, GPS and ambient computing facilities to complement a user's vision and memory functions by answering four types of queries central to visual activities, namely, Retrieval, Understanding, Navigation and Search. Learning of EVM relies on both frequency-based and attention-driven mechanisms to store view-based visual fragments (VF, which are abstracted into high-level visual schemas (VS, both in the visual long-term memory. During inference, the visual short-term memory plays a key role in visual similarity computation between input (or its schematic representation and VF, exemplified from VS when necessary. We present an assisted living scenario, termed EViMAL (Extended Visual Memory for Assisted Living, targeted at mild dementia patients to provide novel functions such as hazard-warning, visual reminder, object look-up and event review. We envisage EVM having the potential benefits in alleviating memory loss, improving recall precision and enhancing memory capacity through external support.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Moraski, R.V.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  13. Enhancement of safety at nuclear facilities in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Hayat, T.; Azhar, W. [Directorate of Safety, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 3416, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-07-01

    Pakistan is benefiting from nuclear technology mostly in health and energy sectors as well as agriculture and industry and has an impeccable safety record. At the national level uses of nuclear technology started in 1955 resulting in the operation of Karachi Radioisotope Center, Karachi, in December 1960. Pakistan Nuclear Safety Committee (PNSC) was formulated in 1964 with subsequent promulgation of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Ordinance in 1965 to cope with the anticipated introduction of a research reactor, namely PARR-I, and a nuclear power plant, namely KANUPP. Since then Pakistan's nuclear program has expanded to include numerous nuclear facilities of varied nature. This program has definite economic and social impacts by producing electricity, treating and diagnosing cancer patients, and introducing better crop varieties. Appropriate radiation protection includes a number of measures including database of sealed radiation sources at PAEC operated nuclear facilities, see Table l, updated during periodic physical verification of these sources, strict adherence to the BSS-115, IAEA recommended enforcement of zoning at research reactors and NPPs, etc. Pakistan is party to several international conventions and treaties, such as Convention of Nuclear Safety and Early Notification, to improve and enhance safety at its nuclear facilities. In addition Pakistan generally and PAEC particularly believes in a blend of prudent regulations and good/best practices. This is described in this paper. (Author)

  14. BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES AS ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ENHANCEMENT INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Begak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental safety enhancement is an important objective for any state. It is vital for the Russian Federation, where economic activities resulted in environmental deterioration. Current development has to provide both for the growth of the national economy and for the minimization of negative environmental impacts. These issues could be addressed via development and implementation of the National Environmental Strategies, which have to become a basis for setting national targets and implementing modern instruments of environmental safety. European experience proves that the Best Available Techniques (BAT are considered as instruments applicable to improve environmental performance and resource efficiency for major enterprises. Main components of the national environmental strategy are discussed, and prerequisites for its implementation (such as ratification of Espoo and Aarhus conventions and practical application of BAT principles in environmental regulation are suggested as a result of the analysis of new legislative and managerial approaches emerging in Russia.

  15. A leadership initiative to improve communication and enhance safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Moreen; Miller, Matthew; Smith, Lisa; Dykes, Patricia; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2011-01-01

    The EMPOWER project was a collaborative effort to promote a culture of patient safety at Danbury Hospital through an interdisciplinary leadership-driven communication program. The "EMPOWER" component includes Educating and Mentoring Paraprofessionals On Ways to Enhance Reporting of changes in patient status. Specifically, the EMPOWER program was designed to prepare paraprofessional staff (PPS) to communicate changes in patient status using SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendations) structured communication. The specific project goals included (a) translation of SBAR structured communication methods for use with PPS, (b) reduction of cultural and educational barriers to interdisciplinary communication, and (c) examination of the effect of the EMPOWER intervention on the PPS communication practices and perceptions of the patient safety culture. Results of the project indicate a change in the use of SBAR throughout the institution, with particular improvement in communication from PPS to professional staff.

  16. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  17. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility--Listening Sessions AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... regarding Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) retailer eligibility requirements (78 FR...

  18. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove

  19. Enhancing Patient Safety Using Clinical Nursing Data: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2016-01-01

    To enhance patient safety from falls, many hospital information systems have been implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve fall prevention care. However, most of them use administrative data not clinical nursing data. This necessitated the development of a web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System (NPRIMS) that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of fall prevention care and its impact on patient outcomes. This pilot study developed computer algorithms based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype NPRIMS. It successfully measured the performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes using clinical nursing data from the study site. Results of the study revealed that NPRIMS has the potential to pinpoint components of nursing processes that are in need of improvement for preventing patient from falls.

  20. Using Total Lightning Observations to Enhance Lightning Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning is often the underrated threat faced by the public when it comes to dangerous weather phenomena. Typically, larger scale events such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes receive the vast majority of attention by both the general population and the media. This comes from the fact that these phenomena are large, longer lasting, can impact a large swath of society at one time, and are dangerous events. The threat of lightning is far more isolated on a case by case basis, although millions of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes hit this United States each year. While attention is given to larger meteorological events, lightning is the second leading cause of weather related deaths in the United States. This information raises the question of what steps can be taken to improve lightning safety. Already, the meteorological community s understanding of lightning has increased over the last 20 years. Lightning safety is now better addressed with the National Weather Service s access to the National Lightning Detection Network data and enhanced wording in their severe weather warnings. Also, local groups and organizations are working to improve public awareness of lightning safety with easy phrases to remember, such as "When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors." The impacts can be seen in the greater array of contingency plans, from airports to sports stadiums, addressing the threat of lightning. Improvements can still be made and newer technologies may offer new tools as we look towards the future. One of these tools is a network of sensors called a lightning mapping array (LMA). Several of these networks exist across the United States. NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT), part of the Marshall Spaceflight Center, has access to three of these networks from Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, and Washington D.C. The SPoRT program s mission is to help transition unique products and observations into the operational forecast environment

  1. Enhancing Mutual Respect among Nursing Assistants, Residents, and Residents' Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselman, Terry; Noelker, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    Interviewed nursing assistants (n=40) and nursing facility residents (n=37) regarding ways they experienced respect, disrespect, attachment, and distancing in their relationships with each other. As a result of finding evidence of disrespect, an inservice session on gaining respect as a nursing assistant was presented. (ABL)

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  3. Strengthening leadership as a catalyst for enhanced patient safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Christensen, Karl Bang; Jaquet, Annette

    2016-01-01

    rated job satisfaction lower than the staff staying on (ppatient safety culture are remarkable, and imply that strengthening the leadership can act as a significant catalyst for patient safety culture improvement. Further studies using......OBJECTIVES: Current literature emphasises that clinical leaders are in a position to enable a culture of safety, and that the safety culture is a performance mediator with the potential to influence patient outcomes. This paper aims to investigate staff's perceptions of patient safety culture...... in a Danish psychiatric department before and after a leadership intervention. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional experimental study by design was applied. In 2 surveys, healthcare staff were asked about their perceptions of the patient safety culture using the 7 patient safety culture dimensions...

  4. Using computer graphics to enhance astronaut and systems safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computer graphics is being employed at the NASA Johnson Space Center as a tool to perform rapid, efficient and economical analyses for man-machine integration, flight operations development and systems engineering. The Operator Station Design System (OSDS), a computer-based facility featuring a highly flexible and versatile interactive software package, PLAID, is described. This unique evaluation tool, with its expanding data base of Space Shuttle elements, various payloads, experiments, crew equipment and man models, supports a multitude of technical evaluations, including spacecraft and workstation layout, definition of astronaut visual access, flight techniques development, cargo integration and crew training. As OSDS is being applied to the Space Shuttle, Orbiter payloads (including the European Space Agency's Spacelab) and future space vehicles and stations, astronaut and systems safety are being enhanced. Typical OSDS examples are presented. By performing physical and operational evaluations during early conceptual phases. supporting systems verification for flight readiness, and applying its capabilities to real-time mission support, the OSDS provides the wherewithal to satisfy a growing need of the current and future space programs for efficient, economical analyses.

  5. Generation of safety enhanced Edwardsiella tarda ghost vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Jin; Kwon, Se Ryun; Zenke, Kosuke; Lee, Eun Hye; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2008-09-24

    A dual vector expressing the ghost-inducing PhiX174 lysis E gene and the bacterial DNA degrading staphylococcal nuclease A (SNA) gene was constructed to solve the problem of remnant antibiotic resistance genes and genomic DNA with intact pathogenic islands in the final product of Edwardsiella tarda ghosts (ETG). The SNA (devoid of secretion signal sequence and the nuclease B amino terminus sequence), fused with the 26 amino acid N-terminal sequence of the lambda phage Cro gene, showed successful degradation of bacterial nucleic acids. Furthermore, the nuclease activity of SNA in E. tarda was enhanced by codon optimization of the SNA gene using site-directed mutagenesis. ETG were generated via coexpression of the SNA gene and lysis gene E under the control of each lambdaP(R) promoter. The ghost bacteria generation system we describe is advantageous as it allows the use of a single plasmid, improves safety and vaccine purity by limiting residual genetic content from the ghost bacteria, and reduces production costs through cheap means of induction that use only temperature shifts.

  6. Understanding safety in healthcare: the system evolution, erosion and enhancement model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Carthey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises previous theories of accident causation, human error, foresight, resilience and system migration. Five lessons from these theories are used as the foundation for a new model which describes how patient safety emerges in complex systems like healthcare: the System Evolution Erosion and Enhancement model. It is concluded that to improve patient safety, healthcare organisations need to understand how system evolution both enhances and erodes patient safety.

  7. Securing the safety net: concurrent participation in income eligible assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Danielle; Nanda, Joy; Paige, David

    2014-04-01

    Participation in women, infants and children (WIC), supplemental nutritional assistance program (SNAP), temporary assistance for needy families (TANF), and medical assistance program (MAP) programs provide critical nutrition and health benefits to low-income families. Concurrent enrollment in these programs provides a powerful safety net, yet simultaneous participation is reported to be low. Underutilization undermines program objectives, client well-being and food security. This paper examines concurrent participation among the most needy WIC clients, those at/below 100% of the federal poverty level (FPL), in SNAP, TANF and MAP. We examined the Maryland state WIC program infant electronic database (N = 34,409) for the 12-month period ending September 2010. Our analysis focused on two-thirds of these infants (N = 23,065) who were at/below the 100% FPL. Mothers' mean age was 26.8 ± 6 years; 20.6% White; 52.7% African American, and 23.4% Hispanic. Approximately 10% of infants weighed barriers to concurrent participation among these families.

  8. Surveying Wearable Human Assistive Technology for Life and Safety Critical Applications: Standards, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahtab Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people’s safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  9. Surveying wearable human assistive technology for life and safety critical applications: standards, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2014-05-23

    In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people's safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  10. Contractors’ Attitude towards Enhancing Safety Performance: Case Study on Construction Firms in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulang N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to investigate the contractors’ attitude towards enhancing the safety performance in construction site. Despite the fact that there are many safety initiatives established by the government, the rates of accidents are still in a critically high condition. Thus the purpose of this research is to study the contractors’ attitude towards enhancing the implementation of safety management system in construction site in order to increase the safety awareness of construction practitioners in construction site and improve the safety condition of construction sites. This study is conducted through oral interviews with the construction practitioners, and visual inspection of construction sites. The attitudes of contractors are evaluated from 3 aspects: Contractors’ efforts in implement and enforce the safety rules, Contractors efforts in overcoming the rate of accidents, and Reasons given by the contractors for not implement safety law.

  11. Enhancing vaccine safety capacity globally: A lifecycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Chen (Robert T.); T.T. Shimabukuro (Tom T.); D.B. Martin (David); P. Zuber (Patrick); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMajor vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-p

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health - Part 5: Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  14. Smart roadside system for driver assistance and safety warnings: framework and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun Suk; Cho, Han Byeog

    2011-01-01

    The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use.

  15. Smart Roadside System for Driver Assistance and Safety Warnings: Framework and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Byeog Cho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs. This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use.

  16. Collaborative Assistive Robot for Mobility Enhancement (CARMEN) The bare necessities assisted wheelchair navigation and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Urdiales, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In nowadays aging society, many people require mobility assistance. Sometimes, assistive devices need a certain degree of autonomy when users' disabilities difficult manual control. However, clinicians report that excessive assistance may lead to loss of residual skills and frustration. Shared control focuses on deciding when users need help and providing it. Collaborative control aims at giving just the right amount of help in a transparent, seamless way. This book presents the collaborative control paradigm. User performance may be indicative of physical/cognitive condition, so it is used to decide how much help is needed. Besides, collaborative control integrates machine and user commands so that people contribute to self-motion at all times. Collaborative control was extensively tested for 3 years using a robotized wheelchair at a rehabilitation hospital in Rome with volunteer inpatients presenting different disabilities, ranging from mild to severe. We also present a taxonomy of common metrics for wheelc...

  17. Understanding safety in healthcare: the system evolution, erosion and enhancement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthey, Jane

    2013-12-01

    The paper summarises previous theories of accident causation, human error, foresight, resilience and system migration. Five lessons from these theories are used as the foundation for a new model which describes how patient safety emerges in complex systems like healthcare: the System Evolution Erosion and Enhancement model. It is concluded that to improve patient safety, healthcare organisations need to understand how system evolution both enhances and erodes patient safety. Significance for public healthThe article identifies lessons from previous theories of human error and accident causation, foresight, resilience engineering and system migration and introduces a new framework for understanding patient safety in healthcare; the System Evolution, Erosion and Enhancement (SEEE) model. The article is significant for public health because healthcare organizations around the world need to understand how safety evolves and erodes to develop and implement interventions to reduce patient harm.

  18. Enhanced ultrasonically assisted turning of a β-titanium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurotto, Agostino; Muhammad, Riaz; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2013-09-01

    Although titanium alloys have outstanding mechanical properties such as high hot hardness, a good strength-to-weight ratio and high corrosion resistance; their low thermal conductivity, high chemical affinity to tool materials severely impair their machinability. Ultrasonically assisted machining (UAM) is an advanced machining technique, which has been shown to improve machinability of a β-titanium alloy, namely, Ti-15-3-3-3, when compared to conventional turning processes.

  19. Safety mechanism assisted by the repressor of tetracycline (SMART) vaccinia virus vectors for vaccines and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Patricia; Titong, Allison; Jones, Leslie A; Yilma, Tilahun D; Verardi, Paulo H

    2013-09-17

    Replication-competent viruses, such as Vaccinia virus (VACV), are powerful tools for the development of oncolytic viral therapies and elicit superior immune responses when used as vaccine and immunotherapeutic vectors. However, severe complications from uncontrolled viral replication can occur, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or in those with other predisposing conditions. VACVs constitutively expressing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) replicate in cell culture indistinguishably from control viruses; however, they replicate in vivo to low or undetectable levels, and are rapidly cleared even in immunodeficient animals. In an effort to develop safe and highly effective replication-competent VACV vectors, we established a system to inducibly express IFN-γ. Our SMART (safety mechanism assisted by the repressor of tetracycline) vectors are designed to express the tetracycline repressor under a constitutive VACV promoter and IFN-γ under engineered tetracycline-inducible promoters. Immunodeficient SCID mice inoculated with VACVs not expressing IFN-γ demonstrated severe weight loss, whereas those given VACVs expressing IFN-γ under constitutive VACV promoters showed no signs of infection. Most importantly, mice inoculated with a VACV expressing the IFN-γ gene under an inducible promoter remained healthy in the presence of doxycycline, but exhibited severe weight loss in the absence of doxycycline. In this study, we developed a safety mechanism for VACV based on the conditional expression of IFN-γ under a tightly controlled tetracycline-inducible VACV promoter for use in vaccines and oncolytic cancer therapies.

  20. Enhanced FAA-hybrid III numerical dummy model in Madymo for aircraft occupant safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucher, H.; Waagmeester, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    To improve survivability and to minimize the risk of injury to occupants in helicopter crash events, a complete Cabin Safety System concept including safety features and an enhanced FAA-Hybrid III dummy were developed within the HeliSafe project. A numerical tool was also created and validated to al

  1. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The safety and consumption of irradiated foods have been extensively studied at national levels and in international cooperations and have concluded that foods irradiated under appropriate technologies are both safe and nutritionally adequate. Specific applications of food irradiation have been approved by national legislations of more than 55 countries worldwide. This review aims to discuss the applications of irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability.

  2. Systematic review of published studies on safety and efficacy of thoracoscopic and robot-assisted lobectomy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of thoracoscopic and robot-assisted lobectomies for primary lung cancer were reviewed in the literature. Thoracoscopic surgery is less invasive compared to thoracotomy, and it has been reported to be superior with regard to the outcome. In addition, the operability of a surgical robot (da Vinci) is favorable and supplements the disadvantages of conventional endoscopic surgery. Robot-assisted lobectomy has been reported to be comparable to thoracoscopic surgery with regard to the safety and efficacy based on analysis of perioperative results and superior with regard to the operability and length of the learning curve. However, a high cost and a long operative time are of concern. Since robot-assisted surgery has been performed only in early cases, the continuation of a comparative investigation may be necessary.

  3. Safety enhancement of oil trunk pipeline crossing active faults on Sakhalin Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkina, E.; Antropova, N.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    The article explores the issues concerning safety enhancement of pipeline active fault crossing on Sakhalin Island. Based on the complexity and analysis results, all the faults crossed by pipeline system are classified into five categories - from very simple faults to extremely complex ones. The pipeline fault crossing design is developed in accordance with the fault category. To enhance pipeline safety at fault crossing, a set of methods should be applied: use of pipes of different safety classes and special trench design in accordance with soil permeability characteristics.

  4. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  5. Safety Enhancement Technologies for Airport Ramp Area Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has been involved in developing advanced automation systems for improving the efficiency of air-traffic operations, reducing controller workload and enhancing...

  6. Peer assisted learning: teaching dental skills and enhancing graduate attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D A; Binnie, V I; Sherriff, A; Bissell, V

    2015-09-25

    This study describes a pilot project in which peer assisted learning (PAL) is used to teach dental clinical skills. A cluster randomised controlled trial compared opinions of Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students from peer-led groups versus staff-led groups in a clinical (impression taking) and a pre-clinical (handpiece skills) task. BDS5 (peer tutors) in their final year delivered teaching to BDS1 (tutees) for each task. Quantitative data from tutees and the peer tutors was gathered from questionnaires, along with open written comments. PAL was well received by both tutees and peer tutors. BDS1 tutees rated BDS5 peer tutors highly for delivery of information, and level of feedback. The tutees considered peer tutors more approachable and less intimidating than staff. Peer tutors reported their own knowledge had increased as a result of teaching. In a summative OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) four months following the teaching, no statistical significant difference between the performance of peer-led and staff-led groups was found at stations related to the subject matter in question. It is argued that PAL, as well as being a useful method of delivering subject-specific teaching, is able to contribute to the development of graduate attributes.

  7. Segmentation Scheme for Safety Enhancement of Engineered Safety Features Component Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangseok; Sohn, Kwangyoung [Korea Reliability Technology and System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junku; Park, Geunok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Common Caused Failure (CCF) or undetectable failure would adversely impact safety functions of ESF-CCS in the existing nuclear power plants. We propose the segmentation scheme to solve these problems. Main function assignment to segments in the proposed segmentation scheme is based on functional dependency and critical function success path by using the dependency depth matrix. The segment has functional independence and physical isolation. The segmentation structure is that prohibit failure propagation to others from undetectable failures. Therefore, the segmentation system structure has robustness to undetectable failures. The segmentation system structure has functional diversity. The specific function in the segment defected by CCF, the specific function could be maintained by diverse control function that assigned to other segments. Device level control signals and system level control signals are separated and also control signal and status signals are separated due to signal transmission paths are allocated independently based on signal type. In this kind of design, single device failure or failures on signal path in the channel couldn't result in the loss of all segmented functions simultaneously. Thus the proposed segmentation function is the design scheme that improves availability of safety functions. In conventional ESF-CCS, the single controller generates the signal to control the multiple safety functions, and the reliability is achieved by multiplication within the channel. This design has a drawback causing the loss of multiple functions due to the CCF (Common Cause Failure) and single failure Heterogeneous controller guarantees the diversity ensuring the execution of safety functions against the CCF and single failure, but requiring a lot of resources like manpower and cost. The segmentation technology based on the compartmentalization and functional diversification decreases the CCF and single failure nonetheless the identical types of

  8. Optical field enhancement effects in laser-assisted particle removal

    OpenAIRE

    Mosbacher, Mario; Münzer, Hans-Joachim; Zimmermann, Jörg; Solis Cespedes, Francisco Javier; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2001-01-01

    We report on the role of local optical field enhancement in the neighbourhood of particles during dry laser cleaning (DLC) of silicon wafer surfaces. Samples covered with spherical colloidal particles (PS, SiO2) and arbitrarily shaped Al2O3 particles with diameters from 320 1700 nm were cleaned using laser pulses with durations from 150 fs to 6.5 ns and wavelengths ranging from 400 800 nm. Cleaned areas were investigated with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Holes in the substra...

  9. Polymer-assisted nanoparticulate contrast-enhancing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology in medicine research has significant potential in modern biomedical research,disease diagnosis and therapy.Organic fluorophore-based detection techniques have been widely used as imaging and signal transduction tools for the detection of trace levels of analytes.The photosensitivity of the fluorophores,however,limits their application in such complex environments as living bio-systems where degradation or photobleaching occurs.Inorganic nanoparticles have unique and stable optical,electrical,magnetic and catalytic properties because of their various shapes,sizes and compositions.The potential of the nanoparticles as novel imaging agents has been studied as a possible solution to this problem.Surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles could enhance their biostability in physiological conditions and ability of targeting bioactive molecules.

  10. Evaluation of an educational intervention using the enhanced food safety cost-of-illness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Robert L; McDowell, Joyce; Medeiros, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a number of federally sponsored state-based food safety education programs have conducted economic evaluations aimed at demonstrating the efficacy of their approaches. These evaluations have typically been based on the "Virginia method," a comprehensive, but overly simplistic means of estimating benefit-cost ratios for food safety and nutrition education programs. In this article, we use the enhanced food safety cost-of-illness model, coupled with a more complete food safety education intervention model to evaluate the efficacy of the Ohio Family Nutrition Program. We find that, under most reasonable assumptions, the derived benefit-cost ratios imply that this program is socially beneficial. The model presented here is of particular use because it can be replicated to evaluate other broad-based food safety programs.

  11. Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Enhance Achievement of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Hussein, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in English-Language environments offer practice time, motivates students, enhance student learning, increase authentic materials that students can study, and has the potential to encourage teamwork between students. The findings from this particular study suggested that students who used computer assisted…

  12. Electron-Positron Pair Production in a Strong Laser Field Enhanced by an Assisted High Frequency Weak Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdukerim Nuriman; XIE Bai-Song; LI Zi-Liang; Dulat Sayipjamal

    2013-01-01

    Electron-positron pair production in a strong laser field enhanced by an assisted high frequency weak field is investigated by solving the quantum Vlasov equation.The average and residual pair number densities are obtained for sinusoid electric field and it is found that the high frequency assisted weak field will enhance pair production significantly.There exists an optimal frequency of assisted field that makes the pair production number density get a maximum one,which is a few orders of higher than that without assisted field.We also discuss the other possible assisted fields.

  13. Safety and efficacy of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiang-Feng; Yang, Bing; Fang, Lei; Li, Yi-Ping; Shi, Yi-Jiu; Yu, Xiu-Chong; Zhang, Mou-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate safety and efficacy of laparoscopy-assisted radical gastrectomy (LARG) for advanced gastric cancer patients aged 70 years or older. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from patients with IIA-IIIC gastric cancer who underwent LARG (n = 30) and open radical gastrectomy (ORG, n = 34) in Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery in the Ningbo First Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. The mean operative time was longer in the LARG group than in the ORG group but there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The intraoperative blood loss (120 ± 52.7 ml vs 227.3 ± 146.9 ml), incidence of postoperative complication (23.0% vs 47%) were lower in the LARG group than those in the ORG group. In addition, the time to first flatus (2.9 ± 0.8 d vs 4.6 ± 1.2 d), time to first ambulation (1.2 ± 0.4 vs 4.1 ± 1.0 d), time of nasogastric intubation (2.5 ± 1.0 d vs 3.5 ± 1.4 d), and postoperative hospital stay (13.0 ± 4.2 d vs 16.9 ± 4.1 d) were significantly shorter in the LARG group than in the ORG group, respectively. No statistical difference in the number of harvested lymph nodes was noted between the two groups (30.2 ± 12.0 vs 28.1 ± 11.8, P > 0.05). LARG is safer, more effective and less invasive for the elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer.

  14. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  15. Development of an algorithm for using weather-dependent dynamic speed limits to enhance safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, E.; Klunder, G.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Rooy, R. de

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing research project in the Netherlands for lowering the speed limit, depending on the weather condition (in particular rain) to enhance traffic safety. The research in this project consists of three main parts. In the first part, research has been conducted on the strate

  16. Enhancement of flame development by microwave-assisted spark ignition in constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wolk, Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    The enhancement of laminar flame development using microwave-assisted spark ignition has been investigated for methane-air mixtures at a range of initial pressures and equivalence ratios in a 1.45. l constant volume combustion chamber. Microwave enhancement was evaluated on the basis of several parameters including flame development time (FDT) (time for 0-10% of total net heat release), flame rise time (FRT) (time for 10-90% of total net heat release), total net heat release, flame kernel growth rate, flame kernel size, and ignitability limit extension. Compared to a capacitive discharge spark, microwave-assisted spark ignition extended the lean and rich ignition limits at all pressures investigated (1.08-7.22. bar). The addition of microwaves to a capacitive discharge spark reduced FDT and increased the flame kernel size for all equivalence ratios tested and resulted in increases in the spatial flame speed for sufficiently lean flames. Flame enhancement is believed to be caused by (1) a non-thermal chemical kinetic enhancement from energy deposition to free electrons in the flame front and (2) induced flame wrinkling from excitation of flame (plasma) instability. The enhancement of flame development by microwaves diminishes as the initial pressure of the mixture increases, with negligible flame enhancement observed above 3. bar. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  18. Design and Implementation of NTU Wearable Exoskeleton as an Enhancement and Assistive Device

    OpenAIRE

    Low, K. H.; Liu, X; Yu, H.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a wearable lower extremity exoskeleton (LEE) developed to enhance the ability of a human’s walking while carrying heavy loads. The ultimate goal of the current research work is to design and control a power assist system that integrates a human’s intellect for feedback and sensory purposes. The exoskeleton system in this work consists of an inner exoskeleton and an outer exoskeleton. The inner exoskeleton measures the movements of the wearer and provides these measuremen...

  19. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons... guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders applying to the NRC to obtain enhanced weapons under the NRC's proposed...

  20. Risk and safety management in infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART): from the doctor's office to the ART procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Gambone, Joseph C; Meldrum, David R; Chapron, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Risk and safety management (RSM) is receiving increasing attention in medicine, with the goals of reducing medical error and increasing quality of care. The principles and tools of RSM can and should be applied to assisted reproductive technology (ART), a field that has already made significant progress in reducing the undesirable and sometimes dangerous consequences of treatment. ART is a prime area of medicine to contribute and help to lead the application of RSM and patient safety because it has been ahead of many other fields of medicine in standardizing treatment, certifying and auditing practitioners, and reporting standardized outcomes, and because treatments are applied to otherwise healthy individuals where exposure to risk may be less acceptable.

  1. Energy systems programs funded by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: FY 1993--FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttram, A.W. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    This document presents an overview of work at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) during FY 1993--FY 1994 that was funded by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (ASEH). To illustrate the programmatic breadth of Energy Systems and to establish the context within which this work was accomplished, this document also includes representative descriptions of ASEH-related work at Energy Systems done for other sponsors. Activities for ASEH cover a wide variety of subjects that are geared towards the environmental, safety, and health aspects of DOE operations. Subjects include the following: environmental compliance, environmental guidance, environmental audits, NEPA oversight, epidemiology and health surveillance, transportation and packaging safety, safety and quality assurance; technical standards, performance indicators, occurrence reporting, health physics instrumentation, risk management, security evaluations, and medical programs. The technical support section describes work in progress for ASEH, including specific program accomplishments. The work for others section describes work for non-ASEH sponsors that reinforces and supplements the ASEH work. Appendix A includes a list of FY 1993--FY 1994 publications related to the ASEH work.

  2. Reliability prediction for the vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS and passive safety systems (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human error has been reported as a major root cause in road accidents in today’s world. The human as a driver in road vehicles composed of human, mechanical and electrical components is constantly exposed to changing surroundings (e.g., road conditions, environmentwhich deteriorate the driver’s capacities leading to a potential accident. The auto industries and transportation authorities have realized that similar to other complex and safety sensitive transportation systems, the road vehicles need to rely on both advanced technologies (i.e., Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS and Passive Safety Systems (PSS (e.g.,, seatbelts, airbags in order to mitigate the risk of accidents and casualties. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of ADAS as active safety systems as well as passive safety systems in road vehicles have been discussed. Also, this study proposes models that analyze the interactions between human as a driver and ADAS Warning and Crash Avoidance Systems and PSS in the design of vehicles. Thereafter, the mathematical models have been developed to make reliability prediction at any given time on the road transportation for vehicles equipped with ADAS and PSS. Finally, the implications of this study in the improvement of vehicle designs and prevention of casualties are discussed.

  3. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  4. Sentinels of safety: service dogs ensure safety and enhance freedom and well-being for families with autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Kristen E; Adams, Cindy L; Spiers, Jude

    2008-12-01

    Children with autism might display unpredictable and volatile behavior that places them in considerable physical danger and creates stress for the family. Families of autistic children often have limited freedom and experience difficulty with everyday activities. In this qualitative ethology study, we examined the effect of integrating service dogs into ten families with an autistic child. Data included participant observation, video recordings of family-parent-dog interaction, and semistructured interviews with the parents. The themes were (a) the dog as a sentinel of safety, (b) gaining freedom through enhanced safety, facilitating public outings and family activities, and (c) improving social recognition and status, in which the presence of the dog promoted awareness of autism and affected social interaction. The triadic relationship between parent, autistic child, and service dog constantly evolves. This research provides valuable information for parents interested in having a service dog for their autistic child, and has implications for long-term human-animal companionship for children with special needs and their caregivers.

  5. Microwave Assisted Alkali Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Enhancing Enzymatic Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization, increasing energy demand, and climate change are the conditions that forced the researchers to develop a clean, efficient, renewable, and sustainable source of energy which has a potential to replace fossil fuels. Ethanol is one of the attractive and suitable renewable energy resources. In present study, effectiveness of microwave pretreatment in combination with sodium hydroxide (NaOH for increasing enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw has been investigated and under optimum conditions obtained a maximum reducing sugar (1334.79 µg/mL through microwave assisted NaOH pretreatment. Chemical composition analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed that the removal of lignin, hemicellulose, and silicon content is more in microwave assisted NaOH pretreatment than the blank sample. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis revealed that the crystallinity index of rice straw treated with microwave assisted alkali (54.55% is significantly high as compared to the blank (49.07%. Hence, the present study proves that microwave assisted alkali pretreatment can effectively enhance enzymatic digestibility of rice straw and it is feasible to convert rice straw for bioethanol production.

  6. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke;

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  7. Cockpit Displays for Enhancing Terminal-Area Situational Awareness and Runway Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Paul V.; Otero, Sharon; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2007-01-01

    HUD and PFD displays have been developed to enhance situational awareness and improve runway safety. These displays were designed to seamlessly transition through all phases of flight providing guidance and information to the pilot. This report describes the background of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) HUD and PFD work, the steps required to integrate the displays with those of other LaRC programs, the display characteristics of the several operational modes and the transitional logic governing the transition between displays.

  8. Short-term initiatives for enhancing cyber-safety within South African schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Kritzinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rate of technological development across the globe is dramatic. The decreasing cost and increasing availability of ICT devices means that its users are no longer exclusively industry or government employees – they are now also home users. Home users integrate ICT in their daily lives for education, socialising and information gathering. However, using ICT is associated with risks and threats, such as identity theft and phishing scams. Most home users of ICT do not have the necessary information technology and Internet skills to protect themselves and their information. School learners, in particular, are not sufficiently educated on how to use technological devices safely, especially in developing countries such as South Africa. The national school curriculum in South Africa currently does not make provision for cyber-safety education, and the availability of supporting material and training for ICT teachers in South Africa is limited, resulting in a lack of knowledge and skills regarding cyber-safety. The research in hand focuses on the situation concerning cyber-safety awareness in schools and has adopted a short-term approach towards cyber-safety among teachers and school learners in South Africa until a formal long-term national approach has been implemented. This study takes a quantitative approach to investigating the current options of teachers to enhance cyber-safety among learners in their schools. The research proposes that short-term initiatives (i.e. posters can increase learners’ awareness of cyber-safety until formal cyber-safety awareness methods have been introduced.

  9. The Role of Veterinary Education in Safety Policies for Animal-Assisted Therapy and Activities in Hospitals and Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Mueller, Megan K; Gibbs, Debra M; Siebens, Hannah C; Freeman, Lisa M

    2016-07-14

    Animal-assisted activities (AAA) and animal-assisted therapy (AAT) programs are increasing in popularity, but current programs vary in their safety and health policies. Veterinarians can have an important role in ensuring the safety of both the animals and humans involved, but it is unclear how best to educate veterinary students to serve effectively in this role. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the knowledge gaps and perceptions of first-year veterinary students on health and safety aspects of AAA/AAT programs by administering a survey. This information could then guide future educational training in veterinary schools to address the knowledge gaps in this area. Formal education during the veterinary curriculum had not yet been provided to these students on AAA/AAT before the survey. Of 98 first-year veterinary students, 91 completed the survey. When asked about policies on visiting animals, 58% of students responded that nursing homes are required to have a policy and 67% that hospitals are required to have one. Three-quarters of students reported that veterinarians, animal handlers, and facilities should share the responsibility for ensuring safe human-animal interaction in AAA/AAT programs. Most (82%) of the students responded that all or most national and local therapy animal groups prohibit animals that consume raw meat diets from participating in AAA/AAT programs. The results of this survey will help veterinary schools better identify knowledge gaps that can be addressed in veterinary curricula so future veterinarians will be equipped to provide appropriate public health information regarding AAA/AAT programs.

  10. Robot-assisted laparoscopic rectovaginopexy for rectal prolapse: a prospective cohort study on feasibility and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaisma, W.A.; Nieuwenhuis, D.H.; Janssen, L.W.M.; Broeders, I.A.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic systems may be particularly supportive for procedures requiring careful pelvic dissection and suturing in the Douglas pouch, as in surgery for rectal prolapse. Studies reporting robot-assisted laparoscopic rectovaginopexy for rectal prolapse, however, are scarce. This prospective cohort stud

  11. Enhancement of the crystalline Ge film growth by inductively coupled plasma-assisted pulsed DC sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyeom; Han, Seung-Hee

    2014-11-01

    The effect of pulsed DC sputtering on the crystalline growth of Ge thin film was investigated. Ge thin films were deposited on the glass substrates using ICP-assisted pulsed DC sputtering. The Ge target was sputtered using asymmetric bipolar pulsed DC sputtering system with and without assistance of ICP source. The pulse frequency of 200 Hz and the pulse on time of 500 μsec (duty cycle = 10%) were kept during sputtering process. Crystal structures were studied from X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction patterns clearly showed crystalline film structures. The Ge thin films with randomly oriented crystalline were obtained using pulsed DC sputtering without ICP, whereas they had well aligned (220) orientation crystalline using ICP source. Moreover, the combination of ICP assistance and pulsed DC sputtering enhanced the growth of crystalline Ge thin films without hydrogen and metal by in situ deposition. The structure and lattice of the films were studied from TEM images. The cross-sectional TEM images revealed the deposited Ge films with columnar structure.

  12. Long-distance super-resolution imaging assisted by enhanced spatial Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Heng-He; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2015-09-07

    A new gradient-index (GRIN) lens that can realize enhanced spatial Fourier transform (FT) over optically long distances is demonstrated. By using an anisotropic GRIN metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, evanescent wave in free space can be transformed into propagating wave in the metamaterial and then focused outside due to negative-refraction. Both the results based on the ray tracing and the finite element simulation show that the spatial frequency bandwidth of the spatial FT can be extended to 2.7k(0) (k(0) is the wave vector in free space). Furthermore, assisted by the enhanced spatial FT, a new long-distance (in the optical far-field region) super-resolution imaging scheme is also proposed and the super resolved capability of λ/5 (λ is the wavelength in free space) is verified. The work may provide technical support for designing new-type high-speed microscopes with long working distances.

  13. Timesaving microwave assisted synthesis of insulin amyloid fibrils with enhanced nanofiber aspect ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Tiago; Pinto, Ricardo J B; Martins, Manuel A; Silvestre, Armando J D; Freire, Carmen S R

    2016-11-01

    Insulin amyloid fibrils with enhanced aspect ratio, were prepared using a timesaving microwave assisted (MW) methodology, reducing the incubation time from 13 to 2h. The fibrillation process was followed indirectly by Thioflavin T Fluorescence and UV-vis analysis, by measuring the amount of β-sheets formed and the insulin present in solution, respectively. TEM and AFM analysis revealed that the insulin fibrils obtained through the MW method, have very similar lengths but are much thinner than the ones obtained using the conventional method (CM). Additionally, it was verified that the nature of the peptides present in the final insulin fibrils was not affected by microwave irradiation. These morphological differences might reflect on noticeably enhanced mechanical and optical properties that can exploited on the development of advanced bionanomaterials.

  14. Enhancing the Safety, Security and Resilience of ICT and Scada Systems Using Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Stig; Skramstad, Torbjorn; Hagen, Janne

    This paper discusses the results of a questionnaire-based survey used to assess the safety, security and resilience of information and communications technology (ICT) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems used in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The survey identifies several challenges, including the involvement of professionals with different backgrounds and expertise, lack of common risk perceptions, inadequate testing and integration of ICT and SCADA systems, poor information sharing related to undesirable incidents and lack of resilience in the design of technical systems. Action research is proposed as a process for addressing these challenges in a systematic manner and helping enhance the safety, security and resilience of ICT and SCADA systems used in oil and gas operations.

  15. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems.

  16. Approaches to enhancing radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Reza; Gerber, Thomas C; Balter, Stephen; Brenner, David J; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Einstein, Andrew J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCollough, Cynthia H; Min, James K; Morin, Richard L; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F; Shaw, Leslee J

    2014-11-01

    Education, justification, and optimization are the cornerstones to enhancing the radiation safety of medical imaging. Education regarding the benefits and risks of imaging and the principles of radiation safety is required for all clinicians in order for them to be able to use imaging optimally. Empowering patients with knowledge of the benefits and risks of imaging will facilitate their meaningful participation in decisions related to their health care, which is necessary to achieve patient-centered care. Limiting the use of imaging to appropriate clinical indications can ensure that the benefits of imaging outweigh any potential risks. Finally, the continually expanding repertoire of techniques that allow high-quality imaging with lower radiation exposure should be used when available to achieve safer imaging. The implementation of these strategies in practice is necessary to achieve high-quality, patient-centered imaging and will require a shared effort and investment by all stakeholders, including physicians, patients, national scientific and educational organizations, politicians, and industry.

  17. Stakeholder Transportation Scorecard: Reviewing Nevada's Recommendations for Enhancing the Safety and Security of Nuclear Waste Shipments - 13518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred C. [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As a primary stakeholder in the Yucca Mountain program, the state of Nevada has spent three decades examining and considering national policy regarding spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation. During this time, Nevada has identified 10 issues it believes are critical to ensuring the safety and security of any spent nuclear fuel transportation program, and achieving public acceptance. These recommendations are: 1) Ship the oldest fuel first; 2) Ship mostly by rail; 3) Use dual-purpose (transportable storage) casks; 4) Use dedicated trains for rail shipments; 5) Implement a full-scale cask testing program; 6) Utilize a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the selection of a new rail spur to the proposed repository site; 7) Implement the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) 'straw man' process for route selection; 8) Implement Section 180C assistance to affected States, Tribes and localities through rulemaking; 9) Adopt safety and security regulatory enhancements proposed states; and 10) Address stakeholder concerns about terrorism and sabotage. This paper describes Nevada's proposals in detail and examines their current status. The paper describes the various forums and methods by which Nevada has presented its arguments and sought to influence national policy. As of 2012, most of Nevada's recommendations have been adopted in one form or another, although not yet implemented. If implemented in a future nuclear waste program, the State of Nevada believes these recommendations would form the basis for a successful national transportation plan for shipments to a geologic repository and/or centralized interim storage facility. (authors)

  18. Safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Peter; Holstein, Dominique; Michel, Yvonne; Doblin, Rick; Yazar-Klosinski, Berra; Passie, Torsten; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    A double-blind, randomized, active placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted to examine safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy in 12 patients with anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases. Treatment included drug-free psychotherapy sessions supplemented by two LSD-assisted psychotherapy sessions 2 to 3 weeks apart. The participants received either 200 μg of LSD (n = 8) or 20 μg of LSD with an open-label crossover to 200 μg of LSD after the initial blinded treatment was unmasked (n = 4). At the 2-month follow-up, positive trends were found via the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in reductions in trait anxiety (p = 0.033) with an effect size of 1.1, and state anxiety was significantly reduced (p = 0.021) with an effect size of 1.2, with no acute or chronic adverse effects persisting beyond 1 day after treatment or treatment-related serious adverse events. STAI reductions were sustained for 12 months. These results indicate that when administered safely in a methodologically rigorous medically supervised psychotherapeutic setting, LSD can reduce anxiety, suggesting that larger controlled studies are warranted.

  19. EC6{sup TM} - Enhanced Candu 6{sup TM} reactor safety characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, N.; Snell, V.; Cormier, M.; Hopwood, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The EC6 is a 740 MWe-class natural-uranium-fuelled, heavy-water-cooled and -moderated pressure-tube reactor, which has evolved from the eleven (11) CANDU{sup R} 6 plants operating in five countries (on four continents). CANDU 6 has over 150 reactor-years of safe operation. The most recent CANDU 6 - at Qinshan, in China - is the Reference Design for EC6. The EC6 shares many inherent, passive and engineered safety characteristics with the Reference Design. However EC6 has been designed to meet modern regulatory requirements and safety expectations. The resulting design changes have improved these safety characteristics, and this paper provides a convenient summary. The paper addresses the safety functions of reactivity control, heat removal, and containment of radioactive material. For each safety function, the EC6 characteristics are categorized as inherent, passive, or engineered. The paper focuses mostly on the first two. The Enhanced CANDU 6 uses an appropriate mix of passive, inherent, and engineered safety functions. Reactivity transients are generally slow, mild and inherently limited due to the natural uranium core and use of on-power refuelling. Only the coolant void coefficient can cause a large reactivity insertion, particularly in a large LOCA. This is mitigated by the long prompt neutron lifetime and the large delayed neutron fraction, and terminated by either of the two shutdown systems. For EC6, the large LOCA power transient has been reduced significantly by speeding up the slower of the two shutdown systems. Redundant shutdown and the LOCA power pulse improvements mitigate the limiting large positive reactivity insertion. Decay heat removal shows a very high component of passive safety, from thermo-siphoning in the Reactor Coolant System to passive heat removal in severe accidents via the moderator or reactor vault. The latter two can maintain the fuel in a more predictable and favourable geometry than 'core on the floor'. The containment

  20. Robot-Assisted Transaxillary Thyroid Surgery—Feasibility and Safety of a Novel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Rabinovics

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments in technology have led to a rapid progress in robotic endocrine surgery applications. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery, robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS has emerged as one of the most promising approaches. Its main advantages are improved cosmetic outcome, avoiding cervical incisions, thereby increasing patient satisfaction, and improved visualization, arms articulations, and precision, resulting in fewer surgical complications. The main disadvantages are potential new injuries to the brachial plexus, esophagus, and trachea, longer operative time, and increased cost compared to conventional thyroidectomy. In skilled hands, RATS is a safe alternative to conservative thyroidectomy and should be presented to patients with aesthetic concerns. As with any new emerging technique, careful patient selection is crucial, and further evidence must be sought to confirm its indications over time.

  1. Improving medication administration safety in solid organ transplant patients through barcode-assisted medication administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkowski, Josesph; Weber, Robert J; Melucci, Joseph; Pesavento, Todd; Henry, Mitchell; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients are prescribed a high number of medications, increasing the potential for medication errors. Barcode-assisted medication administration (BCMA) is technology that reduces medication administration errors. An observational study was conducted at an academic medical center solid organ transplant unit before and after BMCA implementation. Medication accuracy was determined and administration errors were categorized by type and therapeutic class of medication. A baseline medication administration error rate of 4.8% was observed with wrong dose errors representing 78% of the errors. During the post-BCMA period the medication administration error rate was reduced by 68% to 1.5% (P = .0001). Wrong dose errors were reduced by 67% (P = .001), and unauthorized medication administrations were reduced by 73%. Steroids were associated with the highest error rate. The results of this study suggest that routinely adopting BCMA has the potential to reduce medication administration errors in transplant patients.

  2. Safety Enhancements for PHWRs Based on Macroscopic Losses of the Fukushima Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ho Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of nuclear energy is to supply electric power on a stable basis to meet increasing demands, reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and maintain stable electric power costs while ensuring safety. The Fukushima accident taught us many lessons for creating safer nuclear power plants. Considering the design of systems, the areas of weakness at the Fukushima nuclear power plants can be divided into three categories: plant protection, electricity supply, and cooling of the nuclear fuel. In this paper, focusing on these three areas, the lessons learned are proposed and applied for pressurized heavy water reactors. Firstly, hard protection against external risks ensures the integrity of components and systems such that they can perform their original functions. Secondly, additional emergency power supply systems for electrical redundancy and diversity can improve the response capabilities for an accident by increasing the availability of active components. Thirdly, cooling for removing decay heat can be augmented by adopting diverse safety systems derived from other types of reactors. This study is expected to contribute to the safety enhancement of pressurized heavy water reactors by applying design changes based on the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident.

  3. Enhancement and electric charge-assisted tuning of nonlinear light generation in bipolar plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Zhou, Liangcheng; Chou, Stephen Y

    2014-05-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new plasmonic nonlinear light generation (NLG) structure, termed plasmonic-enhanced, charge-assisted second-harmonic generator (p-CASH), that not only achieves high second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement (76-fold), large SHG tunability by bias (8%/V), wide tuning range (280%), 7.8 × 10(-9) conversion efficiency, and high stability but also exhibits a SHG tuning, that is bipolar rather than unipolar, not due to the third-order nonlinear polarization term, hence fundamentally different from the classic electric field induced SHG-tuning (EFISH). We propose a new SHG tuning mechanism: the second-order nonlinear polarization term enhanced by plasmonic effects, changed by charge injection and negative oxygen vacancies movement, and is nearly 3 orders of magnitude larger than EFISH. p-CASH is a bipolar parallel-plate capacitor with thin layers of plasmonic nanostructures, a TiOx (semiconductor and nonlinear) and a SiO2 (insulator) sandwiched between two electrodes. Fabrication of p-CASH used nanoimprint on 4″ wafer and is scalable to wallpaper-sized areas. The new structure, new properties, and new understanding should open up various new designs and applications of NLG in various fields.

  4. Gypsum plasterboards enhanced with phase change materials: A fire safety assessment using experimental and computational techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaitis Dionysios I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Materials (PCM can be used for thermal energy storage, aiming to enhance building energy efficiency. Recently, gypsum plasterboards with incorporated paraffin-based PCM blends have become commercially available. In the high temperature environment developed during a fire, the paraffins, which exhibit relatively low boiling points, may evaporate and, escaping through the gypsum plasterboard's porous structure, emerge to the fire region, where they may ignite, thus adversely affecting the fire resistance characteristics of the building. Aiming to assess the fire safety behaviour of such building materials, an extensive experimental and computational analysis is performed. The fire behaviour and the main thermo-physical physical properties of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of standard tests and devices (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, Cone Calorimeter. The obtained results are used to develop a dedicated numerical model, which is implemented in a CFD code. CFD simulations are validated using measurements obtained in a cone calorimeter. In addition, the CFD code is used to simulate an ISO 9705 room exposed to fire conditions, demonstrating that PCM addition may indeed adversely affect the fire safety of a gypsum plasterboard clad building.

  5. Enhanced performance of thermal-assisted electron field emission based on barium oxide nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunkang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Di, Yunsong; Zhang, Zichen

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, thermal-assisted field emission properties of barium oxide (BaO) nanowire synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The morphology and composition of BaO nanowire were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) respectively. The turn-on field, threshold field and the emission current density could be affected relatively due to the thermal-assisted effect when the electric field was applied, in the meanwhile, the turn-on field for BaO nanowire was measured to be decreased from 1.12 V/μm to 0.66 V/μm when the temperature was raised from 293 K to 593 K, whereas for the threshold field was found to decrease from 3.64 V/μm to 2.12 V/μm. The improved performance was demonstrated due to the reduced work function of the BaO nanowire as the agitation temperature increasing, leading to the higher probability of electrons tunneling through the energy barrier and enhancement of the field emission properties of BaO emitters.

  6. Volume-assisted estimation of liver function based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR relaxometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haimerl, Michael; Schlabeck, Mona; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Zeman, Florian [University Hospital Regensburg, Center for Clinical Trials, Regensburg (Germany); Nickel, Dominik [MR Applications Development, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Barreiros, Ana Paula [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg (Germany); Loss, Martin [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Surgery, Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    To determine whether liver function as determined by indocyanine green (ICG) clearance can be estimated quantitatively from hepatic magnetic resonance (MR) relaxometry with gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). One hundred and seven patients underwent an ICG clearance test and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including MR relaxometry at 3 Tesla. A transverse 3D VIBE sequence with an inline T1 calculation was acquired prior to and 20 minutes post-Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. The reduction rate of T1 relaxation time (rrT1) between pre- and post-contrast images and the liver volume-assisted index of T1 reduction rate (LVrrT1) were evaluated. The plasma disappearance rate of ICG (ICG-PDR) was correlated with the liver volume (LV), rrT1 and LVrrT1, providing an MRI-based estimated ICG-PDR value (ICG-PDR{sub est}). Simple linear regression model showed a significant correlation of ICG-PDR with LV (r = 0.32; p = 0.001), T1{sub post} (r = 0.65; p < 0.001) and rrT1 (r = 0.86; p < 0.001). Assessment of LV and consecutive evaluation of multiple linear regression model revealed a stronger correlation of ICG-PDR with LVrrT1 (r = 0.92; p < 0.001), allowing for the calculation of ICG-PDR{sub est}. Liver function as determined using ICG-PDR can be estimated quantitatively from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR relaxometry. Volume-assisted MR relaxometry has a stronger correlation with liver function than does MR relaxometry. (orig.)

  7. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  8. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  9. Enhancement of photoresponse and UV-assisted gas sensing with Au decorated ZnO nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yinhua [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0620 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, R and D Center of Membrane Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Gong Jian [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0620 (United States); He Gaohong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, R and D Center of Membrane Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Deng Yulin, E-mail: yulin.deng@chbe.gatech.edu [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0620 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To increase the photoresponsive and gas sensing properties of ZnO nanofibers under UV illumination, Au nanoparticles were introduced to the ZnO nanofibers (Au/ZnO) using electrospinning technique. It is found that adding Au nanoparticles into the ZnO nanofibers enhances significantly the photoresponse and makes the nanofibers also respond to visible light. The gas sensing performance with the assist of UV irradiation at room temperature was also improved greatly, e.g., the sensor response (SR) for 5 ppm ethanol increases from 0.12 to 0.31 by introducing 0.20 mol% of Au in ZnO nanofibers. The improvement of gas sensing performance is attributed to the enhanced photocatalytic reactions of organic gases on the Au/ZnO nanofibers surface. In addition, the sensitive behaviors of the nanofibers to ethanol, benzene, toluene and acetone under UV irradiation with different wavelengths were investigated and compared as well. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au/ZnO nanofiber sensors were successfully prepared using electrospinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Au/ZnO sensors respond not only to UV light but also to visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The response to organic analyte at room temperature is also greatly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Schottky junction between Au and ZnO is one key for the improvement of sensing.

  10. Magnetic-Field-Assisted Assembly of Anisotropic Superstructures by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Enhanced Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengpeng; Leung, Chi Wah; Pong, Philip W T

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle superstructures with controlled magnetic alignment and desired structural anisotropy hold promise for applications in data storage and energy storage. Assembly of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles under a magnetic field could lead to highly ordered superstructures, providing distinctive magnetic properties. In this work, a low-cost fabrication technique was demonstrated to assemble sub-20-nm iron oxide nanoparticles into crystalline superstructures under an in-plane magnetic field. The gradient of the applied magnetic field contributes to the anisotropic formation of micron-sized superstructures. The magnitude of the applied magnetic field promotes the alignment of magnetic moments of the nanoparticles. The strong dipole-dipole interactions between the neighboring nanoparticles lead to a close-packed pattern as an energetically favorable configuration. Rod-shaped and spindle-shaped superstructures with uniform size and controlled spacing were obtained using spherical and polyhedral nanoparticles, respectively. The arrangement and alignment of the superstructures can be tuned by changing the experimental conditions. The two types of superstructures both show enhancement of coercivity and saturation magnetization along the applied field direction, which is presumably associated with the magnetic anisotropy and magnetic dipole interactions of the constituent nanoparticles and the increased shape anisotropy of the superstructures. Our results show that the magnetic-field-assisted assembly technique could be used for fabricating nanomaterial-based structures with controlled geometric dimensions and enhanced magnetic properties for magnetic and energy storage applications.

  11. New software tools for enhanced precision in robot-assisted laser phonomicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Giulio; Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new software package created to enhance precision during robot-assisted laser phonomicrosurgery procedures. The new software is composed of three tools for camera calibration, automatic tumor segmentation, and laser tracking. These were designed and developed to improve the outcome of this demanding microsurgical technique, and were tested herein to produce quantitative performance data. The experimental setup was based on the motorized laser micromanipulator created by Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia and the experimental protocols followed are fully described in this paper. The results show the new tools are robust and effective: The camera calibration tool reduced residual errors (RMSE) to 0.009 ± 0.002 mm under 40× microscope magnification; the automatic tumor segmentation tool resulted in deep lesion segmentations comparable to manual segmentations (RMSE= 0.160 ± 0.028 mm under 40× magnification); and the laser tracker tool proved to be reliable even during cutting procedures (RMSE= 0.073 ± 0.023 mm under 40× magnification). These results demonstrate the new software package can provide excellent improvements to the previous microsurgical system, leading to important enhancements in surgical outcome.

  12. Enhanced esterification of oleic acid and methanol by deep eutectic solvent assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Alam, Md Asraful; Wang, Zhongming; Wu, Jingcheng; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-11-01

    In present study, esterification of oleic acid with methanol using deep eutectic solvent (DES) assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst was investigated to produce biodiesel. Results showed that esterification efficiency was enhanced by the DES. The combined effect of DES on Amberlyst BD20 (BD20) is better than Amberlyst 15 (A-15) due to different structure. The optimal reaction conditions were 12:1M ratio of methanol to oleic acid, 20%(wt/wt) catalyst (BD20-DES (2:8) and A-15-DES (8:2)) at 85°C for 100min with agitating at 200rpm. The mechanism involved in catalysis and their capacity to reuse were studied. We proposed, Choline chloride-glycerol (Chcl-gly) DES could enhance the Amberlyst function due to the hydrogen bond effect on both DES and water. BD20 has fewer pores than A-15, have desirable performance in decreasing the inhibition the water during esterification of high FFA content and provide better performance in reuse.

  13. Thermal safety of ultrasound-enhanced ocular drug delivery: A modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabili, Marjan, E-mail: mnabili@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, 800 22nd Street NW, Room 5000, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Geist, Craig, E-mail: cgeist@mfa.gwu.edu, E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, The George Washington University, 2150 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Floor 2A, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Zderic, Vesna, E-mail: cgeist@mfa.gwu.edu, E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The George Washington University, 800 22nd Street NW, Room 6670, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Delivery of sufficient amounts of therapeutic drugs into the eye for treatment of various ocular diseases is often a challenging task. Ultrasound was shown to be effective in enhancing ocular drug delivery in the authors’ previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: The study reported here was designed to investigate the safety of ultrasound application and its potential thermal effects in the eye using PZFlex modeling software. The safety limit in this study was set as a temperature increase of no more than 1.5 °C based on regulatory recommendations and previous experimental safety studies. Acoustic and thermal specifications of different human eye tissues were obtained from the published literature. The tissues of particular interest in this modeling safety study were cornea, lens, and the location of optic nerve in the posterior eye. Ultrasound application was modeled at frequencies of 400 kHz–1 MHz, intensities of 0.3–1 W/cm{sup 2}, and exposure duration of 5 min, which were the parameters used in the authors’ previous drug delivery experiments. The baseline eye temperature was 37 °C. Results: The authors’ results showed that the maximal tissue temperatures after 5 min of ultrasound application were 38, 39, 39.5, and 40 °C in the cornea, 39.5, 40, 42, and 43 °C in the center of the lens, and 37.5, 38.5, and 39 °C in the back of the eye (at the optic nerve location) at frequencies of 400, 600, 800 kHz, and 1 MHz, respectively. Conclusions: The ocular temperatures reached at higher frequencies were considered unsafe based on current recommendations. At a frequency of 400 kHz and intensity of 0.8 W/cm{sup 2} (parameters shown in the authors’ previous in vivo studies to be optimal for ocular drug delivery), the temperature increase was small enough to be considered safe inside different ocular tissues. However, the impact of orbital bone and tissue perfusion should be included in future modeling efforts to determine the safety

  14. Robot-assisted versus other types of radical prostatectomy: population-based safety and cost comparison in Japan, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Toru; Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsui, Hiroki; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Kume, Haruki; Changhong, Yu; Kattan, Michael W; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Homma, Yukio

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, Japanese national insurance started covering robot-assisted surgery. We carried out a population-based comparison between robot-assisted and three other types of radical prostatectomy to evaluate the safety of robot-assisted prostatectomy during its initial year. We abstracted data for 7202 open, 2483 laparoscopic, 1181 minimal incision endoscopic, and 2126 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies for oncological stage T3 or less from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database (April 2012-March 2013). Complication rate, transfusion rate, anesthesia time, postoperative length of stay, and cost were evaluated by pairwise one-to-one propensity-score matching and multivariable analyses with covariants of age, comorbidity, oncological stage, hospital volume, and hospital academic status. The proportion of robot-assisted radical prostatectomies dramatically increased from 8.6% to 24.1% during the first year. Compared with open, laparoscopic, and minimal incision endoscopic surgery, robot-assisted surgery was generally associated with a significantly lower complication rate (odds ratios, 0.25, 0.20, 0.33, respectively), autologous transfusion rate (0.04, 0.31, 0.10), homologous transfusion rate (0.16, 0.48, 0.14), lower cost excluding operation (differences, -5.1%, -1.8% [not significant], -10.8%) and shorter postoperative length of stay (-9.1%, +0.9% [not significant], -18.5%, respectively). However, robot-assisted surgery also resulted in a + 42.6% increase in anesthesia time and +52.4% increase in total cost compared with open surgery (all P robotic surgery led to a dynamic change in prostate cancer surgery. Even in its initial year, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was carried out with several favorable safety aspects compared to the conventional surgeries despite its having the longest anesthesia time and the highest cost.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Overview and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1983. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 5 of the 1983 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety and the Office of Operational Safety. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during FY 1983. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  16. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  17. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  18. Enhancement of Fire Safety of an Existing Green Building due to Natural Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, natural ventilation technology is extensively used in order to improve indoor environment quality and reduce power consumption of air-conditioning systems in green buildings. However, the effect of natural ventilation on fires needs to be evaluated carefully, and how to make these energy-saving buildings safe is a topic worth studying. This study uses Fire Dynamics Simulator on some fire safety enhancement measures for an existing green building without installation of a smoke exhaust system. Since the building is located on a school campus, it does not require a smoke exhaust system according to Taiwan fire regulations. Referential results, obtained after a series of improvement strategies are tested, show that kiln natural ventilation can generate a comfortable air flow. Unfortunately, due to the stack effect, hot air and fatal smoke are blown into the evacuation route area behind the room when a fire occurs. The findings showed that there are two feasible improvement measures, “controlling the off state of each air inlet” and “setting up an exhaust port in the rear of room”, which can effectively resolve the fire safety issues; the construction of which can be undertaken at a reasonable cost.

  19. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-08

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk.

  20. Enhancement of ecosystem services during endophyte-assisted aided phytostabilization of metal contaminated mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Benito, Garazi; Artetxe, Unai; Becerril, José M; Garbisu, Carlos

    2016-08-15

    Endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria (endophytes) were isolated from a variety of (pseudo)metallophytes growing in an abandoned Zn/Pb mine and then characterized according to their plant growth-promoting traits (i.e. ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, siderophore production, phosphate solubilising capacity, metal and salt tolerance and phenotypic characterization). Initially, under growth chamber conditions, an endophyte-assisted aided phytostabilization study was carried out with Festuca rubra plants (native vs. commercial variety) inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. isolate and cow slurry as organic amendment. The effect of treatments on soil physicochemical and microbial indicators of soil quality, as well as plant physiological parameters and metal concentrations, was assessed. We performed a complementary interpretation of our data through their grouping within a set of ecosystem services. Although the application of cow slurry had the most pronounced effects on soil quality indicators and ecosystem services, the growth of native F. rubra plants reduced soil bioavailability of Cd and Zn by 19 and 22%, respectively, and enhanced several soil microbial parameters. On the other hand, endophyte (Pseudomonas sp.) inoculation improved the physiological status of F. rubra plants by increasing the content of carotenoids, chlorophylls and Fv/Fm by 69, 65 and 37%, respectively, while also increasing the values of several soil microbial parameters. Finally, a consortium of five endophyte isolates was used for an endophyte-assisted aided phytostabilization field experiment, where lower metal concentrations in native excluder plants were found. Nonetheless, the field inoculation of the endophyte consortium had no effect on the biomass of native plants.

  1. One-dimensional porphyrin nanoassemblies assisted via graphene oxide: sheetlike functional surfactant and enhanced photocatalytic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peipei; Chen, Penglei; Liu, Minghua

    2013-06-12

    Surfactant-assisted self-assembly (SAS) has received much attention for supramolecular nanoassemblies, due to its simplicity and easiness in realizing a controllable assembly. However, in most of the existing SAS protocols, the employed surfactants work only as a regulator for a controllable assembly but not as active species for function improvement. In this paper, we report that a porphyrin, zinc 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (ZnTPyP), could be assembled to form one-dimensional (1D) supramolecular nanostructures via a SAS method, wherein graphene oxide (GO) plays a fascinating role of sheetlike surfactant. We show that, when a chloroform or tetrahydrofuran solution of ZnTPyP is injected into an aqueous dispersion of GO, 1D supramolecular nanoassemblies of ZnTPyP with well-defined internal structures could be easily formulated in a controllable manner. Our experimental facts disclose that the complexation of ZnTPyP with the two-dimensional GO nanosheets plays an important role in this new type of SAS. More interestingly, compared with the 1D ZnTPyP nanoassemblies formulated via a conventional SAS, wherein cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is used as surfactant, those constructed via our GO-assisted SAS display distinctly enhanced photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. Our new findings suggest that GO could work not only as an emergent sheetlike surfactant for SAS in terms of supramolecular nanoassembly but also as functional components during the performance of the assembled nanostructures.

  2. An efficient RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zezhong; Qi, Qingqing

    2014-05-01

    Medication errors are very dangerous even fatal since it could cause serious even fatal harm to patients. In order to reduce medication errors, automated patient medication systems using the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology have been used in many hospitals. The data transmitted in those medication systems is very important and sensitive. In the past decade, many security protocols have been proposed to ensure its secure transition attracted wide attention. Due to providing mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, the RFID authentication protocol is considered as the most important security protocols in those systems. In this paper, we propose a RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). The analysis shows the proposed protocol could overcome security weaknesses in previous protocols and has better performance. Therefore, the proposed protocol is very suitable for automated patient medication systems.

  3. The need to optimize inservice testing and inspection to enhance safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Welcome to the Fourth U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (USNRC/ASME) Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in Nuclear Power Plants. This symposium provides a forum to exchange information on technical and regulatory issues associated with the testing of valves and pumps used in nuclear power plants. Progress made since the last symposium will be discussed along with various methods for in service testing of valves and pumps. Active participation by industry representatives, regulators and consultants will entail discussion of a broad array of ideas and points of view regarding how to improve the in service testing of valves and pumps at nuclear power plants. One of the challenges faced is the need to optimize the in service testing and inspection to enhance safety, operability and reliability. The author addresses this challenge from an ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards point of view.

  4. Fluorescent carbon nanowires made by pyrolysis of DNA nanofibers and plasmon-assisted emission enhancement of their fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Hidenobu; Tokonami, Shiho; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Shiigi, Hiroshi; Takeda, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-14

    We report on a facile method for preparing fluorescent carbon nanowires (CNWs) with pyrolysis of highly aligned DNA nanofibers as carbon sources. Silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-doped CNWs were also produced using pyrolysis of DNA nanofibers with well-attached AgNPs, indicating emission enhancement assisted by localized plasmon resonances.

  5. Enhancing Student Learning of Research Methods through the Use of Undergraduate Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jessica; Ceresola, Ryan; Silva, Tony

    2014-01-01

    By using a quasi-experimental design, in this study, we test the effect of undergraduate teaching assistants on student learning. Data were collected from 170 students enrolled in four sections of a quantitative research methods course, two sections without undergraduate teaching assistants and two sections with undergraduate teaching assistants,…

  6. Enhanced transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery: effect of chemical enhancers and electrical assistance on in vitro sCT buccal permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Ho; Chun, Kyeung-Hwa; Jeon, Sang-Ok; Kang, Jeong-Won; Lee, Sangkil

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the combined effect of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance on transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery, using fresh swine buccal tissue. We placed 200 IU (40 μg/mL) of each sCT formulation--containing various concentrations of ethanol, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and sodium deoxyglycocholate (SDGC)--onto the donor part of a Franz diffusion cell. Then, 0.5 mA/cm(2) of fixed anodal current was applied alone or combined with chemical enhancers. The amount of permeated sCT was analyzed using an ELISA kit, and biophysical changes of the buccal mucosa were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy, and hematoxylin-eosin staining methods were used to evaluate histological alteration of the buccal tissues. The flux (J(s)) of sCT increased with the addition of absorption enhancer groups, but it was significantly enhanced by the application of anodal iontophoresis (ITP). FT-IR study revealed that all groups caused an increase in lipid fluidity but only the groups containing SDGC showed statistically significant difference. Although the histological data of SDGC groups showed a possibility for tissue damage, the present enhancing methods appear to be safe. In conclusion, the combination of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance is a potential strategy for the enhancement of transbuccal sCT delivery.

  7. Enhancing human-animal relationships through veterinary medical instruction in animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Caroline Brunsman

    2008-01-01

    Instruction in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and animal-assisted activities (AAAs) teaches veterinary medical students to confidently and assertively maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of this union of animals and people. Instruction in AAT/AAA also addresses requirements by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education that accredited schools/colleges of veterinary medicine include in their standard curriculum the topics of the human-animal bond, behavior, and the contributions of the veterinarian to the overall public and professional health care teams. Entry-level veterinarians should be prepared to: (1) assure that animals who provide AAT/AAA are healthy enough to visit nursing homes, hospitals, or other institutions; (2) promote behavior testing that selects animals who will feel safe, comfortable, and connected; (3) advise facilities regarding infection control and ways to provide a safe environment where the animals, their handlers, and the people being visited will not be injured or become ill; and (4) advocate for their patients and show compassion for their clients when animals are determined to be inappropriate participants in AAT/AAA programs. This article presents AAT/AAA terminology, ways in which veterinarians can advocate for AAT/AAA, the advantages of being involved in AAT/AAA, a model AAT/AAA practicum from Tuskegee University's School of Veterinary Medicine (TUSVM), and examples of co-curricular activities in AAT/AAA by TUSVM's student volunteers.

  8. Enhanced boronizing kinetics of alloy steel assisted by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haopeng, E-mail: hpyang1993@163.com; Wu, Xiaochun, E-mail: xcwu@staff.shu.edu.cn; Yang, Zhe; Pu, Shengjun; Wang, Hongbin

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Nanostructured surface layer is fabricated on H13 steel assisted by SMAT. • The boronizing kinetics of SMAT sample can be enhanced remarkably. • Borided layer can delay fatigue cracks initiation and impede their propagation. -- Abstract: A nanostructured surface layer was fabricated on AISI H13 steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Boronizing behaviors of the SMAT samples were systematically investigated in comparison with their coarse-grained counterparts. The boron diffusion depth of the SMAT sample with pack boriding treatment at 600 °C for 2 h was about 8 μm, which was much deeper than that of the coarse-grained sample. A much thicker borided layer on the SMAT sample can be synthesized by a duplex boronizing treatment at 600 °C followed by at a higher temperature. The borided layer was composed with monophase of Fe{sub 2}B and the growth of it exhibited a (0 0 2) preferred orientation. Moreover, the activation energy of boron diffusion for the SMAT sample is 140.3 kJ/mol, which is much lower than 209.4 kJ/mol for the coarse-grained counterpart. The results indicate that the boronizing kinetics can be significantly enhanced in the SMAT sample with a duplex boronizing treatment. Furthermore, the thermal fatigue tests show that the borided layer with excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical strength at elevated temperatures could effectively delay the thermal fatigue cracks initiation and impede their propagation. Therefore, the thermal fatigue property of H13 steel with a duplex boronizing treatment can be improved remarkably.

  9. [Microcystin safety study during Cyanobacteria removal by pressure enhanced coagulation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin-Yue; Luan, Qing; Cong, Hai-Bing; Xu, Si-Tao; Liu, Yu-Jiao; Zhu, Xue-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Pressure enhanced coagulation and sedimentation technique is an effective way for blue algae treatment. It is not clear whether Cyanobacteria balloon rupture will cause Cyanobacteria cells rupture, resulting in high intracellular concentrations of microcystin LR leak into the water, affecting drinking water safety. Therefore, in this study experimental comparative study of pressure and pre-oxidation of water containing Cyanobacteria was carried out to examine the microcystin LR concentration changes and Cyanobacteria removal efficiency. The results showed that microcystin concentration increase was not significant by the pre-treatment with Cyanobacteria water pressure, while the pre-oxidation process caused a significant increase in the concentration of microcystin. After 0.5-0.8 MPa pressure coagulation and sedimentation, removal of Cyanobacteria basically was over 90%, up to 93.5%, while the removal rate by pre-oxidation was low and unstable. Effluent turbidity is also significantly better in the pre-pressure method than the pre-oxidation. The results indicated that pressure enhanced coagulation is a safe and reliable method for Cyanobacteria removal.

  10. Anodic Fenton process assisted by a microbial fuel cell for enhanced degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Sun, Xue-Fei; Li, Dao-Bo; Li, Wen-Wei; Huang, Yu-Xi; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-09-15

    The electro-Fenton process is efficient for degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need of power investment. Here, a new anodic Fenton system is developed for energy-saving and efficient treatment of organic pollutants by incorporating microbial fuel cell (MFC) into an anodic Fenton process. This system is composed of an anodic Fenton reactor and a two-chamber air-cathode MFC. The power generated from a two-chamber MFC is used to drive the anodic Fenton process for Acid Orange 7 (AO7) degradation through accelerating in situ generation of Fe(2+) from sacrificial iron. The kinetic results show that the MFC-assisted anodic Fenton process system had a significantly higher pseudo-first-order rate constant than those for the chemical Fenton methods. The electrochemical analysis reveals that AO7 did not hinder the corrosion of iron. The anodic Fenton process was influenced by the MFC performance. It was also found that increasing dissolved oxygen in the cathode improved the MFC power density, which in turn enhanced the AO7 degradation rate. These clearly demonstrate that the anodic Fenton process could be integrated with MFC to develop a self-sustained system for cost-effective and energy-saving electrochemical wastewater treatment.

  11. Facile fabrication of hierarchical ZnO microstructures assisted with PAMPSA and enhancement of green emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Cun, Tangxiang; Zuo, Wenbin; Liu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    We report the fabrication of hierarchically microstructured flower-like ZnO by a facile and single-step procedure involving poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPSA) assisted aqueous chemical method. The shapes and sizes can be controlled just by varying the concentrations of the water-soluble polymer. When a suitable PAMPAS concentration was utilized, uniform well-defined and mono-dispersed chrysanthemum-like ZnO microstructures based on nanorod building blocks were obtained. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical structure was presented. The structured studies using XRD, HRTEM and SAED reveal these ZnO nanorods are composed of a single phase nature with wurtzite structure and grow along with the c-axis. FTIR spectrum indicated the incorporation of a trace of PAMPSA into ZnO crystals. HRTEM, Raman and XPS analyses showed that the hierarchical ZnO microstructures contain high concentration of oxygen vacancies which enable them exhibiting a significant intense deep-level emission centered at green luminescence in its photoluminescence spectra. They also show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency in degradation of methylene blue. It is hoped that the present work may provide a simple method to fabricate ZnO hierarchical microstructures and a positive relationship among polar plane, oxygen vacancy and green emission.

  12. Technical Assistance to Enhance Prevention Capacity: a Research Synthesis of the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the availability of many evidence-based prevention interventions (EBIs), gaps exist in bringing these programs into widespread practice. Technical assistance (TA) is a strategy for enhancing the readiness of practitioners to implement EBIs. Although many millions of dollars are spent on TA each year, there is little consensus about what the essential features of TA are and how to provide TA with quality. A broad-based research synthesis methodology was used for analyzing the current evidence base for TA using three frames: (1) applying the Getting To Outcomes (GTO) model for categorizing evidence on TA that specifies tasks for planning, implementing, and evaluating TA; (2) understanding the relevance of a successful relationship between the TA provider and TA recipient; and (3) considering the extent to which TA fits the life cycle needs of the preventive intervention. Results indicated that an explicit model or organizing framework is rarely used to plan, implement, and/or evaluate TA; specific TA tasks performed vary widely across studies; TA is rarely delivered to recipients who are seeking to sustain innovations subsequent to adoption and implementation; however, there is systematic attention to relationships and relationship-building. Overall, this synthesis indicates that the extent to which TA is being delivered systematically is limited. We suggest that funders and other stakeholders develop and implement standards for TA quality in order to ensure that many of these limitations are addressed.

  13. Nanofibril scaffold assisted MEMS artificial hydrogel neuromasts for enhanced sensitivity flow sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Bora, Meghali; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Venkatraman, Subbu S.; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present the development and testing of superficial neuromast-inspired flow sensors that also attain high sensitivity and resolution through a biomimetic hyaulronic acid-based hydrogel cupula dressing. The inspiration comes from the spatially distributed neuromasts of the blind cavefish that live in completely dark undersea caves; the sensors enable the fish to form three-dimensional flow and object maps, enabling them to maneuver efficiently in cluttered environments. A canopy shaped electrospun nanofibril scaffold, inspired by the cupular fibrils, assists the drop-casting process allowing the formation of a prolate spheroid-shaped artificial cupula. Rheological and nanoindentation characterizations showed that the Young’s modulus of the artificial cupula closely matches the biological cupula (10–100 Pa). A comparative experimental study conducted to evaluate the sensitivities of the naked hair cell sensor and the cupula-dressed sensor in sensing steady-state flows demonstrated a sensitivity enhancement by 3.5–5 times due to the presence of hydrogel cupula. The novel strategies of sensor development presented in this report are applicable to the design and fabrication of other biomimetic sensors as well. The developed sensors can be used in the navigation and maneuvering of underwater robots, but can also find applications in biomedical and microfluidic devices.

  14. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation.

  15. Significantly Enhanced Actuation Performance of IPMC by Surfactant-Assisted Processable MWCNT/Nafion Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingsong He; Min Yu; Dingshan Yu; Yan Ding; Zhendong Dai

    2013-01-01

    The performance of Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuator was significantly enhanced by incorporating surfactant-assisted processable Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) into a Nation solution.Cationic surfactant Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) was employed to disperse MWCNTs in the Nation matrix,forming a homogeneous and stable dispersion of nanotubes.The processing did not involve any strong acid treatment and thus effectively preserved the excellent electronic properties associated with MWCNT.The as-obtained MWCNT/Nafion-IPMC actuator was tested in terms of conductivity,bulk and surface morphology,blocking force and electric current.It was shown that the blocking force and the current of the new IPMC are 2.4 times and 1.67 times higher compared with a pure Nation-based IPMC.Moreover,the MWCNT/IPMC performance is much better than previously reported Nafion-IPMC doped by acid-treated MWCNT.Such significantly improved performance should be attributed to the improvement of electrical property associated with the addition of MWCNTs without acid treatment.

  16. Alkaline peroxide assisted wet air oxidation pretreatment approach to enhance enzymatic convertibility of rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saumita; Sen, Ramkrishna; Mudliar, Sandeep; Pandey, R A; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Satpute, Dewanand

    2011-01-01

    Pretreatment of rice husk by alkaline peroxide assisted wet air oxidation (APAWAO) approach was investigated with the aim to enhance the enzymatic convertibility of cellulose in pretreated rice husk. Rice husk was presoaked overnight in 1% (w/v) H(2)O(2) solution (pH adjusted to 11.5 using NaOH) (equivalent to 16.67 g H(2)O(2) and 3.63 g NaOH per 100 g dry, untreated rice husk) at room temperature, followed by wet air oxidation (WAO). APAWAO pretreatment resulted in solubilization of 67 wt % of hemicellulose and 88 wt % of lignin initially present in raw rice husk. Some amount of oligomeric glucose (˜8.3 g/L) was also observed in the APAWAO liquid fraction. APAWAO pretreatment resulted in 13-fold increase in the amount of glucose that could be obtained from otherwise untreated rice husk. Up to 86 wt % of cellulose in the pretreated rice husk (solid fraction) could be converted into glucose within 24 hours, yielding over 21 g glucose per 100 g original rice husk. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to visualize changes in biomass structure following the APAWAO pretreatment. Enzymatic cellulose convertibility of the pretreated slurry at high dry matter loadings was also investigated.

  17. Nanofibril scaffold assisted MEMS artificial hydrogel neuromasts for enhanced sensitivity flow sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Bora, Meghali; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-01-14

    We present the development and testing of superficial neuromast-inspired flow sensors that also attain high sensitivity and resolution through a biomimetic hyaulronic acid-based hydrogel cupula dressing. The inspiration comes from the spatially distributed neuromasts of the blind cavefish that live in completely dark undersea caves; the sensors enable the fish to form three-dimensional flow and object maps, enabling them to maneuver efficiently in cluttered environments. A canopy shaped electrospun nanofibril scaffold, inspired by the cupular fibrils, assists the drop-casting process allowing the formation of a prolate spheroid-shaped artificial cupula. Rheological and nanoindentation characterizations showed that the Young's modulus of the artificial cupula closely matches the biological cupula (10-100 Pa). A comparative experimental study conducted to evaluate the sensitivities of the naked hair cell sensor and the cupula-dressed sensor in sensing steady-state flows demonstrated a sensitivity enhancement by 3.5-5 times due to the presence of hydrogel cupula. The novel strategies of sensor development presented in this report are applicable to the design and fabrication of other biomimetic sensors as well. The developed sensors can be used in the navigation and maneuvering of underwater robots, but can also find applications in biomedical and microfluidic devices.

  18. Charged vacancy induced enhanced piezoelectric response of reactive assistive IBSD grown AlN thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Rath, Martando; Ilango, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric response of AlN thin films was investigated in a AlN/Ti/Si(1 0 0) layer structure prepared by ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) in reactive assistance of N+/\\text{N}2+ ions. The samples were characterized for their microstructure, piezoelectric response and charged defects using high resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), piezo force microscopy (PFM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy respectively. Our results show that the films are highly textured along the a-axis and charged native point defects are present in the microstructure. Phase images of these samples obtained from PFM show that the films are predominantly N-polar. The measured values of piezoelectric coefficient d 33(eff) for these samples are as high as 206  ±  20 pm V-1 and 668  ±  60 pm V-1 calculated by piezo response loop for AlN films of a thickness of 235 nm and 294 nm respectively. A mechanism for high d 33(eff) values is proposed with a suitable model based on the charged defects induced enhanced polarization in the dielectric continuum of AlN.

  19. Role of intra-operative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Ahmad N; Karim, Omer

    2015-03-01

    This review examines studies of intra-operative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and its emerging role and advantages in robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a technology that combines the use of second-generation contrast agents consisting of microbubbles with existent ultrasound techniques. Until now, this novel technology has aided surgeons with procedures involving the liver. However, with recent advances in the CEUS technique and the introduction of robotics in nephron-sparing surgery, CEUS has proven to be efficacious in answering several clinical questions with respect to the kidneys. In addition, the introduction of the microbubble-based contrast agents has increased the image quality and signal uptake by the ultrasound probe. This has led to better, enhanced scanning of the macro and microvasculature of the kidneys, making CEUS a powerful diagnostic modality. This imaging method is capable of further lowering the learning curve and warm ischemia time (WIT) during robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery, with its increased level of capillary perfusion and imaging. CEUS has the potential to increase the sensitivity and specificity of intra-operative images, and can significantly improve the outcome of robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery by increasing the precision and diagnostic insight of the surgeon. The purpose of this article is to review the practical and potential uses of CEUS as an intra-operative imaging technique during robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery.

  20. Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  1. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topics / Enhanced safety and operation excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, Angelika [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Programm Nukleare Entsorgung, Sicherheit und Strahlenforschung (NUSAFE); Baumann, Erik [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Radiation Protection

    2016-12-15

    Summary report on the Key Topic 'Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence' Focus Session 'Radiation Protection' of the 47{sup th} Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  2. 75 FR 73014 - Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests to attend this public meeting, questions regarding the logistics of... contribute to enhancing safety of flight among the GA community at large? Participation at the Public... least 10 copies of all materials for distribution to the panel members. Presenters may provide...

  3. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  4. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  5. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  6. Development of a portable bicycle/pedestrian monitoring system for safety enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Colin; Daley, W. D. R.

    2015-03-01

    Pedestrians involved in roadway accidents account for nearly 12 percent of all traffic fatalities and 59,000 injuries each year. Most injuries occur when pedestrians attempt to cross roads, and there have been noted differences in accident rates midblock vs. at intersections. Collecting data on pedestrian behavior is a time consuming manual process that is prone to error. This leads to a lack of quality information to guide the proper design of lane markings and traffic signals to enhance pedestrian safety. Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing and testing an automated system that can be rapidly deployed for data collection to support the analysis of pedestrian behavior at intersections and midblock crossings with and without traffic signals. This system will analyze the collected video data to automatically identify and characterize the number of pedestrians and their behavior. It consists of a mobile trailer with four high definition pan-tilt cameras for data collection. The software is custom designed and uses state of the art commercial pedestrian detection algorithms. We will be presenting the system hardware and software design, challenges, and results from the preliminary system testing. Preliminary results indicate the ability to provide representative quantitative data on pedestrian motion data more efficiently than current techniques.

  7. The use of interactive computer vision and robot hand controllers for enhancing manufacturing safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.

    1994-01-01

    Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.

  8. Novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide for fire safety enhancement of polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia You; Liu, Jie; Li, Kai Dan; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a general-purpose plastic, but some applications are constrained by its high flammability. Thus, flame retardant PP is urgently demanded. In this article, intumescent flame retardant PP (IFRPP) composites with enhanced fire safety were prepared using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) as synergist. The PGO was prepared through a mild chemical reaction by the covalent attachment of a caged-structure organic compound, PEPA, onto GO nanosheets using toluene diisocynate (TDI) as the intermediary agent. The novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide not only improves the heat resistance of GO but also converts GO and PEPA from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials, which leads to even distribution in PP. In our case, 7 wt% addition of PGO as one of the fillers for IFRPP composites significantly reduces its inflammability and fire hazards when compared with PEPA, by the improvement of first release rate peak (PHRR), total heat release, first smoke release rate peak (PSRR) and total smoke release, suggesting its great potential as the IFR synergist in industry. The reason is mainly attributed to the barrier effect of the unburned graphene sheets, which protects by the decomposition products of PEPA and TDI, promotes the formation of graphitized carbon and inhibits the heat and gas release. PMID:27877775

  9. Safety of an Enhanced Recovery Pathway for Patients Undergoing Open Hepatic Resection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy J Clark

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery pathways (ERP have not been widely implemented for hepatic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of an ERP for patients undergoing open hepatic resection.A single-surgeon, retrospective observational cohort study was performed comparing the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing open hepatic resection treated before and after implementation of an ERP. Morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay (LOS were compared between pre-ERP and ERP groups.126 patients (pre-ERP n = 73, ERP n = 53 were identified for the study. Patient characteristics and operative details were similar between groups. Overall complication rate was similar between pre-ERP and ERP groups (37% vs. 28%, p = 0.343. Before and after pathway implementation, the median LOS was similar, 5 (IQR 4-7 vs. 5 (IQR 4-6 days, p = 0.708. After adjusting for age, type of liver resection, and ASA, the ERP group had no increased risk of major complication (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.14-1.02, p = 0.055 or LOS greater than 5 days (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.56-2.62, p = 0.627.Routine use of a multimodal ERP is safe and is not associated with increased postoperative morbidity after open hepatic resection.

  10. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  11. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

  12. Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Genetic Enhancement of Parental Lines of Rajalaxmi, an Elite Rice Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Amit K.; Rao, Ravi N.; Rao, G. J. N.; Verma, Ram L.; Katara, Jawahar L.; Mukherjee, Arup K.; Singh, Onkar N.; Bagchi, Torit B.

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic male sterile line system comprising CRMS 32A and its maintainer line CRMS 32B is a popular choice for the development of new hybrids in India as CRMS 32A, having Kalinga 1 cytoplasm (other than WA), is a viable alternative to WA cytoplasm. However, both lines are susceptible to bacterial blight (BB), a major disease on rice. As enhancement of host plant resistance is the most effective and economical strategy to control this disease, four resistance genes (Xa4, xa5, xa13, and Xa21) were transferred from a BB pyramid line of IR64, into the A and B lines using a marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB) breeding strategy. During the transfer of genes into CRMS 32B, foreground selection was applied using markers associated with the genes, and plants having resistance alleles of the donor, are selected. Selection for morphological and quality traits was practiced to select plants similar to the recurrent parent. The four gene and three gene pyramid lines exhibited high levels of resistance against the BB pathogen when challenged with eight virulent isolates. Using genome wide based SSR markers for background selection, pyramids having >95% of the recurrent parent genome were identified. With CRMS 32B gene pyramid as donor, the four resistance genes were transferred into the A line through repeated backcrosses and the A line pyramids also exhibited high level of resistance against BB. Through a combination of selection at phenotypic and molecular levels, four BB resistance genes were successfully introduced into two parental lines (CRMS 32 B and A) of Rajalaxmi, an elite popular hybrid. The pyramided B lines did exhibit high levels of resistance against BB. Selection for morphological and quality traits and background selection hastened the recovery of the recurrent parent genome in the recombinants. Through repeated backcrosses, all the four resistance genes were transferred to CRMS 32A and test crosses suggest that the maintenance ability of the improved CRMS

  13. Phenotypic and marker-assisted genetic enhancement of parental lines of Rajalaxmi, an elite rice hybrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Dash

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic male sterile line system comprising CRMS 32A and its maintainer line CRMS 32B is a popular choice for the development of new hybrids in India as CRMS 32A, having Kalinga 1 cytoplasm (other than WA, is a viable alternative to WA cytoplasm. However, both lines are susceptible to bacterial blight (BB, a major disease on rice. As enhancement of host plant resistance is the most effective and economical strategy to control this disease, four resistance genes (Xa4, xa5, xa13 and Xa21 were transferred from a BB pyramid line of IR64, into the A and B lines using a marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB breeding strategy. During the transfer of genes into CRMS 32B, foreground selection was applied using markers associated with the genes, and plants having resistance alleles of the donor, are selected. Selection for morphological and quality traits was practiced to select plants similar to the recurrent parent. The four gene and three gene pyramid lines exhibited high levels of resistance against the BB pathogen when challenged with eight virulent isolates. Using genome wide based SSR markers for background selection, pyramids having >95% of the recurrent parent genome were identified. With CRMS 32B gene pyramid as donor, the four resistance genes were transferred into the A line through repeated backcrosses and the A line pyramids also exhibited high level of resistance against BB. Through a combination of selection at phenotypic and molecular levels, four bacterial blight resistance genes were successfully introduced into two parental lines (CRMS 32 B and A of Rajalaxmi, an elite popular hybrid. The pyramided B lines did exhibit high levels of resistance against BB. Selection for morphological and quality traits and background selection hastened the recovery of the recurrent parent genome in the recombinants. Through repeated backcrosses, all the four resistance genes were transferred to CRMS 32A and test crosses suggest that the maintenance

  14. Workflow Enhancement (WE) Improves Safety in Radiation Oncology: Putting the WE and Team Together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Meier, Tim; Hugebeck, Brian; Reddy, Chandana A.; Godley, Andrew; Kolar, Matt [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To review the impact of a workflow enhancement (WE) team in reducing treatment errors that reach patients within radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: It was determined that flaws in our workflow and processes resulted in errors reaching the patient. The process improvement team (PIT) was developed in 2010 to reduce errors and was later modified in 2012 into the current WE team. Workflow issues and solutions were discussed in PIT and WE team meetings. Due to tensions within PIT that resulted in employee dissatisfaction, there was a 6-month hiatus between the end of PIT and initiation of the renamed/redesigned WE team. In addition to the PIT/WE team forms, the department had separate incident forms to document treatment errors reaching the patient. These incident forms are rapidly reviewed and monitored by our departmental and institutional quality and safety groups, reflecting how seriously these forms are treated. The number of these incident forms was compared before and after instituting the WE team. Results: When PIT was disbanded, a number of errors seemed to occur in succession, requiring reinstitution and redesign of this team, rebranded the WE team. Interestingly, the number of incident forms per patient visits did not change when comparing 6 months during the PIT, 6 months during the hiatus, and the first 6 months after instituting the WE team (P=.85). However, 6 to 12 months after instituting the WE team, the number of incident forms per patient visits decreased (P=.028). After the WE team, employee satisfaction and commitment to quality increased as demonstrated by Gallup surveys, suggesting a correlation to the WE team. Conclusions: A team focused on addressing workflow and improving processes can reduce the number of errors reaching the patient. Time is necessary before a reduction in errors reaching patients will be seen.

  15. ENHANCED PROACTIVE PLANNING APPROACH: A CRUCIAL TO AN IMPROVED WORKERS’ SAFETY IN WESTERN NIGERIA SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. ADEYEMI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated managements’ proactive planning approach (PPA to enhance safety among workers in South-western Nigeria small scale industry (SSI. The main objective was to rate the managements’ efforts at eliminating risk among their employees. By worker participatory and psychological survey approach, three tools were used; workplace observation (visual, management safety culture (questionnaire and managers interviews (oral. The survey included 200 workers, 120 supervisors and 80 managers, in 82 SSI. Four steps to a safety proactive action plans (PAP, (looking for clues, prioritization of identified potential hazard, making improvements to eliminate the risk and follow up, were rated by employees on a scale from 0 to 5. Paired t-test was used to appraise the significant difference between the managers’ mean scores rated by the supervisors and other workers. 77.1% of workers and 64.2% supervisors rated their managers as either “not done at all” or “poorly done”. Workers’ scores for managers PPA had statistically significantly lower ratings (mean=1.09, SEM = 0.22 compared to that of the supervisors rating (mean= 1.55, SEM = 0.32, with t (14 = -1.185, p = 0.784. There is a closed poor performance perception gaps, of managers’ PPA, of the two groups of employees. It can be concluded that safety is not emphasized, by managers of SSI, as overriding priority and this may have contributed to high reported injuries among their workforce. Courses to enhance managements’ understanding for inclusion of safety among the leading priorities becomes necessary. This will reduce work-related risks and promotes occupational safety and health among the group of workers.

  16. Consumers Valuations and choice Processes of Food Safety Enhancement Attributes: An International Study of Beef Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. Here we examine consumer preferences for various beef food safety assurances. In particular, we evaluate the extent to which such preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residenc

  17. Consumer Valuations of Beef Steak Food Safety Enhancement in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. We examine consumer preferences for beef steak food safety assurances. We evaluate the extent to which preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residence defined groups and examine the dis

  18. Pre- and post-exposure safety and efficacy of attenuated rabies virus vaccines are enhanced by their expression of IFNγ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhouse, Darryll A. [Department of Cancer Biology, 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Center for Neurovirology 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Faber, Milosz [Center for Neurovirology 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 465, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Hooper, D. Craig, E-mail: douglas.hooper@jefferson.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Center for Neurovirology 1020 Locust St., Jefferson Alumni Hall, Room 454, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with evidence of a strong correlation between interferon gamma (IFNγ) production and rabies virus (RABV) clearance from the CNS, we recently demonstrated that engineering a pathogenic RABV to express IFNγ highly attenuates the virus. Reasoning that IFNγ expression by RABV vaccines would enhance their safety and efficacy, we reverse-engineered two proven vaccine vectors, GAS and GASGAS, to express murine IFNγ. Mortality and morbidity were monitored during suckling mice infection, immunize/challenge experiments and mixed intracranial infections. We demonstrate that GASγ and GASγGAS are significantly attenuated in suckling mice compared to the GASGAS vaccine. GASγ better protects mice from lethal DRV4 RABV infection in both pre- and post-exposure experiments compared to GASGAS. Finally, GASγGAS reduces post-infection neurological sequelae, compared to control, during mixed intracranial infection with DRV4. These data show IFNγ expression by a vaccine vector can enhance its safety while increasing its efficacy as pre- and post-exposure treatment. - Highlights: • IFNγ expression improves attenuated rabies virus safety and immunogenicity. • IFNγ expression is safer and more immunogenic than doubling glycoprotein expression. • Co-infection with IFNγ-expressing RABV prevents wild-type rabies virus lethality. • Vaccine safety and efficacy is additive for IFNγ and double glycoprotein expression.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents. (TEM)

  20. Final report of the safety assessment of methacrylate ester monomers used in nail enhancement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Methacrylate ester monomers are used in as artificial nail builders in nail enhancement products. They undergo rapid polymerization to form a hard material on the nail that is then shaped. While Ethyl Methacrylate is the primary monomer used in nail enhancement products, other methacrylate esters are also used. This safety assessment addresses 22 other methacrylate esters reported by industry to be present in small percentages as artificial nail builders in cosmetic products. They function to speed up polymerization and/or form cross-links. Only Tetrahydrofurfuryl Methacrylate was reported to the FDA to be in current use. The polymerization rates of these methacrylate esters are within the same range as Ethyl Methacrylate. While data are not available on all of these methacrylate esters, the available data demonstrated little acute oral, dermal, or i.p. toxicity. In a 28-day inhalation study on rats, Butyl Methacrylate caused upper airway irritation; the NOAEL was 1801 mg/m3. In a 28-day oral toxicity study on rats, t-Butyl Methacrylate had a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg/day. Beagle dogs dosed with 0.2 to 2.0 g/kg/day of C12 to C18 methacrylate monomers for 13 weeks exhibited effects only in the highest dose group: weight loss, emesis, diarrhea, mucoid feces, or salivation were observed. Butyl Methacrylate (0.1 M) and Isobutyl Methacrylate (0.1 M) are mildly irritating to the rabbit eye. HEMA is corrosive when instilled in the rabbit eye, while PEG-4 Dimethacrylate and Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate are minimally irritating to the eye. Dermal irritation caused by methacrylates is documented in guinea pigs and rabbits. In guinea pigs, HEMA, Isopropylidenediphenyl Bisglycidyl Methacrylate, Lauryl Methacrylate, and Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate are strong sensitizers; Butyl Methacrylate, Cyclohexyl Methacrylate, Hexyl Methacrylate, and Urethane Methacrylate are moderate sensitizers; Hydroxypropyl Methacrylate is a weak sensitizer; and PEG-4 Dimethacrylate and

  1. A Study on Enhancement of Understanding of Radiation and Safety Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Han; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Uk; Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Concerns for radiation exposure have been increased from small and big radiation works or experiments with radiation generator (RG) or radiation isotopes (RI) at institutions using radiation in Korea. Actually, due to radiation exposure occurred on the process of handling RI, etc., The exposure should be maintained as low as reasonably possible. To do this, above all, suitable training and establishment of safety culture have to be preceded. In this respect, an education institution is a place where people learn first about handling radiations in various specialties with purposes including academic research, and the first learned habits and practices acts as the basis for safety management of radiation when they continue to do radiation work after going into the society. Hereford, it is needed to establish the right safety culture on radiation for its safe managing. In the present study, the direction for the right understandings and safety improvement are suggested through the radiation survey on education institutions and preparation of safety guidances for users. The basic guidance at the radiation experiment was prepared for the right understanding of the radiation to prevent radiation accidents from careless handling by workers based on the surveyed results for education institutions. It is expected to be used as fundamentals for improvement for radiation safety management of workers and researchers and, further, safety policy for national nuclear energy and radiations.

  2. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by ZnO-reduced graphene oxide composite synthesized via microwave-assisted reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Tian [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Pan Likun, E-mail: lkpan@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Liu Xinjuan; Lu Ting; Zhu Guang; Sun Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > ZnO-reduced graphene oxide composite is synthesized via microwave assisted reaction. > The method allows a facile, safe and rapid reaction in aqueous media. > A high dye degradation efficiency is achieved under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: A quick and facile microwave-assisted reaction is used to synthesize ZnO-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid composites by reducing graphite oxide dispersion with zinc nitrate using a microwave synthesis system. Their photocatalytic performance in degradation of methylene blue is investigated and the results show that the RGO plays an important role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance and the ZnO-RGO composite with 1.1 wt. % RGO achieves a maximum degradation efficiency of 88% in a neutral solution under UV light irradiation for 260 min as compared with pure ZnO (68%) due to the increased light absorption, the reduced charge recombination with the introduction of RGO.

  3. Impact of e-safety applications on cyclists' safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Antonino; Persia, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In years to come, urban areas face the challenge of making transport sustainable in terms of environment and competitiveness. Cycling is a perfect transport means in urban areas. Cyclists have a high casualty rate and should be given special attention in road safety policy. Actions to promote cycling in cities should go together with improving road safety. ICT can be used to develop intelligent applications assisting cyclists to avoid, prevent or mitigate accidents. This paper presents the results of activities focused on the assessment of impacts of ICT on the safety of cyclists, realised in the framework of the EU project SAFECYCLE ( www.safecycle.eu ). E-safety applications were identified that can enhance the safety of cyclists in Europe. Eleven applications were analysed in term of benefits and costs. The results highlighted important differences between European countries in term of awareness about cycling, knowledge about ICT applications and also impacts of these applications.

  4. Safety; Avertissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  5. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  6. Strategies for enhancing perioperative safety: promoting joy and meaning in the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morath, Julianne; Filipp, Rhonda; Cull, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Workforce safety is a precondition of patient safety, and safety from both physical and psychological harm in the workplace is the foundation for an environment in which joy and meaning can exist. Achieving joy and meaning in the workplace allows health care workers to continuously improve the care they provide. This requires an environment in which disrespectful and harmful behaviors are not tolerated or ignored. Health care leaders have an obligation to create workplace cultures that are characterized by respect, transparency, accountability, learning, and quality care. Evidence suggests, however, that health care settings are rife with disrespectful behavior, poor teamwork, and unsafe working conditions. Solutions for addressing workplace safety problems include defining core values, tasking leaders to act as role models, and committing to becoming a high-reliability organization.

  7. Computer-Assisted Techniques to Enhance Transformative Learning in First-Year Literature Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Marguerite; Kajs, Rebecca; Agee, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates techniques to foster transformative learning in computer-assisted literature classes: (1) a lesson plan on John Donne's "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning"; (2) a plan to analyze "Oedipus Rex" using the "Daedalus" Interactive Writing Environment; and (3) a demonstration of how students engage in "meta-reflection" as they explore…

  8. Enhancing Learning? A Comparison of Teacher and Teaching Assistant Interactions with Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob; Koutsoubou, Maria; Bassett, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, teaching assistants are working in schools in increasing numbers. While they formerly supported teachers by completing low-level administrative tasks, they are increasingly playing a pedagogical role and working directly with pupils, particularly those with special educational needs. However, little is known about the quality of…

  9. Enhancing the Experience of Student Teams in Large Classes: Training Teaching Assistants to Be Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Leisa D.; Allen, Belinda C.; Frahm, Jennifer A.; Morris, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    To address the increasing demand for mass undergraduate management education and, at the same time, a greater emphasis on student teamwork, this study outlines the development, delivery, and evaluation of a training intervention designed to build team-coaching skills in teaching assistants. Specifically, "practice-centered" and…

  10. The ABC of housing strategies: are housing assistance programs effective to enhance children's well being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosero, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect on school enrollment, child labor and poverty reduction of a ABC strategy (savings-voucher-credit) that provides assistance to poor families in Ecuador to have an own and adequate house. Administrative data is merged to a household panel to link the history of a vouche

  11. Pedagogical Values of Mobile-Assisted Task-Based Activities to Enhance Speaking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Safdari, Nastaran

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of online mobile-assisted task-based activities on improving Iranian intermediate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' speaking skills. To achieve the purpose of the study, 90 intermediate language learners were selected ranging between 13 to 16 years old and divided into three…

  12. Enhancing patient safety: improving the patient handoff process through appreciative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell-Falik, Nancy; Feinson, Michael; Mohr, Bernard J

    2007-02-01

    Patient transfers from one care giver to another are an area of high safety consequence, as is evident by many studies and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization's Patient Safety Goals. The authors describe how one hospital made measurable improvements in a patient handoff process by using an unconventional approach to change called appreciative inquiry. Rather than identifying the root causes of ineffective handoffs, appreciative inquiry was used to engage staff in identifying and building on their most effective handoff experiences.

  13. The increased use of radiation requires enhanced activities regarding radiation safety control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    More recently, companies that have obtained permission to use radioactive materials or radiation device and registered radiation workers have increased by 10% and 4% respectively. The increased use of radiation could have an effect on radiation safety control. However, there is not nearly enough manpower and budget compared to the number of workers and facilities. This paper will suggest a counteroffer thought analyzing pending issues. The results of this paper indicate that there are 47 and 31.3 workers per radiation protection officer in educational and research institutes, respectively. There are 20.1 persons per RPO in hospitals, even though there are 2 RPOs appointed. Those with a special license as a radioisotope handler were ruled out as possible managers because medical doctors who have a special license for radioisotope handling normally have no experience with radiation safety. The number of staff members and budget have been insufficient for safety control at most educational and research institutes. It is necessary to build an optimized safety control system for effective Radiation Safety Control. This will reduce the risk factor of safety, and a few RPOs can be supplied for efficiency and convenience.

  14. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by PAP (plasma assisted pretreatment) was investigated. Wax removal was observed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) as chemical change on the surface of most intensively pretreated samples as well...... as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  15. Direct Fabrication of Carbon Nanotubes STM Tips by Liquid Catalyst-Assisted Microwave Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Kuei Tung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct and facile method to make carbon nanotube (CNT tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM is presented. Cobalt (Co particles, as catalysts, are electrochemically deposited on the apex of tungsten (W STM tip for CNT growth. It is found that the quantity of Co particles is well controlled by applied DC voltage, concentration of catalyst solution, and deposition time. Using optimum growth condition, CNTs are successfully synthesized on the tip apex by catalyst-assisted microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CA-MPECVD. A HOPG surface is clearly observed at an atomic scale using the present CNT-STM tip.

  16. The PAVE (peeling-assisted volume-enhancing) lift: A retrospective 6-year clinical analysis of a combined approach for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Kai Oliver; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Jaminet, Patrick; Gonser, Phillipp

    2016-08-01

    The peeling-assisted volume-enhancing (PAVE) lift is a single-stage approach that combines superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) plication techniques with fat grafting and different peeling agents. To evaluate the safety of this approach, we analyzed the records of 159 patients who underwent surgery between 2008 and 2014. The percentage of complications observed was not higher than values reported in the literature for each treatment entity: surgical facelift: n=3 haematomas (1.89 %), n=2; temporary apraxia of the mandibular branch (1.26%); fat transfer: minor asymmetry in n = 5 cases (3.14%); peeling: temporary hyperpigmentation in trichloroacetic acid (n = 5; 3.8%) and phenol peels (n = 4; 3.1%), permanent hypopigmentation (n = 6; 5.6%), formation of skin miliae persisting longer than 2 to 3 months (n = 5; 4.6%) and prolonged erythema (n = 3; 0.28%) in phenol peels. The single-stage use of chemical peels, autologous fat transfer, and surgical rhytidectomy was safe.

  17. Letter to the editor regarding "Clinical effectiveness and safety of powered exoskeleton-assisted walking in patients with spinal cord injury: systematic review with meta-analysis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkers MP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marcel P Dijkers,1 Katherine G Akers,2 Sujay S Galen,3 Diane E Patzer,4 Phuong T Vu41Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wayne State University, Detroit, 2Shiffman Medical Library, Wayne State University, Detroit, 3Physical Therapy Program, Wayne State University, Detroit, 4Center for Spinal Cord Injury Recovery, Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USAIn the article “Clinical effectiveness and safety of powered exoskeleton-assisted walking in patients with spinal cord injury: systematic review with meta-analysis”, published in the March issue of Medical Devices: Evidence and Research, Miller et al1 present a meta-analysis of the clinical effectiveness and safety of powered exoskeletons for spinal cord injury (SCI patients. A close examination of this article shows surprising coincidences, in that two primary studies (references 25 and 33 in the reference list report the same proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of subjects able to ambulate with an exoskeleton without assistance (Figure 2 of the study, and two different primary studies (references 26 and 28 report the same mean and 95% CIs for the distance (in meters walked in a 6-minute walk test (Figure 4 of the study.View the original paper by Miller and colleagues.

  18. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Qi, Li; Jia, Mingjun; Wang, Hongyu

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal strategy with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) soft template (ST). Their physicochemical properties have been characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and nitrogen sorption measurements. Their electrocatalytic performances have been examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The obtained NiCo2O4 materials exhibit a typical nanoscale crystalline hexagonal morphology with specific surface area (SSA) and mesopore volume of 88.63 m2 g-1 and 0.298 cm3 g-1. Impressively, the SDS-assisted NiCo2O4 electrode shows a catalytic current density of 125 mA cm-2 and 72% retention for consecutive 1000 s at 0.6 V in 1 M KOH and 0.5 M CH3OH electrolytes towards methanol (CH3OH) electrooxidation, which is better than the one without SDS assistance. The pronounced electrocatalytic activity is largely ascribed to their higher surface intensities of Co and Ni species and superior mesoporous nanostructures, which provide the richer electroactive sites and faster electrochemical kinetics, leading to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity.

  19. A numerical method to enhance the performance of a cam-type electric motor-driven left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Ming; Lu, Cunyue; Xu, Liang; Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Meng, Fan

    2013-10-01

    Pulsatile left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) driven by electric motors have been widely accepted as a treatment of heart failure. Performance enhancement with computer assistance for this kind of LVAD has seldom been reported. In this article, a numerical method is proposed to assist the design of a cam-type pump. The method requires an integrated model of an LVAD system, consisting of a motor, a transmission mechanism, and a cardiovascular circulation. Performance indices, that is, outlet pressure, outlet flow, and pump efficiency, were used to select the best cam profile from six candidates. A prototype pump connected to a mock circulatory loop (MCL) was used to calibrate the friction coefficient of the cam groove and preliminarily evaluate modeling accuracy. In vitro experiments show that the mean outlet pressure and flow can be predicted with high accuracy by the model, and gross geometries of the measurements can also be reproduced. Simulation results demonstrate that as the total peripheral resistance (TPR) is fixed at 1.1 mm Hg.s/mL, the two-cycle 2/3-rise profile is the best. Compared with other profiles, the maximum increases of pressure and flow indices are 75 and 76%, respectively, and the maximum efficiency increase is over 51%. For different TPRs (0.5∼1.5 mm Hg.s/mL) and operation intervals (0.1∼0.4 s) in counterpulsation, the conclusion is also acceptable.

  20. Nanomaterial-Assisted Signal Enhancement of Hybridization for DNA Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqiang Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Detection of DNA sequences has received broad attention due to its potential applications in a variety of fields. As sensitivity of DNA biosensors is determined by signal variation of hybridization events, the signal enhancement is of great significance for improving the sensitivity in DNA detection, which still remains a great challenge. Nanomaterials, which possess some unique chemical and physical properties caused by nanoscale effects, provide a new opportunity for developing novel nanomaterial-based signal-enhancers for DNA biosensors. In this review, recent progress concerning this field, including some newly-developed signal enhancement approaches using quantum-dots, carbon nanotubes and their composites reported by our group and other researchers are comprehensively summarized. Reports on signal enhancement of DNA biosensors by non-nanomaterials, such as enzymes and polymer reagents, are also reviewed for comparison. Furthermore, the prospects for developing DNA biosensors using nanomaterials as signal-enhancers in future are also indicated.

  1. Enhancement of Electron Transfer in Various Photo-Assisted Oxidation Processes for Nitro-Phenolic Compound Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khue, Do Ngoc; Lam, Tran Dai; Minh, Do Binh; Loi, Vu Duc; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Bach, Vu Quang; Van Anh, Nguyen; Van Hoang, Nguyen; Hu'ng, Dao Duy

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on photo-assisted advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) with strongly enhanced electron transfer for degradation of nitro-phenolic compounds in aqueous medium. The effectiveness of these processes was estimated based on the pseudo-first order rate constant k determined from high-performance liquid chromatography. The degradation of four different nitro-phenolic compounds was systematically studied using selected AOPs; these four compounds were nitrophenol, dinitrophenol, trinitrophenol and trinitroresorcin. It was observed that the combination of ultraviolet light with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 enhanced and maintained hydroxyl radicals, and therefore increased the conversion yield of organic pollutants. These AOPs provided efficient and green removal of stable organic toxins found in a wide range of industrial wastewater.

  2. Enhanced decomposition of reactive blue 19 dye in ultrasound assisted electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Maria; Farooq, Robina; Khan, Zahid Mehmood; Khan, Zarsher; Shaukat, S F

    2011-01-01

    Textile industry effluents contain reactive dyes that may harm our receiving waters. A typical reactive blue (RB) 19 dye is frequently detected in significant concentrations in textile industry effluents. Such dyes have generally shown resistance to decomposition and tend to persist in the environment for long periods and multiply the impacts to water and environment. Therefore, the present investigation focused on high-rate decomposition of a typical reactive dye RB 19 under various ultrasound and electrochemical process conditions. The decomposition of un-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed forms of reactive blue (RB) 19 dye by ultrasound assisted electrochemical process was investigated using various parameters including dye concentration, pH, ultrasonic frequency and reaction time. Reaction kinetics, organic carbon and mechanism for dye decomposition were determined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, TOC (total organic carbon) analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Almost complete 90% color removal and a maximum of 56% TOC removal for 50 mg L(-1) dye concentration of un-hydrolyzed RB 19 dye was achieved at an ultrasonic frequency of 80 kHz, pH of 8 after 120 min. GC-MS analysis showed that a sonoelectrochemical treatment of un-hydrolyzed RB 19 dye for 30 min resulted in the formation of products e.g. acetic acid, benzoic acid etc. with the complete removal of dye. For hydrolyzed dye, a treatment of 10 min was enough and the results were comparable with 30 min treatment of un-hydrolyzed dye. Kinetics of ultrasound assisted electrolysis showed that the dye decomposition followed 1st order. The ultrasound assisted electrolysis for dye decomposition and hence decolorization proved to be more effective and the total energy consumption reduced to half as compared with simple electrolysis/sonochemical decomposition. Therefore, ultrasound assisted electrolysis was found to be more effective technique for dye decomposition of an otherwise environmentally

  3. The SHIELD (Safety & Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments Study: Feasibility and Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Stephen Kuehl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This randomized prospective trial aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a team-based worksite health and safety intervention for law enforcement personnel. Four-hundred and eight subjects were enrolled and half were randomized to meet participants met for weekly, peer-led sessions delivered from a scripted team-based health and safety curriculum. Curriculum addressed: exercise, nutrition, stress, sleep, body weight, injury, and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as smoking and heavy alcohol use. Health and safety questionnaires administered before and after the intervention found significant improvements for increased fruit and vegetable consumption, overall healthy eating, increased sleep quantity and sleep quality, and reduced personal stress.

  4. The LVIS Jr. microstent to assist coil embolization of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms: clinical study to assess safety and efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehlenbruch, M.; Herweh, C.; Behrens, L.; Jestaedt, L.; Bendszus, M.; Pham, M. [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Amiri, H.; Ringleb, P.A. [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    This study was aimed to assess clinical safety and efficacy of the LVIS Jr. microstent in stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. IRB approved single-center interventional clinical study in 22 patients (10 females, 12 males, mean age 55, age range 33-74 years) for the endovascular treatment of wide-neck aneurysms. After obtaining informed consent, patients were included according to the following criteria: aneurysm fundus-to-neck ratio < 2 or neck diameter > 4 mm, and a parent vessel diameter of ≤3.5 mm. Primary end point for clinical safety was absence of death, absence of major or minor stroke, and absence of transient ischemic attack. Primary end point for treatment efficacy was complete angiographic occlusion according to the Raymond-Roy Occlusion Classification (RROC) immediately after the procedure and at follow-up after 3 and 6 months on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 20/22 (91 %) of patients, the primary end point of safety was reached; in the two remaining patients, transient ischemic attack, but no permanent deficit was observed; in 16/22 (73 %), efficient occlusion (RROC1) was reached, and in 6/22 (27 %), a residual neck remained (RROC2). Single [seven with antegrade, two in crossover configuration, and four with ''first-balloon-then-stent'' (FBTS) technique] or double-stent (eight patients with Y configuration and one patient with X configuration) deployment was technically successful in all cases. Deployment of the LVIS Jr. microstent in various single- or double-stent configurations is safe and effective to assist the treatment of intracranial wide-neck aneurysms. (orig.)

  5. Ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting inorganic electrolyte for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Chae; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Moon-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Hye; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Shin, Woo-Cheol; Ue, Makoto; Kim, Dong-Won

    2015-10-01

    Flexible ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide are prepared as thin films and directly applied onto negative electrode to produce a separator-electrode assembly with good interfacial adhesion and low interfacial resistances. The ceramic separators show an excellent thermal stability and high ionic conductivity as compared to conventional polypropylene separator. The lithium-ion batteries assembled with graphite negative electrode, Li+-conducting ceramic separator and LiCoO2 positive electrode exhibit good cycling performance in terms of discharge capacity, capacity retention and rate capability. It is also demonstrated that the use of a ceramic separator can greatly improve safety over cells employing a polypropylene separator, which is highly desirable for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety.

  6. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko

    2010-09-15

    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, 8212MW, was struck by M6.8 quakes in July 2007. TEPCO has steadily been conducting restoration and post-earthquake equipment integrity assessment, aiming to make it a disaster-resistant power station. 2 units among 7 resumed commercial operation by June 2010. This earthquake has provided a great deal of knowledge and information useful for nuclear safety improvement. It has also served as a valuable reference for the IAEA in developing earthquake-related guidelines. TEPCO would like to share the knowledge and information thereby contributing to improving the safety of nuclear power generation. We will introduce some of our activities.

  7. Technology Assisted Language Learning is a silver bullet for enhancing Language competence and performance: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology Assisted Language Learning (TALL is an infallible means to develop profound knowledge and wide range of language skills. It instills in EFL learners an illimitable passion for task-based and skills oriented learning rather than rote memorization. New technological gadgets have commoditized a broad-based learning and teaching avenues and brought the whole learning process to life. A vast variety of authentic online- learning resources, motivational visual prompts, exciting videos, web-based interactivity and customizable language software, email, discussion forums, Skype, Twitter, apps, Internet mobiles, Facebook and YouTube have become obtrusive tools to enhance competence and performance in EFL teaching and learning realms. Technology can also provide various types of scaffolding for students learning to read. Nevertheless, instructors can also enhance their pedagogical effectiveness. However, the main focus of interest in this study is to ascertain to what extent the modern technological devices augment learners’ competence and performance specifically in vocabulary learning, grammatical accuracy and listening/ speaking skills. The remarkable scores of empirical surveys conducted in the present study reveal that TALL does assist learners to improve listening / speaking skills, pronunciation, extensive vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. The findings also manifest that the hybridity, instantaneity and super-diversity of digital learning lay far-reaching impact on learners' motivation for learning and incredibly maneuver learners to immerse in the whole learning process. Keywords: TALL learning, language skills, pedagogy, effectiveness, motivation, educators, learners

  8. Biomimetic MEMS to assist, enhance, and expand human sensory perceptions: a survey on state-of-the-art developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarczuk, Teresa; Matin, Tina R.; Karman, Salmah B.; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Davaji, Benyamin; Macqueen, Mark O.; Mueller, Jeanette; Schmid, Ulrich; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2011-06-01

    The human senses are of extraordinary value but we cannot change them even if this proves to be a disadvantage in modern times. However, we can assist, enhance and expand these senses via MEMS. Current MEMS cover the range of the human sensory system, and additionally provide data about signals that are too weak for the human sensory system (in terms of signal strength) and signal types that are not covered by the human sensory system. Biomimetics deals with knowledge transfer from biology to technology. In our interdisciplinary approach existing MEMS sensor designs shall be modified and adapted (to keep costs at bay), via biomimetic knowledge transfer of outstanding sensory perception in 'best practice' organisms (e.g. thermoreception, UV sensing, electromagnetic sense). The MEMS shall then be linked to the human body (mainly ex corpore to avoid ethics conflicts), to assist, enhance and expand human sensory perception. This paper gives an overview of senses in humans and animals, respective MEMS sensors that are already on the market and gives a list of possible applications of such devices including sensors that vibrate when a blind person approaches a kerb stone edge and devices that allow divers better orientation under water (echolocation, ultrasound).

  9. Enhancing the quality of life and preserving independence for target needs populations through integration of assistive technology devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncert, Eric S; Bickford, Steven A; Guzic, Brenda L; Demuth, Barbara R; Bapat, Ashok R; Roberts, Jay B

    2011-01-01

    Telehealth Test Bed-Quality of Life Studies is a research study investigating, testing, evaluating, and demonstrating technologies that have the potential to improve the quality of life for target populations, such as warriors in transition, veterans, individuals with physical and mental disabilities, and adults age 65 and older, who may require assistive technology devices to aid in maintaining or improving their quality of life. Thousands of soldiers who fought in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom have been wounded in action or have sustained injuries from noncombat accidents. Many of these injuries affecting military populations, as well as the general public, have resulted in amputations, traumatic brain injuries, and other physical or mental impairments. Depending on the severity of the injury, assistive technologies may be temporarily needed, or as a long-term solution, to regain and maintain normal daily functions. Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas developed an evaluation matrix comparing assistive technologies to identify devices that will improve or maintain the quality of life for these target populations. The integration of telehealth and telerehabilitation applications into patients' daily lives was examined to help improve home rehabilitation via access to healthcare specialties in rural and medically underserved settings. Researchers identified and tested assistive technology devices to be included in a self-sufficient living environment. The continuation of this research involves recruiting individuals to test and evaluate the functions of these commercially available technologies and to complete data collection surveys and questionnaires. The results are useful in selecting devices that will enhance or extend the quality of life of the target populations.

  10. Plasmon assisted enhanced second-harmonic generation in single hybrid Au/ZnS nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Nadia M.; Wang, Kai; Han, Xiaobo; Long, Hua; Wang, Bing; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) in single ZnS nanowires (NWs) attached with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The hybrid Au/ZnS NWs with different densities of the attached Au NPs were prepared by a simple solution impregnation method. By comparing with bare ZnS NWs, ∼1.3, ∼6.6, ∼7 and ∼2 times enhancement of SH intensity was achieved in the hybrid Au/ZnS NWs with low, moderate, high and ultrahigh densities of the attached Au NPs, respectively. The enhanced SHG in the hybrid Au/ZnS NWs is attributed to the strong local-fields from the Au cluster under the near-resonant condition, which is supported by the related dark-field scattering spectra. This hybrid Au/ZnS NWs provide a simple platform for enhancing nonlinear optical responses, which have potential applications in nano-probing and nano-sensing.

  11. Au-controlled enhancement of photoluminescence of NiS nanostructures synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linganiso, Ella Cebisa [DST/CSIR Nanotech Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Mwakikunga, Bonex Wakufwa, E-mail: bmwakikunga@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR Nanotech Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, The Polytechnic of the University of Malawi, Private Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 0003 (Malawi); Mhlanga, Sabelo Dalton [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein, 2028 Johannesburg (South Africa); Coville, Neil John [Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2014-11-15

    Nickel sulphide (NiS) nanostructures decorated with gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. Binary phase NiS (α and β) crystalline nanostructures, bare, and decorated with Au NPs were obtained and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. TEM analysis revealed that the NiS nanostructures were of various shapes. A quantum confinement effect was confirmed by the blue shift PL emissions and high optical energy band gap observed for the as-synthesized sample. A threefold light emission enhancement due to Au NP coatings was obtained when Au metal NP decoration concentrations was varied from 1% to 10%. These enhancements were attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) excitation of the surface decorated metal NPs which results in an increased rate of spontaneous emission. The PL enhancement factor was observed to vary at different NiS emissions as well as with the size of the Au NPs. The effect of metal NP decoration on the PL emission of NiS is to the best of our knowledge, presented for the first time. - Highlights: • Binary phase NiS decorated with gold nanoparticles. • Quantum confinement effect confirmed by PL analysis. • PL enhancement depending more on particle size distribution. • Effect of gold on NiS PL is to the best of our knowledge reported for the first time.

  12. Tailored surface-enhanced Raman nanopillar arrays fabricated by laser-assisted replication for biomolecular detection using organic semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Lebedkin, Sergei; Besser, Heino; Pfleging, Wilhelm; Prinz, Stephan; Wissmann, Markus; Schwab, Patrick M; Nazarenko, Irina; Guttmann, Markus; Kappes, Manfred M; Lemmer, Uli

    2015-01-27

    Organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are of interest as external or chip-integrated excitation sources in the visible spectral range for miniaturized Raman-on-chip biomolecular detection systems. However, the inherently limited excitation power of such lasers as well as oftentimes low analyte concentrations requires efficient Raman detection schemes. We present an approach using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates, which has the potential to significantly improve the sensitivity of on-chip Raman detection systems. Instead of lithographically fabricated Au/Ag-coated periodic nanostructures on Si/SiO2 wafers, which can provide large SERS enhancements but are expensive and time-consuming to fabricate, we use low-cost and large-area SERS substrates made via laser-assisted nanoreplication. These substrates comprise gold-coated cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) nanopillar arrays, which show an estimated SERS enhancement factor of up to ∼ 10(7). The effect of the nanopillar diameter (60-260 nm) and interpillar spacing (10-190 nm) on the local electromagnetic field enhancement is studied by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) modeling. The favorable SERS detection capability of this setup is verified by using rhodamine 6G and adenosine as analytes and an organic semiconductor DFB laser with an emission wavelength of 631.4 nm as the external fiber-coupled excitation source.

  13. Enhancing Nursing Staffing Forecasting With Safety Stock Over Lead Time Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    In balancing competing priorities, it is essential that nursing staffing provide enough nurses to safely and effectively care for the patients. Mathematical models to predict optimal "safety stocks" have been routine in supply chain management for many years but have up to now not been applied in nursing workforce management. There are various aspects that exhibit similarities between the 2 disciplines, such as an evolving demand forecast according to acuity and the fact that provisioning "stock" to meet demand in a future period has nonzero variable lead time. Under assumptions about the forecasts (eg, the demand process is well fit as an autoregressive process) and about the labor supply process (≥1 shifts' lead time), we show that safety stock over lead time for such systems is effectively equivalent to the corresponding well-studied problem for systems with stationary demand bounds and base stock policies. Hence, we can apply existing models from supply chain analytics to find the optimal safety levels of nurse staffing. We use a case study with real data to demonstrate that there are significant benefits from the inclusion of the forecast process when determining the optimal safety stocks.

  14. Magnetic field assisted Fenton reactions for the enhanced degradation of methyl blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Long Hao; Lu Yi Zou; Guang Sheng Zhang; Yi Bo Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic field was tentatively introduced into Fenton reactions system for the degradation and discoloration of methyl blue as the represent of organic chemical dye, which was a bio-refractory organic pollutant in industry wastewater. It was found that under optimal Fenton reaction conditions, with the assistant of magnetic field in Fenton reactions, the degradation rate of methyl blue, the decomposition rate of H2O2 and the conversion rate of Fe2+ were accelerated, the extent of them would be improved by the increase of magnetic field intensity. Meanwhile, the mineralization of methyl blue (CODcr) was improved by over 10% with magnetic fiold.

  15. 1 Outreach, Education and Domestic Market Enhancement 2 Export Promotion and Assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geothermal Energy Association

    2004-03-15

    Geothermal Energy Association supports the US geothermal industry in its efforts to bring more clean geothermal energy on-line throughout the world. Activities designed to accomplish this goal include: (1) developing and maintaining data bases, web pages, (2) commissioning of special studies and reports, (3) preparing, printing and distributing brochures and newsletters, (4) developing exhibits and displays, and participating in trade shows, (5) designing, producing and disseminating audio-video materials, (6) monitoring and coordinating programs carried out by US DOE and other Federal agencies, (7) holding workshops to facilitate communication between researchers and industry and to encourage their recognition of emerging markets for geothermal technology, (8) attending conferences, making speeches and presentation, and otherwise interacting with environmental and other renewable energy organizations and coalitions, (9) hosting events in Washington, DC and other appropriate locations to educate Federal, State and local representatives, environmental groups, the news media, and other about the status and potential of geothermal energy, (10) conducting member services such as the preparation and distribution of a member newsletter related to operating and maintaining s useful and viable association, and (11) performing similar kinds of activities designed to inform others about geothermal energy. The activities of the export promotion aim to assist industry in accomplishing the goal of successfully penetrating and developing energy in country with existing geothermal resources and a desire to develop them. Activities including in export promotion are: (1)needs analysis and assessment involve monitoring the progress of developing markets and projects overseas and working with US industry to determine what future activities by GEA would be of greatest assistance, (2) outreach includes the preparation and dissemination of brochures and videos for foreign professionals

  16. Visit safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Experiment areas, offices, workshops: it is possible to have co-workers or friends visit these places.     You already know about the official visits service, the VIP office, and professional visits. But do you know about the safety instruction GSI-OHS1, “Visits on the CERN site”? This is a mandatory General Safety Instruction that was created to assist you in ensuring safety for all your visits, whatever their nature—especially those that are non-official. Questions? The HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Write to safety-general@cern.ch.   The HSE Unit

  17. An Enhanced Backbone-Assisted Reliable Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Ali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An extremely reliable source to sink communication is required for most of the contemporary WSN applications especially pertaining to military, healthcare and disaster-recovery. However, due to their intrinsic energy, bandwidth and computational constraints, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs encounter several challenges in reliable source to sink communication. In this paper, we present a novel reliable topology that uses reliable hotlines between sensor gateways to boost the reliability of end-to-end transmissions. This reliable and efficient routing alternative reduces the number of average hops from source to the sink. We prove, with the help of analytical evaluation, that communication using hotlines is considerably more reliable than traditional WSN routing. We use reliability theory to analyze the cost and benefit of adding gateway nodes to a backbone-assisted WSN. However, in hotline assisted routing some scenarios where source and the sink are just a couple of hops away might bring more latency, therefore, we present a Signature Based Routing (SBR scheme. SBR enables the gateways to make intelligent routing decisions, based upon the derived signature, hence providing lesser end-to-end delay between source to the sink communication. Finally, we evaluate our proposed hotline based topology with the help of a simulation tool and show that the proposed topology provides manifold increase in end-to-end reliability.

  18. Enhanced antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of longan fruit pericarp by ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Shi, John; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Mouming; Xue, Sophia; Jiang, Yueming

    2010-01-20

    The health benefits of fruits acting against chronic diseases are ascribed to their antioxidant activities which are mainly responsible due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The use of ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction (UHPE) has shown great advantages for the extraction of these phenolic compounds from longan fruit pericarp (LFP). Studies were carried out to investigate the effects of UHPE at pressures of 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa on total phenolic contents, extraction yield, antioxidant and antityrosinase activities from LFP. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were analyzed, using various antioxidant models like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. Extract from ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction at 500MPa (UHPE-500) showed the highest antioxidant activities of all the tested models. In addition, it also showed moderate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Three phenolic acids, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, and corilagin were identified and quantified by HPLC. Corilagin content was the highest compared to other phenolic acids identified. UHPE-500 obtained the higher phenolic acid contents compared to other high pressure processing and conventional extractions (CE). Compared with CE, UHPE-500 exhibited good extraction effectiveness in terms of higher extraction yields with high phenolic contents and also with higher antioxidant and antityrosinase activities.

  19. Characteristic emission enhancement in the atmosphere with Rn trace using metal assisted LIBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, M. M. [Physics Department, Doctorate Technical Center of PNU, P.O. Box 19536-33511, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parvin, P., E-mail: parvin@aut.ac.ir; Moosakhani, A. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, S. Z.; Reyhani, A. [Physics Department, Imam Khomeini International University, P.O. Box 34149-16818, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majdabadi, A. [Laser and Optics Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 11155-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abachi, S. [Physics Department, University of California, Irvin, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Several characteristic emission lines from the metal targets (Cu, Zn and Pb) were investigated in trace presence of radon gas in the atmospheric air, using Q-SW Nd:YAG laser induced plasma inside a control chamber. The emission lines of metal species are noticeably enhanced in (Rn+air), relative to those in the synthetic air alone. Similar spectra were also taken in various sub-atmospheric environments in order to determine the optimum pressure for enhancement. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were also employed to count the tracks due to alpha particles for the activity assessment.

  20. Characteristic emission enhancement in the atmosphere with Rn trace using metal assisted LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Hashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several characteristic emission lines from the metal targets (Cu, Zn and Pb were investigated in trace presence of radon gas in the atmospheric air, using Q-SW Nd:YAG laser induced plasma inside a control chamber. The emission lines of metal species are noticeably enhanced in (Rn+air, relative to those in the synthetic air alone. Similar spectra were also taken in various sub-atmospheric environments in order to determine the optimum pressure for enhancement. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were also employed to count the tracks due to alpha particles for the activity assessment.

  1. Conceptual studies of construction and safety enhancement of ocean SMART mounted on GBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gil, E-mail: gggggtt@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Heon, E-mail: welcome@kaist.ac.kr [Division of Ocean Systems Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Gu, E-mail: skim07@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Il-Guk, E-mail: igwoo@dsme.co.kr [Department of Energy System R and D (Plant R and D), Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., 221-17, Nonhyun-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-010 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: jhhan1@dsme.co.kr [Department of Energy System R and D (Plant R and D), Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., 221-17, Nonhyun-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-010 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Phill-Seung, E-mail: philseung@kaist.edu [Division of Ocean Systems Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We suggested the concept of coupling the SMART to the GBS, and we made suggested improvements. • We describe the design concepts and GA of SMART ONPP. • We analyzed seismic feature of SMART ONPP preliminarily. • We suggested the concept of coupling the IPSS to the SMART ONPP, and we made suggested improvements. - Abstract: From the Fukushima accident, protection of NPPs from any imaginable natural disasters became very important. In this study, the authors suggest a new concept of ocean nuclear power plant (ONPP) by using SMART as a reference reactor, which is the most recent Small Modular Reactor (SMR) developed by Korea, to demonstrate that the proposed concept can improve the safety of NPP from earthquake and tsunami. The proposed concept utilizes Gravity Based Structure (GBS), which is a widely spread construction technique of offshore plants. Because, floating type or submerged type NPPs can be easily affected by severe ocean environments such as tsunamis and storms, additional safety features have to be added to the existing land based plant. In contrast, the newly proposed GBS-type ONPP does not require going through significant design modifications due to inherent characteristics of the construction method. The authors have demonstrated this concept can be applied to the large nuclear power plant in the previous work and will expand this concept for SMRs in this paper. The authors discuss the new concept by presenting design parameters, design requirements, and the new total general arrangement. Furthermore, due to the unique configuration of ONPP SMART, innovative passive safety features can be added to the existing SMART design. The performance of proposed concept to resist earthquake as well as newly added passive safety feature will be discussed by presenting simplified analysis results.

  2. Safety of Intra-Articular Use of Atelocollagen for Enhanced Tissue Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Magarian, Elise M; Vavken, Patrick; Connolly, Susan A; Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Murray, Martha M.

    2012-01-01

    Collagen is an important biomaterial in intra-articular tissue engineering, but there are unanswered questions about its safety. We hypothesize that the addition of type-I-collagen for primary repair of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) might result in a local and systemic reaction in a porcine model after 15 weeks as demonstrated by joint effusion, synovial thickening, elevated intraarticular and systemic leukocyte counts. Further, this reaction might be aggravated by the addition of a pl...

  3. Development of reliability-based safety enhancement technology; development of organization concept model in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Lee, Yong Sik; Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The influences of organizational factors on safety of nuclear power plants are mentioned in the early 1970s and noticed after being focused on in the accident report of TMI in 1979. These needs let us implement this research and the purposes of this research are to assess the organizational influences and to develop the organizational conceptual model to establish the basis of identifying the organizational factors, using this model to contribute to enhance safety and economics in nuclear power plants. Eventually research on the organizational influences is expected to have two effects, which are to improve safety through identifying potential causes of accidents and to elevate economics as a new approach to more efficient operation of nuclear power plants. In this study, recent studies were surveyed on the organizational conceptual model, the identification of organizational factors, assessment of organizational influences and evaluation methods of organizational factors and organizational influences among the overseas and domestic researches. In addition specific characteristics of domestic nuclear power plants were tried to identify through plant visit and an evaluation method of organizational influences on component maintenance and human performance were developed and presented. 71 refs., 40 figs., 18 tabs. (Author)

  4. EAP 体系对提升煤矿职工安全心理水平的应用研究∗%The application research of EAP system to enhance the safety psychological level of coal miners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赛; 曹庆贵; 贾红果

    2016-01-01

    以 EAP (员工援助计划)的服务内容及服务方式为基础,系统分析了群体因素、环境因素、个体因素和安全管理因素对煤矿职工安全心理水平的影响,对 EAP 应用于提升煤矿职工安全心理水平的措施进行分析,通过调研数据分析处理得出各因素对煤矿职工安全心理水平的干预力度;建立煤矿职工安全心理水平系统动力学模型,通过 SD 仿真提出提升职工安全心理水平的最佳路径和最佳干预应用策略。%The thesis is based on the service contents and service methods of the EAP (em-ployee assistance plan). First,it systematicly analyses the influence of group factors,environ-mental factors,individual factors and safety management to the safety psychological level of coal miners. Next,it analyses the measures of EAP applied to enhance the safety psychological level of coal miners,the questionnaire survey is conducted and organizes the survey data by the soft-ware of SPSS,obtain the interference of various factors to the safety psychological level of coal mine workers by the analysis of linear regression. Then,the thesis builds a system dynamics model of the safety psychological level of coal miners,and obtaining the most efficient measures of enhancing the safety psychological level of coal miners by simulation. At last,the thesis comes up the intervention strategies of enhancing the safety psychological level of coal miners combining with the psychological aid service mode which coal miners are desirable.

  5. Ultrathin silicon solar cells with enhanced photocurrents assisted by plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Stassen, Erik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    nanostructures. By placing a one-dimensional plasmonic nanograting on the bottom of the solar cell, the generated photocurrent for a 200 nm-thickness crystalline silicon solar cell can be enhanced by 90% in the considered wavelength range, while keeping insensitive to the incident angle. These results are paving...

  6. Prostate Biopsy Assistance System with Gland Deformation Estimation for Enhanced Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Michael; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted prostate biopsies became a very active research area during the last years. Prostate tracking makes it possi- ble to overcome several drawbacks of the current standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy procedure, namely the insufficient targeting accuracy which may lead to a biopsy distribution of poor quality, the very approximate knowledge about the actual location of the sampled tissues which makes it difficult to implement focal therapy strategies based on biopsy results, and finally the difficulty to precisely reach non-ultrasound (US) targets stemming from different modalities, statistical atlases or previous biopsy series. The prostate tracking systems presented so far are limited to rigid transformation tracking. However, the gland can get considerably deformed during the intervention because of US probe pres- sure and patient movements. We propose to use 3D US combined with image-based elastic registration to estimate these deformations. A fast elastic registration algorithm that...

  7. Calcium-assisted reduction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for nanostructured iron cobalt with enhanced magnetic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, B.; Andrew, J. S.; Arnold, D. P.

    2017-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of a calcium-assisted reduction process for synthesizing fine-grain ( 100 nm) metal alloys from metal oxide nanoparticles. To demonstrate the process, an iron cobalt alloy (Fe66Co34) is obtained by hydrogen annealing 7-nm cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles in the presence of calcium granules. The calcium serves as a strong reducing agent, promoting the phase transition from cobalt ferrite to a metallic iron cobalt alloy, while maintaining high crystallinity. Magnetic measurements demonstrate the annealing temperature is the dominant factor of tuning the grain size and magnetic properties. Annealing at 700 °C for 1 h maximizes the magnetic saturation, up to 2.4 T (235 emu/g), which matches that of bulk iron cobalt.

  8. Fractional laser-assisted topical delivery leads to enhanced, accelerated and deeper cutaneous 5-fluorouracil uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, Emily; Olesen, Uffe H; Nielsen, Mette M B

    2016-01-01

    and biodistribution. METHODS: In vitro porcine skin underwent AFXL-exposure using a fractional 10,600nm CO2-laser, generating microscopic ablation zones (MAZ) reaching the dermoepidermal junction (MAZ-ED), superficial-(MAZ-DS), or mid-dermis(MAZ-DM). 5-FU in AFXL-exposed and control skin was measured in Franz......BACKGROUND: Topical 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) exhibits suboptimal efficacy for non-melanoma skin cancer, attributed to insufficient intracutaneous penetration. This study investigates the impact of ablative fractional laser (AFXL) at different laser-channel depths on cutaneous 5-FU pharmacokinetics...... diffusion cells at 4 and 24 hours (n =55). HPLC quantified 5-FU in full-thickness skin, specific skin depths of 100μm-1500μm, and transcutaneous receiver-compartments. Qualitative matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass-spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) visualized 5-FU in selected samples. RESULTS...

  9. Amino acids assisted hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchically structured ZnO with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanxia; Lin, Siwen; Li, Xuan; Liu, Yuping

    2016-10-01

    Novel hierarchically structured ZnO, including rose-like, dandelion-like and flower-like, have been synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process using different amino acids (glutamine, histidine and glycine) as structure-directing agents and urea as deposition agent, followed by subsequent calcination. Amino acids played a crucial role in the formation of hierarchically structured ZnO, and different amino acids could induce different exquisite shapes and assembly ways, as well as more oxygen defects. The prepared hierarchically structured ZnO exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the photodegradation of Rhodamine B, which was associated with their special hierarchical structures, large BET surface area and the existence of more oxygen defects. Amino acid-assisted growth mechanism of hierarchically structured ZnO was also discussed.

  10. Sensory subtraction in robot-assisted surgery: fingertip skin deformation feedback to ensure safety and improve transparency in bimanual haptic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Leonardo; Pacchierotti, Claudio; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a novel approach to force feedback in robot-assisted surgery. It consists of substituting haptic stimuli, composed of a kinesthetic component and a skin deformation, with cutaneous stimuli only. The force generated can then be thought as a subtraction between the complete haptic interaction, cutaneous, and kinesthetic, and the kinesthetic part of it. For this reason, we refer to this approach as sensory subtraction. Sensory subtraction aims at outperforming other nonkinesthetic feedback techniques in teleoperation (e.g., sensory substitution) while guaranteeing the stability and safety of the system. We tested the proposed approach in a challenging 7-DoF bimanual teleoperation task, similar to the Pegboard experiment of the da Vinci Skills Simulator. Sensory subtraction showed improved performance in terms of completion time, force exerted, and total displacement of the rings with respect to two popular sensory substitution techniques. Moreover, it guaranteed a stable interaction in the presence of a communication delay in the haptic loop.

  11. Surgical innovation-enhanced quality and the processes that assure patient/provider safety: A surgical conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruny, Jennifer; Ziegler, Moritz

    2015-12-01

    Innovation is a crucial part of surgical history that has led to enhancements in the quality of surgical care. This comprises both changes which are incremental and those which are frankly disruptive in nature. There are situations where innovation is absolutely required in order to achieve quality improvement or process improvement. Alternatively, there are innovations that do not necessarily arise from some need, but simply are a new idea that might be better. All change must assure a significant commitment to patient safety and beneficence. Innovation would ideally enhance patient care quality and disease outcomes, as well stimulate and facilitate further innovation. The tensions between innovative advancement and patient safety, risk and reward, and demonstrated effectiveness versus speculative added value have created a contemporary "surgical conundrum" that must be resolved by a delicate balance assuring optimal patient/provider outcomes. This article will explore this delicate balance and the rules that govern it. Recommendations are made to facilitate surgical innovation through clinical research. In addition, we propose options that investigators and institutions may use to address competing priorities.

  12. Growth enhancement of UF5 nano-particles assisted by α-ray ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Y.; Isomura, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Okuyama, K.

    1996-04-01

    It was demonstrated experimentally for the first time that particle growth of photoproduced UFS was enhanced by ionizing radiation from an α-emitting241Am source. A gas mixture of UF6, CH4, and Ar in a reaction cell was irradiated with a single shot of a KrF laser at 248 nm to form UF5 particles. Transmission electron microscope images of the samples indicated that the average size of UF5 particles produced without the α-ray source was independent of the laser energy. UFS particles produced with the α-ray source were found to be much larger in size than those produced without the a-ray source, and the enhancement of particle growth was marked when the laser energy was low. An explanation was attempted for the anomalous behaviors of particle size distribution from the viewpoint of competition between the second-order coagulation rate and the rate of diffusion from the reaction zone.

  13. SDS-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of NiO flake-flower architectures with enhanced gas-sensing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ruiyang; Zeng, Wen; Gao, Qi

    2016-10-01

    A facile hydrothermal route was developed for the preparation of well-aligned hierarchical flower-like NiO nanostructure with the assistance of SDS that served as a structure-directing agent as well as a capping agent in the process of aggregation and assembly. Notably, the NiO sensors exhibit enhanced gas-sensing performance towards ethanol, which could be explained in association with the ultrathin nanosheets that are close to Debye length (LD) scale and thus get the majority carriers fully depleted due to the ionization of adsorbed oxygen, abundant effective gas diffusion paths as well as high surface-to-volume ratio to promote sufficient contact and reaction between the NiO sample and ethanol molecules, and numerous miniature reaction rooms assembled with nanosheets to make the test gas molecules stay long enough for completed gas-sensing reactions. Besides, a novel growth mechanism with the passage of reaction time was also proposed in detail.

  14. Gold nanoparticle assisted assembly of a heme protein for enhancement of long-range interfacial electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Palle Skovhus; Chi, Qijin; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2007-01-01

    of bioelectronics. A key challenge in molecular bioelectronics is to improve the efficiency of long-range charge transfer. The present work shows that this can be achieved by nanoparticle (NP) assisted assembly of cytochrome c (cyt c) on macroscopic single-crystalline electrode surfaces. We present the synthesis...... and characterization of water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with core diameter 3-4 nm and their application for the enhancement of long-range interfacial ET of a heme protein. Gold nanoparticles were electrostatically conjugated with cyt c to form nanoparticle-protein hybrid ET systems with well......-defined stoichiometry. The systems were investigated in homogeneous solution and at liquid/solid interface. Conjugation of cyt c results in a small but consistent broadening of the nanoparticle plasmon band. This phenomenon can be explained in terms of long-range electronic interactions between the gold nanoparticle...

  15. Optical absorption enhancement in 40 nm ultrathin film silicon solar cells assisted by photonic and plasmonic modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S.; Dubey, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    Presently, energy problems and environmental issues have attracted the scientific community for the development of cost-effective and high-performance solar cells. Thin film solar cells are cheaper but weak light absorption in longer wavelength has demanded an efficient light trapping scheme for the better harvesting of solar radiation to a maximum possibility. In this paper, we numerically explore the design efforts of an ultrathin film silicon solar cell, integrated with top dielectric and bottom metal gratings. The proposed design is influenced by the localized surface plasmon modes, surface plasmon polariton and optical resonances which leads to the optimal harvesting of sunlight within 40 nm thick absorbing layer. The optimized design of solar cell shows enhanced light absorption with cell efficiency ∼25% at normal transverse magnetic polarization condition. Our design approach assisted by photonic and plasmonic modes is promising for the realization of new generation, low-cost ultrathin film solar cells.

  16. Adapting the distress thermometer for cross-cultural research: a method enhanced by Mexican American undergraduate research assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jo Nell; Dietz, Tracy J

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans (MAs) need representation in cancer research studies to provide an empirical base for developing culturally relevant health care interventions. One factor that limits research with MAs is the lack of Spanish language measurement tools. Bilingual, bicultural student research assistants (RAs), working with faculty researchers and translation consultants, adapted the English version Distress Thermometer and Problem List (DT-PL) tool into the Spanish language. Additionally, RAs assessed tool feasibility with five MA women to determine its usefulness for a later study. The translation process resulted in a distress assessment instrument suitable for use in a low-literacy, Spanish-speaking population. RAs can enhance a process of adapting a measurement tool for use in research. Health care researchers should now pilot the Spanish DT-PL tool to assess its reliability and validity.

  17. Sound Spellings : Online Pronunciation Enhancement in a Computer Assisted Language Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a methodology for enhancing English as a second language pronunciation among Japanese learners through web-based listening and speaking exercises. Students in classes using an emergent approach for countering Katakana-English, characteristic Japanese sound patterns mistakenly adopted during English pronunciation, were compared to others doing traditional pronunciation training. The methodology used adapted a simplified reading system often utilized by broad-...

  18. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs, i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs and compensation VMs (CVMs. MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD, and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast. The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  19. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  20. Fe vs. TiO2 Photo-assisted Processes for Enhancing the Solar Inactivation of Bacteria in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgarin, César

    2015-01-01

    Batch solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a known, simple and low-cost water treatment technology. SODIS is based on the synergistic action of temperature increase and light-assisted generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on bacteria. ROS are generated via the action of solar photons on i) Natural Organic Matter (NOM), ii) some mineral components of water (Fe oxides or Fe-organic complexes, nitrogen compounds) and iii) endogenous bacteria photosensitizers (e.g. cytochrome). SODIS has proven its effectiveness for remote settlements or urban slums in regions with high incident solar radiation. All of the internal and external simultaneous processes are often driven by photoactive Fe-species present in the cell, as well as in the natural water sources. In SODIS, a temperature of 50 °C is required and due to this temperature dependence, only 1-2 L can be treated at a time. As required exposure time strongly depends on irradiation intensity and temperature, some SODIS households could be overburdened, leading to inadequate treatment and probable bacterial re-growth. This is why TiO(2) photocatalysis and Fe photo-assisted systems (i.e. photo-Fenton reactants) have been considered to enhance the photo-catalytic processes already present in natural water sources when exposed to solar light. Both TiO(2) and Fe-photoassisted processes, when applied to water disinfection aim to improve the performance of solar bacteria inactivation systems by i) enhancing ROS production, ii) making the process independent from the rise in temperature and as a consequence iii) allowing the treatment of larger volumes than 1-2 L of water and iv) prevent bacterial (re)growth, sometimes observed after sole solar treatment.

  1. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene–Ni composites with enhanced microwave absorption properties in Ku-band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zetao [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 210016 Nanjing (China); Sun, Xin [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, 100854 Beijing (China); Li, Guoxian [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016 Shenyang (China); Xue, Hairong; Guo, Hu; Fan, Xiaoli; Pan, Xuchen [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 210016 Nanjing (China); He, Jianping, E-mail: jianph@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 210016 Nanjing (China)

    2015-03-01

    Recently, graphene has been applied as a new microwave absorber because of its high dielectric loss and low density. Nevertheless, the high dielectric constant of pristine graphene has caused unbalanced electromagnetic parameters and results in a bad impedance matching characteristic. In this study, we report a facile microwave-assisted heating approach to produce reduced graphene oxide–nickel (RGO–Ni) composites. The phase and morphology of as-synthesized RGO–Ni composites are characterized by XRD, Raman, FESEM and TEM. The results show that Ni nanoparticles with a diameter around 20 nm are grown densely and uniformly on the RGO sheets. In addition, enhanced microwave absorption properties in Ku-band of RGO–Ni composites is mainly due to the synergistic effect of dielectric loss and magnetic loss and the dramatically electron polarizations caused by the formation of large conductive network. The minimum reflection loss of RGO–Ni-2 composite with the thickness of 2 mm can reaches −42 dB at 17.6 GHz. The RGO–Ni composite is an attractive candidate for the new type of high performance microwave absorbing material. - Highlights: • Ni nanoparticles are grown densely and uniformly on the RGO sheets via microwave-assisted heating approach. • Ni resistance effect is proposed to explain the mechanism to decrease the permittivity with the rising combination of Ni and RGO. • The microwave absorption properties in Ku-band of RGO–Ni composites are effectively enhanced. • The mechanism to improve the microwave absorption properties is discussed.

  2. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  3. Enhanced preservation of acutely ischemic myocardium with transseptal left ventricular assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, J D; Zhou, Y; Matsuura, H; Aldea, G S; Shemin, R J

    1994-03-01

    Mechanical support for acute regional ischemia without hemodynamic collapse may be achieved percutaneously with an intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) or with transseptal left ventricular assist (TLVA) while awaiting revascularization. The relative benefits of these two percutaneous transfemoral techniques for the treatment of ischemia were compared in a representative animal model. During 90 minutes of regional coronary occlusion, four groups of 8 pigs were treated with either no support (control), IABP, TLVA, or both IABP and TLVA. Cardioplegic arrest for 30 minutes to simulate coronary grafting was followed by 180 minutes of global reperfusion on bypass. In all groups regional wall motion and interstitial pH in the area at risk were significantly depressed with ischemia, but wall motion fully recovered after reperfusion. However, histochemical staining of the area of necrosis/area at risk was significantly reduced with IABP versus control (20.2% versus 34.1%; p < 0.05) and further significantly reduced with TLVA and IABP + TLVA (10.7% and 6.7% versus IABP alone; p < 0.05). We conclude that in supporting even a modest-sized myocardial region at risk (12% of the left ventricle) the area that went on to infarction was significantly reduced with the use of TLVA over IABP. Regional wall motion and myocardial pH measurements did not reflect this difference in the early reperfusion period. The benefit of TLVA over IABP during more extensive or prolonged ischemia may have real clinical significance.

  4. Enhanced UV absorbance and photoluminescence properties of ultrasound assisted synthesized gold doped ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Dojalisa; Panda, N. R.; Acharya, B. S.; Panda, A. K.

    2014-06-01

    Au doped ZnO (ZnO:Au) nanostructures were synthesized by ultrasound assisted wet chemical method. The concentration of dopant was varied and both structural and optical properties of ZnO:Au were investigated. The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results showed the formation of nanorods of ZnO:Au having wurtzite structure and c-axis orientation. Gradual increase in crystallite size and bond length was also observed with the increase in gold concentration in ZnO intending the expansion of lattice after gold doping. The optical absorption measurements showed high ultraviolet (UV) absorbance property of ZnO:Au with sharp and intense absorption band in this region as compared to pristine ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed excitonic emission band of ZnO around 390 nm for both undoped and Au doped ZnO nanoparticles. Further, a strong emission around 467 nm was observed in the PL spectra of ZnO/ZnO:Au which was attributed to the transitions related to excess of oxygen vacancies. Interestingly, a new band was observed at 582 nm for doped ZnO samples which grew in intensity with doping concentration. This band was ascribed to the gold nanoparticle adsorbed on the surface of ZnO.

  5. Bioactive insulin microparticles produced by supercritical fluid assisted atomization with an enhanced mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhe; Tang, Chuan; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing; Zhu, Zi-Qiang

    2013-09-15

    Supercritical fluid assisted atomization introduced by a hydrodynamic cavitation mixer (SAA-HCM) was used to micronize insulin from aqueous solution without use of any organic solvents. Insulin microparticles produced under different operating conditions including solution type, solution concentration and precipitator temperature presented distinct morphologies such as highly folded, partly deflated, corrugated or smooth hollow spherical shape. Solution concentration had a striking influence on particle size, and insulin microparticles produced from acidic solution had mean diameters increasing from 1.4 μm to 2.7 μm when protein concentration increased from 3g/L to 50 g/L. HPLC chromatograms showed no degradation of insulin after SAA-HCM processing and FTIR, CD and fluorescence data further confirmed the structural stability. TGA analysis revealed that insulin microparticles remained moderate moisture content compared with raw material. In vivo study showed that insulin processed by SAA-HCM from acidic solution retained identical bioactivity. SAA-HCM is demonstrated to be a very promising process for insulin inhaled formulation development.

  6. Honeycomb-like porous gel polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium ion batteries with enhanced safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Sun, Bing; Huang, Xiaodan; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-08-01

    Lithium ion batteries have shown great potential in applications as power sources for electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage. However, the direct uses of flammable organic liquid electrolyte with commercial separator induce serious safety problems including the risk of fire and explosion. Herein, we report the development of poly(vinylidene difluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) polymer membranes with multi-sized honeycomb-like porous architectures. The as-prepared polymer electrolyte membranes contain porosity as high as 78%, which leads to the high electrolyte uptake of 86.2 wt%. The PVDF-HFP gel polymer electrolyte membranes exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.03 mS cm-1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of commercial polymer membranes. Moreover, the as-obtained gel polymer membranes are also thermally stable up to 350°C and non-combustible in fire (fire-proof). When applied in lithium ion batteries with LiFePO4 as cathode materials, the gel polymer electrolyte demonstrated excellent electrochemical performances. This investigation indicates that PVDF-HFP gel polymer membranes could be potentially applicable for high power lithium ion batteries with the features of high safety, low cost and good performance.

  7. Video Feedback Intervention to Enhance the Safety of Older Drivers With Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer D.; Bixby, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To demonstrate that g-force technology can be used to help older adults with cognitive impairment improve their driving safety as part of an in-car video feedback intervention. METHOD. Unsafe driving events triggered g-forces leading to capture of video clips. The program included 3 mo of monitoring without intervention, 3 mo of intervention (weekly written progress reports, a DVD of unsafe driving events, and weekly telephone contacts), and 3 mo of postintervention monitoring. RESULTS. Mean total unsafe driving events per 1,000 miles were reduced from baseline by 38% for 9 of 12 participants during the intervention and by 55% for 7 participants during postintervention monitoring. Mean total unsafe driving severity scores per 1,000 miles were reduced from baseline by 43% during the intervention and by 56% during postintervention monitoring. CONCLUSION. Preliminary results suggest that driving safety among older drivers with cognitive impairment can be improved using a behavior modification approach aimed at problem behaviors detected in their natural driving environment. PMID:28218593

  8. Stability enhancement of ozone-assisted laminar premixed Bunsen flames in nitrogen co-flow

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, Tran Manh

    2014-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is known as one of the strongest oxidizers and therefore is widely used in many applications. Typically in the combustion field, a combination of non-thermal plasma and combustion systems have been studied focusing on the effects of ozone on flame propagation speeds and ignition characteristics. Here, we experimentally investigated the effects of ozone on blowoff of premixed methane/air and propane/air flames over a full range of equivalence ratios at room temperature and atmospheric pressure by using a co-flow burner and a dielectric barrier discharge. The results with ozone showed that a nozzle exit jet velocity at the moment of flame blowoff (blowoff velocity) significantly increased, and flammability limits for both fuel-lean and rich mixtures were also extended. Ozone had stronger effects of percent enhancement in the blowoff velocity for off-stoichiometric mixtures, while minimum enhancements could be observed around stoichiometric conditions for both fuels showing linear positive dependence on a tested range of ozone concentration up to 3810ppm. Through chemical kinetic simulations, the experimentally observed trends of the enhancement in blowoff velocity were identified as a result of the modification of the laminar burning velocity. Two ozone decomposition pathways of O3+N2→O+O2+N2 and O3+H→O2+OH were identified as the most controlling steps. These reactions, coupled with fuel consumption characteristics of each fuel determined the degree of promotion in laminar burning velocities, supporting experimental observations on blowoff velocities with ozone addition. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  9. Secondary flows enhance mixing in a model of vibration-assisted dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, John; Mueller, Bruce; Lewis, Susan; Bull, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Hemodialysis is an integral part of treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. While hemodialysis has traditionally been described as a diffusion-dominated process, recent in vitro work has shown that vibration of the dialyzer can enhance the clearance of certain solutes during treatment. We hypothesize that the addition of vibration generates secondary flows in the dialysate compartment. These flows, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the dialysis fibers, advect solute away from the fiber walls, thus maintaining a larger concentration gradient and enhancing diffusion. Using the finite element method, we simulated the flow of dialysate through a hexagonally-packed array of cylinders and the transport of solute away from the cylinder walls. The addition of vibration was modeled using sinusoidal body forces of various frequencies and amplitudes. Using the variance of the concentration field as a metric, we found that vibration improves mixing according to a power law dependency on frequency. We will discuss the implications of these computational results on our understanding of the in vitro experiments and propose optimal vibration patterns for improving clearance in dialysis treatments. This work was supported by the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research and NIH Grant UL1TR000433.

  10. Enhancing the biocompatibility of microfluidics-assisted fabrication of cell-laden microgels with channel geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suntae; Oh, Jonghyun; Cha, Chaenyung

    2016-11-01

    Microfluidic flow-focusing devices (FFD) are widely used to generate monodisperse droplets and microgels with controllable size, shape and composition for various biomedical applications. However, highly inconsistent and often low viability of cells encapsulated within the microgels prepared via microfluidic FFD has been a major concern, and yet this aspect has not been systematically explored. In this study, we demonstrate that the biocompatibility of microfluidic FFD to fabricate cell-laden microgels can be significantly enhanced by controlling the channel geometry. When a single emulsion ("single") microfluidic FFD is used to fabricate cell-laden microgels, there is a significant decrease and batch-to-batch variability in the cell viability, regardless of their size and composition. It is determined that during droplet generation, some of the cells are exposed to the oil phase which is shown to have a cytotoxic effect. Therefore, a microfluidic device with a sequential ('double') flow-focusing channels is employed instead, in which a secondary aqueous phase containing cells enters the primary aqueous phase, so the cells' exposure to the oil phase is minimized by directing them to the center of droplets. This microfluidic channel geometry significantly enhances the biocompatibility of cell-laden microgels, while maintaining the benefits of a typical microfluidic process. This study therefore provides a simple and yet highly effective strategy to improve the biocompatibility of microfluidic fabrication of cell-laden microgels.

  11. Review of Fatigue Management Technologies for Enhanced Military Vehicle Safety and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Marriott , B. M., Ed., In Food Components to Enhance Performance, National Academy Press: Washington, DC, pp. 127–135. 11Johnson, R. F.; Merullo, D. J...N.; Redmond, D. (1994). The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Performance During Continuous Combat Operations. Marriott , B. M., Ed., In Food Components

  12. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Assisted by Radical Capturer for Tracking of Plasmon-Driven Redox Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Lingzhi; Tan, Xianjun; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-07-01

    The deep understanding about the photocatalytic reaction induced by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect is desirable but remains a considerable challenge due to the ultrafast relaxation of hole-electron exciton from SPR process and a lack of an efficient monitoring system. Here, using the p-aminothiophenol (PATP) oxidation SPR-catalyzed by Ag nanoparticle as a model reaction, a radical-capturer-assisted surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been used as an in-situ tracking technique to explore the primary active species determining the reaction path. Hole is revealed to be directly responsible for the oxidation of PATP to p, p‧-dimercaptoazobenzene (4, 4‧-DMAB) and O2 functions as an electron capturer to form isolated hole. The oxidation degree of PATP can be further enhanced through a joint utilization of electron capturers of AgNO3 and atmospheric O2, producing p-nitrothiophenol (PNTP) within 10 s due to the improved hole-electron separation efficiency.

  13. Biomolecule-assisted Solvothermal Synthesis and Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Performance of Bi2S3/BiOCl Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhimin; CHEN Wei; LIU Tianyu; HUANG Ting; LIU Xiaoheng

    2016-01-01

    Novel Bi2S3/BiOCl photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile biomolecule-assisted solvothermal method and biomolecule L-cysteine was used as the sulfur source. The structures, morphology, and optical properties of the synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The presence of Bi2S3 in the Bi2S3/BiOCl composites could not only improve the optical properties but also enhance the photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) as compared with single Bi2S3 and BiOCl. Especially, the sample displayed the best performance of the photodegradation when the feed molar ratio of BiCl3 and L-cysteine was 2.4:1, which was about 10 times greater than that of pure BiOCl. The enhanced photocatalytic activities could be ascribed to the effective separation of photoinduced electrons and holes and the photosensitization of dye. Moreover, the possible photodegradation mechanism was also proposed, and the results revealed that the active holes (h+) and superoxide radicals (•O2−) were the main reactive species during photocatalytic degradation.

  14. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  15. Extracellular control of intracellular drug release for enhanced safety of anti-cancer chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian; Qi, Haixia; Long, Ziyan; Liu, Shang; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Chunming; Dong, Lei

    2016-06-01

    The difficulty of controlling drug release at an intracellular level remains a key challenge for maximising drug safety and efficacy. We demonstrate herein a new, efficient and convenient approach to extracellularly control the intracellular release of doxorubicin (DOX), by designing a delivery system that harnesses the interactions between the system and a particular set of cellular machinery. By simply adding a small-molecule chemical into the cell medium, we could lower the release rate of DOX in the cytosol, and thereby increase its accumulation in the nuclei while decreasing its presence at mitochondria. Delivery of DOX with this system effectively prevented DOX-induced mitochondria damage that is the main mechanism of its toxicity, while exerting the maximum efficacy of this anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent. The present study sheds light on the design of drug delivery systems for extracellular control of intracellular drug delivery, with immediate therapeutic implications.

  16. Twitter as a tool to enhance student engagement during an interprofessional patient safety course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Mary; Sanko, Jill Steiner; Shekhter, Ilya; Birnbach, David J

    2014-11-01

    Twitter and other social media forums are gaining popularity in both the academic and conference arenas as tools to increase participant engagement, attention and interaction. While Twitter has been used successfully to engage college students, it has not been explored for use in an interprofessional curriculum. We sought to explore it as a method to foster student engagement. During a weeklong interprofessional patient safety course we invited students and faculty to participate in a Twitter conversation. It was found that this form of social media successfully captured a "behind the scenes" conversation and the experiences of the students which would have not been otherwise captured. This information is guiding future interprofessional educational programming in both the medical and nursing schools.

  17. Investigation on scalable high-power lasers with enhanced 'eye-safety' for future weapon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigotta, S.; Diener, K.; Eichhorn, M.; Galecki, L.; Geiss, L.; Ibach, T.; Scharf, H.; von Salisch, M.; Schöner, J.; Vincent, G.

    2016-10-01

    The possible use of lasers as weapons becomes more and more interesting for military forces. Besides the generation of high laser power and good beam quality, also safety considerations, e. g. concerning eye hazards, are of importance. The MELIAS (medium energy laser in the "eye-safe" spectral domain) project of ISL addresses these issues, and ISL has developed the most powerful solid-state laser in the "eye-safe" wavelength region up to now. "Eye safety" in this context means that light at a wavelength of > 1.4 μm does not penetrate the eye and thus will not be focused onto the retina. The basic principle of this technology is that a laser source needs to be scalable in power to far beyond 100 kW without a significant deterioration in beam quality. ISL has studied a very promising laser technology: the erbium heat-capacity laser. This type of laser is characterised by a compact design, a simple and robust technology and a scaling law which, in principle, allows the generation of laser power far beyond megawatts at small volumes. Previous investigations demonstrated the scalability of the SSHCL and up to 4.65 kW and 440 J in less than 800 ms have been obtained. Opticalto- optical efficiencies of over 41% and slope efficiencies of over 51% are obtained. The residual thermal gradients, due to non perfect pumping homogeneity, negatively affect the performance in terms of laser pulse energy, duration and beam quality. In the course of the next two years, ISL will be designing a 25 to 30 kW erbium heat-capacity laser.

  18. Enhanced random lasing in ZnO nanocombs assisted by Fabry-Perot resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yungting; Chen, Yangfang

    2011-04-25

    The ultraviolet random lasing behavior of an ensemble of ZnO nanocombs has been demonstrated. It is found that the Fabry-Perot resonance induced by nanocomb geometry can greatly enhance random lasing action with a low threshold condition. Besides, the emission spectra exhibit few sharp lasing peaks with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of less than 0.3 nm and a narrow background emission with a FWHM of about 5 nm. Cathodoluminescence mapping images are utilized to analyze the Fabry-Perot resonance phenomenon. The resonant effect on the lasing system is further confirmed by nanocombs with different resonant cavity lengths. The unique lasing behavior induced by the simultaneous occurrence of Fabry-Perot resonance and random laser action shown here may open up a new possibility for the creation of highly efficient light emitting devices.

  19. Enhanced microwave absorption properties of CTAB assisted Pr–Cu substituted nanomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, Imran, E-mail: Imran.cssp@pu.edu.pk [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Naseem, Shahzad; Riaz, Saira [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Hussain, S. Sajjad; Rana, Mazhar [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the rare earth Pr{sup 3+}and divalent Cu{sup 2+} elements substituted Sr{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}Mn{sub 2}Fe{sub 16−y}Cu{sub y}O{sub 27} (x=0, 0.02, 0.06, 0.1 and y=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) W-type hexagonal ferrites were prepared by Sol–Gel method. TGA and DSC analysis of as prepared material was carried out to confirm the temperature at which required phase can be obtained. The XRD patterns exhibit the single phase for all the samples and the lattice parameters were changed with the additives. The absorption bands at wave number 636 and 554 cm{sup −1} in FTIR spectrum indicate the stretching vibration of metal–oxygen ions which also ratifies the single phase for the prepared material. Microstructural analysis confirms the agglomeration of nanograins which leads to formation of platelet like structure which cause in the enhancement of the microwave absorption properties of material. The minimum reflection loss of −59.8 dB at 9.34 GHz frequency was observed makes the prepared material good candidate to be used in super high frequency application. The attenuation constant and reflectivity results are also in good agreement with minimum reflection losses results. - Highlights: • A series of W-type hexagonal ferrites were prepared by Sol–Gel method. • The XRD analysis showed that the W-type hexagonal structure. • The c/a ratio of these samples falls in the range of W-type hexagonal ferrites. • The FTIR spectrum also confirms the single W-type hexagonal phase. • The microwave absorption properties enhanced with Pr–Cu substitution.

  20. Antioxidant-Enhancing Property of the Polar Fraction of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract and Evaluation of Its Safety in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numpraphrut, Pornpayom; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Neungton, Neelobol; Tunrungruangtavee, Vachara; Jaisupa, Nattapon; Charoensak, Suwit

    2016-01-01

    Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME]) has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we investigated the safety of oral administration of the polar fraction of ME in 11 healthy Thai volunteers. During a 24-week period of the study, only minor and tolerable side effects were reported; no serious side effects were documented. Blood chemistry studies also showed no liver damage or kidney dysfunction in all subjects. We also demonstrated antioxidant property of the polar fraction of ME both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oral administration of the polar fraction of ME enhanced the antioxidant capability of red blood cells and decreased oxidative damage to proteins within red blood cells and whole blood. PMID:27703599

  1. Antioxidant-Enhancing Property of the Polar Fraction of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract and Evaluation of Its Safety in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichit Suthammarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME] has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we investigated the safety of oral administration of the polar fraction of ME in 11 healthy Thai volunteers. During a 24-week period of the study, only minor and tolerable side effects were reported; no serious side effects were documented. Blood chemistry studies also showed no liver damage or kidney dysfunction in all subjects. We also demonstrated antioxidant property of the polar fraction of ME both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oral administration of the polar fraction of ME enhanced the antioxidant capability of red blood cells and decreased oxidative damage to proteins within red blood cells and whole blood.

  2. Hybrid approach of ventricular assist device and autologous bone marrow stem cells implantation in end-stage ischemic heart failure enhances myocardial reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayat Andre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We challenge the hypothesis of enhanced myocardial reperfusion after implanting a left ventricular assist device together with bone marrow mononuclear stem cells in patients with end-stage ischemic cardiomyopathy. Irreversible myocardial loss observed in ischemic cardiomyopathy leads to progressive cardiac remodelling and dysfunction through a complex neurohormonal cascade. New generation assist devices promote myocardial recovery only in patients with dilated or peripartum cardiomyopathy. In the setting of diffuse myocardial ischemia not amenable to revascularization, native myocardial recovery has not been observed after implantation of an assist device as destination therapy. The hybrid approach of implanting autologous bone marrow stem cells during assist device implantation may eventually improve native cardiac function, which may be associated with a better prognosis eventually ameliorating the need for subsequent heart transplantation. The aforementioned hypothesis has to be tested with well-designed prospective multicentre studies.

  3. Enhanced microwave absorption properties of CTAB assisted Pr-Cu substituted nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Imran; Naseem, Shahzad; Riaz, Saira; Khan, Hasan M.; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Hussain, S. Sajjad; Rana, Mazhar

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the rare earth Pr3+and divalent Cu2+ elements substituted Sr1-xPrxMn2Fe16-yCuyO27 (x=0, 0.02, 0.06, 0.1 and y=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) W-type hexagonal ferrites were prepared by Sol-Gel method. TGA and DSC analysis of as prepared material was carried out to confirm the temperature at which required phase can be obtained. The XRD patterns exhibit the single phase for all the samples and the lattice parameters were changed with the additives. The absorption bands at wave number 636 and 554 cm-1 in FTIR spectrum indicate the stretching vibration of metal-oxygen ions which also ratifies the single phase for the prepared material. Microstructural analysis confirms the agglomeration of nanograins which leads to formation of platelet like structure which cause in the enhancement of the microwave absorption properties of material. The minimum reflection loss of -59.8 dB at 9.34 GHz frequency was observed makes the prepared material good candidate to be used in super high frequency application. The attenuation constant and reflectivity results are also in good agreement with minimum reflection losses results.

  4. Enhanced decolorization of methyl orange using zero-valent copper nanoparticles under assistance of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Song, Yuan; Wang, Shuai; Tao, Zheng; Yu, Shuili; Liu, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    The rate of reduction reactions of zero-valent metal nanoparticles is restricted by their agglomeration. Hydrodynamic cavitation was used to overcome the disadvantage in this study. Experiments for decolorization of methyl orange azo dye by zero-valent copper nanoparticles were carried out in aqueous solution with and without hydrodynamic cavitation. The results showed that hydrodynamic cavitation greatly accelerated the decolorization rate of methyl orange. The size of nanoparticles was decreased after hydrodynamic cavitation treatment. The effects of important operating parameters such as discharge pressure, initial solution pH, and copper nanoparticle concentration on the degradation rates were studied. It was observed that there was an optimum discharge pressure to get best decolorization performance. Lower solution pH were favorable for the decolorization. The pseudo-first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of methyl orange increased linearly with the copper dose. UV-vis spectroscopic and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analyses confirmed that many degradation intermediates were formed. The results indicated hydroxyl radicals played a key role in the decolorization process. Therefore, the enhancement of decolorization by hydrodynamic cavitation could due to the deagglomeration of nanoparticles as well as the oxidation by the in situ generated hydroxyl radicals. These findings greatly increase the potential of the Cu(0)/hydrodynamic cavitation technique for use in the field of treatment of wastewater containing hazardous materials.

  5. Bromide-Assisted Anisotropic Growth of Gold Nanoparticles as Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs of various shapes such as triangles, hexagons, and semispheres, using 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA as the reducing agent in the presence of potassium bromide (KBr. Anisotropic Au NPs have received ever-increasing attention in various areas of research due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Numerous synthetic methods involving either top-down or bottom-up approaches have been developed to synthesize Au NPs with deliberately varied shapes, sizes, and configurations; however, the production of templateless, seedless, and surfactant-free singular-shaped anisotropic Au NPs remains a significant challenge. The concentrations of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4, 5-HIAA, and KBr, as well as the reaction temperature, were found to influence the resulting product morphology. A detailed characterization of the resulting Au NPs was performed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared Au NPs exhibited excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS properties, which make them very attractive for the development of SERS-based chemical and biological sensors.

  6. Microwave assisted alkaline pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of catalpa sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuguang; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Panyue; Li, Fan; Wang, Siqi; Fan, Shiyang; Zhou, Shuqiong

    2016-12-01

    Catalpa sawdust, a promising biofuel production biomass, was pretreated by microwave-water, -NaOH, and -Ca(OH)2 to enhance enzymatic digestibility. After 48h enzymatic hydrolysis, microwave-Ca(OH)2 pretreated sample showed the highest reducing sugar yield. The content of hemicellulose and lignin in catalpa sawdust decreased after microwave-alkali pretreatment. SEM observation showed that the catalpa sawdust surface with microwave-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment suffered the most serious erosion. Crystallinity index of catalpa sawdust increased after all three kinds of pretreatment. The optimum conditions of microwave-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment were particle size of 40mesh, Ca(OH)2 dosage of 2.25% (w/v), microwave power of 400W, pretreatment time of 6min, enzyme loading of 175FPU/g, and hydrolysis time of 96h, and the reducing sugar yield of microwave-Ca(OH)2 pretreated catalpa sawdust reached 402.73mg/g, which increased by 682.15% compared with that of raw catalpa sawdust. The catalpa sawdust with microwave-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment is promising for biofuel production with great potential.

  7. Optoelectronic enhancement of monocrystalline silicon solar cells by porous silicon-assisted mechanical grooving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabha, Mohamed; Mohamed, Seifeddine Belhadj; Dimassi, Wissem; Gaidi, Mounir; Ezzaouia, Hatem; Bessais, Brahim [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2011-03-15

    One of the most important factors influencing silicon solar cells performances is the front side reflectivity. Consequently, new methods for efficient reduction of this reflectivity are searched. This has always been done by creating a rough surface that enables incident light of being absorbed within the solar cell. Combination of texturization-porous silicon surface treatment was found to be an attractive technical solution for lowering the reflectivity of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si). The texturization of the monocrystalline silicon wafer was carried out by means of mechanical grooving. A specific etching procedure was then applied to form a thin porous silicon layer enabling to remove mechanical damages. This simple and low cost method reduces the total reflectivity from 29% to 7% in the 300 - 950 nm wavelength range and enhances the diffusion length of the minority carriers from 100 {mu}m to 790 {mu}m (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper oleoresin for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sayantani; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2015-07-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), the King of Spices is the most popular spice globally and its active ingredient, piperine, is reportedly known for its therapeutic potency. In this work, enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of black pepper oleoresin was investigated using α-amylase (from Bacillus licheniformis) for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract possessing good combination of phytochemical properties. Optimization of the extraction parameters (without enzyme), mainly temperature and pressure, was conducted in both batch and continuous modes and the optimized conditions that provided the maximum yield of piperine was in the batch mode, with a sample size of 20 g of black pepper powder (particle diameter 0.42 ± 0.02 mm) at 60 °C and 300 bar at 2 L/min of CO2 flow. Studies on activity of α-amylase were conducted under these optimized conditions in both batch and continuous modes, with varying amounts of lyophilized enzyme (2 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg) and time of exposure of the enzyme to SC-CO2 (2.25 h and 4.25 h). The specific activity of the enzyme increased by 2.13 times when treated in the continuous mode than in the batch mode (1.25 times increase). The structural changes of the treated enzymes were studied by (1)H NMR analyses. In case of α-amylase assisted extractions of black pepper, both batch and continuous modes significantly increased the yields and phytochemical properties of piperine-rich extracts; with higher increase in batch mode than in continuous.

  9. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: TO ENHANCE PATIENT SAFETY BY MINIMIZING MEDICATION ERRORS IN TERTIARY CARE CARDIAC HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Sukhbir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify and measure the frequency of medication errors, to understand the causes for errors and best strategies to decrease medication errors rate in a cardiac hospital New Delhi. The Retrospective study of 137 case files, was undertaken to find out the medication errors in new drugs to be included in hospital formulary and to study policy compliances,for the period of a month, February 2010.We studied 137 patient files and Medication error related were reported most often at the stages of prescription- 32 cases(23.35%, 12 administration errors(8.75%, 9 documentation errors(6.56%, 7 transcription errors (5.1%. This study has demonstrated a whole range of different types of errors in different phases of medication use and documentation process. We have seen that handwritten prescriptions are associated with large number of errors. A combined effort is required by the physician’s, managerial staff, nursing staff and educational interventions to improve patient safety in hospital.KEY WORDS:

  10. An Enhanced OFDM Resource Allocation Algorithm in C-RAN Based 5G Public Safety Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Safety Network (PSN is the network for critical communication when disaster occurs. As a key technology in 5G, Cloud-Radio Access Network (C-RAN can play an important role in PSN instead of LTE-based RAN. This paper firstly introduces C-RAN based PSN architecture and models the OFDM resource allocation problem in C-RAN based PSN as an integer quadratic programming, which allows the trade-off between expected bitrates and allocating fairness of PSN Service User (PSU. However, C-RAN based PSN needs to improve the efficiency of allocating algorithm because of a mass of PSU-RRH associations when disaster occurs. To deal with it, the resources allocating problem with integer variables is relaxed into one with continuous variables in the first step and an algorithm based on Generalized Bender’s Decomposition (GBD is proposed to solve it. Then we use Feasible Pump (FP method to get a feasible integer solution on the original OFDM resources allocation problem. The final experiments show the total throughput achieved by C-RAN based PSN is at most higher by 19.17% than the LTE-based one. And the average computational time of the proposed GBD and FP algorithm is at most lower than Barrier by 51.5% and GBD with no relaxation by 30.1%, respectively.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety and time reactivity enhancement aspects of energy amplifier system devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondelle, Matera (Italy). Direzione INFO

    1995-12-01

    As far as the Rubbia`s and colleagues proposal of innovating Energy Amplifier system (E.A.s.) device driven by a particle beam accelerator is concerned, four basic topics are comprised in the present paper: (1) A short outline of the nuclear aspects of Th-U and U-Pu fuel cycles regarding their general breeding and efficiency features. (2) The needed nuclear criticality control requirements have been studied in terms of safety regulating parameters on the basis of the ThO2 mixed oxides selected as fuel kind for the E.A.s. device technology development. Particular attention is devoted to time evolution of neutron multiplication factor since delayed development of the 233U buildup and so system reactivity are expected in the Th-U cycle. (3) Code E.A.s. device irradiation and post-irradiation modelling for determining higher actinides buildup, fission products formation and fuel consumption trends as function of time, system enrichment degree and flux level parameters. (4) The confirmation, on the basis of the same specific power irradiation, of expected actinides waste obtainment cleaner than the one deriving from the U-Pu cycle utilization. For this end, a model comparison of equivalent enriched fissile nuclides in both cycles has been devised as having, within the range of 0-700 days, ten irradiation periods of about 53 MW/ton specific power and equivalent cooling time post-irradiation periods.

  12. Using swarm intelligence to boost the root cause analysis process and enhance patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to strengthen patient safety, leadership at the University of Kentucky HealthCare (UKHC) decided to replace its traditional approach to root cause analysis (RCA) with a process based on swarm intelligence, a concept borrowed from other industries. Under this process, when a problem or error is identified, staff quickly hold a swarm--a meeting in which all those involved in the incident or problem quickly evaluate why the issue occurred and identify potential solutions for implementation. A pillar of the swarm concept is a mandate that there be no punishments or finger-pointing during the swarms. The idea is to encourage staff to be forthcoming to achieve effective solutions. Typically, swarms last for one hour and result in action plans designed to correct problems or deficiencies within a specific period of time. The ED was one of the first areas where UKHC applied swarms. For example, hospital administrators note that the approach has been used to address issues involving patient flow, triage protocols, assessments, overcrowding, and boarding. After seven years, incident reporting at UKHC has increased by 52%, and the health system has experienced a 37% decrease in the observed-to-expected mortality ratio.

  13. Safety of intra-articular use of atelocollagen for enhanced tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarian, Elise M; Vavken, Patrick; Connolly, Susan A; Mastrangelo, Ashley N; Murray, Martha M

    2012-01-01

    Collagen is an important biomaterial in intra-articular tissue engineering, but there are unanswered questions about its safety. We hypothesize that the addition of type-I-collagen for primary repair of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) might result in a local and systemic reaction in a porcine model after 15 weeks as demonstrated by joint effusion, synovial thickening, elevated intraarticular and systemic leukocyte counts. Further, this reaction might be aggravated by the addition of a platelet concentrate. Eighteen porcine ACLs were transected and repaired with either sutures (n=6), a collagen sponge (n=6), or a collagen-platelet-composite (CPC; n=6). Twelve intact contralateral knees served as controls (n=12). No significant synovial thickening or joint effusion was seen in the collagen-treated knees. Synovial fluid leukocyte counts showed no significant differences between surgically treated and intact knees, and no differences were seen in leukocyte counts of the peripheral blood. The addition of a platelet concentrate to the knee joint resulted in lower serum levels of IL-1β, but serum levels of TNF-α were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, the presence of collagen, with or without added platelets, did not increase the local or systemic inflammatory reactions following surgery, suggesting that Type I collagen is safe to use in the knee joint.

  14. Robot-Assisted Proprioceptive Training with Added Vibro-Tactile Feedback Enhances Somatosensory and Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppone, Anna Vera; Squeri, Valentina; Semprini, Marianna; Masia, Lorenzo; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the trainability of the proprioceptive sense and explored the relationship between proprioception and motor learning. With vision blocked, human learners had to perform goal-directed wrist movements relying solely on proprioceptive/haptic cues to reach several haptically specified targets. One group received additional somatosensory movement error feedback in form of vibro-tactile cues applied to the skin of the forearm. We used a haptic robotic device for the wrist and implemented a 3-day training regimen that required learners to make spatially precise goal-directed wrist reaching movements without vision. We assessed whether training improved the acuity of the wrist joint position sense. In addition, we checked if sensory learning generalized to the motor domain and improved spatial precision of wrist tracking movements that were not trained. The main findings of the study are: First, proprioceptive acuity of the wrist joint position sense improved after training for the group that received the combined proprioceptive/haptic and vibro-tactile feedback (VTF). Second, training had no impact on the spatial accuracy of the untrained tracking task. However, learners who had received VTF significantly reduced their reliance on haptic guidance feedback when performing the untrained motor task. That is, concurrent VTF was highly salient movement feedback and obviated the need for haptic feedback. Third, VTF can be also provided by the limb not involved in the task. Learners who received VTF to the contralateral limb equally benefitted. In conclusion, somatosensory training can significantly enhance proprioceptive acuity within days when learning is coupled with vibro-tactile sensory cues that provide feedback about movement errors. The observable sensory improvements in proprioception facilitates motor learning and such learning may generalize to the sensorimotor control of the untrained motor tasks. The implications of these findings for

  15. Simulation to enhance patient safety: why aren't we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara

    2011-10-01

    The delivery of state-of-the-art medical care is complex, with large numbers of treatment strategies often available to individual patients. It is paramount to ensure that each patient receives optimal treatment in a safe, effective, and timely manner. Evidence suggests that an unacceptably high number of patients currently experience suboptimal care as the result of adverse events and medical error. Simulation-based training reduces medical error, enhances clinical outcomes, and reduces the cost of clinical care. It is surprising that medical simulation is not routinely integrated into the training curricula of all health-care professionals. Simulation enables doctors to practice and hone their technical, communication, decision making, and crisis management skills in a safe and educationally orientated environment. The process can foster the development of interprofessional working skills, leading to enhanced patient outcomes. Selection, credentialing, and revalidation of medical professionals are also possible in a simulation setting, enabling maintenance of standards of practice throughout a medical career. In order for simulation to become a part of the medical curriculum, collaborative efforts are required from academics, physicians, managers, and policy makers alike. Bringing these groups together, while a challenge, can lead to high-level outputs in medical care, which will benefit all.

  16. Effect of Ag/Au bilayer assisted etching on the strongly enhanced photoluminescence and visible light photocatalysis by Si nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ramesh; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru; Giri, P K

    2016-03-21

    We report on the strongly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) and visible light photocatalysis by arrays of vertically aligned single crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) grown by Ag/Au bilayer assisted etching. High resolution FESEM and TEM imaging reveals that the Si NWs are decorated with ultra-small size arbitrary shaped Si nanocrystals (NCs) due to the lateral etching of the NWs. A strong broad band and tunable visible to near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) in the range 1.3-2.4 eV are observed for these Si NWs/NCs at room temperature, depending on the etching conditions. Our studies reveal that the visible-NIR PL intensity is about two orders of magnitude higher and it exhibits faster decay dynamics in the bilayer assisted etching case as compared to the Ag or Au single layer etching case. The enhanced PL in the bimetal case is attributed to the longer length and higher density of the Si NWs/NCs, surface plasmon resonance enhanced absorption by residual bimetal NPs and the enhanced radiative recombination rate. Studies on the time evolution of PL spectral features with laser exposure under ambient conditions and laser power dependence reveal that both the quantum confinement of carriers in Si NCs and the nonbridging oxygen hole defects in the SiOx layer contribute to the tunable PL. Interestingly, Si NWs grown by Ag/Au bilayer assisted etching exhibit enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in comparison to Si NWs grown by single layer Ag or Au assisted etching. The Schottky barrier present between bimetallic NPs and nanoporous Si NWs with Si-H bonds facilitates the photocatalytic activity by efficient separation of photogenerated e-h pairs. Our results demonstrate the superiority of the Si NW array grown by bilayer assisted etching for their cutting edge applications in optoelectronics and environmental cleaning.

  17. Long-term safety and efficacy follow-up of prophylactic higher fluence collagen cross-linking in high myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John KanellopoulosLaservision.gr Institute, Athens, Greece, and New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet A irradiation cross-linking on completion for cases of high myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK.Methods: Forty-three consecutive LASIK cases treated with femtosecond laser flap and the WaveLight excimer platform were evaluated perioperatively for uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected spectacle visual acuity, refraction, keratometry, topography, total and flap pachymetry, corneal optical coherence tomography, and endothelial cell count. All eyes at the completion of LASIK had cross-linking through the repositioned flap, with higher fluence (10 mW/cm2 ultraviolet light of an average 370 µm wavelength and 10 mW/cm2 fluence applied for 3 minutes following an earlier single instillation of 0.1% riboflavin within the flap interface. Mean follow-up duration was 3.5 (range 1.0–4.5 years.Results: Mean uncorrected visual acuity changed from 0.2 to 1.2, best corrected spectacle visual acuity from 1.1 to 1.2, spherical equivalent from -7.5 diopters (D to -0.2 D, keratometry from 44.5 D to 38 D, flap pachymetry from 105 µm to, total pachymetry from 525 to 405, and endothelial cell count from 2750 to 2800. None of the cases developed signs of ectasia or significant regression during follow-up.Conclusion: Prophylactic collagen cross-linking for high-risk LASIK cases appears to be a safe and effective adjunctive treatment for refractive regression and potential ectasia. This application may be viewed as prophylactic customization of the biomechanical behavior of corneal collagen.Keywords: prophylactic collagen cross-linking, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, high-risk, post-LASIK ectasia

  18. Application of Peer-Assisted Learning in the safety education course of medical students%同伴互助学习在《大学生安全教育》课程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申正付; 齐玉龙; 冯丽丽; 陈晓彬

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of Peer-Assisted Learning in the safety education course of medical students. Methods:Two hundred and six students from a clinical medical department of 2013 class A( the observation group) were divided into 20 Peer-assisted groups,who were taught using Peer-Assisted Learning method. Two hundred and one students from class B( the control group) were taught using the traditional lecturing method. The summative evaluation, teaching experience and satisfaction degree between two groups were compared. Results:The final summary evaluation scores of the observation group were significantly higher than that in control group(P<0. 01). The communication abilities,team cooperation abilities,learning efficiency,learning abilities,language expression abilities,experience to solve security problems and teaching satisfaction degree in observation group were higher than those in control group(P<0. 01). Conclusions:Peer-Assisted Learning can improve the medical students interest of learning safety education course and abilities to solve practical security problems,which can further enhance the teaching effects.%目的:探讨同伴互助学习在医学生安全教育课程中的应用效果。方法:把某医学院某系2013级A班206名本科医学生作为观察组,分为20个同伴互助小组,实施同伴互助学习的教学方法;B班201名医学生作为对照组,实施以讲授为主的传统教学方法。对2组医学生期末总结性评价成绩、问卷调查教学的体会和满意度结果进行比较。结果:观察组的期末总结性评价成绩显著高于对照组(P<0.01);观察组的交流能力、团队合作能力、学习效率、自学能力、语言表达能力、解决安全问题的能力和对教学的体会以及对教学满意度均明显高于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:同伴互助学习可以提升医学生学习《大学生安全教育》课程的兴趣,提高医学生解决实际安全问

  19. Safety of real-time convection-enhanced delivery of liposomes to primate brain: a long-term retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, Michal T; Vandenberg, Scott R; Yamashita, Yoji; Saito, Ryuta; Forsayeth, John; Noble, Charles; Park, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

    2008-04-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is gaining popularity in direct brain infusions. Our group has pioneered the use of liposomes loaded with the MRI contrast reagent as a means to track and quantitate CED in the primate brain through real-time MRI. When co-infused with therapeutic nanoparticles, these tracking liposomes provide us with unprecedented precision in the management of infusions into discrete brain regions. In order to translate real-time CED into clinical application, several important parameters must be defined. In this study, we have analyzed all our cumulative animal data to answer a number of questions as to whether real-time CED in primates depends on concentration of infusate, is reproducible, allows prediction of distribution in a given anatomic structure, and whether it has long term pathological consequences. Our retrospective analysis indicates that real-time CED is highly predictable; repeated procedures yielded identical results, and no long-term brain pathologies were found. We conclude that introduction of our technique to clinical application would enhance accuracy and patient safety when compared to current non-monitored delivery trials.

  20. Clinical effectiveness and safety of powered exoskeleton-assisted walking in patients with spinal cord injury: systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller LE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Larry E Miller,1 Angela K Zimmermann,1 William G Herbert,1,2 1Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, 2Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA Background: Powered exoskeletons are designed to safely facilitate ambulation in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI. We conducted the first meta-analysis of the available published research on the clinical effectiveness and safety of powered exoskeletons in SCI patients. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for studies of powered exoskeleton-assisted walking in patients with SCI. Main outcomes were analyzed using fixed and random effects meta-analysis models. Results: A total of 14 studies (eight ReWalk™, three Ekso™, two Indego®, and one unspecified exoskeleton representing 111 patients were included in the analysis. Training programs were typically conducted three times per week, 60–120 minutes per session, for 1–24 weeks. Ten studies utilized flat indoor surfaces for training and four studies incorporated complex training, including walking outdoors, navigating obstacles, climbing and descending stairs, and performing activities of daily living. Following the exoskeleton training program, 76% of patients were able to ambulate with no physical assistance. The weighted mean distance for the 6-minute walk test was 98 m. The physiologic demand of powered exoskeleton-assisted walking was 3.3 metabolic equivalents and rating of perceived exertion was 10 on the Borg 6–20 scale, comparable to self-reported exertion of an able-bodied person walking at 3 miles per hour. Improvements in spasticity and bowel movement regularity were reported in 38% and 61% of patients, respectively. No serious adverse events occurred. The incidence of fall at any time during training was 4.4%, all occurring while tethered using a first-generation exoskeleton and none resulting in injury. The incidence of bone fracture during training was 3

  1. Enhancing Jatropha oil extraction yield from the kernels assisted by a xylan-degrading bacterium to preserve protein structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Valorisation of Plant Production Chains; RijksUniv. Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Jakarta (Indonesia); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group; Moeis, Maelita R. [Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia). School of Life Sciences and Technology; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Valorisation of Plant Production Chains

    2011-06-15

    We investigated the use of bacterial cells isolated from paddy crab for the extraction of oil from Jatropha seed kernels in aqueous media while simultaneously preserving the protein structures of this protein-rich endosperm. A bacterial strain - which was marked as MB4 and identified by means of 16S rDNA sequencing and physiological characterization as either Bacillus pumilus or Bacillus altitudinis - enhanced the extraction yield of Jatropha oil. The incubation of an MB4 starter culture with preheated kernel slurry in aqueous media with the initial pH of 5.5 at 37 C for 6 h liberated 73% w/w of the Jatropha oil. Since MB4 produces xylanases, it is suggested that strain MB4 facilitates oil liberation via degradation of hemicelluloses which form the oil-containing cell wall structure of the kernel. After MB4 assisted oil extraction, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the majority of Jatropha proteins were preserved in the solid phase of the extraction residues. The advantages offered by this process are: protein in the residue can be further processed for other applications, no purified enzyme preparation is needed, and the resulting oil can be used for biodiesel production. (orig.)

  2. Enhanced CO oxidation activity of CuO/CeO2 catalyst prepared by surfactant-assisted impregnation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙帅帅; 毛东森; 俞俊

    2015-01-01

    A modified CuO/CeO2 catalyst was prepared by surfactant-assisted impregnation method and showed better catalytic activity for low temperature CO oxidation than that from conventional impregnation method. The physicochemical properties of different CuO/CeO2 catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric measurements (TG-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, Raman spectroscopy, H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), tem-perature-programmed desorption of O2 (O2-TPD), and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The re-sults suggested that the addition of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) into the impregnation solution could improve the dispersion of CuO species, which could facilitate Cu2+ incorporating into CeO2 lattice and strengthened the synergistic effects between CuO and CeO2,making the lattice oxygen more active, and eventually resulting in enhanced activity for CO oxidation.

  3. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Spherical Particles for Supercapacitor Applications: Emulsion-Assisted Compact Packing and Capacitance Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueon, Donghee; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-09-16

    The combination of the control of CNT assembly density and the control of intrinsic carbon properties by doping can synergistically improve the supercapacitor performance of CNT-based electrodes. We prepared a dense-packed CNT spherical assembly via emulsion-assisted evaporation and subsequently conducted nitrogen (N) doping to make CNT-based supercapacitors. The assembly of CNT spherical particles is applied as the supercapacitor electrode. We control the N doping content and obtain a specific capacity of 215 F/g at a current density of 0.2 A/g, which is 3.1 times higher than that of the untreated sample. The enhancement stems from high pseudocapacitance and high electrical conductivity that result from the N doping of the CNT assembly. In a comparison of the specific capacitance of N-CNT spherical particles with that of the CNT films prepared by conventional solution-coating, we found that N-CNT samples display a capacitance that is 1.8 times higher, thus confirming the morphological advantage provided by the CNT packing and the hierarchical porous structure in the CNT particle assembly. Our approach allows a facile and high throughput production of high performance electrodes based on CNTs that are commercially available. Moreover, our approach can be extended to produce spherical particles consisting of other nanostructured carbon materials and their composites.

  4. Comparison of two models for phonon assisted tunneling field enhanced emission from defects in Ge measured by DLTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienaar, J., E-mail: jac_pienaar@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Meyer, W.E.; Auret, F.D.; Coelho, S.M.M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to measure the field enhanced emission rate from a defect introduced in n-type Ge. The defect was introduced through low energy ({+-}80 eV) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching using Ar. The defect, named EP{sub 0.31}, had an energy level 0.31 eV below the conduction band. Models of Pons and Makram-Ebeid (1979) and Ganichev and Prettl (1997) , which describe emission due to phonon assisted tunneling, were fitted to the observed electric field dependence of the emission rate. The model of Pons and Makram-Ebeid fitted the measured emission rate more accurately than Ganichev and Prettl. However the model of Ganichev and Prettl has only two parameters, while the model of Pons and Makram-Ebeid has four. Both models showed a transition in the dominant emission mechanism from a weak electron-phonon coupling below 152.5 K to a strong electron-phonon coupling above 155 K. After the application of a {chi}{sup 2} goodness of fit test, it was determined that the model of Pons and Makram-Ebeid describes the data well, while that of Ganichev and Prettl does not.

  5. Comparison of two models for phonon assisted tunneling field enhanced emission from defects in Ge measured by DLTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, J.; Meyer, W. E.; Auret, F. D.; Coelho, S. M. M.

    2012-05-01

    Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to measure the field enhanced emission rate from a defect introduced in n-type Ge. The defect was introduced through low energy (±80 eV) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching using Ar. The defect, named EP0.31, had an energy level 0.31 eV below the conduction band. Models of Pons and Makram-Ebeid (1979) [2] and Ganichev and Prettl (1997) [3], which describe emission due to phonon assisted tunneling, were fitted to the observed electric field dependence of the emission rate. The model of Pons and Makram-Ebeid fitted the measured emission rate more accurately than Ganichev and Prettl. However the model of Ganichev and Prettl has only two parameters, while the model of Pons and Makram-Ebeid has four. Both models showed a transition in the dominant emission mechanism from a weak electron-phonon coupling below 152.5 K to a strong electron-phonon coupling above 155 K. After the application of a χ2 goodness of fit test, it was determined that the model of Pons and Makram-Ebeid describes the data well, while that of Ganichev and Prettl does not.

  6. The Safety Precautions Design of the Personal Digital Assistant for Military%军用手持机的安全防护设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩霞

    2014-01-01

    Because of the Personal Digital Assistants for Military(PDA) are used in mobility and convenience,the safety of their physics sets and the applies in network has been very seriously thretened. Therefore we must consider the problems below in the PDA design:Firstly, to take precautions to prevent the PDAs from electromagnetic leakage. Secondly, to protect losing control of a single PDA from grave system risk. Finally, to keep the PDAs from being attacked hostilely.%由于军用手持机应用的机动性和灵活性,其物理威胁和网络威胁方面的安全问题十分突出。因此在设计中要考虑以下问题:首先,要采取措施防止手持机产生电磁泄露;第二,要防止因个别手持机失控造成重大的系统性风险;最后要防止手持机遭到恶意攻击。

  7. 47{sup th} Annual conference on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key topics / Outstanding know-how and sustainable innovations - enhanced safety and operation excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR - Consulting on Nuclear Law, Licensing and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany); Fischer, Erwin [PreussenElektra GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Management Board; Mohrbach, Ludger [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany). Competence Center ' ' Nuclear Power Plants' '

    2016-08-15

    Summary report on the Key Topics ''Outstanding Know-How and Sustainable Innovations'' and ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' of the 47{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 will be covered in further issues of atw.

  8. Researches on the Enhancement of Oilfield Safety Education and Training Quality%提高油田安全教育培训水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任勇

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the existing defects of oilfield safety education and training and discusses on the approaches to enhance the all-people safety awareness, management quality and operation skills. To establish a set of safety education and training mechanism that meet the oilfield staffs' psychological needs on safety and complies with actual production, to provide flexible and diverse education and training approaches and to make the safety education and training serve the production management, is not only an urgent task of safety work but also the key to get rid of the safety problem root.%  分析油田安全教育培训存在的不足,探讨提高全员安全意识和管理水平及操作技能途径。建立一套符合职工安全心理需求和生产实际的安全教育培训工作机制,并辅之于灵活多样的安全教育培训形式,对于安全教育培训工作更好地服务于生产管理,不仅是安全工作的当务之急,也是治本之举。

  9. Accuracy and safety of intraoperative CT-assisted placement of pedicle screw%术中CT辅助下椎弓根螺钉置入的精确性和安全性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘冬生; 宋振全; 赵明光; 张海松; 陆宇; 金振野

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and accuracy of intraoperative CT assisted-placement of pedicle screw in the patients with spinal disorders. Methods The clinical data of 39 patients with spinal disorders, who underwent intraoperative CT-assisted placement of pedicle screws in our hospital from May, 2014 through May, 2015, were analyzed retrospectively. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was assessed by Gertzbein-Robbins classification after the surgery. The safety of pedicle screw fixation was assessed by the postoperative complications. Results A total of 112 pedicle screws were placed in the spines in 39 patients and the placements of 38 screws of them were adjusted according to intraoperative CT findings. Of 112 screws, 105 were placed in the pedicles, 5 by grade 1 pedicle breach, and 2 by grad 2 pedicle breach according to Gertzbein-Robbins classification of pedicle screw placement accuracy. Two screws breached the medical pedicle walls, 4 breached the lateral walls and 1 breached inferolateral pedicle wall. The postoperative complications included surgical site infections in 4 patients, cerebrospinal fluid leaks in 2 and injury to the nerve in 1. No complication was directly related to the screws placement. No patient required reoperation due to the misplacement of the pedicle screws. Conclusions The accuracy and safety of pedicle screw placement can be enhanced in the patients with spinal disorders by intraoperative CT scanning which may be help the surgeon adjust the improper pedicle screw placement in time.%目的 评估术中CT辅助下椎弓根固定技术的安全性和准确性.方法 回顾性分析2014年5月至2015年5月术中CT辅助下椎弓根固定手术治疗的39例脊柱脊髓疾病患者的临床资料,其中脊柱脊髓损伤6例,颅颈交界区畸形6例,脊柱退行性变14例,脊柱脊髓肿瘤13例;术后应用Gertzbein-Robbins分级评价螺钉植入的精确性.结果 椎弓根螺钉固定总数为112枚,术中根据CT影像

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene/CoMoO{sub 4} nanocomposites with enhanced supercapacitor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaowei; Shen, Jianfeng; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin, E-mail: mxye@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • RGO/CoMoO{sub 4} nanocomposites are prepared by microwave irradiation for the first time. • RGO/CoMoO{sub 4} nanocomposites show a high specific capacitance of 322.5 F g{sup −1}. • Enhanced electrical conductivity leads to superior electrochemical performance. • Low crystallinity of CoMoO{sub 4} is favorable to improve the electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A facile and efficient strategy for preparing reduced graphene oxide–cobalt molybdate (RGO/CoMoO{sub 4}) nanocomposites assisted by microwave irradiation for the first time is demonstrated. The resulting nanocomposites are comprised of CoMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles that are well-anchored on graphene sheets by in situ reducing. The prepared RGO/CoMoO{sub 4} nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Importantly, the prepared nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. Results show that RGO/CoMoO{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibited much better electrochemical capability than pure-CoMoO{sub 4} and RGO/CoMoO{sub 4} for annealing. RGO/CoMoO{sub 4} nanocomposites with 37.4 wt% CoMoO{sub 4} content achieved a specific capacitance about 322.5 F g{sup −1} calculated from the CV plots at 5 mV s{sup −1}, which was higher than that of pure-CoMoO{sub 4} (95.0 F g{sup −1}) and RGO/CoMoO{sub 4} for annealing (102.5 F g{sup −1}). The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the individual components.

  11. Low-temperature synthesis of diamond films by photoemission-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, Mayuri, E-mail: kawata@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Ojiro, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Shuichi; Takakuwa, Yuji [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Okano, Ken [International Christian University, 3-10-2 Osawa, Mitaka 181-8585 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Photoemission-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PA-PECVD), a process in which photoelectrons emitted from a substrate irradiated with ultraviolet light are utilized as a trigger for DC discharge, was investigated in this study; specifically, the DC discharge characteristics of PA-PECVD were examined for an Si substrate deposited in advance through hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with a nitrogen-doped diamond layer of thickness ∼1 μm. Using a commercially available Xe excimer lamp (hν = 7.2 eV) to illuminate the diamond surface with and without hydrogen termination, the photocurrents were found to be 3.17 × 10{sup 12} and 2.11 × 10{sup 11} electrons/cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The 15-fold increase in photocurrent was ascribed to negative electron affinity (NEA) caused by hydrogen termination on the diamond surfaces. The DC discharge characteristics revealed that a transition bias voltage from a Townsend-to-glow discharge was considerably decreased because of NEA (from 490 to 373 V for H{sub 2} gas and from 330 to 200 V for Ar gas), enabling a reduction in electric power consumption needed to synthesize diamond films through PA-PECVD. In fact, the authors have succeeded in growing high-quality diamond films of area 2.0 cm{sup 2} at 540 °C with a discharge power of only 1.8 W, plasma voltage of 156.4 V, and discharge current of 11.7 mA under the glow discharge of CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar mixed gases. In addition to having only negligible amounts of graphite and amorphous carbon, the diamond films exhibit a relatively high diamond growth rate of 0.5 μm/h at temperatures as low as 540 °C, which is attributed to Ar{sup +} ions impinging on the diamond surface, and causing the removal of hydrogen atoms from the surface through sputtering. This process leads to enhanced CH{sub x} radical adsorption, because the sample was applied with a negative potential to accelerate photoelectrons in PA-PECVD.

  12. Lessons learned from the introduction of an electronic safety net to enhance test result management in an Australian mothers' hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Lymer, Sharyn; Forster, Megan; Strachan, Michael; Graham, Sara; Hirst, Geof; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the implementation and impact of an electronic test result acknowledgement (RA) system in the Mater Mothers' Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. The Verdi application electronically records clinicians' acknowledgement of the review of results. Hospital data (August 2011-August 2012) were extracted to measure clinicians' acknowledgement practices. There were 27,354 inpatient test results for 6855 patients. All test results were acknowledged. 60% (95% CI 59% to 61%) of laboratory and 44% (95% CI 40% to 48%) of imaging results were acknowledged within 24 h. The median time between report availability and acknowledgement was 18.1 h for laboratory and 1 day 18 h for imaging results. The median time from when a result was first viewed to its acknowledgement was 7 min for laboratory and 1 min for imaging results. The longest recorded time to acknowledgement was 38 days. Electronic RA provides a safety net to enhance test result management.

  13. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  14. Microwave-assisted synthesis of BSA-protected small gold nanoclusters and their fluorescence-enhanced sensing of silver(i) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Liu, Tian-Ying; Li, Hong-Wei; Liu, Zhongying; Wu, Yuqing

    2012-03-01

    A one-step microwave-assisted method is used for the synthesis of small gold nanoclusters, Au16NCs@BSA, which are used as a fluorescence enhanced sensor for detection of silver(i) ions with high selectivity and sensitivity.A one-step microwave-assisted method is used for the synthesis of small gold nanoclusters, Au16NCs@BSA, which are used as a fluorescence enhanced sensor for detection of silver(i) ions with high selectivity and sensitivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details of the synthesis of AuNCs@BSA and fluorescent detection, and Fig. S1-S10. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr12056a

  15. Quality Computer Assisted Mobile Learning (CAML) and Distance Education Leadership in Managing Technology Enhanced Learning Management System (TELMS) in the Malaysian Public Tertiary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Tan Luck

    2009-01-01

    Abstract - The success in the implementation of a quality computer assisted mobile learning and distance education in a Technology Enhanced Learning Management System is highly rely on the academic leadership in managing and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the tertiary level. The effectiveness of its leadership, knowledge, application and management of ICT and learning management system is of utmost important. Successful application and management includes qua...

  16. Edge effect enhanced electron field emission in top assembled reduced graphene oxide assisted by amorphous CNT-coated carbon cloth substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarshi Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a hybrid structure assembly of amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs -reduced graphene oxide (RGO has been fabricated on carbon cloth/PET substrates for enhanced edge effect assisted flexible field emission device application. The carbon nanostructures prepared by chemical processes were finally deposited one over the other by a simple electrophoretic deposition (EPD method on carbon cloth (CC fabric. The thin films were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM. Field assisted electron emission measurement was performed on this hybrid structure. It was observed that the hybrid carbon nanostructure showed exceptional field emission properties with outstanding low turn-on and threshold field (Eto∼ 0.26 Vμm−1, Eth ∼ 0.55 Vμm1. These observed results are far better compared to standalone and plasma etched edge enhanced RGO systems due to the bottom layer a-CNTs bed which assisted in significant enhancement of edge effect in RGO sheets.

  17. Maritime transport safety enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelides, Manolis [National Technical University of Athens (Greece); University School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Zografos (Greece). Div. for Marine Structures

    2013-11-15

    As the density of sea traffic keeps growing, designing ship structures capable of withstanding accidental loads such as collisions or grounding without detrimental consequences proves an ever-greater challenge. Double hull designs play a major role in this respect, as explains Manolis Samuelides, Professor at the National Technical University of Athens. (orig.)

  18. Ultrasound assisted enhancement in natural dye extraction from beetroot for industrial applications and natural dyeing of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Anna, J Lakshmi; Vijayeeswarri, J; Swaminathan, G

    2009-08-01

    There is a growing demand for eco-friendly/non-toxic colorants, specifically for health sensitive applications such as coloration of food and dyeing of child textile/leather garments. Recently, dyes derived from natural sources for these applications have emerged as an important alternative to potentially harmful synthetic dyes and pose need for suitable effective extraction methodologies. The present paper focus on the influence of process parameters for ultrasound assisted leaching of coloring matter from plant materials. In the present work, extraction of natural dye from beetroot using ultrasound has been studied and compared with static/magnetic stirring as a control process at 45 degrees C. The influence of process parameters on the extraction efficiency such as ultrasonic output power, time, pulse mode, effect of solvent system and amount of beetroot has been studied. The use of ultrasound is found to have significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of colorant obtained from beetroot. Based on the experiments it has been found that a mixture of 1:1 ethanol-water with 80W ultrasonic power for 3h contact time provided better yield and extraction efficiency. Pulse mode operation may be useful in reducing electrical energy consumption in the extraction process. The effect of the amount of beetroot used in relation to extraction efficiency has also been studied. Two-stage extraction has been studied and found to be beneficial for improving the yield for higher amounts of beetroot. Significant 8% enhancement in % yield of colorant has been achieved with ultrasound, 80W as compared to MS process both using 1:1 ethanol-water. The coloring ability of extracted beet dye has been tested on substrates such as leather and paper and found to be suitable for dyeing. Ultrasound is also found to be beneficial in natural dyeing of leather with improved rate of exhaustion. Both the dyed substrates have better color values for ultrasonic beet extract as inferred from

  19. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center (NAPSRC) Training Research Exploitation Resources Technical Assistance Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect Other safety concerns ... APS office for additional information. When To Report Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect? If you witness ...

  20. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topics / Enhanced safety and operation excellence and decommissioning experience and Waste management solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salnikova, Tatiana [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Schaffrath, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Summary report on the Key Topics ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' of the 47{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  1. Performance Improvement of Microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si Thin Film Solar Cells by Using Laser-Assisted Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microcrystalline p-SiC/i-Si/n-Si thin film solar cells treated with hydrogen plasma were fabricated at low temperature using a CO2 laser-assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LAPECVD system. According to the micro-Raman results, the i-Si films shifted from 482 cm−1 to 512 cm−1 as the assisting laser power increased from 0 W to 80 W, which indicated a gradual transformation from amorphous to crystalline Si. From X-ray diffraction (XRD results, the microcrystalline i-Si films with (111, (220, and (311 diffraction were obtained. Compared with the Si-based thin film solar cells deposited without laser assistance, the short-circuit current density and the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with assisting laser power of 80 W were improved from 14.38 mA/cm2 to 18.16 mA/cm2 and from 6.89% to 8.58%, respectively.

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Gadoxetate Disodium–Enhanced Liver MRI in Pediatric Patients Aged >2 Months to <18 Years—Results of a Retrospective, Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James; Kasahara, Mureo; Martinez, Mercedes; Soresina, Annarosa; Kashanian, Fran; Endrikat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the safety and efficacy of gadoxetate disodium–enhanced liver MR imaging in pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective, multicenter study including pediatric patients aged >2 months to <18 years who underwent contrast-enhanced liver MRI due to focal liver lesions. A single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025 to 0.05 mmol/kg body weight of gadoxetate disodium was administered. Adverse events (AEs) up to 24 hours after injection were recorded and a one-year follow-up was conducted for all serious and unexpected AEs. Efficacy was defined based on the additional diagnostic information obtained from the combined (pre- and postcontrast) image sets as compared with the precontrast image sets by blinded reading. RESULTS A total of 52 patients for safety and 51 patients for efficacy analyses were evaluated. Twenty-two patients (42.3%) reported a total of 51 serious AEs (SAEs) and one AE after one year. No SAE or AE was related to gadoxetate disodium injection. Gadoxetate disodium–related effects on vital signs were not seen. Additional diagnostic information was obtained for 86.3% of patients. The three most improved efficacy variables were lesion-to-background contrast, lesion characterization, and improved border delineation in 78.4%, 76.5%, and 70.6% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION Gadoxetate disodium in pediatric patients did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. Contrast enhancement provided additional clinically relevant information. PMID:27478381

  3. Matrix-enhanced surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ME-SALDI-MS) for mass spectrometry imaging of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Victoria L; Liu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS), a parallel technique to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), utilizes inorganic particles or porous surfaces to aid in the desorption/ionization of low-molecular-weight (MW) analytes. As a matrix-free and "soft" LDI approach, SALDI offers the benefit of reduced background noise in the low MW range, allowing for easier detection of biologically significant small MW species. Despite the inherent advantages of SALDI-MS, it has not reached comparable sensitivity levels to MALDI-MS. In relation to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), intense efforts have been made in order to improve sensitivity and versatility of SALDI-MSI. We describe herein a detailed protocol that utilizes a hybrid LDI method, matrix-enhanced SALDI-MS (ME-SALDI MS), to detect and image low MW species in an imaging mode.

  4. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Anneli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual´s own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Methods Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Conclusions Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation

  5. Enhancing Teaching Assistants' (TAs') Inquiry Teaching by Means of Teaching Observations and Reflective Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristen; Brickman, Peggy; Oliver, J. Steve

    2014-01-01

    Recent education reform efforts advocate teaching the process of science (inquiry) in undergraduate lecture and laboratory classes. To meet this challenge, professional development for the graduate student instructors (teaching assistants, or TAs) often assigned to teach these classes is needed. This study explored the implementation of an…

  6. Enhanced photo-assisted electrical gating in vanadium dioxide based on saturation-induced gain modulation of erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Wook; Kim, Bong-Jun; Choi, Sungyoul; Lee, Yong Wan; Kim, Hyun-Tak

    2009-10-26

    By incorporating saturation-induced gain modulation of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), we have demonstrated a high-speed photo-assisted electrical gating with considerably enhanced switching characteristics in a two-terminal device fabricated by using vanadium dioxide thin film. The gating operation was performed by illuminating the output light of the EDFA, whose transient gain was modulated by adjusting the chopping frequency of the input light down to 1 kHz, onto the device. In the proposed gating scheme, gated signals with a temporal duration of approximately 40 micros were successively generated at a repetition rate of 1 kHz.

  7. 从“壬基酚”事件看我国纺织印染助剂的安全性问题%Safety problem of China's textile and dyeing assistants from nonylphenol event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章杰

    2012-01-01

    最近“壬基酚”事件在我国纺织行业和助剂行业引起了强烈反响,从源头上寻找问题的症结对保障纺织品的安全性至关重要.阐述了当今我国纺织印染助剂的安全性问题,分析了问题产生的原因以及禁用或限用纺织印染助剂的替代品中存在的问题,指出助剂行业必须跟上市场的发展新趋势和法律新约束,加紧开发替代品,切实生产出环保型助剂、绿色助剂、安全助剂、放心助剂,更好地为纺织行业服务.%Recently "nonylphenol" event in China's textile and assistant industry has aroused strong repercussions. Searching for the sticking point from the source of the problem is very important for the textile security. The safety problem of china's textile and dyeing assistants was elaborated. The reason of the problem and the problems of substitute of restricted or banned textile assistants were analyzed. It was pointed out that auxiliary industry must keep pace with the new development trend of market and legal constraints, accelerate the development of substitutes, produce environmental friendly assistants, green assistants, safe and secure assistants, and better serve the textile industry.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1981. The five parts of the report are oriented to particular segments of the program. Parts 1 to 4 report on research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. Part 5 reports progress on all research performed for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The parts are: Part 1: Biomedical Sciences under Program Manager, H. Drucker; Part 2: Ecological Sciences, under Program Manager, B.E. Vaughan; Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences under Program Manager, C.E. Elderkin; Part 4: Physical Sciences under Program Manager, J.M. Nielsen; and Part 5: Environmental and Occupational Protection, Assessment, and Engineering under Program Managers, D.L. Hessel, S. Marks, and W.A. Glass.

  9. Robot-assisted and computer-enhanced therapies for children with cerebral palsy: current state and clinical implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Heim, Andreas; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2013-06-01

    The field of pediatric neurorehabilitation has rapidly evolved with the introduction of technological advancements over recent years. Rehabilitation robotics and computer-assisted systems can complement conventional physiotherapeutics or occupational therapies. These systems appear promising, especially in children, where exciting and challenging virtual reality scenarios could increase motivation to train intensely in a playful therapeutic environment. Despite promising experience and a large acceptance by the patients and parents, so far, only a few therapy systems have been evaluated in children, and well-designed randomized controlled studies in this field are still lacking. This narrative review aims to provide an overview about the to-date robot-assisted and computer-based therapies and the current level of evidence and to share the authors experience about the clinical implication of these new technologies available for children with cerebral palsy.

  10. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Mohd S; Yang, Yang; Ng, Tien K; Dursun, Ibrahim; Shi, Dong; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Priante, Davide; Bakr, Osman M; Ooi, Boon S

    2016-01-01

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  11. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-12-22

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  12. Enhancing prospective chemistry teachers cognitive structures in the topics of bonding and hybridization by internet-assisted chemistry applications

    OpenAIRE

    Özge Özyalçın Oskay, Sinem Dinçol

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of internet-assisted chemistry applications on prospective chemistry teachers’ cognitive structures in the topics of bonding and hybridization. The sample of the study consisted of 36 prospective chemistry teachers attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, the Department of Chemistry Education in 2010-2011 academic year and taking Basic Chemistry I lesson. In the study, students were separated into experimental and control gr...

  13. Enhancing prospective chemistry teachers cognitive structures in the topics of bonding and hybridization by internet-assisted chemistry applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Özyalçın Oskay, Sinem Dinçol

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of internet-assisted chemistry applications on prospective chemistry teachers’ cognitive structures in the topics of bonding and hybridization. The sample of the study consisted of 36 prospective chemistry teachers attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, the Department of Chemistry Education in 2010-2011 academic year and taking Basic Chemistry I lesson. In the study, students were separated into experimental and control groups according to their pre-cognitive structures. Students were requested to answer two open ended questions. Answers by each student were gathered and evaluated by flow map method. “Bonding and hybridization” topics were taught to control group with traditional teaching method and to experimental group besides traditional method internet-assisted applications were conducted. The same open-ended questions were given to both groups and their cognitive structures were examined once more. The differences between control and experimental groups’ cognitive structures were examined. A significant difference was identified in favour of experimental group (p<0, 05. The mean score of the Experimental group was X=19.94, and the mean score of the Control group was X=13.88. In addition, subsequent to internet assisted chemistry applications differences in terms of concepts and descriptions in prospective chemistry teachers’ in experimental and control group cognitive structure have been determined. When post flow maps of prospective chemistry teachers in experimental group, on whom internet assisted chemistry applications were made, are formed, it has been determined that there are more statements about hybridization, hybridization types, molecule geometry and bond angles compared to control grou

  14. Dismantlement of nuclear facilities decommissioned from the Russian navy: Enhancing regulatory supervision of nuclear and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, M.K.

    2013-03-01

    The availability of up to date regulatory norms and standards for nuclear and radiation safety, relevant to the management of nuclear legacy situations, combined with effective and efficient regulatory procedures for licensing and monitoring compliance, are considered to be extremely important. Accordingly the NRPA has set up regulatory cooperation programs with corresponding authorities in the Russian Federation. Cooperation began with the civilian regulatory authorities and was more recently extended to include the military authority and this joint cooperation supposed to develop the regulatory documents to improve supervision over nuclear and radiation safety while managing the nuclear military legacy facilities in Northwest Russia and other regions of the country. (Author)

  15. Safety and adverse effects during 24 hours after contrast-enhanced MRI with gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance {sup registered}) in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Guenther; Schuerholz, Hellmut; Buecker, Arno; Fries, Peter [Homburg University Hospital, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Kirchin, Miles A. [Bracco Imaging SpA, Milan (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Gadolinium-based MR contrast agents have long been considered safe for routine diagnostic imaging. However, the advent of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) among certain patients with severe renal insufficiency has brought the issue of safety into question. Nowhere is safety of greater concern than among children who frequently require multiple contrast-enhanced MRI examinations over an extended period of time. To retrospectively evaluate the safety of gadobenate dimeglumine for contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI across a range of indications. Two hundred pediatric inpatients (age: 4 days to 15 years) underwent CE MRI as part of clinical routine. The children received a gadobenate dimeglumine dose of either 0.05 mmol/kg body weight (liver, abdominal imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, brain and other rare indications) or 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight (cardiovascular imaging, MR-urography). Young (< 8 years) children with congenital heart disease were intubated and underwent MRA evaluation with controlled ventilation. Monitoring for adverse events was performed for at least 24 h after each gadobenate dimeglumine injection. Depending on clinical necessity, laboratory measurements and, in some cases, vital sign and ECG determinations were made before and after contrast injection. Safety was evaluated by age group, indication and dose administered. No clinically adverse events were reported among children who had one MRI scan only or among children who had several examinations. There were no changes in creatinine or bilirubin levels even in very young children. No adverse events were recorded during the first 24 h following administration of gadobenate dimeglumine in 200 children. (orig.)

  16. Yb,Er-doped CeO2 nanotubes as an assistant layer for photoconversion-enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rongfang; Huan, Long; Gu, Peng; Guo, Rong; Chen, Ming; Diao, Guowang

    2016-11-01

    Yb,Er-doped CeO2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized using Ag nanowires as a hard template via a facile hydrothermal reaction and subsequent calcination and leaching processes. Yb,Er-doped CeO2 nanotubes as a promising assistant layer were investigated to determine theirs photovoltaic properties in an effort to enhance the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The influence factors of photoelectric properties of CeO2:Yb,Er NTs, including diameter of nanotubes, hydrothermal time, calcination temperature, and elements doping, have been studied. Compared with pristine P25 photoanode, the DSSCs fabricated by CeO2:Yb,Er nanotubes and P25 exhibited a power conversion efficiency (η) of 8.67%, an increase of 34%, and incident photo-to-electric conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 92.96%, an increase of 48.83%, which evidence that CeO2:Yb,Er NTs are a promising assistant photoanode material for DSSCs. The enhance mechanism of CeO2:Yb,Er nanotubes has been further revealed according to experimental results.

  17. Determination of Lead in Water Samples Using a New Vortex-Assisted, Surfactant-Enhanced Emulsification Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Lu, Ying; Mmereki, Daniel; Pan, Weiliang; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Guangming; Mao, Yufeng; Su, Xaioxuan

    2016-04-01

    A low toxic solvent-based vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction (LT-VSLLME) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was developed for the extraction and determination of lead (Pb) in water samples. In the LT-VSLLME method, the extraction solvent was dispersed into the aqueous samples by the assistance of vortex agitator. Meanwhile, the addition of a surfactant, which acted as an emulsifier, could enhance the speed of the mass-transfer from aqueous samples to the extraction solvent. The influences of analytical parameters, including extraction solvent type and its volume, surfactant type and its volume, pH, concentration of chelating agent, salt effect and extraction time were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a good relative standard deviation of 3.69% at 10 ng L(-1) was obtained. The calibration graph showed a linear pattern in the ranges of 5-30 ngL(-1), with a limit of detection of 0.76 ng L(-1). The linearity was obtained by five points in the concentration range of 5-30 ngL(-1). The enrichment factor was 320. The procedure was applied to wastewater and river water, and the accuracy was assessed through the analysis of the recovery experiments.

  18. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsun Su, Yen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien [Science and Technology of Accelerator Light Source, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei [Department of Resource Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-05

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  19. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsun Su, Yen; Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien; Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2013-08-01

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  20. Safety first!

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Among the many duties I assumed at the beginning of the year was the ultimate responsibility for Safety at CERN: the responsibility for the physical safety of the personnel, the responsibility for the safe operation of the facilities, and the responsibility to ensure that CERN acts in accordance with the highest standards of radiation and environmental protection.   The Safety Policy document drawn up in September 2014 is an excellent basis for the implementation of Safety in all areas of CERN’s work. I am happy to commit during my mandate to help meet its objectives, not least by ensuring the Organization makes available the necessary means to achieve its Safety objectives. One of the main objectives of the HSE (Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection) unit in the coming months is to enhance the measures to minimise CERN’s impact on the environment. I believe CERN should become a role model for an environmentally-aware scientific research laboratory. Risk ...

  1. Enhancing the implementation of Occupational Health and Safety interventions through a design of the socio-technical interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masi, Donato; Cagno, E.; Hasle, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    A multitude of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) interventions have proven to be effective under controlled conditions, but their implementation in practice is often difficult and interventions may therefore not work as expected, especially when referring to Small and Medium sized Enterprises...

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of the Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit: a curriculum for enhancing farmworkers' understanding of pesticide safety concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Asuaje, Cesar R; Arellano, Consuelo; Cope, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Among agricultural workers, migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been recognized as a special risk population because these laborers encounter cultural challenges and linguistic barriers while attempting to maintain their safety and health within their working environments. The crop-specific Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit (Toolkit) is a pesticide safety and health curriculum designed to communicate to farmworkers pesticide hazards commonly found in their working environments and to address Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide training criteria for agricultural workers. The goal of this preliminary study was to test evaluation items for measuring knowledge increases among farmworkers and to assess the effectiveness of the Toolkit in improving farmworkers' knowledge of key WPS and risk communication concepts when the Toolkit lesson was delivered by trained trainers in the field. After receiving training on the curriculum, four participating trainers provided lessons using the Toolkit as part of their regular training responsibilities and orally administered a pre- and post-lesson evaluation instrument to 20 farmworker volunteers who were generally representative of the national farmworker population. Farmworker knowledge of pesticide safety messages significantly (PHealth Toolkit is an effective, research-based pesticide safety and health intervention for the at-risk farmworker population and identifies a testing format appropriate for evaluating the Toolkit and other similar interventions for farmworkers in the field.

  3. Hollow nanoporous covalent triazine frameworks via acid vapor-assisted solid phase synthesis for enhanced visible light photoactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Wei

    2016-04-11

    Herein, we report a novel trifluoromethanesulfonic acid vapor-assisted solid phase synthetic method to construct nanoporous covalent triazine frameworks with highly ordered hollow interconnected pores under mild reaction conditions. This unique solid state synthetic route allows not only the avoidance of undesired side reactions caused by traditional high temperature synthesis, but also the maintaining of defined and precise optical and electronic properties of the nonporous triazine frameworks. Promising photocatalytic activity of the polytriazine networks was demonstrated in the photoreduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol under visible light irradiation.

  4. 46{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2015). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence / Sustainable reactor operation management - safe, efficient, valuable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erwin [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Global Unit Next Generation, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Summary report on the following Topical Session of the 46{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015: - Sustainable Reactor Operation Management - Safe, Efficient, Valuable (Erwin Fischer) The other Sessions of the Key Topics - ''Outstanding Know-How and Sustainable Innovations'', - ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and - ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' have been covered in atw 7 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  5. The molecular assembly of the ionic liquid/aliphatic carboxylic acid/aliphatic amine as effective and safety transdermal permeation enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Koji; Shibata, Akira; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu

    2016-04-30

    In spite of numerous advantages, transdermal drug delivery systems are unfeasible for most drugs because of the barrier effect of the stratum corneum. Ionic liquids were recently used to enhance transdermal drug delivery by improving drug solubility. In the present study, safe and effective ionic liquids for transdermal absorption were obtained as salts generated by a neutralization reaction between highly biocompatible aliphatic carboxylic acids (octanoic acid or isostearic acid) and aliphatic amines (diisopropanolamine or triisopropanolamine) (Medrx Co., Ltd., 2009). The mechanism of skin permeability enhancement by ionic liquids was investigated by hydrophilic phenol red and hydrophobic tulobuterol. Further, the skin permeation enhancing effect was remarkably superior in the acid excess state rather than the neutralization state. Infrared absorption spectrum analysis confirmed that ionic liquids/aliphatic carboxylic acid/aliphatic amine are coexisting at all mixing states. In the acid excess state, ionic liquids interact with aliphatic carboxylic acids via hydrogen bonds. Thus, the skin permeation enhancing effect is not caused by the ionic liquid alone. The "liquid salt mixture," referred to as a complex of ingredients coexisting with ionic liquids, forms a molecular assembly incorporating hydrophilic drug. This molecular assembly was considered an effective and safety enhancer of transdermal drug permeation.

  6. Mo-O bond doping and related-defect assisted enhancement of photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report a strong photoluminescence (PL enhancement of monolayer MoS2 under different treatments. We find that by simple ambient annealing treatment in the range of 200 °C to 400 °C, the PL emission can be greatly enhanced by a factor up to two orders of magnitude. This enhancement can be attributed to two factors: first, the formation of Mo-O bonds during ambient exposure introduces an effective p-doping in the MoS2 layer; second, localized electrons formed around Mo-O bonds related defective sites where the electrons can be effectively localized with higher binding energy resulting in efficient radiative excitons recombination. Time resolved PL decay measurement showed that longer lifetime of the treated sample consistent with the higher quantum efficiency in PL. These results give more insights to understand the luminescence properties of the MoS2.

  7. Screening computer-assisted dosage programs for anticoagulation with warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists: minimum safety requirements for individual programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, L; Roberts, C; Ibrahim, S;

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of the previous European Action on Anticoagulation (EAA) multicenter study, a simplified minimum procedure is described for screening the safety and effectiveness of marketed programs for dosage of oral anticoagulant drugs (vitamin K antagonists). The aim was to demonstrate n...... study, that is, 57.5%. The simplified procedure proposed, although not an absolute guide to safety, is designed to screen against gross unreliability of a test program, without the need to repeat a massive clinical endpoint study for each and every program.......Based on the results of the previous European Action on Anticoagulation (EAA) multicenter study, a simplified minimum procedure is described for screening the safety and effectiveness of marketed programs for dosage of oral anticoagulant drugs (vitamin K antagonists). The aim was to demonstrate non...

  8. Partners in compliance : a joint an innovative program between Alberta Transportation and Utilities and Alberta Trucking Association for the enhancement of commercial vehicle highway safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation between the Alberta Government and the Trucking Industry to enhance highway safety and to protect the highway infrastructure was discussed. The Partners in Compliance (PIC) program, which was launched in 1995, is a voluntary motor carrier safety and compliance program. The program provides rewards for positive actions and commitments; it also provides a means to focus on the less compliant carriers. A total of 247 carriers have expressed an interest in the program; 39 carriers with 3,281 units applied to PIC to date. Twenty-four carriers were approved for immediate membership, six were denied and seven are making changes before plates will be issued. Carrier performance is monitored within the following eight areas: (1) safety and driver qualifications, (2) reportable collision data and analysis, (3) equipment inspection and repairs, (4) drivers` hours of service, (5) dangerous goods, (6) vehicle weights and dimensions, (7) fuel tax compliance, and (8) prorate licensing compliance. Based on a review of the program to July 1997 by an independent consultant, the program was considered to be a viable concept and its continuation recommended. Interest in similar programs have been expressed by several other provinces.

  9. Development of dual cooled annular fuel and its possibility to enhance both economy and safety of light water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Yanghyun; Kim, Keonsik; Park, Jeongyong; Yang, Yongsik; Kim, Hyungkyu; In, Wangkee; Song, Kunwoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Over the past few decades, extensive studies have been performed to improve the reliability and safety of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. In recent years, power updating of about 10% is being achieved by modifying safety analysis methodology and subsequent increase in safety margin. But departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and loss of coolant accident (LOCA) are still two of the most important limiting factors which would restrict power updating more than 10%. Duel cooled annular fuel, cooled in both internal and external cooling channel, has advantages of considerably lower heat flux and lower fuel temperature than conventional solid fuel. While lower heat flus gives higher DNB margin for the same power retie, lower temperature reduces the stored energy of fuel. However, there are many technical issues that should be addressed before any new type of fuel can be considered for application to LWR. This paper describes the key technologies that Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed for dual cooled annular fuel and discusses the feasibility of its application to LWR.

  10. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  11. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  12. Designing a personal music assistant that enhances the social, cognitive, and affective experiences of people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.M.M.; Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that music with a strong personal meaning can enhance the social, cognitive, and affective experiences of both people with dementia (PwD) and their social environment. We applied a human-centred design method, called situated Cognitive Engineering, to develop the conceptual design and

  13. The Enhanced Light Absorptance and Device Application of Nanostructured Black Silicon Fabricated by Metal-assisted Chemical Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hao; Guo, Anran; Guo, Guohui; Li, Wei; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-07-01

    We use metal-assisted chemical etching (MCE) method to fabricate nanostructured black silicon on the surface of C-Si. The Si-PIN photoelectronic detector based on this type of black silicon shows excellent device performance with a responsivity of 0.57 A/W at 1060 nm. Silicon nanocone arrays can be created using MCE treatment. These modified surfaces show higher light absorptance in the near-infrared range (800 to 2500 nm) compared to that of C-Si with polished surfaces, and the variations in the absorption spectra of the nanostructured black silicon with different etching processes are obtained. The maximum light absorptance increases significantly up to 95 % in the wavelength range of 400 to 2500 nm. Our recent novel results clearly indicate that nanostructured black silicon made by MCE has potential application in near-infrared photoelectronic detectors.

  14. Cryogenic safety organisation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    With Safety being a top priority of CERN’s general policy, the Organisation defines and implements a Policy that sets out the general principles governing Safety at CERN. To the end of the attainment of said Safety objectives, the organic units (owners/users of the equipment) are assigned the responsibility for the implementation of the CERN Safety Policy at all levels of the organization, whereas the Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE) has the role of providing assistance for the implementation of the Safety Policy, and a monitoring role related to the implementation of continuous improvement of Safety, compliance with the Safety Rules and the handling of emergency situations. This talk will elaborate on the roles, responsibilities and organisational structure of the different stakeholders within the Organization with regards to Safety, and in particular to cryogenic safety. The roles of actors of particular importance such as the Cryogenic Safety Officers (CSOs) and the Cryogenic Sa...

  15. 临床病人安全用药的管理方法与效果%Methods and effects of enhancing clinical meditation safety management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍世英; 黄叶莉; 蔡伟萍; 黄海燕; 田宇红; 董媛媛

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨临床病人安全用药的管理方法与效果,从而减少给药差错发生,保障病人安全用药.方法 对38例发生给药差错病例进行分析,采取举办给药差错案例分析讨论会、强化护士给药安全意识、加强查对制度的督查、加强有效沟通的培训与督查等安全管理措施.结果 实施临床病人安全用药管理后降低了给药差错发生率(P<0.01).结论 加强临床病人安全用药管理,可有效减少给药差错的发生.%Objective To explore the methods and effects of clinical meditation safety management, then to reduce meditation errors and ensure patients safety. Methods Thirty - eight cases of meditation errors were retrospectively analyzed and the countermeasures were developed according to the causes,including strengthening the meditation safety awareness of nurses, reinforcing the supervision systems and training skills to improve communication, and so on. Results The incidence of meditation errors was reduced significantly (P < 0.01). Conclusion Enhancing the management of clinical meditation safety can effectively reduce the incidence of meditation errors.

  16. EVFDT: An Enhanced Very Fast Decision Tree Algorithm for Detecting Distributed Denial of Service Attack in Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scattered nature of DDoS attacks and advancement of new technologies such as cloud-assisted WBAN, it becomes challenging to detect malicious activities by relying on conventional security mechanisms. The detection of such attacks demands an adaptive and incremental learning classifier capable of accurate decision making with less computation. Hence, the DDoS attack detection using existing machine learning techniques requires full data set to be stored in the memory and are not appropriate for real-time network traffic. To overcome these shortcomings, Very Fast Decision Tree (VFDT algorithm has been proposed in the past that can handle high speed streaming data efficiently. Whilst considering the data generated by WBAN sensors, noise is an obvious aspect that severely affects the accuracy and increases false alarms. In this paper, an enhanced VFDT (EVFDT is proposed to efficiently detect the occurrence of DDoS attack in cloud-assisted WBAN. EVFDT uses an adaptive tie-breaking threshold for node splitting. To resolve the tree size expansion under extreme noise, a lightweight iterative pruning technique is proposed. To analyze the performance of EVFDT, four metrics are evaluated: classification accuracy, tree size, time, and memory. Simulation results show that EVFDT attains significantly high detection accuracy with fewer false alarms.

  17. Carbon dioxide assisted sustainability enhancement of pyrolysis of waste biomass: A case study with spent coffee ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Wan; Cho, Seong-Heon; Song, Hocheol; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-01-01

    This work mainly presents the influence of CO2 as a reaction medium in the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis) of waste biomass. Our experimental work mechanistically validated two key roles of CO2 in pyrolysis of biomass. For example, CO2 expedited the thermal cracking of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) evolved from the thermal degradation of spent coffee ground (SCG) and reacted with VOCs. This enhanced thermal cracking behavior and reaction triggered by CO2 directly led to the enhanced generation of CO (∼ 3000%) in the presence of CO2. As a result, this identified influence of CO2 also directly led to the substantial decrease (∼ 40-60%) of the condensable hydrocarbons (tar). Finally, the morphologic change of biochar was distinctive in the presence of CO2. Therefore, a series of the adsorption experiments with dye were conducted to preliminary explore the physico-chemical properties of biochar induced by CO2.

  18. Vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of carbamates in juices by micellar electrokinetic chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2015-07-01

    A new method based on vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the extraction of carbamate pesticides in juice samples prior to their determination by micellar electrokinetic chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. This sample treatment allowed the satisfactory extraction and the extract clean-up of 25 carbamates from different fruit and vegetal juices (banana, tomato, and peach). In this study, the addition of ammonium perfluorooctanoate in the aqueous sample in combination with vortex agitation, provided very clean extracts with short extraction times. Under optimized conditions, recoveries of the proposed method for these pesticides from fortified juice samples ranged from 81% to 104%, with relative standard deviations lower than 15%. Limits of quantification were between 2.3µgkg(-)(1) and 4.7µgkg(-)(1), showing the high sensitivity of this fast and simple method.

  19. Microwave assisted facile hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide flower grown on graphene oxide sheets for enhanced photodegradation of dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinath, L.; Namratha, K.; Byrappa, K.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave assisted hydrothermal process of synthesis of ZnO-GO nanocomposite by using ZnCl2 and NaOH as precursors is being reported first time. In this investigation, a novel route to study on synthesis, interaction, kinetics and mechanism of hybrid zinc oxide-graphene oxide (ZnO-GO) nanocomposite using microwave assisted facile hydrothermal method has been reported. The results shows that the ZnO-GO nanocomposite exhibits an enhancement and acts as stable photo-response degradation performance of Brilliant Yellow under the UV light radiation better than pure GO and ZnO nanoparticles. The microwave exposure played a vital role in the synthesis process, it facilitates with well define crystalline structure, porosity and fine morphology of ZnO/GO nanocomposite. Different molar concentrations of ZnO precursors doped to GO sheets were been synthesized, characterized and their photodegradation performances were investigated. The optical studies by UV-vis and Photo Luminescence shows an increase in band gap of nanocomposite, which added an advantage in photodegradation performance. The in situ flower like ZnO nano particles are were densely decorated and anchored on the surfaces of graphene oxide sheets which aids in the enhancement of the surface area, adsorption, mass transfer of dyes and evolution of oxygen species. The nanocomposite having high surface area and micro/mesoporous in nature. This structure and morphology supports significantly in increasing photo catalytic performance legitimate to the efficient photosensitized electron injection and repressed electron recombination due to electron transfer process with GO as electron collector and transporter dependent on the proportion of GO in ZnO/GO composite.

  20. Inverse opal structured α-Fe2O3 on graphene thin films: enhanced photo-assisted water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kan; Shi, Xinjian; Kim, Jung Kyu; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-02-01

    A graphene interlayer was successfully inserted into inverse opaline hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes for solar water splitting using the template assisted electrodeposition method. Finding the optimal thermal annealing temperature is crucial for the successful attainment of the inverse opaline hematite nanostructure on a graphene thin film. This is because an appropriate temperature is required to convert pre-deposited Fe0 into hematite with optimum crystalline structure and to simultaneously remove the soft polystyrene template without thermal degradation of the graphene film on a transparent conductive substrate. Different from the conventional strategies based on graphene-semiconductor systems, this novel mechanism has been proposed whereby the graphene interlayer can act as both an electron transfer layer and an electrolyte blocking barrier, by which it not only reduces the charge recombination at the substrate-electrolyte interface but also helps electron transportation from α-Fe2O3 to the substrate of the photoanode. Therefore, both photocurrent density and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) have been remarkably improved, which are several times higher than those of the pure inverse opaline hematite photoanode.A graphene interlayer was successfully inserted into inverse opaline hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes for solar water splitting using the template assisted electrodeposition method. Finding the optimal thermal annealing temperature is crucial for the successful attainment of the inverse opaline hematite nanostructure on a graphene thin film. This is because an appropriate temperature is required to convert pre-deposited Fe0 into hematite with optimum crystalline structure and to simultaneously remove the soft polystyrene template without thermal degradation of the graphene film on a transparent conductive substrate. Different from the conventional strategies based on graphene-semiconductor systems, this novel mechanism has been proposed

  1. e-MARITIME SERVICES FOR COMMUNICATION WITH CLASS AND FOR ENHANCED SAFETY, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN SHIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vanem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available e-Maritime can be considered as an extension of the e-Navigation concept currently being discussed at the International Maritime Organization (IMO. It can be construed to include e-Navigation and promotes the use of all maritime data and information, distributed by way of information and communication technologies, to facilitate maritime transportation and provide value added services. This paper investigates possible e-Maritime services related to safety, security and environmental protection of shipping and for interaction with class. The paper reviews a number of existing services and current initiatives and relevant research projects and discusses if and how the value of such services could be increased if they could be offered as e-Maritime services to the industry. Furthermore, two services have been selected and successfully implemented as pilot e-Maritime services. Based on this survey and the pilot implementations, it can be suggested that there are great potential for offering a number of existing and future services related to safety, security and environmental protection as e-Maritime services. However, standardisation of the framework and of specific maritime data types, messages and codes might be necessary to facilitate a development towards widespread adaptation of e-Maritime solutions.

  2. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faunce Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract • Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. • Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. • This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations.

  3. Tungsten Doped TiO2 with Enhanced Photocatalytic and Optoelectrical Properties via Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Bhachu, Davinder S.; Lu, Yao; Chadwick, Nicholas; Althabaiti, Shaeel A.; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O.; Basahel, Sulaiman N.; Carmalt, Claire J.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2015-06-01

    Tungsten doped titanium dioxide films with both transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and photocatalytic properties were produced via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition of titanium ethoxide and dopant concentrations of tungsten ethoxide at 500 °C from a toluene solution. The films were anatase TiO2, with good n-type electrical conductivities as determined via Hall effect measurements. The film doped with 2.25 at.% W showed the lowest resistivity at 0.034 Ω.cm and respectable charge carrier mobility (14.9 cm3/V.s) and concentration (×1019 cm-3). XPS indicated the presence of both W6+ and W4+ in the TiO2 matrix, with the substitutional doping of W4+ inducing an expansion of the anatase unit cell as determined by XRD. The films also showed good photocatalytic activity under UV-light illumination, with degradation of resazurin redox dye at a higher rate than with undoped TiO2.

  4. Enhancement effects of ultrasound assisted in the synthesis of NiAl hydrotalcite for carbonyl sulfide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shunzheng; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Gao, Fengyu; Yu, Qingjun; Zhou, Yuansong; Wang, Jiangen; Huang, Yonghai; Yang, Zhongyu

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic effect in the synthesis of catalysts of NiAl oxides prepared starting from the coprecipitation method of a hydrotalcite structure was evaluated in this work. Removal of carbonyl sulfide (COS) at low temperature over the hydrotalcite-derived oxides was studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). It is found that hydrotalcite treated with ultrasonic has smaller average crystallite size and higher particle dispersion compared to hydrotalcite without ultrasonic treatment. As a result, mixed oxides derived from hydrotalcite treated with ultrasonic show more developed pore structure which is good for the physical adsorption of gaseous pollutant. The result of desulfuration test showed that removal efficiency of COS on the NiAl mixed oxides prepared by ultrasonic method (30min) is greater than that on the catalyst prepared without the ultrasonic irradiation assistance with the same aging time. One important reason for the high activity is that when the ultrasonic is used the number of weak basic sites (OH(-) groups) and moderate basic sites (M-O) was increased, whereas the number of strong basic sites (O(2-)) was decreased. Therefore, ultrasonic treatment promoted the COS hydrolysis and suppress the poisoning of the catalyst.

  5. Near-infrared absorptance enhancement and device application of nanostructured black silicon fabricated by metal-assist chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lieyun; Zhong, Hao; Liao, Naiman; Long, Fei; Guo, Guohui; Li, Wei

    2016-11-01

    We use metal-assist chemical etching (MCE) method to fabricate nanostructured black silicon on the surface of C-Si. In our MCE process, a chemical reduction reaction of silver cation (Ag+) will happen on the surface of silicon substrate, and at the same time the silicon atoms around Ag particles are oxidized and dissolved, generating nanopores and finally forming a layer called black silicon on the top of the substrates. The nanopores have diameter and depth of about 400 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Furthermore, these modified surfaces show higher light absorptance in near-infrared range (800 to 2500 nm) compared to that of C-Si with polished surfaces, and the maximum light absorptance increases significantly up to 95% in the wavelength region of 400 to 2500 nm. The Si-PIN photoelectronic detector based on this type of black silicon, in which the black silicon layer is directly set as the photosensitive surface, has a substantial increase in responsivity with about 80 nm red shift of peak responsivity, particularly at near-infrared wavelengths, rising to 0.57 A/W at 1060 nm and 0.37 A/W at 1100 nm, respectively. Our recent novel results clearly indicate that nanostructured black silicon made by MCE has a potential application in near-infrared photoelectronic detectors.

  6. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  7. Gold nanoparticles assisted surface enhanced Raman scattering and luminescence of Er{sup 3+} doped zinc–sodium tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshal, S.K.; Awang, Asmahani, E-mail: asmahani_awang@yahoo.com; Sahar, M.R.; Arifin, R.

    2015-03-15

    Significant enhancements in Er{sup 3+} luminescence and Raman intensity mediated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded zinc–sodium tellurite glass are reported. The observed modifications in the physical and spectroscopic properties are ascribed to the alterations in the glass network. XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature of prepared glass sample. UV–vis-NIR spectra reveal seven absorption bands. Surface plasmon band is evidenced around 626–630 nm. TEM images manifest the growth of non-spherical Au NPs with average diameter between ∼7.2 nm and 8.6 nm. The visible up-conversion (UC) emission for all samples under 779 nm excitation exhibits three bands centered at 503 nm (green), 546 (green) and 637 nm (red) ascribed to {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transitions. Glass sample with 0.4 mol% Au displaying the highest luminescence intensity with enhancement factor of 3.85 and 3.56 for green bands, and 7.61 for the red band is ascribed to the NPs local field enhancement and energy transfer between rare earth (RE) ions and NPs. FTIR spectra show the vibration of ZnO{sub 4} bonds, Te-O bond in TeO{sub 3} (tp) and TeO{sub 4} (tbp) units and the hydroxyl groups. Raman spectra demonstrate the presence of Er-O and Zn-O bond, anti-symmetric vibrations of Te-O-Te bonds and stretching modes of non-bonded oxygen exists in TeO{sub 3} and TeO{sub 3+1} unit. The amplifications in Raman signals by a factor of 1.62, 1.58, 1.64, 1.68 and 1.69 corresponding to the peak centered at 262 cm{sup −1}, 382 cm{sup −1}, 521 cm{sup −1}, 670 cm{sup −1} and 725 cm{sup −1} are attributed to the contribution of a surface plasmon generating a strong, localized and secondary field. We assert that our glass compositions offer favorable potential to develop solid state lasers and other versatile nanophotonic devices. - Highlights: • Gold

  8. Genetic expression programming-based DBA for enhancing peer-assisted music-on-demand service in EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Andrew Tanny; Hwang, I.-Shyan; Nikoukar, AliAkbar; Lee, Jhong-Yue

    2015-03-01

    Today, the popularity of peer-assisted music-on-demand (MoD) has increased significantly worldwide. This service allows users to access large music library tracks, listen to music, and share their playlist with other users. Unlike the conventional voice traffic, such an application maintains music quality that ranges from 160 kbps to 320 kbps, which most likely consumes more bandwidth than other traffics. In the access network, Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) is one of the best candidates for delivering such a service because of being cost-effective and with high bandwidth. To maintain music quality, a stutter needs to be prevented because of either network effects or when the due user was not receiving enough resources to play in a timely manner. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two genetic expression programming (GEP)-based dynamic bandwidth allocations (DBAs). The first DBA is a generic DBA that aims to find an optimum formula for voice, video, and data services. The second DBA aims to find optimum formulas so that Optical Line Terminal (OLT) can satisfy not only the voice and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) MoD traffics but also reduce the stutter. Optical Network Unit (ONU) traits such as REPORT and GATE messages, cycle time, and mean packet delay are set to be predictor variables. Simulation results show that our proposed DBAs can satisfy the voice and P2P MoD services packet delay and monitor other overall system performances such as expedited forwarding (EF) jitter, packet loss, bandwidth waste, and system throughputs.

  9. Enhancing patient safety: the importance of direct supervision for avoiding medication errors and near misses by undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Moxham, Lorna; Happell, Brenda

    2010-06-01

    Medication errors have been the focus of considerable research attention in nursing; however, the extent to which nursing students might contribute to errors has not been researched. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with undergraduate nursing students based in a university in Queensland to explore their experiences of administering medication in the clinical setting. Almost a third of the participants reported making an actual medication error or a near miss. Where medication errors occurred, participants described not receiving direct and appropriate supervision by a registered nurse. Medication errors by nursing students have the potential to impact significantly on patient safety, quality of health care, and on nursing students' perceptions of their professional competence. Ensuring direct supervision is provided at all times must become an urgent priority for undergraduate nursing education.

  10. SU-E-T-599: Patient Safety Enhancements Through a Study of R&V System Override Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, K; Vimolchalao, S [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Record and verify (R&V) software systems include safety checks that compare actual machine parameters with prescribed values for a patient’s treatment, such as treatment couch position, linac, energy, and MUs. The therapist is warned of a mismatch with a pop-up and prompted to approve an override in order to continue without changes. Override approval is often legitimate, but the pop-up can also genuinely indicate a problem that would Result in the wrong treatment. When there are numerous pop-up warnings, human nature leads us to approve any override without careful reading, undermining the effectiveness of the safety mechanism. Methods: Override data was collected from our R&V system for all patients treated between October 8 and 29, 2012, on four linacs and entered into a spreadsheet. Additional data collected included treatment technique, disease site, immobilization, time, linac, and whether localization images were obtained. Data were analyzed using spreadsheet tools to reveal trends, patterns and associations that might suggest appropriate process changes that could decrease the total number of overrides. Results: 76 out of 113 patients had overrides. Out of the 944 treatments, 599 override items were generated. The majority were due to couch positions. 74 of the 84 overrides on a linac equipped with a 6D couch were due to the use of the rotational corrections and the fact that the 6D couch control does not communicate with the R&V system; translations required to rotate the couch appear to the R&V system as translations outside the tolerance range. Conclusion: Many findings were interesting but did not suggest a process change. Proposed process changes include creating site-specific instead of just technique-specific tolerance tables for couch shifts. Proposed improvements to the vendor are to facilitate direct communication between the 6D couch and the R&V system to eliminate those override warnings related to lack of communication.

  11. Refinement and growth enhancement of Al2Cu phase during magnetic field assisting directional solidification of hypereutectic Al-Cu alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang; Yue, Sheng; Fautrelle, Yves; Lee, Peter D.; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how the magnetic fields affect the formation of reinforced phase during solidification is crucial to tailor the structure and therefor the performance of metal matrix in situ composites. In this study, a hypereutectic Al-40 wt.%Cu alloy has been directionally solidified under various axial magnetic fields and the morphology of Al2Cu phase was quantified in 3D by means of high resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. With rising magnetic fields, both increase of Al2Cu phase’s total volume and decrease of each column’s transverse section area were found. These results respectively indicate the growth enhancement and refinement of the primary Al2Cu phase in the magnetic field assisting directional solidification. The thermoelectric magnetic forces (TEMF) causing torque and dislocation multiplication in the faceted primary phases were thought dedicate to respectively the refinement and growth enhancement. To verify this, a real structure based 3D simulation of TEMF in Al2Cu column was carried out, and the dislocations in the Al2Cu phase obtained without and with a 10T high magnetic field were analysed by the transmission electron microscope.

  12. Large-area one-step assembly of three-dimensional porous metal micro/nanocages by ethanol-assisted femtosecond laser irradiation for enhanced antireflection and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Li, Jiawen; Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei; Li, Xiaohong; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Wu, Dong

    2015-01-14

    The capability to realize 2D-3D controllable metallic micro/nanostructures is of key importance for various fields such as plasmonics, electronics, bioscience, and chemistry due to unique properties such as electromagnetic field enhancement, catalysis, photoemission, and conductivity. However, most of the present techniques are limited to low-dimension (1D-2D), small area, or single function. Here we report the assembly of self-organized three-dimensional (3D) porous metal micro/nanocages arrays on nickel surface by ethanol-assisted femtosecond laser irradiation. The underlying formation mechanism was investigated by a series of femtosecond laser irradiation under exposure time from 5 to 30 ms. We also demonstrate the ability to control the size of micro/nanocage arrays from 0.8 to 2 μm by different laser pulse energy. This method features rapidness (∼10 min), simplicity (one-step process), and ease of large-area (4 cm(2) or more) fabrication. The 3D cagelike micro/nanostructures exhibit not only improved antireflection from 80% to 7% but also enhanced hydrophobicity from 98.5° to 142° without surface modification. This simple technique for 3D large-area controllable metal microstructures will find great potential applications in optoelectronics, physics, and chemistry.

  13. Solvent-enhanced microwave-assisted derivatization following solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of amphetamines in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Li-Wen; Liu, Geng-Jhih; Li, Zu-Guang; Chang, Yan-Zin; Lee, Maw-Rong

    2008-10-15

    An approach using microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) following solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine amphetamines in urine samples. The parameters affecting the derivatization efficiency - including microwave power and irradiation time - were investigated. Besides, solvent is thought critically important to MAD. Derivatization performance was studied using various solvents and compared with the performance obtained without solvent. Derivatization efficiency was clearly found to be enhanced by the presence of solvent. The highest derivatization efficiencies were obtained in ethyl acetate (EA) under microwave power of 250W for 1min. Calibration curves for all amphetamines were linear over a range from 1 to 1000ng/mL, with correlation coefficients above 0.9992. The intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 15%. The applicability of the method was tested by analyzing amphetamine-abusing subjects urine samples. Accordingly, the solvent-enhanced MAD-GC-MS method appears to be adequate for determining amphetamines in urine.

  14. Enhanced visualization of small peptides absorbed in rat small intestine by phytic-acid-aided matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong-Min; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Yoshii, Saori; Mine, Yoshinori; Matsui, Toshiro

    2013-11-05

    Enhanced visualization of small peptides absorbed through a rat intestinal membrane was achieved by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) with the aid of phytic acid as a matrix additive. Penetrants through intestinal peptide transporter 1, i.e., glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar, 147.1 m/z) and antihypertensive dipeptide, Val-Tyr (281.2 m/z), were chosen for MALDI-IMS. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of dipeptides Gly-Sar and Val-Tyr were seen to increase by 2.4- and 8.0-fold, respectively, when using a 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) matrix containing 5.0 mM phytic acid, instead of the THAP matrix alone. Owing to the phytic-acid-aided MALDI-IMS method, Gly-Sar and Val-Tyr absorbed in the rat intestinal membrane were successfully visualized. The proposed imaging method also provided useful information on intestinal peptide absorption; to some extent, Val-Tyr was rapidly hydrolyzed to Tyr by peptidases located at the intestinal microvillus during the absorption process. In conclusion, the strongly acidic additive, phytic acid, is beneficial for enhancing the visualization of small peptides using MALDI-IMS, owing to the suppression of ionization-interfering salts in the tissue.

  15. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Many K Thandavan

    Full Text Available Vapor phase transport (VPT assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures (NSs. The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Photoluminescence (PL properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni, oxygen interstitials (Oi, zinc vacancy (Vzn, singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-, oxygen vacancy (Vo, singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+ and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  16. Enhanced Photoluminescence and Raman Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Nanostructures Prepared Using Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methanol Assisted with Heated Brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K.; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md. Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs. PMID:25756598

  17. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  18. Development of a home-made extraction device for vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction with lighter than water organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Wen-ting; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2013-07-26

    We have developed a novel vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction using the low density solvent for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in water samples. The key point of this method is the application of a special home-made extraction device. The influence parameters relevant to this method were systemically investigated and the optimum conditions were as follow: 35μL of toluene was used as extraction solvent and 0.2mmol L-1 Triton X-100 was chosen as the surfactant to enhance the emulsification. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detections (LODs) of the method was ranged between 0.01 and 0.05μgL(-1) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.9-8.1%. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1-50.0μgL(-1), with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9949 to 0.9991. Finally, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides in river, reservoir and well water samples with recoveries between 82.1% and 98.7%.

  19. Vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of triazine herbicides in water samples by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran-Hong; Liu, Dong-Hui; Yang, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Peng

    2012-07-01

    A novel method based on the combination of microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) and vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction (VSLLME) was developed for the determination of five triazine herbicides (simazine, atrazine, ametryn, prometryn, and terbutryn) in water samples. The five triazine herbicides were baseline separated by using the microemulsion buffer containing a 10 mmol/L borate buffer at pH 9.5, 2.5% (w/v) SDS as surfactant, 0.8% (w/v) ethyl acetate as oil phase, and 6.0% (w/v) 1-butanol as cosurfactant. The optimum extraction conditions of VSLLME were as follows: 100 μL chloroform was used as extraction solvent, 5.0 × 10⁻⁵ mol/L Tween-20 was chosen as the surfactant to enhance the emulsification, and the extraction process was carried out by vortex mixing for 3 min. Under these optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 2.0-200.0 ng/mL, with the correlation coefficients (r²) varying from 0.9927 to 0.9958. The detection limits of the method varied from 0.41 to 0.62 ng/mL. The purposed method was applied to the determination of five triazine herbicides in real water samples, and the recoveries were between 80.6 and 107.3%.

  20. Ionic liquid-assisted bidirectional regulation strategy for carbon quantum dots (CQDs)/Bi4O5I2 nanomaterials and enhanced photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mengxia; Xia, Jiexiang; Di, Jun; Wang, Bin; Yin, Sheng; Xu, Li; Zhao, Junze; Li, Huaming

    2016-09-15

    In this study, novel visible-light-driven carbon quantum dots (CQDs)/Bi4O5I2 material has been prepared via a reactable ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide ([Hmim]I) assisted bidirectional regulation solvothermal method. This is the first time for the preparation of CQDs/Bi4O5I2 material with halogen and CQDs bidirectional regulation at the same time. With CQDs modified on the surface of Bi4O5I2, fast transfer of photogenerated charges and low recombination of photo-induced electron-hole pairs facilitated the enhancement of photodegradation activity. At the same time, the introduction of CQDs made the electrons occupied in high-energy potential on the conduction band of Bi4O5I2 transfer to the reaction center CQDs and the molecular oxygen can be thus activated. The enhanced mechanisms for the active species (holes, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals) during the photocatalytic reaction under visible irradiation were analyzed using DRS analysis, electron spin resonance (ESR) technique and free radicals trapping experiments.

  1. SU-E-I-45: Feasibility for Using Iodine Quantification to Assist Diagnosis in Dual Energy Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y; Tsai, C [Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Cheung, Y [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Taoyuan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop quantitative calibration between image quality indexes and iodine concentration with dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) techniques and further serve as the assistance for diagnosis. Methods: Custom-made acrylic phantom with dimensions of 24×30 cm{sup 2} simulated breast thickness from 2 to 6 cm was used in the calibration. The phantom contained matrix of four times four holes of 3 mm deep with a diameter of 15 mm for filling contrast agent with area density ranged from 0.1 to 10 mg/cm{sup 2}. All the image acquisitions were performed on a full-field digital mammography system (Senographe Essential, GE) with dual energy acquisitions. Mean pixel value (MPV), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were used for evaluating the relationship between image quality indexes and iodine concentration. Iodine map and CNR map could further be constructed with these calibration curves applied pixel by pixel utilized MATLAB software. Minimum iodine concentration could also be calculated with the visibility threshold of CNR=5 according the Rose model. Results: When evaluating the DE subtraction images, MPV increased linearly as the iodine concentration increased with all the phantom thickness surveyed (R{sup 2} between 0.989 and 0.992). Lesions with increased iodine uptake could thus be enhanced in the color-encoded iodine maps, and the mean iodine concentration could be obtained through the ROI measurements. As for investigating CNR performance, linear relationships were also shown between the iodine concentration and CNR (R{sup 2} between 0.983 and 0.990). Minimum iodine area density of 1.45, 1.73, 1.80, 1.73 and 1.72 mg/cm{sup 2} for phantom thickness of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 cm were calculated based on Rose’s visualization criteria. Conclusion: Quantitative calibration between image quality indexes and iodine concentrations may further serving as the assistance for analyzing contrast enhancement for patient

  2. Tailoring the surface properties of polypropylene films through cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization and immobilization of biomolecules for enhancement of anti-coagulation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K.; Ram Kumar, M. C.; Arun Kumar, A.; Padmanabhan, P. V. A.; Deshmukh, R. R.; Bah, M.; Ismat Shah, S.; Su, Pi-Guey; Halleluyah, M.; Halim, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Enhancement of anti-thrombogenic properties of polypropylene (PP) to avert the adsorption of plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin), adhesion and activation of the platelets are very important for vast biomedical applications. The cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization has potential to create the specific functional groups such as Osbnd Cdbnd O, Cdbnd O, Csbnd N and Ssbnd S. on the surface of polymeric films using selective precursor in vapour phase to enhance anti-thrombogenic properties. Such functionalized polymeric surfaces would be suitable for various biomedical applications especially to improve the blood compatibility. The eventual aspiration of the present investigation is to develop the biofunctional coating onto the surface of PP films using acrylic acid (AAc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a precursor in a vapour phase by incorporating specific functional groups for immobilization of biomolecules such as heparin (HEP), chitosan (CHI) and insulin (INS) on the surface of plasma modified PP films. The surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition, surface topography of the surface modified PP films were analyzed by contact angle (CA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore the anti-thrombogenic properties of the surface modified PP films were studied by in vitro tests which include platelet adhesion and protein adsorption analysis. It was found that the anti-thrombogenic properties of the PP films are effectively controlled by the CAPP grafting of AAc and PEG followed by immobilization of biomolecules of heparin, chitosan and insulin. The grafting and immobilization was confirmed by FTIR and XPS through the recognition of specific functional groups such as COOH, Csbnd O, Ssbnd S and Csbnd N. on the surface of PP film. Furthermore, the surface morphology and hydrophilic nature of the PP films also tailored

  3. Tailoring the surface properties of polypropylene films through cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization and immobilization of biomolecules for enhancement of anti-coagulation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K., E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T By Pass, Chinniyam Palayam (Post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Ram Kumar, M.C.; Arun Kumar, A. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T By Pass, Chinniyam Palayam (Post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Padmanabhan, P.V.A. [PSN College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli 627 152 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Bah, M.; Ismat Shah, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Su, Pi-Guey [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Halleluyah, M.; Halim, A.S. [School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed low cost cold atmospheric plasma reactor for plasma polymerization technique. • Surface of the PP film was modified by grafting of AAc and PEG by CAPP polymerization. • Biomolecules of chitosan, insulin and heparin were immobilized on surface of PEG-AAc grafted PP films. • The surface modified PP films were characterized by various techniques. • The plasma polymerized and immobilized film reveals substantial blood compatibility. - Abstract: Enhancement of anti-thrombogenic properties of polypropylene (PP) to avert the adsorption of plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin), adhesion and activation of the platelets are very important for vast biomedical applications. The cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization has potential to create the specific functional groups such as O−C=O, C=O, C−N and S−S. on the surface of polymeric films using selective precursor in vapour phase to enhance anti-thrombogenic properties. Such functionalized polymeric surfaces would be suitable for various biomedical applications especially to improve the blood compatibility. The eventual aspiration of the present investigation is to develop the biofunctional coating onto the surface of PP films using acrylic acid (AAc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a precursor in a vapour phase by incorporating specific functional groups for immobilization of biomolecules such as heparin (HEP), chitosan (CHI) and insulin (INS) on the surface of plasma modified PP films. The surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition, surface topography of the surface modified PP films were analyzed by contact angle (CA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore the anti-thrombogenic properties of the surface modified PP films were studied by in vitro tests which include platelet adhesion and protein adsorption analysis. It was

  4. Word processing as an assistive technology tool for enhancing academic outcomes of students with writing disabilities in the general classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, Orit E; Shrieber, Betty

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a word processor for enhancing the academic outcomes of three students with writing disabilities in a junior high school. A single-subject ABAB design was used to compare academic output produced during class time with and without a computer equipped with a word processor. The number of spelling errors, the number of reading errors, and the number of words used per text were counted, and the overall structure and organization of text were examined across all in-class materials. The data demonstrated a clear difference between handwritten and computer phases. In traditional paper-and-pencil phases, students produced outcomes that had more spelling mistakes, more reading errors, and lower overall quality of organization and structure in comparison with the phases in which a computer equipped with a word processor was used. The results did not indicate any noticeable difference in the number of words per text. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  5. Safety management of operative position of Da Vinci robot assisted gynecologic surgery%达芬奇机器人辅助下妇科手术体位的安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 于秀荣; 李秀丽; 吕从

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the safety management of the operative position of Da Vinci robot assisted gynecologic surgery, and make sure the operation is performed smoothly. Methods To summarize 46 cases of abdomen, pelvic surgery from Feb. 2014 to Dec. 2015 ,Da Vinci robot assisted gynecologicalop-eration in lithotomy position and analyze the related nursing factors, establish the guidelines of the safety management. Results 46 cases of gynecological surgery were carried out by Da Vinci robot successfully, no complications were reported in the following up procedure. Conclusions With the correct application of pos-ture display standard, Da Vinci robotic surgery system can be safely used in gynecological surgery.%目的:探讨达芬奇机器人辅助实施妇科手术时体位的安全摆放管理,保障手术顺利进行。方法总结2014年2月至2015年12月达芬奇机器人辅助实施妇科46例腹部、盆腔手术截石体位的安置,分析相关护理因素,为达芬奇机器人妇科手术体位安置制订安全防范措施。结果46例机器人辅助妇科手术均成功完成,术后随访均无并发症。结论规范应用体位摆放标准,达芬奇机器人手术系统可安全应用于妇科手术。

  6. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W. (eds.)

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects.

  8. Safety of meglumine gadoterate (Gd-DOTA)-enhanced MRI compared to unenhanced MRI in patients with chronic kidney disease (RESCUE study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deray, Gilbert [Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Nephrology, Paris cedex 13 (France); Rouviere, Olivier [Hopital E. Herriot, Universite de Lyon, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urinary and Vascular Imaging, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, faculte de medecine Lyon Est, Lyon (France); Bacigalupo, Lorenzo [E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Radiology Department, Genova (Italy); Maes, Bart [Heilig Hartziekenhuis Roeselare, Department of Nephrology, Roeselare (Belgium); Hannedouche, Thierry [University Hospitals, Department of Nephrology, Strasbourg (France); Vrtovsnik, Francois [Bichat Hospital, Department of Nephrology, Paris (France); Rigothier, Claire [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Nephrology Transplantation Dialysis, Bordeaux (France); Billiouw, Jean-Marie [Onze Lieve Vrouw Ziekenhuis, Department of Nephrology, Aalst (Belgium); Campioni, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Sant' Anna, Ferrara (Italy); Ferreiros, Joaquin [Hospital Clinico de San Carlos, Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Madrid (Spain); Devos, Daniel [Gent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gent (Belgium); Alison, Daniel [Trousseau Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tours (France); Glowacki, Francois [University Hospitals, Department of Nephrology, Lille (France); Boffa, Jean-Jacques [Tenon Hospital, Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Paris (France); Marti-Bonmati, Luis [University of Valencia, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    To prospectively compare the renal safety of meglumine gadoterate (Gd-DOTA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to a control group (unenhanced MRI) in high-risk patients. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) scheduled for MRI procedures were screened. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with an elevation of serum creatinine levels, measured 72 {+-} 24 h after the MRI procedure, by at least 25 % or 44.2 {mu}mol/l (0.5 mg/dl) from baseline. A non-inferiority margin of the between-group difference was set at -15 % for statistical analysis of the primary endpoint. Main secondary endpoints were the variation in serum creatinine and eGFR values between baseline and 72 {+-} 24 h after MRI and the percentage of patients with a decrease in eGFR of at least 25 % from baseline. Patients were screened for signs of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) at 3-month follow-up. Among the 114 evaluable patients, one (1.4 %) in the Gd-DOTA-MRI group and none in the control group met the criteria of the primary endpoint [{Delta} = -1.4 %, 95%CI = (-7.9 %; 6.7 %)]. Non-inferiority was therefore demonstrated (P = 0.001). No clinically significant differences were observed between groups for the secondary endpoints. No serious safety events (including NSF) were noted. Meglumine gadoterate did not affect renal function and was a safe contrast agent in patients with CKD. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear safety in perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, K.; Sjöberg, B.M.D.; Lauridsen, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicat-ing on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, wassupported by limited research in three sub......-projects: Risk assessment Safety analysis Strategies for safety management The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems forregulatory oversight are de-scribed in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other...

  10. ROBOTIC ASSISTANCE IN SPINE SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Konovalov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic assistance recently gains increasing popularity in spinal surgery. Robotic assistance provides higher effectiveness and safety especially in complex anatomy environment. 16 patients with degenerative disc disease were operated with robotic assistance device («SpineAssist»; MAZOR Surgical Technologies, Caesarea, Israel. The robot was used for automated intraoperative positioning of the instruments according to preoperatively planned trajectories. Robotic assistance enabled optimal screw placement even in complex anatomical cases (thin pedicles and rotational deformity. No implant-related complications were recorded.

  11. Improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries: Mixtures of ionic liquid and organic electrolyte with enhanced safety and electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerfi, A.; Dontigny, M.; Charest, P.; Petitclerc, M.; Lagace, M.; Vijh, A.; Zaghib, K. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, 1800 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2010-02-01

    Physical and electrochemical characteristics of Li-ion battery systems based on LiFePO{sub 4} cathodes and graphite anodes with mixture electrolytes were investigated. The mixed electrolytes are based on an ionic liquid (IL), and organic solvents used in commercial batteries. We investigated a range of compositions to determine an optimum conductivity and non-flammability of the mixed electrolyte. This led us to examine mixtures of ILs with the organic electrolyte usually employed in commercial Li-ion batteries, i.e., ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC). The IL electrolyte consisted of (trifluoromethyl sulfonylimide) (TFSI) as anion and 1-ethyl-3-methyleimidazolium (EMI) as the cation. The physical and electrochemical properties of some of these mixtures showed an improvement characteristics compared to the constituents alone. The safety was improved with electrolyte mixtures; when IL content in the mixture is {>=}40%, no flammability is observed. A stable SEI layer was obtained on the MCMB graphite anode in these mixed electrolytes, which is not obtained with IL containing the TFSI-anion. The high-rate capability of LiFePO{sub 4} is similar in the organic electrolyte and the mixture with a composition of 1:1. The interface resistance of the LiFePO{sub 4} cathode is stabilized when the IL is added to the electrolyte. A reversible capacity of 155 mAh g{sup -1} at C/12 is obtained with cells having at least some organic electrolyte compared to only 124 mAh g{sup -1} with pure IL. With increasing discharge rate, the capacity is maintained close to that in the organic solvent up to 2 C rate. At higher rates, the results with mixture electrolytes start to deviate from the pure organic electrolyte cell. The evaluation of the Li-ion cells; LiFePO{sub 4}//Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} with organic and, 40% mixture electrolytes showed good 1st CE at 98.7 and 93.0%, respectively. The power performance of both cell configurations is comparable up to 2 C rate

  12. Improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries: Mixtures of ionic liquid and organic electrolyte with enhanced safety and electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfi, A.; Dontigny, M.; Charest, P.; Petitclerc, M.; Lagacé, M.; Vijh, A.; Zaghib, K.

    Physical and electrochemical characteristics of Li-ion battery systems based on LiFePO 4 cathodes and graphite anodes with mixture electrolytes were investigated. The mixed electrolytes are based on an ionic liquid (IL), and organic solvents used in commercial batteries. We investigated a range of compositions to determine an optimum conductivity and non-flammability of the mixed electrolyte. This led us to examine mixtures of ILs with the organic electrolyte usually employed in commercial Li-ion batteries, i.e., ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC). The IL electrolyte consisted of (trifluoromethyl sulfonylimide) (TFSI) as anion and 1-ethyl-3-methyleimidazolium (EMI) as the cation. The physical and electrochemical properties of some of these mixtures showed an improvement characteristics compared to the constituents alone. The safety was improved with electrolyte mixtures; when IL content in the mixture is ≥40%, no flammability is observed. A stable SEI layer was obtained on the MCMB graphite anode in these mixed electrolytes, which is not obtained with IL containing the TFSI-anion. The high-rate capability of LiFePO 4 is similar in the organic electrolyte and the mixture with a composition of 1:1. The interface resistance of the LiFePO 4 cathode is stabilized when the IL is added to the electrolyte. A reversible capacity of 155 mAh g -1 at C/12 is obtained with cells having at least some organic electrolyte compared to only 124 mAh g -1 with pure IL. With increasing discharge rate, the capacity is maintained close to that in the organic solvent up to 2 C rate. At higher rates, the results with mixture electrolytes start to deviate from the pure organic electrolyte cell. The evaluation of the Li-ion cells; LiFePO 4//Li 4Ti 5O 12 with organic and, 40% mixture electrolytes showed good 1st CE at 98.7 and 93.0%, respectively. The power performance of both cell configurations is comparable up to 2 C rate. This study indicates that safety and

  13. Enhanced ultrasound-assisted degradation of methyl orange and metronidazole by rectorite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Na; Zhang, Gaoke; Guo, Sheng; Wan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the rectorite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/R) was synthesized through a reduction method. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the existence of the nZVI in the nZVI/R composite and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the nZVI particles were partly oxidized into iron oxide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the nZVI particles were highly dispersed on the surface of the rectorite. The specific surface area of the nZVI/R composite is 21.43 m(2)/g, which was higher than that of rectorite (4.30 m(2)/g) and nZVI (17.97 m(2)/g). In the presence of ultrasound (US), the degradation of methyl orange and metronidazole by the nZVI/R composite was over 93% and 97% within 20 min, respectively, which is much higher than that by the rectorite and the nZVI. The degradation ratio of methyl orange and metronidazole by the nZVI/R composite under US was 1.7 and 1.8 times as high as that by the nZVI/R composite without US, respectively. The mechanism of the enhanced degradation of methyl orange and metronidazole under US irradiation was studied. These results indicate that the US/nZVI/R process has great potential application value for treatment of dye wastewater and medicine wastewater.

  14. Molecular Marker Assisted Selection for Yield-Enhancing Genes in the Progeny of Minghui63 × O.rufipogon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue-guang; WANG Bin; DENG Qi-yun; LIANG Feng-shan; XING Quan-hua; LI Ji-ming; XONG Yue-dong; SUN Shi-mong; GUO Bao-tai; YUAN Long-ping

    2004-01-01

    Two yield-enhancing genes (yldl.1 and yld2.1) are located on chromosomes 1 and 2 respectively in a weedy relative of cultivated rice, Oryza rufipogon. SSR markers RM9 and RM166 are closely linked with the two loci respectively. Minghui63 (MH63) has been a widely used restoration line in hybrid rice production in China during the past two decades. The F1 of cross "MH63 × O.rufipogon" was backcrossed with MH63 generation by generation. RM9 and RM166 were used to select the plants from the progeny of the backcross populations. The results were as follows: (1) In BC2F1 population, the percentage of the individuals which have RM9 and RM166 amplified bands simultaneously was 12.2%, while in the BC3F1 population, that was 16.3%. (2) Among 400individuals of BC3F1, four yield-promising plants were obtained, with yield being 30% more than that of MH63. (3) The products amplified by primer RM166 in O. rufipogon and MH63 were sequenced. It was found that the DNA fragment sequence amplified by RM166 from MH63 was 101 bp shorter than that from O. rufipogon. The 101 bp sequence is a part of an intron of the PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) gene.

  15. Review of the safety, efficacy, costs and patient acceptability of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for injection in assisting ovulation induction in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Nahuis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marleen Nahuis1,2,3, Fulco van der Veen1, Jur Oosterhuis2, Ben Willem Mol1, Peter Hompes3, Madelon van Wely11Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (H4-205, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Free Medical University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Anovulation is a common cause of female subfertility. Treatment of anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or follitropin. FSH is derived from urine or is produced as recombinant FSH. Two forms of recombinant FSH are available – follitropin alpha and follitropin beta. To evaluate the efficacy, safety, costs and acceptability of recombinant FSH, we performed a review to compare recombinant FSH with urinary-derived FSH products. Follitropin alpha, beta and urinary FSH products appeared to be equally effective in terms of pregnancy rates. Patient safety was also found to be comparable, as the incidence of side effects including multiple pregnancies was similar for all FSH products. In practice follitropin alpha and beta may be more convenient to use due to the ease of self-administration, but they are also more expensive than the urinary products.Keywords: follitropin apha, follitropin beta, urinary gonadotropins, polycystic ovary syndrome

  16. Safety first

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, W.

    1997-06-01

    Expansion of international business opportunities for Canadian producers and service companies brings with it a dimension almost never considered on home base - security. It was pointed out that once abroad, safety and defence of people and equipment can become significant problems in many parts of the world. The nature of the security risks involved, and how best to deal with them, were discussed. The use of consultants, mostly foreign ones to date, and the kind of assistance they can provide, everything from written reports on the local situation to counter surveillance training, and bodyguard services, have been described. Examples of recent involvements with guerilla groups demanding `revolutionary war taxes`, kidnapping executives for ransom, due diligence investigations of potential partners, and the like, have been provided to illustrate the unique character of the problem, and the constant need for being alert, educated to risks, and being prepared to react to risk situations.

  17. Corrosion-Assisted Self-Growth of Au-Decorated ZnO Corn Silks and Their Photoelectrochemical Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Choi, Mingi; Baek, Minki; Deng, Zexiang; Yong, Kijung

    2017-02-01

    Modern nanotechnology generates more stringent requirements for the design and synthetic strategy of nanostructural materials. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy for the synthesis of "corn silk"-like ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, simplified as ZnO corn silk: silk-like ZnO nanotubes (NTs) with a large length-to-diameter ratio are grown on the top tip of corn-shaped ZnO nanorods (NRs). The synthetic method is unique in that when the ZnO NRs are dipped into the aqueous solution of NaBH4, the release of Zn(2+) and OH(-) caused by the corrosion of ZnO NRs, as well as the subsequent growth of ZnO NTs, could allow the process to run step-by-step in self-assembly mode. This process is directed and driven by the change in concentrations of hydrogen anion H(s)(-) induced by NaBH4, as well as hydroxyl ions (OH(-)) induced by the H(-) formation and hydrolysis of dissociative Zn atoms. The prepared ZnO corn silks exhibit highly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) efficiency after decoration with Au nanoparticles (NPs). ZnO silks act as pathways to facilitate efficient charge transfer, and the Au NP decoration induces the plasmonic effect, causing the hot electrons to inject into ZnO under visible illumination. At the same time, the formation of a Schottky barrier at the Au/ZnO interface can retard the electron-hole recombination. Overall, Au-decorated ZnO corn silk with an increased PEC efficiency represents a promising photoanode material, and the synthesis route developed in the current study is applicable to building hierarchical nanostructures of other materials.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of ion beam assisted silver nanosystems in silicon based materials for enhanced photocurrent collection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.

    In recent years a great deal of interest has been focused on the synthesis of transitional metal (e.g. Ag, Cu, Fe, Au) nanosystems at the surface to sub-surface regions of Si and SiO2 matrices for fundamental understanding of their structures as well as for development of technological applications with enhanced electronic and optical properties. The applications of the metal nanoparticle or nanocluster (NC) systems range from plasmonics, photovoltaic devices, medical, and biosensors. In all of these applications; the size, shape and distribution of the metallic NCs in the silicon matrix play a key role. Low energy ion implantation followed by thermal annealing (in vacuum or gas environment) is one of the most suitable methods for synthesis of NCs at near surfaces to buried layers below the surfaces of the substrates. This technique can provide control over depth and concentration of the implanted ions in the host matrix. The implanted low energy metal ions initially amorphizes the Si substrates while being distributed at a shallow depth near the substrate surface. When subject to thermal annealing, the implanted ions agglomerate to form clusters of different sizes at different depths depending upon the fluence. However, for the heavier ions implanted with high fluences (˜1x10 16 - 1x1017 atoms/cm2), there lies challenges for accurately predicting the distribution of the implanted ions due to sputtering of the surface as well as redistribution of the implants within the host matrix. In this dissertation, we report the investigation of the saturation of the concentration of the implanted ion species in the depth profiles with low energies (ProQuest.).

  19. Bio-template-assisted synthesis of hierarchically hollow SiO2 microtubes and their enhanced formaldehyde adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yao; Guo, Daipeng; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2013-06-01

    The indoor air quality is crucial for human health, taking into account that people often spend more than 80% of their time in houses, offices and cars. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a major pollutant and long-term exposure to HCHO may cause health problems such as nasal tumors and skin irritation. In this work, for the first time, hierarchically hollow silica microtubes (HHSM) were synthesized by a simple sol-gel and calcination method using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and bio-template poplar catkin (PC) as co-templates and the PC/SiO2 weight ratio R was varied from 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 1. The prepared samples were further modified with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and N2 physisorption techniques. This was followed by formaldehyde adsorption tests at ambient temperature. The results showed that all the prepared HHSM samples contained small mesopores with peak pore size at ca. 2.5 nm and large several tens of nanometer-sized pores on the tube wall. The R exhibited an obvious influence on specific surface areas and the sample prepared at R = 0.3 exhibited highest specific surface area (896 m2/g). All the TEPA-modified samples exhibited enhanced formaldehyde adsorption performance. The maximum HCHO adsorption capacity (20.65 mg/g adsorbent) was achieved on the sample prepared at R = 0.3 and modified by 50 wt.% TEPA. The present study will provide new insight for the utilization of bio-template used for the fabrication of inorganic hollow tubes with high HCHO adsorption performance for indoor air purification.

  20. Bio-template-assisted synthesis of hierarchically hollow SiO{sub 2} microtubes and their enhanced formaldehyde adsorption performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Yao; Guo, Daipeng; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com

    2013-06-01

    The indoor air quality is crucial for human health, taking into account that people often spend more than 80% of their time in houses, offices and cars. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a major pollutant and long-term exposure to HCHO may cause health problems such as nasal tumors and skin irritation. In this work, for the first time, hierarchically hollow silica microtubes (HHSM) were synthesized by a simple sol–gel and calcination method using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and bio-template poplar catkin (PC) as co-templates and the PC/SiO{sub 2} weight ratio R was varied from 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 1. The prepared samples were further modified with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and N{sub 2} physisorption techniques. This was followed by formaldehyde adsorption tests at ambient temperature. The results showed that all the prepared HHSM samples contained small mesopores with peak pore size at ca. 2.5 nm and large several tens of nanometer-sized pores on the tube wall. The R exhibited an obvious influence on specific surface areas and the sample prepared at R = 0.3 exhibited highest specific surface area (896 m{sup 2}/g). All the TEPA-modified samples exhibited enhanced formaldehyde adsorption performance. The maximum HCHO adsorption capacity (20.65 mg/g adsorbent) was achieved on the sample prepared at R = 0.3 and modified by 50 wt.% TEPA. The present study will provide new insight for the utilization of bio-template used for the fabrication of inorganic hollow tubes with high HCHO adsorption performance for indoor air purification.

  1. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insert and remove Foley urinary bladder catheter Place pneumatic tourniquet Confirm procedure with surgeon Drape patient within ... Technology and Surgical Assisting (NBSTSA) offers the CertifiedSurgical First Assistant (CSFA) credential, and the National Surgical Assistant ...

  2. Managing the Cost of Enhanced Oil Recovery Gérer le coût de la récupération assistée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simandoux P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The drop in crude-oil prices has caused a worldwide slowing down of the growth of enhanced-recovery activities and a recentering on less costly processes. The technical costs of implementing such methods have diminished, mainly because of the decrease in the cost of services, but insufficiently to ensure the economic viability of many projects. Therefore, today even more than yesterday, it is of prime importance to search for all ways of reducing the cost of enhanced recovery. It is thus indispensable to improve our mastery of process, the knowledge and management of reservoirs, and to use the appropriate indicators to follow the evolution of costs. Likewise, synergisms resulting from the use of horizontal drain holes at the same time as steam or polymer flooding must be systematically sought for. Lastly, only sustained activity in the field of pilot projects can enable these goals to be reached. La baisse du prix du brut a provoqué au plan mondial un ralentissement de la croissance de l'activité de la récupération assistée et un recentrage sur les procédés les moins onéreux. Les coûts techniques de mise en oeuvre de ces méthodes ont diminué, essentiellement grâce à la baisse du coût des services, mais de façon insuffisante pour assurer la viabilité économique de nombreux projets. En conséquence, aujourd'hui encore plus qu'hier, il est de première importance de rechercher toutes les voies de réduction des coûts offertes par la récupération assistée. Dans ce sens, il est indispensable d'améliorer la maîtrise des procédés, la connaissance et la gestion des réservoirs, et de suivre avec des indicateurs appropriés l'évolution des coûts. De même, les synergies résultant de l'utilisation de drains horizontaux simultanément avec une injection de vapeur ou de polymères doivent être systématiquement recherchées. Enfin, seule une activité soutenue en terme de pilotes peut permettre d'atteindre ces objectifs.

  3. 77 FR 33495 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of MACOSH..., Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, authorized the preparation of this...

  4. 77 FR 43616 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nominations to serve on NACOSH. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and...

  5. 76 FR 60085 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nominations to serve on NACOSH. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and...

  6. Ultrasensitive, Specific, Recyclable, and Reproducible Detection of Lead Ions in Real Systems through a Polyadenine-Assisted, Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Silicon Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Wang, Houyu; Jiang, Xiangxu; Sun, Bin; Song, Bin; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2016-04-05

    It is of great significance to accurately and reliably detect trace lead(II) (Pb(2+)) ions, preferably at sub-nM level due to the possible long-term accumulation of Pb(2+) in the human body, which may cause serious threats to human health. However, a suitable Pb(2+) sensor meeting the demands is still scanty. Herein, we develop a polyadenine-assisted, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) silicon chip (0.5 cm × 0.5 cm) composed of core (Ag)-satellite (Au) nanoparticles (Ag-Au NPs)-decorated silicon wafers (Ag-Au NPs@Si) for high-performance Pb(2+) detection. Typically, strong SERS signals could be measured when DNAzyme conjugated on the SERS silicon chip is specifically activated by Pb(2+), cleaving the substrate strand into two free DNA strands. A good linearity exists between the normalized Raman intensities and the logarithmic concentrations of Pb(2+) ranging from 10 pM to 1 μM with a good correlation coefficient, R(2) of 0.997. Remarkably, Pb(2+) ions with a low concentration of 8.9 × 10(-12) M can be readily determined via the SERS silicon chip ascribed to its superior SERS enhancement, much lower than those (∼nM) reported by other SERS sensors. Additionally, the developed chip features good selectivity and recyclability (e.g., ∼11.1% loss of Raman intensity after three cycles). More importantly, the as-prepared chip can be used for accurate and reliable determination of unknown Pb(2+) ions in real systems including lake water, tap water and industrial wastewater, with the RSD value less than 12%.

  7. Comparative safety and effectiveness of cognitive enhancers for Alzheimer's dementia: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Straus, Sharon E; Ashoor, Huda M; Hamid, Jemila S; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Majumdar, Sumit R; McAuley, Glenn; Tricco, Andrea C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and several organisations, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, suggest that management of patients with AD should be tailored to their needs. To date, little research has been conducted on the treatment effect in different subgroups of patients with AD. The aim of this study is to examine the comparative effectiveness and safety of cognitive enhancers for different patient characteristics. Methods and analysis We will update our previous literature search from January 2015 forward, using the same terms and electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE) from our previous review. We will additionally search grey literature and scan the reference lists of the included studies. Randomised clinical trials of any duration conducted at any time comparing cognitive enhancers alone or in any combination against other cognitive enhancers, or placebo in adults with AD will be eligible. The outcomes of interest are cognition according to the Mini-Mental State Examination, and overall serious adverse events. For each outcome and treatment comparison, we will perform a Bayesian hierarchical random-effects meta-analysis combining the individual patient data (IPD) from each eligible study. If the identified treatment comparisons form a connected network diagram, we will perform an IPD network meta-analysis (NMA) to estimate subgroup effects for patients with different characteristics, such as AD severity and sex. We will combine aggregated data from studies that we will not be able to obtain IPD, with the IPD provided by the original authors, in a single model. We will use the PRISMA-IPD and PRISMA-NMA statements to report our findings. Ethics and dissemination The findings of this study will be of interest to stakeholders, including decision makers, guideline developers, clinicians, methodologists and patients, and they will help to improve guidelines for the management of patients with AD

  8. Vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop combined with high performance liquid chromatography for determination of naproxen and nabumetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mohammad; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Abbasi, Bijan

    2015-12-18

    A novel, rapid, simple and green vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop was developed for simultaneous separation/preconcentration and determination of ultra trace amounts of naproxen and nabumetone with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Some parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of analytes such as type and volume of extractant, type and concentration of surfactant, sample pH, KCl concentration, sample volume, and vortex time were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graph exhibited linearity in the range of 3.0-300.0ngL(-1) for naproxen and 7.0-300.0ngL(-1) for nabumetone with a good coefficient of determination (R(2)>0.999). The limits of detection were 0.9 and 2.1ngL(-1). The relative standard deviations for inter- and intra-day assays were in the range of 5.8-10.1% and 3.8-6.1%, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of naproxen and nabumetone in urine, water, wastewater and milk samples and the accuracy was evaluated through recovery experiments.

  9. A novel ammonia complex-assisted ion-exchange strategy to fabricate heterostructured PdO/TiO2 nanorods with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Han, Qian; Cao, Lixin; Zhao, Fenghuan; Xia, Chenghui; Dong, Bohua; Xi, Yaoning

    2016-12-01

    Heterojunctions have been often employed to improve the photocatalytic behavior of titania-based materials. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to fabricate PdO/TiO2 heterostructured nanorods, as PdO was proved to be an efficient co-catalyst in photocatalytic reactions. Primarily, ammonia complex-assisted ion-exchange method was used to store Pd(II) ions in protonated titanate nanotubes, as which cannot be replaced by metallic cations via traditional route. Then, PdO/TiO2 heterojunctions formed through calcination in air, as nanotubes dehydrated and shrank into nanorods. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to demonstrate the formation of PdO component, and transmission electron microscopy was employed to prove the successful connection between TiO2 nanorods and PdO nanoparticles. Moreover, inductive coupled plasma proved excellent compositional gradient of Pd(II) in the PdO/TiO2 heterostructured nanorods. In the present work, the photocatalytic activities of PdO/TiO2 heterostructured nanorods were investigated by decoloring several dyes under UV illumination. Our research revealed appropriate PdO loading (1.0 wt%) enhanced photocatalytic performance compared with bare TiO2 nanorods, where PdO/TiO2 heterojunctions were responsible for the prohibitive photogenerated carries recombination.

  10. A cascade signal amplification strategy for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of thrombin based on DNAzyme assistant DNA recycling and rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fenglei; Du, Lili; Tang, Daoquan; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhang, Lixian

    2015-04-15

    A sensitive protocol for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of thrombin is designed with R6G-Ag NPs as a signal tag by combining DNAzyme assistant DNA recycling and rolling circle amplification (RCA). Molecular beacon (MB) as recognition probe immobilizes on the glass slides and performs the amplification procedure. After thrombin-induced structure-switching DNA hairpins of probe 1, the DNAzyme is liberated from the caged structure, which hybridizes with the MB for cleavage of the MB in the presence of cofactor Zn(2+) and initiates the DNA recycling process, leading to the cleavage of a large number of MB and the generation of numerous primers for triggering RCA reaction. The long amplified RCA product which contained hundreds of tandem-repeat sequences, which can bind with oligonucleotide functionalized Ag NPs reporters. The attached signal tags can be easily read out by SERS. Because of the cascade signal amplification, these newly designed protocols provides a sensitive SERS detection of thrombin down to the femolar level (2.3fM) with a linear range of 5 orders of magnitude (from 10(-14) to 10(-9)M) and have high selectivity toward its target protein. The proposed method is expected to be a good clinical tool for the diagnosis of a thrombotic disease.

  11. Application of Optimized Vortex-Assisted Surfactant-Enhanced DLLME for Preconcentration of Thymol and Carvacrol, and Their Determination by HPLC-UV: Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Roosta, Mostafa; Khodadoust, Saeid; Daneshfar, Ali

    2015-08-01

    A novel vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (VASEDLLME-HPLC) was developed for the determination of thymol and carvacrol (phenolic compound). In this method, the extraction solvent (CHCl3) was dispersed into the aqueous samples via a vortex agitator and addition of the surfactant (Triton X-100). The preliminary experiments were undertaken to select the best extraction solvent and surfactant. The influences of effective variables were investigated using a Plackett-Burman 2(7-4) screening design and then, the significant variables were optimized by using a central composite design combined with desirability function. Working under optimum conditions specified as: 140 µL CHCl3, 0.08% (w/v, Triton X-100), 3 min extraction time, 6 min centrifugation at 4,500 rpm, pH 7, 0.0% (w/v) NaCl permit achievement of high and reasonable linear range over 0.005-4.0 mg L(-1) with R(2) = 0.9998 (n = 10). The separation of thymol and carvacrol was achieved in <14 min using a C18 column and an isocratic binary mobile phase acetonitrile-water (55:45, v/v) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The VASEDLLME is applied for successful determination of carvacrol and thymol in different thyme and pharmaceutical samples with relative standard deviation <4.7% (n = 5).

  12. PEG-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with enhanced selective adsorption properties for different dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Wang, Wei; Li, Feng; Khaimanov, Spartak; Tsidaeva, Natalia; Lahoubi, Mahieddine

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CFO NPs) are synthesized by a facile and polyethylene glycol (PEG) assisted hydrothermal method. In the synthesis of cobalt ferrites, PEG is used as a surfactant. The formation of single-phase spinel structure in the samples is confirmed by XRD patterns. TEM images show that the addition of PEG results in the decrease in the size of the CFO NPs. When the amount of PEG is lower than 2.4 g, the particle sizes decrease, then, further increasing the concentration of PEG in the solution, the particle sizes begin to increase, for much more PEG will cover onto the surface of the nanoparticles. Here, the existence of PEG on the surface of CFO NPs is confirmed from the characteristic bands of PEG in FTIR spectra. All the samples are ferromagnetic, and their saturation magnetization (Ms) decreases with the increase in PEG concentration. The as-synthesized samples show highly selective adsorption characteristics for organic dyes. Compared with methyl orange (MO) and methyl blue (MB) dyes, good adsorption performance of the PEG/CoFe2O4 nanocomposites for Congo red (CR) dye is presented. Moreover, the addition of PEG greatly enhances their adsorption capacity (qe) for CR. The corresponding adsorption behavior fits well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model. And the adsorption mechanism is investigated. This study suggests that the as-prepared products can be regarded as an excellent selective adsorbent to remove dyes from the wastewater.

  13. Gold-decorated titania nanotube arrays as dual-functional platform for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Syuhei; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurita, Masahiro; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Kawasaki, Hideya

    2014-06-11

    In this report, we demonstrate gold-decorated titania nanotube arrays (Au-TNA substrate) as a dual-functional platform for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The Au nanoparticles are grown on the substrate using vapor deposition of Au. The resulting substrates perform better than Au colloids in terms of the reproducibility of the SERS measurements, long-term stability of the fabricated structures, and clean surface of the Au. The nanostructure of the Au-TNA substrate was designed to optimize the SALDI-MS and SERS performance. Excellent reproducibility of the SERS measurements using the Au-TNA substrate was obtained, with a standard error less than 6 %. SALDI activity was also demonstrated for the same Au-TNA substrates. Finally, the Au-TNA substrate was used for combined SERS and SALDI-MS analysis (i) to discriminate the structural isomers of pyridine compounds (para-, meta-, and ortho-pyridinecarboxylic acid) and (ii) to detect polycarbamate, a dithiocarbamate fungicide. These results are difficult to obtain using either approach alone.

  14. 提高军用手持机续航能力设计%The Design of Enhancing the Endurance Strength of the Personal Digital Assistant for Military

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩霞

    2014-01-01

    The endurance strength of the power supply is one of the key targets for the design of the Personal Digital Assistant(PDA) for military. It directly concerns whether a PDA is available. In the instance of our finite electric capacity of batteries, the key of enhancing endurance strength of a PDA for military is to design of low-power PDA hardware platform which focus CPU selection, LCD selection, power chipset choice and the design of supply circuits, to use the technique of the dynamic power management, and to optimize software to the best of our ability, and so on.%电源续航能力是军用手持机设计的关键指标之一,它直接关系到一款手持机是否可用。在电池容量一定的情况下,提高军用手持机续航能力的关键是:设计低功耗硬件平台,重点考虑CPU选型、彩色屏幕选择、电源芯片选择和供电电路设计;采用动态电源管理技术;最大限度优化软件等。

  15. Docosahexaenoic Acid Conjugation Enhances Distribution and Safety of siRNA upon Local Administration in Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikan, Mehran; Osborn, Maire F; Coles, Andrew H; Godinho, Bruno MDC; Hall, Lauren M; Haraszti, Reka A; Hassler, Matthew R; Echeverria, Dimas; Aronin, Neil; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    The use of siRNA-based therapies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease requires efficient, nontoxic distribution to the affected brain parenchyma, notably the striatum and cortex. Here, we describe the synthesis and activity of a fully chemically modified siRNA that is directly conjugated to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the mammalian brain. DHA conjugation enables enhanced siRNA retention throughout both the ipsilateral striatum and cortex following a single, intrastriatal injection (ranging from 6–60 μg). Within these tissues, DHA conjugation promotes internalization by both neurons and astrocytes. We demonstrate efficient and specific silencing of Huntingtin mRNA expression in both the ipsilateral striatum (up to 73%) and cortex (up to 51%) after 1 week. Moreover, following a bilateral intrastriatal injection (60 μg), we achieve up to 80% silencing of a secondary target, Cyclophilin B, at both the mRNA and protein level. Importantly, DHA-hsiRNAs do not induce neural cell death or measurable innate immune activation following administration of concentrations over 20 times above the efficacious dose. Thus, DHA conjugation is a novel strategy for improving siRNA activity in mouse brain, with potential to act as a new therapeutic platform for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27504598

  16. Enhancing SafEty throughout conStruction uSing BiM/VDc%利用BIM与VDC加强施工安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卡尔拉·洛佩兹·德普尔托; 卡洛琳娜·M·克莱温格尔

    2012-01-01

      Construction jobsites are some of the most dangerous workplaces. According to the Bureau of Labor, in 2008 1005 fatalities resulted from construction accidents, and cost industry approximately$11.5 bil ion annual y. Many construction accidents could be avoided through better engineering and administrative controls, and improved safety training. 3D visualization and analyses are situated to play a critical role in enhancing safety. This paper discusses specific examples where BIM-enabled safety controls can be used to detect and alert designers and contractors to potential project hazards. If hazards are identified through simulation during the design phase, elimination and substitution of hazards may be substantial y less inexpensive and easier to implement. This paper discusses the use of BIM to enhance safety for construction workers, building users during renovations/expansions and building end-users. Using specific real-world examples this paper demostrates ways that BIM can be used to foresee potential construction hazards and motivates and informs future tool and process development.%  施工现场是最危险的一类工作场所。据美国劳工统计局统计,2008年,工程事故已导致1005人死亡,每年耗资约115亿美元。事实上,如果有更完善的工程与行政管控和施工安全培训,很多工程事故是可以避免的。三维可视化和分析在增强施工安全方面起着重要的作用。本文主要讨论了利用BIM支持的安全控制措施,监控潜在的工程危险,并列举了用以及时提醒设计人员和施工人员的实例。如果在设计阶段即可通过模拟发现潜在风险,那将会极大地降低解决风险或避免风险的成本,并且能够更容易地实施解决方案。本文讨论了BIM对项目改扩建期间加强施工人员、建筑物使用者以及最终用户等群体的安全问题所起到的积极作用。本文将采用实例来讨论利用BIM预测潜在

  17. Building an immune-mediated coagulopathy consensus: early recognition and evaluation to enhance post-surgical patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voils Stacy A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Topical hemostats, fibrin sealants, and surgical adhesives are regularly used in a variety of surgical procedures involving multiple disciplines. Generally, these adjuncts to surgical hemostasis are valuable means for improving wound visualization, reducing blood loss or adding tissue adherence; however, some of these agents are responsible for under-recognized adverse reactions and outcomes. Bovine thrombin, for example, is a topical hemostat with a long history of clinical application that is widely used alone or in combination with other hemostatic agents. Hematologists and coagulation experts are aware that these agents can lead to development of an immune-mediated coagulopathy (IMC. A paucity of data on the incidence of IMC contributes to under-recognition and leaves many surgeons unaware that this clinical entity, originating from normal immune responses to foreign antigen exposure, requires enhanced post-operative vigilance and judicious clinical judgment to achieve best outcomes. Postoperative bleeding may result from issues such as loosened ties or clips or the occurrence of a coagulopathy due to hemodilution, vitamin K deficiency, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC or post-transfusion, post-shock coagulopathic states. Other causes, such as liver disease, may be ruled out by a careful patient history and common pre-operative liver function tests. Less common are coagulopathies secondary to pathologic immune responses. Such coagulopathies include those that may result from inherent patient problems such as patients with an immune dysfunction related to systemic lupus erythrematosus (SLE or lymphoma that can invoke antibodies against native coagulation factors. Medical interventions may also provoke antibody formation in the form of self-directed anti-coagulation factor antibodies, that result in problematic bleeding; it is these iatrogenic post-operative coagulopathies, including those associated with bovine thrombin

  18. The use of matrix coating assisted by an electric field (MCAEF) to enhance mass spectrometric imaging of human prostate cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Han, Jun; Hardie, Darryl B; Yang, Juncong; Borchers, Christoph H

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we combined a newly developed matrix coating technique - matrix coating assisted by an electric field (MCAEF) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to enhance the imaging of peptides and proteins in tissue specimens of human prostate cancer. MCAEF increased the signal-to-noise ratios of the detected proteins by a factor of 2 to 5, and 232 signals were detected within the m/z 3500-37500 mass range on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and with the sinapinic acid MALDI matrix. Among these species, three proteins (S100-A9, S100-A10, and S100-A12) were only observed in the cancerous cell region and 14 proteins, including a fragment of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 2, a fragment of cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 19, 3 apolipoproteins (C-I, A-I, and A-II), 2 S100 proteins (A6 and A8), β-microseminoprotein, tumor protein D52, α-1-acid glycoprotein 1, heat shock protein β-1, prostate-specific antigen, and 2 unidentified large peptides at m/z 5002.2 and 6704.2, showed significantly differential distributions at the p < 0.05 (t-test) level between the cancerous and the noncancerous regions of the tissue. Among these 17 species, the distributions of apolipoprotein C-I, S100-A6, and S100-A8 were verified by immunohistological staining. In summary, this study resulted in the imaging of the largest group of proteins in prostate cancer tissues by MALDI-MS reported thus far, and is the first to show a correlation between S100 proteins and prostate cancer in a MS imaging study. The successful imaging of the three proteins only found in the cancerous tissues, as well as those showing differential expressions demonstrated the potential of MCAEF-MALDI/MS for the in situ detection of potential cancer biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Screening the bio-safety of wheat produced from pretreated grains to enhance tolerance against drought using physiological and spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Amal Fadl; Hassanein, Raifa Ahmed; Abo-Aly, Mohamed Mahmoud; Attia, Mohamed Said; Bakir, Esam Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    Drought is a serious abiotic stress, causes worldwide intensive reduction in crop growth and productivity. Plants in contrast to other organisms, do not enjoy the luxury of being able to change their environment or seeking shelters. In this investigation, wheat grains were pre-soaked for 12h in salicylic acid (SA) and/or thiourea (ThU) prior they were left to grow in dry land (40% field water capacity) until harvest. The bio-safety of the harvested wheat was deduced using technical physiological and spectral methods. The pretreatment using SA up to ( approximately 1.5mmol) viewed homologous protein profile and less flag leaf proline in comparison to the non-stressed wheat. In addition, SA-pretreatment has maintained 70% of the emission intensity of yielded grain. The spectra of FTIR were more or less similar in yielded grain and flag leaf in SA-pretreatment. On the other hand, ThU pretreatment induced varied protein profile, higher proline than normal, reduced the fluorescence emission intensity by 52%, and induced varied FTIR spectra. Pretreatment of SA not only has enhanced wheat productivity but also increased yield and straw productions even above the non-treated-non-stressed wheat plant. In contrast to ThU SA was considered safe for drought-stress alleviation in crop plant agriculture.

  20. On enhancement of safety culture construction and improvement of safety management%加强安全文化建设 提高安全管理水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵林

    2012-01-01

    通过分析阐明了安全文化建设对企业提高安全生产管理水平的重要性,就如何开展安全文化活动进行了探讨,并总结出安全文化建设的具体表现形式,以指导工程实践,确保生产过程中安全。%According to the analysis,the paper illustrates the importance of the safety culture construction for improving the management over the safety production in the enterprises,explores how to undertake safety cultural activities,and sums up the factual manifestation of the safety cultural construction,so as to direct the engineering practice and to ensure the safety in the production process.

  1. Microwave-assisted enhancement of milkweed (Calotropis procera L.) leaves as an eco-friendly source of natural colorants for textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaan, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naeem; Adeel, Shahid; Azeem, Muhammad; Tariq Javed, M; Raza, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Application of natural colorants to textile fabrics has gained worldwide public acceptance due to the hazardous nature of synthetic dyes. Present study investigated the microwave's mediated extraction of natural colorants from leaves of milkweed (Calotropis procera L.) as well as their application to cotton fabrics assisted with biochemical mordants. Dye extraction from C. procera leaves was carried out in various mediums (alkali and aqueous), and the extracted dye as well as cotton fabrics was irradiated with microwaves for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 min. Effect of various temperature regimes and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations was also evaluated on the color strength of dyed cotton fabrics. The results revealed that extraction of natural colorants was enhanced when microwave radiations were applied for 4 min by using alkali as an extraction medium as compared to aqueous one. Optimum dyeing of cotton fabrics was achieved by using NaCl at a temperature of 55 °C. Among the chemical mordants, iron was effective for better color strength when used as pre- and post-mordant. Among the studied bio-mordants, extract of Acacia nilotica bark significantly improved the color strength and fastness properties as pre-mordant and Curcuma longa tuber as post-mordant. It was concluded that extract of C. procera leaves was a potential source of natural colorants and a high level of dye was obtained upon irradiation of alkali-solubilized extract for 4 min. Application of NaCl at concentration of 3 g/100 mL and temperature treatment of 55 °C significantly improved the color strength of dyed cotton fabrics.

  2. Using Calculator-Assisted Instruction to Enhance Low-Achievers in Learning Number Sense: A Case Study of Two Fifth Graders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use calculator-assisted instruction to help two fifth-grade low-achievers learn number sense. The research process includes three stages: (1) pre-test interview to detect what kinds of number sense the students did not have; (2) calculator-assisted instruction to help them develop number sense; and (3) post-test…

  3. Curative Effect and Safety Analysis of Intravenous Introduction Dexmedetomidine Assist General Anesthesia%静脉注射右美托咪定辅助全身麻醉的疗效及安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严明; 周薇; 李祖阁; 李靖

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analysis of intravenous introduction dexmedetomidine clinical efficacy and safety of general anesthesia.Methods:60 patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cases each.Control group to give intravenous saline auxiliary anesthesia,the observation group was given intravenous introduction dexmedetomidine assist general anesthesia,comparing two drug sedative effects and adverse reactions.Results:Two groups of patients before anesthesia Ramsay score compared with no significant difference (P>0.05);Ramsay scale observation group patients were significantly higher than that of control group,significant difference (P0.05);给药5min和10min后,观察组患者Ramsay评分均显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组寒颤及苏醒期躁动的发生率显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:静脉注射右美托咪定辅助全身麻醉效果显著,不良反应少,安全可靠,值得在临床上应用和推广。

  4. Safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, L.J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  5. The role of assistance dogs in society

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their ‘owners,’ as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of a...

  6. Generation of a safety enhanced Salmonella Gallinarum ghost using antibiotic resistance free plasmid and its potential as an effective inactivated vaccine candidate against fowl typhoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Chetan V; Chaudhari, Atul A; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-02-19

    A safety enhanced Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) ghost was constructed using an antibiotic resistance gene free plasmid and evaluated its potential as fowl typhoid (FT) vaccine candidate. The antibiotic resistance free pYA3342 plasmid possesses aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase gene which is complimentary to the deletion of the chromosomal asd gene in the bacterial host. This plasmid was incorporated with a ghost cassette containing the bacteriophage PhiX174 lysis gene E, designated as pJHL101. The plasmid pJHL101 was transformed into a two virulence genes-deleted SG. The SG ghosts with tunnel formation and loss of cytoplasmic contents were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The cell viability of the culture solution was decreased to 0% at 24h after the induction of gene E expression by an increase in temperature from 37°C to 42°C. The safety and protective efficacy of the SG ghost vaccine was further examined in chickens which were divided into three groups: group A (non-immunized control), group B (orally immunized), and group C (intramuscularly immunized). The birds were immunized at 7d of age. No clinical symptoms associated with FT such as anorexia, depression and greenish diarrhea were observed in the immunized chickens. Upon challenge with a virulent SG strain at 3 week post-immunization, the chickens immunized with the SG ghost via various routes were efficiently protected, as shown by significantly lower mortality and post-mortem lesions in comparison with control group. In addition, all the immunized chickens showed significantly higher antibody responses accompanied by a potent antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative response along with significantly increased numbers of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes. Overall, our results provide a promising approach of generating SG ghosts using the antibiotic resistance free plasmid in order to prepare a non-living bacterial vaccine candidate which could be

  7. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  8. Assistive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  9. Putting Safety in the Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Jean O’Keeffe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS, patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a communicating builds knowledge, (b experiencing situations guides decisions, (c adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  10. Proton-conducting beta"-alumina via microwave-assisted synthesis and mechanism of enhanced corrosion prevention of a zinc rich coating with electronic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Brent William

    Proton Conducting beta-alumina via Microwave Assisted Synthesis. The microwave assisted synthesis of proton conducting Mg- and Li-stabilized NH4+/H3O+ beta-alumina from a solution based gel precursor is reported. beta-alumina is a ceramic fast ion conductor containing two-dimensional sheets of mobile cations. Na +-beta-alumina is the most stable at the sintering temperatures (1740°C) reached in a modified microwave oven, and can be ion exchanged to the K+ form and then to the NH4+/H 3O+ form. beta-phase impurity is found to be 20% for Mg-stabilized material and 30-40% for Li-stabilized material. The composition of the proton conducting form produced here is deficient in NH4 + as compared to the target composition (NH4)1.00 (H3O)0.67Mg0.67Al10.33O 17. Average grain conductivity for Li-stabilized material at 150°C is 6.6x10-3 +/- 1.6x10-3 S/cm with 0.29 +/- 0.05 eV activation energy, in agreement with single crystal studies in the literature. Grain boundary conductivity is found to be higher in the Li-stabilized material. A hydrogen bond energy hypothesis is presented to explain these differences. Li-stabilized NH4+/H3O + beta-alumina is demonstrated as a fuel cell electrolyte, producing 28 muA/cm2 of electrical current at 0.5 V. Mechanism of Enhanced Corrosion Prevention of a Zinc Rich Coating with Electronic Control. A corrosion inhibition system consisting of high weight-loading zinc rich coating applied to steel panels is examined. An electronic control unit (ECU) consisting of a battery and a large capacitor in series with the panel is shown to improve corrosion protection upon immersion in 3% NaCl solution. Weekly solution changes to avoid zinc saturation in solution system were necessary to see well differentiated results. The corrosion product, hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3) 2(OH)6] is observed to deposit within the pores of the coating and on the surface as a barrier layer. Simonkolleite [Zn5(OH) 8Cl2·H2O] is found to form in place of the original zinc particles

  11. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  12. Randomized Trials ans Self-Reported Accident as a Method to Study Safety-Enhancing Measures for Cyclists - two case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the safety impact of increased visibility of cyclists through two randomised controlled trials: permanent running lights on bicycles and a yellow bike jacket, respectively.......In this paper we describe the safety impact of increased visibility of cyclists through two randomised controlled trials: permanent running lights on bicycles and a yellow bike jacket, respectively....

  13. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the removal of bile duct stones: Data from a “real-life” multicenter study on Dilation-Assisted Stone Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, Roberto; Mocciaro, Filippo; Pallio, Socrate; Pecoraro, Giulia Maria; Tortora, Andrea; Zulli, Claudio; Attardo, Simona; Maurano, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report data on Dilation-Assisted Stone Extraction (DASE) use in clinical practice and its efficacy and safety trough three Italian referral centers for biliopancreatic diseases treatment. METHODS From January 2011 to December 2015 we collected data on 120 patients treated with DASE. Technical success was obtained when the endoscopist was able to place the balloon trough the papilla inflating the balloon until the final diameter for an adequate time (at least 30 s). Clinical success was obtained after complete stone removal (no remaining stones were visible at the cholangiogram). RESULTS Forty-nine male (40.8%) and 71 female (59%) were enrolled. The mean age was 67.8 years ± 15.7. The mean common bile duct (CBD) dilation was 19.2 mm ± 3.9 and the mean size of stones 15.8 ± 2.9. DASE was applied as first approach in 38% (62% after initial failure of stones extraction). Technical and clinical success was of 91% and 87% respectively. In those in which DASE failed alternative treatment were adopted. After DASE 18% of patients experienced a complication (bleeding 9%, pancreatitis 8%, perforation 0.8%). At univariable analysis, elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (P = 0.031), DASE as first approach (P = 0.032), and cannulation of major papilla followed by guidewire insertion (P = 0.004) were related to low risk of complications. Pre-cut was related to an increased risk of complications (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION DASE allowed a higher first-session success rate and can be consider a valid alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy not only for bigger CBD stones. PMID:27803771

  14. Real Estate Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Commercial Remote Sensing Program at Stennis Space Center assists numerous companies across the United States, in learning to use remote sensing capabilities to enhance their competitiveness. Through the Visiting Investigator Program, SSC helped Coast Delta Realty in Diamondhead, Miss., incorporate remote sensing and Geogrpahic Information System technology for real estate marketing and management.

  15. Enhanced Sonocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B by Graphene-TiO2 Composites Synthesized by an Ultrasonic-Assisted Method%Enhanced Sonocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B by Graphene-TiO2 Composites Synthesized by an Ultrasonic-Assisted Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lei; Trisha GHOSH; Chong-Yeon PARK; MENG Ze-Da; OH Won-Chun

    2012-01-01

    A series of graphene-TiO2 composites was fabricated from graphene oxide and titanium n-butoxide (TNB) by an ultrasonic-assisted method.The structure and composition of the nanocomposites were characterized by Raman spectroscopy,BET surface area measurements,X-ray diffraction,transmission electron microscopy,and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy.The average size of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the graphene nanosheets was controlled at around 10-15 nm without using surfactant,which is attributed to the pyrolysis and condensation of dissolved TNB into TiO2 by ultrasonic irradiation.The catalytic activity of the composites under ultrasonic irradiation was determined using a rhodamine B (RhB) solution.The graphene-TiO2 composites possessed a high specific surface area,which increased the decolorization rate for RhB solution.This is because the graphene and TiO2 nanoparticles in the composites interact strongly,which enhances the photoelectric conversion of TiO2 by reducing the recombination ofphotogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  16. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  17. Robotic-assisted thermal ablation of liver tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Yeong, Chai Hong [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging and University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University of Malaya, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Goh, Khean Lee [University of Malaya, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yoong, Boon Koon [University of Malaya, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ho, Gwo Fuang [University of Malaya, Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yim, Carolyn Chue Wai [University of Malaya, Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kulkarni, Anjali [Perfint Healthcare Corporation, Florence, OR (United States)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to assess the technical success, radiation dose, safety and performance level of liver thermal ablation using a computed tomography (CT)-guided robotic positioning system. Radiofrequency and microwave ablation of liver tumours were performed on 20 patients (40 lesions) with the assistance of a CT-guided robotic positioning system. The accuracy of probe placement, number of readjustments and total radiation dose to each patient were recorded. The performance level was evaluated on a five-point scale (5-1: excellent-poor). The radiation doses were compared against 30 patients with 48 lesions (control) treated without robotic assistance. Thermal ablation was successfully completed in 20 patients with 40 lesions and confirmed on multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT. No procedure related complications were noted in this study. The average number of needle readjustment was 0.8 ± 0.8. The total CT dose (DLP) for the entire robotic assisted thermal ablation was 1382 ± 536 mGy.cm, while the CT fluoroscopic dose (DLP) per lesion was 352 ± 228 mGy.cm. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) dose reduction found between the robotic-assisted versus the conventional method. This study revealed that robotic-assisted planning and needle placement appears to be safe, with high accuracy and a comparable radiation dose to patients. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear safety in perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K. [Karinta-Konsult HB (Sweden); Sjoeberg, B.M.D. [Norwegian Univ. of Scince and Technology (Norway); Larudisen, K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wahlstroem, B. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicating on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, was supported by limited research in three sub-projects: 1) Risk assessment, 2) Safety analysis, and 3) Strategies for safety management. The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems for regulatory oversight are described in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other industrial areas. Transparency and public participation are described as key elements in good risk communication, and case studies are given. Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment are described as important overall processes within which risk communication can take place. Safety culture, safety indicators and quality systems are important concepts in the nuclear safety area are very useful, but also offer important challenges for the future. They have been subject to special attention in the project. (au)

  19. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  20. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  1. SAFETY FIRST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring safety while peacefully utilizing nuclear energy is a top priority for China A fter a recent earthquake in Japan caused radioactive leaks at a nuclear power plant in Tokyo, the safety of nuclear energy has again aroused public attention.

  2. Hand Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  3. Safety Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Charles

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a day's accidents due to brake failure are increasing in a high margin, so safety has acquired a greater priority. In order to control this sudden brake failures we have modified the conventional braking systems in automobiles by adding an extra safety brake to the engine shaft. The idea of the work is to improve the safety parameters regarding the brakes. Engagement of the secondary brake without the assistance of driver is an advantage for this system. As it would make the vehicle to stop without any lag. A Hall effect sensor is used to detect the motion of wheel by noting the magnetic field. The signals given out from the sensor directs the microcontroller to operate the relay and hence to actuate the solenoid and thereby actuating the secondary brake.

  4. Grain Handling and Storage Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Jill, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural Health and Safety Fact Sheet AHS-02 Grain Handling and Storage Safety Jill Webster Ph.D., S. Christian Mariger, Graduate Assistant Agricultural Systems Technology and Education There are several hazards that should be considered when working with grain. Storage structures, handling equipment, and the grain itself have all caused serious injuries and deaths. Storage structures (bins, silos, and granaries), like all confined spaces, have significant hazards associated with them. Be...

  5. Capability enhancement and amputee care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The role of a rehabilitation and prosthetics assistance team in reconstruction operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Defining the role of the U.S. Army Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Assistance Team in reconstruction operations was a key component of this first of its kind Army Medical Department (AMEDD) mission in a combat theater of operations. In the tradition of civil-military operations, a five-man team trained 11 Iraqi rehabilitation and prosthetic providers on best clinical, technical, and business practices to manage the nation's growing amputee population. The team instructed, assisted, and supervised Iraqi clinicians in the delivery of prosthetic and rehabilitation services to 124 patients over 350 patient clinical visits. After a successful transition from Multi-National Force-Iraq oversight to the Iraqi Ministry of Defense (MoD), the premier prosthetics and rehabilitation clinic in Iraq now provides services to patients from current and past conflicts, including civilians and pediatric patients.

  6. Enhancing instruction in Fuels and Combustion Laboratory via a developed computer-assisted program for establishing efficient coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) fuel proportions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglaya, A.B. [La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of digital computation in Fuels and Combustion Laboratory experiments used by the senior students of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, De La Salle University-Manila, Philippines. One of the students' experiments involved the determination of the most efficient CDOM fuel proportion as alternative fuel to diesel oil for steam generators and other industrial applications. Theoretical calculations show that it requires tedious and repetitive computations. A computer-assisted program was developed to lessen the time-consuming activities. The formulation of algorithms were based on the system of equations of the heat interaction between the CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion and by applying the principles of mass and energy equations (or the First Law of Thermodynamics) for reacting systems were utilized. The developed computer-assisted program output verified alternative fuel selected through actual experimentation.

  7. Technical safety appraisal of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of one of a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of Department of Energy (DOE) operations (nuclear and non-nuclear) by the Assistant Secretary of Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H), Office of Safety Appraisals. These TSAs are one of the initiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE`s environment, safety, and health program. This TSA report focuses on the safety and health operations of the Nevada Operations Office (NV) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which was conducted concurrently, with and supporting a Tiger Team Assessment. The total effort of all the Tiger Team assessment, including environmental and manager evaluations, is reported in the Tiger Team Report, issued January 1990. The assessment of the NTS began November 5, 1989 with the briefing of the Tiger Team in Las Vegas at the Nevada Operations Office. The TSA team evaluation was conducted November 6--17, and November 26--December 1, 1989 at the NTS.

  8. Ionic liquid assisted chemical strategy to TiO2 hollow nanocube assemblies with surface-fluorination and nitridation and high energy crystal facet exposure for enhanced photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengli; Liu, Baocang; Wang, Qin; Gao, Yuxi; Shi, Ying; Feng, Xue; An, Xiaoting; Liu, Lixia; Zhang, Jun

    2014-07-09

    Realization of anionic nonmetal doping and high energy crystal facet exposure in TiO2 photocatalysts has been proven to be an effective approach for significantly improving their photocatalytic performance. A facile strategy of ionic liquid assisted etching chemistry by simply hydrothermally etching hollow TiO2 spheres composed of TiO2 nanoparticles with an ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate without any other additives is developed to create highly active anatase TiO2 nanocubes and TiO2 nanocube assemblies. With this one-pot ionic liquid assisted etching process, the surface-fluorination and nitridation and high energy {001} crystal facets exposure can be readily realized simultaneously. Compared with the benchmark materials of P25 and TiO2 nanostructures with other hierarchical architectures of hollow spheres, flaky spheres, and spindles synthesized by hydrothermally etching hollow TiO2 spheres with nonionic liquid of NH4F, the TiO2 nanocubes and TiO2 nanocube assemblies used as efficient photocatalysts show super high photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B, due to their surface-fluorination and nitridation and high energy crystal facet exposure. The ionic liquid assisted etching chemistry is facile and robust and may be a general strategy for synthesizing other metal oxides with high energy crystal facets and surface doping for improving photocatalytic activity.

  9. School Meal Programs: Few Instances of Foodborne Outbreaks Reported, but Opportunities Exist To Enhance Outbreak Data and Food Safety Practices. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyckman, Lawrence J.

    This report details a study by the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) of food safety in public schools. The study examined: (1) the frequency and causes of reported food-borne illness outbreaks associated with the federal school-meal programs; and (2) the practices that federal, state, and local governments, as well as other food…

  10. Using an Animated Case Scenario Based on Constructivist 5E Model to Enhance Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness of Electrical Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirca, Necati

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to get pre-service teachers to develop an awareness of first aid knowledge and skills related to electrical shocking and safety within a scenario based animation based on a Constructivist 5E model. The sample of the study was composed of 78 (46 girls and 32 boys) pre-service classroom teachers from two faculties of…

  11. 加强餐饮食品安全卫生监督工作的思考%Opinions on Enhancing the Dining Food Safety Health Supervision Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超

    2016-01-01

    In the dining food safety health supervision work, we should face the issues existing in the dining service food safety, take the opportunities of highly attention of party committees and governments at all levels , higher and higher ex-pectations of people and heavy-burden and long-way dining security, growing awareness of safety development, legal opera-tion, integrity management and strict management according to law, actively implement the supervision responsibility, estab-lish the supervision system, carry out the special examination, do a good job in activity security and promote various jobs in the dining service food safety health supervision.%在餐饮食品安全卫生监督工作中,要正视餐饮服务食品安全存在的问题,我们要把握各级党委政府重视空前、人民群众期望越来越高、餐饮安全保障任重道远的机遇,不断增强安全发展、依法经营、诚信经营和依法严管的意识,积极落实监管责任,建立监管制度,开展专项检查,搞好活动保障,推进餐饮服务食品安全卫生监督各项工作。

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1982 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W.J.

    1983-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1982 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Programs, Office of Operational Safety, and the Office of Nuclear Safety. The report is in three sections, introduced by blue divider pages, corresponding to the program elements: Technology Impacts, Environmental and Safety Engineering, Operational and Environmental Safety. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1982 on individual projects, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  13. Enhanced adsorption of chromium onto activated carbon by microwave-assisted H(3)PO(4) mixed with Fe/Al/Mn activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Yue, Qinyan; Mao, Yanpeng; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Lihui

    2014-01-30

    FeCl3, AlCl3 and MnCl2 were used as the assisted activation agent in activated carbon preparation by H3PO4 activation using microwave heating method. The physico-chemical properties of activated carbons were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption, Boehm's titration, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To investigate the adsorption performances of chromium onto these newly developed activated carbons, a batch of experiments were performed under different adsorption conditions: solution pH, initial Cr(VI) ion concentration, contact time and co-existing ions. The results suggested that carbon with MnCl2 as assisted activation agent displayed the highest BET surface area (1332m(2)/g) and the highest pore volume (1.060cm(3)/g). FeCl3, AlCl3 and MnCl2 had successfully improved Cr(VI) adsorption and activated carbon with FeCl3 as assisted activation agent exhibited the best uptake capacity. To study the transformation of Cr(VI) in adsorption process, total chromium in the aqueous solution was also recorded. The ratio of the amount of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) on each adsorbent was explained by XPS analysis results. Both the co-existing salts (Na2SO4 and NaNO3) demonstrated promoted effects on Cr(VI) removal by four carbons. The pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich equation displayed a good correlation with adsorption data.

  14. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sijo J Parekattil; Ahmet Gudeloglu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy,unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques.This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology.Today,we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology.Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields,such as ophthalmology,hand surgery,plastics and reconstructive surgery.The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor,improved stability,surgeon ergonomics,scalability of motion,multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views,enhanced magnification,and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously.This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery.It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures,such as vasectomy reversal,subinguinal varicocelectomy,targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE).

  15. Medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  16. Robust control design for active driver assistance systems a linear-parameter-varying approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gáspár, Péter; Bokor, József; Nemeth, Balazs

    2017-01-01

    This monograph focuses on control methods that influence vehicle dynamics to assist the driver in enhancing passenger comfort, road holding, efficiency and safety of transport, etc., while maintaining the driver’s ability to override that assistance. On individual-vehicle-component level the control problem is formulated and solved by a unified modelling and design method provided by the linear parameter varying (LPV) framework. The global behaviour desired is achieved by a judicious interplay between the individual components, guaranteed by an integrated control mechanism. The integrated control problem is also formalized and solved in the LPV framework. Most important among the ideas expounded in the book are: application of the LPV paradigm in the modelling and control design methodology; application of the robust LPV design as a unified framework for setting control tasks related to active driver assistance; formulation and solution proposals for the integrated vehicle control problem; proposal for a re...

  17. Boron nitride nanoplates supported zero-valent iron nanocomposites for enhanced decolorization of methyl orange with the assistance of ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yiming; Wang, Tianlin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, boron nitride nanoplates (BNNPs) supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was prepared through facile liquid-phase chemical reduction of ferric ion by borohydride under ambient conditions in the presence of BNNPs. The nZVI@BNNPs hybrids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and magnetic properties measurement. The hybrid material was evaluated for decolorization of a common azo dye, methyl orange (MO), with the assistance of ultrasonic irradiation. Results exhibited that a complete decolorization of 100 mg/L MO was achieved within 6 min using nZVI@BNNPs as the active material. Compared with bare nZVI and BNNPs, nZVI@BNNPs provided a faster reaction process for MO decolorization. The kinetic rate constants of MO decolorization reached 0.8175 min(-1) under ultrasound-assisted condition due to the synergistic effect of ultrasonic irradiation. Fluorescence spectrum experiment confirmed that hydroxyl radicals could be generated in the system combined nZVI with ultrasonic irradiation, and as a result, hydroxyl radicals would contribute to the decolorization process of MO.

  18. Effective learning techniques for military applications using the Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) enhanced Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMonica, Peter; Dziegiel, Roger; Liuzzi, Raymond; Hepler, James

    2009-05-01

    The Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) Program is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) research effort that is advancing technologies in the area of cognitive learning by developing cognitive assistants to support military users, such as commanders and decision makers. The Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Information Directorate leveraged several core PAL components and applied them to the Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS) so that users of this system can have automated features, such as task learning, intelligent clustering, and entity extraction. WebTAS is a modular software toolset that supports fusion of large amounts of disparate data sets, visualization, project organization and management, pattern analysis and activity prediction, and includes various presentation aids. WebTAS is predominantly used by analysts within the intelligence community and with the addition of these automated features, many transition opportunities exist for this integrated technology. Further, AFRL completed an extensive test and evaluation of this integrated software to determine its effectiveness for military applications in terms of timeliness and situation awareness, and these findings and conclusions, as well as future work, will be presented in this report.

  19. Section IV.D.3 for DOE 2013 Annual Report: Novel Phosphazene-based Compounds to Enhance Safety and Stability of Cell Chemistries for High Voltage Applications (INL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Harry W. Rollins; David K. Jamison; Fred F. Stewart; John Burba

    2013-09-01

    Electrolytes play a central role in performance and aging in most electrochemical systems. As automotive and grid applications place a higher reliance on electrochemical stored energy, it becomes more urgent to have electrolyte components that enable optimal battery performance while promoting battery safety and longevity. Safety remains a foremost concern for widespread utilization of Li-ion technology in electric-drive vehicles, especially as the focus turns to higher voltage systems (5V). This work capitalizes on the long established INL expertise regarding phosphazene chemistry, aimed at battery-viable compounds for electrolytes and electrodes that are highly tolerant to abusive conditions. This report showcases our 2013 work for the DOE applied battery research (ABR) program, wherein testing results are summarized for INL electrolytes and alternative anode materials.

  20. 46{sup th} annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2015). Key topics / Outstanding know-how and sustainable innovations enhanced safety and operation excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, Matthias [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). R and D; Hollands, Thorsten [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany). Reactor Safety Research Div.

    2016-01-15

    Summary report on the Technical Sessions ''Know-how, New Build and Innovations'' and ''Operation and Safety of Nuclear Installations, Fuel SA: WASA-BOSS + CESAM'' of the 46{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015. Other Sessions of AMNT 2015 have been covered in atw 7 to 12 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  1. Enhanced thermal safety and high power performance of carbon-coated LiFePO4 olivine cathode for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Dubé, J.; Dallaire, A.; Galoustov, K.; Guerfi, A.; Ramanathan, M.; Benmayza, A.; Prakash, J.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon-coated LiFePO4 Li-ion oxide cathode was studied for its electrochemical, thermal, and safety performance. This electrode exhibited a reversible capacity corresponding to more than 89% of the theoretical capacity when cycled between 2.5 and 4.0 V. Cylindrical 18,650 cells with carbon-coated LiFePO4 also showed good capacity retention at higher discharge rates up to 5C rate with 99.3% coulombic efficiency, implying that the carbon coating improves the electronic conductivity. Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) test performed on LiFePO4 18,650 cell indicated the suitability of this carbon-coated LiFePO4 for high power HEV applications. The heat generation during charge and discharge at 0.5C rate, studied using an Isothermal Microcalorimeter (IMC), indicated cell temperature is maintained in near ambient conditions in the absence of external cooling. Thermal studies were also investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC), which showed that LiFePO4 is safer, upon thermal and electrochemical abuse, than the commonly used lithium metal oxide cathodes with layered and spinel structures. Safety tests, such as nail penetration and crush test, were performed on LiFePO4 and LiCoO2 cathode based cells, to investigate on the safety hazards of the cells upon severe physical abuse and damage.

  2. Demonstration of a Safety Analysis on a Complex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy; Alfaro, Liliana; Alvarado, Christine; Brown, Molly; Hunt, Earl B.; Jaffe, Matt; Joslyn, Susan; Pinnell, Denise; Reese, Jon; Samarziya, Jeffrey; Sandys, Sean; Shaw, Alan; Zabinsky, Zelda

    1997-01-01

    For the past 17 years, Professor Leveson and her graduate students have been developing a theoretical foundation for safety in complex systems and building a methodology upon that foundation. The methodology includes special management structures and procedures, system hazard analyses, software hazard analysis, requirements modeling and analysis for completeness and safety, special software design techniques including the design of human-machine interaction, verification, operational feedback, and change analysis. The Safeware methodology is based on system safety techniques that are extended to deal with software and human error. Automation is used to enhance our ability to cope with complex systems. Identification, classification, and evaluation of hazards is done using modeling and analysis. To be effective, the models and analysis tools must consider the hardware, software, and human components in these systems. They also need to include a variety of analysis techniques and orthogonal approaches: There exists no single safety analysis or evaluation technique that can handle all aspects of complex systems. Applying only one or two may make us feel satisfied, but will produce limited results. We report here on a demonstration, performed as part of a contract with NASA Langley Research Center, of the Safeware methodology on the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) portion of the air traffic control (ATC) system and procedures currently employed at the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol). CTAS is an automated system to assist controllers in handling arrival traffic in the DFW area. Safety is a system property, not a component property, so our safety analysis considers the entire system and not simply the automated components. Because safety analysis of a complex system is an interdisciplinary effort, our team included system engineers, software engineers, human factors experts, and cognitive psychologists.

  3. Safety Instructions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Instructions N0 37 rev. 3 (IS 37 rev. 3) entitled ""LEVEL-3" SAFETY ALARMS AND ALARM SYSTEMS" Is available on the web at the following URL: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335802 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch TIS Secretariat

  4. Safety Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  5. Hearing Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  6. Oxygen-assisted enhancement of H atom UV-photogeneration from hydrocarbons in van der Waals complexes RH-O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexey V.; Bogomolov, Alexandr S.; Chikishev, Leonid M.; Bogdanchikov, Georgii A.; Kochubei, Sergei A.

    2013-02-01

    The strong enhancement of H-atom UV-photogeneration is revealed in van der Waals complexes of unsaturated hydrocarbons RH (RHdbnd ethylene C2H4, propylene C3H6, butadiene C4H6, butene-2 C4H8) with oxygen RH-O2 as compared with the ‘free' RH molecules. The results obtained indicate enhancement of H atom yield to be due to one-quantum photoprocess 1RH-3O2 + hν → 3RH∗ + 3O2(1O2) providing triplet RH molecules with excitation level sufficient for dissociation.

  7. Safety analysis procedures for PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Yoo, Kun Joong

    2004-03-01

    The methodology of safety analyses for CANDU reactors in Canada, a vendor country, uses a combination of best-estimate physical models and conservative input parameters so as to minimize the uncertainty of the plant behavior predictions. As using the conservative input parameters, the results of the safety analyses are assured the regulatory requirements such as the public dose, the integrity of fuel and fuel channel, the integrity of containment and reactor structures, etc. However, there is not the comprehensive and systematic procedures for safety analyses for CANDU reactors in Korea. In this regard, the development of the safety analyses procedures for CANDU reactors is being conducted not only to establish the safety analyses system, but also to enhance the quality assurance of the safety assessment. In the first phase of this study, the general procedures of the deterministic safety analyses are developed. The general safety procedures are covered the specification of the initial event, selection of the methodology and accident sequences, computer codes, safety analysis procedures, verification of errors and uncertainties, etc. Finally, These general procedures of the safety analyses are applied to the Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Wolsong units 2, 3, 4.

  8. Quantum sized Ag nanocluster assisted fluorescence enhancement in Tm{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} doped optical fiber beyond plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Rik; Haldar, Arindam; Paul, Mukul C.; Das, Shyamal; Bhadra, Shyamal K., E-mail: skbhadra@cgcri.res.in [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-12-07

    We report a process for enhancing fluorescence emission from conventional rare earth ions in optical fiber by metal nanocluster (MNC) in nonresonant indirect pumping. The process is completely different from formal metal enhanced fluorescence phenomenon as the MNCs are too small in size to support localized surface plasmon and the excitation wavelength is far from plasmon resonance frequency. We used an established theory of two coupled oscillators to explain the simultaneous enhancement of Ytterbium (Yb{sup 3+}) and Thulium (Tm{sup 3+}) emission by silver (Ag) NCs under nonresonant pumping in optical fiber. The fiber is pumped with a 980 nm fiber pigtailed laser diode with input power of 20–100 mW to excite the Yb{sup 3+}. Four times enhancement of Yb{sup 3+} emission of 900–1100 nm and Tm{sup 3+} upconversion emission around 474 nm, 650 nm, and 790 nm is observed in the fiber with Ag NCs.

  9. Ultrasond-assisted synthesis of Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell with enhanced adsorption capacity for diazinon removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmany, Abbas; Mortazavi, Seyede Shima; Mahdavi, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell nanocrystals were synthesized by ultrasond-assisted procedure. The core/shell nanocrystals were characterized using XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM and BET. The BET analysis confirmed that iron oxide nanocrystal with the surface area of 208.0 m2/g can be used as an excellent adsorbent for organic and inorganic pollutants. The core/shell nanocrystal was used as an adsorbent for removal of insecticide O,O-diethyl-O[2-isopropyl-6-methylpyridimidinyl] phosphorothioate (diazinon). In continue the influence of different parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage and shaking time on the adsorption capacity were studied. The experimental data were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2=0.9706). The adsorption isotherm was described well by Langmuir isotherm.

  10. MWCNT-Based Ag2S-TiO2 Nanocomposites Photocatalyst: Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization, and Enhanced Catalytic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotube based nanoscale Ag2S and TiO2 composites have successfully synthesized via a facile ultrasound-assisted method. The nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectra, BET surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The Ag2S-TiO2/CNT nanocomposites exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 for the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh.B under UV and visible light. The improved photocatalytic activities may be attributed to increased adsorbability of Rh.B molecules and increased charge transfer rate in the presence of a one-dimensional MWCNT network.

  11. Comparison of Conventional Microwave and Focused Microwave-assisted Extraction to Enhance the Efficiency of the Extraction of Antioxidant Flavonols from Jocote Pomace (Spondias purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Letícia C B; Carneiro, Larissa M; Branco, Carla R C; Branco, Alexsandro

    2015-06-01

    Jocote (Spondias purpurea L.) is rich in phenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. The focused microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) was compared with the conventional microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain flavonols from jocote pomace. The effects of parameters such as the extraction time, the temperature and the composition of the solvent mixture (i.e., the ethanol to water ration) were evaluated and optimized using a statistical experimental design approach. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the extractive yield and quantification of some flavonoids. In addition, the antioxidant activity was analyzed. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated according to the DPPH assay. The results showed that the optimum extracting parameters used FMAE with extraction time of 20 min, temperature of 68 °C and ethanol composition of 80% in water. Under these conditions, a yield of 3.42% was obtained. Rutin and quercetin were quantified (0.19 mg/mL and 0.024 mg/mL, respectively) through HPLC-DAD. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were found to be 0.897 g GAE/g and 1.271 g QE/g, respectively. In the DPPH scavenging assay, the IC50 value of the extract occurred at 43.10 μg/mL. This study shows that FMAE is suitable as an efficient extraction procedure for the extraction of flavonols from jocote pomace.

  12. Spin-dependent and photon-assisted transmission enhancement and suppression in a magnetic-field tunable ZnSe/Zn{sub 1–x}Mn{sub x}Se heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chun-Lei, E-mail: licl@cnu.edu.cn [Laboratory for Micro-sized Functional Materials, College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuan, Rui-Yang [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-01-07

    Using the effective-mass approximation and Floquet theory, we theoretically investigate the terahertz photon-assisted transport through a ZnSe/Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Se heterostructure under an external magnetic field, an electric field, and a spatially homogeneous oscillatory field. The results show that both amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory field can accurately manipulate the magnitude of the spin-dependent transmission probability and the positions of the Fano-type resonance due to photon absorption and emission processes. Transmission resonances can be enhanced to optimal resonances or drastically suppressed for spin-down electrons tunneling through the heterostructure and for spin-up ones tunneling through the same structure, resonances can also be enhanced or suppressed, but the intensity is less than the spin-down ones. Furthermore, it is important to note that transmission suppression can be clearly seen from both the spin-down component and the spin-up component of the current density at low magnetic field; at the larger magnetic field, however, the spin-down component is suppressed, and the spin-up component is enhanced. These interesting properties may provide an alternative method to develop multi-parameter modulation electron-polarized devices.

  13. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  14. Assistive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a number of assistive devices. These are tools, products or types of equipment that help you perform tasks and activities. They may help you move around, see, communicate, eat, or get dressed. Some are high-tech tools, such as computers. Others are much simpler, ...

  15. Teaching Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Jay M.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of teaching assistants (TAs) in the law school looks at the TA's cognitive and affective roles and effective ways to use TAs to reinforce usual forms of learning in the large class; introduce a broadened range of materials, skills, and learning methods; and transform the large class experience. (MSE)

  16. Artificial Luminal Narrowing on Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiograms on an Occasion of Stent-Assisted Coiling of Intracranial Aneurysm: In Vitro Comparison Using Two Different Stents with Variable Imaging Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Jee Hyun; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So Lyung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Myeong Jin; Shin, Yong Sam; Kim, Bum Soo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Intracranial stenting for stent-assisted coiling of aneurysms requires adequate follow-up imaging. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare in-stent artificial luminal narrowing on contrast-enhanced MR angiograms (CE-MRA) when applying Neuroform and Enterprise stents for stent-assisted coiling. Two intracranial nitinol stents (Enterprise and Neuroform) were placed in silicon tubes and then imaged at 3 T and 1.5 T by the use of a T1-weighted three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence with minimal TR and TE. CE-MRAs were obtained by using different imaging planes, voxel sizes, and bandwidths, and with or without parallel imaging. Artificial lumen narrowing (ALN) was calculated and the results were compared. Lower magnetic field strength, axial plane perpendicular to axis of stent, and wider bandwidth resulted in a lower ALN on CE-MRA for both stents. Larger voxel size resulted in lower ALN for Neuroform stent. The parallel imaging acceleration factor did not affect ALN. The mean ALN was lower for Neuroform, but it was not significant by a paired t test. CE-MRA of the stented lumen of vascular phantom was partially impaired with ALN. Consequently, image plane orientation, magnetic field strength, bandwidth, and voxel size should be adjusted appropriately to reduce ALN.

  17. Time-Resolved 3D Contrast-Enhanced MRA on 3.0T: a Non-Invasive Follow-Up Technique after Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of the Intracranial Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Roh, Hong Gee; Moon, Won Jin; Kim, Na Ra; Moon, Sung Gyu; Kang, Chung Hwan; Chun, Young Il; Kang, Hyun Seung [University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of time-resolved contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (4D MRA) after stent-assisted coil embolization by comparing it with time of flight (TOF)-MRA. TOF-MRA and 4D MRA were obtained by 3T MRI in 26 patients treated with stent-assisted coil embolization (Enterprise:Neuroform = 7:19). The qualities of the MRA were rated on a graded scale of 0 to 4. We classified completeness of endovascular treatment into three categories. The degree of quality of visualization of the stented artery was compared between TOF and 4D MRA by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. We used the Mann-Whitney U test for comparing the quality of the visualization of the stented artery according to the stent type in each MRA method. The quality in terms of the visualization of the stented arteries in 4D MRA was significantly superior to that in 3D TOF-MRA, regardless of type of the stent (p < 0.001). The quality of the arteries which were stented with Neuroform was superior to that of the arteries stented with Enterprise in 3D TOF (p < 0.001) and 4D MRA (p = 0.008), respectively. 4D MRA provides a higher quality view of the stented parent arteries when compared with TOF.

  18. Concepts and techniques: Active electronics and computers in safety-critical accelerator operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires an extensive Access Control System to protect personnel from Radiation, Oxygen Deficiency and Electrical hazards. In addition, the complicated nature of operation of the Collider as part of a complex of other Accelerators necessitates the use of active electronic measurement circuitry to ensure compliance with established Operational Safety Limits. Solutions were devised which permit the use of modern computer and interconnections technology for Safety-Critical applications, while preserving and enhancing, tried and proven protection methods. In addition a set of Guidelines, regarding required performance for Accelerator Safety Systems and a Handbook of design criteria and rules were developed to assist future system designers and to provide a framework for internal review and regulation.

  19. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir Back to School: Vaccines for Preteens Learn about the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and ... file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  20. Enhanced photoluminescence of CaTiO3:Eu3+ red phosphors prepared by H3BO3 assisted solid state synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Panpan; YIN Jing; MI Xiaoyang; ZHANG Lexi; BIE Lijian

    2013-01-01

    CaTiO3:Eu3+ red phosphors were prepared using H3BO3 assisted solid state synthesis.The structure and morphology of the obtained sample were observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).And the luminescence property was measured using photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra,respectively.In the excitation spectra,main excitation peaks of the prepared samples were centered at 397 and 465 nm,revealing that these phosphors could be excited by commercial GaN-and InGaN-typed light emitting diodes (LEDs).Dominant emission peaks of the phosphors were located at 616 nm,owing to the transition of 5D0→7F2 of Eu3+.In the optimum condition,CaTiO3:3%Eu3+ phosphor was obtained at a sintering temperature of 1200 C in air with a content of 20 mol.% H3BO3 addition.When excited by 397 nm irradiation,the PL intensity of as-prepared red phosphor was 2.2 times higher than that of samples obtained by traditional solid state synthesis,while the PL intensity was 3 times higher than that excited by 465 nm irradiation.The added H3BO3 improved the crystallinity,and increased the color purity,implying the potential to be a promising red phosphor in white light emitting diodes (WLEDs).

  1. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Cu/Cu2O hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic and gas sensing activities at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xinwei; Fan, Huiqing; Tian, Yuming; Zhang, Mingang; Yan, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Cu/Cu2O nano-heterostructure hollow spheres with a submicron diameter (200-500 nm) were prepared by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method using Cu(OAc)2·H2O, PVP and ascorbic acid solution as the precursors. The morphology of the products could evolve with the hydrothermal time from solid spheres to thick-shell hollow spheres, then to thin-shell hollow spheres, and finally to nanoparticles. Moreover, the content of Cu in the products could be controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal time. The spontaneous forming of the hollow structure spheres was found to result from the Ostwald ripening effect during the low temperature (100 °C) hydrothermal reaction process. The photocatalytic degradation activities on MO under visible-light irradiation and the gas sensing activities toward the oxidizing NO2 gas of different Cu/Cu2O nano-heterostructure hollow spheres were investigated. As a result, the Cu/Cu2O nano-heterostructure hollow spheres obtained at the hydrothermal time of 30 min, with a rough/porous thin-shell structure and a Cu content of about 10.5 wt%, exhibited the best photocatalytic and gas sensing performances compared with others.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of simonkolleite nanoplatelets on nickel foam-graphene with enhanced surface area for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamlich, S; Mokrani, T; Dhlamini, M S; Mothudi, B M; Maaza, M

    2016-01-01

    Simonkolleite (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) nanoplatelets has been deposited on nickel foam-supported graphene by using an efficient microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The three-dimensional (3D) porous microstructure of the as-fabricated nickel foam-graphene/simonkolleite (NiF-G/SimonK) composite is beneficial to electrolyte penetration and ions exchange, whereas graphene provide improved electronic conductivity. Structural and morphological characterizations confirmed the presence of highly crystalline hexagonal-shaped nanoplatelets of simonkolleite. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) of the NiF-G/SimonK composite revealed that the SimonK nanoplatelets were evenly distributed on the surface of NiF-G and interlaced with each other, resulting in a higher specific surface area of 35.69 m(2) g(-1) compared to SimonK deposited directly on NiF 17.2 m(2) g(-1). Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the NiF-G/SimonK composite exhibit a high specific capacitance of 836 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), and excellent rate capability and cycling stability with capacitance retention of 92% after 5000 charge/discharge cycles.

  3. Enhanced reliability of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho Bin; Sung, Haan Woo; Nho, Seong Won; Park, Seong Bin; Cha, In Seok; Aoki, Takashi; Jung, Tae Sung

    2011-03-01

    In-solution enzymatic and nonenzymatic digestion methods have been successfully implemented in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)-based virus identification, extending to typing/subtyping of deadly influenza viruses. However, these methods are inefficient in obtaining more precise information on surface proteins of myxovirus particles, not only the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza virus but also the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Imbalances in viral protein composition cause ion suppression of tryptic fragments from low-abundant target proteins (surface proteins), adversely affecting reproducibility of mass spectra. Additionally, the coexistence of tryptic peptides from several proteins requires sophisticated statistical solutions for precise result interpretations. To circumvent these, we apply detergent-based (gel-free) partitioning of whole viruses into soluble surface proteins and insoluble virus materials, using differential centrifugation. MALDI-TOF or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS was applied to analyze tryptic peptides from separated viral proteins. In this study, we achieved type/subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) within 5 h, based on 4 major proteins, by significantly reducing ion suppression and signal overlap from various protein sources. Hence, our approach can both yield dependable results and allow Web-based search engines to be directly employed, obviating the need for additional statistical strategy. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of the method using NDV.

  4. No More HF: Teflon-Assisted Ultrafast Removal of Silica to Generate High-Surface-Area Mesostructured Carbon for Enhanced CO2 Capture and Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Krishna, Katla Sai; Harish, Srinivasan; Sampath, Srinivasan; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

    2016-02-01

    An innovative technique to obtain high-surface-area mesostructured carbon (2545 m(2)  g(-1)) with significant microporosity uses Teflon as the silica template removal agent. This method not only shortens synthesis time by combining silica removal and carbonization in a single step, but also assists in ultrafast removal of the template (in 10 min) with complete elimination of toxic HF usage. The obtained carbon material (JNC-1) displays excellent CO2 capture ability (ca. 26.2 wt % at 0 °C under 0.88 bar CO2 pressure), which is twice that of CMK-3 obtained by the HF etching method (13.0 wt %). JNC-1 demonstrated higher H2 adsorption capacity (2.8 wt %) compared to CMK-3 (1.2 wt %) at -196 °C under 1.0 bar H2 pressure. The bimodal pore architecture of JNC-1 led to superior supercapacitor performance, with a specific capacitance of 292 F g(-1) and 182 F g(-1) at a drain rate of 1 A g(-1) and 50 A g(-1) , respectively, in 1 m H2 SO4 compared to CMK-3 and activated carbon.

  5. Enhanced photoluminescence of SrWO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphor synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid state metathesis reaction method at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Anthuvan John, E-mail: quantajohn@gmail.com; Banu, I. B. Shameem [Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandalur, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Optically efficient europium activated alkaline earth metal tungstate nano phosphor (SrWO{sub 4}) with different doping concentrations have been synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid state metathesis reaction at room temperature for the first time. The XRD and Raman spectra results indicated that the prepared powders exhibit a scheelite-type tetragonal structure. FTIR spectra exhibited a high absorption band situated at around 854 cm{sup −1}, which was ascribed to the W–O antisymmetric stretching vibrations into the [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2−} tetrahedron groups. Analysis of the emission spectra with different Eu{sup 3+} concentrations revealed that the optimum dopant concentration for SrWO{sub 4}: x Eu{sup 3+} phosphor is about 8 mol% of Eu{sup 3+}.The red emission intensity of the SSM prepared SrWO{sub 4}: 0.08Eu{sup 3+} phosphors are 2 times greater than that of the commercial Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S: Eu{sup 3+} red phosphor prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. All the results indicate that the phosphor is a promising red phosphor pumped by NUV InGaN chip for fabricating WLED.

  6. Biodegradable polymer thin film for enhancement of laser-assisted incision closure with an indocyanine-green-doped liquid albumin solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Brian S.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if solid material reinforcement of a liquid albumin solder coagulum could improve the cohesive strength of the solder and thus the ultimate breaking strength of the incision repair in vitro. A 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder with 0.5 mg/mL Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye was used to repair an incision in bovine aorta. The solder was coagulated with an 806 nm CW diode laser. A 50 micrometer thick poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) film was used to reinforce the solder (the controls had no reinforcement). Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (P less than 0.05). Multiple comparisons of means were performed using the Newman- Keuls test. Observations of the failure modes indicated cohesive strength reinforcement of the test specimens versus the controls. At the higher laser powers used in this study (400 and 450 mW), the reinforced solder was consistently stronger than the controls. Reinforcement of liquid albumin solders in laser-assisted incision repair may have mechanical advantages in terms of acute breaking strength over conventional methods that do not reinforce the cohesive strength of the solder.

  7. Ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel synthesis of samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced sonocatalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    In this work, pure TiO2 and samarium, cerium mono-doped and co-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method and their sonocatalytic efficiency studied toward removal of Methyl Orange as a model organic pollutant from the textile industry. The relationship of structure and sonocatalytic performance of catalysts was established by using various techniques, such as XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, DRS, and PL. A comparison on the removal efficiency of sonolysis alone and sonocatalytic processes was performed. The results showed that the samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 catalyst with narrower band gap energy and smaller particle size leads to a rapid removal of pollutant. It was believed that Sm(3+) and Ce(4+) ions can serve as superficial trapping for electrons at conduction band of TiO2 and prolonged the lifetime of electron-hole pairs. Finally, the effect of synthesis and operational variables on the sonocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied and optimized using response surface methodology as a statistical technique. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency (96.33%) was achieved at the optimum conditions: samarium content of 0.6 wt%, cerium content of 0.82 wt%, initial pollutant concentration of 4.31 mg L(-1), catalyst dosage of 0.84 mg L(-1), ultrasonic irradiation power of 700 W, and irradiation time of 50 min.

  8. Sub-micro a-C:H patterning of silicon surfaces assisted by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Alexis; Gries, Thomas; Noël, Cédric; Perito Cardoso, Rodrigo; Belmonte, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Micro and nano-patterning of surfaces is an increasingly popular challenge in the field of the miniaturization of devices assembled via top-down approaches. This study demonstrates the possibility of depositing sub-micrometric localized coatings—spots, lines or even more complex shapes—made of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) thanks to a moving XY stage. Deposition was performed on silicon substrates using chemical vapor deposition assisted by an argon atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. Acetylene was injected into the post-discharge region as a precursor by means of a glass capillary with a sub-micrometric diameter. A parametric study was carried out to study the influence of the geometric configurations (capillary diameter and capillary-plasma distance) on the deposited coating. Thus, the patterns formed were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical composition of large coated areas was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy according to the chosen atmospheric environment. The observed chemical bonds show that reactions of the gaseous precursor in the discharge region and both chemical and morphological stability of the patterns after treatment are strongly dependent on the surrounding gas. Various sub-micrometric a-C:H shapes were successfully deposited under controlled atmospheric conditions using argon as inerting gas. Overall, this new process of micro-scale additive manufacturing by atmospheric plasma offers unusually high-resolution at low cost.

  9. Development of Robust Behaviour Recognition for an at-Home Biomonitoring Robot with Assistance of Subject Localization and Enhanced Visual Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevrez Imamoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is focused on the development of an at-home health care biomonitoring mobile robot for the people in demand. Main task of the robot is to detect and track a designated subject while recognizing his/her activity for analysis and to provide warning in an emergency. In order to push forward the system towards its real application, in this study, we tested the robustness of the robot system with several major environment changes, control parameter changes, and subject variation. First, an improved color tracker was analyzed to find out the limitations and constraints of the robot visual tracking considering the suitable illumination values and tracking distance intervals. Then, regarding subject safety and continuous robot based subject tracking, various control parameters were tested on different layouts in a room. Finally, the main objective of the system is to find out walking activities for different patterns for further analysis. Therefore, we proposed a fast, simple, and person specific new activity recognition model by making full use of localization information, which is robust to partial occlusion. The proposed activity recognition algorithm was tested on different walking patterns with different subjects, and the results showed high recognition accuracy.

  10. Operational Safety Performance Indicators and Balanced Scorecard in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jong-Sup; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Kye-Hong; Lim, In-Cheol; Kim, Hark-Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Research reactors need an extensive basis for ensuring their safety. The importance of a safety management in nuclear facilities and activities has been emphasized. The safety activities in HANARO have been continuously conducted to enhance its safe operation. Last year, HANARO prepared two indicator sets to measure and assess the safety status of the reactor's operation and utilization. One is Safety Performance Indicators (SPI) and the other is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). Through reviewing these indicators, we can obtain the following information; - Plant safety status - Safety parameter trends - Safety information, for example, reactor operation status and radiation safety HANARO will continuously pursue the trends of SPI and BSC.

  11. Enhanced Raman spectroscopy of molecules adsorbed on carbon-doped TiO₂ obtained from titanium carbide: a visible-light-assisted renewable substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Vankayala; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2012-08-01

    Titanium carbide (TiC) is an electrically conducting material with favorable electrochemical properties. In the present studies, carbon-doped TiO(2) (C-TiO(2)) has been synthesized from TiC particles, as well as TiC films coated on stainless steel substrate via thermal annealing under various conditions. Several C-TiO(2) substrates are synthesized by varying experimental conditions and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic techniques. C-TiO(2) in the dry state (in powder form as well as in film form) is subsequently used as a substrate for enhancing Raman signals corresponding to 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and 4-nitrothiophenol by utilizing chemical enhancement based on charge-transfer interactions. Carbon, a nonmetal dopant in TiO(2), improves the intensities of Raman signals, compared to undoped TiO(2). Significant dependence of Raman intensity on carbon doping is observed. Ameliorated performance obtained using C-TiO(2) is attributed to the presence of surface defects that originate due to carbon as a dopant, which, in turn, triggers charge transfer between TiO(2) and analyte. The C-TiO(2) substrates are subsequently regenerated for repetitive use by illuminating an analyte-adsorbed substrate with visible light for a period of 5 h.

  12. The enhanced photocatalytic and bactericidal activities of carbon microsphere-assisted solvothermally synthesized cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; SakthiRaadha, SakthiDasan; Gomathisankar, Paramasivan; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

    2013-10-14

    Cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by a solvothermal method using carbon microspheres as a template. The optimum doping level for photocatalysis is 3% (g. atom). Powder X-ray diffractograms show that the ZnO has a primitive hexagonal crystal structure and that doping ZnO with Sn(4+) increases the unit cell lengths and the Zn-O bond lengths. Larger crystal growth along the c-axis is also observed. The measured size of the cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles is larger than the mean crystallite size. Solid state impedance spectroscopy studies reveal that Sn(4+)-doping increases the charge transfer resistance. Doping does not significantly modify the optical band gap, but does suppress green emission. A decrease in the number of crystal defects due to oxygen vacancies is likely to be a reason for the enhanced photocatalytic properties of the cocoon-shaped Sn(4+)-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping ZnO with Sn(4+) enhances the bactericidal activity as well.

  13. MgO-hybridized TiO2 interfacial layers assisting efficiency enhancement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobuya; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2014-02-01

    Interfacial modification of a thin TiO2 compact layer (T-CL) by hybridization with MgO enhanced the quantum conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) comprising a multilayer structure of transparent electrode/T-CL/dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO2/hole conductor/metal counter electrode. The Mg(CH3COO)2 treatment was employed to introduce a MgO-TiO2 CL (T/M-CL), which enhanced the physical connection and conduction between the CL and mesoporous semiconductor layer as a consecutive interface, owing to the dehydration reaction of Mg(CH3COO)2. The photocurrent density of ssDSSC was increased 33% by the T/M-CL compared with the T-CL, using an equivalent amount of adsorbed dye. The ssDSSC with the T/M-CL yielded the highest efficiency of 4.02% under irradiation at 100 mW cm-2. The electrical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of the photoelectrode with T/M-CL was reduced by 300 Ω from the reference non-treated T-CL electrode. Characterized by the intrinsically low Rct of the compact layer, the T/M-CL is capable of improving the photovoltaic performance of solid-state sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

  14. Enhanced capabilities for imaging gangliosides in murine brain with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to ion mobility separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrášková, Karolina; Claude, Emmanuelle; Jones, Emrys A; Towers, Mark; Ellis, Shane R; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-07-15

    The increased interest in lipidomics calls for improved yet simplified methods of lipid analysis. Over the past two decades, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been established as a powerful technique for the analysis of molecular distribution of a variety of compounds across tissue surfaces. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI is widely used to study the spatial distribution of common lipids. However, a thorough sample preparation and necessity of vacuum for efficient ionization might hamper its use for high-throughput lipid analysis. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is a relatively young MS technique. In DESI, ionization of molecules occurs under ambient conditions, which alleviates sample preparation. Moreover, DESI does not require the application of an external matrix, making the detection of low mass species more feasible due to the lack of chemical matrix background. However, irrespective of the ionization method, the final information obtained during an MSI experiment is very complex and its analysis becomes challenging. It was shown that coupling MSI to ion mobility separation (IMS) simplifies imaging data interpretation. Here we employed DESI and MALDI MSI for a lipidomic analysis of the murine brain using the same IMS-enabled instrument. We report for the first time on the DESI IMS-MSI of multiply sialylated ganglioside species, as well as their acetylated versions, which we detected directly from the murine brain tissue. We show that poly-sialylated gangliosides can be imaged as multiply charged ions using DESI, while they are clearly separated from the rest of the lipid classes based on their charge state using ion mobility. This represents a major improvement in MSI of intact fragile lipid species. We additionally show that complementary lipid information is reached under particular conditions when DESI is compared to MALDI MSI.

  15. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  16. Novel g-C3N4/Ag2SO4 nanocomposites: Fast microwave-assisted preparation and enhanced photocatalytic performance towards degradation of organic pollutants under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhundi, Anise; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-11-15

    Graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/Ag2SO4 nanocomposites, as highly enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysts, were prepared by a fast microwave-assisted method. The resulting g-C3N4/Ag2SO4 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. Moreover, charge separation efficiency was studied by photoluminescence measurements. Photocatalytic activity of the g-C3N4/Ag2SO4 (40%) nanocomposite in degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue, and fuchsine is about 6, 3.8, and 3.3-folds greater than that of the g-C3N4 under visible-light illumination. Effect of microwave irradiation time, calcination temperature, and scavengers of the reactive species on the degradation reaction was also evaluated. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly ascribed to the matching band energies of g-C3N4 and Ag2SO4 which leads to an improved separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Finally, the optimized nanocomposite was recycled for five times without remarkable decrease of the photocatalytic activity.

  17. Magnetically-assisted surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (MA-SERS) for label-free determination of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in blood using Fe3O4@Ag nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzerova, Anna; Fargasova, Ariana; Markova, Zdenka; Ranc, Vaclav; Zboril, Radek

    2014-11-18

    Development of methods allowing determination of even ultralow levels of immunoglobulins in various clinical samples including whole human blood and plasma is a particular scientific challenge, especially due to many essential discoveries in the fields of immunology and medicine in the past few decades. The determination of IgG is usually performed using an enzymatic approach, followed by colorimetric or fluorimetric detection. However, limitations of these methods relate to their complicated setup and stringent requirements concerning the sample purity. Here, we present a novel approach based on magnetically assisted surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MA/SERS), which utilizes a Fe3O4@Ag@streptavidin@anti-IgG nanocomposite with strong magnetic properties and an efficient SERS enhancement factor conferred by the Fe3O4 particles and silver nanoparticles, respectively. Such a nanocomposite offers the possibility of separating a target efficiently from a complex matrix by simple application of an external magnetic force, followed by direct determination using SERS. High selectivity was achieved by the presence of anti-IgG on the surface of silver nanoparticles coupled with their further inactivation by ethylamine. Compared to many recently developed sandwich methods, application of single nanocomposites showed many advantages, including simplicity of use, direct control of the analytic process, and elimination of errors caused by possible nonspecific interactions. Moreover, incorporation of advanced spectral processing methods led to a considerable decrease in the relative error of determination to below 5%.

  18. Vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast determination of cadmium in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guilong; Lu, Ying; He, Qiang; Mmereki, Daniel; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhong, Zhihui; Zhao, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    A novel vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet (VSLLME-SFO) was developed for the fast, simple and efficient determination of cadmium (Cd) in water samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In the VSLLME-SFO process, the addition of surfactant (as an emulsifier), could enhance the mass transfer from the aqueous solution into the extraction solvent. The extraction solvent could be dispersed into the aqueous phase under vigorous shaking with the vortex. In this paper, we investigated the influences of analytical parameters, including pH, extraction solvent type and its volume, surfactant type and its volume, concentration of chelating agent, salt effect and vortex time, on the extraction efficiency of Cd. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection was 0.16 μg/L. The analyte enrichment factor was 37.68. The relative standard deviation was 3.2% (10 μg/L, n = 10) and the calibration graph was linear, ranging from 0.5 to 30 μg/L. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of ultra-trace Cd in river water and wastewater samples.

  19. Enhanced electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 by Mo-substitution and graphitic carbon-coating via a facile and fast microwave-assisted solid-state reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Huang, Yudai; Sharma, Neeraj; Chen, Zhixin; Jia, Dianzeng; Guo, Zaiping

    2012-03-14

    A composite cathode material for lithium ion battery applications, Mo-doped LiFePO(4)/C, is obtained through a facile and fast microwave-assisted synthesis method. Rietveld analysis of LiFePO(4)-based structural models using synchrotron X-ray diffraction data shows that Mo-ions substitute onto the Fe sites and displace Fe-ions to the Li sites. Supervalent Mo(6+) doping can act to introduce Li ion vacancies due to the charge compensation effect and therefore facilitate lithium ion diffusion during charging/discharging. Transmission electron microscope images demonstrate that the pure and doped LiFePO(4) nanoparticles were uniformly covered by an approximately 5 nm thin layer of graphitic carbon. Amorphous carbon on the graphitic carbon-coated pure and doped LiFePO(4) particles forms a three-dimensional (3D) conductive carbon network, effectively improving the conductivity of these materials. The combined effects of Mo-doping and the 3D carbon network dramatically enhance the electrochemical performance of these LiFePO(4) cathodes. In particular, Mo-doped LiFePO(4)/C delivers a reversible capacity of 162 mA h g(-1) at a current of 0.5 C and shows enhanced capacity retention compared to that of undoped LiFePO(4)/C. Moreover, the electrode exhibits excellent rate capability, with an associated high discharge capacity and good electrochemical reversibility.

  20. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  1. Application of SEASAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to enhance and detect geological lineaments and to assist LANDSAT landcover classification mapping. [Appalachian Region, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, R.

    1981-01-01

    Digital SEASAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were used to enhance linear features to extract geologically significant lineaments in the Appalachian region. Comparison of Lineaments thus mapped with an existing lineament map based on LANDSAT MSS images shows that appropriately processed SEASAT-1 SAR data can significantly improve the detection of lineaments. Merge MSS and SAR data sets were more useful fo lineament detection and landcover classification than LANDSAT or SEASAT data alone. About 20 percent of the lineaments plotted from the SEASAT SAR image did not appear on the LANDSAT image. About 6 percent of minor lineaments or parts of lineaments present in the LANDSAT map were missing from the SEASAT map. Improvement in the landcover classification (acreage and spatial estimation accuracy) was attained by using MSS-SAR merged data. The aerial estimation of residential/built-up and forest categories was improved. Accuracy in estimating the agricultural and water categories was slightly reduced.

  2. 加强内部管理 保障安全生产 应对煤炭市场低迷%Internal Management Enhanced and Safety Production Protected to Handle Coal Market Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzed the cause of the summer coal market hard to re-warming. According to the situation on the weak demand and supply of the market, large quantity of imported coal and coal price going down, the paper held that under the present conditions, coal enterprises should enhance the internal management and well manage the mine safety production to handle the depression coal market.%分析了今夏煤炭市场难以回暖的原因,针对市场需求疲软、进口煤涌入、煤价下跌的形势,认为在目前情况下,煤炭企业应加强内部管理,搞好煤矿安全生产,应对低迷的煤炭市场。

  3. Updated safety analysis of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Neill, E-mail: neill.taylor@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baker, Dennis; Ciattaglia, Sergio; Cortes, Pierre; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Iseli, Markus; Reyes, Susana; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Rosanvallon, Sandrine; Topilski, Leonid [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    An updated version of the ITER Preliminary Safety Report has been produced and submitted to the licensing authorities. It is revised and expanded in response to requests from the authorities after their review of an earlier version in 2008, to reflect enhancements in ITER safety provisions through design changes, to incorporate new and improved safety analyses and to take into account other ITER design evolution. The updated analyses show that changes to the Tokamak cooling water system design have enhanced confinement and reduced potential radiological releases as well as removing decay heat with very high reliability. New and updated accident scenario analyses, together with fire and explosion risk analyses, have shown that design provisions are sufficient to minimize the likelihood of accidents and reduce potential consequences to a very low level. Taken together, the improvements provided a stronger demonstration of the very good safety performance of the ITER design.

  4. Nuclear safety research master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Yang, J. U.; Jun, Y. S. and others

    2001-06-01

    The SRMP (Safety Research Master Plan) is established to cope with the changes of nuclear industry environments. The tech. tree is developed according to the accident progress of the nuclear reactor. The 11 research fields are derived to cover the necessary technologies to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. Based on the developed tech. tree, the following four main research fields are derived as the main safety research areas: 1. Integrated nuclear safety enhancement, 2. Thermal hydraulic experiment and assessment, 3. Severe accident management and experiment, and 4. The integrity of equipment and structure. The research frame and strategies are also recommended to enhance the efficiency of research activity, and to extend the applicability of research output.

  5. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Playground Safety Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Safety Tips: Baseball Safety Tips: Basketball Safety Tips: Hockey Safety Tips: ... it a Medical Emergency? Knowing Your Child's Medical History Nosebleeds Seizures Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Teaching Your ...

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Suilectin? (Phaseolus vulgaris lectins as a zootechnical additive for suckling piglets (performance enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The active substance of Suilectin™ is a mixture of five phytohaemagglutinin (PHA isoforms. The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP considers that the haemagglutination activity (measured by haemagglutinating units (HAUs does not reflect the biological activity of the additive in a comprehensive way. The additive is intended only for aqueous suspension in water for drinking or in liquid complementary feed for suckling piglets. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that the additive is safe for suckling piglets when used under the proposed conditions of use of 220 HAU/piglet for three days. The Panel also considers that there are no reasons to expect that the dose of 660 HAU/piglet in a single administration would not be safe. The use of Suilectin in accordance with the conditions of use proposed by the applicant is considered to be of no concern for the health of the consumer. Suilectin is not an irritant to skin or eyes and is not a skin sensitiser. However, considering its physical and toxicological properties, there is a potential hazard by inhalation exposure. Considering that PHAs are immunogenic substances, the additive should be considered to be a respiratory sensitiser. The additive is a natural plant substance and its use will not result in a substantial increase in concentration in the environment. Therefore there are no safety concerns for the environment. The FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on the efficacy of the additive in suckling piglets.

  7. Progress of nuclear safety research. 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Kudo, Tamotsu; Tobita, Tohru (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2002-11-01

    JAERI is conducting nuclear safety research primarily at the Nuclear Safety Research Center in close cooperation with the related departments in accordance with the Long Term Plan for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Annual Plan for Safety Research issued by the Japanese government. The fields of conducting safety research at JAERI are the engineering safety of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive waste management as well as advanced technology for safety improvement or assessment. Also, JAERI has conducted international collaboration to share the information on common global issues of nuclear safety and to supplement own research. Moreover, when accidents occurred at nuclear facilities, JAERI has taken a responsible role by providing technical experts and investigation for assistance to the government or local public body. This report summarizes the nuclear safety research activities of JAERI from April 2000 through April 2002 and utilized facilities. This report also summarizes the examination of the ruptured pipe performed for assistance to the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) for investigation of the accident at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 on November, 2001. (author)

  8. Charge compensation assisted enhanced photoluminescence derived from Li-codoped MgAl2O4:Eu3+ nanophosphors for solid state lighting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhajit; Das, Swati; Ghorai, Uttam Kumar; Mazumder, Nilesh; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2013-09-28

    Highly-luminescent nanophosphors have a decisive role in solid-state lighting (SSL) as well as in field emission display (FED) applications due to their potential use in fabrication of nanophosphor based FED and solid state display devices. Herein, the red emitting highly-luminescent Eu(3+)-Li(+) co-doped magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) nanophosphors were synthesized by a customized sol-gel route with an average particle size of 18 nm, which can be easily scaled up in a large quantity. The resulting nanophosphor exhibits hypersensitive red emission, peaking at 615 nm upon 394 nm excitation. Furthermore, comparative photoluminescence (PL) studies have been carried out for Eu(3+) doped and Eu(3+) doped-Li(+) co-doped magnesium aluminate (Li(+) co-doped MgAl2O4:Eu(3+)) nanophosphors, which indicated that Li(+) co-doping significantly improves luminescence intensity along with good crystallinity. Moreover, the charge compensation by addition of Li(+) co-activator in MgAl2O4:Eu(3+) lattice led to the two fold enhancement of PL intensity. The obtained results suggest that this nanophosphor could be an ultimate choice for next generation advanced luminescent nanomaterials for solid state lighting and portable FED devices.

  9. Solvent-assisted microstructural evolution and enhanced performance of porous ZnO films for plastic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hitomi; Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2017-02-01

    A low-temperature process for fabricating porous ZnO films on plastic, indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate substrates is developed for their use in dye-sensitized solar cells. A special attention is paid to modification of microscopic morphologies for enhancing interparticle connection. ZnO films having two kinds of macroscopic morphologies (flower-like particles and densely packed nanoparticles) are fabricated at temperatures below the heatproof temperature of the substrate, and subsequently immersed in mixed solvents composed of water and ethanol at 90 °C. The immersion leads to the growth of constituting ZnO particles and also the evolution of interparticle connection, depending on solvent compositions. The cell performance is largely improved especially in a short-circuit current density and a power conversion efficiency. The immersion effect is more remarkable for the cell using the densely packed ZnO film, with a 62% increase in the current density and an 84% increase in the conversion efficiency. In consequence, our plastic N719-sensitized ZnO cell shows the conversion efficiency as high as 4.1%.

  10. Crack-free periodic porous thin films assisted by plasma irradiation at low temperature and their enhanced gas-sensing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhengfei; Jia, Lichao; Duan, Guotao; Li, Yue; Zhang, Hongwen; Wang, Jingjing; Hu, Jinlian; Cai, Weiping

    2013-09-27

    Homogenous thin films are preferable for high-performance gas sensors because of their remarkable reproducibility and long-term stability. In this work, a low-temperature fabrication route is presented to prepare crack-free and homogenous metal oxide periodic porous thin films by oxygen plasma irradiation instead of high temperature annealing by using a sacrificial colloidal template. Rutile SnO2 is taken as an example to demonstrate the validity of this route. The crack-free and homogenous porous thin films are successfully synthesized on the substrates in situ with electrodes. The SnO2 porous thin film obtained by plasma irradiation is rich in surface OH groups and hence superhydrophilic. It exhibits a more homogenous structure and lower resistance than porous films generated by annealing. More importantly, such thin films display higher sensitivity, a lower detection threshold (100 ppb to acetone) and better durability than those that have been directly annealed, resulting in enhanced gas-sensing performance. The presented method could be applied to synthesize other metal oxide homogenous thin films and to fabricate gas-sensing devices with high performances.

  11. Arginine-assisted immobilization of silver nanoparticles on ZnO nanorods: an enhanced and reusable antibacterial substrate without human cell cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Shekhar; Bajaj, Geetika; Mukherji, Suparna; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2015-04-01

    Silver-based hybrid nanomaterials are gaining interest as potential alternatives for conventional antimicrobial agents. Herein, we present a simple, facile and eco-friendly approach for the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on ZnO nanorods, which act as a nanoreactor for in situ synthesis and as an immobilizing template in the presence of arginine. The presence of arginine enhanced the stability of ZnO deposition on the glass substrate by hindering the dissolution of zinc under alkaline conditions. Various Ag/ZnO hybrid nanorod (HNR) samples were screened to obtain a high amount of silver immobilization on the ZnO substrate. Ag/ZnO HNRs displayed potent antibacterial ability and could achieve 100% kill for both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains under various test conditions. The hybrid material mediated its dual mode of antibacterial action through direct contact-killing and release of silver ions/nanoparticles and showed superior bactericidal performance compared to pure ZnO nanorods and colloidal AgNPs. No significant decline in antibacterial efficacy was observed even after the same substrate was repeatedly reused multiple times. Interestingly, the amount of Ag and Zn release was much below their maximal limit in drinking water, thus preventing potential health hazards. Immobilized AgNPs showed no cytotoxic effects on the human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). Moreover, treating cells with the antibacterial substrate for 24 hours did not lead to significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The good biocompatibility and bactericidal efficacy would thus make it feasible to utilize this immobilization strategy for preparing new-generation antibacterial coatings.Silver-based hybrid nanomaterials are gaining interest as potential alternatives for conventional antimicrobial agents. Herein, we present a simple, facile and eco-friendly approach for the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on ZnO nanorods, which act as a

  12. SAFETY BULLETIN

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Bulletin no 4 (TIS 2002-04) entitled 'KNOW THE RISKS' is available on the web. Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, e-mail: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch TIS Secretariat

  13. Safety Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.

    1994-01-01

    Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…

  14. Biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition assisted synthesis of Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Chen, Ge

    2014-10-07

    In this paper, a Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheet with increased visible light photocatalytic activity was successfully synthesized using a biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition process. The polymer, branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI) was used as an induction agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) as well as for a nitrogen resource, and the graphene oxide (GO) was used as a two-dimensional nano-template. The positively charged b-PEI will bind to the negatively charged GO and titania. In a typical layer-by-layer deposition process, GO nanosheets are exposed in an alternating fashion to aqueous b-PEI, CuCl2 and Ti-BALDH solutions, thus, making the layer-by-layer deposition of a conformal b-PEI/Cu-Ti-O coating on the GO. Subsequent b-PEI and GO pyrolysis at 550 °C under air yielded Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets. The materials obtained were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectra, photoluminescence spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance. The Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets showed obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity which was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. This research might provide some new insights for the "green synthesis" of the simultaneous doping of two kinds of foreign atoms into TiO2 with controlled morphology and photocatalytic properties.

  15. Arginine-assisted immobilization of silver nanoparticles on ZnO nanorods: an enhanced and reusable antibacterial substrate without human cell cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Shekhar; Bajaj, Geetika; Mukherji, Suparna; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2015-04-28

    Silver-based hybrid nanomaterials are gaining interest as potential alternatives for conventional antimicrobial agents. Herein, we present a simple, facile and eco-friendly approach for the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on ZnO nanorods, which act as a nanoreactor for in situ synthesis and as an immobilizing template in the presence of arginine. The presence of arginine enhanced the stability of ZnO deposition on the glass substrate by hindering the dissolution of zinc under alkaline conditions. Various Ag/ZnO hybrid nanorod (HNR) samples were screened to obtain a high amount of silver immobilization on the ZnO substrate. Ag/ZnO HNRs displayed potent antibacterial ability and could achieve 100% kill for both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains under various test conditions. The hybrid material mediated its dual mode of antibacterial action through direct contact-killing and release of silver ions/nanoparticles and showed superior bactericidal performance compared to pure ZnO nanorods and colloidal AgNPs. No significant decline in antibacterial efficacy was observed even after the same substrate was repeatedly reused multiple times. Interestingly, the amount of Ag and Zn release was much below their maximal limit in drinking water, thus preventing potential health hazards. Immobilized AgNPs showed no cytotoxic effects on the human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). Moreover, treating cells with the antibacterial substrate for 24 hours did not lead to significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The good biocompatibility and bactericidal efficacy would thus make it feasible to utilize this immobilization strategy for preparing new-generation antibacterial coatings.

  16. 76 FR 12981 - Lower Mississippi River Waterway Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Warrant Officer David Chapman, Assistant to the DFO of Lower Mississippi River Waterway Safety Advisory... (RNA); Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal,...

  17. Operator modeling in commerical aviation: Cognitive models, intelligent displays, and pilot's assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, T.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the goals of the National Aviation Safety/Automation program is to address the issue of human-centered automation in the cockpit. Human-centered automation is automation that, in the cockpit, enhances or assists the crew rather than replacing them. The Georgia Tech research program focused on this general theme, with emphasis on designing a computer-based pilot's assistant, intelligent (i.e, context-sensitive) displays, and an intelligent tutoring system for understanding and operating the autoflight system. In particular, the aids and displays were designed to enhance the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew in coordinating the autoflight system resources. The activities of this grant included: (1) an OFMspert to understand pilot navigation activities in a 727 class aircraft; (2) an extension of OFMspert to understand mode control in a glass cockpit, Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS); (3) the design of a training system to teach pilots about the vertical navigation portion of the flight management system -VNAV Tutor; and (4) a proof-of-concept display, using existing display technology, to facilitate mode awareness, particularly in situations in which controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is a potential.

  18. Low-density solvent-based vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the fast determination of phthalate esters in bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-01-25

    For the first time, a novel low-density solvent-based vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction (LDS-VSLLME) was developed for the fast, simple and efficient determination of six phthalate esters (PEs) in bottled water samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the extraction procedure, the aqueous sample solution was injected into a mixture of extraction solvent (toluene) and surfactant (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide), which were placed in a glass tube with conical bottom, to form an emulsion by the assistance of vortex agitation. After extraction and phase separation by centrifugation, and removal of the spent sample, the toluene extract was collected and analyzed by GC-MS. The addition of surfactant enhanced the dispersion of extraction solvent in aqueous sample and was also favorable for the mass transfer of the analytes from the aqueous sample to the extraction solvent. Moreover, using a relatively less toxic surfactant as the emulsifier agent overcame the disadvantages of traditional organic dispersive solvents that are usually highly toxic and expensive and might conceivably decrease extraction efficiency to some extent since they are not as effective as surfactants themselves in generating an emulsion. With the aid of surfactant and vortex agitation to achieve good organic extraction solvent dispersion, extraction equilibrium was achieved within 1 min, indicating it was a fast sample preparation technique. Another prominent feature of the method was the simple procedure to collect a less dense than water solvent by a microsyringe. After extraction and phase separation, the aqueous sample was removed using a 5-mL syringe, thus leaving behind the extract, which was retrieved easily. This novel method simplifies the use of low-density solvents in DLLME. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method provided good linearity in the range of 0.05-25 μg/L, low limits of detection (8-25 ng

  19. A literature review of safety culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  20. 78 FR 54923 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nominations to serve on the Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH). SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary...

  1. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

  2. An assisted GPS support for GPS simulators for embedded mobile positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Pradeep; Samant, Abhay; Sagiraju, Phani K.; Akopian, David

    2009-02-01

    During recent years, location technologies have emerged as a research area with many possible applications in wireless communications, surveillance, military equipment, etc. Location Based Services (LBS) such as safety applications have become very popular. For example, US Federal Communication Commission Enhanced 911 (E911) Mandate seeks to provide emergency services personnel with location information that will enable them to dispatch assistance to wireless 911 callers much more quickly. Assisted GPS (A-GPS) is an extension of the conventional Global Positioning System (GPS) which increases start-up sensitivity by as much as 25dB relative to conventional GPS and reduces start times to less than six seconds. In A-GPS assistance data is delivered to the receiver through communication links. This paper addresses the generation of the assistance for GPS simulators for testing A-GPS receivers. The proposed approach is to use IP-based links and location support standards for assistance delivery avoiding network-specific signaling mechanisms so that GPS receiver developers can use this information for testing A-GPS capabilities using basic GPS simulators. The approach is implemented for the GPS simulator developed by the National InstrumentsTM.

  3. Safety and environmental health handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1989-01-01

    This Safety Handbook (445-1-H.) supplements the Geological Survey Safety Management Program objectives set forth in Survey Manual 445.1. Specifically, it provides a compact source of basic information to assist management and employees in preventing motor vehicle accidents, personal injuries, occupational diseases, fire, and other property damage or loss. All work situations incidental to the Geological Survey cannot be discussed in a handbook, and such complete coverage is not intended in this document. However, a wide range of subjects are covered in which a "common sense" approach to safety has been expressed. These subjects have been organized such that Chapters 1-5 address administrative issues, Chapters 6-12 address activities usually conducted within a facility, and Chapters 13-20 address field activities. No information contained in the Handbook is intended to alter any provision of any Federal law or executive order, Department of the Interior or Survey directive, or collective bargaining agreement. Questions or suggestions regarding the content of the Safety Handbook may be directed to the Survey Safety Manager, Administrative Division, Office of Facilities and Management Services, National Center, Reston, Virginia, Mail Stop 246. The previous edition of the Safety Handbook is superseded.

  4. Using Animal-assisted Therapy to Enrich Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerine, Jeanne Louise; Hubbard, Grace B

    2016-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of many psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). AAT can be used as an adjunct to other forms of psychotherapy. With AAT, the animal becomes a part of the treatment plan. Outcomes for clients that are associated with the use of AAT include (1) increased sense of comfort and safety, (2) increased motivation, (3) enhanced self-esteem, (4) increased prosocial behaviors, and (5) decreased behavioral problems. AAT provides a bridge for the therapist to develop a therapeutic relationship with a client, and the animal can provide supportive reassurance for the therapist. The amount of data that supports the benefits of AAT for the treatment of those with mental illnesses is growing, but evidence-based research that supports its use is lacking. Further research is needed.

  5. Model quality and safety studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the EC initiative on model quality assessment and emphasizes some of the problems encountered in the selection of data from field tests used in the evaluation process. Further, it discusses the impact of model uncertainties in safety studies of industrial plants. The model...... that most of these have never been through a procedure of evaluation, but nonetheless are used to assist in making decisions that may directly affect the safety of the public and the environment. As a major funder of European research on major industrial hazards, DGXII is conscious of the importance......-tain model is appropriate for use in solving a given problem. Further, the findings from the REDIPHEM project related to dense gas dispersion will be highlighted. Finally, the paper will discuss the need for model quality assessment in safety studies....

  6. System safety management lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatt, J.A.

    1989-05-01

    The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition directed the Army Safety Center to provide an audit of the causes of accidents and safety of use restrictions on recently fielded systems by tracking residual hazards back through the acquisition process. The objective was to develop ''lessons learned'' that could be applied to the acquisition process to minimize mishaps in fielded systems. System safety management lessons learned are defined as Army practices or policies, derived from past successes and failures, that are expected to be effective in eliminating or reducing specific systemic causes of residual hazards. They are broadly applicable and supportive of the Army structure and acquisition objectives. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    three sites, and lactate, whey powder, barometric pumping, and nutrient- enhanced biosparging at one site each. Full-scale applications were reported... applicable health and safety risks and precautions with respect to particular materials, conditions, or procedures in specific applications of any technology...Consequently, ITRC recommends also consulting applicable standards, laws, regulations, suppliers of materials, and material safety data sheets for

  8. Ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic droplet used for the simultaneous determination of six fungicide residues in juices and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Wang, Suli; Liu, Fengmao; Shi, Kaiwei

    2013-07-26

    A novel ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction technique based on the solidification of a floating organic droplet followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for simultaneous determination of six fungicide residues in juices and red wine samples. The low-toxicity solvent, 1-dodecanol, was used as an extraction solvent. For its low density and proper melting point near room temperature, the extractant droplet was collected easily by solidifying it at a low temperature. The surfactant, Tween 80, was used as an emulsifier to enhance the dispersion of the water-immiscible extraction solvent into an aqueous phase, which hastened the mass-transfer of the analytes. Organic dispersive solvent typically required in common dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methods was not used in the proposed method. Some parameters (e.g., the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and concentration of surfactant, ultrasound extraction time, salt addition, and volume of samples) that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. The proposed method showed a good linearity within the range of 5μgL(-1)-1000μgL(-1), with the correlation coefficients (γ) higher than 0.9969. The limits of detection for the method ranged from 0.4μgL(-1) to 1.4μgL(-1). Further, this simple, practical, sensitive, and environmentally friendly method was successfully applied to determine the target fungicides in juice and red wine samples. The recoveries of the target fungicides in red wine and fruit juice samples were 79.5%-113.4%, with relative standard deviations that ranged from 0.4% to 12.3%.

  9. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with vortex-assisted hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles based solid-phase extraction for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples by sensitive micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Manafi, Mohammad Hanif

    2015-03-01

    An efficient, simple and fast low-density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LDS-DLLME) followed by vortex-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (VA-D-SPE) has been developed as a new approach for extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples prior to its micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetic determination. In this LDS-DLLME coupled VA-D-SPE method, milk samples were first treated with methanol/water (80:20, v/v) after removing the fat layer. This solvent was directly used as the dispersing solvent in DLLME along with using 1-heptanol (as a low-density solvent with respect to water) as the extracting solvent. In VA-D-SPE approach, hydrophobic oleic acid modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used to retrieve the analyte from the DLLME step. It is considerably that the target of VA-D-SPE was 1-heptanol rather than the aflatoxin M1 directly. The main parameters affecting the efficiency of LDS-DLLME and VA-D-SPE procedures and signal enhancement of aflatoxin M1 were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method was linear in the range from 0.02 to 200 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9989 and detection limit of 13 ng L(-1). The intra-day precision was 2.9 and 4.3% and the inter-day precision was 2.1 and 3.3% for concentration of 2 and 50 µg L(-1) respectively. The developed method was applied for extraction and preconcentration of AFM1 in three commercially available milk samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  10. Safety Note

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Note no 29 (NS 29) entitled 'Fire Prevention for Insulating Core (Sandwich) Panel Structures for Inside Use Guidelines for Selection, Installation and Use' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/475438/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit secretariat, e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  11. Application of Ultrasound-Assisted Surfactant-Enhanced Emulsification Microextraction Based on Solidification of Floating Organic Droplets and High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Preconcentration and Determination of Alprazolam and Chlordiazepoxide in Human Serum Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Nasser; Amirnavaee, Monavar; Arab Chamjangali, Mansour; Farsimadan, Sahar

    2017-03-03

    An improved microextraction method is proposed on the basis of ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification and solidification of a floating organic droplet procedure combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the preconcentration and quantification of alprazolam (ALP) and chlordiazepoxide (CHL) present in a number of human serum samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated by the Plackett -Burman factorial design as the screening design. Then the response surface methodology based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the effective parameters in the proposed procedure. The limits of detection for the proposed method were found to be 3.0 and 3.1 ng mL-1 for CHL and ALP, respectively. The calibration curves obtained for the method were linear in the ranges of 10.0-3,500.0 and 10.0-3,000.0 ng mL-1 for CHL and ALP, respectively, with a good determination coefficient. The recoveries of the drugs in the spiked human serum samples were above 93.0%. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of these studied drugs in human serum samples. The pre-treatment of the serum samples was performed using acetonitrile to remove the proteins. The proposed procedure was an accurate and reliable one for the determination and preconcentration of these drugs in blood samples.

  12. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of novel ternary ZnO/Ag3VO4/Ag2CrO4 nanocomposites and their enhanced visible-light activities in degradation of different pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhashemi, Mahsa; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Novel ternary ZnO/Ag3VO4/Ag2CrO4 nanocomposites were successfully fabricated via preparation of ZnO/Ag3VO4 followed by coupling of it with Ag2CrO4 through facile ultrasonic-assisted method. The resultant samples were carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence techniques. Photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes, including rhodamine B, methylene blue, and methyl orange was examined under visible-light irradiation. Among the prepared samples, the ternary nanocomposite with 20% of Ag2CrO4 demonstrated the superior activity. This nanocomposite showed 10.6, 2.9, and 3.0-folds greater activity compared to ZnO, ZnO/Ag2CrO4, and ZnO/Ag3VO4, respectively. The enhanced activity was attributed to more harvesting of the visible-light irradiation and efficiently separation of the photogenerated charge carriers in the ternary nanocomposites. To understand efficiently separation of the charge carriers, a plausible diagram was proposed based on formation of tandem n-n heterojunctions.

  13. Integrating Web-Based Technology to Assist and Enhance Instruction, Assessment,and Application of Problem-Based Learning for Manual Therapy Techniques Used in Athletic Training and Sports Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Botto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As students of the 21st century enter into higher education, faculty's pedagogical styles and delivery methods must evolve to address the rapidly changing needs and skills of the students and society. One such method is through the use of web-based course management delivery systems and interactive software. Web-based interactive course management tools are relatively new educational phenomena. In the therapeutic and rehabilitative exercise curriculums this powerful new instrument may be utilized to enhance cognitive comprehension of basic theories, definitions, and applications. In addition, this web-based interactive tool may also function as a virtual assistant for the learning and mastery of various psychomotor skills necessary in the clinic. Incorporating and utilizing the various computer technologies, allows for the necessary foundational cognitive building outside the traditional classroom while creating a more inclusive environment inside the classroom for a deeper and richer problem-based learning exercise. In the rehabilitation settings it is not only important that the student understands the material but that they also develop the necessary critical thinking skills for appropriate application of the theoretical knowledge. It has been shown that incorporating problem-based learning into a curriculum is an effective way to improve an individual's critical thinking skills. In the model careful planning and implementation was needed to develop an interactive web-based instrument that serves all students in the class regardless of their learning style or rate of comprehension.

  14. Safety Goals at NASA: How Safe is Safe Enough and How to Get There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Michael

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing and implementing safety improvements in all its activities including mission design, mission operations, and occupational safety. Decisions regarding where and how improvements are implemented to optimally enhance safety are discussed.

  15. Automation of Safety Analysis with SysML Models Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project was a small proof-of-concept case study, generating SysML model information as a side effect of safety analysis. A prototype FMEA Assistant was...

  16. Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery in Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin SH Ng

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The proven safety and efficacy of minimal access video-assisted thoracic surgery has changed the way that spontaneous pneumothorax is managed. This review presents some of the experiences of the decade, discusses the controversies and reviews the current video-assisted thoracic surgical management of spontaneous pneumothorax.

  17. Design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents new tools and methods for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). ADASs aim to improve driving comfort and traffic safety by assisting the driver in recognizing and reacting to potentially dangerous traffic situations. A major challenge in design

  18. A Product Safety Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Anne Symons

    1975-01-01

    The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)

  19. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  20. Bamboo carbon assisted sol–gel synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode material with enhanced electrochemical activity for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Guoen; He, Jiarong [Institute of Biomaterial, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Song, Xinjian [Laboratory of Biological Resources Protection and Utilization of Hubei Province, Hubei Minzu University, Enshi 445000 (China); Huang, Xueyan [Institute of Biomaterial, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Yu, Xiaoyuan, E-mail: yuxiaoyuan@scau.edu.cn [Institute of Biomaterial, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Fang, Yueping [Institute of Biomaterial, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Chen, Dongyang, E-mail: dongyang.chen@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • Bamboo carbon is employed to assist the synthesis of spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode material (BC-LTO). • Bamboo carbon helps to reduce particle size and narrow size distribution of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} material. • BC-LTO anode material exhibits high capacities and excellent cycling performance. • BC-LTO anode displays excellent rate-capability and enhanced reversibility. - Abstract: To control the morphology of inorganic electrode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries, bamboo carbon with highly ordered three-dimensional microscopic porosity was employed to act as a template to confine the growth of spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode nanoparticle in its sol–gel synthesis. The bamboo carbon was removed by high temperature calcination thereafter to produce pure spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (BC-LTO). The electrochemical properties of BC-LTO were thoroughly evaluated in lithium ion batteries and compared with the electrochemical properties of the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} synthesized without bamboo carbon template (P-LTO). The crystal structures of BC-LTO and P-LTO were identified as the same spinel structure by X-ray diffraction. The positive effects of adding bamboo carbon during the electrode synthesis were observed to be reducing both the particle size and size distribution of BC-LTO as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis demonstrated that BC-LTO had a higher lithium insertion/extraction reversibility than P-LTO. The BC-LTO anode delivered a capacity of 160 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C, much higher than the P-LTO anode which only delivered 139 mAh g{sup −1} under the same conditions. Detailed galvanostatic charge/discharge tests using various current rates were carried out, and the results demonstrated that BC-LTO is a promising candidate anode material for high performance lithium ion batteries. The bamboo carbon